Science.gov

Sample records for female metals worker

  1. Neuropsychological function and past exposure to metallic mercury in female dental workers

    PubMed Central

    Sletvold, Helge; Svendsen, Kristin; Aas, Oddfrid; Syversen, Tore; Hilt, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see if dental personnel with previous exposure to metallic mercury have later developed disturbances in cognitive function. Ninety-one female participants who had been selected from a previous health survey of dental personnel were investigated neuropsychologically within the following domains: motor function, short-term memory, working memory, executive function, mental flexibility, and visual and verbal long-term memory. The scores were mainly within normal ranges. Relationships between an exposure score, the duration of employment before 1990, and previously measured mercury in urine as independent variables and the neuropsychological findings as dependent variables, were analyzed by multiple linear regression controlling for age, general ability, length of education, alcohol consumption, and previous head injuries. The only relationship that was statistically significant in the hypothesized direction was between the previously measured urine mercury values and visual long-term memory, where the urine values explained 30% of the variability. As the study had a low statistical power and also some other methodological limitations, the results have to be interpreted with caution. Even so, we think it is right to conclude that neuropsychological findings indicative of subsequent cognitive injuries are difficult to find in groups of otherwise healthy dental personnel with previous occupational exposure to mercury. PMID:22092046

  2. Cadmium exposure and nephropathy in a 28-year-old female metals worker.

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Richard; Hu, Howard

    2002-01-01

    A 28-year-old female presented for evaluation of left flank pain and polyuria after having been exposed to cadmium in the jewelry manufacturing industry for approximately 3 years. This patient possessed both elevated 24-hr urinary ss2-microglobulin and elevated blood cadmium levels. Approximately 6 months after initial presentation, the patient resigned from her job due to shortness of breath, chest pain, and anxiety. Exposure to cadmium in the jewelry industry is a significant source of occupational cadmium exposure. Other occupational sources include the manufacture of nickel-cadmium batteries, metal plating, zinc and lead refining, smelting of cadmium and lead, and production of plastics. Cadmium is also an environmental pollutant that accumulates in leafy vegetables and plants, including tobacco. Major toxicities anticipated from cadmium exposure involve the renal, pulmonary, and, to a lesser extent, gastrointestinal systems. These include the development of renal proximal tubular dysfunction, glomerular damage with progressive renal disease, and respiratory symptoms including pneumonitis and emphysema. Low-level cadmium exposure has also been associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and direct bone toxicity, effects that recent research suggests may result in the development of osteoporosis. The body burden of cadmium, over half of which may reside in the kidneys, is most often measured through the use of urinary cadmium levels. Blood cadmium measurements generally reflect current or recent exposure and are especially useful in cases with a short exposure period and only minimal accumulation of cadmium in the kidneys. Both ss2-microglobulin and alpha1-microglobulin serve as organ-specific, early-effect biomarkers of tubular proteinuria and thus play a role in identifying early signs of cadmium-induced renal damage in those with potential exposures. In addition to ensuring workplace compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  3. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Estébanez, P; Fitch, K; Nájera, R

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers.

  4. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

  5. Mortality among female manual workers.

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdóttir, H; Rafnsson, V

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine whether female manual workers have higher mortality than other women. DESIGN--This was a retrospective cohort study in which mortality was compared with that of the general female population. Main outcome measures were standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). SETTING--Reykjavík region. PARTICIPANTS--Participants were 18,878 women, the cumulated members of a pension fund for manual workers between 1970 and 1986. MAIN RESULTS--A healthy worker effect was observed in the total cohort. The study was then restricted to those who had contributed to the pension fund any time after reaching 20 years of age, and a 10 year latency period was instituted. When analysing subcohorts by duration of employment the standardised mortality ratios for all causes of death and all cancers increased with longer employment time up to 10 years. However, the ratios were low in the group with over 10 years of employment. Those who began contributing to the fund in 1977 or later had higher mortality than those who began earlier. There was an excess of lung and bladder cancer in the total cohort and in all the subcohorts except in the group with over 10 years' employment. Mortality from accidents and suicides was in excess in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS--Mortality is high among some groups of female manual workers. A deficit was found among those with the longest employment. Differences in mortality have widened in recent years. An excess of suicides shows that women in this group have, for some reason, less will to live than other women. PMID:1494075

  6. Risk of pancreatic cancer in female textile workers in Shanghai, China exposed to metals, solvents, chemicals, and endotoxin: follow-up to a nested case-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reul, Nicholas K.; Li, Wenjin; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Ray, Roberta M.; Romano, Megan E.; Gao, Daoli; Thomas, David B.; Vedal, Sverre; Checkoway, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied associations between pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures to metals, solvents, chemicals and endotoxin in a cohort of female textile workers in Shanghai, China. To assess the longer-term influences of these agents on pancreatic cancer we extended follow-up of this previously-studied cohort. Methods We utilized a job exposure matrix to assess occupational exposures for 481 pancreatic cancer cases and a randomly-selected subcohort of 3191 non-cases. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards modeling adapted for the case-cohort design. Results We observed a statistically significant trend of increasing hazard ratios associated with solvent exposure, but no associations with any of the remaining occupational exposures, including endotoxin and metals. Conclusions Our findings of increasing risk of pancreatic cancer with solvent exposures are consistent with published literature. PMID:26849264

  7. Hobby or job? Mexican female health workers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M E

    1994-01-01

    A critical analysis of the role and status of female health workers in the primary health care service (PHC) of the Secretary of Health in the Federal District of Mexico is presented. Women are key workers in the health service; however, since the creation of the PHC service, women appear to have been kept in low-pay, low-status jobs. Data from questionnaires and in-depth interviews with female health workers in the Federal District illustrate the situation. Female health workers' status is determined by the structure and operation of the PHC system; by family and personal needs; by the cultural context of Mexican society; and by the fact that some female health workers view their job as a hobby, placing family considerations above career enhancement.

  8. Contact dermatoses in metal workers.

    PubMed

    Papa, G; Romano, A; Quaratino, D; Di Fonso, M; Viola, M; Sernia, S; Boccia, I; Di Gioacchino, M; Venuti, A; Calvieri, S

    2000-01-01

    We studied 150 metal workers occupationally exposed to metals and metalworking fluids (MWFs) to determine the prevalence and nature of contact dermatitis. 150 office workers were used as non-exposed control group. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate occupational and non-occupational exposure. All subjects underwent a dermatological examination and patch-testing with standard allergen series and MWFs used in the plant. Twenty-eight metal workers (18.6%) presented minor skin disorders involving the hands (vs. only 2% of the controls), ten (6.6%) had major disorders (similar to the figure for the control group - 5.4%), and 112 (74.8%) had no lesions, as opposed to 92.6% of the control group. Positive patch tests were found in ten metal workers: eight had major skin disorders (six to nickel, cobalt and chromium, one to nickel and cobalt, one to nickel) and the remaining two were asymptomatic (one positive for nickel and chromium, one for nickel). Among the controls there were three cases of positivity, all among asymptomatic subjects. Patch tests with MWFs were negative. The prevalence of dermatoses among the metal workers was significantly higher than that of controls (p<0.01), and all cases of allergy in this group were provoked by metals themselves.

  9. Predictors of Turnover of Female Factory Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James L.; Rhodes, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    Examines predictors of turnover of female factory workers in a multivariate framework. Findings indicate that organizational, job, and personal characteristics are equally important in explaining turnover. Variables significantly related to turnover are tenure, cycle time, peer leadership, communication flow, training time, family income, and…

  10. Female health workers -- responsibilities and constraints.

    PubMed

    Nanda, P

    1993-02-01

    The Social Rural Research Institute confirms that 60-70% of village people in India seek the health services of a rural private practitioner (RPP), 98-99% of whom are men. Dais or female midwives provide most obstetric and childbirth care and have done so for generations. They have learned the skills needed to deliver infants from their forebears. They constitute a category separate from that of RPPs in rural India. Villagers have begun to accept modern medicine, resulting in the marginalization of Dais. Consequently, Dais face social pressures, lack of professional recognition, and problems of credibility. The government of India has trained rural health workers (75% of whom are female) in preventive and promotive health care since 1977. Other community workers include Anganwadi workers, Saathins, and trained assistant nurse-midwives but they have little authority or power to make decisions. The government claims that training women for these grass root roles empowers them, but it has not granted them power to make decisions, resulting in their low social status. They do not receive wages for their work, but honorariums, while most men receive a salary. Some cases objecting to this mode of payment have become before the High Court in Jaipur. In 1990 in Padampura, Saathins protested their low wages in relation to their long work hours, large workload, and commitment. Gender, caste, and class biases further undermine the status of many of these grass roots workers (e.g., the rape case of a Saathin in Bhateri district of Rajasthan). They must work odd hours and in far away villages with no transportation or other support. The government and nongovernmental groups should support them vigorously, including promoting their professional and social legitimacy and credibility. They should institutionalize a link between the community workers, RPPs, and primary health care physicians to establish this needed legitimacy and credibility.

  11. Sheet Metal Worker: A Training Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    This training profile is intended for use by program developers and trainers in the development of training courses and programs for sheet metal workers. It contains 17 modules: safety for sheet metal worker; tools and machinery; materials and gauges; drafting and shop drawing; pattern development; methods of joining sheet metal; shearing and…

  12. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  13. A Community College Program Serving Female Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Bunker Hill Community College program designed to draw on the experience of female dislocated workers. Discusses the types of women this program serves. Provides an example of each type of woman. Discusses the enormous employment problems of dislocated female workers and how education might help them overcome these difficulties. (JS)

  14. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Otero, L; Palacio, V; Carreño, F; Méndez, F J; Vázquez, F

    1998-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a frequent inflammatory process in women but it has not been widely studied in female sex workers (FSWs). To estimate the frequency of Candida species infection in FSWs and to identify related risk factors and clinical findings, we carried out a retrospective study of 1923 FSWs over 11 years. We also performed a prospective study of 163 consecutive FSWs with a history of candidiasis during a 4-year period. Candida species were isolated in 1967 samples (18.5% of the total). Candida albicans (89.3%) was the most frequent species, followed by Candida glabrata (2.7%), Candida parapsilosis (1.2%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.4%). In the prospective study of 163 patients, we found vaginal discharge in 76.1% of cases, soreness in 52.1% and vulval pruritus in 32.5%. We identified 12 patients (7.4%) with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. No statistical difference was found between recurrent vulvovaginitis and the use of oral contraceptives, oral sex, tight-fitting clothing and synthetic underwear. FSWs have the same prevalence of candidiasis as other groups of women described in published literature. The proportion of albicans and non-albicans species does not differ between women with recurrent and non-recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

  15. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  16. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  17. Perceptions of Female Social Workers toward Administrative Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Carlton E.

    This paper discusses a study to determine attitudes among women in the field of social work regarding opportunities for professional advancement. Specifically, the study investigated whether female social workers noticed differences in opportunity among males and females to be recruited to management positions and to hold management positions once…

  18. Adolescent female sex workers: invisibility, violence and HIV.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jay G

    2011-05-01

    A large number of female sex workers are children. Multiple studies demonstrate that up to 40% of women in prostitution started this work prior to age 18. In studies across India, Nepal, Thailand and Canada, young age at entry to sex work has been found to heighten vulnerability to physical and sexual violence victimisation in the context of prostitution, and relates to a two to fourfold increase in HIV infection. Although HIV risk reduction among adult female sex workers has been a major focus of HIV prevention efforts across the globe, no public health interventions, to date, have addressed the increased hazards and HIV risk faced by adolescent female sex workers. Beyond the structural barriers that limit access to this vulnerable group, historical tensions between HIV prevention and child protection agencies must be overcome in order to develop effective strategies to address this large scale yet little recognised human rights and HIV-related crisis.

  19. Reproductive disorders among male and female greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Bretveld, Reini W; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Zielhuis, Gerhard A; Pellegrino, Annelies; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Roeleveld, Nel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate reproductive disorders in male and female greenhouse workers. In 2002, data were collected from 4872 Dutch greenhouse workers and 8133 referents through postal questionnaires with detailed questions on reproductive disorders of the most recent pregnancy, lifestyle habits, and occupational exposures (e.g. pesticides) prior to conception. Different reproductive outcome measures were compared between 957 male and 101 female greenhouse workers and 1408 referents by means of logistic regression analyses. The analyses of primigravidous couples showed a slightly elevated risk of prolonged TTP (OR(women)=1.9; 95% CI: 0.8-4.4) and an increased risk of spontaneous abortion among female greenhouse workers (OR(women)=4.0; 95% CI: 1.1-14.0). A decreased risk of preterm birth was found among male greenhouse workers (OR(men)=0.1; 95% CI: 0.03-0.5). This study may offer some evidence for the hypothesis that pesticide exposure affects human reproduction leading to spontaneous abortion and possibly to prolonged time-to-pregnancy.

  20. [Female health workers: lifestyle, work, and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Noriega, Mariano; Gutiérrez, Guadalupe; Méndez, Ignacio; Pulido, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    The relationships were studied between daily life, work, and mental disorders in female health workers from the Mexican Health Insurance Institute. The study sample (n = 170) included female physicians, nurses, laboratory workers, and medical assistants. Primary data were obtained through an interview which had been previously validated in a population of workers in Mexico. Relationships were found between mental disorders and all facets of women's lives. In relation to the domestic environment, women with higher rates of mental disorders were those who were mothers, had more children, did not have household help, and had husbands or partners. Prevalence of mental disorders in relation to paid work was associated with the length of the workday, absenteeism, and lack of job content. Skills development, job satisfaction, and creativity had a "protective" or preventive effect against mental disorders and fatigue. The main risks and conditions that functioned as stressors were heat, noise, physical effort, awkward positions, and intense, repetitive work.

  1. Clinical findings among hard metal workers.

    PubMed Central

    Fischbein, A; Luo, J C; Solomon, S J; Horowitz, S; Hailoo, W; Miller, A

    1992-01-01

    In 1940, the first report appeared describing a pulmonary disorder associated with occupational exposures in the cemented tungsten carbide industry. The disease, known as "hard metal disease," has subsequently been characterised in detail and comprises a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms. In this report, clinical findings in a group of 41 hard metal workers employed until recently are described. A high prevalence of respiratory symptoms was found. Thirteen workers (31%) had abnormal chest radiographs indicative of interstitial lung disease. Fifty per cent of these had been employed in hard metal manufacturing for less than 10 years. Abnormalities of pulmonary function were also frequent and included a restrictive pattern of impairment and decrease in diffusing capacity (27%). Associations were found between diffusing capacity, chest radiographic abnormalities and right ventricular ejection fraction at exercise indicating cardiopulmonary effects. The findings show the continuous need to control excessive occupational exposures to prevent hard metal disease, the history of which now enters its sixth decade. PMID:1733452

  2. From client to pimp: male violence against female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Próspero, Moisés

    2010-02-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A prevalent theme was the complex development of the male role among sex workers, starting as male clients, becoming intimate partners, and ending as their coercive pimps. In addition, themes were compared to the model of coercion in IPV. The model was generally supported, as sex workers reported exploitation from male partners, followed by coercion and ending with intense IPV victimization. This study draws attention to the drawbacks of criminalization of sex work.

  3. HIV prevention among female sex workers in Africa.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, A; Drame, F M; Shannon, K

    2012-01-01

    Sex work occurs to meet the demand for sexual services and is a universal phenomenon. In Africa sex work takes many forms and is an important source of income for many women. Yet sex worker reproductive health needs remain largely unmet. The criminalisation of sex work; community and service provider stigma; violence; substance use and limited access to health services and prevention commodities contribute to the high HIV burden evident among female sex workers in Africa. Following UNAIDS' three pillar approach to HIV prevention and sex work we present an overview of current opportunities, barriers and suggestions to improve HIV prevention policy and programming for sex work in Africa. Universal access to a comprehensive package of HIV services is the first pillar. Reproductive health commodities; voluntary and anonymous HIV counselling and testing; treatment of sexually transmitted infections, HIV and opportunistic infections; harm reduction for substance use and psychosocial support services make up the recommended package of services. The second pillar is a sex worker-supportive environment. The inclusion of sex worker programmes within national HIV strategic planning; sex worker-led community mobilisation and the establishment of sex work community networks (comprised of sex workers, health service providers, law enforcers and other stakeholders) enable effective programme implementation and are recommended. The reduction of sex worker vulnerability and addressing structural issues form the final pillar. The decriminalisation of sex work; development of supportive policy; gender equality and economic development are key factors that need to be addressed to increase sex worker resilience. Evidence supports the public health benefit of human rights based approaches to HIV prevention; moralistic and restrictive policy and laws towards sex work are harmful and should be removed. The establishment of these pillars will increase sex worker safety and enhance the

  4. Musculoskeletal symptoms among female garment factory workers in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Sarah R; Vijitha de Silva, P; Lipscomb, Hester J; Ostbye, Truls

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their association with sociodemographic risk factors among female garment factory workers in Sri Lanka. 1058 randomly selected female garment factory workers employed in the free trade zone of Kogalla, Sri Lanka were recruited to complete two interviewer-administered questionnaires assessing musculoskeletal symptoms and health behaviors. Musculoskeletal complaints among female garment workers in the FTZ of Kogalla are less common than expected. Sociocultural factors may have resulted in underreporting and similarly contribute to the low rates of healthcare utilization by these women. 164 (15.5%) of workers reported musculoskeletal symptoms occurring more than 3 times or lasting a week or more during the previous 12-month period. Back (57.3%) and knee (31.7%) were the most common sites of pain. Although most symptomatic women reported that their problems interfered with work and leisure activities, very few missed work as a result of their pain. Prevalence correlated positively with increased age and industry tenure of less than 12 months. Job type, body mass index, and education were not significant predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms.

  5. [Female migrant workers in Santiago, Chile, during the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Szasz, I

    1992-01-01

    The author examines the status of female migrant workers in Santiago, Chile, in the 1980s, with a focus on the level of poverty and social inequalities. Aspects considered include "the dramatic transformation in domestic service, the increase in the number of non-migrant, lower class women participating in the economy, and the limited and precarious status of women's employment in the more dynamic sectors of the economy." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Vulnerability on the streets: female sex workers and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Pyett, P M; Warr, D J

    1997-10-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 purposively selected female sex workers who were perceived to be vulnerable to risks associated with their lifestyle and occupation. Brothel workers were found to be considerably less exposed to risk than the women working on the streets. Client resistance was the major obstacle to women maintaining safe sex practices. Physical threats and coercion from clients, the absence of legal protection for street workers, the workers' extreme social isolation and lack of community support added to the difficulties experienced by women in their attempts to insist on condoms for all sex services. Youth, homelessness and heavy drug use had contributed to women being at times even more vulnerable because they had less capacity to manage situations of potential violence or STD risk. Whether through sex work or in their private relationships, HIV remains a risk for some of these women. This study highlights the dangers associated with illegal sex work. While decriminalization of prostitution would reduce some of the dangers to which women were exposed and increase women's capacity to insist on safe sex practices, it is also important for community education programmes to address men's failure to accept responsibility for condom use when seeking the services of sex workers.

  7. Health risk in the offspring of female semiconductor workers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Wang, Jung-Der; Hsieh, Gong-Yih; Chang, Yu-Yin; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2008-09-01

    There are no published studies focusing on adverse birth outcomes or infant mortality in the semiconductor industry. To investigate whether female workers have higher risks of any adverse birth outcome or death from congenital malformation. A total of 27,610 female workers had been employed in eight semiconductor companies in Taiwan between 1980 and 2000. Using the national birth registry, their live born children were identified, and then any deaths under 5 years of age with or without congenital malformations were identified by linking with the national death registry. Periconceptional exposure was defined as the mother having been employed in the semiconductor industry 3 months before and 3 months after conception of the live born infants. A total of 24,223 live births were included. No significant association between adverse birth outcomes or death with congenital malformation and maternal employment in semiconductor industry was found either in the period of 1980-94 or 1995-2000. There is no convincing evidence that female workers employed during the periconceptional period in the semiconductor industry had higher risks of having adverse birth outcomes or death due to congenital malformations. However, prospective research is warranted to confirm these findings.

  8. Estimation of the size of the female sex worker population in Rwanda using three different methods

    PubMed Central

    Kayitesi, Catherine; Gwiza, Aimé; Ruton, Hinda; Koleros, Andrew; Gupta, Neil; Balisanga, Helene; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2014-01-01

    HIV prevalence is disproportionately high among female sex workers compared to the general population. Many African countries lack useful data on the size of female sex worker populations to inform national HIV programmes. A female sex worker size estimation exercise using three different venue-based methodologies was conducted among female sex workers in all provinces of Rwanda in August 2010. The female sex worker national population size was estimated using capture–recapture and enumeration methods, and the multiplier method was used to estimate the size of the female sex worker population in Kigali. A structured questionnaire was also used to supplement the data. The estimated number of female sex workers by the capture–recapture method was 3205 (95% confidence interval: 2998–3412). The female sex worker size was estimated at 3348 using the enumeration method. In Kigali, the female sex worker size was estimated at 2253 (95% confidence interval: 1916–2524) using the multiplier method. Nearly 80% of all female sex workers in Rwanda were found to be based in the capital, Kigali. This study provided a first-time estimate of the female sex worker population size in Rwanda using capture–recapture, enumeration, and multiplier methods. The capture–recapture and enumeration methods provided similar estimates of female sex worker in Rwanda. Combination of such size estimation methods is feasible and productive in low-resource settings and should be considered vital to inform national HIV programmes. PMID:25336306

  9. Estimation of the size of the female sex worker population in Rwanda using three different methods.

    PubMed

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gwiza, Aimé; Ruton, Hinda; Koleros, Andrew; Gupta, Neil; Balisanga, Helene; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2015-10-01

    HIV prevalence is disproportionately high among female sex workers compared to the general population. Many African countries lack useful data on the size of female sex worker populations to inform national HIV programmes. A female sex worker size estimation exercise using three different venue-based methodologies was conducted among female sex workers in all provinces of Rwanda in August 2010. The female sex worker national population size was estimated using capture-recapture and enumeration methods, and the multiplier method was used to estimate the size of the female sex worker population in Kigali. A structured questionnaire was also used to supplement the data. The estimated number of female sex workers by the capture-recapture method was 3205 (95% confidence interval: 2998-3412). The female sex worker size was estimated at 3348 using the enumeration method. In Kigali, the female sex worker size was estimated at 2253 (95% confidence interval: 1916-2524) using the multiplier method. Nearly 80% of all female sex workers in Rwanda were found to be based in the capital, Kigali. This study provided a first-time estimate of the female sex worker population size in Rwanda using capture-recapture, enumeration, and multiplier methods. The capture-recapture and enumeration methods provided similar estimates of female sex worker in Rwanda. Combination of such size estimation methods is feasible and productive in low-resource settings and should be considered vital to inform national HIV programmes.

  10. HIV risk practices by female sex workers according to workplace

    PubMed Central

    Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate differences in HIV infection- related risk practices by Female Sex Workers according to workplace and the effects of homophily on estimating HIV prevalence. METHODS Data from 2,523 women, recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling, were used for the study carried out in 10 Brazilian cities in 2008-2009. The study included female sex workers aged 18 and over. The questionnaire was completed by the subjects and included questions on characteristics of professional activity, sexual practices, use of drugs, HIV testing, and access to health services. HIV quick tests were conducted. The participants were classified in two groups according to place of work: on the street or indoor venues, like nightclubs and saunas. To compare variable distributions by place of work, we used Chi-square homogeneity tests, taking into consideration unequal selection probabilities as well as the structure of dependence between observations. We tested the effect of homophily by workplace on estimated HIV prevalence. RESULTS The highest HIV risk practices were associated with: working on the streets, lower socioeconomic status, low regular smear test coverage, higher levels of crack use and higher levels of syphilis serological scars as well as higher prevalence of HIV infection. The effect of homophily was higher among sex workers in indoor venues. However, it did not affect the estimated prevalence of HIV, even after using a post-stratification by workplace procedure. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that strategies should focus on extending access to, and utilization of, health services. Prevention policies should be specifically aimed at street workers. Regarding the application of Respondent-Driven Sampling, the sample should be sufficient to estimate transition probabilities, as the network develops more quickly among sex workers in indoor venues. PMID:25119937

  11. HIV risk practices by female sex workers according to workplace.

    PubMed

    Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate differences in HIV infection- related risk practices by Female Sex Workers according to workplace and the effects of homophily on estimating HIV prevalence. METHODS Data from 2,523 women, recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling, were used for the study carried out in 10 Brazilian cities in 2008-2009. The study included female sex workers aged 18 and over. The questionnaire was completed by the subjects and included questions on characteristics of professional activity, sexual practices, use of drugs, HIV testing, and access to health services. HIV quick tests were conducted. The participants were classified in two groups according to place of work: on the street or indoor venues, like nightclubs and saunas. To compare variable distributions by place of work, we used Chi-square homogeneity tests, taking into consideration unequal selection probabilities as well as the structure of dependence between observations. We tested the effect of homophily by workplace on estimated HIV prevalence. RESULTS The highest HIV risk practices were associated with: working on the streets, lower socioeconomic status, low regular smear test coverage, higher levels of crack use and higher levels of syphilis serological scars as well as higher prevalence of HIV infection. The effect of homophily was higher among sex workers in indoor venues. However, it did not affect the estimated prevalence of HIV, even after using a post-stratification by workplace procedure. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that strategies should focus on extending access to, and utilization of, health services. Prevention policies should be specifically aimed at street workers. Regarding the application of Respondent-Driven Sampling, the sample should be sufficient to estimate transition probabilities, as the network develops more quickly among sex workers in indoor venues.

  12. Sexually transmissible infections among illegal female sex workers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie G; Lazer, Tal; Press, Fernanda; Lazer, Simcha

    2006-12-01

    Due to the mobile and clandestine nature of those who enter a country illegally, female sex workers (FSWs) who are working without papers or work permits often have no access to sexual health care. This study reports on the sexually transmissible infection (STI) prevalence among a sample of 43 sex workers working illegally. Brothel workers from republics of the Former Soviet Union (FSU), working in two locales in Israel were tested for the presence of eight pathogens and the presence of pathology by Pap smear. Of these brothel workers, 48.8% had at least one positive STI result, 14% had two STIs and one woman had three STIs. There were no cases of HIV, gonorrhoea or malignancy detected; high rates of ureaplasma (26.8%) and chlamydia were found (16.7%). Four cases of hepatitis C (9%) and three cases of hepatitis B (7%) and mycoplasma (7%) were detected. There was no relationship between reported symptoms and the detection of STIs. The level of STIs is high among this population of FSWs and it is imperative to develop more accessible health services for these women.

  13. Work Hours of Immigrant Versus U.S.-Born Female Workers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung-Heui

    2017-10-01

    This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data extracted from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. Data from 8,931 full-time (i.e., 21 hours or more per week) women workers aged 18 to 85 years were analyzed to examine the nature and prevalence of immigrant female workers' work hours, overtime, and related factors in the United States compared to U.S.-born female workers. Results showed that foreign-born female workers did not work longer hours than U.S.-born female workers. Foreign-born female workers who reported poor health worked longer hours than did their U.S.-born counterparts. Foreign-born female workers who were self-employed or worked in family businesses tended to work longer hours than did those women who worked for private companies or nonprofit organizations.

  14. [Risk of malignant disease among female textile workers in Lithuania].

    PubMed

    Kuzmickiene, I H; Stukonis, M K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk among the workers at two Lithuanian textile mills vis-a-vis occupational hazards and professional status. Our retrospective investigation included 12,602 females who had been followed up in 1978-2002. Cancer risk was evaluated using a standardized incidence ratio and a relative one - on the basis of confidential interviews. Overall cancer risk for textile workers in Lithuania was lower than that of the general population (SIR 0.91; 95% CI 0.81-0.99). However, excess risk of thyroid cancer was reported among females at the linen finishing unit (SIR 5.85; 95% CI 1.21-17.2) cotton one (SIR 3.24; 95% CI 1.19-7.06). An inverse correlation was shown between cumulative exposure to cotton dust and risk at all occupational sites (p=0.03). Our results point to a link between probability occupational factors in a variety of textile industry jobs and risk of cancer. Further research is required to better understand the potential of professional factor influence.

  15. Cervical HPV Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Soohoo, Melissa; Blas, Magaly; Byraiah, Gita; Carcamo, Cesar; Brown, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately 291 million women worldwide are HPV DNA carriers. Studies have indicated that having multiple sexual partners may lead to higher HPV transmission. Thus female sex workers (FSWs) may be at greater risk of infection compared to the general population. Herein we review publications with data on FSW cervical HPV test results. We also examine variations of HPV prevalence and risk behaviors by region. Knowledge of prevalent HPV types in FSWs may lead to improved prevention measures and assist in understanding vaccination in high-risk groups. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature by searching PUBMED using the terms “prostitution” or “female sex workers”, “human papillomavirus” or “HPV”, and “prevalence” or “PCR” to find articles. We excluded studies without HPV testing or HPV type specific results, or unconventional HPV testing. Results: A total of 35 peer-reviewed publications were included in our review. High risk HPV types 16 and 18 ranged from 1.1-38.9‰ in prevalence. In addition to high-risk HPV types, newer studies reported non-carcinogenic HPV types also of high prevalence. The most prevalent HPV types reported among FSWs included HPV 6 (11.5%), 16 (38.9%), 18 (23.1%), 31 (28.4%), 52 (32.7%), and 58 (26.0%). Conclusions: Female sex workers have an overall high prevalence of HPV infection of high-risk types as evident through various testing methods. FSWs are thought to be at increased risk of cervical cancer because of high HPV exposure. This highlights the need for HPV and cervical prevention campaigns tailored to FSWs. PMID:24511334

  16. Blueprint Reading for Sheet Metal Workers. Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

    This training guide, developed during a project to retrain defense industry workers at risk of job loss or dislocation because of conversion of the defense industry, is designed for a course in blueprint reading for sheet metal workers. The following are among the topics covered in the course: orthographic projection; isometric and oblique…

  17. WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  18. A descriptive profile of abused female sex workers in India.

    PubMed

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A K; Zelaya, Carla; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F; Celentano, David

    2010-06-01

    This descriptive study presents the profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by intimate partners were reported by most (98%) respondents. Of the total sample, 76% experienced violence by clients. Sexual coercion experiences of the FSWs included verbal threats (77%) and physical force (87%) by intimate partners and forced unwanted sexual acts (73%) by clients. While 39% of the women consumed alcohol before meeting a client, 26% reported that their drunkenness was a trigger for violence by clients. The findings suggest that there is an urgent need to integrate services, along with public-health interventions among FSWs to protect them from violence. Recognition of multiple identities of women in the contexts of intimate relationships versus sex work is vital in helping women to stay safe from adverse effects on health.

  19. A Descriptive Profile of Abused Female Sex Workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A.K.; Zelaya, Carla; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F.; Celentano, David

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study presents the profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by intimate partners were reported by most (98%) respondents. Of the total sample, 76% experienced violence by clients. Sexual coercion experiences of the FSWs included verbal threats (77%) and physical force (87%) by intimate partners and forced unwanted sexual acts (73%) by clients. While 39% of the women consumed alcohol before meeting a client, 26% reported that their drunkenness was a trigger for violence by clients. The findings suggest that there is an urgent need to integrate services, along with public-health interventions among FSWs to protect them from violence. Recognition of multiple identities of women in the contexts of intimate relationships versus sex work is vital in helping women to stay safe from adverse effects on health. PMID:20635631

  20. HIV risks among female sex workers in Croatia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lausević, Dragan; Bozicević, Ivana; Baćak, Valerio; Mugoba, Boban; Terzić, Natasa; Drglin, Tihana

    2010-09-01

    The study analyzed the prevalence and determinants of HIV-risks among female sex workers (FSWs) in Croatia and Montenegro. Face-to-face interviews were carried out in Zagreb, Split, and Podgorica during the 2006-2008 period. Croatian participants (n = 154) reported fewer clients, more consistent condom use, higher rates of HIV testing, and greater HIV knowledge. The participants interviewed in Montenegro (n = 119) were more likely to have injected drugs and to have experienced sexual abuse in the previous year. Although Montenegrin FSWs were more exposed to HIV-risks than Croatian FSWs, they reported lower HIV-risk self-assessment. Consistent condom use was significantly associated with education and HIV-risk self-assessment in the Croatian and the experience of physical/sexual abuse in the Montenegrin sample. In spite of a number of methodological limitations, the empirical insights provided by this study may assist in improving the existing HIVV prevention initiatives.

  1. Mortality among female workers at a thorium-processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Lee, Tze-San

    1994-05-01

    The mortality patterns among a cohort of 677 female workers at a thorium-processing plant are reported for the period from 1940 to 1982. Of the 677 women, 165 were reported dead; 459 were still alive; and 53 (7.8%) were lost to follow-up. The standardized mortality ratios from all causes (0.74), all cancers (0.53), and circulatory diseases (0.66) were significantly below those for the general US population. In this cohort, 5 deaths due to lung cancer and 1 death from leukemia were observed, with 4.53 and 1.69 deaths expected, respectively. No deaths from cancer of the liver, pancreas, or bone were observed. Poisson regression analysis was used for an internal comparison within the cohort. The results of the Poisson regression analysis showed no significant effect on mortality rates of all causes and cancers from the study factors, including job classification, duration of employment, and time since first employment.

  2. Human papillomavirus infection in female sex workers in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Montano, Silvia M; Hsieh, Evelyn J; Calderón, Martha; Ton, Thanh G N; Quijano, Eberth; Solari, Vicky; Zunt, Joseph R

    2011-02-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in female sex workers (FSW) in Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional study of 87 FSW. Information regarding demographics, sex work practices, and genital and blood specimens was collected. Forty-four (50.6%) of 87 FSW had HPV detected in cervical swabs. The prevalence of coinfection by two or more HPV types was 39.1%. Thirty-one (35.6%) were infected by at least one high-risk HPV type, representing 70.5% of women with HPV infection. HPV infection was associated with younger age but not with any demographic or sexual characteristics. Our study confirms the high prevalence of HPV infection in FSW reported by other groups and suggests that brothel-based FSW may be at lower risk for acquiring high-risk HPV infection.

