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Sample records for female interstitial cystitis

  1. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial cystitis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Interstitial cystitis (in-tur-STISH-ul sis-TIE-tis) — also called painful bladder syndrome — is a chronic condition causing bladder pressure, bladder pain and sometimes ...

  2. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  3. Interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Davies, M F

    1998-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a multifactorial syndrome with symptoms of pelvic or perineal pain, urinary frequency and urgency. The etiologies are unknown, but several theories have been proposed. Diagnosis is often delayed because most of the conventional evaluation is normal. Pelvic examination is normal except for bladder tenderness. Urodynamics are normal except for increased bladder sensitivity and low capacity. Urinalysis, urine culture and office cystoscopy are also normal. The diagnostic test is cystoscopy under anesthesia with bladder distension. Small submucosal hemorrhages (glomerulations) or ulcers appear after distension. Many empiric treatments have been proposed for IC. None is universally effective, and so treatments are tried sequentially until good symptom relief is achieved. Bladder distension gives excellent (but transient) relief in some patients, especially those with severe bladder inflammation (who also tend to be older). A variety of oral, intravesical and adjunctive treatments are also described.

  4. Estrogen receptor β-deficient female mice develop a bladder phenotype resembling human interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Imamov, Otabek; Yakimchuk, Konstantin; Morani, Andrea; Schwend, Thomas; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Razumov, Sergei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is a disease seen mostly in women, and symptoms tend to be worse premenopausally or during ovulation. The four cardinal symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome are bladder pain, urgency, frequency, and nocturia. Estrogen has been implicated in the etiology of this disease, but the role of the two estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, has not been investigated. We found that, in the bladders of WT mice, ERβ is expressed in the basal cell layer of the urothelium. Bladders of male ERβ−/− mice were intact and morphologically indistinguishable from those of their WT littermates. However, in female ERβ−/− mice, there was ulceration and atrophy of bladder urothelium concomitant with infiltration of γδ T cells concentrated in the areas of atrophy and shedding of urothelium. The data support the idea that activated γδ T cells are causing the damage to the urothelium. The hyperactivity of T cells may be because of an imbalance between ERα and ERβ signaling in female ERβ−/− mice. Our data suggest that reduced ERβ signaling might have a role in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis, and ERβ could be a candidate for a target of medical therapy. PMID:17522255

  5. Correlations of Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome with Female Sexual Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun Suk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We investigated how the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) are correlated with the sexual activity of these patients. Materials and Methods A total of 87 patients were included in this study; 18 patients were diagnosed with IC and the other 69 had PBS. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the concept of IC/PBS proposed by the ICS in 2002. Patients were asked to fill in a Bristol female lower urinary tract symptom questionnaire, and symptoms were rated on a scale of from 1 to 4 or 5. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation of pain and urinary symptoms with quality of life and sexual activity. Results The average age of the patients was 51±14.7 years (range, 28-74 years). Age and vulvodynia were positively correlated with one another (r=0.232), and there was a negative correlation between age and dyspareunia (r=-0.302). Among the items regarding IC/PBS and sexual activity, frequency showed a positive correlation with vulvodynia (r=0.258) in addition to an inhibited sex life (r=0.403). Urgency showed a positive correlation with an inhibited sex life (r=0.346). Vulvodynia showed a positive correlation with an inhibited sex life (r=0.259) and dyspareunia (r=0.401). The main symptoms of IC/PBS (frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain) showed a positive correlation with almost all items related to quality of life (p<0.05). Conclusions Frequency, urgency, and various types of pain are negatively correlated with the sexual activity of patients. This suggests that physicians should consider sexual function in the management of patients with IC/PBS. PMID:20414410

  6. How does interstitial cystitis begin?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial cystitis (IC) does not start as an endstage disease, it has a beginning when symptoms are milder, intermittent and the disease is misdiagnosed. To determine how IC develops patients were interviewed on when their symptoms began, what they were and are now as well as the various diagnoses that they received before they were determined to have IC. Methods One hundred female IC patients were screened. They filled out a questionnaire asking about the age their disease presented, their initial and current symptoms, what their original diagnoses were, effect of the menstrual cycle and sexual activity on their symptoms and about any relatives with bladder symptoms or a current diagnosis of IC. Results By age 30, 81% of patients had bladder symptoms, 21% before age 10. The first symptom was frequency in 81%, pain present in 59% and the symptoms were intermittent in 64%. Most common early misdiagnosis was UTI in 74% with 93% reporting negative urine cultures. Sex was painful and causes symptom flares in 82%, symptoms flared the week before the menses in 75%. Most common gynecologic diagnosis was yeast vaginitis, 42%. Urge incontinence was present in 33%. There were 51% that reported bladder symptoms in a first degree female relative. Conclusions IC begins primarily with frequency and is intermittent in most patients with symptom flares associated with sexual activity. Pain and urgency incontinence tend to be a later symptoms. When IC flares the most common misdiagnosis is UTI. Symptoms begin before age 30 in most but an IC diagnosis is often not made until age 40. Genetics appear to play a significant role. It is important to consider these facts when evaluating women with “early IC” because correct diagnosis will result in proper therapy and reduced health care costs. PMID:26816860

  7. Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis: Multimodality Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is an increasingly common disease characterized by urgency, frequency, and pelvic pain. Its etiology is poorly understood but is likely to be multifactorial. A proposed pathophysiology describing a cascade of events, including epithelial dysfunction, mast cell activation, and neurogenic inflammation, is presented. Using this model, multimodality therapy regimens have been developed that treat all components of this cascade. Multimodality therapy appears more effective than single agents in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. PMID:16986029

  8. Interstitial cystitis. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, with special emphasis on management of this condition by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified through MEDLINE and review of abstracts presented at Urology and Interstitial Cystitis meetings during the last decade. Recent reviews were further searched for additional studies and trials. Data were summarized from large epidemiologic studies. Etiologic theories were extracted from current concepts and reviews of scientific studies. Diagnostic criteria described in this review are based on clinical interpretation of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research guidelines, interpretation of data from the NIH Interstitial Cystitis Cohort Study, and recent evidence on use of the potassium sensitivity test. Treatment suggestions are based on six randomized placebo-controlled clinical treatment trials and best available clinical data. MAIN MESSAGE: Interstitial cystitis affects about 0.01% to 0.5% of women. Its etiology is unknown, but might involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and other yet undefined agents. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, or hydroxyzine; and intravesical treatments with heparinlike medications, dimethyl sulfoxide, or BCG vaccine could benefit some patients. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should have an understanding of interstitial cystitis and be able to make a diagnosis and formulate an evidence-based treatment strategy for their patients. PMID:11153410

  9. Urine markers of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the current state of the art with regard to urine markers of interstitial cystitis (IC), and describes the areas that need continuing research. Articles referenced in MEDLINE that describe urine alterations in IC were reviewed. Additional articles were identified by cross-referencing. The different marker alterations were tabulated. The relevant articles were discussed, considering different purposes for urine markers including: (1) diagnosing IC; (2) confirming a specific pathophysiology for IC; and (3) predicting or following response to a specific treatment. Currently, 2 markers (glycoprotein-51 and antiproliferative factor [APF]) clearly separate IC and control subjects, with minimal overlap. Markers that correlate with specific bladder biopsy features include 1,4-methylimidazole acetic acid and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which correlate with mast cell density, and interleukin (IL)-6, which correlates with mononuclear inflammation. Markers that changed after treatment were as follows: (1) nitric oxide synthase and cyclic guanosine monophosphate increased with oral L-arginine; (2) ECP decreased with subcutaneous heparin; (3) prostaglandin E(2) and kallikrein decreased after bladder distention; (4) neutrophil chemotactic activity decreased after dimethyl sulfoxide; (5) IL-2 inhibitor decreased after oral nifedipine; (6) IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine; and (7) APF and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor changed to or toward normal levels after bladder distention or sacral nerve stimulation. A larger number of urine alterations have been reported, and a few are being pursued further by correlating with bladder biopsy findings or treatment responses. Further research is needed.

  10. [Interstitial cystitis. A challenge for the clinician].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; González, Martín; Comercio, Laura P; Quezel, Mariano; Bruetman, Julio E

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline.

  11. Interstitial Cystitis: Characterization and Management of an Enigmatic Urologic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    2002-01-01

    The enigmatic urologic condition known as interstitial cystitis has an estimated prevalence of 0.01% to 0.50% of the female population. Its etiology is unknown but may involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and/or other, as yet undefined, agents. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; rather, it is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, hydroxyzine, or cimetidine; and intravesical treatments with heparinoids, dimethyl sulfoxide, alkalized lidocaine, or bacille Calmette-Guérin may be effective in some patients. PMID:16985667

  12. Intravesical liposome therapy for interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Kashyap, Mahendra; Majima, Tsuyoshi; Kawamorita, Naoki; Yoshizawa, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2017-03-04

    Over the past two decades, there has been lot of interest in the use of liposomes as lipid-based biocompatible carriers for drugs administered by the intravesical route. The lipidic bilayer structure of liposomes facilitates their adherence to the apical membrane surface of luminal cells in the bladder, and their vesicular shape allows them to co-opt the endocytosis machinery for bladder uptake after instillation. Liposomes have been shown to enhance the penetration of both water-soluble and insoluble drugs, toxins, and oligonucleotides across the bladder epithelium. Empty liposomes composed entirely of the endogenous phospholipid, sphingomyelin, could counter mucosal inflammation and promote wound healing in patients suffering from interstitial cystitis. Recent clinical studies have tested multilamellar liposomes composed entirely of sphingomyelin as a novel intravesical therapy for interstitial cystitis. In addition, liposomes have been used as a delivery platform for the instillation of botulinum toxin in overactive bladder patients. The present review discusses the properties of liposomes that are important for their intrinsic therapeutic effect, summarizes the recently completed clinical studies with intravesical liposomes and covers the latest developments in this field.

  13. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    disease of the urinary bladder . The goal of this project is to advance key preclinical experiments towards the development of a new drug. Specific...factor (NGF) bladder drug delivery system targeting Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS), IC/PBS is a chronic, severely debilitating...interstitial cystitis, painful bladder syndrome, liposome, nerve growth factor, afferent hyper-excitability, antisense 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  14. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    cystitis” evaluates the feasibility of an anti-nerve growth factor (NGF) bladder drug delivery as a treatment for Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder...the project include early stage development, initial manufacture, and animal testing of an experimental liposome NGF-antisense formulations for...a novel diseased animal model. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, Liposome, Peer Reviewed Medical Research Program

  15. Intravesical chondroitin sulphate for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, DB; Curry, D; Cartwright, C; Downey, P; Pahuja, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder. Bladder instillation is one avenue of treatment but evidence for its effectiveness is limited. Chondroitin sulphate solution 2.0% (Urocyst) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy instilled for patients with IC/PBS. We assessed its effectiveness for treating IC/PBS in Northern Ireland. Methods Patients with IC/PBS were assessed with the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis index score and global response assessment questionnaire prior to commencing treatment. Assessment with these questionnaires was performed after 6 treatments (10 weeks) and again after 10 treatments (24 weeks). Assessment end points were pain, urgency, symptom score and problem score. Results Data was collected on 10 patients, 9 female and 1 male. 6 patients had failed RIMSO-50 dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) 50% treatment prior. At baseline the mean pain score was 6.6, urgency score 7.00, symptom score 13.5 and problem score 12.5. After 24 weeks the mean pain score fell to 2.0, urgency score to 1.80, symptom score to 6.89 and problem score to 5.67. At 10 weeks the global response to treatment was 100%. Nocturia was the first symptom to improve with urgency and pain following. No side effects were noted during instillation and all patients tolerated the treatments. Conclusion IC/PBS is a difficult disease to treat. It requires a multimodal approach. We found that intravesical chondroitin sulphate reduced pain, urgency and O'Leary-Sant symptom and problem scores in patients with IC/PBS. All patients tolerated the treatment and no side effects were reported. PMID:26668417

  16. Validation of APF as a Urinary Biomarker for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Planey, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Commonwealth Medical College Scranton, PA 18509 REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual...AND SUBTITLE Validation of APF as a Urinary Biomarker for Interstitial Cystitis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0454 5c. PROGRAM...that can specifically detect binding of APF to its cellular receptor, cytoskeleton associated protein 4 (CKAP4), immobilized on a sensor chip surface

  17. Successful management of interstitial cystitis in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Forrest, John B; Dell, Jeffrey R

    2007-04-01

    Primary care physicians, urologists, and gynecologists have the opportunity to detect interstitial cystitis (IC) in its early stages in symptomatic patients and provide effective treatment before the disease progresses. In this article, we present guidelines for clinical practice management and coding for reimbursement for the care of patients with IC. Important issues in the management of IC are presented, including appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) coding for office visits and procedures associated with diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Excellent IC care can be integrated into a successful clinical practice with appropriate clinical management and coding for reimbursement.

  18. Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder updated in 2015.

    PubMed

    Homma, Yukio; Ueda, Tomohiro; Tomoe, Hikaru; Lin, Alex Tl; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lee, Ming-Huei; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2016-07-01

    Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder have been updated as of 2015. The guidelines define interstitial cystitis by the presence of hypersensitive bladder symptoms (discomfort, pressure or pain in the bladder usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia) and bladder pathology, after excluding other diseases explaining symptoms. Interstitial cystitis is further classified by bladder pathology; either Hunner type interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions or non-Hunner type interstitial cystitis with mucosal bleeding after distension in the absence of Hunner lesions. Hypersensitive bladder refers to a condition, where hypersensitive bladder symptoms are present, but bladder pathology or other explainable diseases are unproven. Interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder severely affect patients' quality of life as a result of disabling symptoms and/or comorbidities. Reported prevalence suggestive of these disorders varies greatly from 0.01% to >6%. Pathophysiology would be an interaction of multiple factors including urothelial dysfunction, inflammation, neural hyperactivity, exogenous substances and extrabladder disorders. Definite diagnosis of interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder requires cystoscopy with or without hydrodistension. Most of the therapeutic options lack a high level of evidence, leaving a few as recommended therapeutic options.

  19. [Dimethyl sulfoxide in the treatment of interstitial cystitis].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J L; Alonso, M; Moreno, B; Server, G; Osca, J M; Jiménez, J F

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained with endovesical dimethylsulphoxide in the treatment of interstitial cystitis in 30 women. Up to 80% patients showed clinical improvement with an average of 10 installations. Volume of maximal vesical capacity was increased in 24 patients (80%), the increase being greater than 100 cc in 10 cases. Presently, 24 (80%) patients remain under treatment, 14 with one instillation monthly and 10 once every six months. Six patients are fully asymptomatic without treatment after an average symptoms-free interval of 32 months. Since this is directly related to a decrease both in pain and miction frequency, the increase in vesical capacity appears to be a good improvement index. Dimethylsulphoxide in neither a healing nor a definite therapy but it seems to be effective in the management of this unknown disease.

  20. Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kristene E

    2002-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC. PMID:16986031

  1. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: appropriate diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Dell, Jeffrey R

    2007-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain in the absence of any other identifiable pathology. Initial identification of IC/PBS is challenging, as patients may have a range of symptoms that overlap with other disorders, including urinary tract infection (UTI). These patients may be treated empirically with antibiotics; however, many patients with such symptoms are actually culture negative and are later diagnosed with IC/PBS. This review describes the importance of recognizing the symptom overlap between IC/PBS and UTI and focuses on approaches to the diagnosis and management of IC/PBS. Physicians can improve patient care by considering IC/PBS early in the differential diagnosis.

  2. Similarities between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and vulvodynia: implications for patient management

    PubMed Central

    Moldwin, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and vulvodynia are chronic pain syndromes that appear to be intertwined from the perspectives of embryology, pathology and epidemiology. These associations may account for similar responses to various therapies. PMID:26816866

  3. Intranasal Oxytocin for the Treatment of Pain Associated with Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    peripheral oxytocin has analgesic effects in other types of nociception making it a useful agent for chronic pain syndromes other than IC. Because the... Pain Associated with Interstitial Cystitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Meredith T. Robbins, Ph.D...Intranasal Oxytocin for the Treatment of Pain Associated with Interstitial Cystitis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0452 5c

  4. Botulinum Toxin A for Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Bin; Tai, Huai-Ching; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Birder, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A), derived from Clostridium botulinum, has been used clinically for several diseases or syndrome including chronic migraine, spasticity, focal dystonia and other neuropathic pain. Chronic pelvic or bladder pain is the one of the core symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). However, in the field of urology, chronic bladder or pelvic pain is often difficult to eradicate by oral medications or bladder instillation therapy. We are looking for new treatment modality to improve bladder pain or associated urinary symptoms such as frequency and urgency for patients with BPS/IC. Recent studies investigating the mechanism of the antinociceptive effects of BoNT A suggest that it can inhibit the release of peripheral neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators from sensory nerves. In this review, we will examine the evidence supporting the use of BoNTs in bladder pain from basic science models and review the clinical studies on therapeutic applications of BoNT for BPS/IC. PMID:27376330

  5. Differential perturbation of the interstitial cystitis-associated genes of bladder and urethra in rat model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bo-Hwa; You, Sungyong; Park, Chang-Shin; Cho, Eun-Ho; Park, Taeeun D; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Young-Ju; Lee, Tack; Kim, Jayoung

    2017-02-22

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder dysfunction characterized as urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, and pelvic pain. The changes in urethra may wind up with the bladder changes in structure and functions, however, the functions of the urethra in IC remains elusive. The aim of this study was to understand the perturbed gene expression in urethra, compared with urinary bladder, associated with the defected urodynamics. Using female IC mimic rats, a comprehensive RNA-sequencing combined with a bioinformatics analysis was performed and revealed that IC-specific genes in bladder or urethra. Gene ontology analysis suggested that the cell adhesion or extracellular matrix regulation, intracellular signaling cascade, cardiac muscle tissue development, and second messenger-mediated signaling might be the most enriched cellular processes in IC context. Further study of the effects of these bladder- or urethra-specific genes may suggest underlying mechanism of lower urinary tract function and novel therapeutic strategies against IC.

  6. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and glycosaminoglycans replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease characterized by discomfort or recurrent abdominal and pelvic pains in the absence of urinary tract infections. Its symptomatology includes discomfort, increased bladder pressure, sensitivity and intense pain in the bladder and pelvic areas, increased voiding frequency and urgency, or a combination of these symptoms. For these reasons, this pathology has a very negative impact on quality of life. The etiology of IC/BPS is still not well understood and different hypotheses have been formulated, including autoimmune processes, allergic reactions, chronic bacterial infections, exposure to toxins or dietary elements, and psychosomatic factors. The finding of an effective and specific therapy for IC/BPS remains a challenge for the scientific community because of the lack of a consensus regarding the causes and the inherent difficulties in the diagnosis. The last recent hypothesis is that IC/BPS could be pathophysiologically related to a disruption of the bladder mucosa surface layer with consequent loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This class of mucopolysaccharides has hydrorepellent properties and their alteration expose the urothelium to many urinary toxic agents. It has been hypothesized that when these substances penetrate the bladder wall a chain is triggered in the submucosa. In order to improve the integrity and function of the bladder lining, GAG layer replenishment therapy is widely accepted as therapy for patients with IC/BPS who have poor or inadequate response to conventional therapy. Currently, Chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin, hyaluronic acid (HA), and pentosan polysulphate (PPS), and combinations of two GAGs (CS and HA) are the available substances with different effectiveness rates in patients with IC/BPS. There are four different commercially available products for GAG replenishment including CS, heparin, HA and PPS. Each product has different concentrations and

  7. Use and effectiveness of physical self-care strategies for interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Webster, D C; Brennan, T

    1994-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis is a painful disease that primarily affects women. It involves a chronic bladder inflammation of unknown etiology and unpredictable course. There is no consensus about treatment. Women with interstitial cystitis report using multiple strategies and interventions to prevent and manage urinary urgency, frequency, and suprapubic pain. A survey questionnaire on self-care strategies was completed by 138 members of the Interstitial Cystitis Association. Subjects indicated how often they used more than 300 self-care strategies and the effectiveness of these strategies. This article reports findings from five physical subdomains (medications, treatments, hygiene, diet, and body comfort). Among those who report actually using the methods the effectiveness ratings for many body comfort strategies are comparable to the reported effectiveness of medications (including narcotics) for managing mild to moderate symptoms.

  8. Corynebacterial Necrohemorrhagic Cystitis in Two Female Macaques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    tunic , and serosa) was expanded to 3 to 4 times the normal thickness by abundant fibrin, edema, hem- orrhage, and viable and degenerate neutrophils...black (hemorrhage, edema, and necrosis). (C) Urinary bladder. The mucosa (open arrowhead), submucosa (asterisk), and muscular tunic (black arrowhead...surface is thickened, irregular, friable, and black, consistent with necrohemorrhagic cystitis. (B) Urinary bladder. All tunics , mucosa (black arrowhead

  9. Role of cystoscopy and hydrodistention in the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ens, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    There are controversies about whether cystoscopy with or without hydrodistention (HD) plays a role in the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). We reviewed the recommendations of various societies and associations of greater impact in this complex disease, analyzing the indications, technique, findings and complications of this procedure. PMID:26816863

  10. Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication. If your child starts having daytime wetting accidents, call your pediatrician. In otherwise healthy men, cystitis ... remove a small sample of tissue (biopsy) for lab analysis. But this test most likely won't ...

  11. Potential therapeutic effect of intravesical botulinum toxin type A on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Jhang, Jia-Fong; Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2014-04-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is characterized by bladder pain associated with urgency, frequency, nocturia, dysuria and sterile urine. Recent studies have shown that these bladder dysfunctions could originate from chronic inflammation or urothelial insult and proceed to a cascade of tissue reactions, which finally ascends to the central nervous system. Pilot studies of intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis had been introduced since 2005 with a promising result. Recent evidence suggests that botulinum toxin type A could significantly improve symptoms such as daytime frequency, nocturia, pain, quality of life and bladder capacity in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients. Single injection of botulinum toxin could not achieve long-term successful therapeutic result, and repeat injections could provide a better long-term success rate. However, patients with ulcer type bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis might not gain a benefit from botulinum toxin type A injection. Laboratory evidence showed that botulinum toxin type A for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis injection could induce peripheral desensitization, reduces bladder chronic inflammation and decreases apoptotic signal molecules in the urothelium. The present article reviewed the recent advances of botulinum toxin type A on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

  12. Intranasal Oxytocin for the Treatment of Pain Associated with Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    nociception making it a useful agent for chronic pain syndromes other than IC. Because the causes of IC are unknown, current treatments are aimed...Treatment of Pain Associated with Interstitial Cystitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Meredith T. Robbins, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sept 2013 - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Intranasal Oxytocin for the Treatment of Pain Associated with

  13. [Somatic comorbidities in irritable bowel syndrome: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and interstitial cystitis].

    PubMed

    Mathieu, N

    2009-02-01

    Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and interstitial cystitis frequently overlap with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). There is a positive correlation between the incidence of these comorbidities and increased health care seeking, reduction in quality of life, and higher levels of mood disorders, which raises the question of a common underlying pathophysiology. A possible central hypersensitization disorder seems to be particularly involved in the dysfunction of bidirectional neural pathways and viscerovisceral cross-interactions within the CNS, thus explaining these many extraintestinal manifestations in IBS.

  14. Increased CXCR3 Expression of Infiltrating Plasma Cells in Hunner Type Interstitial Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Morikawa, Teppei; Maeda, Daichi; Shintani, Yukako; Niimi, Aya; Nomiya, Akira; Nakayama, Atsuhito; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio

    2016-06-24

    An up-regulated CXCR3 pathway and affluent plasma cell infiltration are characteristic features of Hunner type interstitial cystitis (HIC). We further examined these two features using bladder biopsy samples taken from 27 patients with HIC and 15 patients with non-IC cystitis as a control. The number of CD3-positive T lymphocytes, CD20-positive B lymphocytes, CD138-positive plasma cells, and CXCR3-positive cells was quantified by digital image analysis. Double-immunofluorescence for CXCR3 and CD138 was used to detect CXCR3 expression in plasma cells. Correlations between CXCR3 positivity and lymphocytic and plasma cell numbers and clinical parameters were explored. The density of CXCR3-positive cells showed no significant differences between HIC and non-IC cystitis specimens. However, distribution of CXCR3-positivity in plasma cells indicated co-localization of CXCR3 with CD138 in HIC specimens, but not in non-IC cystitis specimens. The number of CXCR3-positive cells correlated with plasma cells in HIC specimens alone. Infiltration of CXCR3-positive cells was unrelated to clinical parameters of patients with HIC. These results suggest that infiltration of CXCR3-positive plasma cells is a characteristic feature of HIC. The CXCR3 pathway and specific immune responses may be involved in accumulation/retention of plasma cells and pathophysiology of the HIC bladder.

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Alleviates Interstitial Cystitis by Activating Wnt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Miho; Lim, Jisun; Yu, Hwan Yeul; Park, Junsoo; Chun, Ji-Youn; Jeong, Jaeho; Heo, Jinbeom; Kang, Hyunsook; Kim, YongHwan; Cho, Yong Mee; Kim, Seong Who; Oh, Wonil; Choi, Soo Jin; Jang, Sung-Wuk; Park, Sanghyeok

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a syndrome characterized by urinary urgency, frequency, pelvic pain, and nocturia in the absence of bacterial infection or identifiable pathology. IC is a devastating disease that certainly decreases quality of life. However, the causes of IC remain unknown and no effective treatments or cures have been developed. This study evaluated the therapeutic potency of using human umbilical cord-blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) to treat IC in a rat model and to investigate its responsible molecular mechanism. IC was induced in 10-week-old female Sprague–Dawley rats via the instillation of 0.1 M HCl or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; sham). After 1 week, human UCB-MSC (IC+MSC) or PBS (IC) was directly injected into the submucosal layer of the bladder. A single injection of human UCB-MSCs significantly attenuated the irregular and decreased voiding interval in the IC group. Accordingly, denudation of the epithelium and increased inflammatory responses, mast cell infiltration, neurofilament production, and angiogenesis observed in the IC bladders were prevented in the IC+MSC group. The injected UCB-MSCs successfully engrafted to the stromal and epithelial tissues and activated Wnt signaling cascade. Interference with Wnt and epidermal growth factor receptor activity by small molecules abrogated the benefits of MSC therapy. This is the first report that provides an experimental evidence of the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of MSC therapy to IC using an orthodox rat animal model. Our findings not only provide the basis for clinical trials of MSC therapy to IC but also advance our understanding of IC pathophysiology. PMID:25745847

  16. Update on the Pathology and Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is characterized by bladder discomfort, urinary frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain. The etiology and pathogenesis of this condition is still unknown and remains diagnosed by exclusion. The histologic findings are also neither specific for diagnosis nor correlated with symptoms. However, the definition and diagnostic criteria for the condition was established in the last decade. In this paper, we review the changes in the definition, terminology, and diagnostic scheme of IC/BPS, and summarize the histologic findings. We also briefly discuss some new pathologic suggestions and new urinary markers, focusing on the most promising ones. PMID:27032552

  17. Review of intravesical therapies for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosamilia, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic pain condition characterised by urinary frequency, urgency and pain or discomfort which the patient attributes to the bladder. It is a complex condition to manage and treat and requires a multi-disciplinary and multi-modal approach. As well as lifestyle and behavioural modifications, physical therapy and oral medications, intravesical treatments can be used in the treatment algorithm for BPS/IC. A number of intravesical agents are reviewed in this paper along with the available evidence for their use. PMID:26816864

  18. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is activated in human interstitial cystitis (IC) and rat protamine sulfate induced cystitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Long; Liu, Qina; Song, Bo; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-02-17

    The pathogenesis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is currently unclear. However, inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in BPS/IC. JNK downstream signaling plays an important role in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. However, studies of the JNK pathway in BPS/IC are limited. In this study, we investigated the role of the JNK pathway in human BPS/IC and rat protamine sulfate (PS)-induced cystitis and examined the effect of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 on rat bladder cystitis. In our study, we demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway was activated (the expression of JNK, c-Jun, p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increasing in BPS/IC compared to the non-BPS/IC patients) and resulted in inflammation in human BPS/IC. Further animal models showed that the JNK pathway played an important role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. JNK inhibitors, SP600125, effectively inhibited the expression of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α. The inhibition of these pathways had a protective effect on PS-induced rat cystitis by significantly decreasing histological score and mast cell count and improving bladder micturition function (micturition frequency significantly decreasing and bladder capacity significantly increasing). Therefore, JNK inhibition could be used as a potential treatment for BPS/IC.

  19. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is activated in human interstitial cystitis (IC) and rat protamine sulfate induced cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Long; Liu, Qina; Song, Bo; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is currently unclear. However, inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in BPS/IC. JNK downstream signaling plays an important role in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. However, studies of the JNK pathway in BPS/IC are limited. In this study, we investigated the role of the JNK pathway in human BPS/IC and rat protamine sulfate (PS)-induced cystitis and examined the effect of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 on rat bladder cystitis. In our study, we demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway was activated (the expression of JNK, c-Jun, p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increasing in BPS/IC compared to the non-BPS/IC patients) and resulted in inflammation in human BPS/IC. Further animal models showed that the JNK pathway played an important role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. JNK inhibitors, SP600125, effectively inhibited the expression of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α. The inhibition of these pathways had a protective effect on PS-induced rat cystitis by significantly decreasing histological score and mast cell count and improving bladder micturition function (micturition frequency significantly decreasing and bladder capacity significantly increasing). Therefore, JNK inhibition could be used as a potential treatment for BPS/IC. PMID:26883396

  20. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic response in a private urogynecology unit

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Maria Isabel; Martínez-Espinoza, Claudia J.; Monroy-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Zaragoza-Torres, Rocio M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a spectrum of pelvic, bladder or urethral pain, as well as irritative voiding symptoms. The term interstitial cystitis (IC) is reserved for patients with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. The aim of this study was to describe endoscopic features and our experience on the treatment of this syndrome in Urodifem de Occidente S.C., a private urogynecology unit. Methods Observational, retrospective analytic study of 25 treated patients from 33 with diagnosis of IC/PBS between January 2001 and March 2015. The diagnosis was done by clinical, cystoscopic and urodynamic approach. Treatment was based on bladder instillation of dymetilsulfoxido (DMSO), dexamethasone and heparin. Oral pentosan polysulphate was prescribed for at least 1 year. Results Cystoscopic findings showed petechial hemorrhages in 32%, Hunner’s lesions in 28%, glomerulations in 28% and bladder pain in absence of lesions in 12%. The basic treatment included one instillation once a week for 6 weeks, twice a month for 2 months and four monthly instillations. Three cases had complete remission of their symptoms, 21 had significant improvement and we have only one failure. Conclusions We recommend the combined use of DMSO instillation and pentosan polysulphate (PPS) in cases of IC/PBS. PMID:26816862

  1. Validation of a Quality of Life Scale for Women with Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Suttorp, Marika J.; Elliott, Marc N.; Clemens, J. Quentin; Berry, Sandra H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To validate a disease-specific scale to measure impact of symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), a condition that affects up to 6.5% of U.S. women. Methods Participants were drawn from the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology Study (RICE), a telephone probability survey of 146,231 U.S. households. Women who met RICE BPS/IC symptom criteria (n=3,397) completed the 6 -item RAND Bladder Symptom Impact scale (RICE BSI-6). The RICE BSI-6 was adapted from a scale used to assess impact of diabetes on life and sexuality, and modified based on expert input on face validity and focus group work; items specific to diabetic symptoms were eliminated. Validated scales of symptom severity, mental-and physical -health-related QoL, depression, coping, and perceived control were used to assess convergent validity. Results The RICE BSI-6 (α=.92) was significantly related to greater symptom severity, worse general mental and physical health-related QoL, more severe depression symptoms, and lower perceived control over life in general and over BPS/IC symptoms (p-values<.05). It was also associated with less use of distancing coping (p<.05). Conclusion The RICE BSI-6 shows excellent internal consistency and strong convergent validity. It can be used to examine effects of psychosocial and treatment interventions on QoL among women with BPS/IC. PMID:22146841

  2. Innovative Approach for Interstitial Cystitis: Vaginal Pessaries Loaded Diazepam—A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Capra, P.; Perugini, P.; Bleve, M.; Pavanetto, P.; Musitelli, G.; Rovereto, B.; Porru, D.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder pain is a characteristic disorder of interstitial cystitis. Diazepam is well known for its antispasmodic activity in the treatment of muscular hypertonus. The aim of this work was to develop and characterize vaginal pessaries as an intravaginal delivery system of diazepam for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. In particular, the performance of two types of formulations, with and without beta-glucan, was compared. In particular, the preparation of pessaries, according to the modified Pharmacopeia protocol, the setup of the analytical method to determine diazepam, pH evaluation, dissolution profile, and photostability assay were reported. Results showed that the modified protocol permitted obtaining optimal vaginal pessaries, without air bubbles, with good consistency and handling and with good pH profiles. In order to determine the diazepam amount, calibration curves with good correlation coefficients were obtained, by the spectrophotometric method, using placebo pessaries as matrix with the addition of diazepam standard solution. This method was demonstrated sensible and accurate to determine the amount of drug in batches. Dissolution profiles showed a complete diazepam release just after 15 minutes, even if beta-glucan pessaries released drug more gradually. Finally, a possible drug photodegradation after exacerbated UV-visible exposition was evaluated. PMID:26555976

  3. The Interstitial Cystitis Association of America: lessons learned over the past 30 years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1984, interstitial cystitis (IC) was considered a rare psychosomatic disorder in post-menopausal women. In 2014, the Interstitial Cystitis Association of America (ICA) celebrated its 30th anniversary. We’ve come a long way since 1984 and great progress has been made. IC is now recognized as a condition that afflicts both men and women of all ages, including children and teenagers. It is not a psychiatric disorder. Though it was once thought to be an orphan disease (defined as affecting less than 200,000 people), we now know that there are millions of women and men who suffer from IC/BPS (bladder pain syndrome). In looking back over this period, there were seven key reasons why the ICA became so successful: an extremely dedicated ICA staff, Board of Directors and volunteers; a very strong Medical Advisory Board and participation of many other urologists from across the country and around the world; cooperation of the media; epidemiological studies; the ICA’s Pilot Research Program; our representation in Congress; and a strong working partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Our history may prove useful to other advocacy groups. PMID:26816848

  4. [Combination of intersticial cystitis and adenomyosis in females suffering from chronic pelvic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Neĭmark, A I; Shelkovnikova, N V

    2011-01-01

    General and endoscopic examinations of 25 patients aged 40-48 years with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) revealed combination of two urogenital diseases: interstitial cystitis and adenomyosis of the second-third degree. The complex treatment including a course of lavomax immunocorrection relieved CPPS in 72% (18) patients, reduced the number of recurrences of chronic pelvic diseases in 16% (4) patients. The therapeutic complex proposed may serve an alternative to surgical treatment of adenomyosis of the second-third degree which is uncomplicated with posthemorrhagic iron-deficiency anemia, manifests with pain only and associated with interstitial cystitis.

  5. Interstitial cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... lists as possibly causing bladder irritation are: Aged cheeses Alcohol Artificial sweeteners Fava and lima beans Meats that are cured, processed, smoked, canned, aged, or that contain nitrites Most ...

  6. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other possible causes may be an increase of histamine-producing cells in the bladder wall or an ... called hydroxyzine. This medicine reduces the amount of histamine that is made in the bladder wall. Another ...

  7. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... IC) is a condition that causes discomfort or pain in the bladder and a need to urinate ... from person to person. Some people may have pain without urgency or frequency. Others have urgency and ...

  8. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:26816867

  9. From bladder to systemic syndrome: concept and treatment evolution of interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Dinis, Sara; de Oliveira, Joana Tavares; Pinto, Rui; Cruz, Francisco; Buffington, CA Tony; Dinis, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis, presently known as bladder pain syndrome, has been recognized for over a century but is still far from being understood. Its etiology is unknown and the syndrome probably harbors different diseases. Autoimmune dysfunction, urothelial leakage, infection, central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction, genetic disease, childhood trauma/abuse, and subsequent stress response system dysregulation might be implicated. Management is slowly evolving from a solo act by the end-organ specialist to a team approach based on new typing and phenotyping of the disease. However, oral and invasive treatments are still largely aimed at the bladder and are based on currently proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Future research will better define the disease, permitting individualization of treatment. PMID:26229509

  10. [Hyperbaric oxygenation in the treatment of patients with interstitial cystitis: clinical and morphological rationale].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Siniakova, L A; Seregin, A V; Mitrokhin, A A; Plesovskiĭ, A M; Vinarova, N A

    2011-01-01

    We studied efficacy of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) in 8 patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Mean age of the patients was 53 years (35-72 years), mean duration of the disease 7.5 years (6-17 years). Ulcerative IC/PBS was diagnosed in 7 of 8 patients. The patients received combined treatment: surgical (hydrobouginage of the bladder, electrocoagulation of bladder ulcer) and a HBO course in the postoperative period. The efficacy was assessed by clinical and morphological criteria (estimation of histamine level in urethral smears, proliferative activity of bladder mucosa epithelial cells). A HBO course consisted of 10 sessions (40 min, 2 atm). The treatment reduced the number of voidings for 24 hours, increased mean effective bladder volume, lowered a total score by L. Parsons scale, histamine content in urethral smears, stimulated proliferative activity of bladder mucosa epithelium. Thus, HBO proved its safety and effectiveness in combined treatment of IC/PBS.

  11. Treating Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome as a Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Philip C; Bosch, David C

    2014-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is both frustrating and difficult. The etiology is uncertain and there is no definitive treatment. Consequently, both patients and doctors tend to be unhappy and unsatisfied with the quality of care. The American Urological Association (AUA) provides a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of IC/BPS. Recommended first-line treatments include patient education, self-care practices, behavior modifications, and stress management. Management of IC/BPS may be also improved if both patients and doctors treat this condition as a chronic disease. This article reviews the AUA first-line treatments for IC/BPS and considers the benefits of treating this condition as a chronic disease. PMID:25009448

  12. Complementary and alternative medical therapies for interstitial cystitis: an update from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, Megan Danielle; Shah, Nima M.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has shifted from organ-specific to a multifactorial, multidisciplinary and individualized approach. Patients with refractory and debilitating symptoms may respond to complementary and alternative medical treatments (CAM). Through CAM therapies, practitioners assist the patient to be at the center of their care, empowering them to be emotionally and physically involved. Multi-disciplinary care, including urology, gynecology, gastroenterology, neurology, psychology, physiotherapy and pain medicine, is also identified to be the crux of adequate management of patients with chronic pelvic pain because of its variable etiology. The purpose of this review is to emphasize these changes and discuss management strategies. PMID:26816868

  13. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nagendra Nath

    2015-10-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner's lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion-starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation.

  14. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner’s lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion—starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation. PMID:26816851

  15. Combined site-specific sacral neuromodulation and pudendal nerve release surgery in a patient with interstitial cystitis and persistent arousal.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Georgina Louise; Vancaillie, Thierry Georges

    2016-06-09

    A variety of neuromodulation approaches have been described for the management of pelvic neuropathies, including interstitial cystitis, pudendal neuralgia and persistent genital arousal disorder. The benefits of a combined sacral and pudendal nerve neuromodulator has yet to be explored for these patients. In this report, we describe the case of a 35-year-old woman with a complex pelvic neuropathy resulting in urinary, sexual and gastro-intestinal dysfunction. She presented with an established diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; however, she also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for pudendal neuralgia and persistent genital arousal disorder. The patient underwent implantation of a combined sacral and pudendal nerve neuoromodulation device at the time of surgical decompression of the pudendal nerves. An impressive clinical response followed. This case demonstrates a unique clinical presentation and highlights the value of a combined surgical and neuromodulatory approach in the management of patients with complex pelvic neuropathies.

  16. Pathomechanism of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome and Mapping the Heterogeneity of Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a heterogeneous syndrome which is usually characterized by urinary frequency, nocturia, and bladder pain. Several pathomechanisms have been proposed, including uroepithelial dysfunction, mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation, autoimmunity, and occult urinary tract infections. It is possible that an inflammatory process alters regulation of urothelial homeostasis and results in dysfunction of the bladder epithelium. Different phenotypes of IC/BPS have been explored including Hunner and non-Hunner type IC, hypersensitive bladder, and bladder pain both with and without functional somatic syndrome. Different gene expressions have also been found in different IC phenotypes. Abnormal expressions of uroplakin, chondroitin sulfate and adhesive protein E-cadherin, tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 in IC/BPS bladder suggest abnormal epithelial differentiation in this bladder disease. Analysis of inflammatory proteins, or cytokines in the urine or serum provides another diagnostic foundation forIC/BPS subtypes. The involvement of IC/BPS in systemic functional somatic syndrome and other pelvic organ diseases might also subdivide subtypes of IC/BPS. Chronic inflammation, increased urothelial apoptosis, and abnormal urothelial function are closely associated in IC bladders. This article reviews recent research on the pathomechanisms of IC, which might help us in mapping the heterogeneity of the disease. PMID:27915472

  17. Interstitial Cystitis-Associated Urinary Metabolites Identified by Mass-Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Tobias; Cho, Eunho; Park, Taeeun D.; Deng, Nan; Liu, Zhenqiu; Lee, Tack; Fiehn, Oliver; Kim, Jayoung

    2016-01-01

    This study on interstitial cystitis (IC) aims to identify a unique urine metabolomic profile associated with IC, which can be defined as an unpleasant sensation including pain and discomfort related to the urinary bladder, without infection or other identifiable causes. Although the burden of IC on the American public is immense in both human and financial terms, there is no clear diagnostic test for IC, but rather it is a disease of exclusion. Very little is known about the clinically useful urinary biomarkers of IC, which are desperately needed. Untargeted comprehensive metabolomic profiling was performed using gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry to compare urine specimens of IC patients or health donors. The study profiled 200 known and 290 unknown metabolites. The majority of the thirty significantly changed metabolites before false discovery rate correction were unknown compounds. Partial least square discriminant analysis clearly separated IC patients from controls. The high number of unknown compounds hinders useful biological interpretation of such predictive models. Given that urine analyses have great potential to be adapted in clinical practice, research has to be focused on the identification of unknown compounds to uncover important clues about underlying disease mechanisms. PMID:27976711

  18. Revisiting the Role of Potassium Sensitivity Testing and Cystoscopic Hydrodistention for the Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Jhang, Jia-Fong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To revisit the diagnostic roles of cystoscopic hydrodistention and the potassium sensitivity test (PST) for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis (IC). Methods We prospectively enrolled 214 patients clinically diagnosed with IC, 125 non-IC patients who underwent video urodynamic studies and PST, and another 144 non-IC patients who underwent cystoscopic hydrodistention before transurethral surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for the PST and glomerulations after cystoscopic hydrodistention. Results After cystoscopic hydrodistention, glomerulations developed in 211/214 (98.6%) IC patients and 61/144 (42.4%) of the non-IC patients including patients with stones (45/67, 67%), hematuria (2/5, 40%), and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (6/17, 35%). When positive glomerulation was defined as grade 2 or more, the sensitivity was 61.7%. The PST was positive in 183/214 (85.5%) IC patients and 7/17 (41%) with hypersensitive bladder, 7/32 (22%) with detrusor overactivity, 5/27 (18%) with SUI, 2/21 (10%) with lower urinary tract symptoms, and 2/25 (8%) with bladder outlet obstruction. The PST had a sensitivity of 85.5% and a specificity of 81.6% for diagnosis of IC. IC patients with a positive PST had a significantly smaller urgency sensation capacity, smaller voided volume, and greater bladder pain score. Conclusions Both the PST and glomerulations after hydrodistention are sensitive indicators of IC, but the specificity of glomerulations in the diagnosis of IC is lower than that of the PST. A positive PST is associated with a more hypersensitive bladder and bladder pain, but not the grade of glomerulations in IC patients. Neither test provided 100% diagnostic accuracy for IC, we might select patients into different subgroups based on different PST and hydrodistention results, not for making a diagnosis of IC but for guidance of different treatments. PMID:26999787

  19. A multidisciplinary approach to the evaluation and management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: an ideal model of care

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priyanka; Gaines, Natalie; Sirls, Larry T.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a complex syndrome that has long been treated with bladder directed therapies, which often fail to address the multiple underlying etiologies that can contribute to this disease process. This disease often involves symptoms that extend beyond the bladder and involve the pelvic floor making it crucial for clinicians to approach the patient using a multidisciplinary team. This article will discuss the underlying etiologies for IC/BPS and describe the multidisciplinary approach which we have found to be extremely successful in managing this patient population. PMID:26816861

  20. Novel research approaches for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: thinking beyond the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Bavendam, Tamara; Kirkali, Ziya; Kusek, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite years of basic and clinical research focused on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), including clinical trials of candidate therapies, there remains an insufficient understanding of underlying cause(s), important clinical features and a lack of effective treatments for this syndrome. Progress has been limited and is likely due to many factors, including a primary focus on the bladder and lower urinary tract as origin of symptoms without adequately considering the potential influence of other local (pelvic) or systemic factors. Traditionally, there has been a lack of sufficiently diverse expertise and application of novel, integrated methods to study this syndrome. However, some important insights have been gained. For example, epidemiological studies have revealed that IC/BPS is commonly associated with other chronic pain conditions, including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. These observations suggest that IC/BPS may involve systemic pathophysiology, including alterations of the central nervous system in some patients. Furthermore, there may be multiple causes and contributing factors that manifest in the symptoms of IC/BPS leading to multiple patient sub-groups or phenotypes. Innovative research is necessary to allow for a more complete description of the relationship between this syndrome and other disorders with overlapping symptoms. This report provides examples of such innovative research studies and their findings which have the potential to provide fresh insights into IC/BPS and disorders associated with chronic pain through characterization of broad physiologic systems, as well as assessment of the contribution of the bladder and lower urinary tract. They may also serve as models for future investigation of symptom-based urologic and non-urologic disorders that may remain incompletely characterized by previous, more traditional research approaches. Furthermore, it is anticipated a more holistic

  1. Correlation Between Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Hung, Peir-Haur; Chung, Chi-Jung; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been investigated in Western countries and identified to be associated with chronic pelvic pain and inflammation. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a complex syndrome that is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. Chronic pelvic pain is a main symptom of BPS/IC, and chronic inflammation is a major etiology of BPS/IC. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between BPS/IC and PID using a population-based dataset. We constructed a case–control study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance program. The case cohort comprised 449 patients with BPS/IC, and 1796 randomly selected subjects (about 1:4 matching) were used as controls. A Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to estimate the association between BPS/IC and PID. Of the 2245 sampled subjects, a significant difference was observed in the prevalence of PID between BPS/IC cases and controls (41.7% vs 15.4%, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for PID among cases was 3.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.89–4.71). Furthermore, the ORs for PID among BPS/IC cases were 4.52 (95% CI: 2.55–8.01), 4.31 (95% CI: 2.91–6.38), 3.00 (95% CI: 1.82–4.94), and 5.35 (95% CI: 1.88–15.20) in the <35, 35–49, 50–64, and >65 years age groups, respectively, after adjusting for geographic region, irritable bowel syndrome, and hypertension. Joint effect was also noted, specifically when patients had both PID and irritable bowel disease with OR of 10.5 (95% CI: 4.88–22.50). This study demonstrated a correlation between PID and BPS/IC. Clinicians treating women with PID should be alert to BPS/IC-related symptoms in the population. PMID:26579800

  2. Cystitis - noninfectious

    MedlinePlus

    Abacterial cystitis; Radiation cystitis; Chemical cystitis; Urethral syndrome - acute; Bladder pain syndrome; Painful bladder disease complex; Dysuria - noninfectious cystitis; Frequent urination - ...

  3. Urinary IL-33 and galectin-3 increase in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (review).

    PubMed

    Kochiashvili, G; Kochiashvili, D

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is an enigmatic chronic disorder characterized by vague bladder pain of variable severity accompanied by urinary symptoms. The pathogenesis and etiology of IC/BPS remain incompletely defined. However, there is an emerging consensus about the central role of epithelial dysfunction, bladder sensory nerve up-regulation, and mast cell activation in the genesis of IC/BPS. Accumulating evidences have suggested that tissue damage is recognized at the cell level via receptor-mediated detection of intracellular proteins (so-called alarmins) released by the necrotic cells. Among these proteins IL-33, galectin-3 (Gal-3) and advanced glycation end products (AGE), may have an important role because they can be participated as cellular components that stimulate the immune system. We determined IL-33, Gal-3, and AGE in 24-hour urine specimens from patients with IC/BPS and healthy subjects. Study participants included 43 woman with IC/BPS and 29 female volunteers. Urinary IL-33, EGF and Gal-3 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas the content of AGE was quantified by natural AGE-specific fluorescence (Ex. 370 nm, Em. 440 nm). Urinary IL-33, and Gal-3 levels were normalized by urinary creatinine (Cr) levels and compared among subgroups. We have found that the levels of IL-33 and Gal-3 were significantly increased in IC/BPS. The level of the IL-33 in the urine of healthy women was equal to 0.32, while the level of IL-33 in IC/BPS patients increases up to 0.58 (p<0.05). Further, the amounts of urine Gal-3 were also elevated in IC/BPS compared to healthy subjects (0.16 versus 0.07; p>0.01) and AGE-specific fluorescence in urine was increased up to 140% in IC/BPS patients. These data suggest on the participation of IL-33, Gal-3 and AGE in the pathogenesis of IC/BPS.

  4. Chiropractic care of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome associated with pelvic lumbar spine dysfunction: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Cashley, Mark A.P.; Cashley, Marie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe findings for patients with bladder pain syndrome (BPS) or interstitial cystitis (IC) who responded positively under chiropractic care. Clinical Features Eight cases were selected retrospectively reviewed from 2 independent chiropractic clinics in Scotland. Cases were selected if patients reported bladder dysfunction problems and responded positively to chiropractic care. The cases in this report describe the range of patients affected by this condition. Each patient was treated using chiropractic methods that were specific to the individual case. Intervention and Outcomes The patients selected for this case series showed positive response to chiropractic care over various lengths of time and numbers of treatments. Some of the chiropractic patients who had chronic spinal conditions had reoccurrence of bladder symptoms during an exacerbation of mechanical spinal problems. Conclusion This case series highlights that bladder and urinary problems may be associated with spinal dysfunction for some patients. PMID:23843758

  5. Diet and its role in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and comorbid conditions.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Justin I; Shorter, Barbara; Moldwin, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Nearly 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of dietary comestibles. Current questionnaire-based literature suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. At present we recommend employing a controlled method to determine dietary sensitivities, such as an elimination diet, in order to identify sensitivities while at the same time maintain optimal nutritional intake. We review current literature with regard to diet's effect upon IC/BPS and common comorbidities (irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, neuropathic pain, vulvodynia, and headache) with a focus upon questionnaire-based investigations. We discuss the pathologic mechanisms that may link diet and IC/BPS related-pain, concentrating upon specific comestibles such as acidic foods, foods high in potassium, caffeine, and alcohol. Up to 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of comestibles.   Pathological mechanisms suggested to be responsible for the relationship between dietary intake and symptom exacerbation include peripheral and/or central neural upregulation, bladder epithelial dysfunction, and organ 'cross-talk', amongst others.   Current questionnaire-based data suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. Specific comestible sensitivities varied between patients and may have been influenced by comorbid conditions. This suggests that a controlled method to determine dietary

  6. Evaluation of selective cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor agonists in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Tambaro, Simone; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Mastinu, Andrea; Lazzari, Paolo

    2014-04-15

    Interstitial cystitis is a debilitating bladder inflammation disorder. To date, the understanding of the causes of interstitial cystitis remains largely fragmentary and there is no effective treatment available. Recent experimental results have shown a functional role of the endocannabinoid system in urinary bladder. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of selective cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in a mouse model of interstitial cystitis. Bladder inflammation was induced in mice by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and whole bladders were removed 24h later. LPS induced a significant increase of the contractile amplitude in spontaneous activity and a hypersensitivity to exogenous acetylcholine-induced contraction of whole-isolated bladder. Next, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoidergic compounds by pretreating mice with CB1 or CB2 selective agonist compounds, respectively ACEA and JWH015. Interestingly, JWH015, but not ACEA, antagonized LPS-induced bladder inflammation. Additionally, anti-inflammatory activity was studied by evaluation, leukocytes mucosa infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL-1α and IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. JWH015 significantly decreased leukocytes infiltration in both submucosa and mucosa, as well as the myeloperoxydase activity, in LPS treated mice. JWH015 reduced mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNF-α. LPS treatment increased expression of bladder CB2 but not CB1 mRNA. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that modulation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptors might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of bladder diseases and conditions characterized by inflammation, such as interstitial cystitis.