  3. Human papillomavirus infection in female sex workers in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Montano, Silvia M; Hsieh, Evelyn J; Calderón, Martha; Ton, Thanh G N; Quijano, Eberth; Solari, Vicky; Zunt, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in female sex workers (FSW) in Lima, Peru. Methods Cross-sectional study of 87 FSW. Information regarding demographics, sex work practices, and genital and blood specimens was collected. Results Forty-four (50.6%) of 87 FSW had HPV detected in cervical swabs. The prevalence of coinfection by two or more HPV types was 39.1%. Thirty-one (35.6%) were infected by at least one high-risk HPV type, representing 70.5% of women with HPV infection. HPV infection was associated with younger age but not with any demographic or sexual characteristics. Conclusions Our study confirms the high prevalence of HPV infection in FSW reported by other groups and suggests that brothel-based FSW may be at lower risk for acquiring high-risk HPV infection. PMID:20813720

  4. [NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS].

    PubMed

    Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E

    2015-01-01

    There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.

  5. Assessing the Factors Associated with Sexual Harassment among Young Female Migrant Workers in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Mahesh; Cleland, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the extent of, and factors associated with, sexual harassment of young female migrant workers in the carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu Valley. Information is drawn from a survey of 550 female workers aged 14 to 19 and 12 in-depth case histories. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to identify the…

  6. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-10-01

    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues.

  7. [Hygienic evaluation of health risk for female workers of stock-raising enterprise].

    PubMed

    Iusupova, N Z; Shamsiiarov, N N; Dautov, F F

    2012-01-01

    The article presents results of study concerning work conditions of female workers engaged into stock-raising enterprises of Tatarstan Republic. Findings are that major occupational hazards in the female workers are unfavorable microclimate, chemical hazards contaminating ambient air of workplace and high noise level.

  8. Assessing the Factors Associated with Sexual Harassment among Young Female Migrant Workers in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Mahesh; Cleland, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the extent of, and factors associated with, sexual harassment of young female migrant workers in the carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu Valley. Information is drawn from a survey of 550 female workers aged 14 to 19 and 12 in-depth case histories. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to identify the…

  9. Metal-material workers and lung cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, T

    1976-01-01

    The distribution by occupation of 39,255 lung cancer deaths in eight years, from 1960 to 1967, was analyzed. An age-standardized comparison of actual deaths and expected deaths revealed that cancer of the lung had tendency to occur with a significantly higher frequency in (1) metal material workers (Obs., 232; Exp., 176.5), and (2) workers in mining and quarrying occupations (Obs., 151; Exp., 127.9). By similar analysis, farmers, miners, and metal-material workers were noted as high-risk occupations for stomach cancer and clerical workers, and farmers were noted as such for leukemia. The value of occupational cancer in monitoring by such a simple analysis was stressed (see Figure 1).

  10. Understanding the Broader Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Female Sex Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Katz, Karen R; McDowell, Misti; Green, Mackenzie; Jahan, Shamim; Johnson, Laura; Chen, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the sexual and reproductive health care needs of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Survey data were collected from 354 hotel-based and 323 street-based female sex workers using a venue-based stratified cluster sampling approach. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers recruited from drop-in centers. We calculated unmet need for family planning and examined fertility desires, use of condoms and other contraceptive methods, experiences with gender-based violence, sexual and reproductive health service needs, and preferences on where to receive services. The prevalence of unmet need was 25% among hotel-based female sex workers and 36% among street-based female sex workers. Almost all participants reported having used condoms in the past 30 days, and 44% of hotel-based sex workers and 30% of street-based sex workers reported dual method use during that period. Condom use was inconsistent, however, and condom breakage and nonuse for extra money were common. Many women reported experiencing gender-based violence. Sexual and reproductive health services had been obtained by 64% of hotel-based and 89% of street-based sex workers in the past six months; drop-in centers were their preferred site for receiving health services. Female sex workers in Dhaka need family planning and other sexual and reproductive health services and prefer receiving them from drop-in centers.

  11. Contraceptive use among female sex workers in three Russian cities

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Caitlin E.; Wirtz, Andrea L.; Mogilniy, Vladimir; Peryshkina, Alena; Beyrer, Chris; Decker, Michele R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, use of non-barrier contraception (intrauterine device, hormonal contraceptives, and female sterilization) among female sex workers (FSWs) in three Russian cities. Methods A secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey of FSWs aged 18 years and older from Kazan, Krasnoyarsk, and Tomsk was undertaken. Participants had completed a one-time computer-based survey in 2011. Among the 708 with a current contraceptive need, logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with use of non-barrier contraceptives. Results Use of non-barrier contraceptives was reported by 237 (33.5%) FSWs. Use of non-barrier contraceptives was associated with being in sex work longer (≥4 years vs <1 year: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51–14.66) and having a non-paying partner (AOR 2.02; 95% CI 1.32–3.11). Odds of non-barrier contraception were reduced among FSWs who had ever worked with a pimp/momka (AOR 0.46; 95% CI 0.24–0.87), who had experienced recent client-perpetrated violence (AOR 0.19; 95% CI 0.07–0.52), or reporting consistent condom use (AOR 0.30; 95% CI 0.16–0.54). Only 13 (5.5%) of the 237 FSWs using non-barrier contraception reported consistent condom use. Conclusion Only one-third reported use of non-barrier contraception, suggesting substantial unmet contraceptive needs. FSWs are an important target population for family planning, reproductive health counseling, and care. PMID:26387467

  12. Female commercial sex workers in Kramat Tunggak, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sedyaningsih-Mamahit, E R

    1999-10-01

    Indonesia is predicted to face a severe AIDS epidemic in the near future. More than 60% of the reported HIV-positive cases in Indonesia can be attributed to heterosexual transmission; therefore, by the nature of their work, female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) constitute one of the communities at risk. No meaningful or effective STD/HIV prevention programs for FCSWs can be planned if there is no contextual understanding of these women as persons, the nature and the risks of their job and their relations with their clients and managers. Just as it is incorrect to assume that all women enter prostitution for the same reasons, educational approaches that are modeled on shallow stereotypes will be ineffective. Interweaving qualitative and quantitative methods, this research investigates the FCSWs in an 'official' brothel complex in Jakarta, Indonesia. Results of this study give insights of four typologies of FCSWs observed in Kramat Tunggak. The personal, professional, social and other differences which influenced the women into full-time sex work and affected their willingness and ability to engage in healthy and protective behaviors, are presented. Finally, based on those findings a recommendation on how to deliver health messages to the FCSWs is offered.

  13. Physiological stress assessment of female workers at kitchen workstation.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Hema; Sidhu, M K

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the extent of the physiological stresses of female workers at kitchen workstation while performing the various activities. For this a survey of eighty homemakers and experiment on sixteen respondents having similar physical and physiological parameters was done. Five activities in which the respondents faced maximum problems were selected and were standardized. Physiological stresses including cardiovascular, muscular, and energy expenditure during these activities were then assessed. Study revealed that fatigue during the selected five activities i.e. cutting, grating, rolling, kneading, dish washing, was felt mainly at the wrist, fore arm, followed by discomfort in the shoulders, upper arm, lower back and neck. Energy expenditure for these activities ranged from 7.0 to10 kJ\\min, total cardiac cost of work (TCCW) was between 200.81 to 364.30 beats, physiological cost of work (PCW) was 12.82 to 26.26 beats\\min; maximum for grating and minimum for rolling. The percent increase in heart rate was maximum for grating 38.56 and minimum for rolling 16.20. Reduction in grip and pinch strength of right hand was found more as compared to the left hand.

  14. Asbestos disease in sheet metal workers: proportional mortality update

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, D.; Zoloth, S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper, updating the findings of an earlier study, provides additional evidence that sheet metal workers in the construction trades are at increased risk for asbestos-related disease. A proportional analysis of cause of death among 331 New York sheet metal workers found a significantly elevated PMR for lung cancer (PMR = 186). In addition, there were six deaths attributable to mesothelioma (three classified as lung cancer deaths) and three death certificates mentioned asbestosis or pulmonary fibrosis, although none of these three deaths were attributed to these diseases.

  15. Comparison of static lifting capacity between experienced and novice Taiwanese female workers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Chiou, Wen-Ko

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have analyzed the lifting capacity of either experienced workers or novices, but a systematic comparison of the lifting capacity of experienced female workers and novices has not been conducted. This study was conducted to identify differences in lifting strengths and postures between experienced and novice Taiwanese female workers. Twenty-three experienced female workers and 23 novices volunteered for this study. Their static lifting strengths (n = 46) and lifting postures (n = 22) were analyzed using statistical analysis software. Experienced workers' vertical lifting strengths were approximately 5-7  kg lower than those of novices at lower heights (≤50  cm). However, at heights equal to or higher than 90  cm, the experienced workers generated approximately 2-3  kg higher toward-body lifting strengths than did novices. The experienced workers' strengths at all 15 lifting heights were relatively unchanged, compared with changes in the novices' strengths. Experienced workers tended to adopt a consistently deep squat at lower heights and a more flexed arm posture at higher heights. Through daily work experience, experienced workers may have subconsciously learned to shift their postures to avoid overexertion. These techniques for safe lifting should be taught to new Taiwanese female workers.

  16. Social Support and Sexual Risk Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in Tijuana.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie

    2015-08-01

    Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk.

  17. Relationship between female sex workers and gatekeeper: the impact on female sex worker's mental health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Su, Shaobing; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    Global literature suggests that gatekeepers exert enormous influences on lives of female sex workers (FSWs). However, virtually no available studies have examined the FSW-gatekeeper relationship (F-G relationship) and its impact on FSW's mental health. The current study was conducted in 2008-2009 in two cities of southwest China. A total of 1022 FSW were recruited through community outreach from nine different types of commercial sex establishments. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed to depict the association between F-G relationship and measures of FSW's mental health. Findings of the current study revealed that FSW with a close relationship with their gatekeepers reported a better mental health status. After adjusting for demographics and potential confounders of mental health, F-G relationship was positively associated with hopefulness ( β = .09, 95% CI = .01, .16), but negatively associated with perceived stigma ( β = -.25, 95% CI = -.44, -.07), suicidal intention or attempt (aOR = .90, 95% CI = .83, .99), and loneliness ( β = -.29, 95% CI = -.47, -.12). F-G relationship is an independent predictor of mental health of FSW over and above potential confounders including partner violence and substance use. Future health promotion programs targeting FSW need to recognize the role of gatekeepers in the life of FSW and engage them in a socially and legally acceptable way in safeguarding or improving mental health status of FSW in China.

  18. Commentary: Female forensic worker sexual misconduct--who is the captive?

    PubMed

    Hackett, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The risk of sexual misconduct by forensic professionals appears at first glance to be far less than the risk of sexual misconduct by other clinical professionals. Yet, Faulkner and Regehr's article draws our attention to the unique and intriguing situation of females working in forensic settings and the very real risk of their engaging in sexual misconduct with male prisoners. The female workers described are professionals: nurses, prison staff, and security officers. Analogies are made between Gabbard's proposed categories of professionals who commit sexual boundary violations and groups of female forensic workers' sexual misconduct with male prisoners. Faulkner and Regehr detail the characteristics of prisoners and the prison setting and how they relate to detrimental interpersonal behavior by female forensic workers. The role of security officers is discussed along with the need for policy-makers to minimize the risks inherent in working with incarcerated populations. The potential for gender-biased explanations of misconduct among female forensic workers is also considered.

  19. Access to condoms for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; McPherson, Sam; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Dandona, Lalit

    2006-01-01

    Condoms are an essential part of comprehensive HIV prevention and care programmes. We report the accessibility of male condoms for female sex workers (FSWs) and the associated characteristics that may play a major role in determining access to condoms for FSWs. Confidential interviews of 6509 street- and home-based FSWs in 13 districts of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh provided data on the number of paying clients and various aspects of access to free condoms and purchase of condoms. Access to condoms was defined as having ever obtained condoms either through free distribution or through purchase. Multivariate analyses were done separately for street- and home-based FSWs to describe correlates of their access to condoms. The requirement of condoms was assessed based on the number of paying clients during the past 15 days. Data on condom access were available for 6465 (99.3%) FSWs. A total of 2850 (44.1%; 95% CI: 36.2%-52.0%) reported accessing free condoms ever and 2336 (36.1%; 95% CI: 30.6%-41.6%) had purchased condoms ever (not mutually exclusive). The primary sources for condoms were non-governmental organization facilities (73.8%) and pharmacies (79.7%) for free and purchased condoms, respectively. A total of 3510 (54.3%; 95% CI: 48.5%-60.1%) FSWs reported no access to free or purchased condoms during the past 15 days, and this no access was significantly higher for those > 30 years of age, with no schooling, street-based FSWs, and with no participation in a FSW support group (p < 0.001 for each in univariate analysis). Participation in a FSW support group was the main predictor of access to free condoms for both types of FSWs during the past 15 days with multivariate analysis. Condom requirements during the past 15 days were met for 67.5% of FSWs who had accessed only free condoms and for 33.8% of those who had accessed only purchased condoms. One-fourth of FSWs had never accessed condoms, and a little over half of those who had ever accessed reported no

  20. Investigation of postural hypotension due to static prolonged standing in female workers.

    PubMed

    Kabe, Isamu; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Tokujitani, Yoko; Endo, Yuichi; Furusawa, Mami; Takebayashi, Toru

    2007-07-01

    The "Just-in-Time system" improves productivity and efficiency through cost reduction while it makes workers work in a standing posture. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of postural hypotension in females during prolonged standing work, and to discuss preventive methods. Twelve female static standing workers (mean age+/-standard deviation; 32+/-14 yr old), 6 male static standing workers (30+/-4 yr old), 10 female walking workers (27+/-7 yr old) and 9 female desk workers (31+/-5 yr old) in a certain telecommunications equipment manufacturing factory agreed to participate in this study. All participants received an interview with an occupational physician, and performed the standing up test before working and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) while working. Although the blood pressure of the standing up test did not differ among the groups, mean pulse rates on standing up significantly increased in every group. Hypotension rates in the female standing workers' group by ABPM were 9 persons of 12 participants (75%) for systolic blood pressure (SBP), and were 11 persons of 12 participants (92%) for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). There were significantly higher than those in the female desk workers' group, none of 9 participants (0%) for SBP and 2 of 9 participants (22%) for DBP. The hypotension rates both male standing and female walking worker groups did not differ. Because all 8 workers who were found to have postural hypotension by the standing up test had decreased SBP and/or DBP by ABPM, it is suggested that persons at high risk of postural hypotension during standing work could be screened by the standing up test. The mechanism of postural hypotension may be a decrease of venous return due to leg swelling, and neurocardiogenic or vasovagal response. Preventing the congestion of the lower limbs by walking, managing standing time and wearing elastic hose to keep the amount of the venous return could prevent postural hypotension

  1. [Occupational risk factors and reproductive health of female workers engaged into kraft pulping].

    PubMed

    Meshchakova, N M

    2005-01-01

    Female workers of child-bearing age appeared to have significant frequency of reproductive disorders, high degree of their connection with the occupation. The authors justified a concept of reproductivity disorders formation.

  2. [Immunologic aspects of allergic diseases development in female workers of contemporary poultry factory].

    PubMed

    Rybakov, I D; Bakirov, A B; Masiagutova, L M

    2009-01-01

    The article presents results of immunologic parameters study in female workers of contemporary poultry factories. Occupational factors were proved to affect all immunity sections. The authors suggested coefficient to diagnose latent sensibilization.

  3. An anthropometric study of Serbian metal industry workers.

    PubMed

    Omić, S; Brkić, V K Spasojevic; Golubović, T A; Brkić, A D; Klarin, M M

    2017-01-01

    There are recent studies using new industrial workers' anthropometric data in different countries, but for Serbia such data are not available. This study is the first anthropometric study of Serbian metal industry workers in the country, whose labor force is increasingly employed both on local and international markets. The metal industry is one of Serbia's most important economic sectors. To this end, we collected the basic static anthropometric dimensions of 122 industrial workers and used principal components analysis (PCA) to obtain multivariate anthropometric models. To confirm the results, the dimensions of an additional 50 workers were collected. The PCA methodology was also compared with the percentile method. Comparing both data samples, we found that 96% of the participants are within the tolerance ellipsoid. According to this study, multivariate modeling covers a larger extent of the intended population proportion compared to percentiles. The results of this research are useful for the designers of metal industry workstations. This information can be used in dimensioning the workplace, thus increasing job satisfaction, reducing the risk of injuries and fatalities, and consequently increasing productivity and safety.

  4. Health beliefs and breast cancer screening behaviors among female health workers in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canbulat, Nejla; Uzun, Ozge

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate health beliefs and breast cancer screening behaviors in female health workers in Turkey. This descriptive study was conducted in various health centers located in Erzurum, Turkey. The sample consisted of 268 female health workers (physicians, n=51; nurses, n=169; and midwives, n=48). Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire and the Turkish version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scales (CHBMS). The mean age of participants was 31.31 (S.D.=6.89), and 49.9% of them were married. It was found that only 21.9% of the female health workers performed breast self-examination (BSE) regularly, and 12.5% of them had a mammogram. Physicians' health motivation and BSE self-efficacy perceptions were higher than the nurses and midwives. Susceptibility, health motivation to BSE, BSE benefits, BSE self-efficacy perceptions of female health workers who performed BSE were significantly higher than those who did not, and a result indicating that positive health beliefs are effective in stimulating performance of BSE of female health workers. Among the variables related with mammography, only susceptibility perceptions of female health workers who had a mammogram was significantly higher than those who had not had a mammogram.

  5. Female sex worker social networks and STI/HIV prevention in South China.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joseph D; Peng, Hua; Wang, Kaidi; Chang, Helena; Zhang, Sen-Miao; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Reducing harm associated with selling and purchasing sex is an important public health priority in China, yet there are few examples of sustainable, successful programs to promote sexual health among female sex workers. The limited civil society and scope of nongovernmental organizations circumscribe the local capacity of female sex workers to collectively organize, advocate for their rights, and implement STI/HIV prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to examine social networks among low-income female sex workers in South China to determine their potential for sexual health promotion. Semi-structured interviews with 34 low-income female sex workers and 28 health outreach members were used to examine how social relationships affected condom use and negotiation, STI/HIV testing and health-seeking behaviors, and dealing with violent clients. These data suggested that sex worker's laoxiang (hometown social connections) were more powerful than relationships between women selling sex at the same venue in establishing the terms and risk of commercial sex. Female sex workers from the same hometown often migrated to the city with their laoxiang and these social connections fulfilled many of the functions of nongovernmental organizations, including collective mobilization, condom promotion, violence mitigation, and promotion of health-seeking behaviors. Outreach members observed that sex workers accompanied by their laoxiang were often more willing to accept STI/HIV testing and trust local sexual health services. Organizing STI/HIV prevention services around an explicitly defined laoxiang social network may provide a strong foundation for sex worker health programs. Further research on dyadic interpersonal relationships between female sex workers, group dynamics and norm establishment, and the social network characteristics are needed.

  6. Complete workplace indoor smoking ban and smoking behavior among male workers and female nonsmoking workers' husbands: a pseudo cohort study of Japanese public workers.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hama, Hitomi; Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    A pseudo cohort study using national cross-sections (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010) was conducted to examine differences in smoking prevalence under different smoking ban policies such as a complete workplace indoor smoking ban (early or recent implementation) and a partial smoking ban among male public workers and husbands of female nonsmoking public workers. The effectiveness of smoking bans was estimated by difference-in-differences (DID) with age group stratification. The results varied considerably by age and implementation period. Although DID estimates (positive value of DID estimate represents smoking cessation percentage) for both smoking bans on total male smoking were not significant, the over-40 age group indicated a significant DID estimate of 5.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) for the recent smoking ban. For female workers' husbands' smoking, the over-40 age group indicated positive, but not significant, DID estimates for the early and recent smoking bans of 7.2 (-4.7, 19.2) and 8.4 (-2.0, 18.7), respectively. A complete indoor workplace smoking ban, particularly one recently implemented among public office workers aged over 40, may reduce male workers' smoking and female workers' husbands' smoking compared with a partial smoking ban, but the conclusion remains tentative because of methodological weaknesses in the study.

  7. Complete Workplace Indoor Smoking Ban and Smoking Behavior among Male Workers and Female Nonsmoking Workers' Husbands: A Pseudo Cohort Study of Japanese Public Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Takahiro; Hama, Hitomi; Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    A pseudo cohort study using national cross-sections (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010) was conducted to examine differences in smoking prevalence under different smoking ban policies such as a complete workplace indoor smoking ban (early or recent implementation) and a partial smoking ban among male public workers and husbands of female nonsmoking public workers. The effectiveness of smoking bans was estimated by difference-in-differences (DID) with age group stratification. The results varied considerably by age and implementation period. Although DID estimates (positive value of DID estimate represents smoking cessation percentage) for both smoking bans on total male smoking were not significant, the over-40 age group indicated a significant DID estimate of 5.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) for the recent smoking ban. For female workers' husbands' smoking, the over-40 age group indicated positive, but not significant, DID estimates for the early and recent smoking bans of 7.2 (−4.7, 19.2) and 8.4 (−2.0, 18.7), respectively. A complete indoor workplace smoking ban, particularly one recently implemented among public office workers aged over 40, may reduce male workers' smoking and female workers' husbands' smoking compared with a partial smoking ban, but the conclusion remains tentative because of methodological weaknesses in the study. PMID:24783199

  8. HIV risk perceptions, knowledge and behaviours among female sex workers in two cities in Turkmenistan.

    PubMed

    Chariyeva, Z; Colaco, R; Maman, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes HIV risk behaviour patterns among street- and bar-based female sex workers in the Turkmenistan cities of Ashgabat and Mary. Street-based sex workers had little to no knowledge of HIV and primarily used condoms when condom use was initiated by clients. Bar-based sex workers had HIV knowledge and reported regularly using condoms mainly with first-time clients. While sex workers perceived themselves to be at low risk for acquiring HIV, they were aware of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) and expressed a strong desire for free STI testing and treatment services.

  9. Gynecologic pain related to occupational stress among female factory workers in Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    Sznajder, Kristin K; Harlow, Siobán D; Burgard, Sarah A; Wang, Yanrang; Han, Cheng; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and non-cyclic pelvic pain are health concerns for factory workers in China and may be increased by occupational stress. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and demographic and occupational factors associated with three types of gynecologic pain among female factory workers in Tianjin. Methods: The study included 651 female workers from three factories in Tianjin, China. Logistic regression models were estimated to determine associations between occupational stress and gynecologic pain. Results: Occupational stress including high job strain, exhaustion, and stress related to working conditions was a risk factor for gynecologic pain. High job strain and poor job security were associated with an increased risk for dysmenorrhea. Compulsory overtime and exhaustion were associated with increased non-cyclic pelvic pain. Working overtime and exhaustion were associated with increased dyspareunia. Conclusions: As China’s population of female factory workers grows, research on the reproductive health of this population is essential. PMID:24804338

  10. Female non-regular workers in Japan: their current status and health.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mariko; Nishikitani, Mariko; Tsurugano, Shinobu

    2016-12-07

    The participation of women in the Japanese labor force is characterized by its M-shaped curve, which reflects decreased employment rates during child-rearing years. Although, this M-shaped curve is now improving, the majority of women in employment are likely to fall into the category of non-regular workers. Based on a review of the previous Japanese studies of the health of non-regular workers, we found that non-regular female workers experienced greater psychological distress, poorer self-rated health, a higher smoking rate, and less access to preventive medicine than regular workers did. However, despite the large number of non-regular workers, there are limited researches regarding their health. In contrast, several studies in Japan concluded that regular workers also had worse health conditions due to the additional responsibility and longer work hours associated with the job, housekeeping, and child rearing. The health of non-regular workers might be threatened by the effects of precarious employment status, lower income, a lower safety net, outdated social norm regarding non-regular workers, and difficulty in achieving a work-life balance. A sector wide social approach to consider life course aspect is needed to protect the health and well-being of female workers' health; promotion of an occupational health program alone is insufficient.

  11. Biomonitoring of toxic metals in incinerator workers: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Sbordone, Carmine; Montuori, Paolo; Alfano, Rossella; Triassi, Maria; Iavicoli, Ivo; Manno, Maurizio

    2017-04-15

    Exposure to chemicals released during urban waste disposal and treatment is increasingly regarded as a potential occupational health issue. Indeed, several toxic metals emitted by an incinerator, including As, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni and V, have potentially toxic properties and their exposure, therefore, may be of concern for the health of the workers involved. The levels of exposure should therefore be carefully measured. Environmental monitoring, however, may be unable, alone, to assess true exposure, due to its intrinsic limitations mainly concerning its inability to assess oral and dermal absorption. In these cases biological monitoring may represent a fundamental supplementary tool for the definition of the workers' true occupational exposure and for the prevention of the related health effects. There is, therefore, an increasing interest in developing and using, in these workers, sensitive and specific biomarkers for health risk assessment, particularly at low or even very low levels of exposure. Despite the large number of original and review articles present in the literature on the biomonitoring of workers exposed to metals, the data on subjects employed in waste treatment activities are scattered and results are sometimes inconsistent. This is the first systematic review, performed according to PRISMA methodology, of the major studies investigating the levels of different toxic metals measured in the main biological matrices (blood, urine, hair) of incinerator workers. The results show that the levels of metals measured in incinerators' workers are generally low, with some notable exceptions for Cd and Pb. These results, though, can be affected by several confounders related either to non-occupational exposure, including diet, area of residence and others, and/or by a number of methodological limitations, as we found in the reported studies. Future work should focus on an integrated approach, using ideally both biological and environmental monitoring

  12. Smoking among female sex workers: prevalence and associated variables.

    PubMed

    Devóglio, Ligia Lopes; Corrente, José Eduardo; Borgato, Maria Helena; Godoy, Ilda de

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of smoking and associated variables in female sex workers (FSWs). This was a quantitative cross-sectional study involving FSWs in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, including data regarding smoking status, motivational stage of change, and degree of nicotine dependence, as well as the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We included 83 FSWs. The mean age was 26.8 years. Among the participants, 58 (69.8%) had at least a high school education, only 26 (31.3%) resided in the city of Botucatu, 59 (71.1%) were smokers, 5 (6.0%) were former smokers, 74 (89.2%) regularly consumed alcohol, and 43 (51.8%) used illicit drugs. The majority of the women were classified as having an intermediate stress level, and 51 (61.4%) were classified as having possible or probable anxiety, whereas depression was found to be improbable in 57 (68.7%). The level of nicotine dependence was high among the smokers, the majority of whom showed no intention to quit smoking. Smoking was associated with illicit drug use (p = 0.0271) and with alcohol consumption (p = 0.0001), although not with the levels of stress, anxiety, or depression; nor was the age at smoking initiation associated with the length of time as an FSW (p = 0.4651). The prevalence of smoking among the FSWs evaluated here was much higher than the 8.3% reported for the overall female population of Brazil. Our findings show that FSWs are exposed to various risk factors inherent to their profession. Therefore, harm reduction is an important strategy to be adopted. Avaliar a prevalência de tabagismo e variáveis associadas em mulheres profissionais do sexo (MPS). Estudo de corte transversal quantitativo com MPS na cidade de Botucatu (SP), as quais completaram um questionário sociodemográfico, incluindo informações sobre tabagismo, estágio motivacional para cessação do tabagismo e grau de dependência da nicotina, assim como a

  13. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, T; Strathdee, S A; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Participants Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Main outcome measure Self reported gender based violence. Results Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aORphysicalviolence) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aORrape) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aORclientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aORphysicalviolence 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aORclientviolence 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aORclientviolence 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aORrape 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aORphysicalviolence 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aORclientviolence 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Conclusions Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender

  14. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Kate; Kerr, T; Strathdee, S A; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W

    2009-08-11

    To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Prospective observational study. Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Self reported gender based violence. Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aOR(physicalviolence)) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aOR(rape)) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aOR(clientviolence)) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aOR(physicalviolence) 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aOR(clientviolence) 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aOR(clientviolence) 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aOR(rape) 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aOR(physicalviolence) 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aOR(clientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio

  15. Female Migrant Sex Workers in Moscow: Gender and Power Factors and HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which we conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women’s health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies. PMID:23421339

  16. Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.

  17. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Infection with Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted.

  18. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Infection with Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. Methods We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Results Anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Conclusions Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted. PMID:28611864

  19. Patterns of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joesoef, M R; Linnan, M; Barakbah, Y; Idajadi, A; Kambodji, A; Schulz, K

    1997-09-01

    Sex workers and their clients as core groups of high frequency transmitters play a dominant role in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In Surabaya, Indonesia, little is known about the prevalence of STDs in various sex establishments. We conducted an STD prevalence survey of 1873 female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia. We did not find any sex workers with HIV infection. Prevalence rates of other STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, serological test for syphilis positive, and/or trichomoniasis) in female sex workers were 48% in brothels (n = 696), 42% on the streets (n = 192), 16% in massage parlours (n = 344), 25% in barber shops (n = 150), 17% at call-girl houses (n = 73), and 10% in nightclubs (n = 418). Sex workers from the brothels had the highest prevalence rates of gonorrhoea (24%) and trichomoniasis (8%), while sex workers from the streets and the barber shop had the highest rates of serological test for syphilis (STS) positive (30%) and chlamydia (18%). STD rates decreased with an increase in age (except for STS positive), an increase in education, a decrease in the number of sex partners, and condom use in the previous week. Condom use in the previous week was universally low among sex workers, especially among sex workers from the brothels (14%). Sex workers from the brothels had STD rates about 4 times higher than sex workers from the nightclubs (adjusted odds ratio of 4.4). Although the HIV seroprevalence rate is currently low, widespread prostitution and high rates of STDs in sex workers warrant programmes to avert a potential explosion of HIV transmission. Because sex workers from the brothels in Surabaya have high rates of STDs and low use of condoms but good cooperation with local authorities, STD preventive measures should focus on this group.

  20. Effects of the Age–Education Structure of Female Workers on Male Earnings in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich; Almeida, Mariana Eugenio; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Gonçalves; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The main concern of this study is the impact that an increase in female participation within the labor force has on the earnings of males in Brazil. Previous research considered these transitions for male workers, but did not include female workers when estimating various effects on earnings. The 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2000 Brazilian Demographic Censuses were used for this analysis. Results suggest a significant negative impact on male earnings in 1970 as a result of the share of female workers. This effect has been decreasing over time, as the coefficients from more recent years are positive. Changes in age and educational composition make a substantial difference on the estimation of male earnings in Brazil. The method developed in this study is not infallible, but it improves previous estimates by including the relationship among compositional changes, female labor force participation, and earnings, thus going beyond the direct impact of age and education. PMID:26594305

  1. Affective and personality disturbances among female former microelectronics workers.

    PubMed

    Bowler, R M; Mergler, D; Rauch, S S; Harrison, R; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    The production and manufacture of microelectronic components, carried out primarily by women workers, require extensive use of organic solvents. Affective and personality disturbances frequently have been associated with organic solvent toxicity. A group of women, former microelectronics workers (N = 70), primarily of Hispanic origin (77.1%) but raised in the United States, were evaluated for affective and personality disturbance with the MMPI. Profiles were analyzed, and diagnostic classification was performed blind. Results showed that (1) 85.7% of the profiles indicated abnormally high clinical elevations; and (2) MMPI profile classification revealed four clinical diagnostic groups: somatoform (24.3%), depression (15.7%), anxiety (28.6%), and psychotic (14.3%). These findings indicate significant psychopathology among these women, who formerly had worked in a microelectronics plant. The patterns of impairment present similarities to previous reports of organic solvent toxicity.

  2. [Cost-effectiveness of female sex worker interventions by using SEX 2.0 Tool in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao-yan; Duan, Song; Xiang, Li-fen; Ye, Run-hua; Yang, Yue-cheng; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Jian-hua; Cao, Wei-hua; Xing, Yan; Sun, Jiang-ping

    2010-08-01

    To perform cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions in female sex workers in Dehong prefecture in China, with an aim of providing evidence for rational resource allocation in female sex worker interventions in the future. The data of expenses for female sex worker interventions in Dehong from 2005 - 2007 were obtained through questionnaire survey. Meanwhile, the data from baseline survey in 2004, from surveillance of female sex workers from 2005 through 2007 as well as from the special survey on sexual transmission in 2007 were collected. Intervention effectiveness was estimated by using SEX 2.0 Tool recommended by UNAIDS. The cost-effectiveness ratio is calculated as the total cost divided by the number of estimated non-HIV patients due to these interventions. The total cost for female sex worker interventions is 916 400 RMB from 2005 through 2007, and a total of 3297 female sex workers were effectively intervened in these three years. Thus, the actual intervention cost for each female sex worker (unit cost) is 277.9 RMB. If all the intervention work is performed as required, the predicted unit cost for female sex worker intervention would be 500.5 RMB. During the period of 2005 through 2007, 69 female sex workers had been successfully prevented from HIV infection; therefore, the cost-effectiveness ratio is 13 282 RMB. Intervention among female sex workers is highly cost-effective.

  3. Female non-regular workers in Japan: their current status and health

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Mariko; NISHIKITANI, Mariko; TSURUGANO, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    The participation of women in the Japanese labor force is characterized by its M-shaped curve, which reflects decreased employment rates during child-rearing years. Although, this M-shaped curve is now improving, the majority of women in employment are likely to fall into the category of non-regular workers. Based on a review of the previous Japanese studies of the health of non-regular workers, we found that non-regular female workers experienced greater psychological distress, poorer self-rated health, a higher smoking rate, and less access to preventive medicine than regular workers did. However, despite the large number of non-regular workers, there are limited researches regarding their health. In contrast, several studies in Japan concluded that regular workers also had worse health conditions due to the additional responsibility and longer work hours associated with the job, housekeeping, and child rearing. The health of non-regular workers might be threatened by the effects of precarious employment status, lower income, a lower safety net, outdated social norm regarding non-regular workers, and difficulty in achieving a work-life balance. A sector wide social approach to consider life course aspect is needed to protect the health and well-being of female workers’ health; promotion of an occupational health program alone is insufficient. PMID:27818453

  4. Mass Media and HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the sources of HIV prevention information for female sex workers in Beijing and assess the associations between levels of mass media exposure of HIV/AIDS prevention information and HIV/AIDS knowledge as well as condom use-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 359 female sex workers in Beijing, China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were employed. Female sex workers sampled in Beijing were more likely to obtain HIV/AIDS prevention information from television and street posters than radio and the Internet. However, a higher level of exposure to and a lasting impression on online information were significantly associated with a higher level of condom use self-efficacy and more consistent condom use among the participants. Exposure to HIV/AIDS prevention information delivered by radio, street posters, and the Internet was found to be associated with sexual communication about HIV or condom use with sexual partners. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of various mass media outlets in delivering HIV/AIDS prevention information among female sex workers in China. Future studies are needed to systematically examine the effectiveness of mass media-based prevention education on HIV/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors among female sex workers and other populations in China.

  5. Kenyan female sex workers' use of female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception: do they use condoms less consistently?

    PubMed

    Yam, Eileen A; Okal, Jerry; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicholas; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Geibel, Scott

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether nonbarrier modern contraceptive use is associated with less consistent condom use among Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). Researchers recruited 579 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between consistent condom use and female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use. A total of 98.8% reported using male condoms in the past month, and 64.6% reported using female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. In multivariate analysis, female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use was not associated with decreased condom use with clients or nonpaying partners. Consistency of condom use is not compromised when FSWs use available female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. FSWs should be encouraged to use condoms consistently, whether or not other methods are used simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attracting female sex workers to HIV testing and counselling in Ethiopia: a qualitative study with sex workers in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Ameyan, Wole; Jeffery, Caroline; Negash, Kassahun; Biruk, Etsegenet; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing efforts to increase HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services for most at risk populations in Ethiopia, the use of these services by female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. With rising numbers of FSWs in Addis Ketema and concerns about their high risk behaviours, exploring and addressing the barriers to uptake is crucial. This qualitative study explores the barriers to utilising HTC facilities and identifies the motives and motivations of FSWs who seek HTC through in-depth and semi-structured interviews with female sex workers, healthcare workers and key informants. Results indicate that FSWs face numerous barriers including inability to seek treatment if found to be positive due to the requirement of an identity (ID) card many do not own. Many FSWs reported discriminatory behaviour from healthcare workers and a lack of dedicated services. What is clear from the findings is that distinct strategies, which differ from those of the broader population, are required to attract FSWs--strategies which take into account the barriers and maximise the reported motives and motivations for testing.

  7. Shift Work Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Young Female Korean Workers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon

    2017-03-01

    Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20-40 years enrolled in the 2011-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.3% and 7.1% among male and female shift workers, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in female workers (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 5.70). Shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in young women. Timely efforts are necessary to manage metabolic syndrome in the workplace.

  8. Violence against Chinese female sex workers in Hong Kong: from understanding to prevention.

    PubMed

    Li, Jessica C M

    2013-05-01

    Violence against sex workers is considered a global phenomenon. Despite this, very little is known about the patterns and nature of this form of violence. This article is concerned with violence against Chinese female sex workers in Hong Kong. Based on a systematic analysis of 75 police case files, it was found that violent attacks on sex workers display clear temporal and spatial patterns, and that perpetrators share certain characteristics. The article concludes that violence against female sex workers in the Chinese context is largely opportunity driven and goes on to argue that situational measures offer the greatest potential for preventive gains. Barriers to effective implementation such as the inappropriate or unfavourable responses of the government, the police, community leaders, and local residents toward commercial sexual activity are also discussed.

  9. Shift Work Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Young Female Korean Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Background Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. Methods A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20–40 years enrolled in the 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.3% and 7.1% among male and female shift workers, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in female workers (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 5.70). Conclusion Shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in young women. Timely efforts are necessary to manage metabolic syndrome in the workplace. PMID:28360979

  10. Perspectives on condom breakage: a qualitative study of female sex workers in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Gurav, Kaveri; Bradley, Janet; Chandrashekhar Gowda, G; Alary, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to obtain a detailed understanding of two key determinants of condom breakage - 'rough sex' and poor condom fit - identified in a recent telephone survey of female sex workers, in Bangalore, India. Transcripts from six focus-group discussions involving 35 female sex workers who reported condom breakage during the telephone survey were analysed. Rough sex in different forms, from over-exuberance to violence, was often described by sex workers as a result of clients' inebriation and use of sexual stimulants, which, they report, cause tumescence, excessive thrusting and sex that lasts longer than usual, thereby increasing the risk of condom breakage. Condom breakage in this setting is the result of a complex set of social situations involving client behaviours and power dynamics that has the potential to put the health and personal lives of sex workers at risk. These findings and their implications for programme development are discussed.

  11. Reproductive Outcomes Among Male and Female Workers at an Aluminum Smelter

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Carine J.; Taiwo, Oyebode A.; Galusha, Deron H.; Slade, Martin D.; Fiellin, Martha G.; Bayer, Felicia; Savitz, David A.; Cullen, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Several adverse pregnancy outcomes were reported among female laboratory workers in a North American aluminum smelter. To determine whether these outcomes were associated with any occupational exposure at the plant, a cross sectional survey was undertaken. Methods Rates of miscarriage, premature singleton birth, and major congenital anomaly occurring during employment were compared to a reference group comprised of all pregnancies that occurred prior to employment. Results Among female workers, the excess of congenital anomalies among female laboratory workers that defined the initial cluster was observed, but no specific pattern was found. Conclusions Based on these analyses, the increase in congenital anomalies could not be attributed to occupational exposures at the smelter, nor could potential exposure likely explain the diverse anomalies described. PMID:20134342

  12. Injecting Drug Use Among Mexican Female Sex Workers on the US-Mexico Border.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo

    2015-01-01

    Both injecting drug users (IDU) and sex workers are at great risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. Therefore, IDU sex workers could be at especially high risk. The recent increase of HIV infection in Mexico has caused increased attention to sex work. We identify the correlates of injecting drug use including socio-demographic, work history, and sexual and non-injecting drug use risk behaviors among Mexican female sex workers. There is a high risk profile for IDUs compared to never injectors including a high prevalence of lifetime STI infection (54.2%). Revealed is an environment composed of high-risk networks that may have serious binational public health implications.

  13. Noise levels and hearing ability of female workers in a textile factory in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A L; Nguyen, T C; Van, T L; Hoang, M H; Nguyen, S; Jonai, H; Villanueva, M B; Matsuda, S; Sotoyama, M; Sudo, A

    1998-01-01

    Noise and hearing ability profiles were determined in a textile factory in Vietnam. Noise mapping done in the weaving section showed that the noise levels exceeded the Vietnamese standard of 90 dBA by as much as 9 dBA in some areas. Audiometric tests performed on 69 female workers from the weaving section revealed that workers with more than 10 years of noise exposure had the worst hearing threshold levels at 1,000 and 4,000 Hz. Similar findings were observed for workers greater than 35 years old. The 4,000 Hz notch, suggestive of exposure to intense noise, was noted in the audiograms of 26 subjects.

  14. The health of female sex workers from three industry sectors in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Seib, Charrlotte; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have reported poor mental health amongst sex workers without distinguishing the context in which commercial sex is provided. This study describes the self-reported mental and physical health of female sex workers in three industry sectors in Queensland, Australia. In 2003, cross-sectional convenience sampling was used to collect data from 247 female sex workers working in licensed brothels (n=102), as private sole operators (n=103) and illegally (n=42). The average age was 32 years (range 18-57), with most participants being born either in Australia or New Zealand. Overall, there were few differences in the physical health of women from different industry sectors. Illegal (and predominantly street-based) sex workers were four times more likely to report poor mental health with some of this difference attributable to the particular social background of this group. Much of the increased levels of poor mental health among illegal sex workers were associated with more negative experiences before, and subsequent to entering the sex industry. These patterns were not seen among women from the legal industry sectors. This research suggests that illegal, street-based sex workers, from whom many previous results have been derived, may show patterns of disadvantage, and health outcomes not seen in sex workers from other industry sectors.

  15. The spatial variation in unemployment and labour force participation rates of male and female workers.

    PubMed

    Lillydahl, J H; Singell, L D

    1985-10-01

    This paper uses 1980 US census tract data from Boston, Denver, Pittsburgh, Seattle, and St. Louis to examine spatial variation between male and female unemployment and labor force participation. Research shows that families and individuals with characteristics making them more prone to unemployment tend to live in central cities. Suburban workers living far from the city's center may also have higher unemployment rates due to higher job search and commuting costs. Female workers differ from male workers by earning less money, working fewer hours, and often, by valuing their travel time to work more highly. This study's variables include age, race, education, language, past migration experience, and occupation. In all of the unemployment equations, the percentage of black and education variables are highly significant. Distance variables are not significant in the overall unemployment equation, but distance is highly significant and positive in the female model: Women's unemployment rates are low for the central city and relatively high for suburban census tracts. Male unemployment is high in the central city, low in the suburbs, and becomes higher again at 10 miles distance from the center. The authors believe that job related information decreases as the worker moves farther from the central city. Labor force participation equations also show significant distance to have a detrimental effect on female participation but a positive effect on male participation. Demanding home roles may constrain womens' job choices; women are twice as likely as men to indicate self-imposed job location and work hour limitations. This paper's results suggest that unemployment reduction tactics such as improving transportation will affect male workers more than female workers, and may affect men and women differently. Continued research needs to consider the enormous increase in female labor force participation and develop economic theories appropriate for 2-earner households.

  16. Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies, and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  17. Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered.

  18. Factors related to condom use among four groups of female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ford, K; Wirawan, D N; Fajans, P

    1998-02-01

    This article tests a behavioral model of condom use for four groups of female commercial sex workers. Data were drawn from a study of 614 female sex workers conducted in Bali, Indonesia. AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, and factors related to condom use varied substantially among the four groups of women and reflect the social context of their work. Interventions for each group need to reflect these differences. Important factors to consider include the level of AIDS and STD knowledge in their environment, the characteristics of the clients served, and the degree of supervision that they receive.

  19. Prevalence of HIV Among U.S. Female Sex Workers: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Meredith; Salo, Kathryn; Tregear, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Although female sex workers are known to be vulnerable to HIV infection, little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among this high-risk population in the United States. We systematically identified and critically assessed published studies reporting HIV prevalence among female sex workers in the United States. We searched for and included original English-language articles reporting data on the prevalence of HIV as determined by testing at least 50 females who exchanged sexual practices for money or drugs. We did not apply any restrictions on date of publication. We included 14 studies from 1987 to 2013 that reported HIV prevalence for a total of 3975 adult female sex workers. Only two of the 14 studies were conducted in the last 10 years. The pooled estimate of HIV prevalence was 17.3 % (95 % CI 13.5–21.9 %); however, the prevalence of HIV across individual studies varied considerably (ranging from 0.3 to 32 %) and statistical heterogeneity was substantial (I2 = 0.89, Q = 123; p < 0.001). Although the variance across the 14 studies was high, prevalence was generally high (10 % or greater in 11 of the 14 included studies). Very few studies have documented the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers in the United States; however, the available evidence does suggest that HIV prevalence among this vulnerable population is high. PMID:26914165

  20. Prevalence of HIV Among U.S. Female Sex Workers: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Noble, Meredith; Salo, Kathryn; Tregear, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    Although female sex workers are known to be vulnerable to HIV infection, little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among this high-risk population in the United States. We systematically identified and critically assessed published studies reporting HIV prevalence among female sex workers in the United States. We searched for and included original English-language articles reporting data on the prevalence of HIV as determined by testing at least 50 females who exchanged sexual practices for money or drugs. We did not apply any restrictions on date of publication. We included 14 studies from 1987 to 2013 that reported HIV prevalence for a total of 3975 adult female sex workers. Only two of the 14 studies were conducted in the last 10 years. The pooled estimate of HIV prevalence was 17.3 % (95 % CI 13.5-21.9 %); however, the prevalence of HIV across individual studies varied considerably (ranging from 0.3 to 32 %) and statistical heterogeneity was substantial (I(2) = 0.89, Q = 123; p < 0.001). Although the variance across the 14 studies was high, prevalence was generally high (10 % or greater in 11 of the 14 included studies). Very few studies have documented the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers in the United States; however, the available evidence does suggest that HIV prevalence among this vulnerable population is high.

  1. Contribution of individual, workplace, psychosocial and physiological factors to neck pain in female office workers.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Venerina; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Jull, Gwendolen; Souvlis, Tina

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of individual, workplace, psychosocial and physiological features associated with neck pain in female office workers towards developing appropriate intervention programs. Workers without disability (Neck Disability Index (NDI) score < or = 8, n=33); workers with neck pain and disability (NDI > or = 9/100, n=52) and 22 controls (women who did not work and without neck pain) participated in this study. Two logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between various measures in (1) workers with and without disability, and (2) workers without disability and controls. Measures included those found to be significantly associated with higher NDI in our previous studies: psychosocial domains; individual factors; task demands; quantitative sensory measures and measures of motor function. In the final model, higher score on negative affectivity scale (OR=4.47), greater activity in the neck flexors during cranio-cervical flexion (OR=1.44), cold hyperalgesia (OR=1.27) and longer duration of symptoms (OR=1.19) remained significantly associated with neck pain in workers. Workers without disability and controls could only be differentiated by greater muscle activity in the cervical flexors and extensors during a typing task. No psychosocial domains remained in either regression model. These results suggest that impairments in the sensory and motor system should be considered in any assessment of the office worker with neck pain and may have stronger influences on the presenting symptoms than workplace and psychosocial features.

  2. Work-related disorders of the upper limb in female workers using orbital sanders.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, Massimo; Della Vedova, Anna; Nataletti, Pietro; Alessandrini, Barbara; Poian, Tullio

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb in a group of female workers performing either mechanical or hand sanding in the furniture industry (n=100) and in a control group of female office workers (n=100). A further aim was to study the possible adverse effects of exposure to a combination of vibration and ergonomic risk factors in female workers. All female workers underwent a medical interview and a complete physical investigation. The clinical diagnoses of Raynaud's phenomenon and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were made according to international consensus criteria. Hand-transmitted vibration from orbital sanders was measured according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommendations. Daily vibration exposure was assessed in terms of 8-h energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration [A(8)] according to the European Directive on physical agents. Ergonomic load on the upper limbs was estimated by means of strain index methodology. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon between the furniture workers (4%) and the controls (8%). The prevalence of CTS, peripheral sensorineural disturbances (after exclusion of CTS cases) and upper-limb musculoskeletal complaints was significantly greater in the furniture workers than in the controls. CTS was clinically diagnosed in 19% of the furniture workers and 8% of the controls. A log-binomial regression analysis showed that the occurrence of soft-tissue disorders of the upper limb increased significantly with the increase of both daily vibration exposure and the strain index score. It was estimated that the risk for CTS increased by a factor of 1.30 (95% CI 1.11-1.53) for each unit of increase in A(8) (ms(-2)), and by 1.09 (95% CI 1.02-1.15) for each unit of increase in the strain index score. Even though the cross-sectional design of this epidemiological study does not allow aetiological considerations

  3. Tremor in workers with low exposure to metallic mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Verberk, M.M.; Salle, H.J.A.; Kemper, C.H.

    1986-09-01

    In a fluorescent lamp production factory, a newly developed lightweight balance-tremormeter was used to measure postural tremor of the finger in 21 workers (ages 28 to 61) exposed for 0.5-19 yr to metallic mercury. In addition, tremor was measured in an indirect way by means of a hole-tremormeter. The excretion of mercury in urine was 9-53 (average 20) ..mu..mol/mol creatinine. With increasing mercury excretion, the following parameters increased: the acceleration of the tremor, the contribution of the neuromuscular component (8-12 Hz) to the power spectrum of the acceleration, the width of the power-spectrum and the score on the hole-tremormeter. The study indicates that exposure to metallic mercury below the current TLV (50 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/) may increase the tremor of the finger.

  4. Is radiation protection for the unborn child guaranteed by radiation protection for female workers?

    PubMed

    Nosske, D; Karcher, K

    2003-01-01

    ICRP Publication 88 recommends doses to the embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother for various intake scenarios. Mainly by answering the question 'Is radiation protection for the unborn child guaranteed by radiation protection for female workers?' it has been assessed if the intake scenarios given in ICRP Publication 88 are adequate for radiation protection purposes. This is generally the case, but the consideration of an additional chronic intake scenario for early pregnancy would be helpful. It is demonstrated that following chronic intake by inhalation, for most radionuclides radiation protection for (female) workers is also adequate for protection of the unborn child, considered as a member of the public. However, there are a number of radionuclides for which possible intakes in routine operations should be more restricted (up to 1% of the annual limits on intake for workers in the case of nickel isotopes) to ensure radiation protection for the unborn child.

  5. [Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in female workers of hotels].

    PubMed

    Fontana, L; Falconi, G; Di Martino, T; Iavicoli, I

    2007-01-01

    The International Continence Society defines urinary incontinence (UI) as "a condition in which involuntary loss of urine is a social or hygienic problem and is objectively demonstrable". There are three different jorms of UI. stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence and mixed incontinence. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of UI in a group of female workers in the hotel sector. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence short form (ICIQ-UI Short Form) was administered to all female workers and data were collected about age, body mass index, number of vaginal and Caesarean delivery. Results showed a prevalence of UI widely bigger in the plans waitress than in video display terminal workers and suggest the hypothesis that manual handling of loads representing a possible occupational risk for UI.

  6. Cost of Health Education to Increase STD Awareness in Female Garment Workers in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rianon, Nahid; Selwyn, Beatrice; Shahidullah, S. M.; Swint, J. Michael; Franzini, Luisa; Rasu, Rafia

    2009-01-01

    Risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the need for health education in the female garment workers in Bangladesh have been emphasized in the past. Interventions were more acceptable when considered cost-effective. This preliminary study reported on the cost-effectiveness of a health education program that successfully improved knowledge…

  7. Female laundry and dry cleaning workers in Wisconsin: a mortality analysis.

    PubMed

    Katz, R M; Jowett, D

    1981-03-01

    The mortality patterns of 671 female laundry and dry cleaning workers for the period 1963--1977 were analyzed, using Wisconsin death certificate data. Results fail to show an overall increase in malignant neoplasms, but elevated risk was found for cancers of the kidney and genitals (unspecified), along with a smaller excess of bladder and skin cancer and lymphosarcoma.

  8. Factors associated with violence against female sex workers in ten Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    Lima, Francisca Sueli da Silva; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Urdaneta, Margarita; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2017-03-30

    Few studies in Brazil have focused on violence against female sex workers, a theme that has attracted researchers' attention worldwide, especially due to possible associations with HIV. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of violence against female sex workers according to type and perpetrator and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data on 2,523 female sex workers from ten Brazilian cities, and with the respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Prevalence of verbal violence was 59.5%, physical violence 38.1%, sexual violence 37.8%, intimate partner physical violence 25.2%, and violence by clients 11.7%. Factors associated with physical violence were age < 30 years (aOR = 2.27; 95%CI: 1.56-3.29), drug use (aOR = 2.02; 95%CI: 1.54-2.65), and price of trick ≤ BRL 29.00 or USD 9.00 (aOR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.07-2.13). In conclusion, Brazilian female sex workers suffer a disproportional burden of violence. The identification of vulnerability factors is essential for interventions to safeguard human rights and control HIV.

  9. The Use of Female Commercial Sex Workers' Services by Latino Day Laborers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day…

  10. Questions related to a research intervention carried out with female and male public school workers.

    PubMed

    Brito, Jussara; Neves, Mary Yale; Athayde, Milton

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a health intervention-research project done with workers in Brazilian public schools. Health, as we understand it, is linked both to the way in which we live and to our capacity to change that way of life. We emphasize the critical importance of initiating dialogue between research professionals and workers (co-investigators) in order to understand and transform work situations. We highlight the effects of debates about gender relations that led to work transformations. Such debates made it easier for workers and researchers to understand that men and women experience job requirements differently. We found that some staff favored reproduction of a sexually differentiated school system. These debates also allowed male and female workers to make their family members aware of difficulties in their work, unknown to society in general. We considered how to expand this research process, including examples of how the work was transformed.

  11. Increased standardized incidence ratio of breast cancer in female electronics workers

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Tzu-I; Chen, Pau-Chung; Jyuhn-Hsiarn Lee, Lukas; Lin, Yi-Ping; Hsieh, Gong-Yih; Wang, Jung-Der

    2007-01-01

    Background In 1994, a hazardous waste site, polluted by the dumping of solvents from a former electronics factory, was discovered in Taoyuan, Taiwan. This subsequently emerged as a serious case of contamination through chlorinated hydrocarbons with suspected occupational cancer. The objective of this study was to determine if there was any increased risk of breast cancer among female workers in a 23-year follow-up period. Methods A total of 63,982 female workers were retrospectively recruited from the database of the Bureau of Labor Insurance (BLI) covering the period 1973–1997; the data were then linked with data, up to 2001, from the National Cancer Registry at the Taiwanese Department of Health, from which standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for different types of cancer were calculated as compared to the general population. Results There were a total of 286 cases of breast cancer, and after adjustment for calendar year and age, the SIR was close to 1. When stratified by the year 1974 (the year in which the regulations on solvent use were promulgated), the SIR of the cohort of workers who were first employed prior to 1974 increased to 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.11–1.70). No such trend was discernible for workers employed after 1974. When 10 years of employment was considered, there was a further increase in the SIR for breast cancer, to 1.62. Those workers with breast cancer who were first employed prior to 1974 were employed at a younger age and for a longer period. Previous qualitative studies of interviews with the workers, corroborated by inspection records, showed a short-term high exposure to chlorinated alkanes and alkenes, particularly trichloroethylene before 1974. There were no similar findings on other types of cancer. Conclusion Female workers with exposure to trichloroethylene and/or mixture of solvents, first employed prior to 1974, may have an excess risk of breast cancer. PMID:17559641

  12. Female sex workers' empowerment strategies amid HIV-related socioeconomic vulnerabilities in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Cange, Charles W; LeBreton, Matthew; Saylors, Karen; Billong, Serge; Tamoufe, Ubald; Fokam, Pamella; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that female sex workers use a variety of empowerment strategies to protect one another and their families. This study examines the strategies Cameroonian sex workers employ to do so. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were conducted with 100 sex workers. Coded texts were analysed for recurring themes. Sex workers reported being concerned with physical violence and sexual assault and demands from authorities for bribes to avoid fines and/or imprisonment. Women described strategies such as 'looking out for' each other when faced with security threats. Many reported staying in sex work to provide for their children through education and other circumstances to allow them to lead a better life. Sex worker mothers reported not using condoms when clients offered higher pay, or with intimate partners, even when they understood the risk of HIV transmission to themselves. Concern for their children's quality of life took precedence over HIV-related risks, even when sex workers were the children's primary carers. A sex worker empowerment programme with a focus on family-oriented services could offer an effective and novel approach to increasing coverage of HIV prevention, treatment and care in Cameroon.

  13. Difference between male and female workers lifting the same relative load when palletizing boxes.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, A; Larivière, C; Denis, D; Mecheri, H; Nastasia, I

    2017-04-01

    A few biomechanical studies have contrasted the work techniques of female and male workers during manual material handling (MMH). A recent study showed that female workers differed from males mostly in the strategy they used to lift 15-kg boxes from the ground, especially regarding task duration, knee and back postures and interjoint coordination. However, the lifting technique difference observed in females compared to males was perhaps due to a strength differences. The objective of this study was to test whether female workers would repeat the same lifting technique with a load adjusted to their overall strength (females: 10 kg; males: 15 kg), which can be considered a "relative load" since the overall back strength of females is 2/3 that of males. The task for the participants consisted in transferring boxes from one pallet to another. A dynamic 3D linked segment model was used to estimate the net moments at L5/S1, and different kinematic variables were considered. The results showed that the biomechanics of the lifting techniques used by males and females were similar in terms of task duration and cumulative loading, but different in terms of interjoint coordination pattern. The sequential interjoint coordination pattern previously seen in females with an absolute load (15 kg) was still present with the relative load, suggesting the influence of factors more intrinsically linked to sex. Considering that the female coordination pattern likely stretched posterior passive tissues when lifting boxes from the ground, potentially leading to higher risk of injury, the reason for this sex effect must be identified so that preventive interventions can be proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. HIV/AIDS risk among female sex workers who use crack in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malta, Monica; Monteiro, Simone; Lima, Rosa Maria Jeronymo; Bauken, Suzana; Marco, Aliamar de; Zuim, Gleisse Cristine; Bastos, Francisco Inacio; Singer, Merrill; Strathdee, Steffanie Anne

    2008-10-01

    To understand the social context of female sex workers who use crack and its impact on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors. METHODODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: Qualitative study carried out in Foz do Iguaçu, Southern Brazil, in 2003. Twenty-six in-depth interviews and two focus groups were carried out with female commercial sex workers who frequently use crack. In-depth interviews with health providers, community leaders and public policy managers, as well as field observations were also conducted. Transcript data was entered into Atlas.ti software and grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the data and develop a conceptual model as a result of this study. Female sex workers who use crack had low self-perceived HIV risk in spite of being engaged in risky behaviors (e.g. unprotected sex with multiple partners). Physical and sexual violence among clients, occasional and stable partners was widespread jeopardizing negotiation and consistent condom use. According to health providers, community leaders and public policy managers, several female sex workers who use crack are homeless or live in slums, and rarely have access to health services, voluntary counseling and testing, social support, pre-natal and reproductive care. Female sex workers who use crack experience a plethora of health and social problems, which apparently affect their risks for HIV infection. Low-threshold, user-friendly and gender-tailored interventions should be implemented, in order to increase the access to health and social-support services among this population. Those initiatives might also increase their access to reproductive health in general, and to preventive strategies focusing on HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections.

  15. Influence of the type of work shift in Female Sexual Function Index of healthcare sector female workers.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Peters, Romina; Contreras-García, Yolanda; Manriquez-Vidal, Camilo

    2017-03-01

    To determine the influence of the type of work shift over the sexual function of healthcare sector female workers. Quantitative, cross-sectional and correlation type of study. Universe composed of a high complexity hospital female workers aged between 20 and 64 years old who worked in Day Shifts (DS) and Rotating Shifts (RS). Bio-social-demographic profile of 365 female workers was characterized by means of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v.19.0 Software and univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied. Mann-Whitney's non-parametric test was employed, altogether with Chi Square Test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression with p-value<0.05. 36, 5 years old mean age (10, 65 SD); 43,2% belongs to DS and 56,7% belongs to RS. General FSFI scored 27, 86 points (6, 11 SD), with an mean of 27,47 points (6,82 SD) for DS and 28,16 points (5,51 SD) for the RS. Variables that might affect FSFI in the case of RS were the Health Service Assistant category, with 7, 11 OR; 2, 051-24,622 IC; p=0,002 and chronic disease with 2, 226 OR; 1093-4533 IC; p=0,027. Protective variables for DS, the use of hormonal contraceptive method with 0,322 OR; 0,145-0,713 IC; p=0,005 and non- hormonal contraceptive method with 0,229 OR; 0,09-0,586 IC; p=0,002. There was no significant FSFI difference per shift. A protective factor for DS and two Risk factors for RS were identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological monitoring of cobalt in hard metal factory workers.

    PubMed

    Princivalle, Andrea; Iavicoli, Ivo; Cerpelloni, Marzia; Franceschi, Antonia; Manno, Maurizio; Perbellini, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the cobalt (Co) concentrations in urine along 4 months and their relationship with Co concentrations in blood and haemoglobin (adducts) in 34 workers from a hard metal manufacturing plant where metallic Co and Co oxide were used. Furthermore, the excretion kinetics of Co was investigated and the half-lives of Co in blood, plasma and urine were calculated along 18 days of non-exposure in the same workers. Co was analysed, in all biological samples, by ICP/MS. Wide fluctuations in the urinary Co concentration were observed throughout the work shift and during the work week. A highly significant linear correlation was found between Co concentration (geometrical mean) in urine samples provided each Thursday (end shift) during 16 subsequent weeks and levels of Co-haemoglobin adducts or blood Co concentrations at the end of the same period. The Co elimination kinetics in globin calculated along 18 days without Co exposure was slow, being related to the physiological metabolism of haemoglobin, while in blood, plasma and urine Co half-lives were 12.3, 9.1 and 5.3 days, respectively. Co concentrations in haemoglobin or blood are highly related to the geometrical mean concentration of urinary Co when samples are collected weekly for several subsequent weeks. The biological monitoring of occupational exposure to Co in hard metal facilities provides reliable results by using the Co concentrations in haemoglobin or in whole blood. The urinary findings, though, do not show the same reliability because of their wide daily and weekly fluctuations.

  17. Opportunities for woman-initiated HIV prevention methods among female sex workers in southern China.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Abbott, Maryann; Liao, Susu; Yu, Wang; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Wei, Liu; Jiang, Jingmei

    2007-05-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women's knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China.

  18. Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women’s knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China. PMID:17599276

  19. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-01-01

    Background Manual brick-manufacturing units in India engage a large number of female workers on a daily-wage basis for a period of 8 months per year. There are two groups of female workers in the brickfields: the brick molders and the brick carriers. These brickfields are mostly unorganized, and the workers are exposed to extreme conditions such as very high seasonal heat. The present trend of increasing temperatures, as a result of global warming and climate change, will put an additional burden on them. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace heat exposure on the well-being, physiological load, and productivity of female brickfield workers in India. Design A questionnaire study (n=120), environmental temperature, and weekly work productivity analyses were evaluated for 8 months in the brickfields. Cardiac strain and walking speed (subset, n=40) were also studied and compared in hotter and colder days amongst the female brickfield workers. Results The subjects experience summer for about 5 months with additional heat stress radiating from the brick kiln. The weekly productivity data show a linear decline in productivity with increased maximum air temperature above 34.9°C. The cardiac parameters (peak heart rate (HRp), net cardiac cost (NCC), relative cardiac cost (RCC), and recovery heart rates) were significantly higher on hotter days (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTout) index: 26.9°C to 30.74°C) than on cooler days (WBGTout index: 16.12°C to 19.37°C) for the brick molders; however, this is not the case for the brick carriers. As the brick carriers adapt to hotter days by decreasing their walking speed, their productivity decreases. Conclusion We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every

  20. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.

  1. Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

  2. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Rzymski, Piotr; Tomczyk, Katarzyna; Rzymski, Pawel; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Opala, Tomasz; Wilczak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female reproductive system and description of the possible associations with emission and exposure of heavy metals and impairments of female reproductive system according to current knowledge. The potential health disorders caused by chronic or acute heavy metals toxicity include immunodeficiency, osteoporosis, neurodegeneration and organ failures. Potential linkages of heavy metals concentration found in different human organs and blood with oestrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, endometriosis and spontaneous abortions, as well as pre-term deliveries, stillbirths and hypotrophy, have also been reported. Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  3. Assessment of neck pain and cervical mobility among female computer workers at Hail University.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Walaa S; Hamza, Hayat H; ElSais, Walaa M

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of neck pain among computer workers at Hail University, Saudi Arabia and to compare the cervical range of motion (ROM) of female computer workers suffering from neck pain to the cervical ROM of healthy female computer workers. One hundred and seventy-six female volunteers between 20 and 46 years of age were investigated. Fifty-six of these volunteers were staff members, 22 were administrators and 98 were students. The Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) instrument was used to measure the ROM of the cervical spine. A questionnaire was used to assess participants for the presence of neck pain. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, and the level of significant was set at p < .05 for all statistical tests. There was a high prevalence of neck pain (75%) among computer workers at Hail University, particularly among students. There were significant differences in cervical lateral flexion, rotation to the right side and protraction range between the pain and pain-free groups. Our results demonstrated that cervical ROM measurements, particularly cervical lateral flexion, rotation and protraction, could be useful for predicting changes in head and neck posture after long-term computer work.

  4. Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Malow, Robert M.; Santos, Nina C.; Morisky, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36–48) compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14–17) were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent FSWs received more advice from their managers to convince clients to use condoms or else to refuse sex, compared to older FSWs. Both adolescent and the oldest FSWs had elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and inconsistent condom use compared to other groups. Having a condom rule at the establishment was positively associated with condom negotiation. Factors such as age, the advice managers give to their workers, and the influence of a condom use rule at the establishment need to be considered when delivering HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:22848800

  5. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female sex workers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Martin; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Weiss, Helen; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of Kampala city. We conducted 3 in-depth interviews with 40 female sex workers between 2010 and 2011. Data were analysed thematically, focusing on alcohol use within the context of sex work. Alcohol consumption was very high with only seven women reporting that they did not drink. Alcohol consumption was driven by the emotional and economic needs of the participants, but also promoted by clients who encouraged consumption. Many sex workers only started drinking alcohol when they joined sex work on the advice of more experienced peers, as a way to cope with the job. Alcohol was blamed for unsafe sex, acts of violence and poor decision making which increased sexual and physical violence. Alcohol was reported to affect medication adherence for HIV-positive women who forgot to take medicine. The findings suggest that the drivers of alcohol consumption are multifaceted in this group and require both individual and structural interventions. Alcohol reduction counselling can be supportive at the individual level and should be an integral part of HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers and others such as patrons in bars. The counselling should be addressed in a sensitive manner to bar owners and managers.

  6. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers.

    PubMed

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun

    2015-10-22

    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  7. Musculoskeletal disorders of female workers and ergonomics problems in five different industries of a developing country.