  7. Tizanidine-induced acute severe cystitis in a female taking famotidine

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Resham Raj; Kafle, Nisha Kusum

    2015-01-01

    Cystitis is a possible adverse drug reaction associated with the use of tizanidine. Such cases have been rarely reported in literature because of the difficulty in establishing the causality. However, from a pharmacovigilance point of view, it is better to report such cases of a possible association between a drug’s use and potential adverse drug reactions. We report a case of a 26-year-old Asian female on famotidine who presented with acute severe urinary burning after taking tizanidine. PMID:26251632

  8. Increased Brain Gray Matter in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex is Associated with Increased Pain and Mood Disturbance in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kairys, Anson E.; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Puiu, Tudor; Ichesco, Eric; Labus, Jennifer S.; Martucci, Katherine; Farmer, Melissa A.; Ness, Timothy J.; Deutsch, Georg; Mayer, Emeran A.; Mackey, Sean; Apkarian, A. Vania; Maravilla, Kenneth; Clauw, Daniel J.; Harris, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a highly prevalent pain condition, estimated to affect 3-6% of women in the United States. Emerging data suggests there are central neurobiological components to the etiology of this disease. Here we report the first brain structural imaging findings from the Multidisciplinary Approach to Pelvic Pain (MAPP) network, with data on over 300 participants. Materials and Methods We used Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) to determine whether human patients with chronic IC display changes in brain morphology as compared to healthy controls (HCs). 33 female IC patients without comorbidities and 33 age- and sex-matched controls, taken from the larger sample, underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging at 5 different MAPP sites across the United States. Results When compared to controls, females with IC displayed significant increased gray matter (GM) volume in several regions of the brain including the right primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the superior parietal lobule bilaterally, and the right supplementary motor area. GM volume in the right S1 was associated with greater pain, mood (anxiety), and urological symptoms. We explored these correlations in a linear regression model and found independent effects of these three measures on S1 GM volume: clinical pain (McGill pain sensory total), a measure of “urgency,” and anxiety (HADS). Conclusions These data support the notion that changes in somatosensory GM may play an important role in pain sensitivity as well as affective and sensory aspects of IC. Further studies are needed to confirm the generalizability of these findings to other pain conditions. PMID:25132239

  9. EARLY TERMINATION OF A TRIAL OF MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL FOR TREATMENT OF INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS/PAINFUL BLADDER SYNDROME: LESSONS LEARNED

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Claire C.; Burks, David A.; Propert, Kathleen J.; Mayer, Robert D.; Peters, Kenneth M.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Payne, Christopher K.; FitzGerald, Mary P.; Hanno, Philip M.; Chai, Toby C.; Kreder, Karl J.; Lukacz, Emily S.; Foster, Harris E.; Cen, Liyi; Landis, J. Richard; Kusek, John W.; Nyberg, Leroy M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in patients with treatment refractory interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Materials and Methods Two hundred and ten patients with IC/PBS were to be randomized into a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial using a 2:1 randomization. Participants who had failed at least three IC/PBS-specific treatments and had at least moderately severe symptoms were enrolled in a 12-week treatment study. The primary study endpoint was the Global Response Assessment (GRA). Secondary endpoints included general and disease-specific symptom questionnaires and voiding diaries. Results Only 58 subjects were randomized before a black box warning regarding MMF safety was issued by the manufacturer in October 2007. The trial was halted, and an interim analysis was performed and presented to an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Of the subjects randomized at the time of study cessation, 6/39 (15%) were considered responders for MMF, compared to 3/19 (16%) of controls (p=0.67). Secondary outcome measures reflected more improvement among controls. Conclusion In a randomized placebo-controlled trial that was prematurely halted, MMF demonstrated efficacy similar to placebo in treating symptoms of refractory IC/PBS. The results of this limited study cannot be used to confirm or refute the hypothesis that immunosuppressive therapy may be beneficial to at least a subgroup of IC\\PBS patients. Despite study termination, there are lessons that can be gleaned to inform future investigations. PMID:21238993

  10. Depression and catastrophizing predict suicidal ideation in tertiary care patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Dean A.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Krsmanovic, Adrijana; Pontari, Michel; Moldwin, Robert; Mayer, Robert; Carr, Lesley K.; Yang, Claire C.; Nordling, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We sought to evaluate psychosocial factors as predictors of suicidal ideation (SI) in a tertiary care outpatient sample of women suffering from interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Methods The patients are women managed at tertiary care centres (n=190). Controls were recruited from the community (n=117). Both groups completed questionnaires on demographics, pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire), IC/BPS symptoms, and psychological variables. Univariate and multivariate hierarchical regression modelling was conducted to examine the strength of associations and unique effects of psychosocial variables on patient SI. Results Compared to 6% in healthy controls, 23% of patients endorsed SI in the past two weeks. Correlations between SI, depression, and catastrophizing across controls and cases show that for controls, SI is associated with greater pain (0.31; p<0.01) and depression only (0.59; p<0.01). For tertiary care centre cases, SI is associated with pain (0.24; p<0.01), depression (0.64; p<0.01), and catastrophizing (0.35; p<0.01). Regression analyses indicated that psychosocial variables accounted for a significant amount of variance over and above IC/BPS symptoms. Catastrophizing (i.e., helplessness) about pain and depression were significant univariate predictors of SI, but only depression predicted SI in multivariable analyses. Conclusions Limitations of this study include its cross-sectional design and primarily correlation-based statistics. The present study is the first to implicate multiple psychosocial risk factors over and above IC/BPS-specific symptoms and patient pain experience in SI in women with IC/BPS. Depression in particular is uniquely important in predicting suicidality. These results support a multidisciplinary, proactive approach to IC/BPS involving not only treatment of disease symptoms, but also early detection/treatment of associated psychosocial problems. PMID:28096911

  11. Urinary Nerve Growth Factor Could Be a Biomarker for Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hong-Chen; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Shi; Liu, Yi-Li; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) could serve as a biomarker for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 9 studies. Among the studies considered, patients with IC/PBS had higher urinary NGF and NGF/Cr levels compared to those of healthy people (SMD = 1.94, 95%CI = 0.79–3.08, P = 0.0009 and SMD = 1.79, 95%CI = 0.65–2.93, P = 0.002, respectively). In addition, there was a significant difference between patients with IC/PBS and patients with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms with respect to the urinary NGF and NGF/Cr levels (SMD = −0.62, 95%CI = −1.00–−0.24, P = 0.001 and SMD = −0.70, 95%CI = −1.01–−0.39, P<0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, patients had a significantly lower urinary NGF level after successful treatment (SMD = 1.74, 95%CI = 0.32–3.17, P = 0.02). In conclusion, urinary NGF could be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of OAB, a urinary biomarker for the differential diagnosis of IC/PBS and OAB (when a critical urinary NGF or NGF/Cr level is needed), and a predictive biomarker to help guide treatment. PMID:25181532

  12. F16357, a novel protease‐activated receptor 1 antagonist, improves urodynamic parameters in a rat model of interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, J; Farrié, M; Le Grand, B; Junquero, D; Vergnolle, N

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aims of the present study were to characterize the role of PAR1 in rat bladder under inflammatory conditions and determine whether a selective PAR1 antagonist, F16357, can prevent the pathophysiological symptoms of cyclophosphamide‐induced interstitial cystitis (IC). Experimental Approach Immunohistochemistry, contractile activity in isolated bladder and urodynamics were determined before and after cyclophosphamide treatment. F16357 was administered intravesically during the acute phase of inflammation, and effects on PAR1 and PAR1‐related bladder contraction evaluated 24 h after cyclophosphamide injection. Urodynamics and associated voided volumes were recorded 7 and 24 h after cyclophosphamide. Key Results In control conditions, PAR1 was present only in some umbrella cells. Cyclophosphamide disrupted the urothelium and expression of PAR1 by all remaining urothelial cells. After F16357 treatment, urothelial damage was absent and PAR1 immunoreactivity similar to control tissues. Thrombin and TFLLR‐NH2 induced bladder contractions. These were increased in inflammatory conditions and antagonized by F16357 in a concentration‐dependent manner. In telemetric experiments, furosemide increased urine production and voiding frequency for 60 min, 7 h after cyclophosphamide injection. Intravesical administration of F16357 blocked these changes with a return to a physiological profile; 24 h after cyclophosphamide, the volume of micturition was still lower with no increase in number of micturitions. F16357 30 μM reduced the number of micturitions and improved bladder capacity, but did not affect diuresis. Under similar experimental conditions, lidocaine 2% induced comparable effects. Conclusions and Implications PAR1 is expressed in rat bladder, overactivated in inflammatory conditions and involved in bladder function and sensation. F16357 could represent an interesting candidate for IC treatment. PMID:27111354

  13. Effect of local estrogen therapy (LET) on urinary and sexual symptoms in premenopausal women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS).

    PubMed

    Gardella, Barbara; Iacobone, Anna Daniela; Porru, Daniele; Musacchi, Valentina; Dominoni, Mattia; Tinelli, Carmine; Spinillo, Arsenio; Nappi, Rossella E

    2015-10-01

    The association between vulvodynia and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a chronic, debilitating disease of unknown etiology, may involve sex hormone-dependent mechanisms regulating vulvo-vaginal health. We aimed to prospectively investigate the effects of 12 weeks of local estrogen therapy (LET) on urinary/bladder and sexual symptoms in premenopausal women with IC/BPS. Thirty-four women (mean age: 36.1 ± 8.4) diagnosed with IC/BPS were treated vulvo-vaginally three-times/week with estriol 0.5 mg cream and tested by validated questionnaires (ICSI/ICPI, pain urgency frequency [PUF], female sexual function index [FSFI]) and by cotton swab testing, vaginal health index (VHI) and maturation index (MI) before and after treatment. Vulvodynia was present in 94.1% of IC/BPS women. A significant positive effect of LET was evident on urinary and sexual function (p < 0.001, for both) following 12 weeks, as well as an improvement of the VHI (p < 0.001) and the MI (p < 0.04). The results of this open study indicate that 12 weeks of local estriol cream at vaginal and vestibular level may ameliorate urinary/bladder pain symptoms, as well as may improve domains of sexual function. The association between vulvar pain and bladder pain could, therefore, be related to a vaginal environment carrying signs of hypoestrogenism, but further studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  14. Adverse Events of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection between Patients with Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis--Different Mechanisms of Action of Botox on Bladder Dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-03-16

    Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injections have been proposed to treat both overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) in patients with refractory conditions. We compared adverse events (AEs) after BoNT-A treatment between IC/BPS and OAB in women. IC/BPS patients who failed conventional treatments were enrolled to receive suburothelial injections of BoNT-A (100 U) followed by hydrodistention. Age matched OAB female patients refractory to antimuscarinic agents underwent BoNT-A (100 U) injections. The bladder capacity, maximum flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR), and voiding efficiency (VE) at baseline, 3 and 6 months, and the post-treatment AEs were analyzed between groups. Finally, 89 IC/BPS and 72 OAB women were included. In the OAB group, the bladder capacity and PVR increased, and VE decreased significantly at three and six months after BoNT-A treatment. In the IC/BPS group, the Qmax increased significantly at six months. There were significant differences in changes of capacity, Qmax, PVR and VE between the two groups. Moreover, OAB patients suffered more frequently from events of hematuria, UTI, and large PVR (>200 mL), but less frequently from events of straining to void. In conclusion, OAB women had higher PVR volume and lower VE than those in IC/BPS after BoNT-A injections. These results imply that the bladder contractility of OAB patients are more susceptible to BoNT-A, which might reflect the different mechanisms of action of Botox on bladder dysfunction. Further investigations to confirm this hypothesis are warranted.

  15. Urinary bladder xanthomatous cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shrenik J.; Ajitsaria, Vineet; Singh, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Xanthoma cystitis of urinary bladder is a rare entity and may present as an intravesical mass. A 38-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and imaging was done which was suggestive of a malignant mass with surrounding tissue infiltration. Partial cystectomy was performed, and histological examination of the mass showed xanthomatous cystitis. PMID:28197037

  16. Intravesical Botulinum Toxin A Injections for Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Qinghui; Chen, Yang; Wu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate high-level evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of BTX-A injections for BPS/IC. Material/Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled studies assessing BTX-A injections for BPS/IC. Results Seven RCTs and 1 retrospective study were identified based on the selection criteria. Pooled analyses showed that although BTX-A was associated with a slightly larger volume of post-void residual urine (PVR) (weighted mean difference [WMD] 10.94 mL; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 3.32 to 18.56; p=0.005), patients in this group might benefit from greater reduction in pelvic pain (WMD −1.73; 95% CI −3.16 to −0.29; p=0.02), Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI) scores (WMD −1.25; 95% CI −2.20 to −0.30; p=0.01), and Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI) scores (WMD −1.16; 95% CI −2.22 to −0.11; p=0.03), and significant improvement in daytime frequency of urination (WMD −2.36; 95% CI −4.23 to −0.49; p=0.01) and maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) (WMD 50.49 mL; 95% CI 25.27 to 75.71; p<0.00001). Nocturia, maximal urinary flow rate, dysuria, and urinary tract infection did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Conclusions Intravesical BTX-A injections might offer significant improvement in bladder pain symptoms, daytime urination frequency, and MCC for patients with refractory BPS/IC, with a slightly larger PVR. Further well-designed, large-scale RCTs are required to confirm the findings of this analysis. PMID:27624897

  17. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider Toolkit Join the Provider Registry ... Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider Toolkit Join the Provider Registry ...

  18. Interstitial Cystitis Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management of IC Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  19. TGF-β/MAPK signaling mediates the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on urinary control and interstitial cystitis after urinary bladder transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ya; Song, Ya-Jun; Song, Bo; Huang, Chi-Bing; Ling, Qing; Yu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the role of the transforming growth factor-β/mitogen activated protein kinase (TGF-β/MAPK) signaling pathway in the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on urinary control and interstitial cystitis in a rat model of urinary bladder transplantation. Methods: A urinary bladder transplantation model was established using Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were assigned to normal (blank control), negative control (phosphate-buffered saline injection), BMSCs (BMSC injection), sp600125 (MAPK inhibitor injection), or protamine sulfate (protamine sulfate injection) groups. Immunohistochemistry, urodynamic testing, hematoxylin-eosin staining, Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and MTT assay were used to assess BMSC growth, the kinetics of bladder urinary excretion, pathological changes in bladder tissue, bladder tissue ultrastructure, the expression of TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway-related proteins, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and the effects of antiproliferative factor on cell proliferation. Results: Compared with normal, negative control, BMSCs, and sp600125 groups, rats in the PS group exhibited decreased discharge volume, maximal micturition volume, contraction interval, and bladder capacity but increased residual urine volume, bladder pressure, bladder peak pressure, expression of TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway-related proteins, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and growth inhibition rate. Levels of inflammatory cytokines and the growth inhibition rate were positively correlated with the expression of TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway-related proteins. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway mediates the beneficial effects of BMSCs on urinary control and interstitial cystitis. PMID:28386345

  20. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  1. Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Repeated Intravescial OnabotulinumtoxinA Injections Plus Hydrodistention in the Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Ling; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-01-01

    Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injection can relieve symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), but lacks sustainability. Repeated injections have been shown to provide a superior outcome to a single injection, but data on long-term efficacy and safety is limited. In this prospective study, we enrolled patients with refractory IC/BPS, and treated them with 100 U of BoNT-A injection plus hydrodistention followed by repeated injections every six months for up to two years or until the patient wished to discontinue. A “top-up” dose was offered after the fourth injection. Of these 104 participants, 56.7% completed four BoNT-A injections and 34% voluntarily received the fifth injection due to exacerbated IC symptoms. With a follow-up period of up to 79 months, O’Leary-Sant symptom and problem indexes (ICSI, ICPI, OSS), pain visual analogue scale (VAS) functional bladder capacity, frequency episodes, and global response assessment (GRA) all showed significant improvement (p < 0.0001). Those who received repeated injections had a better success rate during the long-term follow-up period. The incidence of adverse events did not rise with the increasing number of BoNT-A injections. A higher pre-treatment ICSI and ICPI score was predictive for successful response to repeated intravesical BoNT-A injections plus hydrodistention. PMID:26506388

  2. Treatment of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis with botulinum toxin A: why isn’t it effective in all patients?

    PubMed Central

    Bjorling, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTA) is currently used to treat a variety of painful disorders, including painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC). However, BTA is not consistently effective in all patients. This may be due to the disparity of causes of pain, but this may also relate to the processes by which BTA exerts anti-nociceptive effects. This review discusses mechanisms by which BTA may inhibit pain and studies of the use of BTA in PSB/IC patients. It is doubtful that any single treatment will effectively control pain in PBS/IC patients, and it is highly probable that multiple strategies will be required, both within individual patients and across the population of PBS/IC patients. The purpose of this review is to discuss those mechanisms by which BTA acts, with the intent that alternative strategies exploiting these mechanism, or work through alternative pathways, can be identified to more effectively treat pain in PBS/IC patients in the future. PMID:26816853

  3. Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Repeated Intravescial OnabotulinumtoxinA Injections Plus Hydrodistention in the Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Ling; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-10-22

    Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injection can relieve symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), but lacks sustainability. Repeated injections have been shown to provide a superior outcome to a single injection, but data on long-term efficacy and safety is limited. In this prospective study, we enrolled patients with refractory IC/BPS, and treated them with 100 U of BoNT-A injection plus hydrodistention followed by repeated injections every six months for up to two years or until the patient wished to discontinue. A "top-up" dose was offered after the fourth injection. Of these 104 participants, 56.7% completed four BoNT-A injections and 34% voluntarily received the fifth injection due to exacerbated IC symptoms. With a follow-up period of up to 79 months, O'Leary-Sant symptom and problem indexes (ICSI, ICPI, OSS), pain visual analogue scale (VAS) functional bladder capacity, frequency episodes, and global response assessment (GRA) all showed significant improvement (p < 0.0001). Those who received repeated injections had a better success rate during the long-term follow-up period. The incidence of adverse events did not rise with the increasing number of BoNT-A injections. A higher pre-treatment ICSI and ICPI score was predictive for successful response to repeated intravesical BoNT-A injections plus hydrodistention.

  4. A prospective randomized controlled multicentre trial comparing intravesical DMSO and chondroïtin sulphate 2% for painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Tutolo, Manuela; Ammirati, Enrico; Castagna, Giulia; Klockaerts, Katrien; Plancke, Hendrik; Ost, Dieter; der Aa, Frank Van; Ridder, Dirk De

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare effectiveness of intravesical chondroïtin sulphate (CS) 2% and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) 50% in patients with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC). Materials and methods Patients were randomized to receive either 6 weekly instillations of CS 2% or 50% DMSO. Primary endpoint was difference in proportion of patients achieving score 6 (moderately improved) or 7 (markedly improved) in both groups using the Global Response Assessment (GRA) scale. Secondary parameters were mean 24-hours frequency and nocturia on a 3-day micturition dairy, changes from baseline in O’Leary-Sant questionnaire score and visual analog scale (VAS) for suprapubic pain. Results Thirty-six patients were the intention to treat population (22 in CS and 14 in DMSO group). In DMSO group, 57% withdrew consent and only 6 concluded the trial. Major reasons were pain during and after instillation, intolerable garlic odor and lack of efficacy. In CS group, 27% withdrew consent. Compared with DMSO group, more patients in CS group (72.7% vs. 14%) reported moderate or marked improvement (P=0.002, 95% CI 0.05-0.72) and achieved a reduction in VAS scores (20% vs. 8.3%). CS group performed significantly better in pain reduction (-1.2 vs. -0.6) and nocturia (-2.4 vs. -0.7) and better in total O’Leary reduction (-9.8 vs. -7.2). CS was better tolerated. The trial was stopped due to high number of drop-outs with DMSO. Conclusions Intravesical CS 2% is viable treatment for PBS/IC with minimal side effects. DMSO should be used with caution and with active monitoring of side effects. More randomized controlled studies on intravesical treatments are needed. PMID:28124536

  5. The important role of physicians in addressing the psychological aspects of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Gregory; Volpe, Katherine A; Dunivan, Gena C; Cichowski, Sara B; Jeppson, Peter C; Rogers, Rebecca G; Komesu, Yuko M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a poorly understood source of chronic pain causing significant morbidity, with variable treatment success. Despite the need to understand patient perspectives in chronic pain, there is a paucity of qualitative data for IC/BPS. We aimed to acquire information regarding patient experience with IC/BPS symptoms and with their medical care to elicit suggestions to improve patient satisfaction with that care. Methods Fifteen women with IC/PBS participated in a total of four focus groups. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, and information was de-identified. Focus groups were conducted until thematic saturation was reached. All transcripts were coded and analyzed by a minimum of 3 independent physician reviewers. Investigators identified emergent themes and concepts using grounded theory methodology. Results Participant’s mean age was 52.6 years with an average IC/BPS duration of 6.3 years. Thematic saturation was reached after 4 focus groups. We identified three emergent patient experience concepts; IC/PBS is debilitating, the disease course is unpredictable and unrelenting, and patients experience significant isolation. Importantly, suicidal ideation was expressed in each group. Patients voiced strong preference for physicians who provided education regarding the condition, an array of treatment options, presented organized treatment plans and offered optimism and hope regarding treatment outcomes. Conclusions Our study presents novel findings of the importance of patient-physician interaction in IC/BPS and reinforces the tremendous disability and burden of this disease, which frequently manifests in suicidal ideation. Patients preferred organized treatment plans with diverse choices, and providers who offered hope in dealing with their condition. PMID:27581769

  6. Toll-like Receptor 4 and Comorbid Pain in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Schrepf, Andrew; Bradley, Catherine S.; O'Donnell, Michael; Luo, Yi; Harte, Steven E.; Kreder, Karl; Lutgendorf, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a condition characterized by pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. Some IC/BPS patients have pain confined to the pelvic region, while others suffer widespread pain. Inflammatory processes have previously been linked to pelvic pain in IC/BPS, but their association with widespread pain in IC/BPS has not been characterized. Methods Sixty-six women meeting criteria for IC/BPS completed self-report measures of pain as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP), collected 3 days of saliva for cortisol assays, and provided blood samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 agonists and cytokines were measured in supernatant; IL-6 was also measured in plasma. Associations between inflammatory variables and the likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain, or the presence of a comorbid syndrome, were tested by logistic regression and General Linear Models, respectively. A subset of patients (n=32) completed Quantitative Sensory Testing. Results A one standard deviation increase in TLR-4 inflammatory response was associated with a 1.59 greater likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain (p = .019). Participants with comorbid syndromes also had higher inflammatory responses to TLR-4 stimulation in PBMCs (p = .016). Lower pressure pain thresholds were marginally associated with higher TLR-4 inflammatory responses (p = .062), and significantly associated with higher IL-6 in plasma (p = .031). Conclusions TLR-4 inflammatory responses in PBMCs are a marker of widespread pain in IC/BPS, and should be explored in other conditions characterized by medically unexplained pain. PMID:25771510

  7. A Feasibility Study to Determine whether Clinical Contrast-Enhanced MRI can Detect Increased Bladder Permeability in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Rheal A.; Wisniewski, Amy B.; Wu, Dee H.; Van Gordon, Samuel B.; Smith, Nataliya; North, Justin C.; McElhaney, Rayburt; Aston, Christopher E.; Shobeiri, S. Abbas; Kropp, Bradley P.; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Hurst, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a bladder pain disorder associated with voiding symptomatology and other systemic chronic pain disorders. Currently diagnosis of IC/BPS is complicated, as patients present with wide ranges of symptoms, physical examination findings, and clinical test responses. One hypothesis is that IC symptoms arise from increased bladder permeability to urine solutes. This study established the feasibility of using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to quantify bladder permeability in IC patients. Materials and Methods Permeability alterations in bladder urothelium were assessed with intravesical administration of a MRI contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) in a small cohort of patients. MRI signal intensities (SI) in IC patient and control bladders were compared regionally and for entire bladders. Results Quantitative assessment of MRI SI indicated a significant increase in SI within anterior bladder regions (p<0.01) compared to posterior regions in IC patients, and significant increases in SI within anterior bladder regions (p<0.001) and kurtosis (descriptor of shape of probability distribution) and skewness (measure of asymmetry of probability distribution) associated with contrast enhancement in total bladders (p<0.05) for IC patients compared to controls. Regarding symptomatology, IC cases differed significantly from controls for the SF-36, PPUF and ICPI questionnaires with no overlap in range of scores for each group, and were significantly different for ICSI but with a slight overlap in range of scores. Conclusions The data suggests that CE-MRI provides an objective, quantifiable measurement of bladder permeability that could be used to stratify bladder pain patients and monitor therapy. PMID:26307161

  8. Effects of Combination Treatment of Intravesical Resiniferatoxin Instillation and Hydrodistention in Patients with Refractory Painful Bladder Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Byeong Kuk; Kim, Jae Heon; Oh, Mi Mi; Lee, Jeong Gu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is a disabling disease of the urinary bladder, and its etiology and treatment are not yet established. Current medications used in the treatment of PBS/IC have shown limited efficacy. This prospective study investigated the efficacy of intravesical resiniferatoxin (RTX) in PBS/IC refractory to medical treatment. Methods Patients with proven PBS/IC refractory to traditional medical treatment were enrolled. By randomized trial, a total of 18 consecutive patients were divided into two groups: treatment with hydrodistention and intravesical RTX (group 1) or treatment with hydrodistension only (group 2). We assessed bladder pain by use of a visual analogue pain scale, the maximal urine flow rate, post-void residual urine volume, and a voiding diary before and 3 months after treatment. Results The median age of the 18 patients was 55.8±6.9 years, and the median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 3.6±1.6 years. Frequency, functional bladder capacity, and score on a 5-point pain scale were significantly improved at 3-month after treatment in both groups. Intravesical RTX instillation plus hydrodistention, compared with hydrodistention only, did not have a significant effect on the voiding symptoms or uroflowmetry of the patients but significantly improved scores on the pain scale. Conclusions Intravesical RTX instillation plus hydrodistention was effective in relieving pain but was not effective in improving lower urinary tract symptoms. Further larger studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of combination treatment of intravesical RTX instillation and hydrodistention. PMID:22500253

  9. Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  10. Test-retest reliability and discriminant validity for the Brazilian version of “The Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index and Problem Index” and “Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) Patient Symptom Scale” instruments

    PubMed Central

    D’Ancona, Carlos Arturo Levi; Junqueira, Roberto Gomes; Carlos da Silva, Daniel; Oliveira, Henrique Ceretta; de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose is to evaluate the psychometric properties of reliability and discriminant validity of the Brazilian Portuguese versions of two instruments used in the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis (IC): “The Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index and Problem Index” (The O’Leary-Sant), and “Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) Patient Symptom Scale”. Methods Three groups of patients were examined: a study group (subjects with IC), control group 1 (individuals with at least one IC symptom), and control group 2 (subjects without IC symptoms). Test-retest stability was evaluated at intervals of 3 to 7 days in the study group. Discriminant validity was examined in all three groups. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) [95% confidence interval (CI)] results were 0.56 (range, 0.21-0.78) for The O’Leary-Sant Symptom Index, 0.48 (range, 0.10-0.73) for The O’Leary-Sant Problem Index, and 0.49 (range, 0.12-0.74) for the PUF. To analyze discriminant validity between groups, we used Fisher’s exact test and odd ratio (OR) to identify differences. We obtained a P value<0.0001, which indicated that the null hypothesis was rejected; in other words, there was evidence that at least two different groups were compared to the proportion of patients with IC. Conclusions The analyzed instruments did not reach appropriate values for reliability. Future studies are needed to analyze the psychometric measures of these instruments on a larger sample of patients with IC. PMID:26813711

  11. Eosinophilic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, P; Nikkels, P; de Jong, T P V M

    2001-01-01

    We describe four cases of eosinophilic cystitis in whom no specific cause could be found, and review the literature. Complaints at presentation included urgency, frequency, abdominal pain, and haematuria. In three patients the symptoms and ultrasound pictures suggested a bladder tumour. One patient was treated with anticholinergics and corticosteroids without relief of symptoms; a localised eosinophilic tumour was excised in one patient who remained symptom free; and two patients were managed conservatively with spontaneous resolution of bladder pathology and symptoms. One case was identified by random bladder biopsy in 150 consecutive patients with unexplained irritable micturition complaints. Eosinophilic cystitis is rare in children. After biopsy, we consider a wait and see policy is justified as symptoms tend to disappear spontaneously. Routine bladder biopsies in children with unexplained bladder symptoms is not justifiable.

 PMID:11259238

  12. Does Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Cause Acute Cystitis only in Young Females, or is there more to the Story? A One-Year Comprehensive Study Done in Budapest, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Adeghate, Jennifer; Juhász, Emese; Pongrácz, Júlia; Rimanóczy, Éva; Kristóf, Katalin

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a well-known urinary pathogen in acute cystitis in young females. We completed a retrospective overview of the distribution of urinary tract infections (UTIs) occurring in 2014, at Semmelweis University hospitals and at Heim Pál Children's Hospital. Six age-groups (ages 0-100) were examined, with the frequency of S. saprophyticus in females being: 0.1% (0-4), 0.7%, (5-15), 7.4% (16-24), 1.2% (25-39), 0.4% (40-59) and 0.1% (60-100), and S. saprophyticus being the 3(rd) most common pathogen in females aged 16-24. In males, S. saprophyticus was only isolated from those aged 5-15. Seasonal distribution of UTIs caused by S. saprophyticus showed that most infections occurred during the months of January, June, August and November. Antibiotic-resistance rates of amoxicillin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole- trimethoprim varied as follows: 0.9%, 32.7%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 0.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Thirty randomly selected samples were analysed by pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis, and 28 different genotypes were identified. S. saprophyticus is involved in the pathogenesis of acute cystitis not only in young females, but also in other age-groups, and in young males as well. We did not find any significant seasonal occurrence in S. saprophyticus-caused UTIs. The infective strains were genetically diverse. Antibiotic-resistance does not pose any issue as of yet.

  13. A Novel Class of Interstitial Cells in the Mouse and Monkey Female Reproductive Tracts1

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Lauren E.; Koh, Byoung H.; Ward, Grace K.; Bayguinov, Yulia; Hwang, Sung Jin; Gould, Thomas W.; Mullan, Catrina J.; Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Growing evidence suggests important roles for specialized platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRalpha+) cells in regulating the behaviors of visceral smooth muscle organs. Examination of the female reproductive tracts of mice and monkeys showed that PDGFRalpha+ cells form extensive networks in ovary, oviduct, and uterus. PDGFRalpha+ cells were located in discrete locations within these organs, and their distribution and density were similar in rodents and primates. PDGFRalpha+ cells were distinct from smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). This was demonstrated with immunohistochemical techniques and by performing molecular expression studies on PDGFRalpha+ cells from mice with enhanced green fluorescent protein driven off of the endogenous promoter for Pdgfralpha. Significant differences in gene expression were found in PDGFRalpha+ cells from ovary, oviduct, and uterus. Differences in gene expression were also detected in cells from different tissue regions within the same organ (e.g., uterine myometrium vs. endometrium). PDGFRalpha+ cells are unlikely to provide pacemaker activity because they lack significant expression of key pacemaker genes found in ICC (Kit and Ano1). Gja1 encoding connexin 43 was expressed at relatively high levels in PDGFRalpha+ cells (except in the ovary), suggesting these cells can form gap junctions to one another and neighboring smooth muscle cells. PDGFRalpha+ cells also expressed the early response transcription factor and proto-oncogene Fos, particularly in the ovary. These data demonstrate extensive distribution of PDGFRalpha+ cells throughout the female reproductive tract. These cells are a heterogeneous population of cells that are likely to contribute to different aspects of physiological regulation in the various anatomical niches they occupy. PMID:25788664

  14. Benefits of Preventive Administration of Chlorella sp. on Visceral Pain and Cystitis Induced by a Single Administration of Cyclophosphamide in Female Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Violle, Nicolas; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Hélène; Bisson, Jean-François

    2016-05-01

    Chlorella sp. is a green microalgae containing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella sp. is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. In a rat model, ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) benefits were investigated on visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). RCs was orally administered every day from day 1-16 (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Six hours after an intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg body weight of CYP, body temperature, general behavior, food intake, and body weight were recorded. Twenty-four hours after CYP injection, rats were tested in two behavioral tests, an open field and the aversive light stimulus avoidance conditioning test, to evaluate the influence of pain on general activity and learning ability of rats. After euthanasia, bladders were weighed, their thickness was scored, and the urinary hemoglobin was measured. RCs orally administered at the two dosages significantly reduced visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by CYP injection, and improved rat behavior. To conclude, RCs demonstrated beneficial effects against visceral pain and cystitis.

  15. Spinal astrocytic activation contributes to mechanical allodynia in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bolong; Su, Minzhi; Tang, ShaoJun; Zhan, Hailun; Yang, Fei; Li, Wenbiao; Li, Tengcheng; Xie, Juncong

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that glial cells play an important role in the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Activated glial cells produce numerous mediators such as proinflammatory cytokines that facilitate neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. Similarly, bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis shares many characteristics of neuropathic pain. However, related report on the involvement of spinal glia in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis-associated pathological pain and the underlying mechanisms are still lacking. The present study investigated spinal glial activation and underlying molecular mechanisms in a rat model of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Results A rat model of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis was established via systemic injection with cyclophosphamide. Mechanical allodynia was tested with von Frey monofilaments and up-down method. Moreover, Western blots and double immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression and location of glial fibrillary acidic protein, OX42/Iba1, P-P38, NeuN, interleukin (IL)-1β, phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (P-NR1), and IL-1 receptor I (IL-1RI) in the L6-S1 spinal cord. We found that glial fibrillary acidic protein rather than OX42/Iba1 or P-P38 was significantly increased in the spinal cord of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. L-alpha-aminoadipate but not minocycline markedly attenuated the allodynia. Furthermore, we found that spinal IL-1β was dramatically increased in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, and activated astrocytes were the only source of IL-1β release, which contributed to allodynia in cystitis rats. Besides, spinal P-NR1 was statistically increased in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and only localized in IL-1RI positive neurons in spinal dorsal horn. Additionally, NR antagonist significantly attenuated the cystitis-induced pain. Interestingly, the time course of the P-NR1 expression paralleled to that

  16. Intravesical electromotive drug administration for the treatment of non-infectious chronic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Riedl, C R; Knoll, M; Plas, E; Stephen, R L; Pflüger, H

    1997-01-01

    Seventeen patients with non-infectious chronic cystitis (NICC) (9 with interstitial cystitis, 6 patients with radiation cystitis, 1 with chemocystitis and 1 with lupoid cystitis) were treated with electromotive administration of intravesical lidocaine and dexamethasone followed by hydrodistension of the bladder. Complete resolution of symptoms for an average of 7.5 months was observed in 11 patients (65%), partial improvement in 4 (23.5%). In this series no complications occurred. Electromotive drug administration (EMDA) and cystodistension were well tolerated by all patients. The treatment was performed on an outpatient basis, thus reducing therapeutic costs. The results presented demonstrate that the combination of EMDA and bladder hydrodistension is an effective first-line treatment for NICC patients.

  17. [Treatment of cystitis in women].

    PubMed

    Lobel, B

    1995-10-28

    Acute cystitis is a benign curable condition which affects at least one out of every two women at least once in their life. In uncomplicated cases, urinalysis is usually unnecessary as a simple dip stick test is sufficient for diagnosis and prescription of a short antibiotic regimen (a single dose or a 3 day treatment). Complicated acute cystitis requires a more precise diagnosis and justifies urinalysis and imaging. Antibiotics adapted to germ sensitivity is prescribed until bacteriologically sterile urine is obtained (3 to 10 days). Associated malformations of the urinary tract or obstruction must be managed together with careful control of aggravating factors (diabetes) and personal hygiene. Recurrent cystitis, defined as at least 4 episodes, raises a certain number of problems. The casual germ varies, although Escheria coli is found in approximately 70% of the cases. Several factors favour recurrent cystitis including malformations of the urinary tract, lithiasis, bladder reflux, cystocele or modification of the urethral meatus. Other circumstances such as sexual relations, excessive vaginal hygiene, vaginal tampons and clothing habits may play a role. Antibiotics generally solve the problem, but mechanisms which would improve the organism's specific response are currently under study.

  18. Hemorrhagic cystitis: A challenge to the urologist

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Kumar, Santosh; Dorairajan, Lalgudi N.

    2010-01-01

    Severe hemorrhagic cystitis often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Infectious etiologies are less common causes except in immunocompromised hosts. These cases can be challenging problems for the urologist and a source of substantial morbidity and sometimes mortality for the patients. A variety of modalities of treatment have been described for the management of hemorrhagic cystitis but there is none that is uniformly effective. Some progress has been made in the understanding and management of viral hemorrhagic cystitis. This article reviews the common causes of severe hemorrhagic cystitis and the currently available management options. PMID:20877590

  19. Validation of APF as a Urinary Biomarker for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    characterize a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay that can specifically detect binding of APF to its cellular receptor, cytoskeleton associated...in patient urine. The purpose of this study is 1) to develop and characterize a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay that can specifically... plasmon resonance OVERALL PROJECT SUMMARY: The original Statement of Work indicated two specific aims or tasks to be accomplished during the 3- year

  20. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Heparin admin- 245istration (30,000 IU) improved symptoms in 56% of patients.[40] Heparin is also more effective when combined with other drugs such... drugs , such as lidocaine, shows efficacy with lower adverse events; however, problems such as the short duration of effectiveness remain. LiRIS® is a... effective for reducing symptoms of IC/BPS patients. 665 8.1. Opioids Persistent bladder pain is often resistant to non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and

  1. Chemical cystitis developed in experimental animals model: Topical effect of intravesical ozone application to bladder

    PubMed Central

    Bayrak, Omer; Erturhan, Sakip; Seckiner, Ilker; Erbagci, Ahmet; Ustun, Abdulkerim; Karakok, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To demonstrate the effects of intravesical ozone treatment on inflammation and epithelial cell damage in chemical cystitis animal model. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 New Zealand rabbits were divided into six groups. Cystitis was conducted with transurethral intravesical hydrochloric acid instillation on the subjects in Groups IA, IB, IIA, and IIB. Then, Group IA-IB subjects were transurethrally administered intravesical ozone therapy twice a week, while Group IIA-IIB subjects were only given intravesical isotonic NaCl instillation. Group IIIA-IIIB subjects were administered intravesical isotonic NaCl instillation without conducting chemical cystitis in order to create the same stress. Treatment schemes of all groups were arranged in the same manner. Following a 3-week (early period) and 6-week (late period) therapy, the rabbits were sacrificed and histopathologic investigations were carried out in order to demonstrate changes in the urinary bladder. Results: In our study, we observed that the basal membrane and mucosal integrity were maintained, inflammatory cells were suppressed in Group IA-IB (Early and late period), which received ozone therapy. However, it was also observed that mucosal integrity was spoiled, numerous inflammatory cells were accumulated in Group IIA-IIB, which was administered isotonic NaCl. Conclusion: Due to its low cost and minimal side effects; ozone therapy could be a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. PMID:24833822

  2. Interstitial Nephritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, AIN, interstitial nephritis, kidney disorders, kidney failure, renal failure, renal infection Men, Seniors, Women December 2004 ...

  3. Intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brian D.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ziegelmann, Matthew J.; Joyce, Daniel D.; Linder, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hemorrhagic cystitis is a challenging clinical entity with limited evidence available to guide treatment. The use of intravesical silver nitrate has been reported, though supporting literature is sparse. Here, we sought to assess outcomes of patients treated with intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis. Material and methods We identified nine patients with refractory hemorrhagic cystitis treated at our institution with intravesical silver nitrate between 2000–2015. All patients had failed previous continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline and clot evacuation. Treatment success was defined as requiring no additional therapy beyond normal saline irrigation after silver nitrate instillation prior to hospital discharge. Results Median patient age was 80 years (IQR 73, 82). Radiation was the most common etiology for hemorrhagic cystitis 89% (8/9). Two patients underwent high dose (0.1%–0.4%) silver nitrate under anesthesia, while the remaining seven were treated with doses from 0.01% to 0.1% via continuous bladder irrigation for a median of 3 days (range 2–4). All nine patients (100%) had persistent hematuria despite intravesical silver nitrate therapy, requiring additional interventions and red blood cell transfusion during the hospitalization. There were no identified complications related to intravesical silver nitrate instillation. Conclusion Although well tolerated, we found that intravesical silver nitrate was ineffective for bleeding control, suggesting a limited role for this agent in the management of patients with hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:27635296

  4. Blocking mammalian target of rapamycin alleviates bladder hyperactivity and pain in rats with cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Gou, Xin; Chen, Daihui

    2016-01-01

    Background Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the effects of blocking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and (2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of mTOR in regulating cystic sensory activity. Results The expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (p-S6K1), 4 E–binding protein 4 (p-4 E-BP1), as well as phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K) pathway were amplified in cyclophosphamide rats as compared with control rats. Blocking mTOR by intrathecal infusion of rapamycin attenuated bladder hyperactivity and pain. In addition, blocking PI3K signal pathway attenuated activities of mTOR, which was accompanied with decreasing bladder hyperactivity and pain. Inhibition of either mTOR or PI3K blunted the enhanced spinal substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in cyclophosphamide rats. Conclusions The data for the first time revealed specific signaling pathways leading to cyclophosphamide-induced bladder hyperactivity and pain, including the activation of mTOR and PI3K. Inhibition of these pathways alleviates cystic pain. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of overactive bladder and pain often observed in cystitis. PMID:27780878

  5. Interstitial thermoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, C T; Strohbehn, J W

    1989-05-01

    The more recent engineering and clinical aspects of interstitial hyperthermia are reviewed. The advantages and difficulties of microwave, radiofrequency, and ferromagnetic seeds are evaluated and some future directions for improvements are outlined.

  6. Interstitial keratitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cornea. This condition is often caused by infections. Syphilis is the most common cause of interstitial keratitis, ... Tuberculosis In the United States, most cases of syphilis are recognized and treated before this eye condition ...

  7. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of a familial interstitial deletion Xp22.2-22.3 with a highly variable phenotype in female carriers.

    PubMed

    Chocholska, Sylwia; Rossier, Eva; Barbi, Gotthold; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard

    2006-03-15

    We describe a familial interstitial deletion of 7.7-Mb involving Xp22.2-22.3. The deletion was transmitted from an asymptomatic mother to her two children with severe developmental delay, no speech development and autistic behavior. Assessment of the deletion boundaries by FISH and PCR analyses indicated that the deletions encompasses 27 genes. Several of these genes are associated with known disorders, like KAL1 (Kallmann syndrome), steroid sulfatase (STS) (X-linked ichtyosis), and arylsulfatase E (ARSE) (chondrodysplasia punctata). The deletion also includes all four VCX genes (VCX-A, VCX-B1, VCX-B, and VCX-C) and the neuroligin 4 (NLGN4) gene. VCX-A deficiency has been shown previously to be associated with mental retardation and NLGN4 mutations lead to mental retardation in conjunction with autism. Functional deficiency of both MRX genes, VCX-A and NLGN4, are most likely associated with the impaired cognitive development of the patients described here. The phenotype associated with the Xp deletion was highly variable in female carriers and might be attributed to unfavorable X inactivation. However, all the 27 genes included in the deleted interval escape X inactivation and are expressed at variable levels from the normal X chromosome. Thus, the overall X inactivation pattern and inter-individual expression variability of the genes in distal Xp might be determinants of the phenotype associated with the deletion.

  8. Dissimilar Effects of Tolterodine on Detrusor Overactivity in Awake Rats with Chemical Cystitis and Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Long-Hu; Park, Chang-Shin; Shin, Hwa-Yeon; Yoon, Sang-Min

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We investigated bladder function, with a special focus on nonvoiding contractions (NVCs), in awake rats with chronic chemical cystitis and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) by use of simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures. In addition, we tested the effects of tolterodine on the NVCs in these models. Methods A total of 20 female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. In eight rats, chemical cystitis was induced by intravesical instillation of HCl. Twelve rats were subjected to sham instillations or partial BOO. Four weeks after intravesical instillation or 2 weeks after partial BOO, cystometrograms were obtained by use of simultaneous recording of intravesical and intraabdominal pressure in all unanesthetized, unrestrained rats in metabolic cages. Results A total of 17 rats survived. In the rats with acute injury by HCl, 50% showed detrusor overactivity (DO), which was not seen in the sham group. The cystitis group had lower DO pressure without a difference in DO frequency compared with the BOO group. After the administration of tolterodine, the cystitis group showed no difference in DO frequency or pressure, whereas the BOO group showed decreased values for both parameters. Conclusions Our study showed that toleterodine produced no effect on DO during the filling phase in rats with chronic chemical cystitisbut decreased the frequency and pressure of DO in rats with BOO. Clinically, studies are needed to improve the treatment effect of anticholinergic drugs ininterstitial cystitis patients with overactive bladder. PMID:22087420

  9. Emphysematous pyelitis and cystitis associated with vesicoureteral reflux in a diabetic dog

    PubMed Central

    Fabbi, Martina; Manfredi, Sabrina; Bianchi, Ezio; Gnudi, Giacomo; Miduri, Francesca; Volta, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    A 12-year-old female dog with a 3-month history of poor response to diabetes treatment had an acute worsening of symptoms, including weakness and blindness. The dog had elevated blood glucose, alkaline phosphatase and urea concentration, hyposthenuria, glycosuria, hematuria, and pyuria. Escherichia coli was isolated from the urine. Radiographs and ultrasound examination showed that the dog had unilateral emphysematous pyelitis and concurrent cystitis associated with vesicoureteral reflux. PMID:27041755

  10. Modified yukmijihwangtang suppresses the production of proinflammatory cytokines in the intravesical hydrochloric acid-induced cystitis rat model via the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Pak, Sok Cheon; Jeon, Songhee; Kim, Dong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Yukmijihwangtang (YM), a boiled extract of medicinal plants, has been prescribed for patients with kidney dysfunction in Korea; however, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effects has not been fully elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects on bladder function by using modified YM (M-YM), which included Ulmi radicis cortex in addition to the six traditional medicinal plants in YM. Bladder irritation of the rats was caused by intravesical instillation of HCl. The animals were divided into six groups: sham group, cystitis-injury group with no treatment, cystitis-injury group with prednisolone treatment (5 mg/kg), and cystitis-injury with M-YM treatment (100, 200 or 500 mg/kg groups). Whole bladders were collected at day eight after injury. Samples were analyzed by histological and immunological examinations. An in vitro study was performed to determine whether M-YM extracts inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and IκB phosphorylation in a human uroepithelial cell line of T24 cells. Administration of M-YM notably improved bladder histological changes, and suppressed IL-6/TNF α production and IκB phosphorylation in a rat model of chronic cystitis. M-YM also inhibited LPS-induced NO production and IκB phosphorylation in T24 cells. This study suggests that administration of M-YM might be an applicable therapeutic traditional medicine for the treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  11. Encrusted cystitis after definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lancellotta, Valentina; Benedetto, Maika di; Palumbo, Isabella; Matrone, Fabio; Chiodi, Marino; Lombi, Riccardo; Marcantonini, Marta; Mariucci, Cristina; Aristei, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Encrusted cystitis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease characterized by calcified plaques of the bladder, previously altered by varies conditions as urological procedures, caused by urea-splitting bacteria. Only one case has been reported on encrusted cystitis occurring after surgery and radiation therapy for a pelvic neoplasm. We report on encrusted cystitis occurred after definitive radiotherapy for bulky uterine cervix cancer, and examine the doses to the bladder wall and the procedure of radiation treatment performed as a possible cause of the onset of the disease. Case presentation A 52-year-old female developed encrusted cystitis, caused by Corynebacterium spp., after 14 months from definitive chemo-radiotherapy and 2/D brachytherapy treatment for FIGO stage IB2 uterine cervix cancer. For pelvic radiotherapy, the mean bladder dose was 48.47 Gy (range 31.20–51.91); maximal bladder point doses at each brachytherapy insertions were 7.62 Gy, 4.94 Gy and 6.27 Gy at first, second, and third fraction, respectively. Total biological effective dose (BED) at bladder point was 140.05 Gy3. The patient was administered antibiotic therapy with linezolid and urine acidification with vitamin C; dietary norms were also suggested. After therapy, complete remission of symptoms and radiological findings were achieved, and the planned surgery for removing the calcified plaques was not completed. After 5 years from the cervical cancer diagnosis, the patient was disease-free without urinary symptoms. Conclusions The high doses administered to the bladder wall and the repeated catheterizations performed at each brachytherapy insertions may have favored the infection and promoted the occurrence of the encrusted cystitis. PMID:28115961

  12. Emphysematous cystitis: The role of CT imaging and appropriate treatment.

    PubMed

    Eken, Alper; Alma, Ergun

    2013-01-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a relatively rare disease characterized by the presence of gas in the bladder wall and/or lumen. The primary risk factor is diabetes mellitus. Emphysematous cystitis should be considered in cases of urinary tract infections in diabetic patients with unusual presentations. Imaging studies are necessary to detect emphysematous cystitis. Accurate diagnosis of the disease and appropriate treatment typically results in a favourable prognosis and can improve the outcome. We present a case of emphysematous cystitis diagnosed by a computed tomography scan in a diabetic woman with poor glycemic control.

  13. [Urethrovesical reflux in patients with chronic cystitis].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Astapov, A I; Zaĭtsev, A V; Gumin, L M

    2007-01-01

    We studied the role of urethrovesical reflux in the onset and maintenance of chronic inflammation in the urinary bladder in patients suffering from chronic cystitis combined with pseudopolyposis of the neck of the bladder and proximal part of the urethra. We modelled a simplified version of an urination fragment of a special computer graphic station. The original computer model theoretically proves the existance of urethrovesical reflux caused by pseudopolyposis in the zone of the urinary bladder cervix and/or proximal urethra. The data were confirmed by radionuclide investigation. Our studies proved the presence of urethrovesical reflux in patients with pseudopolyposis of the bladder cervix provoking retrograde infection of the lower urinary tract. We think it necessary to combine conventional conservative treatment of cystitis with endourethral surgical interventions aimed at reestablishment of normal urination.

  14. Interstitial hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Milligan, A J; Dobelbower, R R

    1984-01-01

    The effectiveness of hyperthermia as a treatment modality for cancer continues to gain popularity in the medical community. One of the disappointing findings has been the inability to deliver uniform thermal doses to tumor volumes. This inability to heat certain tumors is due to a variety of physical and physiologic phenomena. To increase the ability of heating tumors, local interstitial techniques have been developed that are proving to be safe and effective. These techniques employ implanted microwave or radiofrequency antennae for the delivery of local thermal doses. Recently, investigations into the placement of interstitially located ferromagnetic seeds for local hyperthermia have also been conducted. The seeds can be heated by delivery of a high-wattage RF magnetic field to the implanted volume by an external source after implantation. The tissue surrounding the ferromagnetic implant is heated by conduction of heat away from the implanted seeds. While these techniques have been effective, further development of the instrumentation for interstitial therapies is continuing. These developments will include the application of specific control circuitry for delivery of accurate thermal doses.

  15. Radiation Induced Cystitis and Proctitis - Prediction, Assessment and Management.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Supriya; Madan, Renu; Julka, Pramod K; Rath, Goura K

    2015-01-01

    Cystitis and proctitis are defined as inflammation of bladder and rectum respectively. Haemorrhagic cystitis is the most severe clinical manifestation of radiation and chemical cystitis. Radiation proctitis and cystitis are major complications following radiotherapy. Prevention of radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis has been investigated using various oral agents with minimal benefit. Bladder irrigation remains the most frequently adopted modality followed by intra-vesical instillation of alum or formalin. In intractable cases, surgical intervention is required in the form of diversion ureterostomy or cystectomy. Proctitis is more common in even low dose ranges but is self-limiting and improves on treatment interruption. However, treatment of radiation proctitis is broadly non-invasive or invasive. Non-invasive treatment consists of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-oxidants, sucralfate, short chain fatty acids and hyperbaric oxygen. Invasive treatment consists of ablative procedures like formalin application, endoscopic YAG laser coagulation or argon plasma coagulation and surgery as a last resort.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells protect against the tissue fibrosis of ketamine-induced cystitis in rat bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aram; Yu, Hwan Yeul; Heo, Jinbeom; Song, Miho; Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Jisun; Yoon, Soo-Jung; Kim, YongHwan; Lee, Seungun; Kim, Seong Who; Oh, Wonil; Choi, Soo Jin; Shin, Dong-Myung; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of the hallucinogenic drug ketamine promotes the development of lower urinary tract symptoms that resemble interstitial cystitis. The pathophysiology of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC) is largely unknown and effective therapies are lacking. Here, using a KC rat model, we show the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Daily injection of ketamine to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2-weeks resulted in defective bladder function, indicated by irregular voiding frequency, increased maximum contraction pressure, and decreased intercontraction intervals and bladder capacity. KC bladders were characterized by severe mast-cell infiltration, tissue fibrosis, apoptosis, upregulation of transforming growth factor-β signaling related genes, and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 proteins. A single administration of MSCs (1 × 106) into bladder tissue not only significantly ameliorated the aforementioned bladder voiding parameters, but also reversed the characteristic histological and gene-expression alterations of KC bladder. Treatment with the antifibrotic compound N-acetylcysteine also alleviated the symptoms and pathological characteristics of KC bladder, indicating that the antifibrotic capacity of MSC therapy underlies its benefits. Thus, this study for the first-time shows that MSC therapy might help to cure KC by protecting against tissue fibrosis in a KC animal model and provides a foundation for clinical trials of MSC therapy. PMID:27481042

  17. Idiopathic Cystitis in Domestic Cats—Beyond the Lower Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Buffington, C.A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Signs of lower urinary tract (LUT) disease in domestic cats can be acute or chronic, and can result from variable combinations of abnormalities within the lumen of the LUT, the parenchyma of the LUT itself, or other organ system(s) that then lead to LUT dysfunction. In the majority of cats with chronic signs of LUT dysfunction, no specific underlying cause can be confirmed after standard clinical evaluation of the LUT, so these cats typically are classified as having idiopathic cystitis. A syndrome in human beings commonly known as interstitial cystitis (IC) shares many features in common with these cats, permitting comparisons between the two species. A wide range of similarities in abnormalities has been identified between these syndromes outside as well as inside the LUT. A variety of potential familial and developmental risk factors also have been identified. These results have permitted generation of the hypothesis that some of these people have a disorder affecting the LUT rather than a disorder of the LUT. This perspective has suggested alternative diagnostic strategies and novel approaches to treatment, at least in cats. The purpose of this review is to summarize research investigations into the various abnormalities present in cats, to compare some of these findings with those identified in human beings, and to discuss how they might modify perceptions about the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cats with this disease. PMID:21564297

  18. A unique de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 17, del(17)(q23.2q24.3) in a female newborn with multiple congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.L.; Shaffer, L.G.; Lewis, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Contiguous gene or microdeletion syndromes occurring on chromosome 17p include the Smith-Magenis and Miller-Dieker syndromes associated with interstitial deletions of 17p11.2 and 17p13.3, respectively. Other cytogenetically visible interstitial deletions on chromosome 17 are quite rare or unique. We describe a newborn with a novel interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 17 [del(17)(q23.2q24.3)] who died on day of life 17 during a recurrent apneic episode. We have compared our patient`s phenotype and karyotype to two reported patients with deletion 17q with minor clinical overlap. The most striking clinical features of this patient were severe intrauterine growth retardation, widespread skeletal malformations (split sutures, hypoplastic acetabulae and scapulae, vertebral anomalies, and digital hypoplasia), cutis verticis gyrata, dysmorphic facial features, and oropharyngeal malformations (absent uvula and submucous cleft palate). Mild congenital heart disease and anomalous optic nerves were also present. Parental karyotyps were normal. DNA from parents and patient has been collected and cell lines established on both parents. Genes which have been previously mapped to the region that is apparently deleted in this patient include: chorionic somatomammotropin A, growth hormone (normal), acid alpha-glucosidase, apolipoprotein H, and the alpha peptide of type 4 voltage gated sodium channel. As in other clinical cytogenetic syndromes, further descriptions of patients with similar or overlapping rearrangements in this region will be necessary to delineate genotype/phenotype correlations for chromosome 17.