    PubMed

    Chavalitsakulchai, P; Shahnavaz, H

    1993-06-01

    An ergonomics survey was carried out using interviews based on Standardized Nordic Questionnaires for evaluating musculoskeletal disorders of 1,000 female workers in five different industries in Thailand, viz. garment, fertilizer, pharmaceutical, textile, and cigarette. A checklist used in an ILO study for examining ergonomics problems was used for identifying ergonomics problems. The results show that about 50% of the female workers experienced a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in their lower backs, particularly the textile workers. The musculoskeletal symptoms of each body region were significant in each industry during the last year and the preceding 7 days (p < 0.05). Other ergonomics problems in the survey industries included heavy manual handling, prolonged sitting and standing, awkward work postures, poor machine design and operation, high repetitive and monotonous movements, poor work organization, and unsatisfactory working environments. Based on the results of this survey, it became obvious that ergonomics problems related to occupational health and safety of female workers seem to fall into three categories: (i) poor working practices and workplace programmes without sufficient knowledge of ergonomics principles, (ii) lack of adjustment to local population of imported machinery and equipment and their use, and (iii) lack of appropriate work organization. The findings demonstrate the need and the importance for ergonomics intervention in industrially developing country using low-cost improvements and appropriate training methods. It also indicates that research in ergonomics applications is needed, considering the specific characteristics of the industrially developing country.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha

    2012-01-01

    We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships.

  9. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women’s blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels. PMID:26506366

  10. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Makurat, Jan; Friedrich, Hanna; Kuong, Khov; Wieringa, Frank T.; Chamnan, Chhoun; Krawinkel, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant) at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined). Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Results: Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative) and serum retinol-binding protein (positive) concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed. PMID:27827854

  11. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Makurat, Jan; Friedrich, Hanna; Kuong, Khov; Wieringa, Frank T; Chamnan, Chhoun; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2016-11-02

    Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant) at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined). Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative) and serum retinol-binding protein (positive) concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.

  12. Associations of Multiple Metals with Kidney Outcomes in Lead Workers

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Rebecca; Kim, Nam-Soo; Parsons, Patrick J.; Lee, Byung-Kook; Jaar, Bernard G.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Agnew, Jacqueline; Matanoski, Genevieve; Schwartz, Brian S.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.; Simon, David; Weaver, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Environmental exposure to multiple metals is common. A number of metals cause nephrotoxicity with acute and/or chronic exposure. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined the impact of metal co-exposure on kidney function. Therefore, we evaluated associations of antimony and thallium with kidney outcomes and assessed the impact of cadmium exposure on those associations in lead workers. Methods Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between ln-urine thallium, antimony and cadmium levels with serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based glomerular filtration measures, and ln-urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). Results In 684 participants, median urine thallium and antimony were 0.39 and 0.36 μg/g creatinine, respectively. After adjustment for lead dose, urine creatinine, and kidney risk factors, higher ln-urine thallium was associated with higher serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); associations remained significant after adjustment for antimony and cadmium (regression coefficient for serum creatinine-based eGFR = 5.2 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval = 2.4, 8.0). Antimony associations with kidney outcomes were attenuated by thallium and cadmium adjustment; thallium and antimony associations with NAG were attenuated by cadmium. Conclusions Urine thallium levels were significantly associated with both serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based glomerular filtration measures in a direction opposite that expected with nephrotoxicity. Given similarities to associations recently observed with cadmium, these results suggest that interpretation of urine metal values, at exposure levels currently present in the environment, may be more complex than previously appreciated. These results also support multiple metal analysis approaches to decrease the potential for inaccurate risk conclusions. PMID:22843435

  13. Depression and key associated factors in female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Rael, Christine T; Davis, Alissa

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the mental health of female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic, which impedes HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. This project estimates the prevalence of depression and identifies key contributing factors to this outcome in female sex workers, women living with HIV/AIDS, and a comparison group. Participants were female sex workers (N = 349), women living with HIV/AIDS (N = 213), and a comparison group of HIV-negative women who were not sex workers (N = 314) from the Dominican Republic. Participants completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics and depression. Female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS completed additional questionnaires ascertaining HIV or sex work-related internalized stigma. Depression was prevalent among female sex workers (70.2%), women living with HIV/AIDS (81.1%), and the comparison group (52.2%). Adjusted logistic regressions showed that internalized stigma was associated with depression for female sex workers (OR = 2.73; 95% CI = 1.95-3.84) and women living with HIV/AIDS (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.86-5.05). Permanent income was associated with this outcome for female sex workers (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01-0.80) and the comparison group (OR = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.00-0.45).

  14. Substance Use and HIV Among Female Sex Workers and Female Prisoners: Risk Environments and Implications for Prevention, Treatment, and Policies.

    PubMed

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; West, Brooke S; Reed, Elizabeth; Moazen, Babak; Moazan, Babak; Azim, Tasnim; Dolan, Kate

    2015-06-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and female prisoners experience elevated HIV prevalence relative to the general population because of unprotected sex and unsafe drug use practices, but the antecedents of these behaviors are often structural in nature. We review the literature on HIV risk environments for FSWs and female prisoners, highlighting similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic, and policy/legal environments that need to be understood to optimize HIV prevention, treatment, and policy responses. Sex work venues, mobility, gender norms, stigma, debt, and the laws and policies governing sex work are important influences in the HIV risk environment among FSWs, affecting their exposure to violence and ability to practice safer sex and safer drug use behaviors. Female prisoners are much more likely to have a drug problem than do male prisoners and have higher HIV prevalence, yet are much less likely to have access to HIV prevention and treatment and access to drug treatment in prison. Women who trade sex or are imprisoned and engage in substance use should not be considered in separate silos because sex workers have high rates of incarceration and many female prisoners have a history of sex work. Repeated cycles of arrest, incarceration, and release can be socially and economically destabilizing for women, exacerbating their HIV risk. This dynamic interplay requires a multisectoral approach to HIV prevention and treatment that appreciates and respects that not all women are willing, able, or want to stop sex work or drug use. Women who engage in sex work, use drugs, or are imprisoned come from all communities and deserve sustained access to HIV prevention and treatment for substance use and HIV, helping them and their families to lead healthy and satisfying lives.

  15. Substance Use and HIV Among Female Sex Workers and Female Prisoners: Risk Environments and Implications for Prevention, Treatment, and Policies

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; West, Brooke S.; Reed, Elizabeth; Moazan, Babak; Azim, Tasnim; Dolan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and female prisoners experience elevated HIV prevalence relative to the general population because of unprotected sex and unsafe drug use practices, but the antecedents of these behaviors are often structural in nature. We review the literature on HIV risk environments for FSWs and female prisoners, highlighting similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic, and policy/legal environments that need to be understood to optimize HIV prevention, treatment, and policy responses. Sex work venues, mobility, gender norms, stigma, debt, and the laws and policies governing sex work are important influences in the HIV risk environment among FSWs, affecting their exposure to violence and ability to practice safer sex and safer drug use behaviors. Female prisoners are much more likely to have a drug problem than do male prisoners and have higher HIV prevalence, yet are much less likely to have access to HIV prevention and treatment and access to drug treatment in prison. Women who trade sex or are imprisoned and engage in substance use should not be considered in separate silos because sex workers have high rates of incarceration and many female prisoners have a history of sex work. Repeated cycles of arrest, incarceration, and release can be socially and economically destabilizing for women, exacerbating their HIV risk. This dynamic interplay requires a multisectoral approach to HIV prevention and treatment that appreciates and respects that not all women are willing, able, or want to stop sex work or drug use. Women who engage in sex work, use drugs, or are imprisoned come from all communities and deserve sustained access to HIV prevention and treatment for substance use and HIV, helping them and their families to lead healthy and satisfying lives. PMID:25978477

  16. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.

  17. Pulmonary function of nonsmoking female asbestos workers without radiographic signs of asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.R.; Yano, E.; Nonaka, Koichi; Wang, M.; Wang, Z.

    1998-07-01

    Researchers disagree about whether exposure to asbestos causes significant respiratory impairments and airway obstruction in the absence of radiographic asbestosis and smoking. To obtain confirmatory information, the authors examined pulmonary function of 208 nonsmoking female asbestos workers who did not have asbestosis and 136 controls. The authors observed an overall lower single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in the asbestos workers than in controls. In addition, significant decreases in percentage vital capacity, percentage forced vital capacity, and percentage mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity were evident in the older workers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that asbestos exposure was associated with abnormal single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, vital capacity, and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity among the older workers. The age-related decline in vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity was significantly greater in the asbestos workers than the controls. The findings imply that asbestos-exposure per se contributes predominantly to restricted lung volume and reduced single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Asbestos may also cause slight airway obstruction, especially in workers who are heavily exposed.

  18. [Comparative evaluation of health state in workers of metal mining industry].

    PubMed

    Saarkoppel', L M

    2007-01-01

    The article covers up-to-date state of work conditions, occupational and general morbidity in workers of metal mining enterprises situated in contrast climate regions of Russian Federation. The authors revealed peculiarities of functional state in metal mining workers of Arctic and European Russia.

  19. Cisgender male and transgender female sex workers in South Africa: gender variant identities and narratives of exclusion.

    PubMed

    Samudzi, Zoe; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2016-01-01

    Sex workers are often perceived as possessing 'deviant' identities, contributing to their exclusion from health services. The literature on sex worker identities in relation to health has focused primarily on cisgender female sex workers as the 'carriers of disease', obscuring the experiences of cisgender male and transgender sex workers and the complexities their gender identities bring to understandings of stigma and exclusion. To address this gap, this study draws on 21 interviews with cisgender male and transgender female sex workers receiving services from the Sex Workers Education and Advocacy Taskforce in Cape Town, South Africa. Our findings suggest that the social identities imposed upon sex workers contribute to their exclusion from public, private, discursive and geographic spaces. While many transgender female sex workers described their identities using positive and empowered language, cisgender male sex workers frequently expressed shame and internalised stigma related to identities, which could be described as 'less than masculine'. While many of those interviewed felt empowered by positive identities as transgender women, sex workers and sex worker-advocates, disempowerment and vulnerability were also linked to inappropriately masculinised and feminised identities. Understanding the links between gender identities and social exclusion is crucial to creating effective health interventions for both cisgender men and transgender women in sex work.

  20. Female sex workers and the social context of workplace violence in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Lopez, Vera; Durfee, Alesha; Robillard, Alyssa

    2010-09-01

    Gender-based violence in the workplace impacts the physical and emotional wellbeing of sex workers and may lead to other health problems, such as PTSD and depression, drug abuse, and a greater likelihood of sexually transmitted infections. This study examines the social context of workplace violence and risk avoidance in the context of legal regulations meant to reduce harms associated with the industry. Ethnographic research, including 18 months of extended field observations and interviews with 190 female sex workers, is used to illustrate how sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, experience and manage workplace violence. Multiple subthemes emerge from this analysis, including deciding where to work, working with a third party, avoiding theft, and dealing with police. These findings support the idea that the risk of violence is part of a larger "hierarchy of risk" that can result in a "tradeoff" of harms.

  1. The impact of the work environment on condom use among female bar workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Morisky, Donald E; Peña, Melanie; Tiglao, Teodora V; Liu, Kenn Y

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how condom use is affected by specific aspects of the work environment: (1) social-structural and environmental influences and constraints, (2) mandatory condom use policy, and (3) the level of social influence and reinforcement between manager and employee. A total of 1,340 bar workers and 308 nonestablishment freelance workers comprise the study group. In establishments where a condom use policy exists, female bar workers were 2.6 times more likely to consistently use condoms during sexual intercourse compared with establishments that do not have such a policy in place. The results suggest a need for the development of comprehensive educational policies in all entertainment establishments, including regular meetings with employees, reinforcing attendance at the Social Hygiene Clinic, promoting AIDS awareness, making condoms available in the workplace, and mandating 100% condom use behavior among all employees.

  2. Beyond supply: the importance of female family planning workers in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Simmons, R; Baqee, L; Koenig, M A; Phillips, J F

    1988-01-01

    Using participant observation data on worker-client exchanges from Bangladesh, this article examines the interface between a government family planning program and the rural women it serves. Case material focuses first on the program function typically identified in the literature: meeting unmet demand for contraception by providing convenient supply. Functions that have been less recognized are then illustrated: (1) the worker's role in reducing fear of contraceptive technology; (2) her effort to address religious barriers, child mortality risks, and high fertility preferences; and (3) her role in mobilizing male support. The range of functions performed by the female family planning worker in the cases discussed here demonstrates that her role transcends the boundaries of what is conventionally implied by the concept of supply. She acts as an agent of change whose presence helps to shift reproductive decision-making away from passivity, exposing women long secluded by the tradition of purdah to the modern notion of deliberate choice.

  3. Knowledge and views regarding condom use among female garment factory workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Webber, Gail; Edwards, Nancy; Amaratunga, Carol; Graham, Ian D; Keane, Vincent; Ros, Socheat

    2010-05-01

    Cambodia is experiencing a generalized HIV epidemic; there is evidence some populations within Cambodia are particularly vulnerable to infection. A mixed methods study was conducted in 2006 on the vulnerability to contract HIV of rural-to-urban migrant Cambodian garment factory workers. This paper reports the views of these female migrant workers regarding the use of condoms in their sexual relationships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 20 workers about their knowledge and experiences regarding condom use. Both married and single women were knowledgeable about HIV transmission, but there was a spectrum of perspectives about condom use with their current or future partners. Some women insisted partners use condoms, while others did not expect partner compliance, and a third group avoided discussing condom use with their partners. HIV prevention programs should include male partners. For many of these migrant women, interventions focussing on education about HIV transmission and condom negotiation skills are insufficient since implementation requires male cooperation.

  4. Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Tasnim; Chowdhury, Ezazul I; Reza, Masud; Ahmed, Munir; Uddin, Mohammed T; Khan, Repon; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Rahman, Motiur; Khandakar, Irona; Khan, Sharful I; Sack, David A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-01-01

    Background: Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. Methods: All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older) who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers) versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers) were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60%) had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%). Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively), but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively) and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively) in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively), more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively) and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively). Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Conclusion: Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more

  5. Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Azim, Tasnim; Chowdhury, Ezazul I; Reza, Masud; Ahmed, Munir; Uddin, Mohammed T; Khan, Repon; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Rahman, Motiur; Khandakar, Irona; Khan, Sharful I; Sack, David A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-11-17

    Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older) who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers) versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers) were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60%) had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%). Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively), but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively) and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively) in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively), more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively) and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively). Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more comprehensive to address the needs of

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of breast self-examination among female health workers in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Seyed Homamodin; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer as a most common organ cancer in women is the first cause of death among women with 40-45 years old. The only way to control this disease is early detection, that it can be treated in about 90% of women with breast cancer. The best way for early detection of breast cancer is screening, and the best accessible way is breast self-examination (BSE). Considering this fact that female health workers are responsible for improvement of public health, in addition to self-care, they can encourage the clients and help to improve healthy goals. Therefore, this study investigates the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of BS E among female health workers. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done among 119 female health workers in Isfahan, working in healthcare centers. The method of sampling was clustering. KAP of theses participants were assessed with KAP questioner. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics methods. Findings: The mean age of participants was 38/3 ± 7/27. The knowledge about breast cancer and doing B SE was good (79/8%) in most participants and (72/45%) of them have positive attitudes, but only (39/5%) of the samples performed BSE regularly every month. A significant relationship was found between the attitudes and the university degree of the health workers and also between age, university degree, and the times of taking part in education classes with performing BSE in the best time for BSE (P < 0.005). A total of 12/6% of them did not have a good performance. Conclusion: Considering that health workers can play an important role in encouraging the clients to perform healthy and preventive behaviors, their weak behavior is not acceptable in these groups. This result also shows that additional studies are needed to identify the factors that make women using screening services and encourage them for using these methods. PMID:24251282

  7. Exploring the experience of chronic pain among female Survival Sex Workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Caroline; Murphy, Alka; Kiselbach, Sheri; VandenBerg, Stephanie; Wiebe, Ellen

    2015-12-21

    The prevalence of self-identified chronic pain in Canadian adults is approximately one in five people. Marginalization and addictions have been shown to complicate chronic pain in vulnerable populations. This study aimed to understand the experience of chronic pain among female Survival Sex Workers in Vancouver's downtown eastside (DTES). This study used an exploratory qualitative analysis with in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Members of PACE Society who self-identified as a current or former Survival Sex Worker and who had a chronic pain experience known to PACE support workers were invited to participate. Interviews were conducted, audio recorded and transcribed. The investigators met to read the transcripts and discuss emerging themes. The process continued until no new themes were observed. Participants ranged in age from 42 to 56 years old and all self- identified as females and Survival Sex Workers. Eleven of thirteen interviews were analyzed for themes. Drug use for pain management, both prescribed and illicit, was the most important theme. Poverty, the need to continue working and the lack of stable housing were barriers to adequately addressing the source of chronic pain. Participants felt judged for living in the downtown eastside, being a drug user and/or being Aboriginal and only two participants had been referred to a pain specialist. All participants were involved in support networks made up of other Sex Workers and all spoke of a sense of community and survival. Our study emphasizes the complex nature of chronic pain and addictions among a uniquely marginalized population. The study is unique in that it contributes the perspectives of a traditionally "hard-to-reach" population and demonstrates that Sex Workers should not only participate in but should lead development and implementation of research and programs for managing chronic pain in the setting of addiction.

  8. Social influence and individual risk factors of HIV unsafe sex among female entertainment workers in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei; Li, Xiaoming; Latkin, Carl; Celentano, David

    2010-02-01

    Female entertainment workers in China are at increased sexual risk of HIV, but causes of their unprotected sex remain poorly understood. We develop a model that integrates information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) with social influences and test the model in a venue-based sample of 732 female entertainment workers in Shanghai. Most IMB and social influence measures are statistically significant in bivariate relationships to condom use; only HIV prevention motivation and behavioral self-efficacy remain significant in the multiple regressions. Self-efficacy in condom use is the most proximate correlate, mediating the relationship between information and motivation and condom use. Both peer and venue supports are important, but their influences over condom use are indirect and mediated through prevention motivation and/or self-efficacy. Behavioral intervention is urgently needed and should take a multilevel approach, emphasizing behavioral skills training and promoting a supportive social/working environment.

  9. Sampling studies to estimate the HIV prevalence rate in female commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Barbosa Júnior, Aristides

    2010-01-01

    We investigated sampling methods being used to estimate the HIV prevalence rate among female commercial sex workers. The studies were classified according to the adequacy or not of the sample size to estimate HIV prevalence rate and according to the sampling method (probabilistic or convenience). We identified 75 studies that estimated the HIV prevalence rate among female sex workers. Most of the studies employed convenience samples. The sample size was not adequate to estimate HIV prevalence rate in 35 studies. The use of convenience sample limits statistical inference for the whole group. It was observed that there was an increase in the number of published studies since 2005, as well as in the number of studies that used probabilistic samples. This represents a large advance in the monitoring of risk behavior practices and HIV prevalence rate in this group.

  10. Female garment factory workers in Cambodia: migration, sex work and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nishigaya, Kasumi

    2002-01-01

    Female garment factory workers in Cambodia are more exposed to HIV/AIDS than previously thought. Although HIV/AIDS epidemics are fast spreading in Cambodia, relatively little is known about the sexual health of women other than those perceived as commercial sex workers or married women of reproductive age. In-depth interviews with 20 unmarried female garment factory workers, who reported to have engaged in multi-partnered sex through direct or discretionary commercial sex occupations, demonstrate that they are exposed to HIV-risk created along the gradients of power. Low socioeconomic status (low education, meager factory wage and high dependency rate at their rural households) and obligations as daughters to provide for the family mainly determine their entry into sex work. At the location of sex work, they are subjected to physical violence, alcohol and drug use, both self-taken and forced, and receive meager wages. In a society where women are expected to be virtuous and obedient to parents and husbands, these workers are motivated to identify male sex partners in paid sex as "sweethearts" rather than "guests." These factors contribute to low consistency of condom use. This paper demonstrates the complex interrelationships between power, cultural definitions of intimacy and economic dependency, which structure sexual relationships and the risk of HIV/AIDS.

  11. [STI and HIV prevention in female sex workers at border communities in Central America].

    PubMed

    Leyva-Flores, René; Quintino-Pérez, Frida; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Cuadra, Magali; Smith, Dee; García, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    To analyze access to STI and HIV prevention services for female sex workers in border communities of Central America. A quasi-experimental study was carried out in a non-random sample of 558 sex workers, in border communities with and without prevention interventions related to information on human rights, sexual behavior and access to information on prevention/transmission, condoms, HIV testing, contraception, healthcare and condom use. A descriptive analysis of these variables was done and a logistic regression model was used, in order to identify factors associated with condom use. Female sex workers of communities with intervention had greater access to information on prevention (99 vs 87%), condoms (98 vs 75%), HIV testing (89 vs 61%), contraception (74 vs 65%), gynecological services (83 vs 57%), and condom use with clients, 3.9 (IC:1.2-12.7), compared to workers in communities without intervention. The observed differences must be considered in a more general framework related to sociocultural characteristics and population mobility in border contexts, as well as to the organization of healthcare services.

  12. [Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis in female sex workers in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Camejo, María I; Mata, Gloria; Díaz, Marcos

    2003-06-01

    In Venezuela, female sex workers are submitted to a preventive control of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, other very important sexually transmitted infections are not evaluated. A study was carried out to identify the sociocultural background of a group of sex workers and its association with the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C markers, in addition to routine evaluation. A total of 212 female sex workers who attended the control center of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the city of Los Teques, Venezuela, were evaluated. Women were asked their age, educational background, use of contraceptive methods and condoms. Blood was drawn to determine the prevalence of syphilis, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc), hepatitis C (anti-HCV) and HIV. The prevalence of syphilis was 2.4%, seroprevalence of anti-HCV was 0.5%, HBsAg 3.8% and anti-HBc 13.8%. No cases of HIV were observed. Higher prevalence of hepatitis B markers was associated with a lower level of education (p<0.05) and higher age (p<0.05). It was found that 38.5% of participant women never used condoms and 25.6% did not use any contraceptive method. It could be necessary to implement preventive programs to immunize sex workers against hepatitis B virus as well as education programs on condom use for their protection against sexually transmitted infections.

  13. How sex work becomes an option: Experiences of female sex workers in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Foroozanfar, Zohre; Ahmadi, Azal; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Vogel, Joanna; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Sex work is rarely an occupation of choice for Iranian women and is often described as a last resort. While several factors play a role in creating an environment where individuals become involved in sex work, female sex workers' experiences regarding entry into sex work in Iran are poorly understood. In this qualitative study, a convenience sample of 24 participants was recruited from a drop-in centre for vulnerable women in Kerman, Iran. Through in-depth interviews, participants were asked about their personal lived experiences of initiating sex work. Grounded theory was used to analyse findings from this research. We learned that major factors impacting on women's initiation into sex work circulated around their vulnerability and chronic poverty. Participants continued to sell sex due to their limited opportunities, drug dependence and financial needs. Improving sex workers' economic status could be a vital intervention in providing vulnerable women with options other than sex work. Female sex workers should be provided with government support and educational programmes delivered through special centres. Despite the illegal status of their work, sex workers' needs should be recognised across all aspects of policy and legislation.

  14. Resilience and syndemic risk factors among African-American female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Buttram, Mance E; Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Research on street-based female sex workers documents a multitude of problems faced by these women, such as substance use, HIV risk, mental health problems, victimization, and homelessness. The presence of problems such as these is understood as a syndemic, or co-occurrence of two or more risk factors that act synergistically to create an excess burden of disease. However, the syndemic framework has not previously incorporated the examination of resilience to understand what protective factors enable female sex workers to cope with syndemic risk. Using 562 baseline interviews from street-based African-American female sex workers enrolled in a randomized intervention trial, this study is the first to investigate expressions of resilience among this vulnerable population. Specifically, these analyses examine high levels of resilience, as measured by personal mastery, in order to understand the contributions of syndemic risk factors and protective factors on the expression of resilience. In bivariate logistic regression models, women with high resilience reported significantly higher odds of high school education, greater access to transportation, and more social support, in addition to lower odds of foster care history, homelessness, substance dependence, severe mental distress, victimization, and HIV risk. In the multivariate model, higher odds of high school education and increased social support, in addition to lower odds of mental distress and HIV risk remained associated with high resilience. The findings suggest specific targets for intervention to assist female sex workers in coping with syndemic risk factors and achieving better health outcomes. These include the prioritizing of education and training opportunities and the enhancement of social support.

  15. Resilience and Syndemic Risk Factors among African American Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Buttram, Mance E.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Research on street-based female sex workers documents a multitude of problems faced by these women, such as, substance use, HIV risk, mental health problems, victimization, and homelessness. The presence of problems such as these is understood as a syndemic, or co-occurrence of two or more risk factors that act synergistically to create an excess burden of disease. However, the syndemic framework has not previously incorporated the examination of resilience to understand what protective factors enable female sex workers to cope with syndemic risk. Using 562 baseline interviews from street-based African American female sex workers enrolled in a randomized intervention trial, this study is the first to investigate expressions of resilience among this vulnerable population. Specifically, these analyses examine high levels of resilience, as measured by personal mastery, in order to understand the contributions of syndemic risk factors and protective factors on the expression of resilience. In bivariate logistic regression models, women with high resilience reported significantly higher odds of high school education, greater access to transportation, and more social support, in addition to lower odds of foster care history, homelessness, substance dependence, severe mental distress, victimization, and HIV risk. In the multivariate model, higher odds of high school education and increased social support, in addition to lower odds of mental distress and HIV risk remained associated with high resilience. The findings suggest specific targets for intervention to assist female sex workers in coping syndemic risk factors and achieving better health outcomes. These include the prioritizing education and training opportunities and the enhancement of social support. PMID:23905671

  16. [HTLV-I/II seroprevalence in Gay men and female sex workers on Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    de Batänjer, E C; de Pérez, G E

    1998-01-01

    In attention to the important HIV-1 seroprevalence observed in Margarita Island, we carried out this study to establish HTLV-I/II seroprevalence into target groups for sexual transmission. Therefore the survey was done with 141 female sex workers and 40 Gay men between 1994 and 1997. We found HTLV-I infection in one man. This is the first known report to describe epidemiological features of HTLV-I/II infection in Margarita Island.

  17. Suicidal Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Goa, India: The Silent Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Wayal, Sonali; Cowan, Frances; Mabey, David; Copas, Andrew; Patel, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to study suicidal behavior prevalence and its association with social and gender disadvantage, sex work, and health factors among female sex workers in Goa, India. Methods. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 326 sex workers in Goa for an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding self-harming behaviors, sociodemographics, sex work, gender disadvantage, and health. Participants were tested for sexually transmitted infections. We used multivariate analysis to define suicide attempt determinants. Results. Nineteen percent of sex workers in the sample reported attempted suicide in the past 3 months. Attempts were independently associated with intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38, 5.28), violence from others (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.15, 4.45), entrapment (AOR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.11, 6.83), regular customers (AOR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.61, 6.35), and worsening mental health (AOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.11). Lower suicide attempt likelihood was associated with Kannad ethnicity, HIV prevention services, and having a child. Conclusions. Suicidal behaviors among sex workers were common and associated with gender disadvantage and poor mental health. India's widespread HIV-prevention programs for sex workers provide an opportunity for community-based interventions against gender-based violence and for mental health services delivery. PMID:19443819

  18. Criminalization, legalization or decriminalization of sex work: what female sex workers say in San Francisco, USA.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah

    2009-11-01

    Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization.

  19. Suicidal behavior among female sex workers in Goa, India: the silent epidemic.

    PubMed

    Shahmanesh, Maryam; Wayal, Sonali; Cowan, Frances; Mabey, David; Copas, Andrew; Patel, Vikram

    2009-07-01

    We sought to study suicidal behavior prevalence and its association with social and gender disadvantage, sex work, and health factors among female sex workers in Goa, India. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 326 sex workers in Goa for an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding self-harming behaviors, sociodemographics, sex work, gender disadvantage, and health. Participants were tested for sexually transmitted infections. We used multivariate analysis to define suicide attempt determinants. Nineteen percent of sex workers in the sample reported attempted suicide in the past 3 months. Attempts were independently associated with intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38, 5.28), violence from others (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.15, 4.45), entrapment (AOR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.11, 6.83), regular customers (AOR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.61, 6.35), and worsening mental health (AOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.11). Lower suicide attempt likelihood was associated with Kannad ethnicity, HIV prevention services, and having a child. Suicidal behaviors among sex workers were common and associated with gender disadvantage and poor mental health. India's widespread HIV-prevention programs for sex workers provide an opportunity for community-based interventions against gender-based violence and for mental health services delivery.

  20. Stigma and sex work from the perspective of female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor; Bingham, Amie

    2011-01-01

    While the stigma surrounding sex work is both well documented and easily recognised, few studies examine stigma in this context from the perspective of the sex workers themselves. In this article we report on a study using a modified grounded theory approach to analyse a series of semi-structured interviews with 49 female sex workers in Hong Kong, in order to examine the ways in which this group experiences and negotiates the stigma which arises from their employment in the sex industry. Sex workers in Hong Kong were subject to various stigmatising forces in their daily lives in their interactions with the public, the police and their families. These processes could have a negative impact on the sex workers' health, both through obvious manifestations such as physical or verbal abuse and through more subtle processes such as those which generated or perpetuated vulnerability and those which compelled the sex workers to conceal their identities and withdraw themselves from social networks. These findings are situated in the context of broader research surrounding sex work, drawing attention to the consequences of stigma on health and their interaction with health-service providers, before briefly discussing possible means of overcoming stigma-related barriers to providing adequate healthcare for this marginalised group.

  1. Acceptability of a microenterprise intervention among female sex workers in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Susan G; Srikrishnan, A K; Rivett, Katharine A; Liu, Su-Hsun; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2010-06-01

    Female sex workers have been central in India's HIV epidemic since it was first diagnosed among them in 1989. Female sex workers' risk of HIV is primarily economically motivated. The Pi pilot study examined the feasibility and association of a microenterprise intervention, the tailoring of canvas bags, on sexual risk behaviors among female sex workers (N = 100) in Chennai. Women were randomized to an intervention or control arm. Between-group comparisons at baseline and at six-month follow-up were performed. Multivariate linear regression with bootstrapping was conducted to estimate the intervention effect. At baseline, women were a median of 35 years old, 61% were married and they had an average of two children. Intervention participants reported a significantly lower number of sex partners and significant increases in income at the 6-month follow-up compared to control participants. In a multivariate model, intervention participants had a significantly lower number of paying clients per month at follow-up compared to control participants. By graduation, 75% of intervention arm participants had made at least one sellable canvas bag and 6 months after the study's end, 60% have continued involvement in bag production. The pilot study demonstrated that microenterprise interventions are successful in both providing FSWs with licit income opportunities and was associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviors.

  2. Mind over matter: exploring job stress among female blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; Tucker, Pattie J; Liburd, Leandris

    2006-12-01

    Although overall health has been defined holistically as the integration of a person's optimal mental, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual well-being, a mental health focus remains on the fringe of many public health efforts. This report describes recent efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to explore job stress among female blue-collar workers. Using a more holistic approach to understand its impact on blue-collar women's overall health, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was used to assess optimal human performance. Attempting to encapsulate how overall health affects one's ability to participate and fulfill daily personal/professional tasks, HRQOL yields a broader understanding of the interaction between psychological well-being (mind) and physical functioning (matter). Embedding CDC HRQOL-4 measures into a questionnaire used as part of a larger mixed methods project, blue-collar women responded to questions about their health, including both mental and physical. For these female workers, mental health appeared to be of greater consequence, which could be interpreted as mind being more significant than matter. This paper highlights the findings related to HRQOL issues experienced by these female blue-collar workers and summarizes recommendations for effective individual and organizational approaches to address job stress.

  3. Metal worker's lung: spatial association with Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed

    James, Phillip L; Cannon, Julie; Barber, Christopher M; Crawford, Laura; Hughes, Heather; Jones, Meinir; Szram, Joanna; Cowman, Steven; Cookson, William O C; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cullinan, Paul

    2017-08-29

    Outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) are not uncommon in workplaces where metal working fluid (MWF) is used to facilitate metal turning. Inhalation of microbe-contaminated MWF has been assumed to be the cause, but previous investigations have failed to establish a spatial relationship between a contaminated source and an outbreak. After an outbreak of five cases of HP in a UK factory, we carried out blinded, molecular-based microbiological investigation of MWF samples in order to identify potential links between specific microbial taxa and machines in the outbreak zone. Custom-quantitative PCR assays, microscopy and phylogenetic analyses were performed on blinded MWF samples to quantify microbial burden and identify potential aetiological agents of HP in metal workers. MWF from machines fed by a central sump, but not those with an isolated supply, was contaminated by mycobacteria. The factory sump and a single linked machine at the centre of the outbreak zone, known to be the workstation of the index cases, had very high levels of detectable organisms. Phylogenetic placement of mycobacterial taxonomic marker genes generated from these samples indicated that the contaminating organisms were closely related to Mycobacterium avium. We describe, for the first time, a close spatial relationship between the abundance of a mycobacterium-like organism, most probably M. avium, and a localised outbreak of MWF-associated HP. The further development of sequence-based analytic techniques should assist in the prevention of this important occupational disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. High Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Arreola-Cháidez, Emilio; López, Juan; Salcido-Meraz, Karla Itzel; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Navarrete-Flores, José Antonio; Pérez-Álamos, Alma Rosa; Hernández-Ochoa, Marcia; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Through an age- and sex-matched case-control study, we sought to determine whether female sex workers have an increased risk of Toxoplasma gondii exposure and to determine the sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these workers associated with T. gondii exposure. Female workers (n = 136) and controls (n = 272) were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. IgM positive sera were additionally tested with enzyme linked-fluorescence immunoassay (ELFA). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 21 (15.44%) of 136 cases and in 10 (3.67%) of 272 controls (OR = 4.05; 95% CI: 1.84–8.89; P = 0.0001). Anti-T. gondii IgG levels higher than 150 IU/ml were found in 13 (9.6%) of 136 cases and in 8 (2.9%) of 272 controls (P = 0.007). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in two cases and in six controls by EIA, but all were negative by ELFA. T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 10.47; 95% CI: 2.9–36.8; P < 0.01), injuries during sex work (OR = 6.30; 95% CI: 1.1–33.7; P = 0.03), and soil contact (OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 1.2–14.0; P = 0.02). This is the first report of an association of T. gondii infection and female sex workers. PMID:26716017

  5. Prevalence of upper limb musculo skeletal disorders among brass metal workers in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Ghosh, Tirthankar; DAS, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam; DAS, Bani Brata

    2007-04-01

    Brass metal work is one of the oldest cottage industries in West Bengal, India. Workers performing rigorous hand intensive jobs are likely to suffer from MSD affecting the upper limbs. The present investigation was intended to establish the prevalence of upper limb MSD among the brass metal workers and to identify the causative factors behind its development. In this study, 50 male brass metal workers (Experimental Group) and 50 male office workers (Comparison Group) were selected. For the symptom survey, a questionnaire on discomfort symptoms was performed. Repetitiveness of work and Hand Grip Strength of both the groups were measured. It was revealed that upper limb MSD was a major problem among brass metal workers, primarily involving the hand, wrist, fingers and shoulder. Among the workers reporting subjective discomfort, most of them felt pain, followed by tingling and numbness in their hands. Many complained of swelling, warmth and tenderness in their wrists. Their activities were highly repetitive and the handgrip strength of these workers was significantly less than that of the comparison group. Based on these findings, it appears that high repetitiveness, prolonged work activity (10.5 h of work per day with 8.4 h spent on hammering) and decreased handgrip strength may be causative factors in the occurrence of upper limb MSD among brass metal workers in West Bengal, India.