  19. Aspergillus species cystitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Paitaki, C G; Rallis, T S; Tontis, D

    2001-03-01

    A Persian male cat with a history of lower urinary tract disease was presented because of polydipsia, polyuria, constipation and nasal discharge. Ten weeks before admission, the cat had been treated for lower urinary tract disease by catheterisation and flushing of the bladder. The animal was thin, dehydrated, anaemic and azotaemic. Urine culture revealed Aspergillus species cystitis. Antibodies against Aspergillus nidulans were identified in serum. Fluconazole was administered orally (7.5 mg/kg, q 12 h) for 10 consecutive weeks. The azotaemia was resolved, the kidney concentrating ability was recovered and the cat has remained healthy without similar problems.

  20. Optical diagnosis of internal cystitis / painful bladder syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn

    Background: Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is defined as a syndrome of urgency, frequency, and suprapubic pain in the absence of positive urine culture or obvious bladder pathology. As no specific etiology has been identified yet, no specific methodology exists for diagnosis of this condition. One potential etiology of PBS/IC is inflammation of the bladder mucosa associated with abnormal angiogenesis and ulcerative lesions. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using transcutaneous near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the bladder to monitor tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics as a means of differentiating subjects diagnosed with PBS/IC from those with other bladder conditions. Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction were divided into 2 groups, PBS/IC and non-PBS/IC after standard diagnostic investigations. Detrusor oxygen saturation percentage (TSI%) was measured in all subjects while they were at rest in a supine position, using a spatially resolved (SR) NIRS instrument. Mean values of detrusor TSI% were significantly different between the two groups (74.2%+/-4.9 in PBS/IC vs. 63.6%+/-5.5 in non-PBS/IC, P<0.0005). Results: Noninvasive NIRS interrogation of the bladder demonstrated that patients diagnosed as having PBS/IC had significantly higher detrusor oxygen saturation at rest. Conclusions: SR-NIRS as a feasible non-noninvasive entity for use in the evaluation of patients for the presence or absence of physiologic changes associated with PBS/IC.

  1. RISK OF ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS IN RELATIVES OF SUBJECTS WITH INTERSTIAL CYSTITIS

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Brady, Kristina; Norton, Peggy; Cannon-Albright, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) includes interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), a chronic, bladder pain condition of unknown etiology. IC/PBS can co-occur with a number of associated conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. The purpose of this study is to estimate the heritability of approximately 20 associated conditions in first-, and if appropriate second-, and third-degree relatives of IC/PBS cases to identify shared genetic contributions for the disease combinations. Methods We used the Utah Population Database (UPDB), a unique population-based genealogical database that has been linked to electronic health records for the University of Utah Health Science Center back to 1994. IC/PBS probands were identified by ICD-9 code for chronic interstitial cystitis and had genealogy information for 12 of their 14 immediate ancestors. We calculated excess risk of an associated condition in relatives of IC/PBS cases using relative risk estimates. Results We identified 248 IC/PBS probands. We found that two associated conditions, myalgia and myositits/unspecified (fibromyalgia) and constipation, were in significant excess in IC/PBS cases themselves, their first-degree relatives and their second-degree relatives. The excess risk among relatives between IC/PBS and these associated conditions also held in the converse direction. Excess risk of IC/PBS was observed in first-and second-degree relatives in probands with myalgia and myositits/unspecified (fibromyalgia) and in probands with constipation. Conclusion These results suggest myalgia and myositits/unspecified (fibromyalgia) and constipation are likely to share underlying genetic factors with IC/PBS. PMID:25349937

  2. Unique de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 17, del(17) (q23.2q24.3) in a female newborn with multiple congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.L.; Shaffer, L.G.; Lewis, R.L.

    1995-01-02

    We describe a newborn with a novel interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 17 (del(17) (q23.2q24.3)) who died on day of life 17 during a recurrent apneic episode. Her phenotype included severe growth retardation, multiple facial anomalies, maldeveloped oralpharyngeal structures, and digital and widespread skeletal anomalies. This patient`s phenotype was compared to two other reported patients with deletion 17q with minor clinical overlap consistent with a unique deletion. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Evidence for the Role of Mast Cells in Cystitis-Associated Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Michael; Lutgendorf, Susan; Bradley, Catherine; Schrepf, Andrew; Liu, Liwei; Kreder, Karl; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Bladder inflammation frequently causes cystitis pain and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) such as urinary frequency and urgency. Although mast cells have been identified to play a critical role in bladder inflammation and pain, the role of mast cells in cystitis-associated LUTD has not been demonstrated. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder characterized by the hallmark symptoms of pelvic pain and LUTD. In this study we investigated the role of mast cells in LUTD using a transgenic autoimmune cystitis model (URO-OVA) that reproduces many clinical correlates of IC/BPS. URO-OVA mice express the membrane form of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) as a self-antigen on the urothelium and develop bladder inflammation upon introduction of OVA-specific T cells. To investigate the role of mast cells, we crossed URO-OVA mice with mast cell-deficient KitW-sh mice to generate URO-OVA/KitW-sh mice that retained urothelial OVA expression but lacked endogenous mast cells. We compared URO-OVA mice with URO-OVA/KitW-sh mice with and without mast cell reconstitution in response to cystitis induction. URO-OVA mice developed profound bladder inflammation with increased mast cell counts and LUTD, including increased total number of voids, decreased mean volume voided per micturition, and decreased maximum volume voided per micturition, after cystitis induction. In contrast, similarly cystitis-induced URO-OVA/KitW-sh mice developed reduced bladder inflammation with no mast cells and LUTD detected. However, after mast cell reconstitution URO-OVA/KitW-sh mice restored the ability to develop bladder inflammation and LUTD following cystitis induction. We further treated URO-OVA mice with cromolyn, a mast cell membrane stabilizer, and found that cromolyn treatment reversed bladder inflammation and LUTD in the animal model. Our results provide direct evidence for the role of mast cells in cystitis

  4. Prevalence of antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of Escherichia coli in acute uncomplicated cystitis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Heon; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Kim, Tae Hyong; Shim, Sung Ryul; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Lee, Eun Jung; Song, Yun Seob

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of Escherichia coli Escherichia coli (E coli) in female uncomplicated cystitis in Korea using meta-analysis. Methods: A cross-search of the literature was performed with MEDLINE for all relevant data published before October 2015 and EMBASE from 1980 to 2015, the Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, RISS, KISS, and DBPia were also searched. Observational or prospective studies that reported the prevalence of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of E coli were selected for inclusion. No language or time restrictions were applied. We performed a meta-analysis using a random effects model to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of E coli. Results: Ten studies were eligible for the meta-analysis, which together included a total of 2305 women with uncomplicated cystitis. The overall resistance rate to antibiotics was 0.28 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25, 0.32). The pooled resistance rates were 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.11) for cephalosporin, 0.22 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.25) for fluoroquinolone (FQ), and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.51) for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). Regression analysis showed that resistance to FQ is increasing (P = 0.014) and resistance to TMP/SMX is decreasing (P = 0.043) by year. The generation of cephalosporin was not a significant moderator of differences in resistance rate. Conclusion: The resistance rate of FQ in Korea is over 20% and is gradually increasing. Although the resistance rate of TMP/SMX is over 40%, its tendency is in decreasing state. Antibiotic strategies used for the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in Korea have to be modified. PMID:27603359

  5. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, or chILD, ... with similar symptoms—it's not a precise diagnosis. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) also occurs in adults. However, ...

  6. TRPA1 mediates bladder hyperalgesia in a mouse model of cystitis.

    PubMed

    DeBerry, Jennifer J; Schwartz, Erica S; Davis, Brian M

    2014-07-01

    Urinary bladder pain is a primary symptom associated with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. We used systemic injections of cyclophosphamide (CYP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent, to induce cystitis and examine the roles of 2 channels previously demonstrated to be required for inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia: transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin-1 (TRPA1). Injection of CYP (100 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day for 5 days was accompanied by bladder edema and urothelial ulceration, but without significant plasma extravasation or infiltration of neutrophils. Toluidine blue staining showed a significant increase in the number of degranulated bladder mast cells after CYP treatment. Despite this mild pathology, CYP-treated mice exhibited bladder hyperalgesia 1 day after the final injection that persisted 7 days later. Although many previous studies of visceral hyperalgesia have reported changes in dorsal root ganglion neuron TRPV1 expression and/or function, we found no change in bladder afferent TRPV1 expression or sensitivity on the basis of the percentage of bladder afferents responsive to capsaicin, including at submaximal concentrations. In contrast, the percentage of bladder afferents expressing functional TRPA1 protein (i.e., those responsive to mustard oil) increased ∼2.5-fold 1 day after CYP treatment, and remained significantly elevated 7 days later. Moreover, bladder hyperalgesia was reversed by acute treatment with the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Our results indicate that CYP-induced bladder hyperalgesia can be induced without robust inflammation or changes in primary afferent TRPV1. However, significant changes were observed in TRPA1 expression, and blockade of TRPA1 alleviated CYP-induced bladder hyperalgesia.

  7. Combined treatment with interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial radiotherapy in an animal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Ruifrok, A C; Levendag, P C; Lakeman, R F; Deurloo, I K; Visser, A G

    1991-06-01

    An interstitial hyperthermia system operating at 27 MHz has been developed at the Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center. To test this system in combination with interstitial radiotherapy and to study the interactions of interstitial radiotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia, animal experiments were performed using rhabdomyosarcoma type R1 transplanted in the flanks of female Wag/Rij rats. Using the 27 MHz system, it appeared feasible to obtain hyperthermic temperatures. In this experiment a thermal dose of 44 degrees C for 30 minutes was delivered by controlling the temperature at the periphery of the tumor to 44 degrees C. The interstitial heating applicators were inserted in four standard afterloading catheters implanted with a fixed spacing of 7 mm; the same catheters were used for the radioactive sources for interstitial radiotherapy treatment following the interstitial hyperthermia sessions. Interstitial radiotherapy was given by means of four Ir192 wires with an average activity of 4.5.10(7) Bq/cm. Minimum tumor doses of 20 to 115 Gy with a mean dose rate of 47 cGy/hour were applied. Interstitial hyperthermia alone resulted in a growth delay (GD1) of 6 +/- 2 days without significant reduction of tumor volume. The 50% tumor cure dose after interstitial radiotherapy alone was 95 +/- 9 Gy. Combination of interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial radiotherapy resulted in reduction of the 50% tumor cure dose to 48 +/- 13 Gy. The dose-effect data for cure for these modalities are compared to existing data for external irradiation and external hyperthermia in the same tumor model. It was found that the addition of hyperthermia to different modes of irradiation, that is, either to single dose or protracted radiotherapy, results in a common level of radiosensitivity through impaired repair of sublethal damage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the 27 MHz heating system in achieving hyperthermic temperatures; in the combined modality experiments a thermal

  8. [Ozone therapy and tamsulosin in the treatment of cystitis].

    PubMed

    Smeliakov, V A; Borisov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of cystitis remains an urgent problem in urology due to its prevalence, physical and social disadaptation of patients, and not always satisfactory treatment results. The article presents the results of treatment of 40 women aged 41.5 +/- 12.4 years with chronic cystitis. 20 patients received ozone therapy, 20 patients--ozone therapy in combination with alpha-adrenoblocker tamsulosin. Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated using clinical data, data of bladder diaries, IPSS score, and uroflowmetry data. Dynamics of all the parameters in patients treated with ozone therapy in combination with tamsulosin was significantly higher in comparison with that in patients treated with ozone therapy only. As a result of the treatment, increased urine flow rate was accompanied by an increase in urination. Combination therapy with the use of ozone therapy and tamsulosin can be successfully and safely used in the treatment of patients with cystitis.

  9. Hemorrhagic cystitis with massive bleeding from nontyphoidal Salmonella infection: A case report.

    PubMed

    Na, Sun-Kyung; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Young Shin; Yun, Hye-Won; Chung, Jung-Wha; Jung, Ka-Young; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae

    2013-06-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is defined by lower urinary tract symptoms that include dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage and is caused by viral or bacterial infection or chemotherapeutic agents. Reports of hemorrhagic cystitis caused by non-typhoidal salmonella (NTS) are extremely rare. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with hemorrhagic cystitis from NTS that caused massive bleeding and shock. The patient was hospitalized for uncontrolled diabetes and obstructive uropathy related to severe cystitis. A urine culture was positive for group D NTS. This case demonstrated that hemorrhagic cystitis in a patient with a risk factor such as diabetes can be a manifestation of local extra-intestinal NTS infection.

  10. The Subject, Its Biology, and the Chronic Recurrent Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Noll-Hussong, Michael; Autenrieth, Michael; Pokorny, Dan; Herberger, Simone; Huber, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Functional disorders in urology are troubling for both patients and physicians. Moreover, advances in recent research promise to provide biological insights into psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunological pathways that are one important facet of chronic urogenital inflammations. We present a case of a middle-aged woman with long-lasting recurrent cystitis for which especially a psychosomatic approach helped to understand and cure the disorder. Altogether, as practitioners treat subjects, not illnesses, a biopsychosocial understanding of human disease should be taken into account in cases of chronic recurrent cystitis. PMID:22934220

  11. The subject, its biology, and the chronic recurrent cystitis.

    PubMed

    Noll-Hussong, Michael; Autenrieth, Michael; Pokorny, Dan; Herberger, Simone; Huber, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Functional disorders in urology are troubling for both patients and physicians. Moreover, advances in recent research promise to provide biological insights into psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunological pathways that are one important facet of chronic urogenital inflammations. We present a case of a middle-aged woman with long-lasting recurrent cystitis for which especially a psychosomatic approach helped to understand and cure the disorder. Altogether, as practitioners treat subjects, not illnesses, a biopsychosocial understanding of human disease should be taken into account in cases of chronic recurrent cystitis.

  12. Cystitis, Pyelonephritis, and Urolithiasis in Rats Accidentally Fed a Diet Deficient in Vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Munday, John S; McKinnon, Hilary; Aberdein, Danielle; Collett, Mark G; Parton, Kathleen; Thompson, Keith G

    2009-01-01

    Female Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 100; age, 3 wk) were fed diets that included a vitamin premix and either albumin or milk powder. Rats fed the albumin diet gained weight more slowly than did the other group. Between 19 and 28 wk of being fed the albumin diet, 12 rats died of bacterial cystitis and pyelonephritis. In addition, 2 more rats from the same dietary group developed peritonitis after ovariohysterectomy. Examination of the 44 rats fed the albumin diet that completed the 34-wk experiment revealed pyelonephritis in 68%, cystitis in 66%, urolithiasis in 27%, and nephrolithiasis in 5%. Squamous metaplasia of the transitional epithelium was present in all 44 rats, although other epithelia were histologically normal. Vitamin A deficiency was diagnosed after analyses of blood and liver samples. Analysis of the vitamin premix revealed approximately 25% of the expected amount of vitamin A. Because the milk powder contained sufficient vitamin A, deficiency did not occur in rats fed the milk powder diet. The major consequences of vitamin A deficiency in the rats were squamous metaplasia, bacterial infection, and calculus formation within the urinary tract. This report illustrates the importance of careful formulation and storage of vitamin premixes used in experimental diets. Vitamin A deficiency should be considered in rats with decreased weight gain and urinary tract disease even if ocular lesions are not present. PMID:19930829

  13. Specific inhibition of ICAM-1 effectively reduces bladder inflammation in a rat model of severe non-bacterial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; He, Hongchao; Lu, Guoliang; Xu, Tianyuan; Qin, Liang; Wang, Xianjin; Jin, Xingwei; Liu, Boke; Zhao, Zhonghua; Shen, Zhoujun; Shao, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The development and progression of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is closely related to bladder inflammation. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is associated with bladder inflammation in BPS/IC. We investigated the effect of specific inhibition of ICAM-1 using an anti-ICAM-1 antibody (AIA) on bladder inflammation in a rat model of severe non-bacterial cystitis (NBC) resembling BPS/IC by evaluating the bladder inflammation grade, mast cell infiltration and related cytokines and receptors. We also compared the effects of AIA with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) inhibitor aprepitant. Our NBC model was established by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide combined with intravesical protamine/lipopolysaccharide, which resulted in severe bladder inflammation and increased mast cell infiltration, similar to the pathological changes of BPS/IC. Inhibition of ICAM-1 by AIA significantly decreased the bladder inflammation grade and mast cell counts, which was accompanied by a reduction of purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3), prostaglandin E2, EP1/EP2 receptors, TNF-α, NK1R, and ICAM-1. Moreover, AIA showed superior effects to those of celecoxib and aprepitant treatment in improving the bladder inflammatory response. Our results suggest that ICAM-1 may play a critical role in bladder inflammation in severe NBC and may be used as a novel therapeutic target in non-bacterial bladder inflammation such as BPS/IC. PMID:27782122

  14. 77 FR 58849 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act Patient-Focused Drug Development; Public Meeting and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    .... Inflammatory bowel disease. Alopecia areata. Diabetic ulcers. Female sexual dysfunction. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Fracture healing. Diabetic foot infections. Hepatitis C. HIV. Patients who...

  15. Patient-centred standardization in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome—a PLEA

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Standardization has an impact on all links in the healthcare chain and directly affects patients with regard to diagnosis, treatment, eligibility for reimbursement, social benefits and care. Furthermore, patients are also affected if research goes down inappropriate pathways due to inaccurate terminology and definitions. Complex healthcare coding and electronic medical record systems and global reliance on the internet and search machines mean that new terminology or changes now need in some way to be designed to last or to be updated in a way that will cause least disruption, while still allowing for evolution, since changes have far more ramifications today than they ever did in the past. Official recognition of a condition is vital, so coding must be correct and uniform across all authorities. Potential problems must be anticipated at an early stage in the process. In order to achieve global consensus, stakeholders from all parts of the world need to communicate and collaborate with all viewpoints taken into consideration. Patients and their advocacy groups should be involved in standardization processes to ensure that all aspects of a condition are covered, that no patients or symptoms are excluded and that there is no adverse impact on the patient in practical terms following implementation. The trend today is for patients to be more involved in healthcare and decision-making. We must ensure that standardisation and guidelines do not get left behind in this process of development either now or in the future. However, it is necessary to find some way of training patient representatives to enable them to participate fully in standardization and guidelines and also to encourage them to do so. PMID:26816849

  16. Intranasal Oxytocin for the Treatment of Pain Associated with Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    oral drugs (Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium (Elmiron), aspirin, ibuprofen, tricyclic antidepressants , antihistamines, narcotic analgesics such as...acetaminophen (Tylenol) with codeine or longer-acting narcotics), electrical nerve stimulation, changes in diet, cessation in smoking, exercise , bladder

  17. Patient-centred standardization in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome-a PLEA.

    PubMed

    Meijlink, Jane M

    2015-10-01

    Standardization has an impact on all links in the healthcare chain and directly affects patients with regard to diagnosis, treatment, eligibility for reimbursement, social benefits and care. Furthermore, patients are also affected if research goes down inappropriate pathways due to inaccurate terminology and definitions. Complex healthcare coding and electronic medical record systems and global reliance on the internet and search machines mean that new terminology or changes now need in some way to be designed to last or to be updated in a way that will cause least disruption, while still allowing for evolution, since changes have far more ramifications today than they ever did in the past. Official recognition of a condition is vital, so coding must be correct and uniform across all authorities. Potential problems must be anticipated at an early stage in the process. In order to achieve global consensus, stakeholders from all parts of the world need to communicate and collaborate with all viewpoints taken into consideration. Patients and their advocacy groups should be involved in standardization processes to ensure that all aspects of a condition are covered, that no patients or symptoms are excluded and that there is no adverse impact on the patient in practical terms following implementation. The trend today is for patients to be more involved in healthcare and decision-making. We must ensure that standardisation and guidelines do not get left behind in this process of development either now or in the future. However, it is necessary to find some way of training patient representatives to enable them to participate fully in standardization and guidelines and also to encourage them to do so.

  18. Intranasal Oxytocin for the Treatment of Pain Associated with Interstitial Cystitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    10 being the worst possible anxiety), number of voids since last contact with an investigator, and interim medications used for pain control or...VAR; 0-10 with 0 being no anxiety and 10 being the worst possible anxiety), number of voids since last contact with an investigator, and interim...investigator-initiated contact . Participants were asked to record their number of voids and concomitant medication use in a diary so that the results

  19. [VIRAL INFECTIONS: HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND GENITAL HERPES TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 AS A CAUSE OF CHRONIC RECURRENT CYSTITIS WITH SEVERE DYSURIA IN WOMEN WITH URETHRAL HYPERMOBILITY AND HYPOSPADIAS].

    PubMed

    Derevjanko, T I; Ryzhkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Female hypospadias presenting as a misplaced urethral opening is a common cause of chronic recurrent cystitis. Cystitis occurs when urogenital infection and anaerobic bacteria enter the urethra and bladder from the vagina. The authors argue that chronic infections of the lower urinary tract in women with hypospadias should be treated surgically by meatal transposition. They present a study confirming the role of the antiviral drug Panavir in prevention of inflammatory complications in the postoperative period in patients with a history of viral infection (human papillomavirus and herpes).

  20. Intravesical formalin for hemorrhagic cystitis: A contemporary cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ziegelmann, Matthew J.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Joyce, Daniel D.; Montgomery, Brian D.; Linder, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hemorrhagic cystitis presents a difficult clinical challenge, yet data regarding treatment options is sparse. Here, we sought to evaluate outcomes of a contemporary cohort of patients treated with intravesical formalin for hemorrhagic cystitis. Methods We identified a retrospective cohort of eight patients managed with formalin for hemorrhagic cystitis from 2000–2014. All patients failed prior measures, including bladder irrigation, clot evacuation, and other intravesical agents. Treatment success was defined as hematuria resolution during the given hospitalization without use of additional invasive therapies. We also evaluated treatment complications and additional treatments following hospital dismissal. Results Etiology of cystitis was radiation for malignancy in all cases. The formalin concentration ranged from 1–4%, with escalation used in treatment failures. Five patients (62.5%) received a single dose of 1% formalin, two patients received two doses, and one patient received three doses. Notably, intraoperative cystography identified vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in 50.0% of patients. Six patients (75.0%) achieved treatment success, with a median time to resolution of four days (range 1–17 days). Of those refractory to formalin, one was managed with indwelling nephrostomy tubes and one underwent cystectomy. Median followup was eight months. Of the responders, two eventually required cystectomy, one for recurrent hematuria and one for recalcitrant bladder neck contracture and bladder dysfunction. The remaining four patients (50%) required no additional therapy. Conclusions Formalin remains an important tool for treating refractory hemorrhagic cystitis, with roughly 75.0% of patients requiring no additional therapy prior to hospital discharge. Notably, there is a risk of bladder dysfunction following formalin. PMID:28360951

  1. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  2. Urinary tract analgesics for the treatment of patients with acute cystitis: where is the clinical evidence?

    PubMed

    Pergialiotis, Vassilis; Arnos, Pantelis; Mavros, Michael N; Pitsouni, Eleni; Athanasiou, Stavros; Falagas, Matthew E

    2012-08-01

    Acute cystitis is one of the most common health-related problems in the female population. Over the last few decades, a number of drugs labeled as 'urinary tract analgesics' were released; these are available over the counter and are gaining widespread resonance among the North American population. The main representatives of this class of drugs are phenazopyridine and methenamine hippurate. Methenamine's efficacy and side effects have been well studied in a recent systematic review. On the other hand, in contrast to its widespread use, the published clinical evidence regarding phenazopyridine's effectiveness and safety is scarce. In addition, consumers (potentially patients) appear to ignore the limitations of this kind of treatment. In this article, concerns regarding the use of over-the-counter uroanalgesics, with a focus on the relevant clinical evidence, are discussed.

  3. Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association.

    PubMed

    Ahsaini, Mustapha; Kassogue, Amadou; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Zaougui, Anas; Elammari, Jalal Edine; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, My Hassan

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare case of emphysematous cystitis associated with an emphysematous pyelonephritis in a diabetic Arab man who was admitted in a confusional state. A 60-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with confusion and hypogastric mass. The Clinical examination found comatose patient with a mass in the tympanic hypogastric percussion. The pelvic computed tomography (CT) demonstrated intramural gas in the urinary tract, which suggested a diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis. The treatment was based on an antibiotics associated with a bladder drainage and diabetes stabilization. The evolution was uneventful. Every diabetic patient with a urinary tract infection who seems to be severely ill should have an abdominal X-ray as a minimal screening tool to detect emphysematous complications. The rarity and the association with an emphysematous pyelitis, which is rarely reported in the literature, are two remarkable characteristics described in this case report.

  4. Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association

    PubMed Central

    Ahsaini, Mustapha; Kassogue, Amadou; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Zaougui, Anas; Elammari, Jalal Edine; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, My Hassan

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare case of emphysematous cystitis associated with an emphysematous pyelonephritis in a diabetic Arab man who was admitted in a confusional state. A 60-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with confusion and hypogastric mass. The Clinical examination found comatose patient with a mass in the tympanic hypogastric percussion. The pelvic computed tomography (CT) demonstrated intramural gas in the urinarytract, which suggested a diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis. The treatment was based on an antibiotics associated with a bladder drainage and diabetes stabilization. The evolution was uneventful. Every diabetic patient with a urinary tract infection who seems to be severely ill should have an abdominal X-ray as a minimal screening tool to detect emphysematous complications. The rarity and the association with an emphysematous pyelitis, which is rarely reported in the literature, are two remarkable characteristics described in this case report. PMID:24498467

  5. Eosinophilic cystitis and cholangitis - systemic disease triggered by mycobacterium tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Buda, Piotr; Grenda, Ryszard; Wieteska-Klimczak, Anna; Gietka, Piotr; Skobejko-Włodarska, Lidia; Felberg, Karina; Książyk, Janusz

    Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the urinary tract characterized by infiltration of bladder with eosinophils. The cause remains unclear, immunological mechanisms have been implicated in pathogenesis. Potential etiological factors include: tumors, allergy, parasitic infections, trauma. The disease may have a variable course, from a mild self-limiting, through common symptoms like: dysuria, hematuria, abdominal pain, tumor, to severe renal failure, with eosinophilic infiltration of the other organs and systemic complications. Treatment depending on disease severity and etiology is pharmacological and/or surgical. Here we report a case of a previously healthy 16-year old girl with inflammatory tumor in the liver hilum infiltrating extrahepatic biliary tract who developed three months later haematuria with acute dysuric signs and renal failure. Based on histopathological findings diagnosis of eosinophilic cystitis was established. Tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were positive. To our knowledge, EC association with cholangitis and tuberculosis have never been reported before.

  6. Timolol-induced interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hetain; Wilches, Lina Vanessa; Guerrero, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. A 76 year old female who presented with productive cough, progressive dyspnea and hypoxia after starting timolol maleate opthalamic drops following glaucoma surgery. The patient was diagnosed with interstitial lung disease secondary to timolol treatment and after cessation of the offending agent along with corticosteroid treatment, symptoms improved drastically. Elimination of other possible causes of disease along with evolution of radiological and functional signs left us with a diagnosis of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. PMID:26236595

  7. Curli fimbria: an Escherichia coli adhesin associated with human cystitis.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Melina Aparecida; Werle, Catierine Hirsch; Milanez, Guilherme Paier; Yano, Tomomasa

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the major causative agent of human cystitis. In this study, a preliminary molecular analysis carried out by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) demonstrated that 100% of 31 E. coli strains isolated from patients with recurrent UTIs (urinary tract infections) showed the presence of the curli fimbria gene (csgA). Curli fimbria is known to be associated with bacterial biofilm formation but not with the adhesion of human cystitis-associated E. coli. Therefore, this work aimed to study how curli fimbria is associated with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) as an adhesion factor. For this purpose, the csgA gene was deleted from strain UPEC-4, which carries three adhesion factor genes (csgA, fimH and ompA). The wild-type UPEC-4 strain and its mutant (ΔcsgA) were analyzed for their adhesion ability over HTB-9 (human bladder carcinoma), Vero (kidney cells of African green monkey) and HUVEC (human umbilical vein) cells in the presence of α-d-mannose. All the wild-type UPEC strains tested (100%) were able to adhere to all three cell types, while the UPEC-4 ΔcsgA mutant lost its adherence to HTB-9 but continued to adhere to the HUVEC and Vero cells. The results suggest that curli fimbria has an important role in the adhesion processes associated with human UPEC-induced cystitis.

  8. Eosinophilic cystitis with recurrent urinary retention: case report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hongzoo

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the bladder whose origin, pathogenesis, and treatment are unknown. Frequency, dysuria, and hematuria are frequent symptoms. Here, we report a rare occurrence of recurrent urinary retention and repetitive catheterization. A 67-year-old male presented with acute urinary retention and intermittent gross hematuria of 2 weeks duration. Urethral catheterization followed by a trial without catheter, was successful. Complete blood count showed presence of eosinophils (eosinophilia) and computed tomography of kidneys, ureter and bladder with contrast showed thickened bladder wall and small prostate. Cystoscopy revealed an erythematous lesion over the anterior wall. The rest of the mucosa was normal. Transurethral biopsies of the lesion were performed and histologic examination showed features of eosinophilic cystitis. Despite multiple medication regimens containing corticosteroids and antihistamines, he presented with recurrent urinary retention, approximately once every month. After 6 months, he was started on bethanechol, which led to no catheterization for up to 2 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the successful use of bethanechol as a treatment for eosinophilic cystitis with recurrent urinary retention. PMID:28357204

  9. Intracranial interstitial radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, D.; Rittenmeyer, H.; Hitchon, P.

    1986-06-01

    Primary malignant brain tumors are fatal, with 90% of patients having these tumors dying within two years following diagnosis. Cranial interstitial radiation therapy, a technique under investigation to control these tumors, involves implantation of radioactive iodine 125 seeds into the tumor bed by stereotaxic technique. The interstitial radiation technique, monitoring of radiation, and nursing care of patients are discussed. Case histories are presented, along with discussion of results attained using this therapy, and its future.

  10. Protective effect of ketamine against hemorrhagic cystitis in rats receiving ifosfamide

    PubMed Central

    Ozguven, Ali A.; Yılmaz, Omer; Taneli, Fatma; Ulman, Cevval; Vatansever, Seda; Onag, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible protective effect of a single dose of ketamine and the synergistic effect between ketamine and 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (mesna) against ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods: 35 adult female wistar rats were divided into five groups and pretreated with ketamine at 10 mg/kg and/or mesna 400 mg/kg 30 minutes before intraperitoneal injection of IFS (400 mg/kg) or with saline (control group). Hemorrhagic cystitis was evaluated 24 hours after IFS injection according to bladder wet weight (BWW), and microscopic changes, i.e. edema, hemorrhage, cellular infiltration, and urothelial desquamation. The markers of oxidative damage including nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) were also assayed in the bladder tissues. Results: Pretreatment with ketamine alone or ketamine in combination with mesna reduced the IFS-induced increase of BWW (58,47% and 63,33%, respectively, P < 0.05). IFS- induced microscopic alterations were also prevented by ketamine with or without mesna (P < 0.05). In addition, also statistically insignificant, the bladder tissue expressions of IL-1β were lower in ketamine and/or mesna-receiving groups (P > 0,05). The parameters of oxidative stress, the NO and the MDA contents of the bladder tissues of the study groups were not different. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a single dose of ketamine pretreatment attenuates experimental IFS-induced bladder damage. It is therefore necessary to investigate ketamine locally and systematically with various dosing schedulesin order to reduce the bladder damage secondary to oxazaphosphorine-alkylating agents and these results may widen the spectrum of ketamine. PMID:24741183

  11. Successful treatment of Corynebacterium urealyticum encrusting cystitis with systemic and intravesical antimicrobial therapy

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Oriana; Béraud, Romain; Tefft, Karen M.; Muckle, C. Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old Saint Bernard dog was diagnosed with encrusting cystitis caused by Corynebacterium urealyticum. The infection persisted despite the prolonged use of antimicrobials and surgical debridement of the urinary bladder. Resolution occurred following intravenous vancomycin, urine acidification, and intravesical gentamicin. The challenges involved in the treatment of encrusting cystitis are described. PMID:25969578

  12. Interstitial laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas E.; Cromeens, Douglas M.; Price, Roger E.

    1994-05-01

    Interstitial laser coagulation of the canine prostate using the Sharplan interstitial thermal therapy fiber (Model 25432) was performed in 9 adult dogs and the subsequent gross and histopathologic changes occurring in the prostate were studied at intervals ranging from 1 hour to 5 weeks. A large well-demarcated area of acute coagulative necrosis developed around each fiber tract which in turn was surrounded by a prominent narrow zone of marked tissue disruption and an outer zone of hemorrhage. Liquefaction developed within the coagulative areas within 24 hours and by 4 days, each prostatic lobe contained an irregular cavity which became lined by normal-appearing transitional epithelium and that by 5 weeks, communicated with the prostatic urethra. These changes, similar to those reported following transurethral visual laser ablation of the prostate, suggest that interstitial laser thermal therapy may provide an alternative means for treating selected patients suffering from prostatic enlargement.

  13. [Chronic interstitial pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Rui; Reis, Guilhermina; Ferreira, Cristina; Oliveira, Ma José; Oliveira, Dulce; Fernandes, Paula; Ferreira, Paula; Frutuoso, Simão; Carreira, Luísa; Alves, Valter; Paiva, António; Guedes, Margarida

    2004-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease includes a group of chronic diseases characterized by alterations in alveolar walls and loss of functional alveolar-capillary units. These are rare diseases in children, mostly with an unknown cause and associated with a high morbidity and mortality due to insufficient therapeutic effectiveness. The authors report a case of a previously healthy 3 years old child who presented with wheezing and severe respiratory insufficiency following a respiratory infection. The investigation performed led to the diagnosis of chronic interstitial pneumonitis. Several treatments have been tried (corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, N-acetylcysteine) without any obvious improvement.

  14. Nitric oxide synthases and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, A B; Malave, A; Cubeddu, L X

    2001-03-01

    The role of inducible (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) synthases and of tachykinin NK1 receptors on the pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis was investigated, in rats. CYP-induced cystitis was characterized by large increases in bladder-protein plasma extravasation (PPE), increases in the urinary excretion of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and histological evidences of urothelial damage, edema, extensive white blood cell infiltrates and vascular congestion of the bladder. The specific iNOS inhibitor, S-methylthiourea (MITU), produced marked inhibition (>90%) of CYP-induced increases in PPE associated with amelioration of tissue inflammatory changes. Treatment with 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg), a selective nNOS inhibitor, did not significantly reduce CYP-induced increases in PPE and failed to produce histological improvement. In addition, treatment with MITU, but not with 7-NI, inhibited the increases in the urinary excretion of NO metabolites induced by CYP treatment. WIN 51,708 (17-beta-hydroxy-17-alpha-ethynyl-androstano[3,2-b]pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole; WIN), a selective NK1-receptor antagonist, reduced the increases in EPP and ameliorated the inflammatory changes in the bladder induced by CYP. However, the maximal degree of protection achieved with WIN was significantly less than that produced by MITU. Combined treatment with the iNOS inhibitor and the NK1 antagonist produced no greater effect than that produced by the iNOS inhibitor alone. Our results suggest that NO plays a fundamental role in the production of the cystitis associated with CYP treatment. The iNOS, and not nNOS, seems responsible for the inflammatory changes. Part of the increases in NO may due to activation of NK1 receptors by neuropeptides such as substance P possibly released from primary afferent fibers.

  15. Lupus cystitis in Korean patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: risk factors and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koh, J H; Lee, J; Jung, S M; Ju, J H; Park, S-H; Kim, H-Y; Kwok, S-K

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics of lupus cystitis and determine the risk factors and clinical outcomes of lupus cystitis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We retrospectively reviewed 1064 patients at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul, Korea, from 1998 to 2013. Twenty-four patients had lupus cystitis. Lupus cystitis was defined as unexplained ureteritis and/or cystitis as detected by imaging studies, cystoscopy, or bladder histopathology without urinary microorganisms or stones. Three-fourths of patients with lupus cystitis had concurrent lupus mesenteric vasculitis (LMV). The initial symptoms were gastrointestinal in nature for most patients (79.2%). High-dose methylprednisolone was initially administered to most patients (91.7%) with lupus cystitis. Two patients (8.3%) died of urinary tract infections. Sixty-five age- and sex-matched patients with SLE who were admitted with other manifestations were included as the control group. Patients with lupus cystitis showed a lower C3 level (p = 0.031), higher SLE Disease Activity Index score (p = 0.006), and higher ESR (p = 0.05) upon admission; more frequently had a history of LMV prior to admission (p < 0.001); and less frequently had a history of neuropsychiatric lupus (p = 0.031) than did patients with SLE but without lupus cystitis. The occurrence of lupus cystitis was associated with a history of LMV (OR, 21.794; 95% CI, 4.061-116.963). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years, and the cumulative one-year mortality rate was 20%. Complications developed in 33.3% of patients with lupus cystitis and were related to survival (log-rank p = 0.021). Our results suggest that the possibility of lupus cystitis should be considered when a patient with SLE and history of LMV presents with gastrointestinal symptoms or lower urinary tract symptoms. Development of complications in patients with lupus cystitis can be fatal. Thus, intensive treatment

  16. Challenges and Opportunities in Radiation-induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zwaans, Bernadette M.M.; Nicolai, Heinz G.; Chancellor, Michael B.; Lamb, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    As diagnosis and treatment of cancer is improving, medical and social issues related to cancer survivorship are becoming more prevalent. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC), a rare but serious disease that may affect patients after pelvic radiation or systemic chemotherapy, has significant unmet medical needs. Although no definitive treatment is currently available, various interventions are employed for HC. Effects of nonsurgical treatments for HC are of modest success and studies aiming to control radiation-induced bladder symptoms are lacking. In this review, we present current and advanced therapeutic strategies for HC to help cancer survivors deal with long-term urologic health issues. PMID:27601964

  17. Karyomegalic Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Isnard, Pierre; Rabant, Marion; Labaye, Jacques; Antignac, Corinne; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Zaidan, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of hereditary chronic interstitial nephritis, described for the first time over 40 years ago. A 36-year-old woman, of Turkish origin, presented with chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure. She had a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections but no familial history of nephropathy. Physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory tests showed serum creatinine at 2.3 mg/dL with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 26 mL/min/1.73m2, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase at 3 and 1.5 times the upper normal limit. Urinalysis showed 0.8 g/day of nonselective proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and aseptic leukocyturia. Immunological tests and tests for human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses were negative. Complement level and serum proteins electrophoresis were normal. Analysis of the renal biopsy showed severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Numerous tubular cells had nuclear enlargement with irregular outlines, hyperchromatic aspect, and prominent nucleoli. These findings were highly suggestive of karyomegalic interstitial nephritis, which was further confirmed by exome sequencing of FAN1 gene showing an identified homozygous frameshift mutation due to a one-base-pair deletion in exon 12 (c.2616delA). The present case illustrates a rare but severe cause of hereditary interstitial nephritis, sometimes accompanied by subtle extrarenal manifestations. Identification of mutations in FAN1 gene underscores recent insights linking inadequate DNA repair and susceptibility to chronic kidney disease. PMID:27196444

  18. Intravesical therapy in recurrent cystitis: a multi-center experience.

    PubMed

    Torella, Marco; Schettino, Maria Teresa; Salvatore, Stefano; Serati, Maurizio; De Franciscis, Pasquale; Colacurci, Nicola

    2013-10-01

    Approximately 20-30% of women suffer from recurrent cystitis. Recently, the problem of bacterial internalization, especially by Escherichia coli, has been significantly emerging as the main cause of recurrent episodes. It is believed that such a process is favored by damage to the urothelial mucous membrane. Concerning this, intravesical therapy with hyaluronic acid alone or in association with chondroitin sulfate was shown to improve urothelium thickness and reduction of bacterial load in the urine. The aim of our study was to assess whether intravesical therapy with hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) is more effective than antibiotic therapy in reducing episodes and symptoms of recurrent urinary tract infections. We compared the number of recurring episodes in three groups of patients affected by recurrent urinary tract infections assigned to three different therapeutic regimens: the first group was treated only with HA and CS, the second group with HA and CS associated with fosfomycin, and the third group was treated only with fosfomycin (F). We assessed the number of recurrent episodes for each patient that occurred during a 6- to 12-month follow-up. The results showed 72.7% of patients in the HA-CS group, 75% in the fosfomycin + HA-CS group, and only 30.4% in the fosfomycin group were event free at follow-up. The results were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. In conclusion, intravesical therapy with hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate is an effective therapeutic approach to treat and prevent episodes of recurrent cystitis.

  19. Immunomodulatory activity of orphan drug Elmiron® in female B6C3F1/N mice

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sheetal A.; Nyska, Abraham; White, Kimber L.; Smith, Matthew J.; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Germolec, Dori R.

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic disorder characterized by bladder discomfort and urinary urgency in the absence of identifiable infection. Despite the expanding use in treatment of IC and other chronic conditions, the effects of Elmiron® treatment on immune system remain unknown. Therefore, female B6C3F1/N mice were orally administered Elmiron® daily for 28-days at doses of 63, 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg to evaluate its immunomodulatory effects. Mice treated with Elmiron® had a significant increase in absolute numbers of splenic macrophages (63, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) and natural killer (NK) cells (250 and 1000 mg/kg). Elmiron® treatment did not affect the humoral immune response or T cell proliferative response. However, innate immune responses such as phagocytosis by liver macrophages (1000 mg/kg) and NK cell activity were enhanced (500 and 1000 mg/kg). Further analysis using a disease resistance model showed that Elmiron® -treated mice demonstrated significantly increased anti-tumor activity against B16F10 melanoma cells at the 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses. Collectively, we conclude that Elmiron® administration stimulates the immune system, increasing numbers of specific cell populations and enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and NK cell activity in female B6C3F1/N mice. This augmentation may have largely contributed to the reduced number of B16F10 melanoma tumors. PMID:24657363

  20. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G.

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ∼0.5–0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  1. An in-vitro model simulating the hydrokinetic aspects of the treatment of bacterial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, D

    1985-01-01

    Various applications of an in-vitro model that simulates the hydrokinetic features of the treatment of bacterial cystitis are described. Results obtained correlate well with clinical observations, suggesting that the model has relevance in the elucidation of clinical problems.

  2. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  3. Virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli canine isolates from pyometra, cystitis and fecal origin.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Luisa; Henriques, Sofia; Merino, Carolina; Pomba, Constança; Lopes da Costa, Luís; Silva, Elisabete

    2013-10-25

    Pyometra is the most common diestrual uterine disease of bitches. Escherichia coli is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the uterine content of pyometra uteri and it is associated with the most severe clinical signs, leading to endotoxemia and sepsis. In this study, canine E. coli isolates from pyometra (n=31), cystitis (n=23) and fecal (n=26) origin were compared regarding the prevalence of 23 potential virulence traits (15 virulence factor (VF) genes and 8 pathogenicity associated islands-PAIs), detected by PCR assays. Overall, there was a considerable overlap between pyometra, cystitis and fecal isolates regarding the phylogenetic grouping and virulence traits. Virulence traits more prevalent in pyometra than in cystitis and fecal isolates included two PAIs (PAI IV536 and PAI ICFT073) and three VF genes (sfa/focDE, fyuA and chuA). Regardless the isolates' origin, the average number of virulence traits per strain was higher in B2 than in the other phylogenetic groups (A, B1 and D). The prevalence of phylogenetic group B2 was significantly higher in pyometra (94%) than in cystitis (48%) and fecal (39%) isolates. In conclusion, pyometra isolates have a high potential of virulence and a broad virulence genotype, although being similar to a subset of cystitis and fecal isolates. This leads to the suggestion that cystitis and fecal isolates may be able to induce pyometra in receptive hosts.

  4. Eosinophilic Cystitis Mimicking Bladder Tumour – A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    D, Manimaran; T M, Karthikeyan; M, Sreenivasulu; V R, Mrinalini; V, Gopinath

    2013-01-01

    A 16–year–old male presented with urinary urgency, a frequency of 4 months duration and intermittent gross haematuria which were there since one month. Eosinophilia was noted in complete blood count and CT KUB with contrast showed a filling defect in the right lateral wall, over the vesicoureteric junction. Cystoscopy revealed a sessile mass lesion over right vesico–ureteric junction, with bullous oedema . Rest of the mucosa was normal. Transurethral resection of lesion was performed and histological examination showed features of eosinophilic cystitis. Patient was treated with corticosteroids, antimicrobial agents and antihistaminics and he is recovering well. We are presenting this case for its rare presentation and its possibility of mimicking a bladder tumour. Biopsy of the lesion was diagnostic and an early treatment showed good results. PMID:24298501

  5. Cystitis increases colorectal afferent sensitivity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Brumovsky, Pablo Rodolfo; Feng, Bin; Xu, Linjing; McCarthy, Carly Jane; Gebhart, G F

    2009-12-01

    Studies in humans and rodents suggest that colon inflammation promotes urinary bladder hypersensitivity and, conversely, that cystitis contributes to colon hypersensitivity, events referred to as cross-organ sensitization. To investigate a potential peripheral mechanism, we examined whether cystitis alters the sensitivity of pelvic nerve colorectal afferents. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP) or saline, and the mechanosensitive properties of single afferent fibers innervating the colorectum were studied with an in vitro preparation. In addition, mechanosensitive receptive endings were exposed to an inflammatory soup (IS) to study sensitization. Urinary bladder mechanosensitive afferents were also tested. We found that baseline responses of stretch-sensitive colorectal afferents did not differ between treatment groups. Whereas IS excited a proportion of colorectal afferents CYP treatment did not alter the magnitude of this response. However, the number of stretch-sensitive fibers excited by IS was increased relative to saline-treated mice. Responses to IS were not altered by CYP treatment, but the proportion of IS-responsive fibers was increased relative to saline-treated mice. In bladder, IS application increased responses of muscular afferents to stretch, although no differences were detected between saline- and CYP-treated mice. In contrast, their chemosensitivity to IS was decreased in the CYP-treated group. Histological examination revealed no changes in colorectum and modest edema and infiltration in the urinary bladder of CYP-treated mice. In conclusion, CYP treatment increased mechanical sensitivity of colorectal muscular afferents and increased the proportion of chemosensitive colorectal afferents. These data support a peripheral contribution to cross-organ sensitization of pelvic organs.

  6. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process.

  8. Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with First and Recurrent Cystitis in Indian Women: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bharti; Srivastava, Richa; Agarwal, Jyotsna; Srivastava, Sugandha; Pandey, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145) and recurrent (77) cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257) were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]): Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52), time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was <5 days (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.22-4.23), use of cloth during menstrual cycle (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.31-4.26), >250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38), presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62) and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38). Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07), constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92) and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06) were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country. PMID:26917870

  9. Temperature control in interstitial laser cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Holmes, Kyland; Burnett, Corinthius; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2003-07-01

    Positive results of Laser-Assisted Cancer Immunotherapy (LACI) have been reported previously in the irradiation of superficial tumors. This paper reports the effect of LACI using laser interstitial therapy approach. We hypothesize that the maximum immuno response depends on laser induced tumor temperature. The measurement of tumor temperature is crucial to ensure necrosis by thermal damage and immuno response. Wister Furth female rats in this study were inoculated with 13762 MAT B III rat mammary adinocarcinoma. LACI started seven to ten days following inoculation. Contrary to surface irradation, we applied laser interstitial irradiation of tumor volume to maximize the energy deposition. A diode laser with a wavelength of 805 nm was used for tumor irradiation. The laser energy was delivered inside the tumor through a quartz fiber. Tumor temperature was measured with a micro thermocouple (interstitial), while the tumor surface temperature was controlled with an IR detector. The temperature feedback demonstrates that it is possible to maintain the average tumor temperature at the same level with reasonable accuracy in the desired range from 65°C-85°C. In some experiments we used microwave thermometry to control average temperature in deep tissue for considerable period of time, to cause maximum thermal damage to the tumor. The experimental set-up and the different temperature measurement techniques are reported in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages for each method.

  10. [Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias in 2016].

    PubMed

    Debray, M-P; Borie, R; Danel, C; Khalil, A; Majlath, M; Crestani, B

    2017-02-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias comprise 8 clinicopathological entities, most of them with a chronic course and various prognosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most frequent and most severe of these. Computed tomography has an important role for its diagnosis. It can identify the corresponding pathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia in about 50 percent of cases. It can suggest differential diagnosis in other cases, most frequently fibrosing nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Imaging features should be integrated to clinical and available pathologic data during multidisciplinary team meetings involving physicians with a good knowledge of interstitial diseases. Some cases may be unclassifiable, but these could later be reclassified as new data may occur or imaging features may change. Surgical lung biopsy is being less frequently performed and an emerging less invasive technique, lung cryobiopsy, is under evaluation. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is a distinct entity only recently described, with uncertain prevalence and prognosis that seems being quite often associated to another pattern of interstitial pneumonia.

  11. Adverse Events of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection between Patients with Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis—Different Mechanisms of Action of Botox on Bladder Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injections have been proposed to treat both overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) in patients with refractory conditions. We compared adverse events (AEs) after BoNT-A treatment between IC/BPS and OAB in women. IC/BPS patients who failed conventional treatments were enrolled to receive suburothelial injections of BoNT-A (100 U) followed by hydrodistention. Age matched OAB female patients refractory to antimuscarinic agents underwent BoNT-A (100 U) injections. The bladder capacity, maximum flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR), and voiding efficiency (VE) at baseline, 3 and 6 months, and the post-treatment AEs were analyzed between groups. Finally, 89 IC/BPS and 72 OAB women were included. In the OAB group, the bladder capacity and PVR increased, and VE decreased significantly at three and six months after BoNT-A treatment. In the IC/BPS group, the Qmax increased significantly at six months. There were significant differences in changes of capacity, Qmax, PVR and VE between the two groups. Moreover, OAB patients suffered more frequently from events of hematuria, UTI, and large PVR (>200 mL), but less frequently from events of straining to void. In conclusion, OAB women had higher PVR volume and lower VE than those in IC/BPS after BoNT-A injections. These results imply that the bladder contractility of OAB patients are more susceptible to BoNT-A, which might reflect the different mechanisms of action of Botox on bladder dysfunction. Further investigations to confirm this hypothesis are warranted. PMID:26999201

  12. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  13. Clonal and pathotypic analysis of archetypal Escherichia coli cystitis isolate NU14.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J R; Weissman, S J; Stell, A L; Trintchina, E; Dykhuizen, D E; Sokurenko, E V

    2001-12-15

    Escherichia coli NU14, a cystitis isolate used to study the pathogenesis of cystitis and to develop a FimH (type 1 fimbrial adhesin) vaccine, was assessed for extended virulence genotype, phylogenetic background, and FimH sequence and binding phenotype(s). NU14 exhibited the same virulence genotype and was derived from the same (meningitis- and cystitis-associated) subclone of E. coli O18:K1:H7 as the archetypal neonatal bacterial meningitis (NBM) isolate RS218. NU14 also displayed the same Ser62Ala FimH polymorphism as did NBM isolates RS218 and IHE3034-conferring both collagen binding and a distinct monomannose binding capability (which characterizes uropathogenic but not commensal E. coli and dramatically increases adherence to uroepithelial cells). These findings establish that strain NU14 exhibits numerous urovirulence-associated traits and derives from the single most prevalent clonal group in acute cystitis. They provide further evidence of clonal and pathotypic similarities between cystitis and NBM isolates of E. coli O18:K1:H7.

  14. Prevention of radioinduced cystitis by orgotein: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Sanchiz, F; Millá, A; Artola, N; Julià, J C; Moya, L M; Pedro, A; Vila, A

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of previous experiences indicating that the anti-oxidant agent Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an effective drug in reducing acute and late radiation-induced tissue injury, in the Center of Radiotherapy and Oncology of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain in 1990 we implemented a randomized prospective study to analyze the incidence and grade of side effects in a group of bladder cancer patients. After surgery patients were randomly allocated to receive either: Option A: Radiotherapy or Option B: Radiotherapy + SOD 8 mgr/IM/day, after each radiotherapeutic application. Between January 1990 and January 1995 a total of 448 patients were included (226 A/ 222 B). Apart from cutaneous side effects, a highly significant incidence of radioinduced acute cystitis and rectitis was detected in patients not treated by SOD. Which was similar to the delayed side effects. From our data we can conclude that SOD is effective in decreasing acute radioinduced damage, and also in preventing the appearance of more delayed disorders.

  15. Effect of Amitriptyline on Symptoms in Treatment Naïve Patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Harris E.; Hanno, Philip M.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Payne, Christopher K.; Mayer, Robert D.; Burks, David A.; Yang, Claire C.; Chai, Toby C.; Kreder, Karl J.; Peters, Kenneth M.; Lukacz, Emily S.; FitzGerald, Mary P.; Cen, Liyi; Landis, J. Richard; Propert, Kathleen J.; Yang, Wei; Kusek, John W.; Nyberg, Leroy M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Amitriptyline is frequently used to treat patients with IC/PBS. The evidence to support this practice is derived mainly from a small single site clinical trial and case reports. Methods We conducted a multi-center, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of amitriptyline in subjects with IC/PBS who were naive to therapy. Study participants in both treatment arms received a standardized education and behavioral modification program (EBMP). The drug dose was increased over a six-week period from 10 mg up to 75 mg once daily. The primary outcome was a patient-reported global response assessment (GRA) of symptom improvement evaluated after 12 weeks of treatment. Results A total of 271 subjects were randomized and 231 (85%) provided a GRA at 12 weeks of follow-up. Study participants were primarily women (83%), Caucasian (74%) with a median age of 38 years. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n=271), the rate of response of subjects reporting either moderately or markedly improved from baseline in the amitriptyline and placebo groups was 55% and 45% respectively (p=0.12). Among the subgroup of subjects (n=207) who achieved a drug dose of at least 50 mg, a significantly higher response rate was observed in the amitriptyline group (66%) compared to placebo (47%) (p=0.01). Conclusion When all randomized subjects were considered, amitriptyline in combination with an EBMP did not significantly improve symptoms in patients with IC/PBS who are treatment naïve. Amitriptyline, however, may be beneficial in persons who can achieve a daily dose of 50 mg or greater, although this subgroup comparison was not specified in advance. PMID:20303115

  16. Molecular Basis of Acute Cystitis Reveals Susceptibility Genes and Immunotherapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Cafaro, Caterina; Nadeem, Aftab; Butler, Daniel S. C.; Rydström, Gustav; Filenko, Nina A.; Wullt, Björn; Miethke, Thomas; Svanborg, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    Tissue damage is usually regarded as a necessary price to pay for successful elimination of pathogens by the innate immune defense. Yet, it is possible to distinguish protective from destructive effects of innate immune activation and selectively attenuate molecular nodes that create pathology. Here, we identify acute cystitis as an Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-driven, hyper-inflammatory condition of the infected urinary bladder and IL-1 receptor blockade as a novel therapeutic strategy. Disease severity was controlled by the mechanism of IL-1β processing and mice with intact inflammasome function developed a moderate, self-limiting form of cystitis. The most severe form of acute cystitis was detected in mice lacking the inflammasome constituents ASC or NLRP-3. IL-1β processing was hyperactive in these mice, due to a new, non-canonical mechanism involving the matrix metalloproteinase 7- (MMP-7). ASC and NLRP-3 served as transcriptional repressors of MMP7 and as a result, Mmp7 was markedly overexpressed in the bladder epithelium of Asc-/- and Nlrp3-/- mice. The resulting IL-1β hyper-activation loop included a large number of IL-1β-dependent pro-inflammatory genes and the IL-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra inhibited their expression and rescued susceptible Asc-/- mice from bladder pathology. An MMP inhibitor had a similar therapeutic effect. Finally, elevated levels of IL-1β and MMP-7 were detected in patients with acute cystitis, suggesting a potential role as biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets. The results reproduce important aspects of human acute cystitis in the murine model and provide a comprehensive molecular framework for the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acute cystitis, one of the most common infections in man. Trial Registration The clinical studies were approved by the Human Ethics Committee at Lund University (approval numbers LU106-02, LU236-99 and Clinical Trial Registration RTP-A2003, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, www

  17. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  18. [Interstitial Pneumonia and Emphysema].

    PubMed

    Sawa, Teiji; Kato, Yuko; Ishii, Sachiyo

    2015-09-01

    Interstitial pneumonia (IP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are representative diseases of restrictive pulmonary dysfunction and obstructive pulmonary dysfunction, respectively. In the preoperative anesthesia clinic, anesthesiologists are frequently asked to assess the anesthesia management of patients with these diseases. In respiratory function tests, IP is detected as a decrease in % vital capacity (< 80%), and COPD as a decrease in % FEV1.0 (< 70%). Other key factors which affect the assessment are; 1) severity assessment that affects the safety of anesthesia management, 2) prognostic evaluation including the acute exacerbation in the postoperative period, and 3) patient-related factors (age, life degree of autonomy, other comorbidities, surgery-related factors, and anesthesia method). In the patients in the disease stage I or II, anesthesia management is relatively safe. On the other hand, the patients in the disease stage IV have no surgical indication except life-saving emergent situation. In another words, anesthesiologists are required to make the judgment for the anesthesia management of the patient in the disease stage III, based on the assessment of patient-related factors, surgery-related factors, and prognosis.

  19. Cloaca prolapse and cystitis in green iguana (Iguana iguana) caused by a novel Cryptosporidium species.

    PubMed

    Kik, Marja J L; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Lenstra, Johannes A; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2011-01-10

    Cryptosporidium infection was associated with colitis and cystitis in 2 green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The disease was characterized by a chronic clinical course of cloacal prolapses and cystitis. Histological examination of the gut and urinary bladder showed numerous Cryptosporidium developmental stages on the surface of the epithelium with mixed inflammatory response in the lamina propria. Cryptosporidium oocysts were visualised in a cytological preparation of the faeces. Based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene the cryptosporidia were characterized as belonging to the intestinal cryptosporidial lineage, but not to Cryptosporidium saurophilum or Cryptosporidium serpentis species.

  20. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP.

  1. [THE QUANTIFICATION OF SULPHATED GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS IN RAT URINE IN EXPERIMENTAL HEMORRHAGIC CYSTITIS].

    PubMed

    Sobolev, V E; Shmurak, V I

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the study of the excretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the urine of rats in experimental hemorrhagic cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide and treated with glycosaminoglycan replacement therapy. Rats were given intraperitoneal injections of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 100 mg per 1 kg body weight and subsequently treated with intragastric administration of the combined preparation of glycosaminoglycans containing glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate at a dose of 10 and 100 mg per 1 kg of body weight. Within 24 or 72 hours after cystitis induction there was a statistically significant increase in urinary GAG excretion. The study also found a decrease (from 1.34 to 1.22 mg/dL) in urinary GAG within 0 to 72 hours following induction of acute cystitis without glycosaminoglycan therapy. In the subchronic model of inflammation in the bladder, upon repeated administration of low doses of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg), decrease in urinary GAG within 0 to 72 hours (1,32±0,13 mg/dL) as well as increased excretion after 96 hours at a concentration of 2,29±0,13 mg/L after initiation cystitis were found.

  2. Application of fibrin glue to damaged bladder mucosa in a case of BK viral hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Purves, J Todd; Graham, Michael L; Ramakumar, Sanjay

    2005-09-01

    BK virus is a common cause of severe hemorrhagic cystitis refractory to standard treatment. We describe a technique to achieve hemostasis after failed conservative therapy using fibrin glue applied suprapubically while visualizing and insufflating the bladder through a cystoscope. Long-term hemostasis was achieved using this novel procedure.

  3. Protective effect of berberine on cyclophosphamide-induced haemorrhagic cystitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Malavé, A

    2001-05-01

    The urotoxicity of cyclophosphamide and the protective effect of the herb berberine were investigated in this study. Administration of 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally caused a serious haemorrhagic cystitis in rats after 12 hr, including bladder oedema, haemorrhage, and dramatic elevation of nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite+nitrate) in urine and in plasma. To explore whether cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis could be prevented by berberine, rats were pretreated with a single dose or two doses of berberine at 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally then challenged with cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The results indicated that pretreatment of rats with berberine could reduce cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that two doses of berberine showed greater protection against cyclophosphamide urotoxicity than when given a single dose. In addition, our data shows that a single dose of 200 mg/kg berberine, or two doses of 100, and 200 mg/kg berberine could completely block cyclophosphamide-induced bladder oedema and haemorrhage, as well as nitric oxide metabolites increase in rat urine and plasma. In conclusion, our findings suggest that berberine could be a potential effective drug in the treatment of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, and provides us with the bright hope in the prevention and treatment of cyclophosphamide urotoxicity.

  4. Pathology of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Hashisako, Mikiko; Fukuoka, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The updated classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) in 2013 by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society included several important revisions to the categories described in the 2002 classification. In the updated classification, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) was moved from major to rare IIPs, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was newly included in the rare IIPs, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) and interstitial pneumonias with a bronchiolocentric distribution are recognized as rare histologic patterns, and unclassifiable IIP (UCIP) was classified as an IIP. However, recent reports indicate the areas of concern that may require further evaluation. Here, we describe the histopathologic features of the updated IIPs and their rare histologic patterns and also point out some of the issues to be considered in this context. PMID:26949346

  5. Pemphigus vulgaris-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yi-Xiu; Chu, Jin-Gang; Xiao, Ting; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-07-01

    Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBDs)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) is extremely rare. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an intraepidermal autoimmune blistering disease caused by circulating autoantibodies against desmoglein. To date, PV-associated ILD has rarely been reported in English literature. We report a rare association of PV and ILD. A 53-year-old Chinese female with PV for 8 months developed ILD after a relapse of PV for 2 months due to discontinuation of oral prednisone by herself. She was successfully treated by systemic methylprednisolone. Taken previously reported bullous pemphigoid-associated ILD and linear IgA/IgG bullous dermatosis-associated ILD together, in general, AIBDs-associated ILD occurs when AIBDs relapse or are not controlled, responds well to systemic corticosteroids, and has a relatively better prognosis when compared with rheumatoid arthritis- or dermatomyositis-associated ILD.

  6. Interstitial brines in playa sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Van Denburgh, A.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Rettig, S.L.

    1969-01-01

    Study of several closed drainages in the Great Basin has shown that the interstitial solutions of shallow, fine-grained playa deposits store a large quantity of dissolved solids and are often more concentrated than associated lakes and ponds, except in peripheral zones of stream or ground-water inflow. These interstitial fluids, when compared with local runoff, impoundments, or spring waters, commonly have a distinctive ionic composition which sometimes cannot be explained by either simple mixing of surface and subsurface inflow or by evaporative concentration. At Abert Lake, Oregon, the interstitial solute concentrations increased with depth to values as much as five times greater than the lake, except where springs indicate significant ground-water input. Where Na+, Cl, and CO2 species constitute more than 90% of the solutes, Na+ Cl- ratios in the lake water are lower than in interstitial solutions of bottom cores and higher than in playa fluids. At the same time, Na+ K+ ratios are highest in the fluids of lake bottom muds and lowest in playa interstitials. In deeper playa profiles, interstitial Na+ Cl- tended to decrease with depth (5 ft. maximum). In the Abert Lake area, as in other parts of the western Great Basin, Na+ Cl- ratios are indicative of total CO2 in solution and the effects of organic decay in surficial sediments. These ratios, coupled with data on silica and bulk density, show that higher PCO2 accompanying decay promotes silicate dissolution and hydrogen ion exchange, stripping alkalis from sediment which had preferentially adsorbed K+ when entering the lake. On subsequent loss of pore fluid in the playa regime, silica initially released to solution in the lake environment is readsorbed on dissolution products. ?? 1969.

  7. The role of interstitial brachytherapy in the management of primary radiation therapy for uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuma; Kato, Tomoyasu; Nakamura, Satoshi; Wakita, Akihisa; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Shima, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Keisuke; Kashihara, Tairo; Harada, Ken; Takahashi, Kana; Umezawa, Rei; Inaba, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to report the clinical results of uterine cervical cancer patients treated by primary radiation therapy including brachytherapy, and investigate the role of interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT). Material and methods All consecutive uterine cervical cancer patients who were treated by primary radiation therapy were reviewed, and those who were treated by ISBT were further investigated for clinical outcomes and related toxicities. Results From December 2008 to October 2014, 209 consecutive uterine cervical cancer patients were treated with primary radiation therapy. Among them, 142 and 42 patients were treated by intracavitary and hybrid brachytherapy, respectively. Twenty-five patients (12%) were treated by high-dose-rate (HDR)-ISBT. Five patients with distant metastasis other than para-aortic lymph node were excluded, and 20 patients consisted of the analysis. Three-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) rate were 44.4%, 38.9%, and 87.8%, respectively. Distant metastasis was the most frequent site of first relapse after HDR-ISBT. One and four patients experienced grade 3 and 2 rectal bleeding, one grade 2 cystitis, and two grade 2 vaginal ulcer. Conclusions Feasibility and favorable local control of interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer was demonstrated through a single institutional experience with a small number of patients. PMID:27895680

  8. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  9. First Isolation of carbon dioxide-dependent Proteus mirabilis from an uncomplicated cystitis patient with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oana, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Michiko; Nagata, Mika; Washino, Kei-Ichi; Akahane, Takayuki; Takamatsu, Yu-Uki; Tsutsui, Chie; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    An uncomplicated cystitis caused by CO2-dependent Proteus mirabilis was observed in a 64-year-old Japanese female patient with Sjögren's syndrome in the Aomori Kyoritsu Hospital, Aomori, Japan. The initial P. mirabilis isolate came from a midstream urine specimen containing large numbers of Gram-negative, rod-shaped organisms that failed to grow on both Drigalski agar and sheep blood agar incubated in ambient air. The organism did grow when the urine was cultured overnight on blood agar under anaerobic conditions. Hence, we believed that the organism was an anaerobe. Further investigation revealed that the isolate grew on sheep blood agar along with swarming when the atmospheric CO2 concentrations were increased to 5%. Initially, we failed to characterize or identify the P. mirabilis isolate or determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities using the MicroScan WalkAway-40 System because the isolate did not grow in the system. However, the isolate was subsequently identified as P. mirabilis based on its morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties by using the commercially available kit systems, Quick ID-GN and ID-Test EB-20. This identification of the isolate was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical isolation of capnophilic P. mirabilis.

  10. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Laria, A.; Lurati, A.; Scarpellini, M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs) are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US) findings in the follow-up of a NSIP's case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:26240772

  11. Encrusted Cystitis Secondary to Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum in a 57-Year-Old Man Without Predisposing Factors.

    PubMed

    Curry, Chelsea R; Saluja, Karan; Das, Sanchita; Thakral, Beenu; Dangle, Pankaj; Keeler, Thomas C; Watkin, William G

    2015-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a rare condition characterized by encrustation of the bladder mucosa with associated chronic inflammation induced by urea-splitting bacterial infection--most commonly, Corynebacterium urealyticum. Moreover, it usually occurs in immunocompromised patients, especially recipients of renal transplants or patients with a history of previous urological procedures. Due to the rarity of the entity and the slow growth of Corynebacterium species, appropriate treatment is often delayed due to difficulties in diagnosis and resistance to numerous antibiotics. We report a case of encrusted cystitis caused by Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum, another urea-splitting microbe, in a 57-year-old previously healthy Caucasian man with no known predisposing factors. The timely diagnosis and management in this otherwise healthy patient was facilitated by characteristic imaging, cystoscopy, and histologic findings confirmed by results of prolonged urine cultures and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing of the microbe.

  12. Simultaneous BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV)-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis after living donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Helanterä, Ilkka; Hirsch, Hans H; Wernli, Marion; Ortiz, Fernanda; Lempinen, Marko; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Auvinen, Eeva; Mannonen, Laura; Lautenschlager, Irmeli

    2016-03-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) commonly reactivates after kidney transplantation, and can cause polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN), whereas after allogeneic stem cell transplantation the most frequent manifestation of BKPyV is polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (PyVHC). Despite high-level BKPyV replication in both, the pathogenesis and manifestation of both BKPyV entities appears to differ substantially. We describe an unusual case of simultaneous PyVAN and PyVHC presenting with acute symptoms in a BKPyV-IgG positive recipient eight months after kidney transplantation from a haploidentical living donor, who was BKPyV-IgG negative. Symptoms of cystitis and viremia subsided rapidly after reduction of immunosuppression.

  13. Effect of sodium meclofenamate on radiation-induced esophagitis and cystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrus, J.L.; Ambrus, C.M.; Lillie, D.B.; Johnson, R.J.; Gastpar, H.; Kishel, S.

    1984-01-01

    Stumptailed monkeys (Macaca arctoides) received 2000 rad irradiation to the upper half of the esophagus and to the bladder by a 6-MeV linear accelerator. Endoscopy and biopsy was obtained from these organs weekly for 3 weeks. At the end of this period, the animals were autopsied and histopathologic examination undertaken. Sodium meclofenamate in doses of 5-20 mg/kg/day p.os was found effective in reducing or preventing radiation-induced esophagitis and cystitis.

  14. Role for Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) in Cystitis-induced Plasticity of Micturition Reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Braas, Karen M.; May, Victor; Zvara, Peter; Nausch, Bernhard; Kliment, Jan; Dunleavy, J. Dana; Nelson, Mark T.; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2006-01-01

    PACAP peptides are expressed and regulated in sensory afferents of the micturition pathway. Although these studies have implicated PACAP in bladder control, the physiological significance of these observations has not been firmly established. To clarify these issues, the roles of PACAP and PACAP signaling in micturition and cystitis were examined in receptor characterization and physiological assays. PACAP receptors were identified in various tissues of the micturition pathway including bladder detrusor smooth muscle and urothelium. Bladder smooth muscle expressed heterogeneously PAC1null, PAC1HOP1 and VPAC2 receptors; the urothelium was more restricted in expressing preferentially the PAC1 receptor subtype only. Immunocytochemical studies for PAC1 receptors were consistent with these tissue distributions. Furthermore, the addition of 50 – 100 nM PACAP27 or PACAP38 to isolated bladder strips elicited transient contractions and sustained increases in the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions. Treatment of the bladder strips with tetrodotoxin (1 μM) did not alter the spontaneous phasic contractions suggesting direct PACAP effects on bladder smooth muscle. PACAP also increased the amplitude of nerve-evoked contractions. By contrast, VIP had no direct effects on bladder smooth muscle. In a rat cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis paradigm, intrathecal or intravesical administration of PAC1 receptor antagonist, PACAP6-38, reduced cystitis-induced bladder overactivity. In sum, these studies support roles for PACAP in micturition and suggest that inflammation-induced plasticity in PACAP expression in peripheral and central micturition pathways contribute to bladder dysfunction with cystitis. PMID:16322346

  15. Phentermine induced acute interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Emily Ximin; Wilson, Gregory John; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan

    2017-03-09

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) has a number of medication-related aetiologies. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are common causes; however, any medication has the potential to cause drug-induced AIN. We report the first case of phentermine-induced AIN. A Caucasian woman aged 43 years presented with a 5-week history of lethargy, left-sided lower abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. She had been taking phentermine for weight loss for 9 months and had recently ceased the medication. The patient underwent a renal biopsy that showed a predominantly lymphohistiocytic interstitial infiltrate with a moderate number of eosinophils consistent with AIN. Phentermine is increasingly used for weight loss in obese patients. This is the first case implicating phentermine as the causative agent for drug-induced AIN. While rare, phentermine-induced AIN is a possible adverse reaction of phentermine. Physicians and patients need to be aware of this risk.

  16. Smoking and interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Vasarmidi, Eirini; Jacob, Joseph; Wells, Athol U; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2015-09-01

    For many years has been well known that smoking could cause lung damage. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer have been the two most common smoking-related lung diseases. In the recent years, attention has also focused on the role of smoking in the development of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Indeed, there are three diseases, namely respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, that are currently considered aetiologically linked to smoking and a few others which are more likely to develop in smokers. Here, we aim to focus on the most recent findings regarding the role of smoking in the pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of ILDs.

  17. A Prospective Multi-center Trial of Escherichia coli Extract for the Prophylactic Treatment of Patients with Chronically Recurrent Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Suk; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Jeong, In Gab; Paick, Jae-Seung; Son, Hwancheol; Lim, Dae Jung; Shim, Hong Bang; Park, Won Hee; Jung, Hee Chang

    2010-01-01

    We have assessed the efficacy and safety of Escherichia coli extract (ECE; Uro-Vaxom®) which contains active immunostimulating fractions, in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. Forty-two patients with more than 2 episodes of cystitis in the proceeding 6 months were treated for 3 months with one capsule daily of ECE and observed for a further 6 months. The primary efficacy criterion was the number of episodes of recurrent cystitis during the 6 months after treatment compared to those during the 6 months before treatment. At the end of the 9-month trial, 34 patients (all women) were eligible for statistical analysis. Their mean age was 56.4 yr (range, 34-75 yr), and they had experienced recurrent urinary tract infections for 7.2±5.2 yr. The number of recurrences was significantly lower during the 6-month follow-up period than during the 6 months preceding the trial (0.35 vs. 4.26, P<0.001). During the follow-up, 28 (82.4%) patients had no recurrences and 4 (11.8%) had 1 each. In patients who relapsed, ECE alleviated cystitis symptoms, including painful voiding, frequency and urgency. There were no serious adverse events related to the study drug. Our study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ECE in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. PMID:20191044

  18. [Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Marten, Katharina

    2007-03-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  19. Contribution of interstitial solute strengthening in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Isao; Ono, Satoshi; Hanaoka, Yudai; Uesugi, Tokuteru; Takigawa, Yorinobu; Higashi, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Enthalpies of solutions and misfit strains for the Al-X (X = H, B, C, N, and O) binary alloys were determined by first-principles calculations to estimate the strengthening of solid solutions caused by interstitial atoms. The results indicate that interstitial solute atoms produced large misfit strains. Electrodeposited Al containing 0.12-1.32 at.% C was used to assess the validity of solid-solution strengthening by interstitial solute atoms. The role that interstitial carbon plays in strengthening electrodeposited Al is discussed.

  20. A case of polypoid and papillary cystitis mimicking an advanced bladder carcinoma with invasion of perivesical fat.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Kumi; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Gabata, Toshifumi; Matsui, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A rare case of polypoid and papillary cystitis without a history of catheterization is reported. A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of pain during urination and gross hematuria. The cystscopic and imaging findings including ultrasound, CT, and MR image showed an irregular wall thickening and stranding in the perivesical fat, which indicated an advanced bladder carcinoma, but histopathological findings obtained by transurethral resection revealed polypoid and papillary cystitis. Such benign lesions need to be discussed in the differential diagnosis of patients with bladder tumor to avoid excessive resection.

  1. A case of polypoid and papillary cystitis mimicking an advanced bladder carcinoma with invasion of perivesical fat

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Kumi; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Gabata, Toshifumi; Matsui, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A rare case of polypoid and papillary cystitis without a history of catheterization is reported. A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of pain during urination and gross hematuria. The cystscopic and imaging findings including ultrasound, CT, and MR image showed an irregular wall thickening and stranding in the perivesical fat, which indicated an advanced bladder carcinoma, but histopathological findings obtained by transurethral resection revealed polypoid and papillary cystitis. Such benign lesions need to be discussed in the differential diagnosis of patients with bladder tumor to avoid excessive resection. PMID:24669128

  2. Interleukin-4 modulates the inflammatory response in ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Francisco Yuri Bulcão; Mourão, Lívia Talita Cajaseiras; Freitas, Helano Carioca; Lima, Roberto C P; Wong, Deysi Viviana Tenazoa; Oriá, Reinaldo Barreto; Vale, Mariana L; Brito, Gerly Anne Casto; Cunha, Fernando Q; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2012-02-01

    We investigated whether interleukin-4 (IL-4) is present and capable of reducing inflammatory changes seen in ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Male Swiss mice were treated with saline or ifosfamide alone or ifosfamide with the classical protocol with mesna and analyzed by changes in bladder wet weight (BWW), macroscopic and microscopic parameters, exudate, and hemoglobin quantification. In other groups, IL-4 was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before ifosfamide. In other experimental groups, C57BL/6 WT (wild type) and C57BL/6 WT IL-4 (-/-) knockout animals were treated with ifosfamide and analyzed for changes in BWW. Quantification of bladder IL-4 protein by ELISA in control, ifosfamide-, and mesna-treated groups was performed. Immunohistochemistry to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) as well as protein identification by Western blot assay for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was carried out on ifosfamide- and IL-4-treated animals. In other experimental groups, antiserum against IL-4 was given 30 min before ifosfamide. In IL-4-treated animals, the severity of hemorrhagic cystitis was significantly milder than in animals treated with ifosfamide only, an effect that was reverted with serum anti-IL-4. Moreover, knockout animals for IL-4 (-/-) exhibit a worse degree of inflammation when compared to C57BL/6 wild type. Exogenous IL-4 also attenuated TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2 expressions in ifosfamide-treated bladders. IL-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, attenuates the inflammation seen in ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  3. Clinical Features of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis-Related Autoantibody in Comparison with Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Eri; Kitamura, Hideya; Yamanaka, Yumie; Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Akimasa; Baba, Tomohisa; Iso, Shinichiro; Okudela, Koji; Iwasawa, Tae; Takemura, Tamiko; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Ogura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias sometimes have a few features of connective tissue disease (CTD) and yet do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for any specific CTD. Objective This study was conducted to elucidate the characteristics, prognosis, and disease behavior in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related autoantibodies. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 72 ILD patients: 40 patients with SSc (SSc-ILD) and 32 patients with SSc-related autoantibody-positive ILD but not with CTD (ScAb-ILD), indicating lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody. Results Patients with SSc-ILD were predominantly females and non-smokers, and most had nonspecific interstitial pneumonia confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pathological analysis. However, about half of the patients with ScAb-ILD were male and current or ex-smokers. On HRCT analysis, honeycombing was more predominant in patients with ScAb-ILD than with SSc-ILD. Pathological analysis showed the severity of vascular intimal or medial thickening in the SSc-ILD patients to be significantly higher than that in the ScAb-ILD patients. Survival curves showed that the patients with ScAb-ILD had a significantly poorer outcome than those with SSc-ILD. Conclusion Data from this study suggest that lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody is a different disease entity from SSc-ILD. PMID:27564852

  4. TELOCYTES - a case of serendipity: the winding way from Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC), via Interstitial Cajal-Like Cells (ICLC) to TELOCYTES.

    PubMed

    Popescu, L M; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2010-04-01

    Ramon y Cajal discovered a particular cell type in the gut, which he named 'interstitial neurons' more that 100 years ago. In the early 1970s, electron microscopy/electron microscope (EM) studies showed that indeed a special interstitial cell type corresponding to the cells discovered by Cajal is localized in the gut muscle coat, but it became obvious that they were not neurons. Consequently, they were renamed 'interstitial cells of Cajal' (ICC) and considered to be pace-makers for gut motility. For the past 10 years many groups were interested in whether or not ICC are present outside the gastrointestinal tract, and indeed, peculiar interstitial cells were found in: upper and lower urinary tracts, blood vessels, pancreas, male and female reproductive tracts, mammary gland, placenta, and, recently, in the heart as well as in the gut. Such cells, now mostly known as interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC), were given different and confusing names. Moreover, ICLC are only apparently similar to canonical ICC. In fact, EM and cell cultures revealed very particular features of ICLC, which unequivocally distinguishes them from ICC and all other interstitial cells: the presence of 2-5 cell body prolongations that are very thin (less than 0.2 mum, under resolving power of light microscopy), extremely long (tens to hundreds of mum), with a moniliform aspect (many dilations along), as well as caveolae. Given the unique dimensions of these prolongations (very long and very thin) and to avoid further confusion with other interstitial cell types (e.g. fibroblast, fibrocyte, fibroblast-like cells, mesenchymal cells), we are proposing the term TELOCYTES for them, and TELOPODES for their prolongations, by using the Greek affix 'telos'.

  5. Emphysematous cystitis and pyelonephritis in a nondiabetic dog and a diabetic cat.

    PubMed

    Moon, Rachel; Biller, David S; Smee, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    Emphysematous cystitis (EC) and emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) are the result of infection of the urinary bladder and kidneys by gas-producing microorganisms. Those infections are most often reported in diabetic patients and rarely occur concurrently. This article describes two cases of concurrent EC and EPN, one in a nondiabetic dog and the other in a diabetic cat. The use of diagnostic imaging is necessary in the diagnosis of emphysematous infections. Both radiography and ultrasonography were used in the diagnosis of EC and EPN in the patients described in this report.

  6. Gangrenous Cystitis in A Woman Following Vaginal Delivery: An Uncommon Occurrence - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Pooja; Aggarwal, Neelam; Shankaregowda, Sriharsha Ajjur

    2015-01-01

    Gangrenous cystitis is now a rare condition with the advent of antibiotics and better obstetric services. It has a multifactorial causation manifesting as urosepsis or peritonitis. We report a case of 24-year-old lady who presented at day 12 postpartum with abdominal distension and vomitings. History of prolonged labour was present. Peritoneal tap was suggestive of pyoperitoneum. Hence she was taken up for emergency laparotomy and incidentally found to have bladder necrosis. Partial cystectomy was done and patient was discharged in a satisfactory condition after 2 weeks. PMID:26676158

  7. Treatment of cervical carcinoma employing a template for transperineal interstitial Ir192 brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, O; Morrow, C P; Klement, V; Schlaerth, J B; Nalick, R H

    1983-06-01

    The development of a template technique at this institution for transperineal interstitial-intracavitary brachytherapy employing Ir192 wire has previously been reported. In this paper we report the results of radiation treatment of 84 women with fresh, primary squamous carcinoma of the cervix admitted to the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center from April, 1975 to September, 1979 who received at least one transperineal template implant as part of their initial treatment. The 75 evaluable patients were followed 3 to 60 months, with a median of 17 months. Recurrence rates in the pelvic treatment field by clinical (FIGO) stage grouping were 35.7% (5/14) Stage IB;0% (0/8) Stage IIA; 20% (5/25) Stage IIB; 46.2% (12/26) Stage III; and 0% (0/2) Stage IVA. The overall failure rate within the treatment field was 29.3% (22/75). The non-tumor associated rectovaginal and vesicovaginal fistula rate was 14.3% (2/14) in Stage IB; 0% (0/8) in Stage IIA; 16.0% (4/25) in Stage IIB; 15.4% (4/26) in Stage III; and 0% (0/2) in Stage IVA. The non-tumor associated fistula rate for all stages was 13.3% (10/75). Severe or grade III nonfistulous, delayed adverse effects (proctosigmoiditis, cystitis, vault necrosis) occurred in an additional 6 patients. Thus, 21.3% (16/75) of all evaluable patients experienced severe adverse radiation effects during the follow-up period. Pre-radiation staging laparotomy was performed on 31 patients. It had no obvious effect on the pattern or rate of radiation complications. The role of the interstitial-intracavitary template in the treatment of primary cervical carcinoma is discussed.

  8. Angiogenic factors, bladder neuroplasticity and interstitial cystitis—new pathobiological insights

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for normal embryonic development, and maintenance of adult vascular function. Originally described as a vascular permeability factor, VEGF alters tight cell junctions and contributes to maintenance of bladder permeability. VEGF and its receptors are not only expressed in bladder blood vessels but also in apical cells and intramural ganglia. VEGF receptors are fundamentally altered by inflammation and bladder diseases such as interstitial cystitis (IC). Experimental results indicate that VEGF exerts direct effects on bladder nerve density and function. Regardless of the etiology or initiating cause for IC, it is hypothesized that the urinary bladder responds to injury by increasing the production of VEGF that acts initially as a survival mechanism. However, VEGF also has the capacity to increase vascular permeability leading to glomerulations, edema, and inflammation. Moreover, due to elevated numbers of VEGF receptors in the urothelium, the increased levels of VEGF further increase bladder permeability and establish a vicioCus cycle of disease pathophysiology. PMID:26816854

  9. Cough in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Garner, Justin; George, Peter M; Renzoni, Elisabetta

    2015-12-01

    Cough in the context of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been the focus of many studies. However, chronic cough has a major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients with ILD. For the purpose of this review, we have chosen to highlight some of the more frequently encountered diffuse lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. Many of the underlying mechanisms remain speculative and further research is now required to elucidate the complex pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic cough in ILD. This will hopefully pave the way for the identification of new therapeutic agents to alleviate this distressing and often intractable symptom.

  10. Interstitial Lung Disease in Scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Sara R.; Castelino, Flavia V.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous disease of unknown etiology and with limited effective therapies. It is characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy and fibrosis and is clinically manifested by multi-organ involvement. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of the disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of ILD hinges upon careful clinical evaluation as well as pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). A number of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of SSc-ILD, with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) playing a key role in the development of fibrosis. Despite recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of disease initiation and progression, effective therapeutic options are still limited. A number of experimental therapies are currently in early phase clinical trials and show promise. PMID:25836640

  11. Postoperative interstitial brachytherapy in eyelid cancer: long term results and assessment of Cosmesis After Interstitial Brachytherapy scale

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Trinanjan; Chaudhary, Suresh; Chaukar, Devendra; Nadkarni, Mandar; GN, Manjunatha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyse feasibility and safety of postoperative interstitial brachytherapy (IBRT) in patients of eyelid cancer treated primarily by surgical excision. Material and methods In this series, 8 patients with eyelid cancer were treated using postoperative interstitial brachytherapy. Patients were followed up for local control, cosmetic outcome, and acute and late toxicities. Cosmetic outcome was measured using a 6 point indigenous Cosmesis After Interstitial Brachytherapy (CAIB) scale. Results The patients were between 23-82 years (median: 71 years). There were 3 females and 5 males, and 3 patients had lesions in upper eyelid. Postoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy was used in all with 2 catheters implanted in most of them (6 out of 8). Local control was calculated from end of treatment to last follow-up. At last follow-up, all patients remained locally controlled. Two patients had nodal recurrence 6 months after interstitial brachytherapy and were salvaged effectively by external beam radiotherapy. At last follow-up, 7 patients were loco-regionally controlled and one was lost to follow up. All patients had Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 1 acute toxicity and 2 had grade 1 Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version.3 late toxicities. The cosmesis score for the whole group ranged between 0-1 indicating excellent to very good cosmesis. Conclusions Postoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy resulted in excellent disease control and cosmesis without significant acute or late toxicities. It is an effective modality for treatment of eyelid cancers in selected patients. Future prospective studies with the validation of CAIB scale would give us more insight to this effective yet often ignored modality of IBRT. PMID:25834578

  12. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi

    2016-11-24

    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  13. Fungus ball and emphysematous cystitis secondary to Candida tropicalis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Ji, Xiang; Sun, Guo-feng; Qin, Ying-chao; Gong, Miao-zi; Zhang, Jin-xia; Li, Ning-chen; Na, Yan-qun

    2015-01-01

    Fungus ball and fungal emphysematous cystitis are two rare complications of fungal urinary tract infection. A 53-year-old male patient presented with these complications caused by Candida tropicalis simultaneously. The predisposing factors were diabetes mellitus and usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The fungus ball, measuring 3.5 × 2.0 cm on the left wall of the urinary bladder, shrank significantly to 1.6 × 0.8 cm after 5 days of intermittent irrigation with saline before surgery. With transurethral removal of the fungus ball and antifungal treatment with fluconazole, the patient fully recovered. We conclude that a bladder fungus ball and fungal emphysematous cystitis should always be suspected in patients with diabetes mellitus with uncontrolled funguria and abnormal imaging. Treatment should include a systemic antifungal therapy and thorough surgical removal of the fungus ball. A systemic antifungal therapy combined with a local irrigation with saline or antifungal drugs might help decrease the dissemination of fungemia during an invasive manipulation. PMID:26425243

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors mediate DNA damage repair in ameliorating hemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Subhash; Dru, Christopher; Mishra, Rajeev; Tripathi, Manisha; Duong, Frank; Angara, Bryan; Fernandez, Ana; Arditi, Moshe; Bhowmick, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is an inflammatory and ulcerative bladder condition associated with systemic chemotherapeutics, like cyclophosphomide. Earlier, we reported reactive oxygen species resulting from cyclophosphamide metabolite, acrolein, causes global methylation followed by silencing of DNA damage repair genes. Ogg1 (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase) is one such silenced base excision repair enzyme that can restore DNA integrity. The accumulation of DNA damage results in subsequent inflammation associated with pyroptotic death of bladder smooth muscle cells. We hypothesized that reversing inflammasome-induced imprinting in the bladder smooth muscle could prevent the inflammatory phenotype. Elevated recruitment of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b to the Ogg1 promoter in acrolein treated bladder muscle cells was validated by the pattern of CpG methylation revealed by bisulfite sequencing. Knockout of Ogg1 in detrusor cells resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen mediated 8-Oxo-dG and spontaneous pyroptotic signaling. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), restored Ogg1 expression in cells treated with acrolein and mice treated with cyclophosphamide superior to the standard of care, mesna or nicotinamide-induced DNA demethylation. SAHA restored cyclophosphamide-induced bladder pathology to that of untreated control mice. The observed epigenetic imprinting induced by inflammation suggests a new therapeutic target for the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:27995963

  15. Clinical evaluation of multimodal environmental modification (MEMO) in the management of cats with idiopathic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Buffington, C A Tony; Westropp, Jodi L; Chew, Dennis J; Bolus, Roger R

    2006-08-01

    This prospective observational study evaluated client-reported recurrence of lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) and other signs of abnormalities in cats with idiopathic cystitis after institution of multimodal environmental modification (MEMO). Forty-six client-owned indoor-housed cats with idiopathic cystitis, diagnosed based on a history of recurrent LUTS and evidence of absence of urolithiasis or bacterial urinary tract infection were studied. In addition to their usual care, clients were offered recommendations for MEMO based on a detailed environmental history. Cases were followed for 10 months by client contact to determine the effect of MEMO on LUTS and other signs. Significant (P<0.05) reductions in LUTS, fearfulness, nervousness, signs referable to the respiratory tract, and a trend (P<0.1) toward reduced aggressive behavior and signs referable to the lower intestinal tract were identified. These results suggest that MEMO is a promising adjunctive therapy for indoor-housed cats with LUTS, and should be followed up with prospective controlled clinical trials.

  16. [Intravesical electrostimulation and magnetotherapy in chronic pyelonephritis and cystitis in children with urodynamic disorders].

    PubMed

    Sharkov, S M; Iatsik, S P; Bolotova, N V; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Konova, O M; Tkacheva, E N

    2011-01-01

    The results of the treatment of 38 children (6 boys and 32 girls, age 6-14 years) with chronic pyelonephritis and/or cystitis complicated with neurogenic dysfunction of the urinary bladder (NDUB) and/or vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) of the first-third degree demonstrate efficacy of intravesical electrostimulation (IVES) and adrenal magnetotherapy. IVES was conducted with high-frequency current impulses (2.2 kHz) by means of INTRASTIM attachment to the device AMUS-01-INTRAMAG in the region of the urethrovesical anastomosis via solution of the drugs for instillation. As the result of exposure to both physical factors in the presence of standard medication, NDUB symptoms alleviated (by E.L. Vishnevsky's criteria) by 59.5% against 38.1% in the control group. Dopplerographic examination of renal vessels stated a 24.3% increase in blood flow in the major renal artery in the study group against 10.5% in the control. The proposed complex pharmacological plus physiotherapeutic treatment of chronic pyelonephritis and cystitis in abnormal urodynamics resulted in a 2.2-fold decrease in the number of recurrences compared to the standard treatment.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors mediate DNA damage repair in ameliorating hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Subhash; Dru, Christopher; Mishra, Rajeev; Tripathi, Manisha; Duong, Frank; Angara, Bryan; Fernandez, Ana; Arditi, Moshe; Bhowmick, Neil A

    2016-12-20

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is an inflammatory and ulcerative bladder condition associated with systemic chemotherapeutics, like cyclophosphomide. Earlier, we reported reactive oxygen species resulting from cyclophosphamide metabolite, acrolein, causes global methylation followed by silencing of DNA damage repair genes. Ogg1 (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase) is one such silenced base excision repair enzyme that can restore DNA integrity. The accumulation of DNA damage results in subsequent inflammation associated with pyroptotic death of bladder smooth muscle cells. We hypothesized that reversing inflammasome-induced imprinting in the bladder smooth muscle could prevent the inflammatory phenotype. Elevated recruitment of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b to the Ogg1 promoter in acrolein treated bladder muscle cells was validated by the pattern of CpG methylation revealed by bisulfite sequencing. Knockout of Ogg1 in detrusor cells resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen mediated 8-Oxo-dG and spontaneous pyroptotic signaling. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), restored Ogg1 expression in cells treated with acrolein and mice treated with cyclophosphamide superior to the standard of care, mesna or nicotinamide-induced DNA demethylation. SAHA restored cyclophosphamide-induced bladder pathology to that of untreated control mice. The observed epigenetic imprinting induced by inflammation suggests a new therapeutic target for the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis.

  18. Crucial Role of TRPC1 and TRPC4 in Cystitis-Induced Neuronal Sprouting and Bladder Overactivity

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Silvia; Freichel, Marc; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Voets, Thomas; De Ridder, Dirk; Vennekens, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose During cystitis, increased innervation of the bladder by sensory nerves may contribute to bladder overactivity and pain. The mechanisms whereby cystitis leads to hyperinnervation of the bladder are, however, poorly understood. Since TRP channels have been implicated in the guidance of growth cones and survival of neurons, we investigated their involvement in the increases in bladder innervation and bladder activity in rodent models of cystitis. Materials and Methods To induce bladder hyperactivity, we chronically injected cyclophosphamide in rats and mice. All experiments were performed a week later. We used quantitative transcriptional analysis and immunohistochemistry to determine TRP channel expression on retrolabelled bladder sensory neurons. To assess bladder function and referred hyperalgesia, urodynamic analysis, detrusor strip contractility and Von Frey filament experiments were done in wild type and knock-out mice. Results Repeated cyclophosphamide injections induce a specific increase in the expression of TRPC1 and TRPC4 in bladder-innervating sensory neurons and the sprouting of sensory fibers in the bladder mucosa. Interestingly, cyclophosphamide-treated Trpc1/c4−/− mice no longer exhibited increased bladder innervations, and, concomitantly, the development of bladder overactivity was diminished in these mice. We did not observe a difference neither in bladder contraction features of double knock-out animals nor in cyclophosphamide-induced referred pain behavior. Conclusions Collectively, our data suggest that TRPC1 and TRPC4 are involved in the sprouting of sensory neurons following bladder cystitis, which leads to overactive bladder disease. PMID:23922735

  19. BK virus-hemorrhagic cystitis following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: Clinical characteristics and utility of leflunomide treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Hoon; Lim, Joo Han; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo

    2016-04-18

    BK virus-hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a potential cause of morbidity and mortality in patients having undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT). We analyzed the clinical features of BKV-HC following Allo-SCT and reported the utility of leflunomide therapy for BKV-HC.

  20. Renal interstitial sclerosis in aging: effects of enalapril and nifedipine.

    PubMed

    Inserra, F; Romano, L A; de Cavanagh, E M; Ercole, L; Ferder, L F; Gomez, R A

    1996-05-01

    The effects of nifedipine and enalapril on age-associated renal interstitial fibrosis were investigated in 60 CF1 female mice. Mice received 20 mg enalapril (ENAL) per L (N = 20), or 40 mg nifedipine (NIF) per L (N = 20) in their drinking water. Control (CONT) mice received tap water ad libitum. The percentages of both interstitial peritubular sclerosis (IPS) in cortex and interstitial medullary sclerosis (IMS) were determined. Kidney tissue was studied using immunological techniques and optical (OM) and electron microscopy (EM) to analyze the expression of renin. alpha-SM-actin and vimentine expression were also evaluated. The results showed that blood pressure levels in ENAL or NIF animals were not different from those of CONT. Renin expression was observed in arcuate vessels (AV) in ENAL animals, whereas no renin staining in AV was found in either NIF or CONT animals. Renin immunoreactivity in the juxtaglomerular apparatus was more intense in ENAL mice, as compared with NIF or CONT animals. Laboratory testing showed the following values: proteinuria (mg/mL): CONT 6.1 +/- 0.6, NIF 11.2 +/- 2.3, and ENAL 1.0 +/- 0.6 (P < 0.05); creatinine: CONT 1.37 +/- 0.24, NIF 0.87 +/- 0.16, and ENAL 0.63 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.01). The percentages of interstitial sclerosis were: %IPS: CONT 18.12 +/- 1.1, NIF 17.40 +/- 0.9, and ENAL 3.42 +/- 1.3 (P < 0.01); %IMS: CONT 23.41 +/- 1.5, NIF 21.80 +/- 1.9, and ENAL 6.12 +/- 1.2 (P < 0.01). Percentages of alpha-SM-actin expression were: CONT 13.10 +/- 1.9, NIF 13.80 +/- 0.2, and ENAL 1.00 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.01). Vimentine staining showed no differences among the groups. It was concluded that enalapril reduces the peritubular and medullar interstitial fibrosis, whereas nifedipine has no effect.

  1. Participation of TNF-alpha and IL-1 in the pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, T N; Santos, C C; Souza-Filho, M V; Cunha, F Q; Ribeiro, R A

    1995-10-01

    The involvement of cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1 has been investigated in a mouse model of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Male Swiss mice (25-30 g) received CYP in a single i.p. dose of 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg and were sacrificed 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h later. Cystitis was evaluated by determining the changes in bladder wet weight (BW) and plasma protein extravasation (PPE, measured by the Evans blue leakage technique). CYP treatment induced a marked increase in BW and in PPE, which was significant within 6 h and reached maximal values within 12 h (BW, 118%, P < 0.05; N = 11; and PPE, 824%, P < 0.05; N = 11), continuing to be significant until 48 h. Pretreatment of animals with whole anti-TNF-alpha serum (25 or 50 microliters diluted in 500 microliters 0.9% saline, i.p., 30 min earlier) caused a significant reduction in the CYP-induced BW increase in 6-h and 12-h cystitis (82% and 91%, respectively, P < 0.05; N = 6) and in the CYP-induced PPE increase (60% and 52%, respectively, P < 0.05; N = 6). In addition, the administration of whole anti-IL- 1 beta serum at the same dose promoted a significant blockage of the CYP-induced increase in BW (47%, P < 0.05; N = 6) and PPE increase (41%, P < 0.05; N = 6) only in 12-h cystitis. The control serum did not modify the effect of CYP. Histopathologic analysis of the bladders from anti-TNF-alpha- and anti-IL-1 beta-pretreated groups revealed a significant reduction of the following parameters compared to the control groups: mucosal erosion, hemorrhage, edema, leukocyte migration, fibrin deposition and ulcerations. These results suggests that TNF-alpha and IL-1 are crucial mediators involved in inflammatory events occurring in CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  2. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... in certain age groups. Diseases more common in infancy include: Surfactant (sur-FAK-tant) dysfunction mutations Developmental ... dysplasia Lung growth abnormalities Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) Diseases more common ...

  3. Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

  4. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:20727133

  5. Interstitial twin pregnancy: A unique case presentation.

    PubMed

    Garretto, Diana; Lee, Lan Na; Budorick, Nancy E; Figueroa, Reinaldo

    2015-09-01

    Early recognition and timely treatment of an interstitial pregnancy is imperative to avoid the high morbidity and mortality of this type of ectopic pregnancy. We report a case of twin interstitial pregnancy that was initially missed on initial sonogram and was subsequently recognized at our institution by transvaginal sonography. The patient underwent open laparoscopic surgery with cornual wedge resection but suffered infundibulopelvic ligament hemorrhage and subsequently required ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She did well and was discharged home a day later.

  6. Risk factors for antimicrobial resistance among the Escherichia coli strains isolated from Korean patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis: a prospective and nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gilho; Cho, Yong-Hyun; Shim, Bong Suk; Lee, Sang Don

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the risk factors for resistance to ciprofloxacin, cefazolin, ampicillin and co-trimoxazole in Escherichia coli isolates from urine of Korean female patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC). A total of 225 patients and their E. coli isolates were prospectively and nationwidely enrolled between May and October, 2006. All the antimicrobials did not show any differences according to the age group. A higher rate of ciprofloxacin resistance was observed in the south (OR: 3.04, 95% CI: 1.19-7.80 for Chungcheong-do & Jeolla-do; OR: 3.04, 95% CI: 1.22-7.58 for Gyeongsang-do) compared to Gyeonggi-do. Two recurrences of AUC in the past year was an important risk factor for antimicrobial resistance (ciprofloxacin; OR: 6.71, 95% CI: 1.86-24.11 and cefazolin; OR: 5.72, 95% CI: 1.20-27.25). However, the resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin was not associated with any of the risk factors. This study also revealed the pattern of multi-drugs resistance in ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli strains. In conclusion, for Korean patients with two more recurrences of AUC in the past year, it is strongly recommended to perform an antimicrobial sensitivity test with a urine sample before empirical treatment.

  7. The fibrosis of ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor antagonist dose-dependent change in a ketamine-induced cystitis rat model.

    PubMed

    Song, Miho; Yu, Hwan Yeul; Chun, Ji-Youn; Shin, Dong-Myung; Song, Soo Hyun; Choo, Myung-Soo; Song, Yun Seob

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine abusers have greatly increased in number worldwide during recent years. The consumption of ketamine has increased, as have the number of published accounts of devastating urological sequelae. However, the mechanism of ketamine-associated urinary tract dysfunction remains unclear. This study was to evaluate the ketamine dose-dependency of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC) in a rat model. A total of 42 Sprague-Dawley rats (female, 10-week-old) were used. Each of the 7 KC rat models were induced by 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg ketamine intravenous injection for two weeks. For the sham group (n = 7), a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) vehicle was used rather than ketamine hydrochloride. The cystometric parameters, histological examinations, staining for Masson's trichome, cytokeratin, toluidine blue and quantitative PCR were measured at two weeks following the intervention. The voiding interval gradually decreased depending upon the ketamine dose of 1, 5, 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg, respectively, and was decreased compared with Sham. Bladder capacity was decreased as ketamine dose increased. In particular, the increase of fibrosis and submucosal apoptosis were found according to the increase of the ketamine dose. The bladder apoptosis in the KC rat model makes the fibrotic bladder change, and led us to hypothesize that fibrosis could contribute to the lower urinary-tract symptoms. We suggest that according to the pathophysiology evidence, fibrosis induced by apoptosis plays a key role in KC.

  8. [A case of eosinophilic cystitis that was treated with oral suplatast tosilate (IPD-1151T)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Miho; Yamaguchi, Keiichi; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Kamai, Takao; Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro

    2009-11-01

    A 51-year-old woman with a chief complaint of micturition pain and sensation of incomplete voiding was suspected of suffering from a bladder tumor, according to the findings of cystoscopy and ultrasonography. Transurethral punch biopsy of the submucosa of the bladder wall revealed eosinophilic infiltration without malignancy. Conservative treatment with corticosteroids resulted in excellent relief of symptoms and objective remission of the bladder lesions. However, her symptoms recurred 11 weeks after finishing the treatment. She was then treated with a combination of corticosteroid and suplatast tosilate, followed by monotherapy with suplatast tosilate. The treatment was effective for the improvement of symptoms, and serum immunoglobulin E and blood eosinophil levels were reduced. No disease progression was noted after the treatment with suplatast tosilate. To our knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic cystitis treated with suplatast tosilate.

  9. [Eosinophilic polypoid cystitis with flat carcinoma in situ of the overlying epithelium].

    PubMed

    Spitale, L; Deangelis, J J; Bosio, M V

    1989-10-01

    A case of eosinophilic polypoid cystitis with flat carcinoma in situ of the overlying epithelium is described. This is the first case with such an association encountered in our series comprised of 26 bladder surgical specimens and represents an incidence rate of 0.38%. The clinical case described herein is that of a 62-year-old male patient with a clinical picture of hematuria, frequency and urgency. Patient cystoscopic evaluation revealed a congestive and edematous mucosa at the level of the trigone and sessile polyps. Microscopic examination revealed flat urothelium with anisokaryosis, hyperchromatic nuclei, atypical mitosis, and loss of polarity; chorion with diffuse, dense inflammatory infiltrate comprised of eosinophils accounting for greater than 90% of the cell population, plasma cells, mastocytes, edema and vascular congestion. Epithelial erosion and capillary thrombosis were also observed. We discuss the etiology, clinical features and treatment reported elsewhere.

  10. Microcirculation and structural reorganization of the bladder mucosa in chronic cystitis under conditions of ozone therapy.

    PubMed

    Neimark, A I; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Lushnikova, E L; Bakarev, M A; Abdullaev, N A; Sizov, K A

    2014-01-01

    Structural reorganization of the bladder mucosa in chronic cystitis and its correction by ozone therapy were studied. A relationship between the epithelial layer restructuring of different kinds (dystrophy, metaplasia, and degeneration), level of cell proliferation, and ultrastructural organization of urotheliocytes was detected. This complex of structural reactions was combined with dysregulation of tissue bloodflow in the bladder mucosa, shown by laser Doppler flowmetry. Positive structural changes were most marked in intravesical and less so in parenteral ozone therapy added to the therapeutic complex and manifested in reduction of inflammation and alteration in parallel with more intense reparative reactions. A special feature of parenteral ozone therapy was a significant improvement of microcirculation in the bladder mucosa.

  11. Nitric oxide and NK(1)-tachykinin receptors in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, in rats.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, A B; Cubeddu, L X

    2000-11-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the role of NK(1) receptors and of nitric oxide (NO) on the pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, in rats. This bladder toxicity was characterized by marked increases in protein plasma extravasation, urothelial damage, edema, white blood cell infiltrates, and vascular congestion. These changes were associated with appearance of Ca(2+)-independent NO-synthase (NOS) activity [characteristic of inducible NOS (iNOS)] in the bladder and with increases in urinary NO metabolites. GR205171, a selective NK(1) antagonist (10-20 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced cyclophosphamide-induced increases in protein plasma extravasation and in the urinary excretion of NO metabolites. N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (10 mg/kg, i.p.), a NOS inhibitor, reduced basal and cyclophosphamide-induced increases in NO metabolites and protected against cyclophosphamide-induced protein plasma extravasation. GR205171 had no effect, whereas L-NNA reduced basal NO metabolite excretion. Combined treatment with the NK(1) antagonist and the NO-synthesis inhibitor produced comparable reduction in protein plasma extravasation than that achieved with each drug given separately. Combined drug treatment ameliorated cyclophosphamideinduced urothelial damage, and the extent of edema, vascular congestion, and white blood cell infiltrates in the bladder. In summary, NK(1) receptors and iNOS play a role in NO formation and on cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Activation of NK(1) receptors mainly acts through the formation of NO. It is proposed that cyclophosphamide and/or its metabolites would stimulate primary afferent capsaicin-sensitive fibers in the bladder, releasing neuropeptides, which would activate NK(1) receptors. However, additional mechanisms are involved, because neither the NK(1) receptor antagonist nor the NO synthesis inhibitor, either alone or in combination, were able to completely prevent the toxicity.

  12. [A case report of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus complicated with lupus cystitis].

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Rumiko; Miyamae, Takako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Katakura, Shigeki; Mori, Masaaki; Aihara, Yuhkoh; Yokota, Shumpei

    2006-06-01

    The patient was a 13-year-old girl. In August 2000, she presented with a fever, together with diarrhea, vomiting, arthralgia, nasal bleeding and malaise, and was examined by another physician. Because her platelet count was low, and there were positive reactions for anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-DNA antibodies and platelet-associated IgG, idiopathic thrombopenic purpura, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was suspected. From January 2001, when she caught measles, she reported abdominal pain, and urinalysis indicated urinary protein and occult blood, and the left kidney was found hydronephrotic. At the same time left ureter stenosis and dilatation were demonstrated. Symptoms were disappeared by hydration and treatment with NSAIDs, but 2 months later fever and erythematous patches seen on both cheeks led to the proper diagnosis of SLE, and she was admitted to our hospital. Intravenous pyelography revealed hydronephrosis on left kidney, constriction and dilatation of the left ureter, and intracystic endoscopy showed erythema at the orifice of the left ureter. The pathological examination indicated the presence of vasculitis, and finally lupus cystitis was diagnosed. Intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY)-pulse therapy was introduced to a total of 8 times over the period of a year, and maintenance therapy with predonisolone and azathioprin was also used. After completion of the IVCY-pulse therapy, the hydronephrosis and constriction of the ureter were disappeared. No side effects of IVCY-pulses were observed, and the patient is now in remission. We reported a case of childhood SLE complicated with lupus cystitis and successfully treated by IVCY-pulse therapy and maintenance predonisolone and azathioprin.