  6. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and associated factors: A cross-sectional study of metal workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Akter, Shamima; Maruf, Md Zia Uddin; Chowdhury, Suman Kanti

    2015-01-01

    There is a scarcity of evidence regarding musculoskeletal symptoms prevalence among metal workers at different worksites in Bangladesh. To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and associated factors among metal workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was performed in 5 out of 12 randomly selected metal tools manufacturing factories in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 60 eligible participants (45 male and 15 female) were asked to complete the short Bengali version of the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. In addition, observations within the workplace were performed using a predesigned checklist for identifying ergonomic risk factors. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms during the last 12 months preceding data collection was reportedly 85%. Body regions reported to be most affected were upper back and lower back, then the wrist. Socio-demographic factors were not found to be significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms. In contrast, awkward posture and repetitive movement were significantly related to reports of musculoskeletal symptoms for the last 12 months preceding data collection. Results conclude that there is a high reported prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among metal workers, calling for an action on prevention and promotion in the work environment.

  7. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary impairment in male and female subjects with pottery workers' silicosis.

    PubMed

    Prowse, K; Allen, M B; Bradbury, S P

    1989-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, lung function and radiological category of silicosis were assessed in 276 present and former pottery workers who were receiving industrial disablement benefit for silicosis. There were 140 females and 136 males. The proportion with conglomerate disease (massive fibrosis) was similar in both sexes. The FEV1 declined with increasing X-ray category of silicosis irrespective of smoking habit and was most marked in subjects with symptomatic chronic bronchitis. In females who had never smoked the average decline of FEV1 in those with simple silicosis was 18 ml year-1 and for those with conglomerate disease 38 ml year-1. Symptomatic chronic bronchitis was common and only partly related to smoking, occurring in 69% of 101 nonsmoking female silicotic patients. No significant changes were observed in vital capacity, lung volume or transfer factor for carbon monoxide.

  8. From the Kitchen to the Bedroom: Frequency Rates and Consequences of Sexual Harassment among Female Domestic Workers in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder

    2009-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…

  9. "One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor; Chan, Emily Y; Griffiths, Sian; Bingham, Amie

    2008-12-12

    Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health. These risks can best be understood

  10. "One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William CW; Holroyd, Eleanor; Chan, Emily Y; Griffiths, Sian; Bingham, Amie

    2008-01-01

    Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health

  11. [Prevalence of breast and gynecological diseases in female workers in the administrative office and workshop of an automobile part factory].

    PubMed

    Bai, L X; Yang, L; Duan, D P; Xu, X Y; Li, Z; Liu, Y M

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of breast and gynecological diseases in female workers in the administrative office and workshop of an automobile part factory, and to provide a basis for promoting the health of female workers. Methods: In March 2015, color ultrasound examination of the breast, uterus, and bilateral adnexa was performed for all female workers, and routine gynecological examination, routine leucorrhea examination, and thinprep liquid-based cytology test were performed for married female workers. The detection rates of breast and gynecological diseases in female workers in the administrative office and workshop were analyzed. Results: In the 314 female workers, the overall detection rate of breast and gynecological diseases was 86.31%; the detection rate of abnormal breast ultrasound results was 72.93%, mainly breast hyperplasia; the detection rate of abnormal gynecological ultrasound results was 12.14%, mainly hysteromyoma, pelvic effusion, and uterus-rectum fossa effusion. The overall detection rate of cervicitis or vaginitis in married female workers was 66.86%. The univariate analysis showed that compared with those in the administrative office, the female workers in the workshop had significantly higher detection rates of breast hyperplasia and grade 2 breast lesions on the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and significantly lower detection rates of hysteromyoma and grade 3 breast lesions on the BI-RADS (all P <0.05) . The multivariate analysis showed that age was a risk factor for hysteromyoma (OR=1.261) , age and working in the workshop were risk factors for breast hyperplasia (OR=1.065 and 1.834) , married status was a protective factor against breast hyperplasia and grade 2 breast lesions on the BI-RADS (OR=0.334 and 0.450) , and working in workshop was a risk factor for grade 2 breast lesions on the BI-RADS (OR=1.890) and a protective factor against grade 3 breast lesions on the BI-RADS (OR=0.355) . Conclusion

  12. Psychosocial Factors and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Southeastern Asian Female Workers Living in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyunmi; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung; Moon, Sun Hye

    2011-01-01

    Objectives A rapid increase in the population of migrant workers in Korea has brought new challenges regarding the possible effects of acculturation on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. A translated, structured questionnaire was administrated to 156 southeastern Asian female full-time workers living in Korea. Results About 35% of the participants experienced some type(s) of work-related musculoskeletal disorder(s), which were more prevalent in Vietnamese women than in Thai and Filipino women. Women who preferred to maintain their own heritage and to reject the host country heritage were at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities. PMID:22953201

  13. Breast cancer screening practices amongst female tertiary health worker in Nnewi.

    PubMed

    Madubogwu, Chimezie Innocent; Egwuonwu, Amobi Ochonma; Madubogwu, Ngozi Ukamaka; Njelita, Ifeoma A

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer in Nigeria and other developing countries is characterized by late presentation and poor outcome due to ignorance, superstition, self-denial, fear of mastectomy, and unavailability of treatment facilities. The mortality of breast cancer in Western world is decreasing due to early detection and better management. This study aims at accessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast cancer screening among female tertiary health workers. A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out using a structured, pretested, self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of breast cancer and screening methods among female health workers. The mean age of respondents was 31.70 ± 7.62 years. The level of awareness of breast cancer screening methods was high: 158 (98.75%), 127 (79.4%), and 144 (90.0%) for breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE), and mammography, respectively. However, only 47 (35.9%), 36 (22.5%), and 3 (1.9%) correctly practiced BSE, CBE, and mammography, respectively. The level of education and occupation showed significant correlations with the knowledge and practice of breast cancer screening methods. Breast cancer screening still needs to be promoted to improve the attitude and practice among both health workers and general population.

  14. Implementation of respondent-driven sampling among female sex workers in Brazil, 2009.

    PubMed

    Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Barbosa Júnior, Aristides

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers are known in Brazil and elsewhere in the world as one of the most-at-risk populations for risk of HIV infection, due to their social vulnerability and factors related to their work. However, the use of conventional sampling strategies in studies on most-at-risk subgroups for HIV is generally problematic, since such subgroups are small in size and are associated with stigmatized behaviors and/or illegal activities. In 1997, a probabilistic sampling technique was proposed for hard-to-reach populations, called Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS). The method is considered a variant of chain sampling and allows the statistical estimation of target variables. This article describes some assumptions of RDS and all the implementation stages in a study of 2,523 female sex workers in 10 Brazilian cities. RDS proved appropriate for recruiting sex workers, allowing the selection of a probabilistic sample and the collection of previously missing information on this group in Brazil.

  15. [Psychosocial risk factors and work satisfaction in female seasonal workers in Chile].

    PubMed

    Palomo-Vélez, Gonzalo; Carrasco, Jairo; Bastías, Álvaro; Méndez, María Doris; Jiménez, Andrés

    2015-05-01

    Characterize the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and work satisfaction in female seasonal agricultural workers in central Chile. Cross-sectional study in a non-probability sample of 106 female workers for a fruit trading and export company in the region of Maule, Chile. The interviews were conducted in September and October 2013. The SUSESO ISTA-21 questionnaire was used to evaluate five areas of psychosocial risk in the workplace (psychological requirements, active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, compensation, and "double presence"). Questionnaire S10/12 was used to measure labor satisfaction in three areas (satisfaction with benefits received, satisfaction with the company's physical environment, and satisfaction with supervision) and satisfaction in general. The level of psychosocial risk was high in two areas (double presence, and active work and possibilities of development) and medium in the other areas; the level of satisfaction was high in all three areas. The perception of psychosocial risk factors was negatively associated with work satisfaction in three areas: active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, and compensation (compensation was negatively associated except for satisfaction with the company's physical environment). Risks associated with seasonal work and the main issues that workers consider to affect their satisfaction with work and, by extension, their general well-being, are concentrated mainly in the three areas identified.

  16. Peer outreach work as economic activity: implications for HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.

  17. [Perceptions of female immigrant domestic workers on the effects of the sector regulation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Briones Vozmediano, Erica; Agudelo Suárez, Andrés A; López Jacob, María José; Vives Cases, Carmen; Ballester Laguna, Fernando; Ronda Pérez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perceptions of female immigrant domestic workers of the effect of Royal Decree 1620/2011, which regulates the relationship of domestic workers in the family home and their employment conditions in Spain. An exploratory study was performed using qualitative content analysis of three focus group discussions with immigrant women from Colombia, Ecuador and Morocco. Immigrant women positively assessed the theoretical benefits of the new regulation, but identified legal and economic barriers to obtaining a contract and being registered in the social security system by their employers, and to employers accepting the cost of these measures, especially for workers hired by the hour. These difficulties affected their possibilities of legalizing their status. The economic crisis posed a serious challenge to compliance with the new regulation. Although the new regime encourages job creation with stronger working rights for these workers, immigrant women perceived that its implementation has been hampered by the current financial crisis and has not, therefore, improved their employment conditions. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Lived experiences of street-based female sex workers in Kathmandu: implications for health intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Iccha

    2014-01-01

    The lived experiences of women sex workers illustrate that sex work is frequently a manifestation of limited access to education, resources and jobs due to violence, oppression and patriarchy. However, some Nepalese sex workers reconstitute sex work as a viable form of work that provides food and shelter for their families and allows fulfillment of their duties as mothers. Through a culture-centred approach to research, which emphasis the voices of the marginalised and their own articulations of how marginalised spaces are negotiated, this paper offers an entry point to locating sex workers as active participants in their day-to-day lives. Thirty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with street-based female sex workers. Thematic analysis revealed the following three themes: (1) surviving through sex work, (2) financial security in sex work and (3) surviving sex work stigma. These findings have implications for health promotion involving members of this population. Lived experiences illustrate the need to move away from traditional, top-down, linear behaviour-change health campaigns to reconstitute health interventions within a participatory bottom-up approach that includes the voices of participants and is situated within their own context and needs.

  19. HIV/AIDS knowledge among female migrant farm workers in the midwest.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Keri; Chakraborty, Joana; Shah, Trupti; Khuder, Sadik; Duggan, Joan

    2003-01-01

    The rate of HIV infection in the migrant farm worker community is 10 times the national average. A survey was conducted of 106 female migrant farm workers in rural Northwest Ohio to assess HIV knowledge. The average participant's age was 28.7 years, 78 spoke Spanish, and 47 had an < or =8th- grade education. Fifty-six women received their information on HIV/AIDS from television. Eighty-seven women identified sexual contact as the major source of HIV transmission and 54 women identified the combination of sex, use of needles, and blood contact as the important routes. Sixty-nine women identified both homosexual and heterosexual intercourse as risk factors. Only 58 women identified perinatal infection as a route of HIV transmission and 59 women knew that treatment was available to prevent perinatal transmission. Although the majority of women had a good general knowledge of HIV transmission, further prevention education on perinatal transmission is needed among this population.

  20. A Qualitative Exploration of Barriers to Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Ciyong, Lu; Hui, Wang; Lingyao, Hong; Xueqing, Deng

    2012-01-01

    Background Sex workers in China continue to engage in unprotected sex acts that put them at risk for contracting HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and other STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections). The purpose of this study was to explore women’s work history, the context of sex work, condom use, HIV testing services, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs (female sex workers) in Guangzhou, China. Methodology/Principal Findings In-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 FSWs in Guangzhou, China. Informants were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo 8.0. The majority of respondents were internal economic migrants who had entered the sex industry in pursuit of greater financial reward. Most women in the study were married or had steady boyfriends, and were young, with secondary education and limited knowledge about HIV and STIs. Most were not satisfied with their current living conditions and expressed a desire to leave the sex industry. Women reported that they were more likely to use condoms during sex acts with commercial partners than with non-commercial partners. The potential stigma of being seen as a sex worker prevented many from accessing HIV testing. Three key factors put these FSWs at risk for HIV and STIs: unreasonable trust toward clients, stereotypes and assumptions about customers, and financial incentives. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that social and economic factors play an important role in shaping sexual decision-making among female sex workers in Guangzhou. We argue that greater insight into and attention to these factors could enhance the success of HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23056452

  1. Female commercial sex worker perspective on susceptibility of HIV-AIDS in Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmudah, Nurul; Dasuki, Djaswadi; Kurniawati, Herlin Fitriani

    2017-08-01

    Commercial sex worker is one of the groups with the highest level of susceptibility against HIV infection. They are 13,5 fold more prone to a living with HIV infection than the female of non commercial sex workers. Moreover, these commercial sex workers are also stigmatized with social sanction and discrimination against people with HIV-AIDS. The society mostly avoid them, deject them, isolate them, insult them, despise them, distrust them, and even go against the existence of those suffering from or infected by HIV-AIDS. Thus, stigmatizing and discrimination are basicly highly prohibited since they can incur higher social problems. It is also vital to handle the spread of HIV-AIDS in the society as soon as possible in the attempt of fighting against the spread of the disease. Hence, being broad minded, tolerant, and caring towards them as well as working hand in hand with the community are expected to diminish, minimize, and even eradicate the outbreak of HIV-AIDS. Caring towards those suffering from the infection without stigmatizing them and discriminating them will be one of the first measurements to take to improve what is needed to prevent the prevalence and spread of the disease. Thus, the primary objective of this research is to know the perception of female commercial sex workers on the susceptibility of HIV-AIDS in Yogyakarta. The research participants were selected from three localizations in Yogyakarta namely Pasar Kembang, Bongsuwung, and Giwangan. It is revealed that the participants had a good perception on the susceptibility of AIDS infection as seen from the fact there are free avalaible condoms for them to use everytime they have a sexual intercourse with the clients. All participants were aware of their high susceptibility against the infection of STIs/HIV/AIDS and thus they want to save their skin from those diseases. Also they had a good knowledge that having an intercourse without condom may get them infected.

  2. HIV Risk and Social Networks Among Male-to-Female Transgender Sex Workers in Boston, Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Bland, Sean; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Perkovich, Brandon; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N = 11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD = 72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority reported at least one episode of unprotected anal sex. Qualitative themes included (a) sexual risk, (b) motivations for engaging in sex work, (c) consequences of sex work, (d) social networks (i.e., “trans mothers,” who played a pivotal role in initiation into sex work), and (e) potential intervention strategies. Results suggest that interventions with transgender male-to-female sex workers must be at multiple levels and address the psychosocial and environmental contexts in which sexual risk behavior occurs. PMID:19732696

  3. 75 FR 15741 - Sheet Metal Workers Internationl Association, Local 292: Troy, MI; Notice of Termination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Sheet Metal Workers Internationl Association, Local 292: Troy, MI... investigation was initiated in response to a petition filed on July 13, 2009 on behalf of workers of Steel...

  4. [Occupational risk and health disorders criteria in metal mining industry workers].

    PubMed

    Zheglova, A V

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating occupational risk of health disorders in metal mining industry workers providing various ore extraction modes enabled to reveal early clinical, laboratory and functional markers of occupational and general diseases.

  5. Anxiety symptoms and occupational stress among young Korean female manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Ho; Ho Chae, Chang; Ouk Kim, Young; Seok Son, Jun; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Woo Kim, Chan; Ouk Park, Hyoung; Ho Lee, Jun; Saeng Jung, Young

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders has been increasing in South Korea, with recent studies reporting anxiety disorders as the most common mental disorder among all South Korean females. Anxiety disorders, which are independent risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, are significantly correlated with productivity loss, high medical costs, impaired work performance, and frequent worker absence, and thus are potentially serious problems affecting the health of South Korean female workers. In previous studies, anxiety disorders were shown to have a significant correlation with occupational stress. This study seeks to examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms as well as the relationship between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms among South Korean female manufacturing workers. A structured self-reported questionnaire was administered to 1,141 female workers at an electrical appliance manufacturing plant. The questionnaire collected data on general characteristics, health behaviors, sleep quality, job characteristics (shift work, shift work schedule, and job tenure), occupational stress, and anxiety symptoms. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, occupational stress with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form (KOSS-SF), and anxiety symptoms with the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory. A chi square test was conducted to determine the distribution differences in anxiety symptoms based on general characteristics, health behaviors, job characteristics, and sleep quality. A linear-by-linear association test was used to determine the distribution differences between anxietysymptoms and the levels of occupational stress. Last, logistic regression analysis was used in order to determine the association between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 15.2 %. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis that adjusted for sleep quality and general characteristics

  6. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005); if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012); if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005); if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029) or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003), compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006); if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client) applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p < 0.001); if they were inconsistent condom users (AOR 2.77, p < 0.001); and if they had never seen a condom demonstration (AOR 2.37, p < 0.001). Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to

  7. [Characteristics of social supportive network serving the older female sex workers in Qingdao].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y Q; Li, Y F; Jiang, Z X; Zhang, X J; Yuan, X; Zhang, N; Li, X F; Jiang, B F

    2016-02-01

    To overview the status of social support on older female sex workers (OFSWs) in Qingdao and to better understand the characteristics of this egocentric social support networks. Ucinet 6 software was used to analyze the characteristics of egocentric social networks which involving 400 OFSWs who were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in Qingdao during March 2014 to June. Structural equation model (SEM) was used for data analysis, fitted test and estimation. A total of 400 OFSWs of Qingdao nominated 1 617 social supportive members, and the average size of egocentric social networks of OFSWs was (4.0 ± 1.5). Among all the alter egos (social support network members of the egos), 613 were female sex workers fellows, accounted for the most important part of all the social ties (37.91%). Characteristics of small size and non-relative relationships were seen more obviously among OFSWs with non-local registration and the ratings of emotional support (4.42±2.38) was significantly lower than the tangible support (5.73 ± 1.69) (P<0.05). Result of the SEM showed that homogeneity, joint strength and the network structure were significantly related to the ratings of average support. The total standard effects of which were 0.110, 0.925 and -0.069 respectively. It seemed that homogeneity can affect the degree of support, both directly and indirectly. OFSWs in Qingdao tended to ask for social support from friends who were also female sex workers. Stronger the joint strength between egos and alters, greater the homogeneity between the two was seen. Tighter relations among the alter egos, higher degree of average social support of the egos were acquired.

  8. Infection with high-risk HPV types among female sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Tran, Vuong Thi; Matsushita, Kaori; Saikawa, Kunikazu; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Pham, Hung Viet; Bi, Xiuqiong; Ta, Van Thanh; Van Pham, Thuc; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Vaccines against two high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16, and HPV-18, are in use currently, with high efficacy for preventing infections with these HPV types and consequent cervical cancers. However, circulating HPV types can vary with geography and ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV types and the association between HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam. Cervical swabs and plasma samples were collected from 281 female sex workers at two health centers in Hanoi and Hai Phong in 2009. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by PCR using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers. Amplified PCR products were genotyped by the microarray system GeneSquare (KURABO) and/or clonal sequencing. Of the 281 women, 139 (49.5%) were positive for HPV DNA. Among the HPV-positive samples, 339 strains and 29 different types were identified. Multiple-type and high risk-type HPV infections were found in 85 (61.2%) and 124 (89.2%) women, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV-52, followed by HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-58. Abnormal cervical cytology was detected in 3.2% (9/281) of the women, and all of these samples were positive for HPV-DNA. Age ≤25 years and infection with human immunodeficiency virus were associated positively with HPV infection among the women while ever smoking was associated negatively. These results show that HPV-52 is most prevalent among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam, most of whom had normal cervical cytology. This information may be important for designing vaccination strategies in Vietnam.

  9. Predictors of bone mineral density in female workers in Morelos State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Caudana, Alma Ethelia; Téllez-Rojo Solís, Martha María; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Clark, Patricia; Juárez-Márquez, Sergio Arturo; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo César; Salmerón-Castro, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies have identified factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD), little research is available on Mexican women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,622 female workers between 20 and 80 years of age at the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS), an integral part of the Mexican health system. It was carried out in Morelos, a Mexican state that borders Mexico City. Women were recruited to participate in this study from their workplaces. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and BMD was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of dominant forearm. Predictors of BMD (age, reproductive factors, BMI, diet, and physical activity) in pre- and postmenopausal women were assessed by questionnaire and analyzed using generalized additive models. In premenopausal women, older age, higher BMI, younger age at menarche, and greater vitamin D intake were associated with higher BMD (R(2)=0.06, null deviance reduction=6.9%). In postmenopausal women, determinants of BMD were older age, higher BMI, greater height, later initiation of menopause, longer time of use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), and greater calcium intake from dairy products (R(2)=0.39, null deviance reduction=40.7%). As observed in other populations, age, BMI, height, age at menopause, time of use of HRT, and calcium intake derived from dairy products in these Mexican women are factors associated with higher forearm BMD during postmenopausal period. Age, BMI, age at menarche, and vitamin D are associated with higher forearm BMD in premenopausal women. Some of these factors are not linearly associated with BMD. This was a limited population study carried out in a large group of female healthcare workers whose reproductive and lifestyle factors potentially agreed with those of female workers from urban areas of Mexico.

  10. Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Human T cell lymphotropic vi ru5’ type I infection 5. FUNDING NUMBERS PR - V?44631051-29 6...SIGNIFICANT NUMB3ER OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY, 1 .4 4) 2 Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I Infection amnong Female Sex Workers in Peru...suribodies to human i~nmwsuodskleuy ~virs, humsin T cell- lymphottopic viuzs type I (HTLV.X), Tmponeneo poflidim, C frackomoiis. berpee slitplex vsirus- typo

  11. Violence against Chinese female sex workers from their stable partners: a hierarchical multiple regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Su, Shaobing; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shen, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding risk factors that are related to intimate partner violence (IPV) against female sex workers (FSWs) in the context of stable partnerships. Out of the 1,022 FSWs, 743 reported ever having a stable partnership and 430 (more than half) of those reported experiencing IPV. Hierarchical multivariate regression revealed that some characteristics of stable partners (e.g., low education, alcohol use) and relationship stressors (e.g., frequent friction, concurrent partnerships) were independently predictive of IPV against FSWs. Public health professionals who design future violence prevention interventions targeting FSWs need to consider the influence of their stable partners.

  12. Universal access to HIV treatment in the context of vulnerability: female farm workers in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bhatasara, Sandra; Chiweshe, Manase Kudzai

    2015-01-01

    In this study we extend the theoretical and empirical debate on gender justice regarding universal access to antiretroviral therapy. In many circumstances, debates about human rights and HIV/AIDS are premised on the view that universal access to primary health care improves the multiple health burdens of those infected by the epidemic. We argue that ''universal access'' does not always benefit those in marginalized positions in society. Female farm workers living in rural, marginalized spaces at the intersection of systems of social inequality and oppression shape the way in which they experience access to antiretroviral drugs.

  13. Psychological Stressors in the Context of Commercial Sex Among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Su, Shaobing

    2014-01-01

    Because of the illegality and stigma associated with female sex workers (FSW) in China, data were limited regarding their psychological stressors examined through the lens of occupational health. Analyzing qualitative data from 16 gatekeepers and 38 FSW, we explored these stressors in the context of commercial sex in China. We found that FSW faced a continuum of stressors that resulted from poverty, limited employment, lack of social protection, violence perpetrated by clients, and limited social support from peers and stable partners. We call for empowerment and a structural approach to address the needs of FSW to improve their psychological well-being. PMID:24180467

  14. Prevalence of Violence: Male and Female Seasonal Agricultural Workers' Approach to Violence in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Zeynep; Kara, Burcu; Ersin, Fatma; Ökten, Şevket; Yıldırımkaya, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the male and female seasonal agricultural workers' perception of violence, prevalence of violence, frequency of victimization, and their related factors. Quantitative and qualitative data were used, and 89.5% of women were exposed to violence that included the restriction of their human rights. The sample consisted of 1,211 women and 1,064 men. Their marital status, duration of work, and attention to their health affected the violence exposure. Arabic people who were unmarried, had a poor educational background, and poor health perception approved of the physical violence.

  15. A border context of violence: Mexican female sex workers on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M

    2014-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) represent a population confronted with an array of intersecting social problems. We explore the case of FSW in Nuevo Laredo and Ciudad Juarez to understand the everyday violence associated with sex work within the unique context of Mexico. Life history interviews were conducted with 109 FSW revealing violent acts by clients and other sex industry employees (bar owners, police, other FSW). The risk of violence by different types of persons associated with the sex work industry varied by venue and geographic area. Moreover, the violence was shaped by the social structural constraints of dominant gender ideologies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Memory deficits and industrial toxicant exposure: a comparative study of hard metal, solvent and asbestos workers.

    PubMed

    Jordan, C M; Whitman, R D; Harbut, M

    1997-06-01

    Memory functioning was examined in ex-factory workers with hard metal disease, resulting from exposure to alloys utilizing cobalt. Since these workers are also exposed to organic solvents and may suffer from chronic hypoxia as a result of their pulmonary disorder, solvent and asbestos workers, as well as an unexposed matched sample, served as controls. Results demonstrated deficits in the allocation of attentional resources and in short-term verbal memory. A pattern of findings across several tests suggested that repetition or delay is important for adequate memory performance in individuals exposed to hard metal, implicating a deficit in encoding or slowed consolidation.

  17. Randomised controlled trial of alternative male and female condom promotion strategies targeting sex workers in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Hoke, Theresa H; Feldblum, Paul J; Van Damme, Kathleen; Nasution, Marlina D; Grey, Thomas W; Wong, Emelita L; Ralimamonjy, Louisette; Raharimalala, Leonardine; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether individual clinic‐based counselling as a supplement to peer education for male and female condom promotion leads to greater use of protection and lower STI prevalence among sex workers in Madagascar already exposed to intensive male condom promotion. Methods In two public dispensaries in Madagascar, a total of 901 sex workers were randomly allocated between two alternative male and female condom promotion interventions: peer education only, or peer education supplemented with individual clinic‐based counselling. Participants were followed for 12 months. Every 2 months they made clinic visits, where they were interviewed on condom use. Peer educators counselled all participants on condom use as they accompanied their assigned participants to study visits. Participants assigned to receive the supplemental intervention were counselled by a trained clinician following study interviews. Participants were tested and treated for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis every 6 months. We used logistic regression to assess whether the more intensive intervention was associated with reduced STI prevalence. Use of protection with clients and non‐paying partners was assessed by study arm, site, and visit. Results There was no statistically significant association between study arm and aggregated STI prevalence. No substantial differences in levels of reported protection were noted between study groups. Conclusions This study found little evidence for gains from more thorough clinical counselling on male and female condom use. These findings suggest that less clinically intensive interventions such as peer education could be suitable for male and female condom promotion in populations already exposed to barrier method promotion. PMID:17591662

  18. Relationship dynamics and sexual risk behaviour of male partners of female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Martin; Siu, Godfrey E; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    Regular male partners of female sex workers (FSWs) represent an important population to reach with HIV-prevention interventions. This paper discusses the relationship dynamics and HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviour of men involved with self-identified FSWs in Kampala. Between 2011 and 2014 we conducted repeat in-depth interviews with 42 male partners of FSWs attending a clinic for women at high risk of HIV-infection in Kampala. Men publicly struggled with the stigma of dating women who are considered to be engaged in a shamed profession, but privately saw meaning in these relationships. In coping with the stigma, some described the work of their partners in terms that distanced them from sex work, while others struggled to have the control that "being a man" demanded since they could not monitor all movements of their partners. Dealing with HIV disclosure was hard and seeking support was difficult for some of the men, leading to missed opportunities and guilt. Despite challenges, relationships with sex workers offered men some benefits such as access to much needed care and treatment. A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings suggest that effective interventions that are couple centred can be established to promote better health.

  19. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  20. A pragmatic intervention to promote condom use by female sex workers in Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, N.; Koetsawang, S.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented of a multifaceted intervention to promote consistent condom use by female commercial sex workers in Thailand, in the context of the government's 100% condom use policy for preventing spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The project is described with reference to a succession of stages including pre-programme needs assessment, intervention design, implementation and evaluation. The key elements of the intervention were video scenarios and discussions coordinated by health personnel, and video-depicted open-ended narratives aimed at helping sex workers to explore their personal and work-related dilemmas and concerns. A core objective was to enhance sex workers' self-esteem and perceived future with a view to strengthening their motivation to take preventive action against HIV infection. The intervention was evaluated using a combination of qualitative (process evaluation) and quantitative (outcome) methods. The outcome evaluation was undertaken using a pretest, post-test intervention and control group quasi-experimental design. There were significant increases in consistent condom use among the intervention groups but not among the controls. Pragmatic stability is advocated for the Thai sex industry and recommendations are offered for good quality HIV prevention activities. PMID:10612884

  1. The association of occupational metals exposure and oxidative damage, telomere shortening in fitness equipments manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Liu, Guan-Cen; Hsin, I-Lun; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2017-08-08

    The welding is the major working process in fitness equipment manufacturing industry, and International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified welding fumes as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The present study aimed to evaluate associations between the occupational exposure of metals and oxidative damage and telomere length shortening in workers involved in the manufacture of fitness equipment. The blood metal concentrations were monitored and malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline Comet assay was determined as oxidative damage in 117 workers from two representative fitness equipment manufacturing plants. MDA levels varied according to workers' roles at the manufacturing plants, and showed a trend as cutting>painting>welding>administration workers. Welders had marginally shorter average telomere lengths than the administrative workers (p=0.058). Cr and Mn levels were significantly greater in welders than they were in administrative workers. There were significantly positive correlations between MDA and Cr and Mn levels, the major components of welding fume. However, the association would be eliminated if co-metals exposure were considered simultaneously. In future, telomere length and MDA might be potential biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease in co-metals exposed workers.

  2. Morbidity patterns, nutritional status, and healthcare-seeking behavior of female garment workers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hasnain, Golam; Akter, Monjura; Sharafat, Shadab Ibn; Mahmuda, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ready-made garment (RMG) sector is the main pillar of Bangladesh’s economy, and female garment workers are the key workers in this sector. Unfortunately, they are paid very little; in fact, their pay is among the lowest anywhere in the world. This situation makes the workers very vulnerable to different kinds of health-related problems, including malnutrition, and it also results in their having poor healthcare-seeking behavior. So, the aim of this study was to determine their nutritional status, their various kinds of health-related problems, and their healthcare-seeking behavior. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which purposive sampling was done. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, and the participants’ heights and weights were measured according the guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). All data were computed and analyzed using SPSS version 16.01 software. Chi squared values were calculated to analyze the data and the prevalence rate ratio (PRR) was measured to determine the association of body mass index (BMI) with health problems. Results: More than half of the participants (53.67%) had various health problems, and almost half of them (43.33%) were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m2). Among those who were underweight, about 96% of them had one or more health-related problems in the last three months (P-value < 0.001). Their PRR was 2.59, which comprises low BMI as a risk factor for high morbidity. Among the workers who had one or more health-related problems, more than 22% of them did not go to see a doctor during their illnesses. Only about 12% of them went to qualified practitioners, and, surprisingly, 37% of those completed the prescribed treatment. Conclusion: The study showed that there is high morbidity among female garment workers who have low BMI values and poor healthcare-seeking behavior, factors that should be addressed by their employers and policy makers. PMID:25763149

  3. Association between serum vitamin D and depressive symptoms among female workers in the manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Il; Son, Jun Seok; Kim, Young Ouk; Chae, Chang Ho; Kim, Ja Hyun; Kim, Chan Woo; Park, Hyoung Ouk; Lee, Jun Ho; Jung, Jun Ick

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has been known to maintain the body's balance of calcium and phosphorus as well as skeletal health. There has been increasing emphasis on the importance of vitamin D as recent studies have been reporting the specific functions of vitamin D in the cerebral nervous system and the association between the level of serum vitamin D and depressive symptoms. However, there is currently a paucity of research investigating the association between serum vitamin D and depressive symptoms in Korean subjects. Consequently, this study has aimed to determine the level of serum vitamin D and explore the association between serum vitamin D and depressive symptoms in Korean female workers. A medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and a blood test were conducted between February 3 and March 7, 2014 in 1054 subjects among female workers in the manufacturing industry who underwent physical examinations in a university hospital. From this data, we identified the level of serum vitamin D and investigated the association between serum vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms. The average serum vitamin D level of the 1054 subjects was 9.07 ± 3.25 ng/mL, and the number of subjects in the serum vitamin D deficiency group with less than 10 ng/mL was 721 (68.4 %). The odds ratio of the depressive symptom group with a CES-D score of 16 or above being in the deficiency group with a serum vitamin D level less than 10 ng/mL was found to be 1.55 (95 % CI = 1.15-2.07). 68.4 % of female workers in the manufacturing industry were in the deficiency group with serum vitamin D levels less than 10 ng/mL. Additionally, we identified an association between serum vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms. In the future, if serum vitamin D deficiency is checked regularly in workers, we expect to achieve better outcomes in managing their depressive symptoms.