  13. Chemical- and radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis: current treatments and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Heather; Adamson, Andrew; Bahl, Amit; Borwell, Jonathan; Dodds, David; Heath, Catherine; Huddart, Robert; McMenemin, Rhona; Patel, Prashant; Peters, John L; Thompson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. Despite recognition that HC can be a significant complication of cancer treatment, there is currently a lack of UK-led guidelines available on how it should optimally be defined and managed. A systematic literature review was undertaken to evaluate the evidence for preventative measures and treatment options in the management of cancer treatment-induced HC. There is a wide range of reported incidence due to several factors including variability in study design and quality, the type of causal agent, the grading of bleeding, and discrepancies in definition criteria. The most frequently reported causal factors are radiotherapy to the pelvic area, where HC has been reported in up to 20% of patients, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and bacillus Calmette-Guérin, where the incidence has been reported as up to 30%. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sodium sulphonate), hyperhydration and bladder irrigation have been the most frequently used prophylactic measures to prevent treatment-related cystitis, but are not always effective. Cranberry juice is widely cited as a preventative measure and sodium pentosanpolysulphate as a treatment, although the evidence for both is very limited. The best evidence exists for intravesical hyaluronic acid as an effective preventative and active treatment, and for hyperbaric oxygen as an equally effective treatment option. The lack of robust data and variability in treatment strategies used highlights the need for further research, as well as best practice guidance and consensus on the management of HC. PMID:24000900

  14. [Development and clinical testing of the Russian version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS].

    PubMed

    Alidjanov, J F; Abdufattaev, U A; Makhmudov, D Kh; Mirkhamidov, D Kh; Khadzhikhanov, F A; Azgamov, A V; Pilatz, A; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F M; Akilov, F A

    2014-01-01

    The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS was originally developed in the Uzbek language and has demonstrated high reliability and validity. The study was aimed to develop a Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire and evaluate its psychometric properties. Translation and adaptation of the ACSS questionnaire containing 18 questions, 6 of them - for the typical symptoms of acute cystitis (AC), 4 - for the differential diagnosis; 3 - for the quality of life, and 5 - for the conditions that may affect the choice of treatment, were performed according to the recommendations developed by the Mapi Research Institute. Study involved 83 Russian-speaking women (mean age, 35.6 ±13.7 years); 38 (45.8%) patients were in the main group (patients with AC), and 45 (54.2%) - in the control group (without AC). Medical examination and appropriate treatment of the respondents were conducted in accordance with approved standards. After completing the course of therapy, 19 (50%) patients of the main group came for the control examination. There was statistically significant difference in the scores obtained in the two groups. Score profiles positively correlated with the results of laboratory tests (rho = 0.26-0.48). Cronbach's alpha for the Russian version of the questionnaire was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.91), area under the curve in the ROC analysis was 0.96. The results of testing the Russian version correspond to those of the original version. The Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire has high. reliability and validity, and can be recommended for clinical research and diagnosis of primary AC, and dynamic monitoring of the effectiveness of the treatment of the Russian-speaking population of patients.

  15. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    Condoms for women; Contraception - female condom; Family planning - female condom; Birth control - female condom ... care provider or pharmacy for information about emergency contraception (Plan B) if the condom tears or the ...

  16. Interstitial cells: regulators of smooth muscle function.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-07-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα(+) cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues.

  17. The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRα+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

  18. Invasive diagnostic techniques in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Carlo; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Cavazza, Alberto; Chilosi, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Tomassetti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the aetiology may be identified or, not infrequently, remain unknown. Establishing a correct diagnosis of a distinct f-ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating clinical profile, physiological and laboratory data, radiological appearance and, when appropriate, histological findings. Surgical lung biopsy is still considered the most important diagnostic tool as it is able to provide lung samples large enough for identification of complex patterns such as usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Bronchoalveolar lavage is still a popular diagnostic tool allowing identification of alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when an increase in lymphocytes is detected. Conventional transbronchial lung biopsy has a very low sensitivity in detecting the UIP pattern and its role in this clinical-radiological context is marginal. The introduction of less invasive methods such as transbronchial cryobiopsy show great promise to clinical practice as they can be used to obtain samples large enough to morphologically support a diagnosis of IPF or other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, along with fewer complications. Recent advances in the field suggest that less invasive methods of lung sampling, without significant side effects, in combination with other diagnostic methods could replace the need for surgical lung biopsy in the future. Indeed, these new multidisciplinary procedures may become the main diagnostic work-up method for patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

  19. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  20. Photodynamic therapy: superficial and interstitial illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Katarina; Bendsoe, Niels; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reviewed using the treatment of skin tumors as an example of superficial lesions and prostate cancer as an example of deep-lying lesions requiring interstitial intervention. These two applications are among the most commonly studied in oncological PDT, and illustrate well the different challenges facing the two modalities of PDT-superficial and interstitial. They thus serve as good examples to illustrate the entire field of PDT in oncology. PDT is discussed based on the Lund University group's over 20 yr of experience in the field. In particular, the interplay between optical diagnostics and dosimetry and the delivery of the therapeutic light dose are highlighted. An interactive multiple-fiber interstitial procedure to deliver the required therapeutic dose based on the assessment of light fluence rate and sensitizer concentration and oxygen level throughout the tumor is presented.

  1. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  2. Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Pazopanib Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Shotaro; Sakamoto, Noriho; Hara, Shintaro; Hara, Atsuko; Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Yoichi; Futsuki, Yoji; Izumikawa, Koichi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Although pneumothorax has been reported to be a major pulmonary adverse event in patients treated with pazopanib, a multikinase inhibitor, drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) has not been reported. A 74-year-old Japanese man who received pazopanib for the treatment of femoral leiomyosarcoma and lung metastasis presented with dyspnea and fatigue. He had mild interstitial pneumonia when pazopanib treatment was initiated. Chest computed tomography revealed progressive bilateral ground-glass opacity (GGO) and traction bronchiectasis. We diagnosed DILD due to pazopanib. The patient's pazopanib treatment was interrupted and a steroid was administered. The symptoms and GGO were improved with treatment. Physicians should be aware of DILD due to pazopanib in patients with pre-existing interstitial lung disease. PMID:28050004

  3. Resveratrol potentiates effects of simvastatin on inhibition of rat ovarian theca-interstitial cells steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by ovarian enlargement, hyperplastic theca compartment and increased androgen production due to, at least in part, excessive expression of several key genes involved in steroidogenesis. Previously, our group has demonstrated that simvastatin, competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a rate-limiting step of the mevalonate pathway, reduces rat-theca interstitial cell steroidogenesis by inhibiting Cyp17a1 gene expression, the key enzyme of the androgen biosynthesis pathway. Recently, we demonstrated that resveratrol, a bioflavonoid abundant in red grapes, decreases rat theca-interstitial cell steroidogenesis and this suppressive effect is mediated through mechanisms independent of the mevalonate pathway. The present study evaluated the effect of combining simvastatin and resveratrol treatments on rat theca-interstitial cell steroidogenesis. Methods Rat theca-interstitial cells isolated from 30 day-old female rats were cultured for up to 48 h with or without simvastatin (1 μM) and/or resveratrol (3-10 μM). Steroidogenic enzymes gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real time PCR and steroid levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results Resveratrol potentiated inhibitory effects of simvastatin on androstenedione and androsterone production in theca-interstitial cells. This suppressive effect correlated with profound inhibition in Cyp17a1 mRNA expression in the presence of a combination of resveratrol and simvastatin. Conclusions The present findings indicate that resveratrol potentiates the simvastatin-induced inhibitory effect on theca-interstitial cell androgen production, raising the possibility of development of novel treatments of PCOS. PMID:24524197

  4. Suppression of the PI3K pathway in vivo reduces cystitis-induced bladder hypertrophy and restores bladder capacity examined by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhongwei; Xia, Chunmei; Shen, Shanwei; Corwin, Frank D; Liu, Miao; Guan, Ruijuan; Grider, John R; Qiao, Li-Ya

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the real-time status of the urinary bladder in normal and diseased states following cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis, and also examined the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in the regulation of urinary bladder hypertrophy in vivo. Our results showed that under MRI visualization the urinary bladder wall was significantly thickened at 8 h and 48 h post CYP injection. The intravesical volume of the urinary bladder was also markedly reduced. Treatment of the cystitis animals with a specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reduced cystitis-induced bladder wall thickening and enlarged the intravesical volumes. To confirm the MRI results, we performed H&E stain postmortem and examined the levels of type I collagen by real-time PCR and western blot. Inhibition of the PI3K in vivo reduced the levels of type I collagen mRNA and protein in the urinary bladder ultimately attenuating cystitis-induced bladder hypertrophy. The bladder mass calculated according to MRI data was consistent to the bladder weight measured ex vivo under each drug treatment. MRI results also showed that the urinary bladder from animals with cystitis demonstrated high magnetic signal intensity indicating considerable inflammation of the urinary bladder when compared to normal animals. This was confirmed by examination of the pro-inflammatory factors showing that interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α levels in the urinary bladder were increased with cystitis. Our results suggest that MRI can be a useful technique in tracing bladder anatomy and examining bladder hypertrophy in vivo during disease development and the PI3K pathway has a critical role in regulating bladder hypertrophy during cystitis.

  5. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  6. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema.

  7. Interstitial lung disease probably caused by imipramine.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Prasanna R; Ravi, Ranjani; Gouda, Sinddalingana; Stanley, Weena; Hande, Manjunath H

    2014-01-01

    Drugs are rarely associated with causing interstitial lung disease (ILD). We report a case of a 75-year-old woman who developed ILD after exposure to imipramine. To our knowledge, this is one of the rare cases of ILD probably caused due to imipramine. There is need to report such rare adverse effects related to ILD and drugs for better management of ILD.

  8. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis mimicking interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Braham, Emna; Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Smati, Belhassen; Ben Mrad, Sonia; Besbes, Mohammed; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2008-11-01

    Lymphoid granulomatosis is a rare form of pulmonary angiitis. This case report presents a patient with lymphoid granulomatosis in whom the clinical presentation, radiological features and the partial response to corticosteroid therapy mimicked interstitial lung disease. Lymphoid granulomatosis was only diagnosed at post-mortem examination. The range of reported clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches and outcomes are described.

  9. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia.

  10. Interstitial stromal progenitors during kidney development: here, there and everywhere.

    PubMed

    Fanni, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Vinci, Laura; Ambu, Rossano; Dessì, Angelica; Eyken, Peter Van; Fanos, Vassilios; Faa, Gavino

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the renal interstitium has been identified as the site of multiple cell types, giving rise to multiple contiguous cellular networks with multiple fundamental structural and functional roles. Few studies have been carried out on the morphological and functional properties of the stromal/interstitial renal cells during the intrauterine life. This work was aimed at reviewing the peculiar features of renal interstitial stem/progenitor cells involved in kidney development. The origin of the renal interstitial progenitor cells remains unknown. During kidney development, besides the Six2 + cells of the cap mesenchyme, a self-renewing progenitor population, characterized by the expression of Foxd1, represents the first actor of the non-nephrogenic lineage. Foxd1 + interstitial progenitors originate the cortical and the renal medullary interstitial progenitors. Here, the most important stromal/interstitial compartments present in the developing human kidney will be analyzed: capsular stromal cells, cortical interstitial cells, medullary interstitial cells, the interstitium inside the renal stem cell niche, Hilar interstitial cells and Ureteric interstitial cells. Data reported here indicate that the different interstitial compartments of the developing kidney are formed by different cell types that characterize the different renal areas. Further studies are needed to better characterize the different pools of renal interstitial progenitors and their role in human nephrogenesis.

  11. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Function by Interstitial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Kito, Yoshihiko; Hwang, Sung Jin; Ward, Sean M

    2016-09-01

    Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin form gap junctions with smooth muscle cells in visceral smooth muscles and provide important regulatory functions. In gastrointestinal (GI) muscles, there are two distinct classes of interstitial cells, c-Kit(+) interstitial cells of Cajal and PDGFRα(+) cells, that regulate motility patterns. Loss of these cells may contribute to symptoms in GI motility disorders.

  12. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  13. The efficacy of faropenem for patients with acute cystitis caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Keiko; Hiyama, Yoshiki; Uehara, Teruhisa; Ichihara, Koji; Hashimoto, Jiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Shinagawa, Masaaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Masumori, Naoya

    2016-12-02

    The number of patients with acute cystitis caused by extended spectrum β lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) is increasing gradually. Although it is reported that ESBL-producing E. coli are sensitive to faropenem (FRPM), there are few clinical studies on the efficiency of FRPM against acute cystitis caused by the bacteria. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients with acute cystitis caused by ESBL-producing E. coli who were treated with the oral antimicrobial agent faropenem (FRPM) in our institution from June 2011 to May 2015. Ten patients with acute cystitis caused by ESBL producing E. coli were treated with FRPM. Although clinical cure was achieved in 9 of them, it reoccurred in 3. This study revealed that the treatment regimen with FRPM for patients with acute cystitis caused by ESBL-producing E. coli is promising. However, a non-negligible number of recurrences were caused by ESBL-producing E. coli because of the nature of underlying diseases or pathologies in the urinary tract.

  14. Conjugated Estrogen in Late-Onset Hemorrhagic Cystitis Associated with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Asadollah; Moazed, Vahid; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Bahar, Babak; Jahani, Mohammad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is one of the most challenging complications in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Estrogen is one of the suggested treatments for controlling this problem. Subjects and Methods : We performed a randomized case-control study to evaluate the efficacy of oral conjugated estrogen on HC management in 56 HSCT patients. Patients were randomly assigned to the drug group (received 6.25 mg conjugated estrogen oral tablets in a daily single dose during hematuria period) or control group. Results : The median time to complete response was 36 and 24 days in the drug and control group, respectively. The median time of down stage was 24 days in the drug group and 12 days in control group. Adjusted for HC grades, the relative risk of complete response for patients in control group was 1.613 times more than that of patients in drug group; nevertheless, not significant (p=0.122). Conclusion: Our study did not show any benefit in use of oral conjugated estrogen in the management of HC. PMID:28286609

  15. HEMORRHAGIC CYSTITIS AFTER ALLOGENEIC HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION: RISK FACTORS, GRAFT SOURCE, AND SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Laura E.; Dasaraju, Sandhyarani; Cao, Qing; Cohn, Claudia S.; Reding, Mark; Bejanyan, Nelli; Trottier, Bryan; Rogosheske, John; Brunstein, Claudio; Warlick, Erica; Young, Jo Anne H.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Ustun, Celalettin

    2017-01-01

    Although hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), its risk factors and effects on survival are not well-known. We evaluated HC in a large cohort (n=1321, 2003 – 2012) receiving alloHCT from all graft sources, including umbilical cord blood (UCB). We compared HC patients with non-HC (control) patients and examined clinical variables at HC onset and resolution. Of these 1321 patients, 219 (16.6%) developed HC at a median of 22 days after alloHCT. BK viruria was detected in 90% of 109 tested HC patients. Median duration of HC was 27 days. At the time of HC diagnosis, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), fever, severe thrombocytopenia, and steroid use were more frequent than at the time of HC resolution. In univariate analysis, male sex, age <20 years, myeloablative conditioning with cyclophosphamide and acute GVHD were associated with HC. In multivariate analysis, HC was significantly more common in males and HLA-mismatched UCB graft recipients. Severe grade HC (grade III–IV) was associated with increased treatment-related mortality (TRM) but not with overall survival at 1 year. HC remains hazardous and therefore better prophylaxis and early interventions to limit its severity are still needed. PMID:26168069

  16. Arsenic in Drinking Water, Transition Cell Cancer and Chronic Cystitis in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohammad Golam; Cherry, Nicola

    2015-10-28

    In earlier analyses, we demonstrated dose-response relationships between renal and lung cancer and local arsenic concentrations in wells used by Bangladeshi villagers. We used the same case-referent approach to examine the relation of arsenic to biopsy confirmed transition cell cancer (TCC) of the ureter, bladder or urethra in these villagers. As the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has conclude that arsenic in drinking water causes bladder cancer, we expected to find higher risk with increasing arsenic concentration. We used histology/cytology results from biopsies carried out at a single clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2008 to October 2011. We classified these into four groups, TCC (n = 1466), other malignancies (n = 145), chronic cystitis (CC) (n = 844) and other benign (n = 194). Arsenic concentration was estimated from British Geological Survey reports. Odds ratios were calculated by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for confounding and allowing for geographic clustering. We found no consistent trend for TCC with increasing arsenic concentration but the likelihood of a patient with benign disease having CC was significantly increased at arsenic concentrations >100 µg/L. We conclude that the expected relationship of TCC to arsenic was masked by over-matching that resulted from the previously unreported relationship between arsenic and CC. We hypothesize that CC may be a precursor of TCC in high arsenic areas.

  17. Uncomplicated Cystitis in an Adult Male Following Influenza B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert J.; Koutsakos, Marios; Hurt, Aeron C.; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 31 Final Diagnosis: Uncomplicated cystitis Symptoms: Cough • dysuria • fever • hematuria Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Influenza B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness, circulating concurrently with influenza A viruses. However, virological and clinical knowledge of influenza B viruses is less well advanced than for influenza A, and in particular, complications associated with influenza B infection are not as commonly reported. Complications of influenza B infection predominantly include neurological and musculoskeletal pathologies, while a review of the literature shows that bacterial infections associated with influenza B viruses often involve Gram-positive organisms, with a smaller subset featuring Gram-negative species. Case Report: In this case report we highlight an uncomplicated infection of the urinary tract by Escherichia coli immediately following influenza B infection, in an otherwise healthy adult white male with no prior history of urinary tract infection or structural abnormalities of the renal tract. Conclusions: Bacterial infections complicating influenza B infection may include organisms not commonly associated with the respiratory system, such as Escherichia coli. In addition, bacterial complications of influenza B infection may affect non-respiratory systems, including the genitourinary tract. PMID:28223680

  18. Antagonism of the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) attenuates hyperalgesia and urinary bladder overactivity in cyclophosphamide-induced haemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Meotti, Flavia C; Forner, Stefânia; Lima-Garcia, Juliana F; Viana, Alice F; Calixto, João B

    2013-04-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in haemorrhagic cystitis, the main side effect of cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy. Hannover female rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cyclophosphamide (three doses of 100 mg/kg, every other day, in a total of five days). This treatment was followed by the treatment with TRPA1 antagonist HC 030031 (50 mg/kg, p.o.). The threshold for hindpaw withdrawal or abdominal retraction to von Frey Hair and the locomotor activity were measured. The treatment with the TRPA1 antagonist HC 030031 significantly decreased mechanical hyperalgesia induced by cyclophosphamide without interfere with locomotor activity. Urodynamic parameters were performed by cystometry 24 h after a single treatment with cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i.p.) in control and HC 030031 treated rats. Analyses of the urodynamic parameters showed that a single dose of cyclophosphamide was enough to significantly increase the number and amplitude of non-voiding contractions and to decrease the voided volume and voiding efficiency, without significantly altering basal, threshold or maximum pressure. The treatment with HC 030031 either before (100 mg/kg, p.o.) or after (30 mg/kg, i.v.) cyclophosphamide inhibited the non-voiding contractions but failed to counteract the loss in voiding efficiency. Our data demonstrates that nociceptive symptoms and urinary bladder overactivity caused by cyclophosphamide, in part, are dependent upon the activation of TRPA1. In this context, the antagonism of the receptor may be an alternative to minimise the urotoxic symptoms caused by this chemotherapeutic agent.

  19. Interstitial hyperthermia in combination with brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, C T; Douple, E B; Strohbehn, J W; Eaton, W L; Trembly, B S; Wong, T Z

    1983-07-01

    Flexible coaxial cables were modified to serve as microwave antennas operating at a frequency of 915 MHz. These antennas were inserted into nylon afterloading tubes that had been implanted in tumors using conventional interstitial implantation techniques for iridium-192 seed brachytherapy. The tumor volume was heated to 42-45 degrees C within 15 minutes and heating was continued for a total of 1 hour per treatment. Immediately following a conventional brachytherapy dose and removal of the iridium seeds the tumors were heated again in a second treatment. This interstitial technique for delivering local hyperthermia should be compatible with most brachytherapy methods. The technique has proved so far to be practical and without complications. Temperature distributions obtained in tissue phantoms and a patient are described.

  20. RTOG quality assurance guidelines for interstitial hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Emami, B; Stauffer, P; Dewhirst, M W; Prionas, S; Ryan, T; Corry, P; Herman, T; Kapp, D S; Myerson, R J; Samulski, T

    1991-05-01

    This document specifies the current recommendations for quality assurance for hyperthermia administration with interstitial techniques as specified by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The document begins by providing a brief description of the physical principles behind the use of the three most commonly used methods of interstitial hyperthermia: radiofrequency (RF-LCF), microwave antennas, and ferromagnetic seeds. Emphasis is placed on features that effect quality assurance. Specific recommendations are provided for: a) Pretreatment planning and equipment performance checks, b) Implant considerations and documentation, c) Thermometry, and d) Safety procedures. Specific details regarding quality assurance issues that are common to all local and regional hyperthermia methods are outlined in previous documents sponsored by the RTOG. It is anticipated that technological advances may lead to future modifications of this document.

  1. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  2. Deriving Sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a methodology for developing interstitial water remediation goals (IWRGs) for nonionic organic pollutants (toxicants) in sediments for the protection of benthic organisms. The document provides the basis for using the final chronic values (FCVs) from EPA’s aquatic water quality criteria (AWQC) for the protection of aquatic life to set the IWRGs for toxicants in sediments. Concentrations of the toxicants in the sediment interstitial water are measured using passive sampling. This document also discusses how to evaluate the consistency between passive sampling measurements and sediment toxicity test results. When these data are consistent, one can be reasonably assured that the causes of toxicity to benthic organisms in the sediment have been correctly identified and that the developed IWRGs for the toxicants will be protective of the benthic organisms at the site. The consistency evaluation is an important step in developing defensible IWRGs. To assist in developing defensible IWRGs.

  3. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  4. Molecular characterization of an 11q interstitial deletion in a patient with the clinical features of Jacobsen syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Sharon L; Grossfeld, Paul D; Siu, Benjamin L; Coad, James E; Keller, Frank G; Hummel, Marybeth

    2006-04-01

    The 11q terminal deletion disorder or Jacobsen syndrome is a contiguous gene disorder. It is characterized by psychomotor retardation, cardiac defects, blood dyscrasias (Paris-Trousseau syndrome) and craniofacial anomalies. We report on a female patient with an approximately 10 Mb interstitial deletion with many of the features of Jacobsen syndrome: A congenital heart defect, dysmorphic features, developmental delay, and Paris-Trousseau syndrome. The karyotype of the patient is 46,XX,del(11)(q24.1q24.3). The interstitial deletion was confirmed using FISH probes for distal 11q, and the breakpoints were characterized by microarray analysis. This is the first molecularly characterized interstitial deletion in a patient with the clinical features of Jacobsen syndrome. The deletion includes FLI-1, but not JAM-3, which will help to determine the critical genes involved in this syndrome.

  5. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientation depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.

  6. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    DOE PAGES

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; ...

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientationmore » depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.« less

  7. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis with interstitial myositis].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Saori; Nozawa, Tomo; Kizawa, Toshitaka; Kikuchi, Masako; Miyamae, Takako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Inaba, Hiroshi; Sato, Tatsuharu; Hashimoto, Kunio; Aida, Noriko; Yokota, Shumpei

    2013-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an inflammatory, non-infectious disorder of skeletal system mainly seen in children. We report a case of CRMO presenting with fever and leg pain. The patient was an 11-year-old boy complaining of a fever, swelling and pain on his right foot, and pain on both legs. Although serum levels of CK and aldolase were not increased, MRI imaging suggested polymyositis. Muscle biopsy showed interstitial infiltration of inflammatory cells without any evidences of dermatomyositis or polymyositis. One month later, he complained of a swelling, pain and redness of his left clavicle as recurrently experienced during the recent 6 months, and MRI investigation indicated the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone biopsy was performed and showed chronic inflammatory changes with negative bacterial culture. Multiple bone lesions and muscle uptake of FDG in his legs were revealed by whole body FDG-PET/CT, and he was diagnosed as having CRMO with interstitial myositis. The combinatorial administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bisphosphonate successfully improved his clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities. To our knowledge, there is no report of a patient of CRMO associated with interstitial myositis.

  8. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  9. Dose-effect relation of interstitial low-dose-rate radiation (Ir192) in an animal tumor model

    SciTech Connect

    Ruifrok, A.C.; Levendag, P.C.; Lakeman, R.F.; Deurloo, I.K.; Visser, A.G. )

    1990-01-01

    One way to deliver high doses of radiation to deep seated tumors without damaging the surrounding tissue is by interstitial techniques. This is commonly applied clinically; however, biological data of tumor response to interstitial low-dose-rate gamma irradiation are scarce. Therefore, we have studied the response of rhabdomyosarcoma R1 tumors implanted in the flanks of female Wag/Rij rats using an interstitial Ir192 afterloading system. A template was developed by which four catheters can be implanted in a square geometry with a fixed spacing. Subsequently four Ir192 wires of 2 cm length each are inserted. For dose prescription the highest isodose enveloping the tumor volume was chosen. Interstitial irradiation was performed using tumor volumes of 1500-2000 mm3. A range of minimum tumor doses of 20 up to 115 Gy were given at a mean dose-rate of 48 cGy/hr. Dose-effect relations were obtained from tumor growth curves and tumor cure data, and compared to data from external irradiation. The dose required for 50% cures with interstitial irradiation (TCD50) appears to be 95 +/- 9 Gy. The TCD50 for low-dose-rate interstitial gamma irradiation is 1.5 times the TCD50 for single dose external X ray irradiation at high dose rates, but is comparable to the TCD50 found after fractionated X ray irradiation at high dose rate. Sham treatment of the tumors had no effect on the time needed to reach twice the treatment volume. The growth rate of tumors regrowing after interstitial radiotherapy is not markedly different from the growth rate of untreated (control) tumors (volume doubting time 5.6 +/- 1 day), in contrast to the decreased growth rate after external X ray irradiation.

  10. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  11. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-04-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells.

  12. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  13. Urination - painful

    MedlinePlus

    ... and vagina Other causes of painful urination include: Interstitial cystitis Prostate infection ( prostatitis ) Radiation cystitis - damage to the ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bladder ... Cystitis Prostate Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases Urinary Tract Infections ...

  14. Safety and efficacy of intravesical alum for intractable hemorrhagic cystitis: a contemporary evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Mary E.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Linder, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) represents a challenging clinical entity. While various intravesical agents have been utilized in this setting, limited data exist regarding safety or efficacy. Herein, then, we evaluated the effectiveness and complications associated with intravesical alum instillation for HC in a contemporary cohort. Materials and Methods: We identified 40 patients treated with intravesical alum for HC between 1997-2014. All patients had failed previous continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline and clot evacuation. Treatment success was defined as requiring no additional therapy beyond normal saline irrigation after alum instillation. Results: Median patient age was 76.5 years (IQR 69, 83). Pelvic radiation was the most common etiology for HC (n=38, 95%). Alum use decreased patient's transfusion requirement, with 82% (32/39) receiving a transfusion within 30 days before alum instillation (median 4 units) versus 59% (23/39) within 30 days after completing alum (median 3 units) (p=0.05). In total, 24 patients (60%) required no additional therapy prior to hospital discharge. Moreover, at a median follow-up of 17 months (IQR 5, 38.5), 13 patients (32.5%) remained without additional treatment for HC. Adverse effects were reported in 15 patients (38%), with bladder spasms representing the most common event (14/40; 35%). No clinical evidence of clinically significant systemic absorption was detected. Conclusion: Intravesical alum therapy is well-tolerated, with resolution of HC in approximately 60% of patients, and a durable response in approximately one-third. Given its favorable safety/efficacy profile, intravesical alum may be considered as a first-line treatment option for patients with HC. PMID:27509371

  15. Fosfomycin: A First-Line Oral Therapy for Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhanel, George G.; Walkty, Andrew J.; Karlowsky, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Fosfomycin is a new agent to Canada approved for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in adult women infected with susceptible isolates of E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin for the treatment of AUC. All English-language references from 1975 to October 2015 were reviewed. In Canada, fosfomycin tromethamine is manufactured as Monurol® and is available as a 3-gram single dose sachet. Fosfomycin has a unique chemical structure, inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis at an earlier site compared to β-lactams with no cross-resistance with other agents. Fosfomycin displays broad-spectrum activity against ESBL-producing, AmpC-producing, carbapenem-non-susceptible, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli. Resistance to fosfomycin in E. coli is rare (<1%). Fosfomycin is excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration with peak urinary concentration ~4000 µg/mL and remains at concentrations >100 µg/mL for 48 hours after a single 3-gram oral dose. No dosage adjustments are required in elderly patients, in pregnant patients, or in either renal or hepatic impairment. Fosfomycin demonstrates a favorable safety profile, and clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy in AUC that is comparable to ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Fosfomycin's in vitro activity against common uropathogens, including MDR isolates, its favorable safety profile including pregnancy patients, drug interactions, and clinical trials data demonstrating efficacy in AUC, has resulted in Canadian, US, and European guidelines/authorities recommending fosfomycin as a first line agent for the treatment of AUC. PMID:27366158

  16. Abnormal Sensory Protein Expression and Urothelial Dysfunction in Ketamine-Related Cystitis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of sensory protein expression and urothelial dysfunction in ketamine-related cystitis (KC) in humans. Methods Biopsies of bladder mucosa were performed in 29 KC patients during cystoscopy. Then specimens were analyzed for tryptase, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) with immunofluorescence staining and quantification. In addition, 10 healthy control bladder specimens were analyzed and compared with the KC specimens. Another 16 whole bladder specimens obtained from partial cystectomy were also analyzed for the muscarinic receptors M2 and M3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), β-3 adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), and the P2X3 receptor by western blotting. In addition, 3 normal control bladder specimens were analyzed and compared with the KC specimens. Results The KC bladder mucosa revealed significantly less expression of ZO-1 and E-cadherin, and greater expression of TUNEL and tryptase activity than the control samples. The expression of M3 and β3-AR in the KC specimens was significantly greater than in the controls. The expression of iNOS, eNOS, M2, and P2X3 was not significantly different between the KC and control specimens. Conclusions The bladder tissue of KC patients revealed significant urothelial dysfunction, which was associated with mast-cell mediated inflammation, increased urothelial cell apoptosis, and increased expression of the M3 and β3-AR. PMID:27706016

  17. Activity of the trometamol salt of fosfomycin in an in vitro model of the treatment of bacterial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, D

    1986-01-01

    The response to trometamol fosfomycin of four strains of Escherichia coli was studied in an in vitro model in which the hydrokinetic aspects of the treatment of bacterial cystitis can be stimulated. Two strains of E. coli that were fully susceptible to fosfomycin, and a strain of intermediate susceptibility responded well to relatively low concentrations of the trometamol salt: doses achieving peak concentrations of 50 or 250 mg/l suppressed bacterial growth for at least 18 h; however, the emergence of resistance was completely suppressed only when a peak concentration of 2500 mg/l was achieved in the bladder model. A strain of E. coli that was fully resistant to fosfomycin in conventional minimum inhibitory concentration titrations responded to the highest dosage used, but this did not prevent further resistance from emerging. These results were obtained in the absence of the potentiating agent, glucose-6-phosphate, which is commonly used in susceptibility tests of fosfomycin. The implications of the results for fosfomycin dosage in bacterial cystitis and for the interpretation of susceptibility tests is discussed.

  18. Defects involving interstitial boron in low-temperature irradiated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Sosnin, M. G.; Duvanskii, A. V.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2016-12-01

    Interstitial boron-related defects in silicon subjected to irradiation with 5 MeV electrons at a temperature of 80 K are investigated by Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. This study demonstrates the radiation-enhanced annealing of interstitial boron during irradiation. We have revealed the interaction, which occurs in the course of irradiation, of diffusing interstitial boron atoms with one another and with interstitial oxygen. The local vibrational modes associated with these defects are identified, and the thermal stability of the defects is determined.

  19. Migration of Di- and Tri-Interstitials in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, Matthias; Gao, Fei; Zwicker, D

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The results are compared with data from the literature and the implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed.

  20. Diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema treated by lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Matta, Reva; Matta, Judy; Hage, Pierre; Nassif, Yolla; Mansour, Nabil; Diab, Nabil

    2011-10-01

    Persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema is a rare condition that occurs in preterm infants on mechanical ventilation, characterized by abnormal accumulation of air in the pulmonary interstitium, due to disruption of the basement membrane. Diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema is observed when small cysts are noted in all lobes of the lung. The management of infants suffering from diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema varies according to severity and stability of the patient, being either conservative treatment or aggressive surgical treatment by pneumonectomy. We report a case of an unstable patient with diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema successfully treated by lobectomy as a form of conservative surgical approach.

  1. Current concepts and dilemmas in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jay H.; Moua, Teng; Azadeh, Natalya; Baqir, Misbah; Yi, Eunhee S.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias comprise approximately one-third of interstitial lung diseases (also called diffuse parenchymal infiltrative lung diseases). The classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias has undergone several revisions since the initial description of 40 years ago, and the most recent version was published in 2013. Although some aspects have been clarified, this group of heterogeneous disorders continues to be a source of confusion and misunderstanding in clinical applications. In this article, we explore several topical themes in the evaluation and management of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. PMID:27853529

  2. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance of Urinary Tract Isolates in Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis among College-Aged Women: Choosing a First-Line Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hames, Leesa; Rice, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors of this retrospective case study focused on antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary tract isolates in cases of acute uncomplicated cystitis in college-aged women, aged 18 to 24 years, diagnosed at a major south-central university student health center. Methods: The authors obtained pertinent data from…

  4. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-07

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value.

  5. Dose-effect relation of interstitial low-dose-rate radiation (Ir192) in an animal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Ruifrok, A C; Levendag, P C; Lakeman, R F; Deurloo, I K; Visser, A G

    1990-01-01

    One way to deliver high doses of radiation to deep seated tumors without damaging the surrounding tissue is by interstitial techniques. This is commonly applied clinically; however, biological data of tumor response to interstitial low-dose-rate gamma irradiation are scarce. Therefore, we have studied the response of rhabdomyosarcoma R1 tumors implanted in the flanks of female Wag/Rij rats using an interstitial Ir192 afterloading system. A template was developed by which four catheters can be implanted in a square geometry with a fixed spacing. Subsequently four Ir192 wires of 2 cm length each are inserted. For dose prescription the highest isodose enveloping the tumor volume was chosen. Interstitial irradiation was performed using tumor volumes of 1500-2000 mm3. A range of minimum tumor doses of 20 up to 115 Gy were given at a mean dose-rate of 48 cGy/hr. Dose-effect relations were obtained from tumor growth curves and tumor cure data, and compared to data from external irradiation. The dose required for 50% cures with interstitial irradiation (TCD50) appears to be 95 +/- 9 Gy. The TCD50 for low-dose-rate interstitial gamma irradiation is 1.5 times the TCD50 for single dose external X ray irradiation at high dose rates, but is comparable to the TCD50 found after fractionated X ray irradiation at high dose rate. Sham treatment of the tumors had no effect on the time needed to reach twice the treatment volume. The growth rate of tumors regrowing after interstitial radiotherapy is not markedly different from the growth rate of untreated (control) tumors (volume doubting time 5.6 +/- 1 day), in contrast to the decreased growth rate after external X ray irradiation. It is argued that the absence of a clear tumor bed effect may be explained by some sparing of the stroma by the low-dose-rate of the interstitial irradiation per se as well as by the physical dose distribution of the interstitial Ir192 sources, giving a relative low dose of radiation to the surrounding

  6. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis: Our experience of 14 patients

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, G. D.; Ram, R.; Swarnalatha, G.; Uppin, M.; Prayaga, A. K.; Dakshinamurty, K. V.

    2013-01-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare condition. Drugs, infections, immune processes, and foreign body reaction are the main causes. We identified a total of 14 patients with GIN during a period of 13 years in 2798 renal biopsies. There were 8 males and 6 females in the age range of 20-70 (mean 35 ± 12) years. The serum creatinine at presentation was 6.7 ± 3.8 (range: 2.3-14.7) mg/dl. In nine patients tuberculosis was the causative agent. Drugs (n = 2) and Wegener's granulomatosis (n = 1) were other etiologies. Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) and Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) were seen in one patient each. Patients with tuberculosis were treated with antituberculous therapy and three of them improved. Four out of six patients who required dialysis at presentation remained dialysis dependent, one of whom underwent renal transplantation. Two patients progressed to end stage renal disease after 7 years and 9 years each. The patients with drug induced GIN had improvement in renal function after prednisolone treatment. Patients with SLE, and Wegener's granulomatosis responded to immunosuppression. Patient with IgAN was on conservative management. Finally, six patients were on conservative management for chronic renal failure. PMID:24339518

  7. Female Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nov. 13, 2014. Hatcher RA, et al. Contraceptive Technology. 20th ed. New York, N.Y.: Ardent Media; 2011:391. FC2 female condom. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/ ...

  8. Involvement of interleukin-6-regulated nitric oxide synthase in hemorrhagic cystitis and impaired bladder contractions in young rats induced by acrolein, a urinary metabolite of cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Chia; Weng, Te-I; Wu, En-Ting; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Yang, Rong-Sen; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common complication in children receiving cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapeutic alkylating agent. Acrolein is a urinary metabolite from cyclophosphamide and can induce hemorrhagic cystitis. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of acrolein by intravesical instillation on urinary bladder muscle contractions and pathological alterations in rats. Acrolein instillation significantly increased the muscle contractions of rat bladder detrusor after 1 and 6 h but markedly decreased detrusor contractions after 24 h. Acrolein increased phosphorylated protein kinase C (pan-PKC) expressions in bladders after 1 and 6 h but inhibited it after 24 h. Inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) protein expressions were markedly induced in bladders 24 h after acrolein treatment. Twenty-four-hour acrolein instillation increased the levels of nitrite/nitrate and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the urinary bladder. The iNOS inhibitors significantly inhibited the acrolein-increased nitrite/nitrate levels, but not IL-6 levels. IL-6-neutralizing antibodies effectively inhibited the acrolein-increased NOx levels. The increased detrusor contractions by 1-h acrolein treatment were significantly reversed by the PKC inhibitor RO32-0432, and the decreased detrusor contractions by 24-h acrolein treatment were significantly reversed by the iNOS inhibitor and IL-6-neutralizing antibody. Both the iNOS inhibitor and IL-6-neutralizing antibody effectively reversed the increased iNOS expression, decreased PKC phosphorylation, increased bladder weight, and hemorrhagic cystitis in rats 24 h after acrolein treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that an IL-6-regulated iNOS/NO signaling pathway participates in the acrolein-triggered detrusor contraction inhibition and hemorrhagic cystitis. These findings may help us to find a new strategy to treat cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  9. Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

    1992-02-24

    Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at {minus}55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

  10. Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

    1992-02-24

    Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at [minus]55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

  11. Interstitial Condensation Risk at Thermal Rehabilitated Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, I.; Bliuc, I.; Iacob, A.; Dumitrescu, L.; Pescaru, R. A.; Helepciuc, C.

    2016-11-01

    The increasing thermal insulation degree of existing residential buildings, aiming to reduce the energy requirements for ensuring the indoor comfort, has as expected effect the elimination of condensation risk. However, in some cases this phenomenon occurs, both on the inner surface of the closing element and also in its structure. The surface condensation causes can be identified and can be easily removed. Instead, the causes and even the presence of interstitial condensation are more difficult to be observed. But the moistening of the insulation materials and the reduction of thermal insulation capacity or even its total degradation, contravene into a large extent or totally to the main purpose of the additional thermal protection. To avoid such situations, it is necessary to respect some principles concerning the structure, resulted from the knowledge of the water vapour diffusion behaviour of various materials. It is known that condensation vulnerability is higher for the additional thermal protection solutions by disposing the insulating material on the inside surface of the closing element. But practice has shown that the condensation phenomenon is not totally excluded neither in the case of outside thermal insulation - which is the current solution applied to the rehabilitation works - if the principles mentioned above are not known and respected. In this paper two models are compared on which the risk of interstitial condensation can be checked. The analysis made on two structures of exterior walls with thermal insulation demonstrates the need for additional verifications before proposing a solution for thermal rehabilitation of the envelope elements.

  12. [Acute interstitial nephritis induced by loratadine].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Navascués, R; Bastardo, Z; Fernández Díaz, M; Guerediaga, J; Quiñones, L; Pinto, J

    2003-01-01

    Loratadine is a second generation histamine H1 receptor antagonist, that has high potency antiallergic properties and is associated with low adverse effects compared with other antihistamines. Acute interstitial nephritis is a cause of acute renal failure that is most often induced by drugs or, less frequently, infection or sarcoidosis. Although the number of drugs associated with acute intersticial nephritis is too large, the antihistaminic loratadine have never been reported before. We report a case of an interstitial nephritis with acute renal failure that suggesting hypersensitivity reaction in a 77 old man who had received loratadine (10 mg/day) during ten days before his assessment to our hospital by disseminated pruritic syndrome. The initial suspect was rapidly progressive glomerulonephitis and renal biopsy was practice and treatment with corticosteroids were initiated (prednisone bolus of 500 mg three days and 1 mg/kg/day/later). The loratadine therapy was cessation. He exhibiting a slow and progressive improvement on renal function and one month later, urea and creatinine levels was normal and hematuria and proteinuria had disappeared. The corticosteroids therapy were progressive decreased until withdrawal. We think that this is an interesting case, basing in its clinical presentation and that it had never been reported before.

  13. Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    During δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

  14. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Mølholt, T. E. Gislason, H. P.; Ólafsson, S.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Weyer, G.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Johnston, K.; Sielemann, R.

    2014-01-14

    Isolated {sup 57}Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of {sup 57}Mn decaying to {sup 57}Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  15. Interstitial Pulmonary Edema Following Bromocarbamide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, H.; Hagedorn, M.; Bōttcher, D.; Neuhof, H.; Mittermayer, Ch.

    1974-01-01

    Bromocarbamides are sleep-inducing drugs which can lead, in man, to intoxication and death due to respiratory failure. To prove whether hemodynamic factors or the changed endothelial permeability induce pulmonary edema, animal experiments were performed. The fine structural changes in pulmonary edema in rabbits were observed at 60, 90 and 120 minutes after oral administration. The major findings were a) large blebs between capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium and b) interstitial edema of the vessel wall. The bleb contents were much less electron dense than the blood contents in the capillary. Colloidal carbon did not enter the bleb or the edematous interstitial tissue. Exogenous peroxidase uptake in pinocytotie vesicles increased in pathologic cases. The hemodynamic measurements in animal receiving artificial respiration which maintained the blood pO2 at a steady state showed similar blebs in the pulmonary vessels, indicating that anoxia is not the major cause of the vascular lesion. Moreover, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance could be held in the normal range in artificially respirated animals under bromocarbamide intoxication. Thus, hemodynamic factors are not likely to play a pathogenetic role in bringing about pulmonary edema. The chief, early factor is the increased endothelial permeability due to increased cytoplasmic transport. From this a practical suggestion for treating patients with bromocarbamide intoxication is derived: the usual fluid replacement in shock patients should be handled with great care to avoid fluid overload of the lung. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4835993

  16. Deriving sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background/Objectives. Passive sampling is becoming a frequently used measurement technique at Superfund sites with contaminated sediments. Passive sampling measures the concentrations of freely dissolved chemicals (Cfrees) in the sediment interstitial water. The freely dissolved chemical is a good surrogate for and a very practical means for estimating the concentrations of bioavailable chemical in the sediments. Building from this approach, a methodology is proposed to derive sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals (IWRGs) for the protection of benthic organisms from direct toxicity using Cfrees measured with passive sampling.Approach/Activities. In the early 2000s, EPA developed and released Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for a series of chemicals. ESBs are intended to be chemical concentrations below which unacceptable toxicity to benthic organisms does not occur. The ESBs (expressed with the units of ug/g OC) were derived using the equations:ESB= K_OC×FCV where K_OC=0.00028+0.983K_OWThe KOC is the organic carbon normalized sediment-water chemical partition coefficient, FCV is the Final Chronic Value from EPA’s ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life, and KOW is the n-octanol/water partition coefficient for the chemical. At a specific site, the remedial goal (CS:ESB µg/kg-dw) in sediment are then derived using the site-specific fraction of organic carbon in the sediment (fOC:SS) at the site:C_

  17. Fire performance of interstitial space construction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, J. R.

    1985-05-01

    Two unique walk-on deck construction systems were exposed to the standard NFPA 251 time-temperature fire exposure in order to evaluate their fire performance. A large scale steel structure was used in the test program to simulate construction systems found in the field. The structure consisted of two large functional floors separate by an interstitial space in which a walk-on deck system was constructed from light-weight concrete, and the second was built with poured gypsum. Three complete two hour fire tests were conducted along with one shorter test. Critical areas evaluated were the top functional floor, unprotected steel work in the interstitial space, response of the walk-on deck systems, and protection for a heavy steel column located in the center of each test bay. Test data were compared with the fire endurance test requirements of NFPA 251. Computer predictions were also made using the FIRES-08 model to determine its ability to accurately predict the construction systems performance.

  18. A case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, which presented an acute interstitial pneumonia-like image on chest CT scan.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohiro; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Susaki, Kentaro; Danjo, Junichi; Nakashima, Shusaku; Shimada, Hiromi; Izumikawa, Miharu; Takeuchi, Yohei; Mitsunaka, Hiroki; Bandoh, Shuji; Imataki, Osamu; Nose, Masato; Matsunaga, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) complicated with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). A female patient was diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) with MCTD by chest CT scan. Corticosteroid therapy was refractory for lung involvement, and she died due to acute respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed that AIP was compatible with lung involvement of CAPS. We therefore suggest that chest CT might reveal AIP-like findings in CAPS patients whose condition is complicated with pulmonary manifestations.

  19. Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    R. E. Ricker; D. J. Pitchure; and G. R. Myneni

    2006-10-30

    Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of using measurements of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify the diffusible interstitial content.

  20. [Roentgenographic pattern of interstitial pneumonia and allergic alveolitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stender, H S

    1977-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the lungs permits diagnosis of inflammatory and allergic pulmonary disease with predominantly interstitial and less alveolar involvement in which pulmonary fibrosis may develop. Reaction of the sensitised lung to allergic exposure causes typical roentgenological patterns. Development of pulmonary fibrosis in interstitial lung disease can be prevented be early cortison therapy.

  1. Smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: A review.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Harari, Sergio; Caminati, Antonella; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2016-01-01

    For many years, cigarette smoking has been considered as the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Recently, however, it has also been associated with the development of diffuse interstitial lung diseases. In the latest classification of the major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), the term smoking-related IIP has been introduced, including two entities, namely desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD). Other entities in which smoking has a definite or suggested role include pulmonary Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, smoking-related interstitial fibrosis, combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of smoking-related lung damage and on the clinical aspects of these disorders with the exception of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which will be reviewed elsewhere in this review series.

  2. Results of a randomized, prospective, double-dummy, double-blind trial to compare efficacy and safety of a herbal combination containing Tropaeoli majoris herba and Armoraciae rusticanae radix with co-trimoxazole in patients with acute and uncomplicated cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Rainer; Schneider, Berthold; Albrecht, Uwe; Mueller, Valentina; Schnitker, Joerg; Michalsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate non-inferiority of an herbal combination (horseradish root and nasturtium herb) to an antibiotic (co-trimoxazole) in acute uncomplicated cystitis. Design Randomized, prospective, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, phase III clinical study, using block randomization of 4 blocks (size 2). Setting Twenty-six centers in Germany, from May 2011 to June 2013. Participants Adult patients (median age, 38.5 years; 90% female) with acute uncomplicated cystitis confirmed via urinalysis and bacterial counts. Interventions Patients received the herbal combination (five tablets, four times per day) or the antibiotic (two tablets daily) for a period of 7 or 3 days, respectively, followed by a 21-days without drug treatment. Placebos ensured blinding. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary endpoint was the percentage of responders, expressed as reduction of germ count from >105 to <103 CFU/mL of pathogens between visit 1 (day 0) and 3 (day 15). Secondary endpoints included change of symptom scores, duration of symptoms, efficacy assessments, relapse frequency, and safety. A sample size of 178 patients per group was estimated. Results Of the 96 randomized patients (intent-to-treat; 45 in the phytotherapy group, 51 in the antibiotic group), 51 were considered per-protocol patients (22 in the phytotherapy group, 29 in the antibiotic group). Responder rates were 10/22 (45.5%) for the phytotherapy group and 15/29 (51.1%) for the antibiotic group (group difference: −6.27% [95% CI: −33.90%–21.3%]). The study was terminated prematurely due to slow recruitment rates. Non-inferiority could not be assumed by predefined criteria. During the follow-up period, one relapse occurred in each group. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion This clinical trial indicates comparable efficacy of the herbal combination and antibiotic, although non-inferiority was not proved. However, the results and lessons learned are important for the planning of

  3. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  4. Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy—A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Shafirstein, Gal; Bellnier, David; Oakley, Emily; Hamilton, Sasheen; Potasek, Mary; Beeson, Karl; Parilov, Evgueni

    2017-01-01

    Multiple clinical studies have shown that interstitial photodynamic therapy (I-PDT) is a promising modality in the treatment of locally-advanced cancerous tumors. However, the utilization of I-PDT has been limited to several centers. The objective of this focused review is to highlight the different approaches employed to administer I-PDT with photosensitizers that are either approved or in clinical studies for the treatment of prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, and brain cancer. Our review suggests that I-PDT is a promising treatment in patients with large-volume or thick tumors. Image-based treatment planning and real-time dosimetry are required to optimize and further advance the utilization of I-PDT. In addition, pre- and post-imaging using computed tomography (CT) with contrast may be utilized to assess the response. PMID:28125024

  5. Lung alveolar epithelium and interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Corvol, Harriet; Flamein, Florence; Epaud, Ralph; Clement, Annick; Guillot, Loic

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a group of lung disorders characterized by various levels of inflammation and fibrosis. The current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of ILD strongly suggests a central role of the alveolar epithelium. Following injury, alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may actively participate in the restoration of a normal alveolar architecture through a coordinated process of re-epithelialization, or in the development of fibrosis through a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Complex networks orchestrate EMT leading to changes in cell architecture and behaviour, loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal properties. In the lung, AECs themselves may serve as a source of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. This review covers recent knowledge on the role of alveolar epithelium in the pathogenesis of ILD. The mechanisms underlying disease progression are discussed, with a main focus on the apoptotic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and the developmental pathway.

  6. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD.

  7. Porcine mitral valve interstitial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Lester, W; Rosenthal, A; Granton, B; Gotlieb, A I

    1988-11-01

    There are connective tissue cells present within the interstitium of the heart valves. This study was designed to isolate and characterize mitral valve interstitial cells from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Explants obtained from the distal part of the leaflet, having been scraped free of surface endocardial cells, were incubated in medium 199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Cells grew out of the explant after 3 to 5 days and by 3 weeks these cells were harvested and passaged. Passages 1 to 22 were characterized in several explant sets. The cells showed a growth pattern reminiscent of fibroblasts. Growth was dependent on serum concentration. Cytoskeletal localization of actin and myosin showed prominent stress fibers. Ultrastructural studies showed many elongated cells with prominent stress fibers and some gap junctions and few adherens junctions. There were as well cells with fewer stress fibers containing prominent Golgi complex and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. In the multilayered superconfluent cultures, the former cells tended to be on the substratum of the dish or surface of the multilayered culture, whereas the latter was generally located within the layer of cells. Extracellular matrix was prominent in superconfluent cultures, often within the layers as well. Labeling of the cells with antibody HHF 35 (Tsukada T, Tippens D, Gordon D, Ross R, Gown AM: Am J Pathol 126:51, 1987), which recognizes smooth muscle cell actin, showed prominent staining of the elongated stress fiber-containing cells and much less in the secretory type cells. These studies show that interstitial mitral valve cells can be grown in culture and that either two different cell types or one cell type with two phenotypic expressions is present in culture.

  8. Risk factors for development of sterile haemorrhagic cystitis in canine lymphoma patients receiving oral cyclophosphamide: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, R; Brown, D; Cohen, R; Sorenmo, K

    2014-12-01

    Sterile haemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) is a known risk of cyclophosphamide treatment; however, most canine reports are case series. This case-control study examined risk factors for SHC in dogs with lymphoma receiving oral cyclophosphamide. Twenty-two dogs with SHC and 66 control dogs were identified. On univariate analysis, SHC risk factors included age (P = 0.041), induction protocol (P = 0.021) and cumulative cyclophosphamide dose (P = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, increasing cumulative cyclophosphamide dose was associated with increased risk of SHC and the 'short' induction protocol (protocol 1) was associated with decreased risk. Controlling for age and induction protocol, odds of SHC increased by 2.21 per 750 mg m(-2) increase in cyclophosphamide dose (P = 0.001). SHC from oral cyclophosphamide is a predominately delayed toxicity resulting from high cumulative doses.

  9. A case of eosinophilic cystitis in patients with abdominal pain, dysuria, genital skin hyperemia and slight toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Cerruto, Maria Angela; D'Elia, Carolina; Artibani, Walter

    2013-06-24

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease with controversial aetiology and treatment. We report the case of a 61-year-old man presented with lower quadrant abdominal pain and lower urinary tract symptoms, non responsive to antibiotics and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Physical examination was substantially negative, such as laboratory parameters, microscopic, bacteriological and serological evaluations. Cystoscopy revealed red areas involving the mucosa of the bladder and transurethral biopsies revealed infiltrating eosinophils. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and montelukast sodium with improving of the symptoms, and at 5 weeks postoperative pain score was reduced. After discontinuing corticosteroids dysuria recurred with the development of hyperemia at the genital skin; the specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against several parasites was slightly positive for Toxocara species. Montelukast sodium was discontinued and corticosteroid therapy was started together with albendazole, with improving of patient’s symptoms and pain decreasing after one week.