  4. Treatment And Prevention for female Sex workers in South Africa: protocol for the TAPS Demonstration Project

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Gabriela B; Eakle, Robyn; Mbogua, Judie; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Venter, W D Francois; Rees, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Updated guidelines from the WHO recommend antiretroviral treatment for adults with HIV at any CD4 count and daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for people at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, implementation challenges may hinder the ability of programmes to translate these recommendations into successful practice. This demonstration project is the first to integrate PrEP and immediate treatment (ITx) for female sex workers (FSWs) in South Africa to answer operational research questions. Methods and analysis This is a prospective cohort study where the main outcome is retention at 12 months. The study population is recruited into two arms across two urban sites: (1) PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs (n=400) and (2) ITx for HIV-positive FSWs with CD4 greater than national guidelines (n=300). We investigate process and other health indicators, uptake and use of PrEP and ITx through qualitative research, and evaluate cost-effectiveness analysis combined with estimates of impact through epidemiological modelling. Ethics and dissemination The Treatment And Prevention for female Sex workers in South Africa (TAPS) Project was designed as an implementation study before emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was licenced as an indication for PrEP in South Africa. Therefore, clinical trial requirements for ethical and South African Medicines Control Council approvals were followed. Results will be disseminated to participants, local health officials and other stakeholders, as well as in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences. PMID:27678533

  5. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Personal Mastery Among Sexual Minority African American Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Buttram, Mance E.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Research among sexual minorities has traditionally examined problems such as substance use, HIV risk, mental health problems, and victimization. Among sexual minority street-based female sex workers, these vulnerabilities can be magnified. Grounded in theories of resilience, this study examines risk and protective factors associated with a high level of personal mastery among a vulnerable population of women. Data are drawn from baseline interviews from street-based African American female sex workers enrolled in a randomized intervention trial in Miami, Florida. We compare sexual minority (N=197) and heterosexual (N=365) women on measures of risk and protective factors; among sexual minority women we present logistic regression analyses which reveal that severe mental distress and HIV transmission risk are associated with low levels of personal mastery, while protective factors of transportation access and social support are associated with high levels of personal mastery. These findings suggest that these protective factors may potentially facilitate the development of personal mastery and represent beneficial avenues for intervention efforts. PMID:25530691

  6. Predictors of Sexual Risk Reduction Among Mexican Female Sex Workers Enrolled in a Behavioral Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Mausbach, Brent; Lozada, Remedios; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Semple, Shirley J.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; de la Torre, Adela; Amaro, Hortensia; Martínez-Mendizábal, Gustavo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We recently showed efficacy of an intervention to increase condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, situated on the Mexico–United States border. We determined whether increases in condom use were predicted by social cognitive theory and injection drug user status among women randomized to this intervention. Methods Four hundred nine HIV-negative FSWs aged ≥18 years having unprotected sex with clients within the prior 2 months received a brief individual counseling session integrating motivational interviewing and principles of behavior change (ie, HIV knowledge, self-efficacy for using condoms, and outcome expectancies). Results Increases in self-efficacy scores were associated with increases in percent condom use (P = 0.008), whereas outcome expectancies were not. Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) increased condom use with clients but not to the same extent as other FSWs (P = 0.09). Change in HIV knowledge was positively associated with change in percent condom use among FSW-IDUs (P = 0.03) but not noninjection drug users. Conclusions Increases in self-efficacy significantly predicted increased condom use among FSWs, consistent with social cognitive theory. Increased HIV knowledge was also important among FSW-IDUs, but their changes in condom use were modest. Enhanced interventions for FSW-IDUs are needed, taking into account realities of substance use during sexual transactions that can compromise safer sex negotiation. PMID:19384101

  7. [Sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of female sex workers in Palermo].

    PubMed

    Prestileo, Tullio; Orlando, Giuseppina; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Dalle Nogare, Ernesto Renato; Cassarà, Giuseppina; Bellipanni, Pierfrancesco; Sanfilippo, Adriana

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (HIV, HBV, HCV, Treponema pallidum) in a cohort of foreign female sex workers observed in Palermo from 1999 to 2008. Authors conducted a prospective observational study on 239 foreign female sex workers aged between 18 and 36 years old. The nation of origin was Nigeria, Romania, Ucraina, Bulgaria. Overall, the diagnosis of IST was placed in 17 women, 7.1% of the population under study. In 14 cases we observed a single infection: HIV in 5 cases; syphilis and HBV in 4 cases; HCV in only one case. In the remaining three women were diagnosed a co-infection with HIV and HBV, HIV and HCV, HIV and syphilis LUE. In our study, a statistically significant correlation (p<0.0001) was observed between the non-constant condom use and a higher frequency of HIV, HCV and syphilis infection. This correlation was not statistically significant in the women with HBV infection. The results of this study show a higher morbidity of this specific population, and, consequently, the need to start as soon as possible specific programs of intervention which can ensure the health of these women. Language and cultural barriers, as well as immigration concern among all vulnerable populations, form barriers to healthcare access.

  8. Understanding socio economic contexts of female sex workers in eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sagtani, R A; Bhattarai, S; Adhikari, B R; Baral, D D; Yadav, D K; Pokharel, P K

    2014-12-01

    The present focus is mostly laid on high risk behavior of commercial sex workers without any consideration of their location, educational status and other socio-cultural norms. Thus, we designed a study to understand socio demographic characteristics, lifestyle of female sex workers and search for driving factors for prostitution in eastern Nepal. A descriptive study was conducted in three districts of Eastern Nepal in 2012 over the period of six months. The data regarding their socio demographic characteristics, income, reason for joining sex trade and future choice regarding the profession were recorded from 210 female sex workers through face-to-face interviews. Majority (53.3%) of respondents belonged to the productive age group of 20-29 years, more than one thirds (43.3%) had not received any form of formal education and were unmarried. More than half (53.80%) were presently living alone and about one thirds of the women (31.90%) were minors when they joined this profession. Major portion of the sample (94.80%) worked more than three days a week with median income of 15 thousand per month and 41 percent had sex with more than or equal to ten clients per week. Poor economic condition was the most frequent (47.6%) factor leading to joining of sex trade however, more than two thirds, (72.80%) wanted to quit the profession. Given low level of education, relatively low income, and young age among this population, empowerment and alternative employment/education opportunities should be created to develop this part of Nepalese society.

  9. The relationship between depressive symptoms among female workers and job stress and sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ho-Sung; Kim, Young-Wook; Park, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Kang-Ho; Jeong, Baek-Geun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Park, Ki-Soo

    2013-07-22

    Recently, workers' mental health has become important focus in the field of occupational health management. Depression is a psychiatric illness with a high prevalence. The association between job stress and depressive symptoms has been demonstrated in many studies. Recently, studies about the association between sleep quality and depressive symptoms have been reported, but there has been no large-scaled study in Korean female workers. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between job stress and sleep quality, and depressive symptoms in female workers. From Mar 2011 to Aug 2011, 4,833 female workers in the manufacturing, finance, and service fields at 16 workplaces in Yeungnam province participated in this study, conducted in combination with a worksite-based health checkup initiated by the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form(KOSS-SF), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale(CES-D). The collected data was entered in the system and analyzed using the PASW (version 18.0) program. A correlation analysis, cross analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were conducted. Among the 4,883 subjects, 978 subjects (20.0%) were in the depression group. Job stress(OR=3.58, 95% CI=3.06-4.21) and sleep quality(OR=3.81, 95% CI=3.18-4.56) were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that job stress displayed explanatory powers of 15.6% on depression while sleep quality displayed explanatory powers of 16.2%, showing that job stress and sleep quality had a closer relationship with depressive symptoms, compared to the other factors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded odds ratios between the 7 subscales of job stress and depressive symptoms in the range of 1

  10. Epidemic impacts of a community empowerment intervention for HIV prevention among female sex workers in generalized and concentrated epidemics.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pretorius, Carel; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan; Decker, Michele R; Sherman, Susan G; Sweat, Michael; Poteat, Tonia; Butler, Jennifer; Oelrichs, Robert; Semini, Iris; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Sex workers have endured a high burden of HIV infection in and across HIV epidemics. A comprehensive, community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention emphasizes sex worker organization and mobilization to address HIV risk and often includes community-led peer education, condom distribution, and other activities. Meta-analysis of such interventions suggests a potential 51% reduction in inconsistent condom use. Mathematical modeling exercises provide theoretical insight into potential impacts of the intervention on HIV incidence and burden in settings where interventions have not yet been implemented. We used a deterministic model, Goals, to project the impact on HIV infections when the community empowerment interventions were scaled up among female sex workers in Kenya, Thailand, Brazil, and Ukraine. Modeling scenarios included expansion of the comprehensive community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention from baseline coverage over a 5-year period (5-65% in Kenya and Ukraine; 10-70% in Thailand and Brazil), while other interventions were held at baseline levels. A second exercise increased the intervention coverage simultaneously with equitable access to ART for sex workers. Impacts on HIV outcomes among sex workers and adults are observed from 2012-2016 and, compared to status quo when all interventions are held constant. Optimistic but feasible coverage (65%-70%) of the intervention demonstrated a range of impacts on HIV: 220 infections averted over 5 yrs. among sex workers in Thailand, 1,830 in Brazil, 2,220 in Ukraine, and 10,800 infections in Kenya. Impacts of the intervention for female sex workers extend to the adult population, cumulatively averting 730 infections in Thailand to 20,700 adult infections in Kenya. Impacts vary by country, influenced by HIV prevalence in risk groups, risk behaviors, intervention use, and population size. A community empowerment approach to HIV prevention and access to universal ART for female sex workers is a

  11. The functions of social support in the mental health of male and female migrant workers in China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Leung, Grace

    2008-11-01

    The study reported herein adopted a stress and coping framework to examine the functions of social support in protecting the mental health of migrant workers who experience migration stress during settlement in Shanghai, China. A total of 475 migrant workers from four major districts in Shanghai were recruited for a survey through multistage cluster sampling. The results suggest that migration stress, particularly financial and employment difficulties, difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and social companionship support contributed substantially to the mental health of both male and female migrant workers. Although instrumental support significantly influenced the mental health of male migrants, esteem support significantly influenced the mental health of female migrants. In addition, although social support did not exert any mediating effect on the mental health of both male and female migrant workers, social companionship support appeared to moderate the migration stress and mental health of female migrant workers. Sociocultural factors are put forth as explanations for these findings. The implications of this study include the provision of workshops and counseling and the strengthening of informal support networks for migrant workers.

  12. Health issues of female foreign domestic workers: a systematic review of the scientific and gray literature.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rahul; Arambepola, Chandima; Tarun, Samiksha; de Silva, Vijitha; Kishore, Jugal; Østbye, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of female foreign domestic workers (FDWs) is increasing worldwide, little is known about their health issues. To systematically review the literature on health issues of female FDWs to ascertain the problems studied, identify limitations, and suggest future research and policy implications. A systematic database (PubMed, EBSCO Host, and Google Scholar) and bibliographic search identified the English-language scientific and gray literature published during 1990-2012 addressing health issues of female FDWs living with the family of the employer, using qualitative and/or quantitative research methods. Studies in which female FDWs constituted less than half of the participants were excluded. The health issues studied and identified were adverse work conditions and associated health problems (such as physical, verbal, and sexual abuse at the workplace, caregiving tasks associated with musculoskeletal strain, and chemical exposure associated with respiratory difficulty), mental health (psychotic, neurotic, and mood disorders), infectious diseases (most of the studies were on intestinal parasitic infections), and health knowledge/attitudes/practices (most of the studies were in context of sexual and reproductive health). Most of the studies were medical record reviews or questionnaire-based surveys utilizing convenience sampling or qualitative interviews/focus group discussions. Female FDWs face numerous health problems. Studies on representative, possibly longitudinal, samples of female FDWs focusing on specific health conditions are needed to better understand the epidemiology of such conditions. Concerted efforts through the governments of both labor-sending and host countries are required to improve the health, work conditions, and safety of this vulnerable group of women.

  13. Health risk assessment of workers exposed to metals from an aluminium production plant.

    PubMed

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2010-12-01

    Foundry is an industry involved various kinds of metals and chemicals. Workers who work in foundry industry are at risk of exposure to these metals and chemicals. Objective of this study was to conduct quantitative health risk assessment for workers who exposed to metals from an aluminium production industry. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences' four steps of health risk assessment were used to conduct quantitative health risk assessment in this study. This study showed that there were 6 types of metals involved in the aluminium foundry in this study. These metals could cause various health effects but not cancers. Workers were mostly exposed to these metals by inhalation. Calculated reference dose (RfD) for inhalation of aluminium used in this assessment was 0.000015 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of manganese used in this assessment was 0.000002 mg/kg/day. Calculated RfD for inhalation of copper used in this assessment was 0.000028 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of zinc used in this assessment was 0.000083 mg/ kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of magnesium used in this assessment was 0.949833 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of iron used in this assessment was 10.6219 mg/kg/day. Maximum daily doses (MDDs) for workers who exposed to metals measured in this foundry were 0, 0, 0.000463, 0.0000927, 0.000162 and 0 mg/kg/day for manganese, zinc, aluminium, iron, magnesium and copper, respectively. Finally, risk characterization for workers exposed to metals in this aluminium foundry showed that workers in this foundry had 31 times higher risk of developing diseases from aluminium than persons who were not exposed to aluminium. These workers had the same risk of developing diseases from other metals and chemicals as persons who were not exposed to those metals and chemicals. Workers who exposed to aluminium in this aluminium production plant had 31 times risk of developing non-carcinogenic effects from aluminium compared with normal

  14. Structural Violence in Health Care: Lived Experience of Street-Based Female Commercial Sex Workers in Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Iccha

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with female, street-based, commercial sex workers in Kathmandu, Nepal. The framework of structural violence guided this study in identifying the structural context that impacts the female sex workers' lives and may cause harm to their health. Structural violence in health care was revealed through thematic analysis as (a) discrimination, (b) forced choice, and (c) limitations to health information sources. Lived experiences highlight how the sex workers engaged with structural limitations in health care access, services, and utilization. Structural violence conveys a message about who is entitled to health care and what a society emphasizes and expects regarding acceptable health behavior. Examining the structural violence highlighted how the sex workers negotiated, understood, and engaged with structural limitations in health care access, services, and utilization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in a City of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pallavi; Masood, Jamal; Singh, J V; Singh, V K; Gupta, Abhishek; Krishna, Asuri

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs) ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO), registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Control Society (UPSACS) of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6%) than home-based (29.8%). Majority (42.7%) of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4%) of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client's demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. Unemployment, anemia

  16. The association of occupational metals exposure and oxidative damage, telomere shortening in fitness equipments manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    KO, Jiunn-Liang; CHENG, Yu-Jung; LIU, Guan-Cen; HSIN, I-Lun; CHEN, Hsiu-Ling

    2017-01-01

    The welding is the major working process in fitness equipment manufacturing industry, and International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified welding fumes as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The present study aimed to evaluate associations between the occupational exposure of metals and oxidative damage and telomere length shortening in workers involved in the manufacture of fitness equipment. The blood metal concentrations were monitored and malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline Comet assay was determined as oxidative damage in 117 workers from two representative fitness equipment manufacturing plants. MDA levels varied according to workers’ roles at the manufacturing plants, and showed a trend as cutting>painting>welding>administration workers. Welders had marginally shorter average telomere lengths than the administrative workers (p=0.058). Cr and Mn levels were significantly greater in welders than they were in administrative workers. There were significantly positive correlations between MDA and Cr and Mn levels, the major components of welding fume. However, the association would be eliminated if co-metals exposure were considered simultaneously. In future, telomere length and MDA might be potential biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease in co-metals exposed workers. PMID:28420806

  17. Sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, M L; Chan, R K; Chua, W L; Wee, S

    1999-11-01

    This study compares the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), condom use, and health-screening behavior between freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. A total of 111 female freelance sex workers arrested from November 1996 to March 1997 for illicit prostitution were interviewed; 333 brothel-based sex workers served as the comparison group for the analysis. STD test results revealed that freelance sex workers (34.8%) have higher STD rates than brothel-based sex workers (24%). The two most common STDs in both groups were chlamydial cervicitis and syphilis. Moreover, condom use was significantly lower among freelance sex workers than brothel-based sex workers and was associated with younger age (25 years old), decreasing number of clients, and perception of non-condom use among peers. In addition, freelance workers were more educated and had equally high knowledge on STDs and AIDS. Since most of these freelance workers practice high-risk behaviors and poor health screening behaviors such as not going for regular medical check-ups, STD services and education programs should target this group.

  18. Health workers' perceptions of Italian female adolescents: a qualitative study about sexuality, contraception, and caring practices in family health centers.

    PubMed

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Santoro, Elena; Stagni Brenca, Elisa; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Di Blasio, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to explore health workers' perceptions of providing sexuality and contraception care for female adolescents within family health centers. We interviewed 26 volunteer health workers and analyzed the interviews using thematic analysis. We identified three main themes: (a) "adolescents and sexuality," with the subthemes "initiation rite," "me like the others," and "just for fun"; (b) "adolescents and contraception," with the subthemes "omnipotent adolescents," "aware adolescents," and "women's responsibility"; and

  19. [Effects of 1-bromopropane on neurological and hematological changes of female exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qiang-Yi; Ichihara, Gaku; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Ding, Xun-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the health effects of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) on female exposed workers. Four 1-BP manufacturing plants were investigated. Workers were interviewed with questionnaire and examined with neurobehavioral core test battery, nerve conduction velocity tests of nervus tibialis and nervus suralis, vibration sensation test, hematological and biochemical tests. Ambient 1-BP concentration was measured with detection tube, and time-weighed average levels of individual workers were estimated with passive samplers. 1-BP concentration in the plants ranged from 0 to 402.40 mg/m3 (Geomean 32.19 mg/m3). Time-weighted average exposure levels (TWA-8 h) ranged from 0.35 to 535.19 mg/m3 (Geomean 14.08 mg/m3). Compared with the control group, 1-BP exposed workers showed reduced motor nerve conduction velocity [(44.8 +/- 8.7) m/s] and sensory nerve conduction velocity [(45.5 +/- 4.9) m/s], prolonged distal latency [(7.5 +/- 2.1) ms], reduced toe vibration perception, and altered neurobehavior parameters(POMS vigor, tension, anxiety, confusion) significantly (P < 0.05). As to hematological and biochemical indicators, the exposed workers showed decreased white blood cell count [(5.6 +/- 2.17) x 10(3)/microl], red blood cell count [(3.9 +/- 0.4) x 10(6)/microl], hemoglobin [(121.1 +/- 14.5) g/L] and creatine kinase [(82.0 +/- 27.5) IU/L] (P < 0.05), and increased serum total protein (8.0 +/- 0.5 g/dl), lactate dehydrogenase [(335.2 +/- 356.6) IU/L], thyroid-stimulating hormone [(3.6 +/- 2.3) microIU/ml] and follicle-stimulating hormone levels (18.7 +/- 24.4 mIU/ml) (P < 0.05). 1-BP exposure may affect peripheral nerves and central nervous system, and lead to abnormal hematological and biomedical indicators.

  20. Mosaicism may explain the evolution of social characters in haplodiploid Hymenoptera with female workers.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, Giorgio; Babudri, Nora; Fioretti, Bernard; Catacuzzeno, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    The role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusocial insects and why in Hymenoptera males do not perform any work is presently unknown. We show here that within-colony conflict caused by the coexistence of individuals of the same caste expressing the same character in different ways can be fundamental in the evolution of social characters in species that have already reached the eusocial condition. Mosaic colonies, composed by individuals expressing either the wild-type or a mutant phenotype, inevitably occurs during the evolution of advantageous social traits in insects. We simulated the evolution of an advantageous social trait increasing colony fitness in haplodiploid and diplodiploid species considering all possible conditions, i.e. dominance/recessivity of the allele determining the new social character, sex of the castes, and influence of mosaicism on the colony fitness. When mosaicism lowered colony fitness below that of the colony homogeneous for the wild type allele, the fixation of an advantageous social character was possible only in haplodiploids with female castes. When mosaicism caused smaller reductions in colony fitness, reaching frequencies of 90% was much faster in haplodiploids with female castes and dominant mutations. Our results suggest that the evolution of social characters is easier in haplodiploid than in diplodiploid species, provided that workers are females.

  1. Risk profile of female sex workers who participate in a routine penicillin prophylaxis programme in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joesoef, M R; Valleroy, L A; Kuntjoro, T M; Kamboji, A; Linnan, M; Barakbah, Y; Idajadi, A; St Louis, M E

    1998-12-01

    We conducted a sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence survey of 1867 female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia, some of whom reported participation in a routine penicillin prophylaxis programme. In Surabaya, 34% of female sex workers had received a prophylactic penicillin injection programme from the government within 28 days. Sex workers who had received routine prophylaxis injection were more likely to be less educated, to work in brothel complexes, and to have more customers per week than other sex workers. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis were higher among sex workers who received the routine penicillin treatment than among those who had not received antibiotic treatment in the last 28 days. However, after adjustment for age, education, fee per sex act, number of customers, and condom use in the previous 7 days, only trichomoniasis was still significantly different (adjusted odds ratio of 3.2). High-risk women were more likely to participate in the routine penicillin prophylaxis programme. The lack of a demonstrable individual-level protection from this prophylaxis treatment programme in this cross-sectional study appears due to differential uptake of penicillin prophylaxis by women at higher presumptive risk for STD. Randomized clinical trials and mathematical modelling, together with observational data such as presented here, all can contribute to optimal understanding of a complex intervention like mass chemoprophylaxis for STD among female sex workers.

  2. A psychosocial study of male-to-female transgendered and male hustler sex workers in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado Cortez, Fernanda Cestaro; Boer, Douglas Pieter; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2011-12-01

    This study examined sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and alcohol and drug misuse among male sex workers in the city of Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 45 male-to-female transgender sex workers and 41 male hustlers were evaluated in face-to-face interviews at their place of work from 2008 to 2010. A "snowball" sampling procedure was used to access this hard-to-reach population. Male-to-female transgender sex workers reported fewer conventional job opportunities, fewer school problems, and higher harm avoidance and depression levels than male hustlers. Also, transgender sex workers reported earning more money through sex work and more frequently living in hostels with peers than their counterparts. As biological male sex workers are a heterogeneous population, attempts to classify them into distinctive groups should be further carried out as a way to better understand and identify their behavior, design effective health interventions, and consequently minimize the likelihood of unintended adverse outcomes. Our study showed that gender performance can be an important variable to be considered by researchers and policy makers when working with sex workers and developing HIV/AIDS prevention and public health programs, given that transgender and male sex workers not only display distinctive behavior and physical appearance but also reveal differences on specific psychological measures, such as personality traits and depression levels. We recommend that counselors working with this population strike a balance between facilitating self-disclosure and establishing more evidence-based directive interventions.

  3. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tamene, Masresha Molla; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Beyera, Getahun Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections are among the most important public health problems in the world. People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative method was conducted from March 20 - April 10, 2014 in Gondar town. The quantitative data were collected through interviewing 488 female sex workers while in-depth interview was administered to collect qualitative data from 10 female sex workers. The collected data were entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between condom utilization and independent variables. Results This study revealed that less than half (47.7%) of the respondents utilized condom with any type of client. Secondary education or above, perceiving themselves at risk of HIV/AIDS infection, having awareness that sexually transmitted infections could increase HIV infection, being tested for HIV/AIDS in the last 12 months, and having lower number of clients in a month were positively associated with condom utilization. Conclusion This finding depicted that condom utilization was low among female sex workers. Thus, developing and implementing target oriented behavioral change and communication strategies are needed to prevent the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers. PMID:26405486

  4. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tamene, Masresha Molla; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Beyera, Getahun Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are among the most important public health problems in the world. People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative method was conducted from March 20 - April 10, 2014 in Gondar town. The quantitative data were collected through interviewing 488 female sex workers while in-depth interview was administered to collect qualitative data from 10 female sex workers. The collected data were entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between condom utilization and independent variables. This study revealed that less than half (47.7%) of the respondents utilized condom with any type of client. Secondary education or above, perceiving themselves at risk of HIV/AIDS infection, having awareness that sexually transmitted infections could increase HIV infection, being tested for HIV/AIDS in the last 12 months, and having lower number of clients in a month were positively associated with condom utilization. This finding depicted that condom utilization was low among female sex workers. Thus, developing and implementing target oriented behavioral change and communication strategies are needed to prevent the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers.

  5. Biological monitoring of toxic metals - steel workers respiratory health survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Almeida, A. Bugalho de; Alves, L.; Freitas, M. C.; Moniz, D.; Alvarez, E.; Monteiro, P.; Reis, M.

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this work is to search for respiratory system aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. Workers from one sector of a steel plant in Portugal, Siderurgia Nacional (SN), were selected according to the number of years of exposure and labouring characteristics. The work reports on blood elemental content alterations and lung function tests to determine an eventual bronchial hyper-reactivity. Aerosol samples collected permit an estimate of indoor air quality and airborne particulate matter characterisation to further check whether the elemental associations and alterations found in blood may derive from exposure. Blood and aerosol elemental composition was determined by PIXE and INAA. Respiratory affections were verified for 24% of the workers monitored. There are indications that the occurrence of affections can be associated with the total working years. The influence of long-term exposure, health status parameters, and lifestyle factors in blood elemental variations found was investigated.

  6. Metal concentrations in the milk and tissues of a nursing Tursiops truncatus female.

    PubMed

    Frodello, J P; Viale, D; Marchand, B

    2002-06-01

    Metal concentrations measured in the organs of beached whales are published regularly. Few of these, however, describe metal levels in nursing females. In the present study, mercury, lead, copper and zinc levels were measured in the milk and tissues of a female Bottlenose dolphin. Results reveal that metal pollutants pass from the tissue into the milk.

  7. Barriers to free antiretroviral treatment access for female sex workers in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Kurian, Abraham K; Dubrow, Robert

    2009-11-01

    India's National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) provides free first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) at government centers for people living with HIV. To assist in developing policies and programs to ensure equity in ART access, we explored barriers to ART access among female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in Chennai. Between August and November 2007, we conducted three focus group discussions and two key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify categories and derive themes. We found interrelated barriers at the family/social, health care system/programmatic, and individual levels. Major barriers included fear of adverse consequences of disclosure of HIV status due to stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and sex work, lack of family support, negative experiences with health care providers, lack of adequate counseling services at government centers and by outreach workers employed by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), perceived biased treatment of FSWs who are not referred by NGOs, lack of adequate knowledge about ART, and fatalism. Barriers can be addressed by: creating effective measures to reduce stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and sex work at the familial, societal, and health care system levels; incorporating information about ART into targeted interventions among FSWs; training counselors at government hospitals and NGO outreach workers on treatment issues; improving infrastructure and staffing levels at government centers to allow adequate time and privacy for counseling; and implementing government mass media campaigns on ART availability. Finally, it is crucial that NACO begin monitoring ART coverage of FSWs and other marginalized populations to ensure equitable ART access.

  8. Nocturnal 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in female workers exposed to magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Juutilainen, J; Stevens, R G; Anderson, L E; Hansen, N H; Kilpeläinen, M; Kumlin, T; Laitinen, J T; Sobel, E; Wilson, B W

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether daytime occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs) suppresses nocturnal melatonin production. Sixty female volunteers were recruited. Thirty-nine worked in a garment factory, and 21 office workers served as a reference group. Exposure assessment was based on the type of sewing machine used and MF measurements around each type of machine. Eye-level MF flux density was used to classify the operators to higher (>1 microT) and lower (0.3-1 microT) exposure categories. A third group of factory workers had diverse MF exposures from other sources. The reference group had average exposure of about 0.15 microT. Urine samples were collected on Friday and Monday for three consecutive weeks. Melatonin production was assessed as urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion. The ratio of Friday morning/Monday morning 6-OHMS was used to test the hypothesis that melatonin production is suppressed after 4 days of occupational MF exposure with significant recovery during the weekend. Possible chronic suppression of melatonin production was evaluated by studying exposure-related differences in the Friday values by multivariate regression analysis. The Monday/Friday ratios were close to 1.0, suggesting that there is no increase in melatonin production over the weekend. The average 6-OHMS excretion on Friday was lower among the factory workers than in the reference group, but no monotonous dose-response was observed. Multivariate regression analysis identified MF exposure, smoking, and age as significant explanatory variables associated with decreased 6-OHMS excretion.

  9. Back posture and low back muscle activity in female computer workers: a field study.

    PubMed

    Mork, Paul Jarle; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2009-02-01

    Few studies have investigated sitting posture and low back muscle activity in occupational settings. This study aims to determine back posture and its influence on low back muscle activity in computer workers, and to investigate whether the work situation is associated with exacerbation of low back pain. Twenty-one female computer workers participated. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded from lumbar multifidus, longissimus, and iliocostalis throughout the workday. Simultaneous inclinometer recordings from pelvis, upper trunk, and left thigh were used to determine back posture and identify periods with sitting, standing, and walking. Low back pain intensity was recorded by visual analogue scale every hour throughout the work and leisure periods. All subjects adopted a markedly flexed back posture while seated at work. Surface electromyographic activity was very low for all muscles during sitting (group median <1.4% of root-mean-square-detected response at maximal voluntary contraction). Back posture moderately influenced electromyographic activity, accounting for 19% (sitting) to 38% (standing) of intra-individual variation in muscle activity. Subjects reporting aggravating low back pain (n=10) during the workday were not distinguished by duration of sitting, sitting posture, or low back muscle activity. Low back pain was markedly reduced from the last hour of work to the first hour of leisure, accompanied by an increase in low back muscle activity. Low back muscle activity was very low during seated posture, presumably due to the flexion-relaxation phenomenon. Sustained stretch of passive lumbar structures in combination with essentially silent muscles may exacerbate low back pain in sedentary workers.

  10. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2006 showed that more than half (56%) of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs) and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8%) reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25%) of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%), private clinics (50%), hospital (27%) and health centres (13%). Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary. PMID:21501473

  11. Validity of pressure pain thresholds in female workers with and without recurrent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Peter; Laeubli, Thomas; Klipstein, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    Recurrent low back pain (LBP) is a common pain condition in elderly workers in a variety of occupations, but little is known about its origin and the mechanisms leading to an often disabling sensation of pain that may be persistent or intermittent. In the present study we evaluated the pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in subjects suffering from recurrent LBP, as well as in healthy controls, to investigate if recurrent LBP is associated with an increased sensitivity of the muscular and ligamentous structures located on the lower back. One hundred and six female workers, aged between 45 and 62 years and working either in administrative or nursing professions were examined. The subjects were classified into LBP cases and controls based on the Nordic questionnaire. Subjects indicating 8-30 or more days with LBP during the past 12 months were graded as cases. PPTs were measured on 12 points (six on each side of the body) expected to be relevant for LBP (paravertebral muscles, musculus quadratus lumborum, os ilium, iliolumbar ligament, musculus piriformis and greater trochanter), as well as on a reference point (middle of the forehead) using a digital dolorimeter. The PPTs on all points on the lower back highly correlated with each other and a high internal consistency was found with a Cronbach alpha coefficient > 0.95. There was a moderate and significant correlation of the PPT on the forehead with the PPT on the lower back with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.36 to 0.49. In LBP cases from administrative professions, the PPT on the forehead was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The PPT on the lower back did not significantly differ between the four groups studied, namely nurses and administrative workers with and without recurrent LBP. These results give evidence that recurrent LBP is not associated with an altered sensitivity of the muscular and myofascial tissues in the lumbar region. Furthermore, they raise questions about the value of reference point

  12. Nocturnal 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in female workers exposed to magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Juutilainen, J; Stevens, Richard G. ); Anderson, Larry E. ); Hansen, Norman H.; Kilpelainen, M; Kumlin, T; Laitinen, J T.; Sobell, Eugene; Wilson, Bary W. )

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to determine whether daytime occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs) suppresses nocturnal melatonin production. Sixty female volunteers were recruited. Thirty-nine worked in a garment factory, and 21 office workers served as a reference group. Exposure assessment was based on the type of sewing machine used and MF measurements around each type of machine. Eye-level MF flux density was used to classify the operators to higher (> 1 microT) and lower (0.3-1 microT) exposure categories. A third group of factory workers had diverse MF exposures from other sources. The reference group had average exposure of about 0.15 microT. Urine samples were collected on Friday and Monday for three consecutive weeks. Melatonin production was assessed as urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion. The ratio of Friday morning/Monday morning 6-OHMS was used to test the hypothesis that melatonin production is suppressed after 4 days of occupational MF exposure with significant recovery during the weekend. Possible chronic suppression of melatonin production was evaluated by studying exposure-related differences in the Friday values by multivariate regression analysis. The Monday/Friday ratios were close to 1.0, suggesting that there is no increase in melatonin production over the weekend. The average 6-OHMS excretion on Friday was lower among the factory workers than in the reference group, but no monotonous dose-response was observed. Multivariate regression analysis identified MF exposure, smoking, and age as significant explanatory variables associated with decreased 6-OHMS excretion.

  13. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Sarah; Syvertsen, Jennifer; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse. PMID:23375570

  14. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.

  15. Strategies for recruiting steady male partners of female sex workers for HIV research

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Steady male partners of female sex workers (FSW) are a key population for HIV prevention, but researchers face challenges finding and recruiting this population. We conducted forty in-depth interviews with FSW and steady male partners of FSW in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic about how to engage steady male partners in HIV research. Participants cautioned that male partners might be unwilling to participate because of discomfort disclosing intimate information and cultural norms of masculinity. They recommended inviting male partners to research offices, instead of venue-based recruitment, because it was more private and trust-promoting. Most participants suggested that FSW could refer their partners or men could refer their friends who have FSW partners. Participants emphasized that referrals could break down trust-related barriers that prevent male partners from participating. Establishing an environment of respect and trust in the research setting can aid referral processes as individuals who participate communicate their positive experiences to their networks. PMID:25192901

  16. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries. PMID:26719732

  17. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Sarah P; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-07-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse.

  18. Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Garfein, Richard S.; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

  19. Correlates of Mental Depression Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pachauri, Saroj; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2015-11-01

    Mental health is an integral part of overall health status but has been a largely neglected issue in the developing world especially among female sex workers (FSWs). This study examines the prevalence and correlates of major depression among FSWs in southern India. Major depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale data from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey, 2010-2011 conducted among FSWs (n = 1986) in Andhra Pradesh, a state in southern India. Almost two-fifths of FSWs (39%) reported major depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows a significant association between major depression and the following characteristics for FSWs: low autonomy, alcohol use, experience of violence, police arrest, inconsistent condom use with clients, mobility for sex work, and being HIV positive or not wanting to disclose HIV status. Research and advocacy efforts are needed to ensure that the mental health issues of marginalized groups are appropriately addressed in HIV prevention programs. © 2015 APJPH.

  20. Feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to measure HIV risk behavior among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexis M; Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Garfein, Richard S; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2014-12-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group.

  1. Coverage of HIV Prevention Services for Female Sex Workers in Seven Cities of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88–99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:23695521

  2. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Costello, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries.

  3. Violence, stigma and mental health among female sex workers in China: A structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Xu, Jinping; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China, and it is significantly associated with mental health problems among FSWs. However, limited studies have explored the mechanisms/process by which violence affects mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among partner violence, internalized stigma, and mental health problems among FSWs. Data were collected using a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered to 1,022 FSWs in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), China during 2008-2009. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that violence perpetrated by either stable sexual partners or clients was directly and positively associated with mental health problems. Violence also had an indirect relation to mental health problems through stigma. Results highlight the need for interventions on counseling and care for FSWs who have experienced violence and for interventions to increase FSWs' coping skills and empowerment strategies.

  4. Strategies for recruiting steady male partners of female sex workers for HIV research.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2015-02-01

    Steady male partners of female sex workers (FSW) are a key population for HIV prevention, but researchers face challenges finding and recruiting this population. We conducted 40 in-depth interviews with FSW and steady male partners of FSW in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic about how to engage steady male partners in HIV research. Participants cautioned that male partners might be unwilling to participate because of discomfort disclosing intimate information and cultural norms of masculinity. They recommended inviting male partners to research offices, instead of venue-based recruitment, because it was more private and trust-promoting. Most participants suggested that FSW could refer their partners or men could refer their friends who have FSW partners. Participants emphasized that referrals could break down trust-related barriers that prevent male partners from participating. Establishing an environment of respect and trust in the research setting can aid referral processes as individuals who participate communicate their positive experiences to their networks.

  5. Immigration status and HIV-risk related behaviors among female sex workers in South America.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Christian T; Mosquera, Carlos; Serra, Margarita; Gianella, Alberto; Avila, Maria M; Laguna-Torres, Victor; Carr, Jean K; Montano, Silvia M; Sanchez, José L

    2008-03-01

    This study compares immigrant (i.e., foreigner) with non-immigrant (i.e., local/native) HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW) in South America. A total of 1,845 FSW were enrolled in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. According to their nationality, 10.1% of participants were immigrant FSW. Immigrant FSW were more likely to be younger in Argentina; to work in a disco/bar in Bolivia; to be single and use illegal drugs in Ecuador; and to work in a brothel, consume alcohol, and have sex with foreign clients in Uruguay. HIV-related sexual and drug use behaviors were more common among immigrant FSW in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. Country-specific HIV/STI prevention and control programs should be developed for immigrant FSW populations in South America.

  6. Foster care history and HIV infection among drug-using African American female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2012-05-01

    Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a history of foster placement. Foster history was associated with significantly lower educational attainment, higher victimization, and more severe mental health problems. Women with foster histories reported significantly earlier entry into paid sex work, with some 62% active in the sex trade before age 18. Multivariate analyses found that foster care was independently associated with HIV seropositivity, and that early sex work partially mediated this association. The potential long-term health vulnerabilities associated with foster placement are understudied and warrant additional research.

  7. Coverage of HIV prevention services for female sex workers in seven cities of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me; McFarland, Willi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88-99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV.

  8. Understanding STI Risk and Condom Use Patterns by Partner Type Among Female Sex Workers in Peru.

    PubMed

    Kinsler, Janni J; Blas, Magaly M; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Halsey, Neal; Brown, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    While brothel-based sex work is regulated by the Peruvian government, there is little data on STI risk factors reported by female sex workers (FSW). This study compared high risk behaviors among 120 Peruvian FSW from government regulated brothels with both clients and non-commercial partners. Our study found that 12% of FSW reported unprotected vaginal sex with clients (compared to 75% with non-commercial partners), and 42% reported unprotected anal sex with clients (compared to 87% with non-commercial partners). Group differences were observed in the expectation to have oral sex (32% for partners vs 60% for clients; p<0.01), and a history of anal sex (65% for partners vs 32% for clients; p<0.01) and both vaginal and anal sex with the same partners (46% for partners vs 25% for clients; p<0.001). These findings suggest that FSW constitute an important bridge population for STI/HIV transmission in Peru.

  9. Plasma microRNAs expression profile in female workers occupationally exposed to mercury

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Enmin; Zhao, Qiuni; Bai, Ying; Xu, Ming; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Wang, Bosheng; Song, Xianping; Wang, Jun; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions. Several studies have examined the potential effects of mercury exposure on miRNAs expression profiles of general population environmentally exposed to mercury. The objective is to identify mercury-related miRNAs of female workers occupationally exposed to mercury. Methods In this case-control study, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles in pooled plasma samples between (I) chronic mercury poisoning group; (II) mercury absorbing group and (III) control group in the discovery stage. Each group has ten individuals. In addition, we conducted a validation of eight candidate miRNAs in the same 30 workers by quantitative real-time PCR. Results In the discovery stage, eight miRNAs were conformed following our selection criteria. In the validation stage, RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation of miR-92a and miR-486 in the mercury poisoned group (P<0.05) compared to the other two groups. The results were consistent with the microarray analysis. Conclusions Plasma miR-92a-3p and miR-486-5p might prove to be potential biomarkers to indicate responses to mercury exposure. However, further studies are necessary to prove the causal association between miRNAs changes and mercury exposure, and to determine whether these two miRNAs are clear biomarkers to mercury exposure. PMID:27162656

  10. Markers of sexually transmitted diseases in seminal fluid of male clients of female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Worm, A M; Lauritzen, E; Jensen, I P; Jensen, J S; Christiansen, C B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To screen for certain STD markers in a group of male clients of female sex workers. METHOD: Condoms with seminal fluid were collected at 10 "massage parlours" in Copenhagen. The seminal fluid samples were examined for HIV antibodies, markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV), Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. RESULTS: All samples (n = 332) were negative for HIV antibodies. Out of 327 samples examined for HBV markers 32 (9.8%) were positive for HBV core antibodies, one of which was also positive for HBV antigen. C trachomatis could be demonstrated in six out of 122 (4.9%) samples and M genitalium in one out of 122 samples. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of a C trachomatis prevalence of 4.9% is considerable higher than expected in men with a presumed age of 35-55 years. The demonstration of a prevalence of HBV markers of 9.8% indicates that these clients have an increased risk of HBV infection, a finding that further consolidates the recommendation of HBV vaccination of sex workers. As shown in this study, STD transmission in commercial sex may also have the client as the source. PMID:9389951

  11. A Framework for Sexual Decision-Making Among Female Sex Workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Althea; Figueroa, J Peter

    2016-05-01

    The Jamaican government has provided targeted HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment, and other services for female sex workers (FSW) since 1989. HIV prevalence among FSW declined from 20 to 12% between 1989 and 1994, then to 9% in 2005, 5% in 2008, and 4.1% in 2011. This article distills the literature and two decades of experience working with FSW in Jamaica. Drawing on the constant comparative method, we put forward an innovative conceptual framework for explaining sexual decision-making and risk behaviors within both transactional and relational sexual situations. This framework helps fill the gaps in existing models that focus on individual behaviors. The model identifies interactions between environmental and structural elements of sex work, and three individual-level factors: risk perception, perceived relationship intimacy, and perceived control, as the four primary mediating factors influencing sexual decision-making among FSW. We propose that other factors such as violence, socioeconomic vulnerability, and policy/legal frameworks influence sexual decision-making through these primary mediating factors. This conceptual model may offer a useful framework for planning and evaluating prevention interventions among sex workers. However, it remains to be tested in order to establish its value.

  12. Mental and Physical Symptoms of Female Rural Workers: Relation between Household and Rural Work

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relations among mental disorders, physical discomfort, household work and farm work among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to 182 female farm workers. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression, where the significance level was set to 5%. Results indicated that 111 (61%) participants reported work-related mental disorders and physical discomfort was reported by 160 (87.9%). The participants with mental disorders and at least moderate levels of physical discomfort reported significantly higher levels of physical demand, time working (temporal demand), total effort and frustration with regard to farm work, in addition to significantly higher levels of frustration with regard to housework. Women with moderate or greater levels of both physical discomfort and frustration with farm work increased the chances of mental disorders. The results illustrate the complex challenge for health professionals in caring for women with mental disorders and physical discomforts related to their farm work, in the context of both the farm and domestic work demands these workers experience. PMID:26371018

  13. Effects of government registration on unprotected sex among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley J.; Bucardo, Jesús; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sex work is partially regulated in Tijuana, but little is known of its health effects. A recent behavioral intervention among female sex workers (FSWs) decreased incidence of HIV/STIs by 40%. We evaluated effects of sex worker regulation on condom use among FSWs randomized to this intervention. Methods FSWs aged ≥18 years who reported unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the last 2 months and whether they were registered with Tijuana’s Municipal Health Department underwent a brief, theory-based behavioral intervention to increase condom use. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the effect of registration on numbers of unprotected sex acts and cumulative HIV/STI incidence. Results Of 187 women, 83 (44%) were registered. Lack of registration was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex (rate ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3), compared to FSWs who were registered, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions Registration predicted increased condom use among FSWs enrolled in a behavioral intervention. Public health programs designed to improve condom use among FSWs may benefit from understanding the impact of existing regulation systems on HIV risk behaviors. PMID:20956076

  14. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners.

    PubMed

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-08-01

    We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.

  15. Police-Related Experiences and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests experiences with police are related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual risk among women working as sex workers. However, little is known about the links between specific police-related behaviors and HIV vulnerability. We examine whether 5 police-related experiences are associated with measures of HIV risk and violence among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Andhra Pradesh, India, and consider the implications for HIV prevention. FSWs at least 18 years of age (n = 835) were recruited through respondent-driven sampling for a cross-sectional survey conducted as part of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative. Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, age at start of sex work, and sex work venue, we assessed police-related experiences reported by FSWs in relation to HIV risk behaviors and violence. Results showed having sex with police to avoid trouble, giving gifts to police to avoid trouble, having police take condoms away, experiencing a workplace raid, and being arrested were associated with sexually transmitted infection symptoms, inconsistent condom use, acceptance of more money for sex without a condom, and experience of client violence. These findings suggest a need for interventions targeting police–FSW interactions to reduce HIV vulnerability among FSWs. PMID:22043036

  16. Vaginal Douching, Condom Use, and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Chinese Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    WANG, BO; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; YANG, HONGMEI; FANG, XIAOYI; ZHAO, RAN; DONG, BAIQING; ZHOU, YUEJIAO; LIU, WEI; LIANG, SHAOLING

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective Vaginal douching has been hypothesized to increase a woman’s risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, data on the prevalence of this practice and its association with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are limited. Study A cross-sectional survey among 454 female sex workers (FSWs) in a Chinese county. Results Vaginal douching was reported by 64.7% of the women. The prevalence of self-reported history of STI and that of current STI was 19.4% and 41.5%, respectively. Fifteen percent of the women reported consistent use of condoms with their clients and 8.4% with their regular partners. Vaginal douching was significantly associated with decreased use of condoms (with clients: OR = 0.31; with regular partner(s): OR = 0.22) and increased rate of self-reported STI history (OR = 1.95). However, there was no direct relation between douching and current STI. Over one third of the women believed that douching can prevent STI/HIV. Conclusion Vaginal douching exposes FSWs to a high risk of STI/HIV. Medical professional and public health workers should correct women’s misconception about the effectiveness of douching and discourage women from douching through educational activities. PMID:16254545

  17. Violence in contract work among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    George, Annie; Sabarwal, Shagun; Martin, P

    2011-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to physical and sexual violence at work. This article examines the prevalence of recent physical and sexual violence victimization and associations of type of sex work among a large sample of young FSWs. We used data from a cross-sectional survey on sex trafficking and sex work in southern India that included 1138 FSWs aged 18-25 years residing in 3 districts of Andhra Pradesh state. The independent variable was organization of sex work. FSWs on contract at sex work establishments outside their home district were classified as contract workers, as compared with women who worked autonomously within their home district. Using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, we assessed the relation between contract/ non-contract sex work and various forms of violence experienced by FSWs. Results indicate a high prevalence of work-related physical and sexual violence; 50% FSWs reported physical violence, and 77% reported sexual violence. FSWs performing contract work were at increased risk of physical and sexual violence at work, compared with women engaged in sex work in their home districts. The findings that contract work outside the home district increases the vulnerabilities faced by FSWs in India suggest that violence and disease prevention services aimed at FSWs would be more effective if organization of sex work--as contract or noncontract--is taken into account.

  18. Violence as a Barrier for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pando, María A.; Coloccini, Romina S.; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Montano, Silvia M.; Avila, María M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. Methods A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Results Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex. PMID:23342092

  19. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Papillomavirus in Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ersan, Gursel; Kose, Sukran; Senger, Suheyla Serin; Gunes, Habibe; Sehirali, Salim; Gurbuz, Ilhan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Human papillomavirus virus (HPV) is the major causative factor for cervical cancer, and sex workers are at high risk for HPV infection. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of HPV infection among female sex workers (FSWs). Materials and Methods: The study included 239 brothel-based FSWs who work in Izmir, Turkey. A self-administered questionnaire for risk factors was completed, and cervical brush samples were taken for HPV detection and typing. HPV detection and typing were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse hybridization methods. The risk factors related to HPV infection were determined by multivariate analysis. Results: The prevalence of HPV among FSWs was 20.1%. HPV18 was the most common type (40%), followed by HPV16 (17%) and HPV50 (15%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that being less than 30 years of age, having a high frequency of sexual contacts, smoking, and lack of condom use were significantly associated with HPV infection. Conclusion: FSWs have a high prevalence of HPV infection and are at increased risk for cervical cancer. As they are a priority group for active follow-up, national strategies for reducing HPV among FSWs and regular cervical cancer screening programs should be implemented for this population. PMID:25610243

  20. Assessing reported condom use among female sex workers in southern India through examination of condom availability.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Rajaram, S; Ramesh, B M; Verma, Supriya; Alary, Michel

    2010-02-01

    A key indicator of success of HIV prevention programmes is the number of female sex worker (FSW) sex acts protected by condoms. This measure usually relies on FSW reports, which may be biased. We examined condom availability data in five Karnataka districts to estimate the proportion of FSW sex acts potentially protected by condoms. Financial, programme, population, condom and contraceptive data were obtained from governmental and non-governmental sources, surveys and HIV prevention programmes. Sexual behaviour data were obtained from general population and FSW surveys. We examined four scenarios in a sensitivity analysis, each one assuming different proportions of available condoms that might have been used by sex workers. Possible condom use rates for all FSW sex acts ranged from 3%-36% in 2004 to 56%-96% in 2008. The two most realistic scenarios that discounted the number of private sector condoms that might have been bought for sex acts other than with FSWs showed that 16-24% of FSW sex acts could have been protected by condoms in 2004 rising to 77-85% in 2008. These data suggest that condom availability in these Karnataka districts in 2004 was low in relation to the number of FSW sex acts, but rose substantially over the ensuing 4 years. Condom availability data can be useful for triangulation with other available data, such as self-reported condom use, to provide a range of possibilities regarding the number of FSW sex acts protected by condoms.

  1. Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M

    1990-01-01

    Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers. PMID:2310704

  2. Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Sexual Risk Behavior among Female Sex Workers in two South Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Heravian, Anisa; Solomon, Raja; Krishnan, Gopal; Vasudevan, CK; Krishnan, AK; Osmand, Thomas; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV transmission in India is primarily heterosexual and there is a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs). Earlier reports demonstrate that many FSWs consume alcohol regularly before sexual encounters. This qualitative study is part of a larger quantitative study designed to assess alcohol consumption patterns among female sex workers and their association with sexual risk taking. Here we investigate the environmental influence, reasons for and consequences of consuming alcohol in the FSW population. Methods Trained staff from two Non-Governmental Organizations in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala conducted semi-structured interviews with 63 FSWs in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh (n=35) and Calicut, Kerala (n=28) following extensive formative research, including social mapping and key informant interviews, to assess drinking patterns and sexual risk behaviors. Results FSWs reported consuming alcohol in multiple contexts: sexual, social, mental health and self-medication. Alcohol consumption during sexual encounters with clients was usually forced, but some women drank voluntarily. Social drinking took place in public locations such as bars and in private locations including deserted buildings, roads and inside autorickshaws (motorcycle taxis). Consequences of alcohol consumption included failure to use condoms and to collect payments from clients, violence, legal problems, gastrointestinal side effects, economic loss and interference with family responsibilities. Conclusion FSWs consume alcohol in multilevel contexts. Alcohol consumption during transactional sex is often forced and can lead to failure to use condoms. Social drinkers consume alcohol with other trusted FSWs for entertainment and to help cope with psychosocial stressors. There are multiple reasons for and consequences of alcohol consumption in this population and future interventions should target each specific aspect of alcohol use. PMID:22608567

  3. Behaviour change and associated factors among Female Sex Workers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nyagero, Josephat; Wangila, Samuel; Kutai, Vincent; Olango, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background Initiatives aimed at behaviour change of key populations such as the female sex workers (FSWs) are pivotal in reducing the transmission of HIV. An 8-year implementation research to establish the predictor factors of behaviour change among FSWs in Kenya was initiated by the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) with Sida and DfID support. Methods This cross-sectional survey interviewed 159 female sex workers (FSWs) identified through snowball procedure. The measurement of behaviour change was based on: the consistent use of condoms with both regular and non regular clients, reduced number of clients, routine checks for STIs, and involvement in alternative income generating activities. The adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence interval computed during binary logistic regression analysis were used to determine the behaviour change predictor factors. Results Most FSWs (84%) had participated in AMREF's integrated intervention programme for at least one year and 59.1% had gone through behaviour change. The adjusted odds ratio showed that the FSWs with secondary education were 2.23 times likely to change behaviour, protestants were 4.61 times, those in sex work for >4 years were 2.36 times, FSWs with good HIV prevention knowledge were 4.37 times, and those engaged in alternative income generating activities were 2.30 times more likely to change their behaviour compared to respective counterparts. Conclusion Behaviour change among FSWs was possible and is associated with the level of education, religious affiliation, number of years in sex work and one's level of HIV prevention knowledge. A re-orientation on the peer education programme to focus on HIV preventive measures beyond use of condoms is emphasized. PMID:23467892

  4. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers.

    PubMed

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo

    2016-11-18

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years). Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction) for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.347-27.904), history (> 5 years) of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701-8.354) and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281-9.136). The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):927-936.

  5. Alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence against female sex workers in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Hong, Yan; Chen, Yiyun; Shan, Qiao; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    The global literature suggests that female sex workers (FSWs) experience high rates of sexual violence perpetrated by their clients, especially when FSWs are under the influence of alcohol. However, such data are limited in China. The current study is aimed to fill in the literature gap by examining the association between alcohol use by FSWs and client-perpetrated sexual violence against FSWs in China. A total of 1022 FSWs were recruited through community outreach in Guangxi, China. Female sex workers completed a self-administered survey on their demographic information, alcohol use, and sexual violence perpetrated by clients. Multivariable regression was employed to assess the relationship between alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence among FSWs while controlling for possible confounders. Results indicated that alcohol use was positively associated with the experience of sexual violence in both bivariate and multivariable analyses. Women who were at a higher risk level of alcohol use were more likely to experience sexual violence perpetrated by clients even after controlling confounders (e.g., demographics and alcohol-serving practice). Given the association between alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence, preventing or reducing alcohol use among FSWs could be an effective strategy to protect these women from sexual violence perpetrated by their clients. Alternatively, psychological counseling and other support should be available to these women so they can reduce their alcohol use as a maladaptive coping strategy. We call for culturally appropriate alcohol use reduction components, incorporated with sexual violence reduction strategies including adaptive coping skills training as well as empowerment, and targeting both FSWs and their clients.

  6. Viral hepatitis in female sex workers using the Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    de Matos, Marcos André; França, Divânia Dias da Silva; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Pinheiro, Raquel Silva; de Araújo, Lyriane Apolinário; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; de Matos, Marcia Alves Dias; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Teles, Sheila Araújo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and C virus infections and their genotypes and analyze the risk factors for the markers of exposure to hepatitis B virus in female sex workers in a region of intense sex trade. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study performed with four hundred and two female sex workers in Goiânia, Brazil. Data have been collected using the Respondent-Driven Sampling. The women have been interviewed and tested for markers of hepatitis B and C viruses. Positive samples have been genotyped. The data have been analyzed using the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool, version 5.3, and Stata 11.0. RESULTS The adjusted prevalence for hepatitis B virus and C virus were 17.1% (95%CI 11.6–23.4) and 0.7% (95%CI 0.1–1.5), respectively. Only 28% (95%CI 21.1–36.4) of the participants had serological evidence of vaccination against hepatitis B virus. Being older (> 40 years), being single, having a history of blood transfusion and use of cocaine, and ignoring the symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were associated with positivity for hepatitis B virus (p < 0.05). We have detected the subgenotype A1 of hepatitis B virus (n = 3) and the subtypes of hepatitis C virus 1a (n = 3) and 1b (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS We can observe a low prevalence of infection of hepatitis B and C viruses in the studied population. However, the findings of the analysis of the risk factors show the need for more investment in prevention programs for sexual and drug-related behavior, as well as more efforts to vaccinate this population against hepatitis B. The genotypes of the hepatitis B virus and C virus identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil. PMID:28678904

  7. Alcohol Use, Unprotected Sex, and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Lei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective Alcohol use has been suggested to interfere with condom use and to increase sexual risk behaviors. However, data on the prevalence of this practice among female sex workers and its association with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are limited. Methods Data were collected through the baseline survey of an HIV prevention project among 454 establishment-based female sex workers in Guangxi, China, in 2004. Both global association and situational analysis were performed using 2 measures of alcohol use (alcohol intoxication and drinking alcohol before having sex with a client). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association of alcohol use with women's condom use and STIs. Results One-third of women reported being intoxicated with alcohol at least once a month during the previous 6 months, and about 30% reported using alcohol before having sex with clients. In comparison with women who did not use alcohol before engaging in sex with clients, women who did so reported significantly less consistent condom use and higher rates of both current STIs and a history of STI. However, alcohol intoxication was not associated with condom use and STIs. These findings indicate event-specific rather than global associations of alcohol use with inconsistent condom use and STIs. Conclusion Alcohol use before commercial sex is associated with unprotected sex and increased risk for STIs. Interventions that address both alcohol use and HIV risk behaviors in the context of commercial sex may have a great impact in preventing the spread of HIV in China. PMID:20601927

  8. Assessment of nanoparticles and metal exposure of airport workers using exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Marie-Desvergne, Caroline; Dubosson, Muriel; Touri, Léa; Zimmermann, Eric; Gaude-Môme, Marcelline; Leclerc, Lara; Durand, Catherine; Klerlein, Michel; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle; Chanez, Pascal; Mossuz, Véronique Chamel

    2016-07-13

    Aircraft engine exhaust increases the number concentration of nanoparticles (NP) in the surrounding environment. Health concerns related to NP raise the question of the exposure and health monitoring of airport workers. No biological monitoring study on this profession has been reported to date. The aim was to evaluate the NP and metal exposure of airport workers using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a non-invasive biological matrix representative of the respiratory tract. EBC was collected from 458 French airport workers working either on the apron or in the offices. NP exposure was characterized using particle number concentration (PNC) and size distribution. EBC particles were analyzed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Multi-elemental analysis was performed for aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) EBC contents. Apron workers were exposed to higher PNC than administrative workers (p  <  0.001). Workers were exposed to very low particle sizes, the apron group being exposed to even smaller NP than the administrative group (p  <  0.001). The particulate content of EBC was brought out by DLS and confirmed with SEM-EDS, although no difference was found between the two study groups. Cd concentrations were higher in the apron workers (p  <  0.001), but still remained very low and close to the detection limit. Our study reported the particulate and metal content of airport workers airways. EBC is a potential useful tool for the non-invasive monitoring of workers exposed to NP and metals.

  9. Workers' postural conditions in the charcoal production proccess based on vertical metallic cylynders.

    PubMed

    Maia, Ivana Márcia Oliveira; Francisco, Antonio Carlos de

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of posture to the workers' health in the production of charcoal, this paper presents an ergonomic research based on a biomechanical focus that aims to evaluate the posture adopted by these workers on the production of charcoal in vertical metallic cylinders. Thus, it was verified the incidence of pain and/or musculoskeletal injuries to these workers. Also, it was evaluated the weight carried by them and the positions taken in their daily tasks. Applying the Ergonomic Analysis of Labor, the data collection was done by directly observing the workers, registering images, by interviews, and posture analysis based on the OWAS method. The main results of the research show that there are postures with risks in the four levels of musculoskeletal injuries classified by OWAS, concluding that the method is imperative for ergonomic recommendations for minimization or eradication of suffering injury and worker's postural constraints.

  10. Machine Tool Technology. Tutoring Strategies for Metal Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

    This tutoring strategies course designed to prepare tutors in a machine tool technology program was developed during a project to retrain defense industry workers at risk of job loss or dislocation because of conversion of the defense industry. Course contents are as follows: why you are here; qualifications of a tutor; what's in it for tutors,…

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in two major cities in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mgone, Charles S; Passey, Megan E; Anang, Joseph; Peter, Wilfred; Lupiwa, Tony; Russell, Dorothy M; Babona, Diro; Alpers, Michael P

    2002-05-01

    Treatable sexually transmitted infections are very common in developing countries and quite often are inadequately treated or remain untreated despite the fact that they enhance the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To estimate the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis among female sex workers in Port Moresby and Lae, Papua New Guinea, and to collect data on associated behaviors. Self-identified female sex workers recruited through our peer-mediated sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV risk-reduction community outreach program were invited to participate in the study. Participants underwent pretest counseling, were interviewed, and were asked to self-collect vaginal swab specimens for the detection of STDs and to provide 10 mL of blood for HIV and syphilis testing. A total of 407 female sex workers, 207 in Port Moresby and 200 in Lae, were enrolled in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, genital chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis among these women were estimated to be 10%, 32%, 31%, 36%, and 33%, respectively. The sex workers in Port Moresby had a significantly higher HIV infection rate (17%) than those in Lae (3%) and a significantly lower trichomoniasis rate (21%) than those in Lae (44%). Mixed infections were common, occurring in 45% of the cases. Despite a high rate of symptoms, the rate of treatment-seeking was low. Condom use among the sex workers was very inconsistent; 85% reported that they did not use condoms at all times when having sex with their clients. Common reasons cited were dislike by clients, unavailability, alcohol use, and familiarity with a client. STDs are very common among female sex workers in Port Moresby and Lae and very often present as multiple infections. Despite STD/HIV awareness campaigns, unsafe sex-particularly irregular use of condoms-continues among sex workers and their clients. Barriers to safer sexual behavior need to be

  12. Condom Negotiations among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Environmental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. Methods Female bar/spa workers (N = 498), aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. Results Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment - trafficked/coerced into work (AOR = 12.92, 95% CI = 3.34–49.90), economic environment - sex without a condom to make more money (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01–2.30), policy environment - sex without a condom because none was available (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.49–4.48), and individual risk - substance use (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.28–4.35) were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. Conclusions Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use) and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions

  13. Condom negotiations among female sex workers in the Philippines: environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. Female bar/spa workers (N = 498), aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment--trafficked/coerced into work (AOR = 12.92, 95% CI = 3.34-49.90), economic environment--sex without a condom to make more money (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.30), policy environment--sex without a condom because none was available (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.49-4.48), and individual risk--substance use (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.28-4.35) were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use) and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions should reduce barriers to condom negotiation for

  14. Identifying possible reasons why female street sex workers have poor drug treatment outcomes: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jeal, Nikki; Macleod, John; Salisbury, Chris; Turner, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Aims To explore street sex workers (SSWs) views and experiences of drug treatment, in order to understand why this population tend to experience poor drug treatment outcomes. Design In-depth interviews. Setting Bristol, UK. Participants 24 current and exited SSWs with current or previous experience of problematic use of heroin and/or crack cocaine. Findings Participants described how feeling unable to discuss their sex work in drug treatment groups undermined their engagement in the treatment process. They outlined how disclosure of sex work resulted in stigma from male and female service users as well as adverse interactions with male service users. Participants highlighted that non-disclosure meant they could not discuss unresolved trauma issues which were common and which emerged or increased when they reduced their drug use. As trauma experiences had usually involved men as perpetrators participants said it was not appropriate to discuss them in mixed treatment groups. SSWs in recovery described how persistent trauma-related symptoms still affected their lives many years after stopping sex work and drug use. Participants suggested SSW-only services and female staff as essential to effective care and highlighted that recent service changes were resulting in loss of trusted staff and SSW-only treatment services. This was reported to be reducing the likelihood of SSWs engaging in drug services, with the resultant loss of continuity of care and reduced time with staff acting as barriers to an effective therapeutic relationship. Conclusions SSWs face many barriers to effective drug treatment. SSW-only treatment groups, continuity of care with treatment staff and contact with female staff, particularly individuals who have had similar lived experience, could improve the extent to which SSWs engage and benefit from drug treatment services. Service engagement and outcomes may also be improved by drug services that include identification and treatment of trauma

  15. Population size estimation of female sex workers in Iran: Synthesis of methods and results.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hamid; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; McFarland, Willi; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the number of key populations at risk of HIV is essential for planning, monitoring, and evaluating prevention, care, and treatment programmes. We conducted this study to estimate the number of female sex workers (FSW) in major cities of Iran. We used three population size estimation methods (i.e., wisdom of the crowds, multiplier method, and network scale-up) to calculate the number of FSW in 13 cities in Iran. The wisdom of the crowds and multiplier methods were integrated into a nationwide bio-behavioural surveillance survey in 2015, and the network scale-up method was included in a national survey of the general population in 2014. The median of the three methods was used to calculate the proportion of the adult female population who practice sex work in the 13 cities. These figures were then extrapolated to provide a national population size estimation of FSW across urban areas. The population size of FSW was 91,500 (95% Uncertainty Intervals [UIs] 61,400-117,700), corresponding to 1.43% (95% UIs 0.96-1.84) of the adult (i.e., 15-49 year-old) female population living in these 13 cities. The projected numbers of FSW for all 31 provincial capital cities were 130,800 (95% UIs 87,800-168,200) and 228,700 (95% UIs 153,500-294,300) for all urban settings in Iran. Using methods of comparable rigor, our study provided a data-driven national estimate of the population size of FSW in urban areas of Iran. Our findings provide vital information for enhancing HIV programme planning and lay a foundation for assessing the impact of harm reduction efforts within this marginalized population.

  16. Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world

    PubMed Central

    Vandepitte, J; Lyerla, R; Dallabetta, G; Crabbé, F; Alary, M; Buvé, A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To collect estimated numbers of female sex workers (FSW) and present proportions of FSW in the female population (FSW prevalence) in different regions of the world. Methods Subnational and national estimated numbers of FSW reported in published and unpublished literature, as well as from field investigators involved in research or interventions targeted at FSW, were collected. The proportion of FSW in the adult female population was calculated. Subnational estimates were extrapolated to national estimates if appropriate. Population surveys were scanned for proportions of adult women having sex in exchange for money or goods. Results In sub‐Saharan Africa, the FSW prevalence in the capitals ranged between 0.7% and 4.3% and in other urban areas between 0.4% and 4.3%. Population surveys from this same region yielded even higher proportions of women involved in transactional sex. The national FSW prevalence in Asia ranged between 0.2% and 2.6%; in the ex‐Russian Federation between 0.1% and 1.5%; in East Europe between 0.4% and 1.4%; in West Europe between 0.1% and 1.4%; and in Latin America between 0.2% and 7.4%. Estimates from rural areas were only available from one country. Conclusions Although it is well known and accepted that FSW are a highly vulnerable group in the scope of the HIV epidemic, most countries in the world do not know the size of this population group. The estimates of the prevalence of FSW presented in this paper show how important this hard‐to‐reach population group is in all parts of the world. PMID:16735288

  17. Efficacy of kinesiology taping for recovery of dominant upper back pain in female sedentary worker having a rounded shoulder posture.

    PubMed

    Gak, Hwang-Bo; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary workers are most prone to work-related musculoskeletal disorders. We report the case of a female sedentary worker with rounded shoulder posture (RSP) whose dominant upper back pain decreased after correction of her RSP with kinesiology taping. We applied kinesiology taping around the patient's upper back and shoulder for 1 month (six times per week, each session lasting approximately 16 h) without any other interventions. After kinesiology taping, the RSP decreased progressively and the dominant upper back pain gradually disappeared. The patient no longer complained of dominant upper back pain during desk work. We believe that kinesiology taping may be used to enable recovery from dominant upper back pain in female sedentary workers with RSP.

  18. [An association of the occupational risk factors from greenhouses with allergic diseases in their female workers' children: results of analysis].

    PubMed

    Imamov, A A; Troshina, I V; Fomicheva, G B; Zamalieva, M A

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes an association between occupational risk factors in the female workers of greenhouses and allergic diseases in their children. The major factors contributing to the occurrence of allergic disease in children are their maternal employment in greenhouses with harmful working conditions, much dust in an apartment, a family history of allergic diseases, and unfavorable family lifestyle.