  10. Sensitivities of major causative organisms isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis against various antibacterial agents: results of subanalysis based on the presence of menopause.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Hayami, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazushi; Muratani, Tetsuro; Monden, Koichi; Arakawa, Soichi; Yamamoto, Shingo

    2012-08-01

    We investigated whether the presence of menopause influenced the species and distribution of causative bacteria isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis (the most common urinary tract infection), and we also investigated the sensitivity of the isolated species to antibacterial agents. Using multivariate analysis, we also investigated risk factors for infection with quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, because its frequency has increased and it is now a clinical problem in Japan. Six hundred and thirty-four strains were isolated from 489 premenopausal patients (mean age 32.3 ± 10.1 years). Major causative bacteria detected were Escherichia coli (65.0 %), Enterococcus faecalis (12.0 %), Streptococcus agalactiae (5.5 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.6 %). From 501 postmenopausal patients (mean age 68.7 ± 10.29 years), 657 strains were isolated, and the major causative bacteria detected were E. coli (61.5 %), E. faecalis (13.7 %), K. pneumoniae (5.2 %), and S. agalactiae (4.0 %). The sensitivities to fluoroquinolones (FQs) and cephems of E. coli isolated from premenopausal patients were both ≥90 %, while the sensitivities to FQs of E. coli isolated from postmenopausal patients were about 5 % lower. In regard to infection with quinolone-resistant E. coli (minimal inhibitory concentration of levofloxacin [LVFX] ≥4 μg/mL), significant risk factors were observed in patients with more than two episodes of cystitis within a year (p = 0.0002), patients to whom antibacterial agents were used previously for this episode of cystitis (p = 0.0175), and patients who had a history of FQ administration within 1 month. Although the species and distribution of causative bacteria of acute uncomplicated cystitis were the same regardless of the presence of menopause, the sensitivities to FQs of E. coli detected in postmenopausal patients were significantly lower than those in the premenopausal women. The major risk factors for infection with quinolone-resistant E

  11. Genotypic Characterization of Virulence Factors in Escherichia coli Isolated from Patients with Acute Cystitis, Pyelonephritis and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    Tabasi, Mohsen; Karam, Mohammad Reza Asadi; Habibi, Mehri; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infections worldwide. It is well-documented that the pathogenesis of UPEC is mediated by the production of a wide variety of Virulence Factors (VFs). Thus, detection of these VFs and evaluation of their association with different clinical types of UTIs could help to understand the role of these factors in pathogenesis of UPEC isolates. Aim To investigate the genotypic characteristics of UPEC isolates and to examine the relationship between VFs and different clinical symptoms of UTI. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study conducted at Pasteur Institute of Iran, a total of 156 UPEC isolated from outpatients and inpatients (symptomatic and asymptomatic UTI patients) visiting general and private hospitals in Tehran, Iran between March 2014 and February 2015 were included. Among them, 49 patients experienced at least one episode of recurrent UTI. A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect the presence of different VFs in the isolates. Moreover, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to characterize clonal relationships among UPEC isolates. Results The prevalence of virulence genes ranged from 0% for cdtB to 100% for fimH. The papEF, hlyA and aer genes were found to be significantly more frequent in UPEC isolated from patients with pyelonephritis, while the afa gene, the only indicator of recurrent UTIs, was more prevalent in UPEC isolated from patients with cystitis. In the present study, 34 PFGE clonal groups were found in the UPEC genome. Conclusion Our findings showed that from outpatients and patients with pyelonephritis, isolates were more virulent than those isolated from inpatients and cystitis patients, respectively. PFGE displayed a large diversity in the UPEC isolates that could be considered as an evolutionary strategy in the survival of the bacteria. PMID:28208853

  12. Calcium Signaling in Interstitial Cells: Focus on Telocytes

    PubMed Central

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai; Cretoiu, Dragos; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we describe the current knowledge on calcium signaling pathways in interstitial cells with a special focus on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLCs), and telocytes. In detail, we present the generation of Ca2+ oscillations, the inositol triphosphate (IP3)/Ca2+ signaling pathway and modulation exerted by cytokines and vasoactive agents on calcium signaling in interstitial cells. We discuss the physiology and alterations of calcium signaling in interstitial cells, and in particular in telocytes. We describe the physiological contribution of calcium signaling in interstitial cells to the pacemaking activity (e.g., intestinal, urinary, uterine or vascular pacemaking activity) and to the reproductive function. We also present the pathological contribution of calcium signaling in interstitial cells to the aortic valve calcification or intestinal inflammation. Moreover, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by calcium signaling in telocytes in the uterine, cardiac and urinary physiology, and also in various pathologies, including immune response, uterine and cardiac pathologies. PMID:28208829

  13. Calcium Signaling in Interstitial Cells: Focus on Telocytes.

    PubMed

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai; Cretoiu, Dragos; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria

    2017-02-13

    In this review, we describe the current knowledge on calcium signaling pathways in interstitial cells with a special focus on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLCs), and telocytes. In detail, we present the generation of Ca(2+) oscillations, the inositol triphosphate (IP₃)/Ca(2+) signaling pathway and modulation exerted by cytokines and vasoactive agents on calcium signaling in interstitial cells. We discuss the physiology and alterations of calcium signaling in interstitial cells, and in particular in telocytes. We describe the physiological contribution of calcium signaling in interstitial cells to the pacemaking activity (e.g., intestinal, urinary, uterine or vascular pacemaking activity) and to the reproductive function. We also present the pathological contribution of calcium signaling in interstitial cells to the aortic valve calcification or intestinal inflammation. Moreover, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by calcium signaling in telocytes in the uterine, cardiac and urinary physiology, and also in various pathologies, including immune response, uterine and cardiac pathologies.

  14. Interstitial lung disease in infancy: A general approach.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erica J; Walsh, Mark; Armes, Jane E; Douglas, Tonia; Chawla, Jasneek

    2016-04-01

    Childhood Interstitial lung disease (chILD) is an umbrella term used to define a broad range of rare, diffuse pulmonary disorders with altered interstitial structure that leads to abnormal gas exchange. Presentation of chILD in infancy can be difficult to differentiate from other common causes of diffuse lung disease. This article aimed at paediatricians provides an overview of interstitial lung disease presenting in infancy and includes key clinical features, a suggested approach to investigation and a summary of management. An overview of three clinical cases has been included to demonstrate the diagnostic approach, characteristic investigation findings and varied clinical outcomes.

  15. Glomerular haematuria, renal interstitial haemorrhage and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Martín Cleary, Catalina; Moreno, Juan Antonio; Fernández, Beatriz; Ortiz, Alberto; Parra, Emilio G; Gracia, Carolina; Blanco-Colio, Luis M; Barat, Antonio; Egido, Jesús

    2010-12-01

    Macroscopic haematuria of glomerular origin has been associated with acute kidney injury. We report a patient with IgA nephropathy, macroscopic haematuria and acute kidney injury. Systemic anticoagulation may have aggravated haematuria. There was extensive interstitial and intratubular red blood cell extravasation, and interstitial haemosiderin deposits. The abundant presence of macrophages expressing the haemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 and of cells stained for oxidative stress markers (NADPH-p22 phox and heme-oxigenase-1) in areas of interstitial haemorrhage and red blood cell cast-containing tubules provided evidence for a role for free haemoglobin in tubulointerstitial renal injury in human glomerular disease.

  16. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.

  17. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  18. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Cohort Study on Patient-Perceived Quality of Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Oscarsson, Nicklas; Arnell, Per; Lodding, Pär; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Seeman-Lodding, Heléne

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) were evaluated concerning patient-perceived symptoms of late radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis secondary to radiation therapy for pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients, 35 men and 4 women with a mean age of 71 (range, 35-84) years were included after informed consent and institutional ethics approval. They had all been treated with radiation therapy for prostate (n=34), cervix (n=2), or rectal (n=3) cancer using external beam radiation at a dose of 25 to 75 Gy. Patients with hematuria requiring blood transfusion were excluded. The HBOT was delivered with 100% oxygen for 90 minutes at 2.0 to 2.4 atmospheres (ATA). Mean number of treatments was 36 (28-40). Symptoms were prospectively assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite score before, during, and 6 to 12 months after HBOT. Results: The HBOT was successfully conducted, and symptoms were alleviated in 76% for patients with radiation cystitis, 89% for patients with radiation proctitis, and 88% of patients with combined cystitis and proctitis. Symptom reduction was demonstrated by an increased Expanded Prostate Index Composite score in the urinary domain from 50 ± 16 to 66 ± 20 after treatment (P<.001) and in the bowel domain from 48 ± 18 to 68 ± 18 after treatment (P<.001). For 31% of the patients with cystitis and 22% with proctitis, there were only trivial symptoms after HBOT. The improvement was sustained at follow-up in both domains 6 to 12 months after HBOT. No severe side effects were observed related to HBOT, and treatment compliance was high. Conclusions: HBOT can be an effective and safe treatment modality for late radiation therapy-induced soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region.

  19. Failure of Gallium-67 scintigraphy to identify reliably noninfectious interstitial nephritis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Moreno, A.J.

    1983-07-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of noninfectious interstitial nephritis. We studied 12 patients with Ga-67 citrate that were diagnosed as having noninfectious interstitial nephritis on renal biopsy. Only seven of the twelve patients with interstitial nephritis on biopsy were scan-positive. Gallium-67 scintigraphy may not reliably identify noninfectious interstitial nephritis.

  20. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ∼80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup −1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180–240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup −1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  1. View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.

    1985-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT change in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease.

  3. Evaluation of the wear properties of high interstitial stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tylczak, J.H.; Rawers, J.C.; Alman, D.E.

    2007-04-01

    Adding carbon to high nitrogen steels increases interstitial concentrations over what can be obtained with nitrogen addition alone. This can results in an increase in hardness, strength, and wear resistance. The alloys produced for this study were all based on commercially available high-nitrogen Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steel. This study is the first significant wear study of these new high interstitial nitrogen-carbon stainless steel alloys. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk abrasion, dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion, impeller impact, and jet erosion. Increasing interstitial concentration increased strength and hardness and improved wear resistance under all test conditions. The results are discussed in terms of overall interstitial alloy concentration.

  4. Technique of after-loading interstitial implants.

    PubMed

    Syed, A M; Feder, B H

    1977-01-01

    Interstitial implants are either removable or permanent (and occasionally a combination of both). Permanent implants are generally utilized where tumors are not accessible enough to permit easy removal of sources or where accurate source distribution is less critical. They are useful for cancers of the lung, pancreas, prostate, bladder, lymph nodes, etc. Radon and gold-198 have been largely replaced by iodine-125. Our major interests are in the removable after-loading iridium-192 implant techniques. Template (steel guide) and non-template (plastic tube) techniques are utilized. Templates are preferred where the tumor volume can only be approached from one side and where accurate positioning of sources would otherwise be difficult. They are useful for cancers of the cervix, vagina, urethra, and rectum. Non-template (plastic tube) techniques are preferred where the tumor volume can be approached from at least two sides and where templates are either not feasible or not essential for accurate positioning of sources. The single needle non-template approach is useful for cancers of lip, nodes, and breast (plastic button) and for cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx (gold button). The paired needle non-template approach is useful for cancers of the gum, retromolar trigone, and base of tongue (loop technique) and for cancers of the palate (arch technique). Procedures for each technique are described in detail.

  5. Magnetic effects of interstitial hydrogen in nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Andrea; Velásquez, E. A.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Mejía-López, J.; Florez, J. M.; Vargas, P.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen storage in materials is among the most relevant fields when thinking about energy conversion and storage. In this work we present a study that responds to a couple of questions concerning induced electronic changes that H produces in ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) host. We calculate and explain the change of magnetic properties of Ni with different concentrations of H. Density functional theory calculations (DFT) were performed for super-cells of fcc Ni with interstitial H in octahedral sites at different concentrations. In order to physically explain the effect of magnetization diminishing as the hydrogen concentration increases, we propose a simple Stoner type of model to describe the influence of the H impurity on the magnetic properties of Ni. The exchange splitting reduction, as shown in first principles calculations, is clearly explained within this physical model. Using a paramagnetic Ni fcc band with variable number of electrons and a Stoner model allow us to obtain the correct trend for the magnetic moment of the system as a function of the H concentration.

  6. Standardising Responsibility? The Significance of Interstitial Spaces.

    PubMed

    Wickson, Fern; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Modern society is characterised by rapid technological development that is often socially controversial and plagued by extensive scientific uncertainty concerning its socio-ecological impacts. Within this context, the concept of 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) is currently rising to prominence in international discourse concerning science and technology governance. As this emerging concept of RRI begins to be enacted through instruments, approaches, and initiatives, it is valuable to explore what it is coming to mean for and in practice. In this paper we draw attention to a realm that is often backgrounded in the current discussions of RRI but which has a highly significant impact on scientific research, innovation and policy-namely, the interstitial space of international standardization. Drawing on the case of nanoscale sciences and technologies to make our argument, we present examples of how international standards are already entangled in the development of RRI and yet, how the process of international standardization itself largely fails to embody the norms proposed as characterizing RRI. We suggest that although current models for RRI provide a promising attempt to make research and innovation more responsive to societal needs, ethical values and environmental challenges, such approaches will need to encompass and address a greater diversity of innovation system agents and spaces if they are to prove successful in their aims.

  7. Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachreson, Cameron; Wolff, Christian; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos

    2017-01-01

    Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient γ ), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological parameters. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of biofilms and provide insights into the relationship between bacterial movement and their environment, and basic mechanisms behind self-organization of biophysical systems.

  8. Renaissance of laser interstitial thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon; Barnett, Gene H

    2015-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique for treating intracranial tumors, originally introduced in 1983. Its use in neurosurgical procedures was historically limited by early technical difficulties related to the monitoring and control of the extent of thermal damage. The development of magnetic resonance thermography and its application to LITT have allowed for real-time thermal imaging and feedback control during laser energy delivery, allowing for precise and accurate provision of tissue hyperthermia. Improvements in laser probe design, surgical stereotactic targeting hardware, and computer monitoring software have accelerated acceptance and clinical utilization of LITT as a neurosurgical treatment alternative. Current commercially available LITT systems have been used for the treatment of neurosurgical soft-tissue lesions, including difficult to access brain tumors, malignant gliomas, and radiosurgery-resistant metastases, as well as for the ablation of such lesions as epileptogenic foci and radiation necrosis. In this review, the authors aim to critically analyze the literature to describe the advent of LITT as a neurosurgical, laser excision tool, including its development, use, indications, and efficacy as it relates to neurosurgical applications.

  9. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, M.R.; Tulip, J.; Chetner, M.; McPhee, M.S. )

    1989-07-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which were placed in a 0.94 X 0.94 cm grid pattern within excised Dunning R3327-AT rat prostate tumors. A cylindrical diffusing fiber tip, illuminated by 630 nm dye laser light was placed within one needle and a miniature light detector was placed within another. The average penetration depth in the tumor region between the two needles was calculated from the optical power measured by the detector, using a modified diffusion theory. Repeating the procedure for each pair of needles revealed significant variations in penetration depth within individual tumors. Average values of penetration depth, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and mean scattering cosine were 0.282 cm, 0.469 cm-1, 250 cm-1 and 0.964, respectively. Calculated light distributions from four cylindrical sources in tumors gave reasonable agreement with direct light measurements using fiber optic probes.

  10. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  11. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Caminati, Antonella; Cassandro, Roberto; Harari, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), particularly in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and ILD associated with connective tissue disease. However, other lung diseases, such as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, may also include PH in their clinical manifestations. In all of these diseases, PH is associated with reduced exercise capacity and poor prognosis. The degree of PH in ILDs is typically mild-to-moderate. However, some of these patients may develop a disproportionate increase in PH that cannot be justified solely by hypoxia and parenchymal injury: this condition has been termed "out-of-proportion" PH. The pathogenesis of PH in these diseases is various, incompletely understood and may be multifactorial. The clinical suspicion (i.e. increased dyspnoea, low diffusion capacity) and echocardiographic assessment are the first steps towards proper diagnosis of PH; however, right heart catheterisation remains the current gold standard for diagnosis of PH. At present, no specific therapies have been approved for the treatment of PH in patients with ILDs.

  12. Distal interstitial epididymitis in young rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Guenther; Belote, Duane A; Suttie, Andrew W; Buetow, Bernard S; Muhumuza, Luke

    2015-04-01

    A sporadic, diffuse, interstitial mixed cell epididymitis of unknown etiology was noted in the epididymal cauda and distal corpus of young control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats from 2 different suppliers were examined as part of routine toxicology studies. The incidence of this finding was 5/5 (study 1), 2/7 (study 2), and 2/7 (study 3). Although 2 of these studies partially overlapped temporally, none of the affected animals from any study was maintained concurrently with affected animals from any of the other 2 studies, and infectious causes, control article toxicity, or autoimmune processes were considered unlikely etiologies. Inflammation similar to that noted in the epididymides of these young rats was not present in other tissues and was not noted in study cohorts sacrificed at ages older than approximately 11 weeks or in rats of similar age from other concurrent studies. Similar findings were noted sporadically in historical control data, and consequently an age-related finding of unknown etiology and occurring in sporadic clusters is reported in SD rats ≤11 weeks old.

  13. Arsenic interstitial diffusion in gallium arsenide: A computational physicist's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoulias, Panagiotis

    This thesis elucidates the importance of interstitial diffusion in semiconductors. Although more investigations have been made for silicon, the most widely used semiconductor, much less is known about arsenic interstitial diffusion in gallium arsenide -- another important technological material. Because a quantitative and qualitative description of diffusion of the arsenic split interstitial in gallium arsenide is expected to be dependent on the electrical conditions of the material, this thesis begins by examining the convergence of density-functional supercell calculations for defect formation energies, charge transition levels, localized defect state properties, defect atomic structure, relaxation. Supercells containing up to 217 atoms and a variety of k-space sampling schemes are considered. It is shown that a good description of the localized defect state and charge state transition levels requires at least a 217-atom supercell, although the defect structure and atomic relaxations can be well converged in a 65-atom cell. Formation energies are calculated for the arsenic split interstitial, gallium vacancy, and arsenic antisite defects in gallium arsenide, taking into account the dependence upon chemical potential and Fermi energy. It is found that equilibrium concentrations of arsenic interstitials will be much lower than equilibrium concentrations of arsenic antisites in arsenic-rich, n-type or semi-insulating gallium arsenide. The migration barriers for diffusion of arsenic split interstitials that are evaluated indicate that arsenic interstitials are mobile. A qualitative description of the minimum energy path shows that depending on the charge state arsenic interstitials can interact with defects and dopants on either sublattice. These results can be used as inputs into computational simulations of experiments. Also, this thesis shows that under near equilibrium conditions it is expected positively charged interstitials will dominate the diffusion for a

  14. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thaís Helena; Cunha, Thaís do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Deborah; Lee, Joyce S; King, Talmadge E

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease affecting about 1% of the population. Interstitial lung disease is a serious and frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is characterized by several histopathologic subtypes. This article reviews the proposed pathogenesis and risk factors for RA-ILD. We also outline the important steps involved in the work-up of RA-ILD and review the evidence for treatment and prognosis.

  16. Interstitial fluid flow of alveolar primary septa after pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mishima, Michiaki; Mentzer, Steve J; Tsuda, Akira

    2016-07-07

    Neoalveolation is known to occur in the remaining lung after pneumonectomy. While compensatory lung growth is a complex process, stretching of the lung tissue appears to be crucial for tissue remodeling. Even a minute shear stress exerted on fibroblasts in the interstitial space is known to trigger cell differentiation into myofibroblast that are essential to building new tissues. We hypothesize that the non-uniform motion of the primary septa due to their heterogeneous mechanical properties under tidal breathing induces a spatially unique interstitial flow and shear stress distribution in the interstitial space. This may in turn trigger pulmonary fibroblast differentiation and neoalveolation. In this study, we developed a theoretical basis for how cyclic motion of the primary septal walls with heterogeneous mechanical properties affects the interstitial flow and shear stress distribution. The velocity field of the interstitial flow was expressed by a Fourier (complex) series and its leading term was considered to induce the basic structure of stress distribution as long as the dominant length scale of heterogeneity is the size of collapsed alveoli. We conclude that the alteration of mechanical properties of the primary septa caused by pneumonectomy can develop a new interstitial flow field, which alters the shear stress distribution. This may trigger the differentiation of resident fibroblasts, which may in turn induce spatially unique neoalveolation in the remaining lung. Our example illustrates that the initial forming of new alveoli about half the size of the original ones.

  17. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed Central

    King, Talmadge E.

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has a worse response to therapy and prognosis. New insight into the pathophysiology of usual interstitial pneumonia suggests a distinctly fibroproliferative process, and antifibrotic therapies show promise. While the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias can be made confidently in some cases, many patients require surgical lung biopsy to determine their underlying histopathology. A structured, clinical-radiological-pathological approach to the diagnosis of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, with particular attention to the identification of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, insures proper therapy, enhances prognostication, and allows for further investigation of therapies aimed at distinct pathophysiology. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:17060957

  18. Ultrastructure of the genital organs in interstitial polychaetes. III. Penes and ejaculatory ducts in Hesionides arenaria (Hesionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westheide, W.

    1982-12-01

    The ejaculatory ducts of the two paired copulatory organs in the interstitial polychaete Hesionides arenaria are ciliated tubes, which open into simple, partly groove-like, non-stiffened penis papillae. The larger part of the ducts within the dorsal body wall is surrounded by circular muscle cells. Voluminous gland cell bodies lie between the pharynx-gut system and the body wall in the anterior part of the body; they extend anteriorly like long, thin necks, of which severl are always united in prominent strands. Their distal ends are expanded and penetrate the ducts. Six different types of glands can be distinguished according to the ultrastructure of their secretory granules. They produce the sheath of the double spermatophore or probably contain lytic enzymes that provide for the penetration of sperm into the body of the female. Differences in ultrastructure of the male organs in the interstitial genera Hesionides and Microphthalmus do not support the recent erection of the subfamily “Microphthalminae”.

  19. Lansoprazole-induced acute allergic interstitial nephritis in a renal transplant recipient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Tolga; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Baydar, Dilek Ertoy; Kutlugun, Aysun Aybal; Aki, Tuncay; Turgan, Cetin

    2012-12-01

    Drug-induced interstitial nephritis is one of the causes of graft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. Although commonly implicated as a cause of drug-induced interstitial nephritis in the general population, proton pump inhibitor-induced interstitial nephritis has not yet been reported in renal transplant recipients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is responsible for most cases of interstitial nephritis in this population. Here, we describe the first case of proton pump inhibitor-related interstitial nephritis in a renal transplant recipient.

  20. Female condoms.

    PubMed

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  1. Image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy – a valuable salvage treatment approach for loco-regional recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ning; Zhao, Hongfu; Han, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhipeng; Ge, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the treatment effect of image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for refractory recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Case report This 66-year-old female presented with recurrence 5 years after thyroidectomy for PTC. Despite external irradiation and radioactive 131I, the lesion expanded as 3.7 × 3.0 × 2.3 cm3 and 2.0 × 1.5 × 1.5 cm3. The locoregional recurrent tumor was treated with image-guided HDR interstitial brachytherapy. The total dose of 30 Gy in 6 fractions were delivered on the whole recurrent tumor. Results Removal of the recurrent tumor was securely achieved by HDR interstitial brachytherapy guided with ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. The refractory tumor in the patients healed uneventfully after HDR interstitial brachytherapy without recurrence during the 14 months of follow-up. Conclusions The image-guided HDR interstitial brachytherapy may be a valuable salvage treatment approach for refractory recurrence of PTC. PMID:27257420

  2. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  3. Metformin: Direct Inhibition of Rat Ovarian Theca-Interstitial Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Will, Matthew A.; Palaniappan, Murugesan; Peegel, Helle; Kayampilly, Pradeep; Menon, K.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective To determine if metformin has direct effects on ovarian theca-interstitial cell proliferation through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Design In vitro experimental study. Setting Academic medical center laboratory. Animal(s) Immature Sprague-Dawley female rats Interventions Ovarian theca-interstitial (T-I) cells were isolated, purified and cultured in the absence (control) or presence of insulin (1mcg/mL) with or without metformin or other activators/inhibitors of AMPK (AICAR, Compound C). Main outcome measure(s) Proliferation was assessed by determination of expression levels of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) with Western blot analysis, and determination of DNA synthesis with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Activation of AMPK, Erk1/2 and S6K1 was determined by Western blot analysis with the use of antibodies specific for the phosphorylated (activated) forms. Results Metformin inhibited insulin-induced ovarian T-I cell proliferation and upregulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D3 and CDK4. Metformin independently activated AMPK in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with metformin inhibited insulin-induced activation of Erk1/2 and S6K1. This effect was reversed with the addition of compound C, a known AMPK inhibitor. Conclusions Metformin directly inhibits proliferation of ovarian theca-interstitial cells via an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Present findings further validate potential benefits of metformin in the treatment of conditions associated with hyperinsulinemia and excessive growth of ovarian T-I cells (such as PCOS). PMID:22608319

  4. Unrecognized Interstitial Lung Disease as a Result of Chronic Nitrofurantoin Use.

    PubMed

    Rambaran, Kerry Anne; Seifert, Charles F

    2016-12-01

    Drug-induced interstitial lung disease is a rare condition attributed to several medications, including antimicrobial agents such as amphotericin B, anti-inflammatory agents such as methotrexate, biologic agents such as bevacizumab, and cardiovascular agents and chemotherapeutic agents. We describe the case of a 73-year-old female who developed interstitial lung disease following chronic use of nitrofurantoin for a urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was taking nitrofurantoin 100 mg capsules twice daily for approximately 3 years. She presented to the hospital with complaints of a persistent dry cough that started 2 years previously. Her chest radiograph revealed bilateral reticular opacities and some atelectasis. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated development of subpleural reticular opacities with minimal honeycombing. The patient had a severe restrictive defect on her pulmonary function tests, with a significant reduction in her carbon monoxide diffusion capacity. Multiple infectious disease and autoimmune tests were negative. Utilizing the algorithm of Naranjo (score of 9), it was determined that chronic use of nitrofurantoin was the definite cause of the patient's interstitial lung disease. Nitrofurantoin was discontinued and she was treated with oxygen and started on an oral steroid, both of which were continued permanently once discharged. Upon discharge, the patient was maintained on 5 L of oxygen at rest and 10 L of oxygen when ambulating. Unfortunately, her lung disease ultimately resulted in her demise several months after her diagnosis. This case report illustrates the importance of rapid recognition of drug-induced lung injuries and discontinuation of the offending agent.

  5. Pregnancy With a Successful Vaginal Delivery Following Augmentation Enterocystoplasty for Ketamine Cystitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shang-Jen

    2016-01-01

    A 28-year-old female with a 1-year history of ketamine abuse developed ketamine-associated urinary symptoms that were refractory to conservative treatment after the complete cessation of ketamine use. Smooth voiding with increased bladder capacity and minimal postvoid residual urine volume were achieved by performing an augmentation enterocystoplasty. An uneventful pregnancy with the vaginal delivery of a healthy baby occurred postoperatively. PMID:28043107

  6. Image-guided Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Preclinical investigation

    PubMed Central

    Sajisevi, Mirabelle; Rigual, Nestor R; Bellnier, David A.; Seshadri, Mukund

    2014-01-01

    Objective Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved minimally invasive treatment for cancer. In this preclinical study, using an imaging-guided approach, we examined the potential utility of PDT in the management of bulky squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Methods To mimic bulky oropharyngeal cancers seen in the clinical setting, intramuscular SCCs were established in six-to-eight week old female C3H mice. Animals were injected with the photosensitizer, 2-[hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH; 0.4 μmol/kg, i.v.) and tumors were illuminated 24 hours post injection with 665 nm light. PDT as a single treatment modality was administered by surface illumination or by interstitial placement of fibers (iPDT). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to guide treatment and assess tumor response to PDT along with correlative histopathologic assessment. Results Interstitial HPPH-PDT resulted in a marked change on T2 maps 24 hours post treatment compared to untreated controls or transcutaneous illumination. Corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient maps also showed hyperintense areas in tumors following iPDT suggestive of effective photodynamic cell kill. Histologic sections (H&E) confirmed presence of extensive tumor necrosis following iPDT. Conclusions These results highlight the potential utility of PDT in the treatment of bulky oropharyngeal cancers. The findings of our study also demonstrate the utility of MRI as a non-invasive tool for mapping of early tissue response to PDT. PMID:25750858

  7. Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Scleroderma, Complicated with Bilateral Pulmonary Aspergilloma: An Unusual Association

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Saumen; Ghoshal, Loknath; Kundu, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Aspergilloma or mycetoma is a saprophytic fungal infection that colonizes pre-existing excavated lung lesion. However, its association with systemic sclerosis related interstitial lung disease is unusual and scarcely found in literature. We report a middle aged female with long standing systemic sclerosis, who was on immunosuppressive therapy for many years, presented with repeated haemoptysis. Although provisionally pulmonary tuberculosis was suspected, imaging investigations showed presence of bilateral masses inside bullous air spaces along with air-crescent sign suggestive of fungal ball. Subsequent Computed tomography guided needle aspiration from lung mass confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus as aetiologic agent on fungal culture. Patient was treated conservatively for haemoptysis and with oral antifungal drug as surgical removal of fungal ball was not an option due to poor pulmonary reserve. Although she had been treated with itraconazole for more than three years, she had recurrent haemoptysis during this period without any significant regression of size of the aspergilloma. Management of aspergilloma in a background of extensive interstitial lung disease remains poorly defined and complicated. Thereby, overall prognosis is unfavourable and depends on evolution of both underlying scleroderma as well as aspergilloma. PMID:26816937

  8. Normalization of Lung Function Following Treatment of Secondary Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hohberger, Laurie A; Montero-Arias, Felicia; Roden, Anja C; Vassallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and is associated with a poor prognosis and poor responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy. We present a case of a woman with steroid-responsive biopsy-proven UIP with significant and sustained improvement in pulmonary function. A female in her 40s presented following a one-year history of progressive dyspnea, a 20 lb weight loss, and fatigue. Imaging of the chest with computed tomography (CT) showed bibasilar subpleural reticular opacities and minimal peripheral honeycombing. Comprehensive connective tissue disease (CTD) antibody testing was negative. Pulmonary function testing showed moderate impairment with reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC, 69% predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 73% predicted), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO, 52% predicted). Surgical lung biopsy showed UIP with prominent inflammatory infiltrates. Following treatment with prednisone and azathioprine, the patient’s symptoms resolved, while objective pulmonary function testing showed normalization of lung function, which is sustained at >4 years of follow-up. Improvement in lung function following immunosuppressive therapy is distinctly uncommon in either idiopathic or secondary UIP. This report suggests that occasionally, patients with secondary UIP occurring in the context of otherwise undefinable autoimmune clinical syndromes may be responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25922588

  9. [Occupational asthma and interstitial cobalt-induced changes in a dental technician: a case report].

    PubMed

    Wittczak, Tomasz; Walusiak, Jolanta; Krakowiak, Anna; Pałczyński, Cezary

    2003-01-01

    It is a case report on a 55-year-old non-smoking female, dental technician, with a 36-year history of cobalt exposure. The patient suffered from dyspnea, coughing and decrease in physical load tolerance about 20 years after the first occupational contact with cobalt-containing metal dentures. Skin tests performed with a battery of common allergens (metals: nickel, chrome, cobalt; acrylates; disinfectants; and natural rubber latex) were negative. In the patient, interstitial radiological changes, respiratory insufficiency and decrease in diffusion capacity were observed. While performing a provocation test with 0.05% cobaltous chloride, the patient developed dyspnea with concomitant decrease in 1 second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and peak respiratory flow (PEF) from the beginning of the 3rd hour after provocation and maximum intensity at the 8th hour. These symptoms persisted until the 24th hour. The authors conclude that occupational exposure of the dental technician to cobalt dust derived from metal dentures may cause chronic airway disease with interstitial inflammation, fibrosis and occupational asthma.

  10. Modulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Ogura, T; Ogawa, N; Udaka, N; Hayashi, H; Inayama, Y; Yazawa, T; Kitamura, H

    2002-10-01

    In order to reveal modulation of the number of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) in interstitial lung diseases and to clarify significance of cell proliferation activity in occurrence of PNEC, we counted airway PNEC of the patients of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, secondary interstitial pneumonia and control lungs, and compared the number of PNEC with airway Ki-67 labeling. The lung tissue samples were obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery from 22 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), 7 with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 8 with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia (CHP), 13 with collagen vascular disease (CVD), and were compared with age-matched control lungs. The tissues were immunostained for chromogranin A and for Ki-67. Average incidence of bronchiolar PNEC in normal, UIP, NSIP, CHP, CVD lungs was 0.169%, 0.348%, 0.326%, 0.175% and 0.201%, respectively, and average Ki-67 labeling index in them was 0.241%, 1.186%, 1.605%, 1.058%, and 2.353%, respectively. And, in UIP lungs, PNEC incidence or Ki-67 labeling index was different according to pathological lesions. Thus, PNEC increase in the bronchiole of UIP, and the incidence of PNEC varies according to degree of activity of epithelial cell proliferation probably related to epithelial cell injury. Moreover, enhanced expression of human homolog of achaete-scute complex (hASH1) mRNA in UIP lungs suggests that hASH1 could play roles in the regulation of PNEC.

  11. Migration processes of the As interstitial in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. F.; Modine, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal migration processes of the As interstitial in GaAs were investigated using density-functional theory and the local-density approximation for exchange and correlation. The lowest-energy processes were found to involve the -1, 0, and +1 charge states, and to produce migration along ⟨110⟩-type directions. In the -1 and 0 charge states, migration proceeds via hops between split-interstitial stable configurations at bulk As sites through bridging saddle-point configurations in which the interstitial atom is equidistant from two adjacent bulk As sites. In the +1 charge state, the roles of these two configurations are approximately reversed and migration proceeds via hops between bridging stable configurations through higher-energy split-interstitial stable configurations bounded by a pair of distorted split-interstitial saddle-point configurations. The predicted activation energies for migration in the 0 and +1 charge states agree well with measurements in semi-insulating and p-type material, respectively. Also consistent with experiments, the approximate reversal of the stable and saddle-point configurations between the 0 and +1 charge states is predicted to enable carrier-induced migration with a residual activation energy of 0.05 eV.

  12. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran

    2014-01-01

    Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume) and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity). Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT) of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy.

  13. Lymphangiogenesis and Lesion Heterogeneity in Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system has several physiological roles, including fluid homeostasis and the activation of adaptive immunity by fluid drainage and cell transport. Lymphangiogenesis occurs in adult tissues during various pathologic conditions. In addition, lymphangiogenesis is closely linked to capillary angiogenesis, and the balanced interrelationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is essential for maintaining homeostasis in tissues. Recently, an increasing body of information regarding the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells has allowed us to immunohistochemically characterize lymphangiogenesis in several lung diseases. Particular interest has been given to the interstitial lung diseases. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are characterized by heterogeneity in pathologic changes and lesions, as typified by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia. In IIPs, lymphangiogenesis is likely to have different types of localized functions within each disorder, corresponding to the heterogeneity of lesions in terms of inflammation and fibrosis. These functions include inhibitory absorption of interstitial fluid and small molecules and maturation of fibrosis by excessive interstitial fluid drainage, caused by an unbalanced relationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and induction of fibrogenesis via CCL21 and CCR7 signals. Better understanding for regional functions of lymphangiogenesis might provide new treatment strategies tailored to lesion heterogeneity in these complicated diseases. PMID:26823655

  14. The assessment of antimicrobial activity in an in-vitro model of the treatment of bacterial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, D

    1984-05-01

    In order to investigate the comparative activity of agents of the nalidixic acid series, cultures of nalidixic acid sensitive strains of E. coli were exposed to the drugs in an in-vitro model that simulates the hydrokinetic aspects of the treatment of bacterial cystitis. Intrinsic activity, as judged by the response to a single dose of drug and resistance as judged by response to a repeat dose, were investigated. All seven compounds tested in this way were able to inhibit bacterial growth for considerable periods of time even when the peak concentration achieved was as low as 10 mg/l. However, resistance emerged readily, particularly to nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid and piromidic acid. Norfloxacin was the most active of the seven compounds tested and was the only one to which resistance did not emerge at the concentrations tested. However, when two nalidixic acid resistant strains were tested in the bladder model, norfloxacin resistance was observed to emerge with one strain, but not with the other.

  15. The Quinovic Acid Glycosides Purified Fraction from Uncaria tomentosa Protects against Hemorrhagic Cystitis Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Fabrícia; Pietrobon Martins, Jerônimo; Kaiser, Samuel; Madeira Silva, Rodrigo Braccini; Rockenbach, Liliana; Albano Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Ortega, George González; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; Campos, Maria Martha; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases, such as urinary tract disease. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HE) is an inflammatory condition of the bladder associated with the use of anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CYP). Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (Mesna) has been used to prevent the occurrence of HE, although this compound is not effective in established lesions. It has been demonstrated that the purinergic system is involved in several pathophysiological events. Among purinergic receptors, P2X7 deserves attention because it is involved in HE induced by CYP and, therefore, can be considered a therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of the quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction (QAPF) from U. tomentosa in the mouse model of CYP-induced HE. Pretreatment with QAPF not only had a protective effect on HE-induced urothelial damage (edema, hemorrhage and bladder wet weight) but was also able to control visceral pain, decrease IL-1β levels and down-regulates P2X7 receptors, most likely by inhibit the neutrophils migration to the bladder. This research clearly demonstrates the promising anti-inflammatory properties of QAPF, supporting its use as complementary therapy. QAPF represents a promising therapeutic option for this pathological condition. PMID:26154141

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids are able to modulate the painful symptoms associated to cyclophosphamide-induced-hemorrhagic cystitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Raquel D S; Costa, Kesiane M; Nicoletti, Natália F; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Campos, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the long-term dietary fish oil supplementation or the acute administration of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the mouse hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CYP). HC was induced in mice by a single CYP injection (300mg/kg ip). Animals received four different diets containing 10% and 20% of corn or fish oil, during 21days. Separated groups received DHA by ip (1μmol/kg) or intrathecal (i.t.; 10μg/site) routes, 1h or 15min before CYP. The behavioral tests (spontaneous nociception and mechanical allodynia) were carried out from 1h to 6h following CYP injection. Bladder inflammatory changes, blood cell counts and serum cytokines were evaluated after euthanasia (at 6h). Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed for assessing spinal astrocyte and microglia activation or GPR40/FFAR1 expression. Either fish oil supplementation or DHA treatment (ip and i.t.) markedly prevented visceral pain, without affecting CYP-evoked bladder inflammatory changes. Moreover, systemic DHA significantly prevented the neutrophilia/lymphopenia caused by CYP, whereas this fatty acid did not significantly affect serum cytokines. DHA also modulated the spinal astrocyte activation and the GPR40/FFAR1 expression. The supplementation with fish oil enriched in omega-3 fatty acids or parenteral DHA might be interesting nutritional approaches for cancer patients under chemotherapy schemes with CYP.

  17. Male predominance among Japanese adult patients with late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Asano, Y; Kanda, Y; Ogawa, N; Sakata-Yanagimoto, M; Nakagawa, M; Kawazu, M; Goyama, S; Kandabashi, K; Izutsu, K; Imai, Y; Hangaishi, A; Kurokawa, M; Tsujino, S; Ogawa, S; Aoki, K; Chiba, S; Motokura, T; Hirai, H

    2003-12-01

    Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (LHC) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is mainly caused by viral infections. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 141 Japanese adult patients who underwent a first allogeneic HSCT from 1995 to 2002. In all, 19 patients developed LHC a median of 51 days after HSCT. Adenovirus (AdV) was detected in the urine of 10 LHC patients, of whom eight had AdV type 11. Five of the six available serum samples from these patients were also positive for AdV type 11, but the detection of AdV in serum was not associated with a worse outcome. Male sex and the development of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease were identified as independent significant risk factors for LHC. Male predominance was detected in LHC after HSCT, as has been previously shown in children with AdV-induced acute HC. The detection of AdV DNA in serum did not predict a poor outcome.

  18. SU-F-19A-12: Split-Ring Applicator with Interstitial Needle for Improved Volumetric Coverage in HDR Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sherertz, T; Ellis, R; Colussi, V; Mislmani, M; Traughber, B; Herrmann, K; Podder, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate volumetric coverage of a Mick Radionuclear titanium Split-Ring applicator (SRA) with/without interstitial needle compared to an intracavitary Vienna applicator (VA), interstitial-intracavitary VA, and intracavitary ring and tandem applicator (RTA). Methods: A 57 year-old female with FIGO stage IIB cervical carcinoma was treated following chemoradiotherapy (45Gy pelvic and 5.4Gy parametrial boost) with highdose- rate (HDR) brachytherapy to 30Gy in 5 fractions using a SRA. A single interstitial needle was placed using the Ellis Interstitial Cap for the final three fractions to increase coverage of left-sided gross residual disease identified on 3T-MRI. High-risk (HR) clinical target volume (CTV) and intermediate-risk (IR) CTV were defined using axial T2-weighted 2D and 3D MRI sequences (Philips PET/MRI unit). Organs-at-risks (OARs) were delineated on CT. Oncentra planning system was used for treatment optimization satisfying GEC-ESTRO guidelines for target coverage and OAR constraints. Retrospectively, treatment plans (additional 20 plans) were simulated using intracavitary SRA (without needle), intracavitary VA (without needle), interstitial-intracavitary VA, and intracavitary RTA with this same patient case. Plans were optimized for each fraction to maintain coverage to HR-CTV. Results: Interstitial-intracavitary SRA achieved the following combined coverage for external radiation and brachytherapy (EQD2): D90 HR-CTV =94.6Gy; Bladder-2cc =88.9Gy; Rectum-2cc =65.1Gy; Sigmoid-2cc =48.9Gy; Left vaginal wall (VW) =103Gy, Right VW =99.2Gy. Interstitial-intracavitary VA was able to achieve identical D90 HR-CTV =94.6Gy, yet Bladder-2cc =91.9Gy (exceeding GEC-ESTRO recommendations of 2cc<90Gy) and Left VW =120.8Gy and Right VW =115.5Gy. Neither the SRA nor VA without interstitial needle could cover HR-CTV adequately without exceeding dose to Bladder-2cc. Conventional RTA was unable to achieve target coverage for the HR-CTV >80Gy without severely

  19. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial pathogens from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis conducted by the Japanese surveillance committee during 2009 and 2010: antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    PubMed

    Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Shingo; Uehara, Shinya; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Ito, Shin; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Narita, Harunori; Kawano, Hiromi; Hosobe, Takahide; Takayama, Kazuo; Sumii, Toru; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Takashi; Yamauchi, Takamine; Izumitani, Masanobu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideari; Akiyama, Kikuo; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kano, Motonori; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Kenji; Inatomi, Hisato; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Ikuyama, Toshihiro; Nishi, Shohei; Takahashi, Koichi; Kawano, Yukihiro; Ishihara, Satoshi; Tsuneyoshi, Kengo; Matsushita, Shinji; Yamane, Takashi; Hirose, Takaoki; Fujihiro, Shigeru; Endo, Katsuhisa; Oka, Yasuhiko; Takeyama, Koh; Kimura, Takahiro; Uemura, Tetsuji

    2013-06-01

    The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.

  20. Renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure and pressure natriuresis in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Khraibi, A A

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a decrease in renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) accounts for the blunted pressure natriuresis during pregnancy. RIHP was measured in nonpregnant (NP; n = 9), midterm pregnant (MP; 12-14 days after conception; n = 10), and late-term pregnant (LP; 18-21 days after conception; n = 12) female Sprague-Dawley rats at two renal perfusion pressure (RPP) levels (99 and 120 mmHg). At the lower RPP level, RIHP was 5.9 +/- 0.3 mmHg for NP, 3.4 +/- 0.4 mmHg for MP (P < 0.05 vs. NP), and 2.9 +/- 0.1 mmHg for LP (P < 0.05 vs. NP) rats. The increase in RPP from 99 to 120 mmHg resulted in pressure natriuretic and diuretic responses in all groups; however, the increases in fractional excretion of sodium (DeltaFE(Na)), urine flow rate (DeltaV), and DeltaRIHP were significantly greater (P < 0. 05) in NP compared with both MP and LP rats. DeltaFE(Na), DeltaV, and DeltaRIHP were 2.06 +/- 0.28%, 81.44 +/- 14.10 microl/min, and 3. 0 +/- 0.5 mmHg for NP; 0.67 +/- 0.13%, 28.03 +/- 5.28 microl/min, and 0.5 +/- 0.2 mmHg for MP; and 0.48 +/- 0.12%, 18.14 +/- 4.70 microl/min, and 0.4 +/- 0.1 mmHg for LP rats. In conclusion, RIHP is significantly lower in pregnant compared with nonpregnant rats at similar RPP levels. Also, the ability of pregnant rats to increase RIHP in response to an increase in RPP is blunted. These changes in RIHP may play an important role in the blunted pressure natriuresis and contribute to the conservation of sodium and water that is critical for fetal growth and development during normal pregnancy.

  1. The lipid geochemistry of interstitial waters of recent marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Saliot, A.; Brault, M.; Boussuge, C. )

    1988-04-01

    To elucidate the nature of biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface, the authors have analyzed fatty acids, n-alkanes and sterols contained in interstitial waters collected from oxic and anoxic marine sediments in the eastern and western intertropical Atlantic Ocean and in the Arabian Sea. Lipid concentrations in interstitial waters vary widely and are generally much higher than concentrations encountered in the overlying sea water. Higher concentrations in interstitial water are observed in environments favorable for organic input and preservation of the organic matter in the water column and in the surficial sediment. The analysis of biogeochemical markers in the various media of occurrence of the organic matter such as sea water, suspended particles, settling particles and sediment is discussed in terms of differences existing between these media and bio-transformations of the organic matter at the water-sediment interface.

  2. Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Balestra, D.J.; Balestra, S.T.; Wasson, J.H.

    1988-07-01

    The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later.

  3. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia associated with chrysotile asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Freed, J A; Miller, A; Gordon, R E; Fischbein, A; Kleinerman, J; Langer, A M

    1991-05-01

    The drywall construction trade has in the past been associated with exposure to airborne asbestos fibres. This paper reports a drywall construction worker with 32 years of dust exposure who developed dyspnoea and diminished diffusing capacity, and showed diffuse irregular opacities on chest radiography. He did not respond to treatment with corticosteroids. Open lung biopsy examination showed desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Only a single ferruginous body was seen on frozen section, but tissue examination by electron microscopy showed an extraordinary pulmonary burden of mineral dust with especially high concentrations of chrysotile asbestos fibres. This report emphasises the need to consider asbestos fibre as an agent in the aetiology of desquamative interstitial pneumonia. The coexistent slight interstitial fibrosis present in this case is also considered to have resulted from exposure to mineral dust, particularly ultramicroscopic asbestos fibres.

  4. Interstitial carbon formation in irradiated copper-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a copper impurity on the spectrum of defects induced in p-Si crystals containing a low oxygen concentration by irradiation with electrons with an energy of 5 MeV at room temperature is studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. It is found that interstitial carbon atoms (C{sub i}) which are the dominant defects in irradiated samples free of copper are unobservable immediately after irradiation, if the concentration of mobile interstitial copper atoms (Cu{sub i}) is higher than the concentration of radiation defects. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of (Cu{sub i}, C{sub i}) complexes, which do not introduce levels into the lower half of the band gap. It is shown that these complexes dissociate upon annealing at temperatures of 300–340 K and, thus, bring about the appearance of interstitial carbon.

  5. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  6. Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease in a patient with follicular lymphoma: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Aagre, Suhas; Patel, Apurva; Kendre, Pradip; Anand, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD-20 antigen expressed in more than 90% of all B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We report a case of 33-year-old female without any comorbidities, newly diagnosed with stage IIIB follicular lymphoma treated with rituximab-based chemotherapy. Patient developed exertional dyspnea and dry cough after the fourth cycle of rituximab-based chemotherapy. Diagnostic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs revealed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD). It was managed successfully with supplemental oxygen and corticosteroids with discontinuation of the Rituximab. Extensive review of the literature did not reveal ample of material on rituximab-induced ILD (RTX-ILD). PMID:26664173

  7. AGE-RELATED EFFECT ON THE CONCENTRATION OF COLLAGEN CROSSLINKS IN HUMAN OSTEONAL AND INTERSTITIAL BONE TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Acuna, Rae L.; Gayle, Heather J.; Reyes, Michael J.; Tyler, Jerrod H.; Dean, David D.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2007-01-01

    Collagen crosslinks are important to the quality of bone and may be contributors to the age-related increase in bone fracture. This study was performed to investigate whether age and gender effects on collagen crosslinks are similar in osteonal and interstitial bone tissues. Forty human cadaveric femurs were collected and divided into two age groups: Middle aged (42–63 years of age) and Elderly (69–90 years of age) with ten males and ten females in each group (n = 10). Micro-cores of bone tissue from both secondary osteons (newly formed) and interstitial regions (biologically old) in the medial quadrant of the diaphysis were extracted using a custom-modified, computer numerical controlled machine. The bone specimens were then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography to determine the effects of age and gender on the concentration of mature, enzymatic crosslinks (hydroxylysyl-pyridinoline – HP and lysylpyridinoline – LP) and a non-enzymatic crosslink (pentosidine – PE) at these two bony sites. The results indicate that age has a significant effect on the concentration of LP and PE, while gender has a significant effect on HP and LP. In addition, the concentration of the crosslinks in the secondary osteons is significantly different from that in the interstitial bone regions. These results suggest that the rate of non-enzymatic crosslinking may increase while the formation of maturate enzymatic crosslinks may decrease with age. Such changes could potentially reduce the inherent quality of the bone tissue in the elderly skeleton. PMID:16962838

  8. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-30

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

  9. Intraluminal crawling versus interstitial neutrophil migration during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pick, Robert; Brechtefeld, Doris; Walzog, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    Site-directed trafficking of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to their target regions within the tissue is an important prerequisite for efficient host defense during the acute inflammatory response. This process requires intraluminal crawling of PMN on the activated endothelial cells to their extravasation sites. Upon transendothelial diapedesis, PMN migrate in the interstitial tissue to sites of inflammation. These crucial steps within the recruitment cascade are defined as intraluminal crawling and interstitial migration. In this review, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that control and fine-tune these migratory processes and discuss the role of adhesion molecules of the β2 integrin (CD11/CD18) family for these cellular functions.

  10. Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

    2013-10-01

    Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice.

  11. Association Between Interstitial Lung Abnormalities and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Rachel K.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Araki, Tetsuro; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Gao, Wei; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Dupuis, Josée; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Cho, Michael H.; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Coxson, Harvey O.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Ross, James C.; Harmouche, Rola; Estépar, Raúl San José; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Elías F.; Eiríksdottír, Gudny; Aspelund, Thor; Budoff, Matthew J.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Hokanson, John E.; Williams, Michelle C; Murchison, John T.; MacNee, William; Hoffmann, Udo; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Harrris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Silverman, Edwin K.; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interstitial lung abnormalities have been associated with decreased six-minute walk distance, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and total lung capacity; however to our knowledge, an association with mortality has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, POPULATION Prospective cohort studies of 2633 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (CT scans obtained 9/08–3/11), 5320 from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik (recruited 1/02–2/06), 2068 from COPDGene (recruited 11/07–4/10), and 1670 from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) (between 12/05–12/06). EXPOSURES Interstitial lung abnormality status as determined by chest CT evaluation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All cause mortality over approximately 3 to 9 year median follow up time. Cause-of-death information was also examined in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort. RESULTS Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%) of the participants from FHS, 378 (7%) from AGES-Reykjavik, 156 (8%) from COPDGene, and in 157 (9%) from ECLIPSE. Over median follow-up times of ~3–9 years there were more deaths (and a greater absolute rate of mortality) among those with interstitial lung abnormalities compared to those without interstitial lung abnormalities in each cohort; 7% compared to 1% in FHS (6% difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2%, 10%), 56% compared to 33% in AGES-Reykjavik (23% difference, 95% CI 18%, 28%), 16% compared to 11% in COPDGene (5% difference, 95% CI −1%, 11%) and 11% compared to 5% in ECLIPSE (6% difference, 95% CI 1%, 11%). After adjustment for covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with an increase in the risk of death in the FHS (HR=2.7, 95% CI, 1.1–65, P=0.030), AGES-Reykjavik (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4, P<0.001), COPDGene (HR=1.8, 95% CI, 1.1, 2

  12. Empirical potential simulations of interstitial dislocation loops in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Prioux, Arno; Fossati, Paul; Maillard, Serge; Jourdan, Thomas; Maugis, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Stoichiometric circular shaped interstitial dislocation loop energies are calculated in stoichiometric UO2 by empirical potential simulation. The Burgers vector directions studied are <110> and <111>. The main structural properties of each type of interstitial dislocation loop are determined, including stacking fault energy. Defect energies are compared and a maximum size for stable <111> dislocation loops before transition to <110> dislocation loops is given. A model of dislocation loop energy based on elasticity theory is then fitted on the basis of these simulation results.

  13. The NACHT, LRR and PYD Domains-Containing Protein 3 (NLRP3) Inflammasome Mediates Inflammation and Voiding Dysfunction in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Rat Model of Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Francis M; Kennis, James G; Youssef, Melissa N; Lowe, Danielle W; Shaner, Brooke E; Purves, J Todd

    2016-01-01

    Objective NOD-like receptors (NLRs) sense sterile and non-sterile signals and form inflammasomes which trigger an inflammatory response through the activation of caspase-1 and release of IL-1β. Recently we have shown the presence of several NLRs in the bladder urothelia and demonstrated the importance of NLRP3 in bladder outlet obstruction and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, both models of sterile inflammation. In this study we explore a role for NLRP3 in mediating the response to LPS, a key antigen of uropathogenic bacteria. Method In order to bypass the protective glycosaminoglycan layer lining the urothelium, LPS was directly injected into the bladder wall of Sprague-Dawley rats. Glyburide (a NLRP3 inhibitor) or vehicle was administered orally prior to and after injection. Rats were analyzed 24 h later. Inflammasome activity (caspase-1 activity, IL-1β release) and inflammation (Evan’s Blue extravasation, bladder weight) were assessed, as was physiological bladder function (urodynamics). Results Injection of LPS stimulated inflammasome activation (caspase-1 activity) and the release of IL-1β into the urine which was prevented by glyburide. Likewise, LPS increased inflammation, (bladder weight and the extravasation of Evan’s blue dye), and this was reversed by glyburide. Functionally, animals injected with saline alone demonstrated decreased voiding volume as measured by urodynamics. In the presence of LPS, additional urinary dysfunction was evident with decreased voiding pressures and threshold pressures. The decrease in voiding pressure was blocked by glyburide but the decrease in threshold pressure was not, suggesting that LPS has significant effects mediated by inflammasome-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Conclusion Overall, the results demonstrate the potential importance of inflammasomes in bacterial cystitis as well as the ability of the bladder wall injection technique to isolate the in vivo effects of specific inflammasome ligands to the

  14. Ureteral Embolization to Prevent Thrombotic Obstruction of Nephrostomy Catheters in the Context of Refractory Hemorrhagic Radiation Cystitis with Severe Vesicoureteral Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Yarlagadda, Vidhush; Pettibon, Keith; Ertel, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of refractory hemorrhagic radiation cystitis in a patient who failed conservative management and was unable to undergo operative urinary diversion secondary to multiple comorbidities. His management was complicated by recurrent obstruction of his nephrostomy catheters due to marked ureteral thrombus formation from blood refluxing into the ureters from the urinary bladder. We were successful in treating his condition by occluding his distal ureters with a combination of embolization coils and glue to prevent the reflux of blood in order to allow his nephrostomy catheters to function properly. PMID:27019759

  15. Ureteral Embolization to Prevent Thrombotic Obstruction of Nephrostomy Catheters in the Context of Refractory Hemorrhagic Radiation Cystitis with Severe Vesicoureteral Reflux.

    PubMed

    Yarlagadda, Vidhush; Pettibon, Keith; Ertel, Nathan; Nix, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of refractory hemorrhagic radiation cystitis in a patient who failed conservative management and was unable to undergo operative urinary diversion secondary to multiple comorbidities. His management was complicated by recurrent obstruction of his nephrostomy catheters due to marked ureteral thrombus formation from blood refluxing into the ureters from the urinary bladder. We were successful in treating his condition by occluding his distal ureters with a combination of embolization coils and glue to prevent the reflux of blood in order to allow his nephrostomy catheters to function properly.

  16. Evaluation of anelastic evidence for interstitial solute binding in bcc metals

    SciTech Connect

    Cost, J.R.; Stanley, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A Direct Spectrum Analysis (DSA) technique has been applied to key internal friction and elastic after-effect data which are involved in the controversy over the existance of interstitial clustering in the refractory metals. It is found that at relatively high interstitial solute concentrations some of the Snoek peak broadening is due to relaxations that are distinct from the main relaxation. This finding supports the view that interstitial solutes have an interaction that produces clusters of interstitials.

  17. Phase estimation for a phased array therapeutic interstitial ultrasound probe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenya; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals about high intensity ultrasound interstitial therapy simulation. The simulated phased array ultrasound probe allows a dynamic electronic focusing of the therapeutic beam. In order to maximize the power deposit at the focal point we propose a method which allows to optimally defining the phase shift of the electrical control signal for each individual element.

  18. Renal failure due to granulomatous interstitial nephritis after pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, W T; Jie, K; Lobatto, S; Weening, J J; Valentijn, R M

    1987-01-01

    Two patients, who had had pulmonary sarcoidosis, developed renal failure due to sarcoid granulomatous interstitial nephritis after their original pulmonary symptoms had subsided. Treatment with prednisone resulted in almost complete recovery of renal function. Lysozyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels and gallium scintigraphy can be of diagnostic value.

  19. Near-infrared fiber delivery systems for interstitial photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.; Konwitz, Eli; Rosenberg, Zvi

    1995-05-01

    Interstitial photothermal coagulation has long been recognized as a potential important, minimally invasive modality for treating a variety of pathologic conditions. We present two different technologies for interstitial photothermal coagulation of tissue with infrared lasers: An optical fiber with a radially symmetric diffusing tip for deep coagulation, and a flat bare fiber for the coagulation of thin and long lesions by longitudinally moving the fiber while lasing in concert. Urology and Gynecology Fibers: The fibers are 600 microns diameter with 20 - 40 mm frosted distal tips protected by a smooth transparent cover. When used with a Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the active fiber surface diffuses optical radiation in a radial pattern, delivering up to 40 W power, and thus providing consistent and uniform interstitial photothermal therapy. Coagulation depth ranges from 4 to 15 mm. Animal studies in the United States and clinical studies in Europe have demonstrated the feasibility of using these fibers to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and endometrial coagulation. Rhinology Fiber: The fiber is an 800 micron diameter flat fiber operated at 8 W power level while being interstitially pushed and pulled along its axis. A long and thin coagulated zone is produced. The fiber is routinely used for the shrinking of hypertrophic turbinates without surrounding and bone mucusal damage in ambulatory environments.

  20. Localized interstitial granuloma annulare induced by subcutaneous injections for desensitization.

    PubMed

    Spring, Philipp; Vernez, Maxime; Maniu, Christa-Maria; Hohl, Daniel

    2013-06-15

    We describe a patient with interstitial granuloma annulare associated with subcutaneous injection therapy (SIT) for desensitization to a type I allergy. Asymptomatic, erythematous, violaceous annular patches were located at the injection sites on both her arms. Medical history revealed perennial rhinoconjonctivitis treated with SIT (Phostal Stallergen® cat 100% and D. pteronyssinus/D.farinae 50%:50%).

  1. Rheumatoid interstitial lung disease presenting as cor pulmonale.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sourya; Mahajan, S N; Shukla, Samarth; Diwan, S K; Banode, Pankaj; Kothari, Nirmesh

    2010-10-01

    Rheumatiod arthritis (RA) is a multisystem connective tissue disorder. The predominant presentation is polyarticular, symmetric peripheral arthritis with relative sparing of axial skeleton. Inflammatory synovitis is the pathologic hallmark. Extra-articular manifestations of RA can involve several other organ systems and amongst them pulmonary manifestations occur commonly. We report a case of rheumatoid interstitial lung disease presenting as cor pulmonale.

  2. Connective Tissue Disease-associated Interstitial Lung Disease: A review

    PubMed Central

    Gutsche, Markus; Rosen, Glenn D.; Swigris, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is commonly encountered in patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD). Besides the lung parenchyma, the airways, pulmonary vasculature and structures of the chest wall may all be involved, depending on the type of CTD. As a result of this so-called multi-compartment involvement, airflow limitation, pulmonary hypertension, vasculitis and extrapulmonary restriction can occur alongside fibro-inflammatory parenchymal abnormalities in CTD. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), poly-/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and undifferentiated (UCTD) as well as mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) can all be associated with the development of ILD. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is the most commonly observed histopathological pattern in CTD-ILD, but other patterns including usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), organizing pneumonia (OP), diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) may occur. Although the majority of patients with CTD-ILD experience stable or slowly advancing ILD, a small yet significant group exhibits a more severe and progressive course. Randomized placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of immunomodulatory treatments have been conducted only in SSc-associated ILD. However, clinical experience suggests that a handful of immunosuppressive medications are potentially effective in a sizeable portion of patients with ILD caused by other CTDs. In this manuscript, we review the clinical characteristics and management of the most common CTD-ILDs. PMID:23125954

  3. Nitrofurantoin safety and effectiveness in treating acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in hospitalized adults with renal insufficiency: antibiotic stewardship implications.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A; Cunha, C B; Lam, B; Giuga, J; Chin, J; Zafonte, V F; Gerson, S

    2017-02-02

    Nitrofurantoin remains a key oral antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) option in the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) due to multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacilli (GNB). However, there have been concerns regarding decreased nitrofurantoin efficacy with renal insufficiency. In our experience over the past three decades, nitrofurantoin has been safe and effective in treating AUC in hospitalized adults with renal insufficiency. Accordingly, we retrospectively reviewed our recent experience treating AUC in hospitalized adults with decreased renal function (CrCl < 60 ml/min) with nitrofurantoin. Excluded were complicated urinary tract infections. Urinary isolated susceptibility testing was done by micro broth dilution (MBD). Treatment duration was 5-7 days. Cure was defined as eradication of the uropathogen and failure was defined as minimal/no decrease in urine colony counts. Of 26 evaluable patients with renal insufficiency (CrCl < 60 ml/min), nitrofurantoin eradicated the uropathogen in 18/26 (69%) of patients, and failed in 8/26 (31%). Of the eight failures, five were due to intrinsically resistant uropathogens, e.g., Proteus sp., and one failure was related to an alkaline urine. Of the treatment failures, only two were due to renal insufficiency, i.e., CrCl < 30 ml/min. Since there are few oral antibiotics available to treat AUC due to MDR GNB uropathogens, these results have important ASP implications. Currently, nitfurantoin is not recommended if CrCl < 60 ml/min. In our experience, used appropriately against susceptible uropathogens, nitrofurantoin was highly effective in nearly all patients with CrCl = 30-60 ml/min., and only failed in two patients due to renal insufficiency (CrCl < 30 ml/ml).

  4. Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology and RUT-daily use to determine the optimal strategy. Methods General practitioners included 18–65 years women with symptoms of AUC, performed a RUT and sent urines for analysis at a central laboratory. Different treatment strategies were simulated based on RUT and resistance results. Results Among 347 enrolled patients, 78% had a positive urine culture. Escherichia coli predominated (71%) with high rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (100%), fosfomycin (99%), ofloxacin (97%), and even pivmecillinam (87%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (87%). Modelization showed that the systematic use of RUT would reduce by 10% the number of patients treated. Fosfomycin for patients with positive RUT offered a 90% overall bacterial coverage, compared to 98% for nitrofurantoin. 95% for ofloxacin, 86% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 78% for pivmecillinam. Conclusion Local epidemiology surveillance data not biased by complicated UTI demonstrates that the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has not affected AUC yet. Fosfomycin first line in all patients with positive RUT seems the best treatment strategy for AUC, combining good bacterial coverage with expected low toxicity and limited effect on fecal flora. Trial registration The current study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00958295) PMID:24612927

  5. Nationwide survey of BK polyomavirus associated hemorrhagic cystitis in adult allogeneic stem cell transplantation among haematologists and urologists.

    PubMed

    Schneidewind, Laila; Neumann, Thomas; Kranz, Jennifer; Knoll, Florian; Pelzer, Alexandre Egon; Schmidt, Christian; Krüger, William

    2017-02-03

    There are no epidemiological data on BK virus associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKHC) in adult allogeneic stem cell transplantation in Germany available and associations with clinical conditions like GvHD are controversially discussed. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide survey among haematologists and urologists about this disease. We developed two questionnaires, one for haematologists (26 items) and one for urologists (20 items) concerning BKHC in adult allogeneic stem cell transplantation with epidemiological data and clinical implications. The survey was sent out at least three times to EBMT registered centres performing at least five transplantations a year, leading to 39 centres. The recruiting time was between January and June 2016. Total response rates were 76.9% among haematologists and 74.4% among urologists. BKHC seems to appear less frequent in this survey than it is described in the literature. Six deaths in the last 5 years due to this disease have been reported. Interestingly, haematologists as well as urologists mostly think that local therapy is most effective while 50.0% stated that there is no real effective oral or intravenous medication. Associations with other clinical conditions mentioned were heterogeneous, e.g. transplantation type, CMV reactivation, acute GvHD, nephropathy and worse clinical outcome. There was a significant discrepancy between haematologists and urologist concerning the association with acute GvHD (p = 0.004). We need prospective, multicentric clinical studies to evaluate local therapy and for developing a risk stratification model since this disease can be severe with morbidity and rarely mortality. In our opinion, this should be an interdisciplinary approach.

  6. Interstitial fluid flow: simulation of mechanical environment of cells in the interosseous membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Guang-Hong

    2011-08-01

    In vitro experiments have shown that subtle fluid flow environment plays a significant role in living biological tissues, while there is no in vivo practical dynamical measurement of the interstitial fluid flow velocity. On the basis of a new finding that capillaries and collagen fibrils in the interosseous membrane form a parallel array, we set up a porous media model simulating the flow field with FLUENT software, studied the shear stress on interstitial cells' surface due to the interstitial fluid flow, and analyzed the effect of flow on protein space distribution around the cells. The numerical simulation results show that the parallel nature of capillaries could lead to directional interstitial fluid flow in the direction of capillaries. Interstitial fluid flow would induce shear stress on the membrane of interstitial cells, up to 30 Pa or so, which reaches or exceeds the threshold values of cells' biological response observed in vitro. Interstitial fluid flow would induce nonuniform spacial distribution of secretion protein of mast cells. Shear tress on cells could be affected by capillary parameters such as the distance between the adjacent capillaries, blood pressure and the permeability coefficient of capillary's wall. The interstitial pressure and the interstitial porosity could also affect the shear stress on cells. In conclusion, numerical simulation provides an effective way for in vivo dynamic interstitial velocity research, helps to set up the vivid subtle interstitial flow environment of cells, and is beneficial to understanding the physiological functions of interstitial fluid flow.

  7. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

  8. Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) and radiological findings suggestive of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) - case report.

    PubMed

    Płóciniczak, Alicja; Goździk-Spychalska, Joanna; Batura-Gabryel, Halina Batura-Gabryel

    2017-01-01

    Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) is a term to describe individuals with both interstitial lung disease (ILD) and combinations of other clinical, serologic, and/or pulmonary morphologic features, which presumably originate from an underlying systemic autoimmune condition, but do not meet current rheumatologic criteria for a defined connective tissue disease (CTD). Predominantly, interstitial pneumonia arises in the course of an established CTD, but it is not so rare for the ILD to be the first, and possibly the one and only manifestation of a latent CTD. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia (LIP) is an uncommon disease, characterized by infiltration of the interstitium and alveolar spaces of the lung by lymphocytes, plasma cells and other lymphoreticular elements. The cause of LIP is still unknown but it could be also a manifestation of CTD. Clinically, it is highly variable, from spontaneous resolution to progressive respiratory failure and death despite glucocorticoid treatment. Since there are no recent standards for the management of LIP, the disease is treated empirically. We report a case of a HIV-negative 54-year-old woman, who was suspected of LIP according to clinical features and radiological findings. Positive laboratory results were highly suggestive of underlying autoimmune process, but did not fulfil the criteria of any particular CTD. Because of severe general condition of the patient, immunosuppressive treatment was started immediately, without further invasive diagnostics including lung biopsy, which is required for a definitive diagnosis. We present two-year observation of the patient with all our doubts concerning clinical proceedings.

  9. Female Genital Mutilation

    MedlinePlus

    ... practice of FGM. In 2010, WHO published a "Global strategy to stop health care providers from performing female ... practices Health risks of female genital mutilation (FGM) Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female ...

  10. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  11. Self catheterization - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder. You have signs of infection (a burning sensation when you urinate, fever, fatigue, or chills). Alternative Names Clean intermittent catheterization - female; CIC - female Images Bladder catheterization, female References Cepedes RD, Gerboc JL. Other therapies for storage ...

  12. Virulence characteristics and phylogenetic background of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli in the urine samples from Korean women with acute uncomplicated cystitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Sung; Kim, Min Eui; Cho, Yong-Hyun; Cho, In Rae; Lee, Gilho

    2010-04-01

    To clarify the characteristics of the virulence factors (VFs) of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli (CFRE) with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC), we determined the VFs and the phylogenetic background of all 54 CFRE strains and the 55 randomly selected ciprofloxacin sensitive E. coli strains (CFSE) from patients with AUC in 22 Korean hospitals. The prevalence of the VFs was as follows: fimA, papEF, papGIII, sfaI, dafaBC, cnf1, and hlyA were presented in 96%, 54%, 68%, 91%, 49%, 72%, and 29% of the samples, respectively. The expressions of papEF, cnf1, and hlyA were significantly more prevalent in the CFSE. Moreover, the expressions of cnf, and papEF significantly reduced the risk of ciprofloxacin resistance. The CFSE was also marginally associated with the group B2 (P=0.05). Although the presence of pyuria and a previous cystitis history were not related with the phylotyping and the expressions of VFs, group B2, and fimA and papEF were more expressed in the younger age patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, the CFRE exhibits a selective loss of VFs and the non-B2 phylotype in Korean AUC patients. The group B2 and the presence of fimA and papEF are associated with a younger age of AUC patients.

  13. Blocking Yersiniabactin Import Attenuates Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Cystitis and Pyelonephritis and Represents a Novel Target To Prevent Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brumbaugh, Ariel R.; Smith, Sara N.; Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Hazen, Tracy H.; Rasko, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases among common bacterial pathogens are threatening our ability to treat routine hospital- and community-acquired infections. With the pipeline for new antibiotics virtually empty, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics. Bacteria require iron to establish infection, and specialized pathogen-associated iron acquisition systems like yersiniabactin, common among pathogenic species in the family Enterobacteriaceae, including multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and pathogenic Escherichia coli, represent potentially novel therapeutic targets. Although the yersiniabactin system was recently identified as a vaccine target for uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)-mediated urinary tract infection (UTI), its contribution to UPEC pathogenesis is unknown. Using an E. coli mutant (strain 536ΔfyuA) unable to acquire yersiniabactin during infection, we established the yersiniabactin receptor as a UPEC virulence factor during cystitis and pyelonephritis, a fitness factor during bacteremia, and a surface-accessible target of the experimental FyuA vaccine. In addition, we determined through transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of RNA from E. coli causing cystitis in women that iron acquisition systems, including the yersiniabactin system, are highly expressed by bacteria during natural uncomplicated UTI. Given that yersiniabactin contributes to the virulence of several pathogenic species in the family Enterobacteriaceae, including UPEC, and is frequently associated with multidrug-resistant strains, it represents a promising novel target to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:25624354

  14. Not so simple cystitis: how should prescribers be supported to make informed decisions about the increasing prevalence of infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Davey, P; Steinke, D; MacDonald, T; Phillips, G; Sullivan, F

    2000-01-01

    Trimethoprim is a safe, effective, and inexpensive treatment for cystitis. However, at least 25% of bacteria isolated from urine samples in general practice are now resistant to trimethoprim in the laboratory. The relationship between laboratory resistance and clinical outcome is complex. Cephalexin appears to be more active than trimethoprim in the laboratory but has been consistently less effective in clinical trials. There is little point in collecting data about the prevalence of drug resistance in urinary bacteria unless it is linked to evidence about the impact of resistance on clinical outcomes. Pragmatic clinical trials are required to provide practices with clear thresholds for managing their antibiotic policies; for example, 'Change from trimethoprim to drug X when the probability of trimethoprim resistance reaches Y%.' Prescribers should be aware that trimethoprim resistance is most likely to occur in patients who have been exposed to trimethoprim or other antibiotics in the previous six months, and that the risk increases with age. This information could be used to stratify women according to risk of infection by trimethoprim-resistant bacteria. Health education leaflets are an effective method for reducing the frequency of recurrent cystitis. Symptomatic treatment can control symptoms and allow time for microbiological investigation. Both of these strategies may help to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics in general and quinolones in particular. PMID:10750215

  15. Interstitial gold and external beam irradiation for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Boileau, M.A.; Dowling, R.A.; Gonzales, M.; Handel, P.H.; Benson, G.S.; Corriere, J.N. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    We treated 65 patients with prostatic cancer confined clinically to the prostate or periprostatic area during an 8-year period. Seven patients had stage A2, 38 stage B and 20 stage C disease. All 65 patients underwent staging pelvic lymphadenectomy and implantation of gold grains into the prostate (mean dose 3,167 rad). A total of 64 patients then completed a course of external beam irradiation to a mean total tumor dose of 6,965 rad. Complications of therapy were mild and limited (less than 3 months in duration) in most patients, and they included radiation cystitis (32 per cent), diarrhea (31 per cent), extremity lymphedema (7.7 per cent) and wound infection (3 per cent). Two patients suffered urinary incontinence after therapy and 2 (3 per cent) had diarrhea more than 3 months in duration. The actuarial 5-year survival rate for all patients was 87 per cent and the 5-year survival free of disease was 72 per cent.

  16. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505). PMID:26328003

  17. Targeting of plasmid DNA to renal interstitial fibroblasts by cationized gelatin.

    PubMed

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Nagata-Nakajima, Natsuki; Sugai, Manabu; Shimizu, Akira; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2005-10-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis is the common pathway of chronic renal disease, while it causes end-stage renal failure. A lot of cytokines and biologically active substances are well recognized to be the candidates of primary mediators to induce accumulation of extracelluar matrix (ECM) in the interstitial fibrotic area. Interstitial fibroblasts are played a crucial role in the accumulation of excess ECM during renal interstitial fibrogenesis. Therefore, the targeting of therapeutic drugs and genes to interstitial renal fibroblasts is effective in suppressing the progress of interstitial renal failure. However, despite various approaches and techniques, few successful results have been reported on the in vivo targeting for interstitial fibroblasts. The objective of this study is to deliver an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) plasmid DNA, as a model plasmid DNA, into renal interstitial space by a cationized gelatin. After the plasmid DNA with or without complexation of the cationized gelatin was injected to the left kidney of mice via the ureter, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was performed for the mice injected to induce the renal interstitial fibrosis. When the EGFP plasmid DNA complexed with the cationized gelatin was injected, EGFP expression was observed in the fibroblasts in the interstitial area of renal cortex. It is concluded that the retrograde injection of EGFP plasmid DNA complexed with the cationized gelatin is available to target the interstitial renal fibroblasts which are currently considered as the cell source responsible for excessive ECM synthesis.

  18. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant.

  19. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Schweitzer, K.A.; McKinney, R.A.; Phelps, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial waters did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  20. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; McKinney, R.A. ); Schweitzer, K.A. ); Phelps, D.K. )

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial water did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  1. DFT STUDY REVISES INTERSTITIAL CONFIGURATIONS IN HCP Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, German D; Golubov, Stanislav I; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of experimental result on microstructure evolution in irradiated Zr and alloys has demonstrated that available knowledge on self-interstitial defects in Zr is in contradiction. We therefore have initiated an extensive theoretical and modeling program to clarify this issue. In this report we present first ab initio calculations results of single SIA configurations in Zr. We demonstrate importance of simulations cell size, applied exchange-correlation functional and simulated c/a ratio. The results obtained demonstrate clearly that the most stable configurations are in basal plane and provide some evidences for enhanced interstitial transport along basal planes. The results obtained will be used in generation a new interatomic potential for Zr to be used in large-scale atomistic modeling of mechanisms relevant for radiation-induced microstructure evolution.

  2. Drug-Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Golbin, Léonard; Dolley-Hitze, Thibault; Lorcy, Nolwenn; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Vigneau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a frequent cause of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Drug hypersensitivity is the most common etiology and the list of drugs that can induce AIN is not exhaustive yet. Case Report. Here, we describe the case of a 43-year-old man who was treated with nifedipine (Adalate®) for Raynaud's syndrome. After nifedipine introduction, serum creatininemia progressively increased from 91 to 188 μmol/L in a few months and AKI was diagnosed. Laboratory work-up results indicated the presence of tubular proteinuria and nonspecific inflammatory syndrome. Histological analysis found granulomatous interstitial nephropathy without necrosis in 20% of the kidney biopsy without immunofluorescent deposit. Nifedipine was stopped and corticosteroid treatment was started with a rapid but incomplete reduction of serum creatininemia level to 106 μmol/L. Conclusion. This is the first case of AIN caused by nifedipine. PMID:26955492

  3. Risk factors in interstitial pneumonitis following allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Pino Y Torres, J.L.; Bross, D.S.; Lam, W.C.; Wharam, M.D.; Santos, G.W.; Order, S.E.

    1982-08-01

    Total body irradiation is part of the preparatory regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation because of its cytotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. A major toxicity of bone marrow transplantation has been interstitial pneumonitis, which may be, in part, related to the lung irradiation. One hundred and sixty-one consecutive patients receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for leukemia and aplastic anemia at Johns Hopkins Hospital (1968-1979) were retrospectively studied. The present study demonstrated that lung shielding to 600 rad maximum in single dose total body irradiation, fractionation of total body irradiation in comparison to single dose total body irradiation, and absence of graft versus host disease in the leukemia patients, each reduced the risk of interstitial pneumonitis. Total body irradiation significantly reduced the leukemia recurrence rate and/or the failure of remission induction.

  4. Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source

    PubMed Central

    Mitcham, Trevor; Dextraze, Katherine; Taghavi, Houra; Melancon, Marites; Bouchard, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has shown tremendous promise in providing valuable diagnostic and therapy-monitoring information in select clinical procedures. Many of these pursued applications, however, have been relatively superficial due to difficulties with delivering light deep into tissue. To address this limitation, this work investigates generating a PA image using an interstitial irradiation source with a clinical ultrasound (US) system, which was shown to yield improved PA signal quality at distances beyond 13 mm and to provide improved spectral fidelity. Additionally, interstitially driven multi-wavelength PA imaging was able to provide accurate spectra of gold nanoshells and deoxyhemoglobin in excised prostate and liver tissue, respectively, and allowed for clear visualization of a wire at 7 cm in excised liver. This work demonstrates the potential of using a local irradiation source to extend the depth capabilities of future PA imaging techniques for minimally invasive interventional radiology procedures. PMID:26236640

  5. Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Interstitial Lung Diseases: Unresolved Issues.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Irene Jarana; Lee, Joyce S

    2016-06-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) complicating connective tissue disorders, such as scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Progress has been made in our understanding of these collective diseases; however, there are still many unanswered questions. In this review, we describe the current views on epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated ILD. We also highlight several areas that remain unresolved and in need of further investigation, including interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, histopathologic phenotype, and pharmacologic management. A multidisciplinary and multidimensional approach to diagnosis, management, and investigation of CTD-associated ILD patients is essential to advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathobiology of this challenging group of diseases.

  6. Interstitial Lung Disease with ANCA-associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    The association between interstitial lung disease (ILD) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), particularly microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), has been described in a number of case reports and case series reports in the last 2 decades. In addition, patients with pulmonary fibrosis and ANCA positivity but without other manifestations of systemic vasculitis have also been reported. Pulmonary fibrosis was clinically manifested at the time of diagnosis in the majority of AAV patients that developed this condition. Moreover, ANCA-positive conversion occurs in patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and as a result, other manifestations of systemic vasculitis develop in some of these patients. There is significant predominance of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA and MPA in patients with AAV and ILD. Radiological and pathological findings generally demonstrate usual interstitial pneumonia (pattern) in the lungs of these patients. In most studies, AAV patients with ILD have a worse prognosis than those without it. PMID:26448696

  7. Pheochromocytoma Multisystem Crisis Behaving Like Interstitial Pneumonia: An Autopsy Case

    PubMed Central

    Nomoto, Yohta; Kawano, Kiyoshi; Fujisawa, Naoki; Yoshida, Keiko; Yamashita, Tomoko; Makita, Naoki; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Kamimori, Kimio; Yanagi, Shiro; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis is a rare and life-threatening disease that is associated with numerous symptoms and which is also difficult to diagnose. We herein report an autopsy case of a 61-year-old man who died due to pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis. The patient complained of vomiting and breathlessness. Computed tomography showed a shadow-like region with a similar appearance to interstitial pneumonia. The patient was diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by severe lung disease based on the results of echocardiography and coronary angiography. The patient was treated for interstitial pneumonia. However, his condition rapidly deteriorated and he died 6 hours after arrival. We were later informed of his extremely high catecholamine serum levels. We found pheochromocytoma with hemorrhage at autopsy. The patient's lungs showed acute passive congestion with edema and extravasation. PMID:28090043

  8. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population.

  9. Ovine lentivirus lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Rapid induction in neonatal lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, M. D.; Rosadio, R. H.; DeMartini, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    For examination of the characteristics of lentivirus-induced pulmonary disease in an animal model, neonatal lambs were given intratracheal injections of high-and low-passage ovine lentivirus (OvLV) isolates. In 6 of 6 lambs inoculated with low-passage OvLV or OvLV from lung lavage fluid, lesions of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) developed. In none of 7 lambs inoculated with a high-passage OvLV or 4 control lambs inoculated with medium alone or ultrafiltered lung fluid did lung lesions develop. Systemic distribution of lentivirus was greater and development of lentivirus antibody was more rapid in lambs inoculated with low-passage OvLV, compared with lambs inoculated with high passage OvLV. The number of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples was increased in lambs with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. The development of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia was markedly accelerated, in comparison with previous reports of experimentally induced lentivirus pneumonia in sheep. In lentivirus-inoculated lambs pulmonary lesions developed comparable to lymphoid interstitial pneumonia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other human benign lymphoid disorders of the lung. Similarities between the disease manifestations and virologic properties of OvLV and human T-cell lymphotropic virus III argue for the relevance of OvLV-induced disease as a model for human retrovirus diseases. The ability of OvLV to cause accelerated pulmonary disease in neonates may be due to age-related susceptibility factors that enhance the pathogenicity of lentiviruses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3022591

  10. Interstitial Area Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Next, areas of overlap for the Proposed Action and sensitive habitats and species were identified. Scientific literature was reviewed for studies ...Contamination study from July 1976. As a part of the Eglin Range Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) and Residue Management program, the Legacy Work Group...surveyed on Eglin AFB, much of it in the interstitial areas (U.S. Air Force, 2008a). As cultural resource studies are periodically being

  11. Internal friction peaks due to interstitials in bcc alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, O.; Carlson, O.N.; Indrawirawan, H.; Brasche, L.J.H.; Peterson, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Richter's and Snoek's original works established the existence of an anelastic relaxation produced by a stress-induced interstitial reorientation in bcc metals. This anelastic relaxation, now referred to as a Snoek peak, has been studied extensively and well characterized in the past for the interstitials carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The existence of a hydrogen Snoek peak in bcc metals has been a matter of some controversy, however. We have studied relaxation peaks in V, Nb, and V-Nb alloys recently. The alloys have complete mutual solubility and are of interest since they have an extremely high room temperature solid solubility for hydrogen. They also have, over a certain composition range, not shown any hydride phase precipitation at temperatures as low as 4K. Thus, if a hydrogen Snoek peak does exist, it should be found in such alloys. Indeed there is evidence now of a spectrum of hydrogen relaxation peaks below room temperature. Furthermore, there is a large misfit of V in Nb and Nb in V and, possibly, some chemical interaction such that trapping (or antitrapping) of the interstitials at the substitutional sites, causing solute-interstitial peaks, can be characterized. The present paper provides an overview of our observations regarding: the effect of hydrogen on the oxygen and nitrogen Snoek peaks in pure V and Nb, The oxygen relaxation peaks in V-Nb alloys, The hydrogen relaxation spectrum in V-Nb alloys, and the effect of oxygen on the hydrogen relaxation spectrum in V-Nb alloys. 52 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System A A ... the egg or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  13. Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. Case Presentation Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial nephritis after moxifloxacin treatment. The patient presented with fever, rigors and dialysis dependent acute kidney injury, just a few days after treatment of a respiratory tract infection with moxifloxacin. The renal biopsy revealed dense infiltrates mainly composed of eosinophils and severe interstitial edema. A course of oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) was commenced and rapidly tapered to zero within three weeks. The renal function improved, and the patient was discharged with a creatinine of 107 μmol/l. Conclusion This case illustrates that pharmacovigilance is important to early detect rare side effects, such as AIN, even in drugs with a favourable risk/benefit ratio such as moxifloxacin. PMID:20731847

  14. Immunosuppressive agents and interstitial lung disease: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2014-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is unlikely to respond to immunosuppressive therapies, and patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be harmed by such therapy. In contrast, some forms of interstitial lung disease can respond well to treatment with immunosuppressive drug therapies. Such agents can, however, be associated with significant risk of adverse effects such as infection, diabetes, osteoporosis, myopathy, bone marrow suppression, hepatitis, urinary tract injury, and drug-induced pneumonitis. Treating clinicians must be aware of potential adverse reactions to any immunosuppressive drug that they prescribe for their patients, and they should implement appropriate pre-therapy screening (e.g., tuberculosis, hepatitis, renal insufficiency) and monitoring that is recommended to avoid/minimize risk during the treatment period. Some disorders (e.g., cellular non-specific interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, or sarcoidosis) may respond very well to immunosuppressive therapies including corticosteroids as monotherapy, and the use of steroid-sparing agents can minimize corticosteroid side effects and may enhance treatment efficacy for disorders such as sarcoidosis or connective tissue disease-associated forms of interstitial lung disease.

  15. A case of vildagliptin-induced interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kuse, Naoyuki; Abe, Shinji; Kuribayashi, Hidehiko; Inomata, Minoru; Saito, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Yuh; Gemma, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old Japanese male with type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital with a productive cough and worsening dyspnea. He had started receiving vildagliptin, which is one of the dipeptideylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, several days before the appearance of his symptoms. Laboratory findings revealed markedly elevated levels of immunoglobulin E and Krebs von den Lungen-6. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacity with irregular reticulation throughout both lungs. Biopsy specimens by transbronchial lung biopsy showed subacute interstitial pneumonia and an organizing pneumonia pattern with acute alveolar injury. The drug lymphocyte stimulation test showed a positive result for vildagliptin. Withdrawal of vildagliptin and administration of glucocorticoid treatment improved his respiratory condition and radiological findings. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with vildagliptin-induced interstitial pneumonia based on both his clinical course and pathological findings. Interstitial pneumonia as a side effect of vildagliptin is rare. It may be necessary to monitor the respiratory condition of patients upon administration of DPP-4 inhibitors until further evidence is obtained.

  16. Percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis: technical report.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Kazushi; Tamura, Shinji; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Noda, Yasutaka; Nakai, Motoki; Sato, Morio; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2012-09-01

    We developed and evaluated the feasibility of a brachytherapy technique as a safe and effective treatment for adrenal metastasis. Adapting a paravertebral insertion technique in radiofrequency ablation of adrenal tumors, we developed an interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis achievable on an outpatient basis. Under local anesthesia and under X-ray CT guidance, brachytherapy applicator needles were percutaneously inserted into the target. A treatment plan was created to eradicate the tumor while preserving normal organs including the spinal cord and kidney. We applied this interstitial brachytherapy technique to two patients: one who developed adrenal metastasis as the third recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after reirradiation, and one who developed metachronous multiple metastases from malignant melanoma. The whole procedure was completed in 2.5 hours. There were no procedure-related or radiation-related early/late complications. FDG PET-CT images at two and three months after treatment showed absence of FDG uptake, and no recurrence of the adrenal tumor was observed for over seven months until expiration, and for six months until the present, respectively. This interventional interstitial brachytherapy procedure may be useful as a safe and eradicative treatment for adrenal metastasis.

  17. Relationship of jute dust to interstitial fibrosis in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xiaobin; Lou, Jiezhi; Liu, Zhenlin

    2003-03-01

    The relationship between jute dust and lung interstitial fibrosis was studied by instilling groups of rats, via trachea, with jute dust and comparing the results with those for positive (quartz) and negative (saline) controls. The rats were sacrificed at regular intervals and their lungs and hilar lymph nodes were analyzed for collagen content and morphologic changes. The earliest changes consisted of alveolar edema, increased numbers of intraalveolar macrophages, and marked thickening of the interalveolar septa, with mixed cellular infiltrates. Moderate thickening of the alveolar walls and the zones around the peribronchioles was seen in the test groups at 6 mo. After 12 mo, some fibrosis of the alveoli walls and peribronchiole zones occurred. Interstitial cellular nodules were observed occasionally, composed mainly of dust particles, fibroblasts, reticular fibers, and collagen fibers. The collagen content in the lungs of the jute dust groups was significantly higher than for the saline control group for all test periods. The authors conclude that jute dust may induce lung interstitial fibrosis.

  18. Interplay between interstitial displacement and displacive lattice transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xie; Hickel, Tilmann; Rogal, Jutta; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Diffusionless displacive lattice rearrangements, which include martensitic transformations, are in real materials often accompanied by a displacive drag of interstitials. The interplay of both processes leads to a particular atomistic arrangement of the interstitials in the product phase, which is decisive for its performance. An archetype example is the martensitic transformation in Fe-C alloys. One of the puzzles for this system is that the deviation from the cubic symmetry (i.e., the tetragonality) in the martensite resulting from this interplay is lower than what thermodynamics dictates. In our ab initio approach, the relative motion of C in the transforming lattice is studied with the nudged elastic band method. We prove that an atomic shearlike shuffle mechanism of adjacent (11 2 ¯) Fe layers along the ±[111] bcc directions is essential to achieve a redistribution of C atoms during the fcc → bcc transition, which fully explains the abnormal behavior. Furthermore, the good agreement with experiment validates our method to treat a diffusionless redistribution of interstitials and a displacive rearrangement of the host lattice simultaneously.

  19. The multifaceted aspects of interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Lorenzo; Monti, Sara; Grosso, Vittorio; Boffini, Nicola; Scorletti, Eva; Crepaldi, Gloria; Caporali, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a relevant extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may occur either in early stages or as a complication of long-standing disease. RA related ILD (RA-ILD) significantly influences the quoad vitam prognosis of these patients. Several histopathological patterns of RA-ILD have been described: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most frequent one, followed by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP); other patterns are less commonly observed. Several factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing RA-ILD. The genetic background plays a fundamental but not sufficient role; smoking is an independent predictor of ILD, and a correlation with the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies has also been reported. Moreover, both exnovo occurrence and progression of ILD have been related to drug therapies that are commonly prescribed in RA, such as methotrexate, leflunomide, anti-TNF alpha agents, and rituximab. A greater understanding of the disease process is necessary in order to improve the therapeutic approach to ILD and RA itself and to reduce the burden of this severe extra-articular manifestation.

  20. Ultrasound interstitial thermal therapy (USITT) in the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nau, William H.; Diederich, Chris J.; Deardorff, Dana L.

    1999-05-01

    This research represents an experimental investigation of the use of interstitial catheter-cooled ultrasound applicators in various treatment strategies for the management of localized prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The anticipated clinical approaches under consideration were: (1) Ultrasound Interstitial Thermal therapy (USITT) alone for treatment of the whole gland, (2) high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with USITT to treat local recurrences or extracapsular extensions of the disease, and (3) sequence HDR brachytherapy and hyperthermia. Directional multielement catheter-cooled ultrasound applicators were fabricated using cylindrical piezoceramic transducers which can be inserted into 13 or 14 gage catheters. The applicators were characterized through measurements of acoustic power output, and beam profile distributions in degassed water. Thermal lesion formation studies were performed in an in vitro setup using fresh beef muscle. Various implant strategies were evaluated for the ability to control the temperature distribution within a pre-determined volume of tissue. Lesions extending more than 15 mm from the applicator surface were generated within 5 minutes of heating. Preliminary results from this study demonstrate the versatility of catheter-cooled interstitial ultrasound applicators, and their potential to provide controlled thermal therapy in the prostate.

  1. Interstitial capillary changes in lithium nephropathy: effects of antihypertensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Skyum, Helle; Marcussen, Niels; Nielsen, Steen Horne; Christensen, Sten

    2004-10-01

    Histopathological changes were investigated in the tubulointerstitium and in the capillaries of male Wistar rats with lithium-induced nephropathy using stereological methods. Two antihypertensive drugs with opposite effects on the renin-angiotensin system, an ACE inhibitor (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and a thiazide diuretic, modified the nephropathy. Generally, there was a significant positive correlation between the reduction in GFR (glomerular filtration rate) and the reduction in the volume of intact tubular structures and interstitial capillaries. A significant negative correlation was seen between the reduction in GFR and the increase in tubulocapillary distance and the absolute volume of interstitial connective tissue, respectively. Treatment with perindopril, and to some extent hydrochlorothiazide, reversed the rise in systolic blood pressure associated with lithium-induced nephropathy but did not affect the progression to terminal uraemia, the structural renal changes or the mortality. In conclusion, severe tubular and capillary changes are seen in this model of chronic renal failure. Tubular atrophy is associated with a decrease in interstitial capillaries and with an increase in the tubulocapillary distance. Systemic hypertension or activation of the renin-angiotensin system may not be important factors for the progression to terminal renal failure.

  2. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias with connective tissue diseases features: A review.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    A systematic approach is recommended to search for clinical and biological features of connective tissue disease (CTD) in any patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD). In the diagnostic approach to ILD, a diagnosis of CTD should be considered particularly in women and subjects younger than 50 years, and in those with an imaging and/or pathological pattern of non-specific interstitial pneumonia. However, the diagnosis of CTD may be difficult when ILD is the presenting or the dominant manifestation of CTD. A proportion of patients with ILD present symptoms that belong to the spectrum of CTD and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given CTD. Some imaging and histopathological patterns may also suggest the presence of an underlying CTD. Although studies published to date used heterogeneous definitions and terminology for this condition, evidence is accumulating that even limited CTD features are relevant regarding symptoms, imaging features, pathological pattern and possibly evolution to overt CTD, whereas the impact on prognosis needs confirmation. Conversely, autoantibodies alone do not seem to impact the prognosis or management in patients with otherwise typical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and no extra-pulmonary manifestation. A collective international multidisciplinary effort has proposed a uniform definition and criteria for 'interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features', a condition characterized by limited CTD features occurring in the setting of ILD, with the aim of fostering future clinical studies. Referral of ILD patients suspect to have CTD to a rheumatologist and possibly multidisciplinary discussion may contribute to a better management.

  3. A Case of Sarcoidosis with Interstitial Lung Disease Mimicking Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis and Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nogi, Shinichi; Sasaki, Noriko; Chinen, Naofumi; Honda, Kiri; Saito, Eiko; Wakabayashi, Takayuki; Yamada, Chiho; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a patient with sarcoidosis who developed edematous erythema and interstitial lung disease. At the initial visit, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) was suspected because he had progressive dyspnea but no muscle weakness. The presence of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 autoantibodies was immediately assessed to facilitate a precise diagnosis, with negative results. Thereafter, skin and transbronchial lung biopsies revealed noncaseating granuloma with Langhans giant cells in both specimens, leading to a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In this case, clinical features of skin and lung were unable to distinguish DM (including CADM) from sarcoidosis, but the lack of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 antibody was useful for differentiating CADM with RP-ILD mimicking sarcoidosis from bona fide sarcoidosis. PMID:25431723

  4. Renal failure due to granulomatous interstitial nephritis in native and allograft renal biopsies: experience from a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pallav; Rana, D S; Bhalla, A K; Gupta, Ashwini; Malik, Manish; Gupta, Anurag; Bhargava, Vinant

    2014-10-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of renal failure in both native and allograft renal biopsies. Drugs and sarcoidosis are the commonest causes of granulomatous interstitial nephritis as reported in Western countries. Unlike the west, tuberculosis is the commonest cause of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in Indian subcontinent. The etiological factors, clinical course, glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes associated with granulomatous interstitial nephritis have been analyzed in the present study along with the outcome in patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

  5. Modeling of relationship between glucose concentration in blood and glucose concentration in interstitial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Ji, Yongjie; Li, Guoqing; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, using the detection of interstitial fluid glucose concentration to realize the real-time continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration gets more and more attention, because for one person, the relationship between blood glucose concentration and interstitial fluid glucose concentration satisfies specific rules. However, the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid is not entirely equal to the glucose concentration in blood and has a physiological lag because of the physiological difference of cells in blood and interstitial fluid. Because the clinical diagnostic criteria of diabetes are still blood glucose concentration, the evaluation model of the physiological lag parameter between the glucose concentration in blood and the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid should be established. The physiological difference in glucose molecules uptake, utilization, and elimination by cells in blood and interstitial fluid and the diffusion velocity of glucose molecule from blood to interstitial fluid will be induced to the mass transfer model to express the physiological lag parameter. Based on the continuous monitoring of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid, the project had studied the mass transfer model to establish the evaluation model of the physiological lag parameter between the glucose concentration in blood and the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid. We have preliminary achieved to evaluate the physiological lag parameter exactly and predict the glucose concentration in blood through the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid accurately.

  6. Lattice site specific diffusion properties for substitutional and interstitial impurity atoms in ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqoob, Faisal; Huang, Mengbing

    2016-09-01

    Fundamental understanding of impurity diffusion in crystals remains a challenge due to lack of experimental capabilities for measuring the diffusion properties of atoms according to their substitutional and interstitial lattice locations. With examples of indium and silver in ZnO crystals, we demonstrate an ion beam based method to experimentally determine the energetics and entropy changes in diffusion of substitutional and interstitial impurity atoms. While the interstitial Ag diffuses much faster than the substitutional Ag, as normally expected, the interstitial In migrates slower than the substitutional In, which is attributed to a large negative entropy change (˜-10 kB), possibly caused by the large atomic size of In. The activation energy and the diffusivity pre-exponential factor for the interstitial Ag are significantly enhanced, being more than a factor of two and ˜13 orders of magnitude, respectively, relative to the case for the interstitial In. This implies two different diffusion mechanisms between these two types of interstitial atoms in ZnO crystals: the direct interstitial diffusion mechanism for the interstitial In and the kick-out diffusion mechanism for the interstitial Ag. In addition, the activation energies and the diffusivity prefactors follow the Meyer-Neldel relationship with an excitation energy of ˜92 meV.

  7. Analysis of Dissolved Organic Nutrients in the Interstitial Water of Natural Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yuki; Eda, Shima; Kiriyama, Chiho; Asada, Tomoya; Morisaki, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    In biofilms, the matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) retains water in the interstitial region of the EPS. This interstitial water is the ambient environment for microorganisms in the biofilms. The nutrient condition in the interstitial water may affect microbial activity in the biofilms. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients, i.e., saccharides and proteins, contained in the interstitial water of biofilms formed on the stones. We also analyzed the molecular weight distribution, chemical species, and availability to bacteria of some saccharides in the interstitial water. Colorimetric assays showed that the concentrations of saccharides and proteins in the biofilm interstitial water were significantly higher (ca. 750 times) than those in the surrounding lake waters (p < 0.05). Chromatographic analyses demonstrated that the saccharides in the interstitial waters were mainly of low molecular-weight saccharides such as glucose and maltose, while proteins in the interstitial water were high molecular-weight proteins (over 7000 Da). Bacterial growth and production of EPS occurred simultaneously with the decrease in the low molecular-weight saccharide concentrations when a small portion of biofilm suspension was inoculated to the collected interstitial water, suggesting that the dissolved saccharides in the interstitial water support bacterial growth and formation of biofilms.

  8. Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Guanghong

    2012-01-01

    Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells) caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i) the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii) when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii) interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv) capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments. PMID:23365601

  9. Rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: LIP and PPFE and rare histologic patterns of interstitial pneumonias: AFOP and BPIP.

    PubMed

    Kokosi, Maria A; Nicholson, Andrew G; Hansell, David M; Wells, Athol U

    2016-05-01

    In the 2013 reclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), two rare IIPs (idiopathic lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE)) and two rare histologic patterns (acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP), bronchiolocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia (BPIP)) are described. All these entities are rare with small series published to date, mostly containing primary and secondary forms of disease. LIP is histologically characterized by diffuse polyclonal lymphoid cell infiltrate surrounding the airways and expanding the interstitium. Thin-walled cysts and diffuse ground glass are considered the typical radiologic features. The clinical course is highly variable with corticosteroid responsiveness evident in approximately half of cases. IPPFE is defined histologically by coexisting upper lobe pleural and intra-alveolar fibrosis with elastosis. Dense subpleural irregular fibrosis and consolidation are the cardinal radiologic features. A history of recurrent lower respiratory tract infection is frequent. Responses to immunomodulation have not been reported and the rate of progression appears to be highly variable. AFOP is a rare histologic pattern lying within the spectrum of acute/subacute lung injury, characterized by organizing pneumonia and intra-alveolar fibrin deposition without hyaline membranes. BPIP is characterized histologically by fibrosis and/or inflammation confined to the alveolar interstitium around bronchovascular bundles, overlapping with peribronchial metaplasia and fibrosis in some series. Currently, AFOP and BPIP are both best viewed as histological entities rather than true clinical disorders, in the absence of characteristic associated imaging patterns and clinical features.

  10. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Shared Mechanistic and Phenotypic Traits Suggest Overlapping Disease Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.

  11. Clinical research on the treatment effects of radioactive (125)I seeds interstitial brachytherapy on children with primary orbital rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xin; Ma, Jianmin; Dai, Haojie; Ren, Ling; Li, Quan; Shi, Jitong

    2014-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common primary orbital malignancies. However, orbital RMS is a very rare disease, especially in childhood, and the tumor has a high degree of malignancy and rapid development. The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical treatment effects of radioactive (125)I seeds interstitial brachytherapy on children with primary orbital RMS, which may provide a new method for treating RMS in clinical applications. Radioactive (125)I seeds were used in the present study. Primary lesions from ten children with orbital RMS, including three male and seven female patients, were selected as the targeted areas. The activity, number and spatial location of the seeds were optimized and simulated by applying computer three-dimensional treatment planning system (TPS) software. The interstitial implantation of the radioactive (125)I seeds was conducted on children under general anesthesia according to the TPS simulation results. Quality verifications of the operation were conducted by orbital computed tomography and X-ray plain film at the early stage after operation, and the children were followed up. The patients were followed up by October 2012 with an average follow-up time of 57 ± 17.43 months and a median follow-up time of 55 months. Nine cases achieved complete remission, and one case achieved partial remission, resulting in a total efficiency and survival rate of 100.0 % (10/10). Most patients recovered after treatment or had no radiotherapy side effect after the operations, though 20.0 % of the patients (2/10) experienced corneal opacity, eyeball movement disorder, or loss of sight. Radioactive (125)I seeds interstitial brachytherapy was an effective treatment for children with primary orbital RMS. Results from this study may provide a new clinical approach for the treatment of child patients with primary orbital RMS.

  12. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System A A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  13. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  14. Clinical experience with pirfenidone in five patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yukiko; Saito, Takefumi; Fujita, Kazutaka; Tsunoda, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Toru; Takoi, Hiroyuki; Yatagai, Yohei; Rin, Shigen; Sekine, Akimasa; Hayashihara, Kenji; Nei, Takahito; Azuma, Arata

    2014-10-20

    Interstitial lung disease is the most common complication and cause of death among patients with scleroderma. Scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease has usually been treated with cyclophosphamide; however, its effect was evaluated to be modest and long-term administration of this drug is associated with adverse effects. Herein, we report our clinical experience of administering pirfenidone, which is an antifibrotic agent, in five patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease. All patients demonstrated an increase in vital capacity.

  15. Interstitial cells of Cajal mediate mechanosensitive responses in the stomach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Kyung-Jong; Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.

    2005-10-01

    Changes in motor activity are a basic response to filling of smooth muscle organs. Responses to gastric filling, for example, are thought to be regulated by neural reflexes. Here, we demonstrate a previously uncharacterized aspect of stretch-dependent responses in visceral smooth muscles that is mediated by mechanosensitive interstitial cells of Cajal. Length ramps were applied to the murine antral muscles while recording intracellular electrical activity and isometric force. Stretching muscles by an average of 27 ± 1% of resting length resulted in 5 mN of force. Increasing length caused membrane depolarization and increased slow-wave frequency. The responses were dependent on the rate of stretch. Stretch-dependent responses were not inhibited by neuronal antagonists or nifedipine. Increases in slow-wave frequency, but not membrane depolarization, were inhibited by reducing external Ca2+ (100 μM) and by Ni2+ (250 μM). Responses to stretch were inhibited by indomethacin (1 μM) and were absent in cyclooxygenase II-deficient mice, suggesting that cyclooxygenase II-derived eicosanoids may mediate these responses. Dual microelectrode impalements of muscle cells within the corpus and antrum showed that stretch-induced changes in slow-wave frequency uncoupled proximal-to-distal propagation of slow waves. This uncoupling could interfere with gastric peristalsis and impede gastric emptying. Stretch of antral muscles of W/WV mice, which lack intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal, did not affect membrane depolarization or slow-wave frequency. These data demonstrate a previously uncharacterized nonneural stretch reflex in gastric muscles and provide physiological evidence demonstrating a mechanosensitive role for interstitial cells of Cajal in smooth muscle tissues. gastric compliance | pacemaker | stretch | slow waves | propagation

  16. Restraint Stress Intensifies Interstitial K+ Accumulation during Severe Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Christian; Janc, Oliwia A.; Kempkes, Belinda; Callis, Carolina Araya; Flügge, Gabriele; Hülsmann, Swen; Müller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for 3 weeks (6 h/day). In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance, and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain. PMID:22470344

  17. On the Origin of Large Interstitial Clusters in Displacement Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, Calder F; Barashev, Aleksandr; Bacon, David J; Osetskiy, Yury N

    2010-01-01

    Displacement cascades with wide ranges of primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy and mass in iron were simulated using molecular dynamics. New visualisation techniques are introduced to show how the shock-front dynamics and internal structure of a cascade develop over time. These reveal that the nature of the final damage is determined early on in the cascade process. We define a zone (termed 'spaghetti') in which atoms are moved to new lattice sites and show how it is created by a supersonic shock-front expanding from the primary recoil event. A large cluster of self-interstitial atoms can form on the periphery of the spaghetti if a hypersonic recoil creates damage with a supersonic shock ahead of the main supersonic front. When the two fronts meet, the main one injects atoms into the low-density core of the other: these become interstitial atoms during the rapid recovery of the surrounding crystal. The hypersonic recoil occurs in less than 0.1 ps after the primary recoil and the interstitial cluster is formed before the onset of the thermal spike phase of the cascade process. The corresponding number of vacancies is then formed in the spaghetti core as the crystal cools, i.e. at times one to two orders of magnitude longer. By using the spaghetti zone to define cascade volume, the energy density of a cascade is shown to be almost independent of the PKA mass. This throws into doubt the conventional energy-density interpretation of an increased defect yield with increasing PKA mass in ion irradiation.

  18. Evaluation of interstitial protein delivery in multicellular layers model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Choi, Jong Hoon; Lee, Kang Choon; Park, Ki Dong; Lee, Seung-Jin; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong

    2012-03-01

    The limited efficacy of anticancer protein drugs is related to their poor distribution in tumor tissue. We examined interstitial delivery of four model proteins of different molecular size and bioaffinity in multicellular layers (MCL) of human cancer cells. Model proteins were tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-including ligand (TRAIL), cetuximab, RNase A, and IgG. MCLs were cultured in Transwell inserts, exposed to drugs, then cryo-sectioned for image acquisition using fluorescence microscopy (fluorescent dye-labeled TRAIL, RNase A, IgG) or immunohistochemistry (cetuximab). TRAIL and cetuximab showed partial penetration into MCLs, whereas RNase A and IgG showed insignificant penetration. At 10-fold higher dose, a significant increase in penetration was observed for IgG only, while cetuximab showed an intense accumulation limited to the front layers. PEGylated TRAIL and RNase A formulated in a heparin-Pluronic (HP) nanogel showed significantly improved penetration attributable to increased stability and extracellular matrix binding, respectively. IgG penetration was significantly enhanced with paclitaxel pretreatment as a penetration enhancer. The present study suggests that MCL culture may be useful in evaluation of protein delivery in the tumor interstitium. Four model proteins showed limited interstitial penetration in MCL cultures. Bioaffinity, rather than molecular size, seems to have a positive effect on tissue penetration, although high binding affinity may lead to sequestration in the front cell layers. Polymer conjugation and nanoformulation, such as PEGylation and HP nanogel, or use of penetration enhancers are potential strategies to increase interstitial delivery of anticancer protein drugs.

  19. Effect of Interstitial Media on Segregation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao-Xian; Li, Liang-Sheng; Wen, Ping-Ping; Shi, Qing-Fan; Zheng, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Vertically vibrated segregation behaviors of binary granular mixtures with different interstitial media are experimentally investigated. To study the role of interstitial media on the segregation, two types of interstitial fluids are adopted and the resulting phase diagrams are compared. The water-immersed granular mixture exhibits two kinds of complete segregation behaviors: Brazil nut effect and sandwich patterns, at least the latter is absent in the same air-immersed mixture. Additionally, the segregation extent is improved remarkably for the water-immersed mixture. The experimental observation further confirms that the effect of interstitial media on the relative motion of grains is one of the predominant mechanisms for granular segregation.

  20. Wannier Orbitals and Bonding Properties of Interstitial and Antisite Defects in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Bylaska, Eric J.; El-Azab, Anter; Weber, William J.

    2004-12-06

    Intrinsic interstitial and antisite defects in GaN have been studied using density functional theory (DFT), and their configurations, electronic structures and bonding properties have been characterized using the Wannier function. All N interstitial configurations eventually transform into N-N split interstitials, between which two {pi} orbitals exist. The relaxation of a Ga antisite defect also leads to the formation of a N-N split configuration; however, its local Wannier orbitals are remarkably different from the N-N split interstitial. The different local Wannier orbitals around Ga interstitial configurations demonstrate that Ga interstitials are critical defects in GaN. The electronic orbitals of the Ga octahedral interstitial is, for example, greatly delocalized, and there are no covalent bonds formed between the interstitial and the surrounded atoms. The most striking feature is that Ga-Ga split interstitials can bridge the gap between non-bonded Ga atoms, thereby leading to a chain of four metallic-like-bonded Ga atoms in GaN, which may exhibit novel quantum properties.

  1. Catalytic role of boron atoms in self-interstitial clustering in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Gyeong S.; Goddard, William A.

    2003-08-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and kinetic simulations, we have investigated the influence of boron atoms on self-interstitial clustering in Si. From DFT calculations of neutral interstitial clusters with a single B atom (BsIn, n⩽4), we find that the binding of B (BsIn→In-1+BsI) becomes substantially weaker than that of an interstitial (BsIn→BsIn-1+I) when n⩾4. This implies boron can be liberated while leaving an interstitial cluster behind. Our kinetic simulations including the boron liberation explain well experimental observations reported by J. L. Benton et al., J. Appl. Phys. 82, 120 (1997).

  2. Histological, immunohistochemical and biological data in assessing interstitial fibrosis in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Bob, Flaviu Raul; Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Herman, Diana; Potencz, Elena; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Trandafirescu, Virginia; Schiller, Adalbert; Petrica, Ligia; Velciov, Silvia; Bozdog, Gheorghe; Vernic, Corina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between histological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and biological data in the assessment of interstitial fibrosis in patients with glomerular diseases. A group of 41 patients with primary and secondary glomerulonephritis was studied. In order to quantify the histological changes and to assess the extent of active-inflammatory and chronic-sclerotic/fibrotic interstitial lesions, we adapted a scoring system, initially used for lupus nephritis, and ANCA-associated vasculitis. IHC labeling procedures with monoclonal antibodies anti-smooth muscle actin (SMA), anti-vimentin and anti-transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) were assessed using a semi-quantitative score, correlated with the histological and biological data. Our results showed that interstitial labeling of SMA correlated with scores for sclerotic/fibrotic lesions (chronicity index) and with active-inflammatory lesions (interstitial infiltrate, activity index). Interstitial vimentin correlated with the score for interstitial infiltrate. Both interstitial vimentin and TGFbeta immunopositivity correlated with sclerotic/fibrotic lesions (interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophies, vascular hyalinosis/fibrosis, chronicity index), and negatively with glomerular filtration rate. An important correlation was found between the interstitial labeling of the two IHC markers of myofibroblasts (SMA and vimentin). We conclude that IHC studies related to clinico-biological and histological data can have an important role in the evaluation of the glomerular diseases, but the classical histological investigation assessed through quantification has still not lost its importance.

  3. Lack of therapeutic gain when low dose rate interstitial radiotherapy is combined with cisplatin in an animal tumour model.

    PubMed

    Pop, L; Levendag, P; van Geel, C; Deurloo, I K; Visser, A

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of cisplatin with low dose rate interstitial radiotherapy was studied in an animal tumour model with a range of dose rats commonly used in clinical low dose rate brachytherapy. Small pieces of R1-rhabdomyosarcoma were implanted subcutaneously in the flanks of female Wag/Rij rats. When the tumour had grown to the desired treatment volume, four afterloading catheters were inserted in the tumour in a square geometry, and a fixed spacing was attained by means of a template. Subsequently, four 2 cm Ir192 wires were inserted. A range of tumour doses of 20-120 Gy at a mean dose rate of 48 cGy/h was applied; 15 mins before the implant an intraperitoneal bolus injection of 3 mg/kg cisplatin was given. For growth delay and cure rate, no modification of the effects of low dose rate brachytherapy by the addition of cisplatin was observed. The observed effects of the combination of cisplatin with low dose rate interstitial radiation in relation to the animal tumour are discussed.

  4. Autistic and Rett-like features associated with 2q33.3-q34 interstitial deletion.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dae-Hyun; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin

    2015-09-01

    We describe the fourth reported case of a de novo 2q33.3-q34 interstitial deletion and review the literature in attempt to identify relevant candidate genes. A 15-month-old female patient presented for evaluation with poor eye contact and developmental delay. She had microcephaly and mild dysmorphic features, such as downslanting palpebral fissures, high forehead, small mouth, high palate, and general hypotonia. At 30 months of age, she was referred to the genetic clinic for an evaluation of persistent developmental delay, autistic traits, and Rett-like features, including bruxism and repetitive movement of the left hand. Chromosome analysis revealed 46,XX at the 550 band level. No abnormalities were found on analysis of MECP2 gene for Rett syndrome and a DNA methylation test for Prader-Willi syndrome. An array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed a de novo 2q33.3-q34 heterozygous deletion (206,048,173-211,980,867). The deletion was estimated to be 5.9 Mb in size and contained 34 known genes. Candidate genes were identified as NRP2, ADAM23, KLF7, CREB1, MAP2, UNC80, and LANCL1 for the 2q33.3-q34 interstitial deletion.

  5. A case of Amyopathic Dermatomyositis associated with Interstitial Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Ugan, Y; Sahin, M; Dogru, A; Bayram, D; Ceyhan, A M; Tunc, S E

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases with unknown etiology characterized by inflammation of the skeletal muscles and proximal muscle weakness. Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with characteristic cutaneous findings such as heliotrope rash, Gottron's sign, Gottron's papules, shawl sign and machinist hand. Amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM) is a rare but well-recognized clinical subtype of DM, constituting aproximately 10-20% of patients with this disease. It generally manifests only pathognomonic skin findings without clinical and laboratory evidence of muscle involvement. In this report, we present a rare case of ADM associated with interstitial pulmonary disease.

  6. Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

    1987-12-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

  7. Recent Treatments of Interstitial Lung Disease with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yasuoka, Hidekata

    2015-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a disorder characterized by immune dysfunction, microvascular injury, and fibrosis. Organ involvement in patients with SSc is variable; however, pulmonary involvement occurs in up to 90% of patients with SSc. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of mortality and, thus, a major determinant in the prognosis of patients with SSc. This review summarizes current findings about the characteristics of ILD in patients with SSc, selection of patients with SSc-ILD who are candidates for the treatment, and current treatment options. PMID:26819563

  8. Granulomatous Interstitial Nephritis Presenting as Hypercalcemia and Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharmeen, Saika; Kalkan, Esra; Yi, Chunhui; Smith, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of acute kidney injury as the initial manifestation of sarcoidosis. A 55-year-old male was sent from his primary care physician's office with incidental lab findings significant for hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury with past medical history significant for nephrolithiasis. Initial treatment with intravenous hydration did not improve his condition. The renal biopsy subsequently revealed granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN). Treatment with the appropriate dose of glucocorticoids improved both the hypercalcemia and renal function. Our case demonstrates that renal limited GIN due to sarcoidosis, although a rare entity, can cause severe acute kidney injury and progressive renal failure unless promptly diagnosed and treated. PMID:26904327

  9. Local Anesthesia During Interstitial Laser Coagulation of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Kedia, Kalish R

    2005-01-01

    With the emergence of minimally invasive therapies for the management of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), as well as the reality of a changing medical economic environment, there is a need for a reliable local anesthesia protocol. The protocol described here for prostate anesthetic block is a safe, economical, and effective way to perform interstitial laser coagulation and other minor endoscopic urologic procedures in the office setting. Most patients experience little discomfort and recover quickly, with prompt return to normal activities. Urologists should be aware of and comfortable with these techniques. PMID:16985900

  10. Update in diagnosis and management of interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Theresia A; Garthwaite, Helen S; Porter, Joanna C

    2016-12-01

    The field of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has undergone significant evolution in recent years, with an increasing incidence and more complex, ever expanding disease classification. In their most severe forms, these diseases lead to progressive loss of lung function, respiratory failure and eventually death. Despite notable advances, progress has been challenged by a poor understanding of pathological mechanisms and patient heterogeneity, including variable progression. The diagnostic pathway is thus being continually refined, with the introduction of tools such as transbronchial cryo lung biopsy and a move towards genetically aided, precision medicine. In this review, we focus on how to approach a patient with ILD and the diagnostic process.

  11. [Interstitial lung disease: auto-antibodies in routine practice].

    PubMed

    Papo, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    The clinical, computed tomography, cytological, and histological aspects of interstitial lung disease complicating an autoimmune disease lack specificity. Search for autoantibodies in the serum is thus warranted once the essentially clinical diagnosis has been established. An exhaustive history taking should aim at identifying extrathoracic elements of a possible systemic autoimmune disease. The battery of the biological tests which can be useful are discussed here in light of the diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and even conceptual aspects of the disease. For the clinician, a simplified analysis of the main methods and the interpretation of immunological tests is discussed together with new tools currently under development.

  12. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed degenerative changes, such as lipid droplets and irregular vacuoles. Nerve terminals often appeared swollen and empty. Glial cells, muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) showed no alterations. FLC enclosed macrophages (MLC), which were in close contact with naked axon terminals. The organization and cytological changes may be of pathophysiological significance in patients with UC.

  13. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  14. Decreased interstitial FOXP3(+) lymphocytes in usual interstitial pneumonia with discrepancy of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Dobashi, K; Endou, K; Ono, A; Yanagitani, N; Utsugi, M; Sano, T; Ishizuka, T; Shimizu, K; Tanaka, S; Mori, M

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role in immune homeostasis and expansion of Treg is controlled by chemokine receptors. The chemokine CXCL12 and its G-protein-coupled receptor (CXCR4) are involved in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but the association of Treg with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has not been documented. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution and extent of CXCL12/CXCR4 expression in idiopathic type of pulmonary fibrosis, and the relation of Treg expansion in the interstitium of pulmonary fibrosis patients to CXCL12/CXCR4 expression. CXCL12 expression was examined by immunostaining and ELISA in tissue specimens from patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, n=15), patients with fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (f-NSIP, n=4), and controls (n=6). CXCR4 expression was examined by in situ hybridization and immunoblotting. Expression of CD45, CD3, CD20, transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), and CD25 was assessed by immunostaining. Fibrosis was evaluated by determining the established fibrosis (EF) score. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis was upregulated in UIP and f-NSIP, and CXCL12 derived from lung tissue attracted CXCR4(+) cells. CXCR4(+) cells showed a CD3(+) cell distribution pattern. The interstitial FOXP3(+)/CD3(+) and CD25(+)/CD3(+) cell ratios were lower in UIP than f-NSIP, but the CXCR4(+)/CD3(+) cell ratio was not different. The FOXP3(+)/CD3(+) cell ratio and EF score were inversely correlated. These findings suggest that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis contributes to inflammation in UIP and f-NSIP by promoting the accumulation CXCR4(+) lymphocytes, and a decrease of Treg is correlated with the severity of fibrosis in UIP.

  15. Dose optimization in gynecological 3D image based interstitial brachytherapy using martinez universal perineal interstitial template (MUPIT) -an institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Swamidas, Jamema V; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deshpande, D. D.; Manjhi, Jayanand; Rai, D V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose optimization in 3D image based gynecological interstitial brachytherapy using Martinez Universal Perineal Interstitial Template (MUPIT). Axial CT image data set of 20 patients of gynecological cancer who underwent external radiotherapy and high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy using MUPIT was employed to delineate clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Geometrical and graphical optimization were done for optimum CTV coverage and sparing of OARs. Coverage Index (CI), dose homogeneity index (DHI), overdose index (OI), dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR), external volume index (EI), conformity index (COIN) and dose volume parameters recommended by GEC-ESTRO were evaluated. The mean CTV, bladder and rectum volume were 137 ± 47cc, 106 ± 41cc and 50 ± 25cc, respectively. Mean CI, DHI and DNR were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.69 ± 0.11 and 0.31 ± 0.09, while the mean OI, EI, and COIN were 0.08 ± 0.03, 0.07 ± 0.05 and 0.79 ± 0.05, respectively. The estimated mean CTV D90 was 76 ± 11Gy and D100 was 63 ± 9Gy. The different dosimetric parameters of bladder D2cc, D1cc and D0.1cc were 76 ± 11Gy, 81 ± 14Gy, and 98 ± 21Gy and of rectum/recto-sigmoid were 80 ± 17Gy, 85 ± 13Gy, and 124 ± 37Gy, respectively. Dose optimization yields superior coverage with optimal values of indices. Emerging data on 3D image based brachytherapy with reporting and clinical correlation of DVH parameters outcome is enterprizing and provides definite assistance in improving the quality of brachytherapy implants. DVH parameter for urethra in gynecological implants needs to be defined further. PMID:25190999

  16. [IgG rheumatoid factor in rheumatoid arthritis with interstitial lung disease].

    PubMed

    Sakaida, H

    1995-08-01

    Case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with interstitial lung disease (ILD) have been reported to show increased titers of rheumatoid factor (RF) in serum; however the pathogenic role of this substance in the lung is still obscure. The aims of this study were to estimate IgGRF in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in RA and to investigate its possible roles in the ILD of RA. Two step bronchoalveolar lavage in 20 RA patients (9 males, 11 females) was performed in conjunction with high resolution chest CT. IgGRF was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its molecular size in BALF was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. IgGRF bound to BALF cells was eluted by sonication of the cells. RA patients with ILD had significantly elevated levels of IgGRF in serum as well as in BALF. The IgGRF in BALF was monomeric in 2 of 3 RA patients with ILD. The activity of IgGRF bound to BALF cells was significantly higher in RA with ILD than in control patients. These findings suggest that monomeric IgGRF in the lungs of RA patients could bind to the cells with Fc receptors.

  17. Interstitial lung disease associated with trastuzumab monotherapy: A report of 3 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Akinori; Ishiguro, Shingo; Mitsuhashi, Shoichi; Abe, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Ikuta; Kaburagi, Takayuki; Kojima, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We herein report 3 cases of female patients with breast cancer who developed interstitial lung disease (ILD) during trastuzumab monotherapy in an adjuvant setting. Prior chemotherapy included 4 cycles of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide in patients 1 and 2, and 4 cycles of docetaxel, cyclophosphamide and trastuzumab in patient 3. Patient 1 presented with a cough and fever after the fourth cycle of trastuzumab. Patient 2 experienced rapid deterioration of oxygen saturation without subjective symptoms within 3 h of the first administration of trastuzumab. Patient 3 was unexpectedly diagnosed with organizing pneumonia in a scheduled computed tomography (CT) scan after the first course of trastuzumab. Based on clinical data, such as decreased PaO2 level, increased serum levels of KL-6 and/or lactate dehydrogenase, and findings on chest CT, these patients were diagnosed with drug-induced ILD. Considering the clinical course, trastuzumab was incriminated as the cause of ILD, particularly in patients 1 and 2. All 3 patients improved due to the timely diagnosis, discontinuation of trastuzumab and immediate administration of corticosteroid therapy. Although ILD is a rare adverse event associated with trastuzumab, it may cause rapid deterioration without preceding symptoms. Close observation and early diagnosis are required to avoid an unfavorable outcome. PMID:28357100

  18. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Bracamonte, Erika; Thajudeen, Bijin; Sussman, Amy; Madhrira, Machaiah; Costello, James

    2015-01-01

    Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI. PMID:26664405

  19. Acute respiratory failure secondary to mesalamine-induced interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Albin; Karakurum, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect of mesalamine therapy is a rare but potentially serious complication. Patients typically have a mild disease course with no documented cases of respiratory failure in published literature. Given its variable latent period and non-specific signs and symptoms, it may be difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with symptoms of fever, shortness of breath and a non-productive cough, 2 weeks after initiation of therapy with mesalamine. His hospital course was complicated by acute respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Radiographic studies revealed bilateral lower lobe infiltrates and bronchosopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy were consistent with a diagnosis of drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering a diagnosis of mesalamine-induced lung injury in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms while on mesalamine therapy and to review relevant literature. PMID:23964037

  20. Calcium oscillations in interstitial cells of the rabbit urethra

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L; Sergeant, GP; Hollywood, MA; Thornbury, KD; McHale, NG

    2005-01-01

    Measurements were made (using fast confocal microscopy) of intracellular Ca2+ levels in fluo-4 loaded interstitial cells isolated from the rabbit urethra. These cells exhibited regular Ca2+ oscillations which were associated with spontaneous transient inward currents recorded under voltage clamp. Interference with d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) induced Ca2+ release using 100 μm 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenylcarbamate and U73122 decreased the amplitude of spontaneous oscillations but did not abolish them. However, oscillations were abolished when ryanodine receptors were blocked with tetracaine or ryanodine. Oscillations ceased in the absence of external Ca2+, and frequency was directly proportional to the external Ca2+ concentration. Frequency of Ca2+ oscillation was reduced by SKF-96365, but not by nifedipine. Lanthanum and cadmium completely blocked oscillations. These results suggest that Ca2+ oscillations in isolated rabbit urethral interstitial cells are initiated by Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores, that oscillation frequency is very sensitive to the external Ca2+ concentration and that conversion of the primary oscillation to a propagated Ca2+ wave depends upon IP3-induced Ca2+ release. PMID:15760947

  1. Calcium oscillations in interstitial cells of the rabbit urethra.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L; Sergeant, G P; Hollywood, M A; Thornbury, K D; McHale, N G

    2005-06-01

    Measurements were made (using fast confocal microscopy) of intracellular Ca2+ levels in fluo-4 loaded interstitial cells isolated from the rabbit urethra. These cells exhibited regular Ca2+ oscillations which were associated with spontaneous transient inward currents recorded under voltage clamp. Interference with D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) induced Ca2+ release using 100 microm 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenylcarbamate and U73122 decreased the amplitude of spontaneous oscillations but did not abolish them. However, oscillations were abolished when ryanodine receptors were blocked with tetracaine or ryanodine. Oscillations ceased in the absence of external Ca2+, and frequency was directly proportional to the external Ca2+ concentration. Frequency of Ca2+ oscillation was reduced by SKF-96365, but not by nifedipine. Lanthanum and cadmium completely blocked oscillations. These results suggest that Ca2+ oscillations in isolated rabbit urethral interstitial cells are initiated by Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores, that oscillation frequency is very sensitive to the external Ca2+ concentration and that conversion of the primary oscillation to a propagated Ca2+ wave depends upon IP3-induced Ca2+ release.

  2. Auscultation of Velcro Crackles is Associated With Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Sellarés, Jacobo; Hernández-González, Fernanda; Lucena, Carmen Mª; Paradela, Marina; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Prieto-González, Sergio; Benegas, Mariana; Cuerpo, Sandra; Espinosa, Gerard; Ramírez, José; Sánchez, Marcelo; Xaubet, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Auscultation of Velcro crackles has been proposed as a key finding in physical lung examination in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), especially in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, no studies have been carried out to assess the association of Velcro crackles with other clinical variables. We evaluated a cohort of 132 patients, prospectively and consecutively included in our ILD diagnostic program at a tertiary referral center. All patients were auscultated during the physical examination. The patients were divided into 2 groups: “presence” or “nonpresence” of bilateral Velcro crackles. Of all patients assessed, 83 (63%) presented Velcro crackles in the respiratory auscultation. Patients with Velcro crackles usually had more frequently cough and dyspnea at the moment of diagnosis. Forced vital capacity (P = 0.002) and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P = 0.04) was lower in these patients. The ILD-GAP index was higher in the group with Velcro crackles (P = 0.01). All patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in high-resolution computed tomography and all patients with final IPF diagnosis presented Velcro crackles. In multivariate analysis, the presence of Velcro crackles was independently associated with an UIP pattern. In patients suspected of having ILD, the auscultation of Velcro crackles was associated with UIP, a possibility which must be taken into consideration in early ILD detection in primary care. PMID:26844464

  3. Energetics of Oxygen Interstitials in Cr and V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian S.; Copland, Evan

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen in group IIIA-VA (Nb, Ti, Zr, Y) based alloys is a fundamental problem, affecting both mechanical properties and oxidation resistance, yet details of the phenomenon are poorly understood. In these alloys, oxygen is more stable dissolved in the metal than as an oxide-compound. In contrast, alloys based on Ni, Fe, Al and Cr exhibit almost no oxygen solubility. To improve the performance of Nb and Ti based alloys it is necessary to understand the differences in oxygen solubility between these two groups of metals. As a first step we considered the energetics of interstitial oxygen in alpha-V and alpha-Cr. Both of these metals have a BCC structure, yet the oxygen solubility in V is much higher than that in Cr. We obtain total energies, densities of states and population analyses using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential density functional computer code. The differences in the energetics and electronic structures of the two materials, particularly the partial densities of states associated with the interstitial oxygen, are discussed.

  4. Quantifying melting and mobilistaion of interstitial melts in crystal mushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya; Dobson, Katherine; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Humphreys, Madeleine

    2015-04-01

    The deformation of crystals mushes and separation of melts and crystals in is critical to understanding the development of physical and chemical heterogeneity in magma chambers and has been invoked as an eruption trigger mechanism. Here we investigate the behaviour of the melt in the well characterised, classic crystal mush system of the Skaergaard intrusion by combining experimental petrology and the non-destructive 3D imaging methods. Starting materials for partial melting experiments were four samples from the upper Middle Zone of the Layered Series. Cylinders, 15 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, were drilled out of the rock samples, placed in alumina crucibles and held for 5 days in electric furnaces at atmospheric pressure and 1050-1100 °C. Redox conditions set by the CO-CO2 gas mixture were kept close to those of the FMQ buffer. We then use spatially registered 3D x-ray computed tomography images, collected before and after the experiment, to determine the volume and distribution of the crystal framework and interstitial phases, and the volume, distribution and connectivity the interstitial phases that undergo melting and extraction while at elevated temperature. Image analysis has allowed us to quantify these physical changes with high spatial resolution. Our work is a first step towards quantitative understanding of the melt mobilisation and migration processes operating in notionally locked crystal rich magmatic systems.

  5. Asbestosis and environmental causes of usual interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Mridu; Redlich, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent epidemiologic investigations suggest that occupational and environmental exposures contribute to the overall burden of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This article explores the epidemiologic and clinical challenges to establishing exposure associations, the current literature regarding exposure disease relationships and the diagnostic work-up of IPF and asbestosis patients. Recent findings IPF patients demonstrate a histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. In the absence of a known cause or association, a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern leads to an IPF diagnosis, which is a progressive and often terminal fibrotic lung disease. It has long been recognized that asbestos exposure can cause pathologic and radiographic changes indistinguishable from IPF. Several epidemiologic studies, primarily case control in design, have found that a number of other exposures that can increase risk of developing IPF include cigarette smoke, wood dust, metal dust, sand/silica and agricultural exposures. Lung mineralogic analyses have provided additional support to causal associations. Genetic variation may explain differences in disease susceptibility among the population. Summary An accumulating body of literature suggests that occupational and environmental exposure can contribute to the development of IPF. The impact of exposure on the pathogenesis and clinical course of disease requires further study. PMID:25621562

  6. [Severe interstitial lung disease from pathologic gastroesophageal reflux in children].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, P; Weimer, B; Hofmann, D

    1999-07-01

    Interstitial lung diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of pulmonary conditions that cause restrictive lung disease of poor prognosis, especially if growth failure, pulmonary hypertension and fibrosis appears. We report on the case of a girl of 11 years of age who suffered from severe nonallergic asthma in early childhood and who developed severe interstitial pulmonary disease caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux at the age of 8 years. This diagnosis was established by lung biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage and a high amount of lipid-laden alveolar macrophages, 2-level pH measurement and oesophageal biopsy. Because therapy with oral and inhaled steroids failed and Omeprazol showed benificial effects, hemifundoplication according to THAL was performed. At present the lung function is clearly normal and there is no need of any medicaments. Following the history, we can assume the pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to be the cause of the disease. It is important to state that there were no typical symptoms at any time pointing to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The development of pulmonary disease by pathological reflux is very often caused by "silent aspiration". Very typically there are no symptoms such as vomiting, heartburn and pain but only signs of chronic lung disease.

  7. Neutron diffraction observations of interstitial protons in dense Ice

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, Malcolm; Boehler, Reinhard; Tulk, Christopher A; Molaison, Jamie J; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F; Li, Kuo; Hemley, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The motif of distinct H2O molecules in H-bonded networks is believed to persist up to the densest molecular phase of ice. At even higher pressures, where the molecule dissociates, it is generally assumed that the proton remains localized within these same networks. We report neutron-diffraction measurements on D2O that reveal the location of the D atoms directly up to 52 GPa, a pressure regime not previously accessible to this technique. The data show the onset of a structural change at similar to 13 GPa and cannot be described by the conventional network structure of ice VII above similar to 26 GPa. Our measurements are consistent with substantial deuteron density in the octahedral, interstitial voids of the oxygen lattice. The observation of this "interstitial" ice VII form provides a framework for understanding the evolution of hydrogen bonding in ice that contrasts with the conventional picture. It may also be a precursor for the superionic phase reported at even higher pressure with important consequences for our understanding of dense matter and planetary interiors.

  8. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Leg 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayles, Fred L.; Manheim, Frank T.; Waterman, Lee S.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of pore fluids from reducing environments demonstrate that reduction of SO4 is accompanied by large increases in alkalinity and strong depletion of Ca and Mg. The data are compatible with a model of replacement of Fe3+ in clay lattices by Mg from the interstitial solutions and the precipitation of pyrite. Depletions of Na in the interstitial solutions are related to Mg losses by a ratio of approximately 1:3. Pore fluids from oxidizing pelagic sediments exhibit little SO4 depletion. Losses of Mg are accompanied by the addition of Ca to the pore solutions on a nearly 1:1 basis. Strong Sr enrichment is also found in these solutions. The magnitude of the Sr increase suggests that considerable carbonate recrystallization has occurred. As part of an extensive interlaboratory and analytical calibration, the effect of squeezing sediment at different temperatures has been studied in depth. Samples of a variety of lithologies have been included. Enrichment of K by as much as 24 percent and depletion of Mg and Ca by up to 7 percent occurs during warming. However, no significant effect upon Cl and SO4 could be detected. The strongest effects are seen in the minor constituents studied. On warming, Sr, Si, and B are enriched as much as 19, 40, and 60 percent, respectively. The size of the observed concentration changes varies with the mineralogy of the sediment, but is significant in all types studied, particularly with regards to Mg and K.

  9. Interstitial Cajal-like cells in human gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Hinescu, Mihail E; Ardeleanu, Carmen; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Laurentziu M

    2007-08-01

    We describe here an interstitial Cajal-like cell type (ICLC) in human gallbladder, resembling the archetypal enteric interstitial cells of Cajal. Gallbladder ICLC were demonstrated in fresh preparations (tissue cryosections) using methylene-blue, and fixed specimens in Epon semi-thin sections stained with toluidine blue or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The positive diagnosis of gallbladder ICLC was further verified by immunohistochemistry: CD117/c-kit, CD34, and another 16 antigens: vimentin, desmin, nestin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, NK-1, S-100, PGP-9.5, tau protein, chromogranin A, NSE, GFAP, CD1a, CD62-P, CD68, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Double immunostaining was performed for CD117, CD34 and CD117 and nestin, respectively. In fresh specimens, the spatial density of gallbladder ICLC was 100-110 cells/mm(2). ICLC mainly appeared beneath the epithelium and in muscularis (about 7%, and approximately 5%, respectively). In toto, ICLC represent in gallbladder approximately 5.5% of subepithelial cells. TEM showed that diagnostic criteria were fulfilled by ICLC. Moreover, TEM indicated that the main ultrastructural distinctive feature for ICLC, the cell processes, develop into the characteristic shape at a relatively early stage of development. It remains to be established if, in humans, ICLC are involved in gallbladder (dis)functions (e.g. pace-making, secretion (auto-, juxta- and/or paracrine), intercellular signaling, or stone formation).

  10. Anomalous dynamics of interstitial dopants in soft crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauber, Justin; Higler, Ruben; Sprakel, Joris

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of interstitial dopants govern the properties of a wide variety of doped crystalline materials. To describe the hopping dynamics of such interstitial impurities, classical approaches often assume that dopant particles do not interact and travel through a static potential energy landscape. Here we show, using computer simulations, how these assumptions and the resulting predictions from classical Eyring-type theories break down in entropically stabilized body-centered cubic (BCC) crystals due to the thermal excitations of the crystalline matrix. Deviations are particularly severe close to melting where the lattice becomes weak and dopant dynamics exhibit strongly localized and heterogeneous dynamics. We attribute these anomalies to the failure of both assumptions underlying the classical description: (i) The instantaneous potential field experienced by dopants becomes largely disordered due to thermal fluctuations and (ii) elastic interactions cause strong dopant-dopant interactions even at low doping fractions. These results illustrate how describing nonclassical dopant dynamics requires taking the effective disordered potential energy landscape of strongly excited crystals and dopant-dopant interactions into account.

  11. Probe for Sampling of Interstitial Fluid From Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janle, Elsa M.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus characterized as both a membrane probe and a bone ultrafiltration probe has been developed to enable in vivo sampling of interstitial fluid in bone. The probe makes it possible to measure the concentration of calcium and other constituents of the fluid that may be relevant to bone physiology. The probe could be especially helpful in experimental studies of microgravitational bone loss and of terrestrial bone-loss disease states, including osteoporosis. The probe can be implanted in the bone tissue of a living animal and can be used to extract samples of the interstitial bone fluid from time to time during a long-term study. The probe includes three 12-cm-long polyacrylonitrile fibers configured in a loop form and attached to polyurethane tubing [inside diameter 0.025 in. (0.64 mm), outside diameter 0.040 in. (1 mm)]; the attachment is made by use of a 1-cm-long connecting piece of polyurethane tubing [inside diameter 0.035 0.003 in. (0.89 0.08 mm), outside diameter 0.060 0.003 in. (1.52 0.08 mm)]. At the distal end, a 2-cm-long piece of polyurethane tubing of the same inner and outer diameters serves as a connector to a hub. A 1-cm long piece of expanded poly (tetrafluoroethylene) tubing over the joint between the fibers and the connecting tubing serves as a tissue-in-growth site.

  12. Auscultation of Velcro Crackles is Associated With Usual Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sellarés, Jacobo; Hernández-González, Fernanda; Lucena, Carmen M; Paradela, Marina; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Prieto-González, Sergio; Benegas, Mariana; Cuerpo, Sandra; Espinosa, Gerard; Ramírez, José; Sánchez, Marcelo; Xaubet, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    Auscultation of Velcro crackles has been proposed as a key finding in physical lung examination in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), especially in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, no studies have been carried out to assess the association of Velcro crackles with other clinical variables.We evaluated a cohort of 132 patients, prospectively and consecutively included in our ILD diagnostic program at a tertiary referral center. All patients were auscultated during the physical examination. The patients were divided into 2 groups: "presence" or "nonpresence" of bilateral Velcro crackles.Of all patients assessed, 83 (63%) presented Velcro crackles in the respiratory auscultation. Patients with Velcro crackles usually had more frequently cough and dyspnea at the moment of diagnosis. Forced vital capacity (P = 0.002) and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P = 0.04) was lower in these patients. The ILD-GAP index was higher in the group with Velcro crackles (P = 0.01). All patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in high-resolution computed tomography and all patients with final IPF diagnosis presented Velcro crackles. In multivariate analysis, the presence of Velcro crackles was independently associated with an UIP pattern.In patients suspected of having ILD, the auscultation of Velcro crackles was associated with UIP, a possibility which must be taken into consideration in early ILD detection in primary care.

  13. Genetics of Interstitial Lung Disease: Vol de Nuit (Night Flight)

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Shomi; Shimada, Kota; Tsuchiya, Naoyuki; Tohma, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a chronic, progressive fibrotic lung disease with a dismal prognosis. ILD of unknown etiology is referred to as idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), which is sporadic in the majority of cases. ILD is frequently accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and other autoimmune diseases, and is referred to as collagen vascular disease-associated ILD (CVD-ILD). Susceptibility to ILD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent advances in radiographic imaging techniques such as high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning as well as high-throughput genomic analyses have provided insights into the genetics of ILD. These studies have repeatedly revealed an association between IIP (sporadic and familial) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of the mucin 5B (MUC5B). HLA-DRB1*11 alleles have been reported to correlate with ILD in European patients with SSc, whereas in Japanese patients with RA, the HLA-DR2 serological group was identified. The aim of this review is to describe the genetic background of sporadic IIP, CVD-ILD, drug-induced-ILD (DI-ILD), pneumoconiosis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The genetics of ILD is still in progress. However, this information will enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis of ILD and aid the identification of novel therapeutic targets for personalized medicine in future. PMID:26056507

  14. Interstitially stabilized phases in the zirconium-nickel system

    SciTech Connect

    MacKay, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    Addition of nonmetal interstitial atoms to Zr-Ni compounds has resulted in several new phases. A single-crystal x-ray study was carried out for Zr{sub 3}NiO. Zr{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O is a high- temperature phase, forming in samples annealed at 1250 C. Huekel band calculations led to prediction and confirmation of additional phases in more electron rich systems. Other phases studied by XRD are Zr{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 0.6}, Nb{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}O, and Nb{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Phases identified by powder diffraction are Nb{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O, Zr{sub 4}Cu{sub 2}O, and Zr{sub 6}Co{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O. New Zr kappa phases in space group P6s{sub 3}/mmc were found: Zr{sub 9}Mo{sub 4}SO{sub x} and Zr{sub 9}W{sub 4}(S,Ni)O{sub 3}. A new structure type was discovered with Zr{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}TiSiO{sub 1.8}. In all these interstitially stabilized phases, O is coordinated in Zr octahedral; there are no Ni-O interactions.

  15. Interstitial radiation: short-term palliation or curative therapy?

    PubMed

    Whitmore, W F; Hilaris, B; Batata, M; Sogani, P; Herr, H; Morse, M

    1985-02-01

    The management of clinically localized prostatic cancer by interstitial implantation of 125I seeds has been under exploration at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center for thirteen years. This investigation was prompted by clinical evidence of the radioresponsiveness of some prostatic cancers, the limited applicability of surgical excision, and the possibility that interstitial therapy would have less of an adverse effect on the quality of life than would alternative treatments. Cumulative experience indicates that the technique is associated with low morbidity and mortality and high functional preservation rates; local control rates (routine biopsies were not done), within the constraints of still-limited follow-up intervals, are in the 80 per cent to 90 per cent range; and actuarial survival rates at nine years (including patients who received endocrine therapy for metastatic or intractable local disease) are approximately 90 per cent for T1, 60 per cent for T2, and 45 per cent for T3 lesions. Approximate actuarial nine-year survival rates are 80 per cent for all patients with negative nodes and 50 per cent for all patients with positive nodes. Taking into account limitations of the data and the hazards of comparing this therapy with other uncontrolled treatments, 125I appears to be a therapeutic option for the control of clinically localized prostatic cancer.

  16. Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.

  17. Anomalous dynamics of interstitial dopants in soft crystals

    PubMed Central

    Tauber, Justin; Higler, Ruben; Sprakel, Joris

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of interstitial dopants govern the properties of a wide variety of doped crystalline materials. To describe the hopping dynamics of such interstitial impurities, classical approaches often assume that dopant particles do not interact and travel through a static potential energy landscape. Here we show, using computer simulations, how these assumptions and the resulting predictions from classical Eyring-type theories break down in entropically stabilized body-centered cubic (BCC) crystals due to the thermal excitations of the crystalline matrix. Deviations are particularly severe close to melting where the lattice becomes weak and dopant dynamics exhibit strongly localized and heterogeneous dynamics. We attribute these anomalies to the failure of both assumptions underlying the classical description: (i) The instantaneous potential field experienced by dopants becomes largely disordered due to thermal fluctuations and (ii) elastic interactions cause strong dopant–dopant interactions even at low doping fractions. These results illustrate how describing nonclassical dopant dynamics requires taking the effective disordered potential energy landscape of strongly excited crystals and dopant–dopant interactions into account. PMID:27856751

  18. Migration Mechanisms of Oxygen Interstitial Clusters in UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Xian-Ming Bai; Anter El-Azab; Jianguo Yu; Todd R. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the migration kinetics of radiation-induced point defects and defect clusters is a key to predicting the microstructural evolution and mass transport in nuclear fuels. Although the diffusion kinetics of point defects in UO2 is well explored both experimentally and theoretically, the kinetics of defect clusters is not well understood. In this work the migration mechanisms of oxygen interstitial clusters of size one to five atoms (1Oi – 5Oi) in UO2 are investigated by temperature-accelerated dynamics simulations without any a priori assumptions of migration mechanisms. It is found that the migration paths of oxygen interstitial clusters are complex and non-intuitive and that multiple migration paths and barriers exist for some clusters. It is also found that the cluster migration barrier does not increase with increasing cluster size and its magnitude has the following order: 2Oi < 3Oi < 1Oi < 5Oi < 4Oi. Possible finite-size effects are checked with three different sized systems. The results show good agreement with other available experimental and theoretical data. In particular, the relatively large migration barriers of cuboctahedral clusters (4Oi and 5Oi) are in good agreement with the experimentally measured oxygen diffusion activation energy in U4O9, which is thought to contain many such clusters. The cluster migration sequence may explain the interesting relationship between the oxygen diffusivity and stoichiometry in UO2+x.

  19. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).[This retracts the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505.].

  20. Reversed halo sign on thin-section CT in a patient with non-specific interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S H; Kang, E-Y; Shin, B K; Shim, J J

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with reversed halo sign on thin-section CT. A 52-year-old female presented with a cough and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 2 dyspnoea of 4 months duration. A chest radiograph showed poorly defined, patchy ground-glass opacities in both lungs. Thin-section CT demonstrated the reversed halo sign, which is a central ground-glass opacity surrounded by crescent or ring-shaped areas of consolidation in multifocal areas. Multifocal patchy ground-glass opacity and consolidation and enlarged paratracheal, hilar and subcarinal lymph nodes were also shown. Video-assisted thoracic surgical (VATS) lung biopsy was performed, and histopathology revealed cellular NSIP. PMID:21511742

  1. Crohn's disease-associated interstitial lung disease mimicking sarcoidosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thao, Choua; Lagstein, Amir; Allen, Tadashi; Dincer, Huseyin Erhan; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2016-10-07

    Respiratory involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) is a rare manifestation known to involve the large and small airways, lung parenchyma, and pleura. The clinical presentation is nonspecific, and diagnostic tests can mimic other pulmonary diseases, posing a diagnostic challenge and delay in treatment. We report a case of a 60-year-old female with a history of CD and psoriatic arthritis who presented with dyspnea, fever, and cough with abnormal radiological findings. Diagnostic testing revealed an elevated CD4:CD8 ratio in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and cryoprobe lung biopsy results showed non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. We describe here the second reported case of pulmonary involvement mimicking sarcoidosis in Crohn's disease and a review of the literature on the approaches to making a diagnosis of CD-associated interstitial lung disease.

  2. 3p14 De Novo Interstitial Microdeletion in a Patient with Intellectual Disability and Autistic Features with Language Impairment: A Comparison with Similar Cases

    PubMed Central

    de la Hoz, Ana Belén; Maortua, Hiart; García-Rives, Ainhoa; Martínez-González, María Jesús; Ezquerra, Maitane; Tejada, María-Isabel

    2015-01-01

    To date, few cases of 3p proximal interstitial deletions have been reported and the phenotype and genotype correlation is not well understood. Here, we report a new case of a 3p proximal interstitial deletion. The patient is an 11-year-old female with speech and social interaction difficulties, learning disability, and slight facial dysmorphism, but no other major malformations. An 8 Mb de novo interstitial deletion at 3p14.2-p14.1, from position 60.461.316 to 68.515.453, was revealed by means of array comparative genomic hybridization and confirmed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. This region includes six genes: FEZF2, CADPS, SYNPR, ATXN7, PRICKLE, and MAGI1, that are known to have a role in neurodevelopment. These genes are located on the proximal side of the deletion. We compare our case with previously well-defined patients reported in the literature and databases. PMID:26075115

  3. Case report: cytogenetic and molecular analysis of proximal interstitial deletion of 4p, review of the literature and comparison with wolf-hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nathanael G; South, Sarah T; Hummel, Marybeth; Wenger, Sharon L

    2010-01-01

    We report on a two-year-old female with a de novo proximal interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and a tetralogy of Fallot malformation. The patient had a karyotype of 46,XX,del(4)(p14p15.33) that was further characterized by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Phenotypic abnormalities for our patient are compared with those of previously reported patients with similar proximal 4p deletions as well as more distal deletions. The functions of genes that are deleted within this segment are reviewed.

  4. The role of high-resolution chest CT in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy - A rare form of pediatric interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Julia; Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Zhang, Yanhong; Jhawar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rare in infancy or early childhood. Differentiating between the different types of ILD is important for reasons of treatment, monitoring of clinical course and prognosis. We present a case of a 5-month old female with tachypnea and hypoxemia. The clinical suspicion of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) was confirmed by high-resolution chest CT and subsequent lung biopsy. We conclude that high-resolution chest CT has characteristics findings that can be used as a non-invasive test to support the clinical diagnosis of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy.

  5. Velo-cardio-facial and partial DiGeorge phenotype in a child with interstitial deletion at 10p13 - implications for cytogenetics and molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, A.; Sholler, G.; Issacs, D.

    1996-11-11

    We report on a female with a interstitial deletion of 10p13 and a phenotype similar to that seen with the 22q deletion syndromes (DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial). She had a posterior cleft palate, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, dyscoordinate swallowing, T-cell subset abnormalities, small ears, maxillary and mandibular hypoplasia, broad nasal bridge, deficient alae nasi, contractures of fingers and developmental delay. This could indicate homology of some developmental genes at 22q and 10p so that patients with the velocardiofacial phenotype who do not prove to be deleted on 22q are candidates for a 10p deletion. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  6. The evolution of annelids reveals two adaptive routes to the interstitial realm.

    PubMed

    Struck, Torsten Hugo; Golombek, Anja; Weigert, Anne; Franke, Franziska Anni; Westheide, Wilfried; Purschke, Günter; Bleidorn, Christoph; Halanych, Kenneth Michael

    2015-08-03

    Many animals permanently inhabit the marine interstitium, the space between sand grains [1, 2]. Different evolutionary scenarios may explain the existence of interstitial animals [3, 4]. These scenarios include (1) that the interstitial realm is the ancestral habitat of bilaterians [5, 6], (2) that interstitial taxa evolved from larger ancestors by miniaturization, or (3) progenesis [3]. The first view mirrors the former hypothesis that interstitial annelids, called archiannelids, were at the base of the annelid radiation [7]. Based on morphological data, however, progenesis is generally favored for interstitial annelids today [3, 4, 8]. Herein, our phylogenomic approach revealed that interstitial archiannelids are robustly placed into two groups nested within the annelid tree. Evolution of the first group comprising among others Dinophilidae is best explained by progenesis. In contrast, the second group comprising Protodrilida and Polygordiidae appears to have evolved by stepwise miniaturization adapting from coarser to finer sediments. Thus, in addition to progenesis [3, 4], miniaturization, thought to be too slow for an adaptation to the interstitium [3], is an important second route allowing adaptation to interstitial environments. Both progenesis and miniaturization should be considered when investigating evolution of interstitial taxa [1, 3].

  7. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting with cor pulmonale in a Nigerian.

    PubMed

    Fawibe, Ademola Emmanuel; Kolo, Philip Manman; Ogunmodede, James Ayodele; Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Salami, Kazeem Alakija

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.

  8. Female Suicide Bombers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT FEMALE SUICIDE BOMBERS by Ms. Debra D. Zedalis Department of the Army Civilian Dr. Anna Waggener Project Advisor This... Female Suicide Bombers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Debra Zedalis 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...ii iii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Debra D. Zedalis TITLE: Female Suicide Bombers FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 19 March 2004 PAGES: 43

  9. [Clinical managements for intractable pneumothorax with interstitial pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, H; Kurihara, M

    2011-04-01

    Intractable pneumothorax with interstitial pneumonia (IP) is famous for the disease finally to lead to death in case of persistent air leakage. It is because severe infection, respiratory insufficiency and tissue healing insufficiency by treatments with steroid hormones and immune-suppressants on IP. Pleurodesis is generally performed although the effect of it is questionable. It is important to stop immune-suppressants and reduce steroid hormones before the treatments to succeed in thoracoscopic surgery and thoracographic fibrin glue sealing method (TGF) if possible. Less invasive interventional treatments like TGF are recommendable because intractable pneumothorax with IP is in the high risk group to need to avoid surgery. Hand suturing, looping, covering and putting TachoComb on the air leak point instead of end-stapling should be performed in order to stop air leakage when forced to choose thoracoscopic surgery.

  10. Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, A.; Arcos, D.; Vallet-Regí, M.

    2013-12-01

    The development of magnetic materials for interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer is an ever evolving research field which provides new alternatives to antitumoral therapies. The development of biocompatible magnetic materials has resulted in new biomaterials with multifunctional properties, which are able to adapt to the complex scenario of tumoral processes. Once implanted or injected in the body, magnetic materials can behave as thermoseeds under the effect of AC magnetic fields. Magnetic bioceramics aimed to treat bone tumors and magnetic nanoparticles are among the most studied thermoseeds, and supply different solutions for the different scenarios in cancerous processes. This paper reviews some of the biomaterials used for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as the more complex topic of magnetic nanoparticles for intracellular targeting and hyperthermia.

  11. Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Arcos, D; Vallet-Regí, M

    2013-12-04

    The development of magnetic materials for interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer is an ever evolving research field which provides new alternatives to antitumoral therapies. The development of biocompatible magnetic materials has resulted in new biomaterials with multifunctional properties, which are able to adapt to the complex scenario of tumoral processes. Once implanted or injected in the body, magnetic materials can behave as thermoseeds under the effect of AC magnetic fields. Magnetic bioceramics aimed to treat bone tumors and magnetic nanoparticles are among the most studied thermoseeds, and supply different solutions for the different scenarios in cancerous processes. This paper reviews some of the biomaterials used for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as the more complex topic of magnetic nanoparticles for intracellular targeting and hyperthermia.

  12. Creeping Motion of Self Interstitial Atom Clusters in Tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wang Huai; Zhang, Chuan Guo; Li, Yong Gang; Zeng, Zhi

    2014-05-01

    The formation and motion features of self interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in tungsten are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The static calculations show that the SIA clusters are stable with binding energy over 2 eV. The SIA clusters exhibit a fast one dimensional (1D) motion along <111>. Through analysis of the change of relative distance between SIAs, we find that SIAs jump in small displacements we call creeping motion, which is a new collective diffusion process different from that of iron. The potential energy surface of SIAs implicates that the creeping motion is due to the strong interaction between SIAs. These imply that several diffusion mechanism for SIA clusters can operate in BCC metals and could help us explore deep insight into the performance of materials under irradiation.

  13. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15

    SciTech Connect

    Fryns, J.P.

    1995-09-11

    In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Interstitial cells of Cajal, the Maestro in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Randa M; Moustafa, Yasser M; Hamdy, Hosam

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are important players in the symphony of gut motility. They have a very significant physiological role orchestrating the normal peristaltic activity of the digestive system. They are the pacemaker cells in gastrointestinal (GI) muscles. Absence, reduction in number or altered integrity of the ICC network may have a dramatic effect on GI system motility. More understanding of ICC physiology will foster advances in physiology of gut motility which will help in a future breakthrough in the pharmacological interventions to restore normal motor function of GI tract. This mini review describes what is known about the physiologic function and role of ICCs in GI system motility and in a variety of GI system motility disorders. PMID:20614479

  15. A rare case of lamotrigine-induced acute interstitial nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Atul; Assalie, Nour Abou; Gupta, Rajib K.; del Pilar Morales, Maria; Conti, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Medications, especially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antimicrobials, have been most commonly associated with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN); antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are rarely known to cause AIN. This is a case of a 27-year-old male who was recently started on treatment with lamotrigine for bipolar disorder and was found to have rapidly progressive renal failure. Renal biopsy features were suggestive of AIN. Lamotrigine-induced AIN was suspected to be the most likely cause. Discontinuation of the drug and treatment with steroids resulted in complete renal recovery. Lamotrigine use has been recently gaining popularity, not only as an AED but also as a mood stabilizer. With the use of this drug becoming more popular, it is important to emphasize that – although rare – AIN is one of its potential complications. PMID:27987281

  16. Building a reference multimedia database for interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Vargas, Alejandro; Platon, Alexandra; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to create a multimedia collection of cases with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) at the University Hospitals of Geneva. The dataset contains high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) image series with three-dimensional annotated regions of pathological lung tissue along with clinical parameters from patients with pathologically proven diagnoses of ILDs. The motivations for this work is to palliate the lack of publicly available collections of ILD cases to serve as a basis for the development and evaluation of image-based computerized diagnostic aid. After 38 months of data collection, the library contains 128 patients affected with one of the 13 histological diagnoses of ILDs, 108 image series with more than 41l of annotated lung tissue patterns as well as a comprehensive set of 99 clinical parameters related to ILDs. The database is available for research on request and after signature of a license agreement.

  17. Cholesterol, lipoproteins and subclinical interstitial lung disease: the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Podolanczuk, Anna J; Raghu, Ganesh; Tsai, Michael Y; Kawut, Steven M; Peterson, Eric; Sonti, Rajiv; Rabinowitz, Daniel; Johnson, Craig; Barr, R Graham; Hinckley Stukovsky, Karen; Hoffman, Eric A; Carr, J Jeffrey; Ahmed, Firas S; Jacobs, David R; Watson, Karol; Shea, Steven J; Lederer, David J

    2017-01-27

    We investigated associations of plasma lipoproteins with subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) by measuring high attenuation areas (HAA: lung voxels between -600 and -250 Hounsfield units) in 6700 adults and serum MMP-7 and SP-A in 1216 adults age 45-84 without clinical cardiovascular disease in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. In cross-sectional analyses, each SD decrement in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was associated with a 2.12% HAA increment (95% CI 1.44% to 2.79%), a 3.53% MMP-7 increment (95% CI 0.93% to 6.07%) and a 6.37% SP-A increment (95% CI 1.35% to 11.13%), independent of demographics, smoking and inflammatory biomarkers. These findings support a novel hypothesis that HDL-C might influence subclinical lung injury and extracellular matrix remodelling.

  18. Vibrational Lifetime of Interstitial Oxygen in Crystalline Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baozhou; Fraser, Andrew; Lüpke, Gunter

    2003-03-01

    - The lifetime of the asymmetric stretch mode of interstitial oxygen in crystalline Si is measured directly by transient bleaching spectroscopy. The 1136-cm-1 mode has an extremely long lifetime, T1 = 229 ps at 10 K. The lifetime shows surprisingly strong temperature dependence, decreasing by more than two orders in magnitude between 50 and 180 K. The dominating decay channel involves a high number of low-frequency modes of 142 +/- 20 cm-1 corresponding to transverse acoustic phonons or pseudolocalized modes of Oi. This work was supported in part by NSF through grant DMR-00-76027, ONR through grant N00014-01-1-0770, and the Thomas F. and Kate Miller Jeffress Memorial Trust through grant J-545.

  19. Interstitial-boron solution strengthened WB3+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiyue; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Niu, Haiyang; Liu, Peitao; Du, Kui; Liu, Gang; Li, Dianzhong; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ye, Hengqiang; Li, Yiyi

    2013-10-01

    By means of variable-composition evolutionary algorithm coupled with density functional theory and in combination with aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments, we have studied and characterized the composition, structure, and hardness properties of WB3+x (x < 0.5). We provide robust evidence for the occurrence of stoichiometric WB3 and non-stoichiometric WB3+x, both crystallizing in the metastable hP16 (P63/mmc) structure. No signs for the formation of the highly debated WB4 (both hP20 and hP10) phases were found. Our results rationalize the seemingly contradictory high-pressure experimental findings and suggest that the interstitial boron atom is located in the tungsten layer and vertically interconnect with four boron atoms, thus forming a typical three-center boron net with the upper and lower boron layers in a three-dimensional covalent network, which thereby strengthen the hardness.

  20. Genetic Susceptibility to Interstitial Lung Disease Associated with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tochimoto, Akiko; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease that is characterized by tissue fibrosis, microvasculopathy, and autoimmunity. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of SSc and is one of the frequent causes of mortality in SSc. Although the exact etiology of SSc remains unknown, clinical and experimental investigations have suggested that genetic and environmental factors are relevant to the pathogenesis of SSc and SSc-ILD. More than 30 genes have been identified as susceptibility loci for SSc, most of which are involved in immune regulation and inflammation. It is thought that the key pathogenesis of SSc-ILD is caused by the release of profibrotic mediators such as transforming growth factor β1 and connective tissue growth factor from lung cells induced by a persistent damage. This review presents the genetic susceptibility to SSc-ILD, including human leukocyte antigen and non-human leukocyte antigen genes, especially focusing on connective tissue growth factor. PMID:26997879