  19. The Effects of Economic Policies and Employment Assistance Programs on the Well-Being of Displaced Female Apparel Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Cynthia; Strand, Elizabeth B.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores how labor market trends and current employment assistance policies affect reemployment opportunities and emotional well-being in a sample of female dislocated apparel workers. The study follows the displaced women from the time the plant closed for 6 months to assess their financial and emotional well-being as they reentered…

  20. The Effects of Economic Policies and Employment Assistance Programs on the Well-Being of Displaced Female Apparel Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Cynthia; Strand, Elizabeth B.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores how labor market trends and current employment assistance policies affect reemployment opportunities and emotional well-being in a sample of female dislocated apparel workers. The study follows the displaced women from the time the plant closed for 6 months to assess their financial and emotional well-being as they reentered…

  1. A cross-sectional evaluation of the prevalence and associations of HIV among female sex workers in the Gambia.

    PubMed

    Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou; Loum, Jaegan; Baral, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    To determine HIV prevalence among female sex workers in the Gambia and HIV risk factors, we accrued participants (n = 251) through peer-referral and venue-based recruitment. Blood samples were screened for HIV and participants were administered a questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with HIV status. Forty respondents (15.9%) were HIV-positive: 20 (8.0%) were infected with HIV-1 only, 10 (4.0%) with HIV-2 only, and 10 (4.0%) with both HIV-1 and HIV-2; 12.5% (n = 5/40) knew their status. Condom usage at last sex was 97.1% (n = 170/175) with new clients and 44.2% (n = 53/120) with non-paying partners. Having a non-paying partner, living with relatives or friends, having felt scared to walk in public, selling sex in multiple locations, and recent depressive symptoms were positively associated with HIV under multivariate regression. Female sex workers have a higher prevalence of HIV compared to the general Gambian population. Interventions should be rights-based, promote safer sex practices and regular testing for female sex workers and linkage to HIV treatment and care with adherence support for those living with HIV. In addition, service providers should consider non-paying partners of female sex workers, improve knowledge and availability of condoms and lubricant, and address safety and mental health needs.

  2. Gender relations and risks of HIV transmission in South India: the discourse of female sex workers' clients.

    PubMed

    Aubé-Maurice, Joanne; Clément, Michèle; Bradley, Janet; Lowndes, Catherine M; Gurav, Kaveri; Alary, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In South India, where the majority of the country's cases of HIV are concentrated, transmission of infection occurs mainly within networks composed of female sex workers, their clients and the other sexual partners of the latter. This study aims to determine how gender relations affect the risks of HIV transmission in this region. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 clients and analysed qualitatively. Results show that clients perceive sexual relations with female sex workers as a vice involving loss of control and contact with women at the bottom of the social ladder. Paradoxically, this sometimes allows them to conform to the masculine ideal, in giving sexual satisfaction to a woman, in a context of incompatibility between the idealised and actual masculine and feminine archetypes. Attitudes to condoms, affected by various facets of the client-female sex worker relationship, are indicators of the link between this relationship and the risks of contracting HIV. The results suggest that there is a need for expanding targeted HIV prevention towards clients and female sex workers alongside more general interventions on gender issues, particularly among young people, focusing on the structural elements moulding current relations between men and women, with particular consideration of local cultural characteristics.

  3. Organizational policy recommendations for control of STI/HIV among female sex workers in China: regular examination of workers in social hygiene clinics.

    PubMed

    Morisky, Donald E; Urada, Lianne A

    2011-06-01

    This article aims to address female sex workers at high risk for contracting HIV in China by recommending evidence-based socio-structural interventions and policies at the national level that have yielded effective outcomes in other countries. National governments such as the Philippines and Hong Kong have utilized the Social Hygiene Clinic (SHC) model. A similar national policy can be highly effective in China. Evidence-based research study results indicate significant reductions in STI and consistent condom use among female sex workers in both China and the Philippines. Consistent condom use in both countries continues to be significantly associated with interpersonal- and venue-level factors. Individuals who had higher appointment-keeping ratios in the Philippines had higher rates of consistent condom use (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.6-3.7) and significantly lower rates of STI (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26-0.57). By beginning with provinces, which already have a good relationship between establishment venues and the local Health Department, China can develop city ordinances and establishment regulations that begin to require regular examinations of female sex workers and entertainers in the local STI clinic.

  4. Organizational Policy Recommendations for Control of STI/HIV among Female Sex Workers in China: Regular Examination of Workers in Social Hygiene Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Urada, Lianne A.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to address female sex workers at high risk for contracting HIV in China by recommending evidence-based socio-structural interventions and policies at the national level that have yielded effective outcomes in other countries. National governments such as the Philippines and Hong Kong have utilized the Social Hygiene Clinic (SHC) model. A similar national policy can be highly effective in China. Evidence-based research study results indicate significant reductions in STI and consistent condom use among female sex workers in both China and the Philippines. Consistent condom use in both countries continues to be significantly associated with interpersonal- and venue-level factors. Individuals who had higher appointment-keeping ratios in the Philippines had higher rates of consistent condom use (OR 2.7 95% CI=1.6 – 3.7) and significantly lower rates of STI (OR= .43, 95% CI= .26 – .57). By beginning with provinces, which already have a good relationship between establishment venues and the local Health Department, China can develop city ordinances and establishment regulations that begin to require regular examinations of female sex workers and entertainers in the local STI clinic. PMID:21660754

  5. Acceptability and use of the female condom and diaphragm among sex workers in Dominican Republic: results from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lara, Diana K; Grossman, Daniel A; Muñoz, Jhoanne E; Rosario, Santo R; Gómez, Bayardo J; García, Sandra G

    2009-12-01

    To assess the acceptability and use of the female condom and diaphragm among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, 243 participants were followed for 5 months. Participants received female and male condoms and a diaphragm along with proper counseling at monthly visits. Seventy-six percent reported used of female condom at least once during the final month of the study, compared with 50% that used the diaphragm with male condoms and 9% that used the diaphragm alone. The proportion of women reporting every sex act protected with some barrier method increased from 66% at first month to 77% at final month (p < 0.05). Participants reported higher acceptability and use of the female condom than the diaphragm. The introduction of female-controlled barrier methods resulted in the use of a wide range of prevention methods and a significant reduction in unprotected sex.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Female Condom Use and Interest Among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–US Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ≥18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest in trying female condoms. Factors independently associated with female condom use were having had a client become angry at the suggestion of using condoms and having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with non-regular clients. Factors independently associated with interest in using female condoms were lifetime physical abuse and lifetime sexual abuse. Increasing the availability of female condoms and providing education on their use in the context of drug use and violence is recommended. PMID:22711225

  7. Prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest among injection drug-using female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jamila K; Morris, Meghan D; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged >18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest in trying female condoms. Factors independently associated with female condom use were having had a client become angry at the suggestion of using condoms and having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with non-regular clients. Factors independently associated with interest in using female condoms were lifetime physical abuse and lifetime sexual abuse. Increasing the availability of female condoms and providing education on their use in the context of drug use and violence is recommended.

  8. GLOBAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HIV AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS: INFLUENCE OF STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, K; Strathdee, SA; Goldenberg, SM; Duff, P; Mwangi, P; Rusakova, M; Reza-Paul, S; Lau, J; Deering, K; Pickles, M; Boily, M-C

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Female sex workers (FSWs) bear a disproportionately large burden of HIV infection worldwide. Despite decades of research and programme activity, the epidemiology of HIV and the role that structural determinants have in mitigating or potentiating HIV epidemics and access to care for FSWs is poorly understood. We reviewed available published data for HIV prevalence and incidence, condom use, and structural determinants among this group. Only 87 (43%) of 204 unique studies reviewed explicitly examined structural determinants of HIV. Most studies were from Asia, with few from areas with a heavy burden of HIV such as sub-Saharan Africa, Russia, and eastern Europe. To further explore the potential effect of structural determinants on the course of epidemics, we used a deterministic transmission model to simulate potential HIV infections averted through structural changes in regions with concentrated and generalised epidemics, and high HIV prevalence among FSWs. This modelling suggested that elimination of sexual violence alone could avert 17% of HIV infections in Kenya (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1–31) and 20% in Canada (95% UI 3–39) through its immediate and sustained effect on non-condom use) among FSWs and their clients in the next decade. In Kenya, scaling up of access to antiretroviral therapy among FSWs and their clients to meet WHO eligibility of a CD4 cell count of less than 500 cells per μL could avert 34% (95% UI 25–42) of infections and even modest coverage of sex worker-led outreach could avert 20% (95% UI 8–36) of infections in the next decade. Decriminalisation of sex work would have the greatest effect on the course of HIV epidemics across all settings, averting 33–46% of HIV infections in the next decade. Multipronged structural and community-led interventions are crucial to increase access to prevention and treatment and to promote human rights for FSWs worldwide. PMID:25059947

  9. Social support and amphetamine-type stimulant use among female sex workers in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Mao, Yuchen; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2017-10-01

    Existing research has suggested a positive role of social support in reducing drug use among female sex workers (FSWs). However, there is limited research on the role of social support in amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use among FSWs in China. This study explored the present situation of ATS use among FSWs in Guangxi, China and examined the associations of different types of social support from different sources with ATS use. A sample of 1022 FSWs was recruited from 56 commercial sex venues in Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. Bivariate comparison was used to compare demographic characteristics and source of emotional or tangible social support across frequency of ATS use among FSWs. The relationship between social support and ATS use was examined using multiple ordinal logistic regression models controlling for the potential confounding effects of demographic variables. The multiple ordinal logistic regression indicated that FSWs who were from younger age groups (aOR = 10.88 for age group <20; aOR = 2.80 for age group 20-23), and from all higher-income venues (aOR = 1.96 for venue level 1; aOR = 2.28 for venue level 2; aOR = 1.81 for venue level 3) tended to use ATS more frequently. They also tended to use ATS more frequently when they depended on their boyfriends (aOR = 1.08) for emotional support or on their co-workers for tangible support (aOR = 1.17). Different types of social support from different sources can be either positively or negatively associated with ATS use among FSWs, therefore, the future intervention efforts should differentiate and target different types and different sources of social support in response to the living and work conditions of FSWs.

  10. Effects of a worksite program to improve the cardiovascular health of female health care workers.

    PubMed

    Low, Vivian; Gebhart, Bonnie; Reich, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Reducing cardiovascular risk for female health care workers supports self-care and facilitates a culture of health promotion. We examined the effect of individualized motivational communications on risk and measured program participation at a busy hospital, utilizing cardiac rehabilitation resources. Women (40-65 years old) who self-identified as having increased cardiovascular risk and ready for change were randomly assigned to weekly motivational counseling or control. All participants were offered classes (weight/diet, stress, exercise, and smoking cessation) and gym access. Physical and perceptual measures were recorded before and after the 6-month program to measure change. Followup 1 year later measured current weight, stress, and physical activity. Participants (n = 57) ranked weight as their greatest concern (42%). Compared with control, the intervention group resulted in greater: weight loss (7.2 vs 3.8 pounds); stress reduction (6.5 vs 4.7; Cohen stress scale); and exercise days per week (1.4 vs 1.2). Differences were not statistically significant in this small sample, but all changes consistently favored the intervention. Program participation was low, as was participation in the 1-year followup, although those responding indicated maintenance or further improvement. These consistent and positive findings are promising but only suggestive because of the small sample size. Future studies should focus on how to get more buy-in from employees, to help insure persistence toward health goals. Study results assisted development of a comprehensive Web-based employee wellness motivational program to address the issues of on-site participation. Attention to health risks in health care workers remains an important area of study.

  11. Physician diagnosed mental ill-health in male and female workers.

    PubMed

    Cherry, N; Beach, J; Burstyn, I

    2012-09-01

    Although there have been many studies of work demands and self-reported job strain, few have examined incident physician-diagnosed mental ill-health (MIH) by detailed occupational group. To investigate whether linkage of occupation from worker compensation claims to diagnoses from administrative health records can give credible information on occupation and incidence of MIH by diagnostic group and gender. Information on occupation from all worker compensation claims 1995-2004 in Alberta, Canada were linked to administrative health records of MIH diagnoses. Relative risks for affective, substance use and psychotic disorders by four digit occupational codes were calculated for men and women aged 18-65 years in a log-binomial regression adjusting for age and stratifying by sex. There were 327883 male and 88483 female compensation claims available for the analysis of incident cases. Affective disorders (5.2% men, 11.5% women) were much more common than substance use disorders or psychotic disorders (both ≤1%) in this population of working people. In men, the type of work appeared to either protect from or precipitate affective disorders, but no protective effect was seen for women. Substance use disorders clustered mainly in physically demanding occupations typically involving employment outside the urban areas. New onset psychotic disease was rare but seen in excess in painters, boilermakers and chefs. Data linkage of occupation close to the time of new onset MIH can provide important insight into the relation between work and physician-diagnosed MIH and indicate areas in which intervention might be appropriate.

  12. Understanding out-migration among female sex workers in South India

    PubMed Central

    Banandur, Pradeep; Ramnaik, Satyanarayana; Manhart, Lisa E.; Buzdugan, Raluca; Mahapatra, Bidhubhushan; Isac, Shajy; Halli, Shiva S; Washington, Reynold G; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Migrant sex workers are known to be vulnerable to HIV. There is substantial female sex worker (FSW) mobility between the borders of Maharashtra and Karnataka, but little programming emphasis on migrant FSWs in India. We sought to understand the individual/cultural, structural and contextual determinants of migration among FSWs from Karnataka. METHODS A cross sectional face-to-face interview of 1567FSWs from 142 villages in 3 districts of northern Karnataka, India was conducted from January–June 2008. Villages having 10+FSWs, a large number of whom were migrant, were selected following mapping of FSWs. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify characteristics associated with migrant (travelled for ≥2weeks outside the district past year) and mobile (travelled for <2weeks outside the district past year) FSWs; adjusting for age and district. RESULTS Compared to non-migrants, migrant FSWs were more likely to be brothel than street-based (AOR 5.7; 95%CI 1.6–20.0), have higher income from sex work (AOR 42.2; 12.6–142.1), speak >2languages (AOR 5.6%; 2.6–12.0), have more clients (AORper client 2.9; 1.2–7.2) and have more sex acts/day (AORper sex act 3.5; 1.3–9.3). Mobile FSWs had higher income from sex work (AOR=13.2; 3.9–44.6) relative to non-migrants, but not as strongly as for migrant FSWs. CONCLUSION Out-migration of FSWs in Karnataka was strongly tied to sex work characteristics; thus, the structure inherent in sex work should be capitalized on when developing HIV preventive interventions. The important role of FSWs in HIV epidemics, coupled with the potential for rapid spread of HIV with migration, requires the most effective interventions possible for mobile and migrant FSWs. PMID:23001264

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Client-Perpetrated Violence against Female Sex Workers in 13 Mexican Cities.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Stockman, Jamila K; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Chavarin, Claudia V; Mendoza, Doroteo V; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Globally, client-perpetrated violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been associated with multiple health-related harms, including high-risk sexual behavior and increased exposure to HIV/STIs. This study examined correlates of client-perpetrated sexual, physical, and economic violence (e.g., robbery) against FSWs in 13 cities throughout Mexico. FSWs (N = 1,089) who were enrolled in a brief, evidence-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for FSWs (Mujer Segura) were interviewed about their work context, including experiences of violence perpetrated by clients, sexual risk and substance use practices, financial need, and social supports. Three broad categories of factors (sociodemographic, work context, behavioral and social characteristics of FSWs) were examined as correlates of sexual, physical, and economic violence. The prevalence of different types of client-perpetrated violence against FSWs in the past 6 months was: sexual (11.7%), physical (11.8%), economic (16.9%), and any violence (22.6%). Greater financial need, self-identification as a street worker, and lower perceived emotional support were independently associated with all three types of violence. Alcohol use before or during sex with clients in the past month was associated with physical and sexual violence. Using drugs before or during sex with clients, injection drug use in the past month, and population size of city were associated with sexual violence only, and FSWs' alcohol use score (AUDIT-C) was associated with economic violence only. Correlates of client-perpetrated violence encompassed sociodemographic, work context, and behavioral and social factors, suggesting that approaches to violence prevention for FSWs must be multi-dimensional. Prevention could involve teaching FSWs strategies for risk avoidance in the workplace (e.g., avoiding use of alcohol with clients), enhancement of FSWs' community-based supports, development of interventions that deliver an anti-violence curriculum to

  14. Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money. PMID:23164407

  15. Factors mediating HIV risk among female sex workers in Europe: a systematic review and ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Lucy; Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Reynolds, Lucy; Wilson, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed the epidemiology of HIV and selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in WHO-defined Europe. There were three objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and STIs (chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea); (2) to describe structural and individual-level risk factors associated with prevalence and (3) to examine the relationship between structural-level factors and national estimates of HIV prevalence among FSWs. Design A systematic search of published and unpublished literature measuring HIV/STIs and risk factors among FSWs, identified through electronic databases published since 2005. ‘Best’ estimates of HIV prevalence were calculated from the systematic review to provide national level estimates of HIV. Associations between HIV prevalence and selected structural-level indicators were assessed using linear regression models. Studies reviewed Of the 1993 papers identified in the search, 73 peer-reviewed and grey literature documents were identified as meeting our criteria of which 63 papers provided unique estimates of HIV and STI prevalence and nine reported multivariate risk factors for HIV/STI among FSWs. Results HIV in Europe remains low among FSWs who do not inject drugs (<1%), but STIs are high, particularly syphilis in the East and gonorrhoea. FSWs experience high levels of violence and structural risk factors associated with HIV, including lack of access to services and working on the street. Linear regression models showed HIV among FSWs to link with injecting drug use and imprisonment. Conclusions Findings show that HIV prevention interventions should be nested inside strategies that address the social welfare of sex workers, highlighting in turn the need to target the social determinants of health and inequality, including regarding access to services, experience of violence and migration. Future epidemiological and intervention studies of HIV among vulnerable populations need to better

  16. Recruitment of Caribbean female commercial sex workers at high risk of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Donastorg, Yeycy; Metch, Barbara; Madenwald, Tamra; Joseph, Patrice; Severe, Karine; Garced, Sheyla; Perez, Marta; Escamilia, Gina; Swann, Edith; Pape, Jean William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate novel eligibility criteria and outreach methods to identify and recruit women at high risk of HIV-1 infection in the Caribbean. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2009–2012 among 799 female commercial sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Minimum eligibility criteria included exchange of sex for goods, services, or money in the previous 6 months and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a man in the previous 6 months. Sites used local epidemiology to develop more stringent eligibility criteria and recruitment strategies. Participants were asked questions about HIV/AIDS and their level of concern about participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess predictors of prevalent HIV infection and willingness to participate in a future HIV vaccine study. Results HIV prevalence at screening was 4.6%. Crack cocaine use [odds ratio (OR) = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.8–9.0)] was associated with and having sex with clients in a hotel or motel [OR = 0.5, CI (0.3–1.0)] was inversely associated with HIV infection. A total of 88.9% of enrolled women were definitely or probably willing to participate in a future HIV vaccine trial. Conclusions This study indicated that local eligibility criteria and recruitment methods can be developed to identify and recruit commercial sex workers with higher HIV prevalence than the general population who express willingness to join an HIV vaccine trial. PMID:24096973

  17. Why do condoms break? A study of female sex workers in Bangalore, south India.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, S P; Moses, Stephen; Boily, Marie Claude; Ramesh, B M; Isac, Shajy; Lobo, Anil; Gowda, G Chandrashekhar; Pushpalatha, R; Gurav, Kaveri; Kumar, Sunil; Washington, Reynold; Pickles, Michael; Alary, Michel

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the relative importance of personal factors, male partner factors and situational factors, in determining condom breakage in a population of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study that included a face-to-face interview and condom application test, with 291 randomly selected FSWs in Bangalore, India, in early 2011. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents noted condom use at last sex; 34% reported a condom breakage in the last month. Combining individual, situational and partner aspects of condom breakage into one logistic regression model and also controlling for client load, the authors found that partner and situational factors were dominant since the only significant predictors of condom breakage included being a paying client (adjusted odds ratio 4.61, 95% CI 1.20 to 17.58, p=0.025), the condom being too small for the penis (adjusted odds ratio 2.29, 95% CI 0.97 to 5.40, p=0.056) or too big for the penis (adjusted odds ratio 4.29, 95% CI 1.43 to 12.80, p=0.009) and rough sex (adjusted odds ratio 6.39 CI 3.55 to 11.52, p<0.001). Condom use among Bangalore FSWs is now very high. However, condom breakage is still a not uncommon event and puts women and their clients at unnecessary risk of infection. It may be difficult to eliminate the problem completely, but every effort should be made to discuss with sex workers the findings of this survey that point to possible personal markers of risk seen in the univariate analysis and to highlight the importance of avoiding rough sex and of ensuring the condom fits the client.

  18. Mobile phone use among female entertainment workers in Cambodia: an observation study

    PubMed Central

    Tatomir, Brent; Sovannary, Tuot; Pal, Khuondyla; Mengsrun, Song; Dionosio, Jennifer; Luong, Minh-Anh; Yi, Siyan

    2017-01-01

    Background Text or voice messages containing health behavior change content may be an inexpensive, discreet, sustainable and scalable way to reach populations at high risk for HIV. In Cambodia, one of the important high-risk populations is female entertainment workers (FEWs). This ethnographic study aims to explore typical phone use, examining patterns and behaviors that may influence the design of future mHealth interventions. Methods The study consisted of one 8-hour non-participant observation session for 15 randomly sampled FEWs. Observations focused on capturing normal daily use of mobile devices. Observation checklists were populated by observers during the observations and a post-observation survey was conducted. Findings were discussed with Cambodian HIV outreach workers and HIV research fellows and their interpretations are summarized below. Results In this ethnographic study, all 15 participants made calls, checked the time and received research-related texts. More than half (n=8) of the participants engaged in texting to a non-research recipient. About half (n=7) went on Facebook (FB) and some (n=5) listened to music and looked at their FB newsfeed. Fewer played a mobile game, posted a photo to FB, went on YouTube, used FB chat/messenger, watched a video on FB, played a game on FB, used FB call/voice chat, looked at their phone’s background or used the LINE app. Fewer still shared their phones, left them unattended, added airtime or changed their SIM cards. When participants received a research text message, most did not share the text message with anyone, did not ask for help deciphering the message and did not receive help composing a response. Notable themes from observer notes, HIV outreach workers and researchers include reasons why phone calls were the most frequent mode of communication, examples of how cell phone company text messages are used as a form of behavior change, literacy as a persistent barrier for some FEWs, and FEWs’ high

  19. Mobile phone use among female entertainment workers in Cambodia: an observation study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Carinne; Tatomir, Brent; Sovannary, Tuot; Pal, Khuondyla; Mengsrun, Song; Dionosio, Jennifer; Luong, Minh-Anh; Yi, Siyan

    2017-01-01

    Text or voice messages containing health behavior change content may be an inexpensive, discreet, sustainable and scalable way to reach populations at high risk for HIV. In Cambodia, one of the important high-risk populations is female entertainment workers (FEWs). This ethnographic study aims to explore typical phone use, examining patterns and behaviors that may influence the design of future mHealth interventions. The study consisted of one 8-hour non-participant observation session for 15 randomly sampled FEWs. Observations focused on capturing normal daily use of mobile devices. Observation checklists were populated by observers during the observations and a post-observation survey was conducted. Findings were discussed with Cambodian HIV outreach workers and HIV research fellows and their interpretations are summarized below. In this ethnographic study, all 15 participants made calls, checked the time and received research-related texts. More than half (n=8) of the participants engaged in texting to a non-research recipient. About half (n=7) went on Facebook (FB) and some (n=5) listened to music and looked at their FB newsfeed. Fewer played a mobile game, posted a photo to FB, went on YouTube, used FB chat/messenger, watched a video on FB, played a game on FB, used FB call/voice chat, looked at their phone's background or used the LINE app. Fewer still shared their phones, left them unattended, added airtime or changed their SIM cards. When participants received a research text message, most did not share the text message with anyone, did not ask for help deciphering the message and did not receive help composing a response. Notable themes from observer notes, HIV outreach workers and researchers include reasons why phone calls were the most frequent mode of communication, examples of how cell phone company text messages are used as a form of behavior change, literacy as a persistent barrier for some FEWs, and FEWs' high interest in receiving health

  20. Validity of pressure pain thresholds in female workers with and without recurrent low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Laeubli, Thomas; Klipstein, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent low back pain (LBP) is a common pain condition in elderly workers in a variety of occupations, but little is known about its origin and the mechanisms leading to an often disabling sensation of pain that may be persistent or intermittent. In the present study we evaluated the pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in subjects suffering from recurrent LBP, as well as in healthy controls, to investigate if recurrent LBP is associated with an increased sensitivity of the muscular and ligamentous structures located on the lower back. One hundred and six female workers, aged between 45 and 62 years and working either in administrative or nursing professions were examined. The subjects were classified into LBP cases and controls based on the Nordic questionnaire. Subjects indicating 8–30 or more days with LBP during the past 12 months were graded as cases. PPTs were measured on 12 points (six on each side of the body) expected to be relevant for LBP (paravertebral muscles, musculus quadratus lumborum, os ilium, iliolumbar ligament, musculus piriformis and greater trochanter), as well as on a reference point (middle of the forehead) using a digital dolorimeter. The PPTs on all points on the lower back highly correlated with each other and a high internal consistency was found with a Cronbach alpha coefficient > 0.95. There was a moderate and significant correlation of the PPT on the forehead with the PPT on the lower back with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.36 to 0.49. In LBP cases from administrative professions, the PPT on the forehead was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The PPT on the lower back did not significantly differ between the four groups studied, namely nurses and administrative workers with and without recurrent LBP. These results give evidence that recurrent LBP is not associated with an altered sensitivity of the muscular and myofascial tissues in the lumbar region. Furthermore, they raise questions about the value of reference point

  1. Assessment of Respondent Driven Sampling for Recruiting Female Sex Workers in Two Vietnamese Cities: Reaching the Unseen Sex Worker

    PubMed Central

    Sabin, Keith; Hien, Mai Thu; Huong, Pham Thi

    2006-01-01

    Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new method to sample hard-to-reach populations. Until this study, female sex workers (FSWs) in Vietnam were sampled using a variety of methods, including time location sampling (TLS), which may not access the more hidden types of FSWs. This paper presents an analysis from an HIV biological and behavioral surveillance survey to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of RDS to sample FSWs, to determine if RDS can reach otherwise inaccessible FSWs in Vietnam and to compare RDS findings of HIV risk factors with a theoretical TLS. Through face-to-face interviews with FSWs in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and Hai Phong (HP), data were collected about the venues where they most often solicit their clients. These data were used to create three variables to assess whether FSWs solicit their clients in locations that are visible, semi-visible and non-visible. For this analysis, the visible group simulates a sample captured using TLS. Survey results in HIV prevalence and related risk factors and service utilization, adjusted for sampling methodology, were compared across each of the three FSW visibility groups to assess potential bias in TLS relative to RDS. The number of self-reported visible FSWs (HCMC: n=311; HP: n=162) was much larger than those of the semi-visible (HCMC: n=65; HP: n=43) and non-visible (HCMC: n=37; HP: n=10) FSWs in HCMC and HP. Non-visible FSWs in both cities were just as likely as visible and semi-visible FSWs to be HIV positive (HCMC: visible 14.5%, semi-visible 13.8%, non-visible 13.5%, p value = 0.982; HP: visible 35.2%, semi-visible 30.2%, non-visible 30.0%, p value = 0.801), to practice behaviors that put them at risk for contracting and transmitting HIV (injecting drug use—HCMC: visible 13.8%, semi-visible 12.3%, non-visible 5.4%, p value = 0.347; HP: visible 38.9%, semi-visible 23.3%, non-visible 30.0%, p value = 0.378, to have no condom use in the past month —HCMC only: visible 52.7%, semi

  2. Does Gender Make a Difference? Results from the German "Tandem Study" on the Pedagogical Activity of Female and Male ECE Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandes, Holger; Andrä, Markus; Röseler, Wenke; Schneider-Andrich, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Based on an everyday quasi-experimental situation with multiple materials, the behavior of male and female early childhood education (ECE) workers is recorded and compared. The research is based on a sample of 41 female and 41 male ECE workers, who in each case work together in tandem in a kindergarten class, as well as a control group of 12…

  3. Does Gender Make a Difference? Results from the German "Tandem Study" on the Pedagogical Activity of Female and Male ECE Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandes, Holger; Andrä, Markus; Röseler, Wenke; Schneider-Andrich, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Based on an everyday quasi-experimental situation with multiple materials, the behavior of male and female early childhood education (ECE) workers is recorded and compared. The research is based on a sample of 41 female and 41 male ECE workers, who in each case work together in tandem in a kindergarten class, as well as a control group of 12…

  4. Epidemic Impacts of a Community Empowerment Intervention for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Generalized and Concentrated Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Andrea L.; Pretorius, Carel; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan; Decker, Michele R.; Sherman, Susan G.; Sweat, Michael; Poteat, Tonia; Butler, Jennifer; Oelrichs, Robert; Semini, Iris; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sex workers have endured a high burden of HIV infection in and across HIV epidemics. A comprehensive, community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention emphasizes sex worker organization and mobilization to address HIV risk and often includes community-led peer education, condom distribution, and other activities. Meta-analysis of such interventions suggests a potential 51% reduction in inconsistent condom use. Mathematical modeling exercises provide theoretical insight into potential impacts of the intervention on HIV incidence and burden in settings where interventions have not yet been implemented. Methods We used a deterministic model, Goals, to project the impact on HIV infections when the community empowerment interventions were scaled up among female sex workers in Kenya, Thailand, Brazil, and Ukraine. Modeling scenarios included expansion of the comprehensive community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention from baseline coverage over a 5-year period (5–65% in Kenya and Ukraine; 10–70% in Thailand and Brazil), while other interventions were held at baseline levels. A second exercise increased the intervention coverage simultaneously with equitable access to ART for sex workers. Impacts on HIV outcomes among sex workers and adults are observed from 2012–2016 and, compared to status quo when all interventions are held constant. Results Optimistic but feasible coverage (65%–70%) of the intervention demonstrated a range of impacts on HIV: 220 infections averted over 5 yrs. among sex workers in Thailand, 1,830 in Brazil, 2,220 in Ukraine, and 10,800 infections in Kenya. Impacts of the intervention for female sex workers extend to the adult population, cumulatively averting 730 infections in Thailand to 20,700 adult infections in Kenya. Impacts vary by country, influenced by HIV prevalence in risk groups, risk behaviors, intervention use, and population size. Discussion A community empowerment approach to HIV prevention and

  5. Impact of dropout of female volunteer community health workers: An exploration in Dhaka urban slums

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The model of volunteer community health workers (CHWs) is a common approach to serving the poor communities in developing countries. BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, is a pioneer in this area, has been using female CHWs as core workers in its community-based health programs since 1977. After 25 years of implementing of the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through a community-based maternal health intervention. However, BRAC experiences high dropout rates among CHWs suggesting a need to better understand the impact of their dropout which would help to reduce dropout and increase program sustainability. The main objective of the study was to estimate impact of dropout of volunteer CHWs from both BRAC and community perspectives. Also, we estimated cost of possible strategies to reduce dropout and compared whether these costs were more or less than the costs borne by BRAC and the community. Methods We used the ‘ingredient approach’ to estimate the cost of recruiting and training of CHWs and the so-called ‘friction cost approach’ to estimate the cost of replacement of CHWs after adapting. Finally, we estimated forgone services in the community due to CHW dropout applying the concept of the friction period. Results In 2009, average cost per regular CHW was US$ 59.28 which was US$ 60.04 for an ad-hoc CHW if a CHW participated a three-week basic training, a one-day refresher training, one incentive day and worked for a month in the community after recruitment. One month absence of a CHW with standard performance in the community meant substantial forgone health services like health education, antenatal visits, deliveries, referrals of complicated cases, and distribution of drugs and health commodities. However, with an additional investment of US$ 121 yearly per CHW BRAC could save another US$ 60 invested an ad-hoc CHW plus forgone services in the community. Conclusion Although CHWs work as volunteers in Dhaka

  6. Prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers and their clients in Togo in 2011.

    PubMed

    Halatoko, Wemboo Afiwa; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Saka, Bayaki; Akolly, Koffi; Layibo, Yao; Yaya, Issifou; Gbetoglo, Dodji; Banla, Abiba Kere; Pitché, Palokinam

    2017-02-21

    During the last ten years, a resurgence of syphilis has occurred in many countries worldwide, including Togo. Previous studies have shown a wide range of syphilis infection among the female sex workers (FSWs), from 1.5 to 42.1%. In Togo, Key populations, including FSWs, are rarely involved in the sentinel surveillance programs to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients in Togo. We conducted a cross-sectional study in December 2011 targeting FSWs and their clients in Togo. Among participant who consented, we collected blood samples for syphilis and HIV testing. In total, 1,836 participants (1,106 FSWs and 730 clients) were included in the survey. Their mean age was 28.6 ± 9 years. The prevalence of syphilis was 2.2% (2.2% among FSWs compare to 2.3% among their clients, p = 0.82). This prevalence was higher among FSWs over 30 years old compare to those less than 30 years old (Odd Ratio (OR) =5.03; 95% CI [1.95-13.49]). Single FSWs were three times less likely to have syphilis than those living in couple or married (OR = 3.11; CI 95% [1.16-8.83]). Brothel based or declared FSWs were 4 times more likely to be infected by syphilis than secret ones (OR = 3.89; CI 95% [1.60-9.54]). Out of the 1,836 participants of the survey, 165 (8.9%) were HIV positive. Having syphilis was associated with HIV infection (OR = 3.41; IC 95% [1.53-7.41]). This study showed that: i) the prevalence of syphilis among FSWs and their clients was high; ii) syphilis was significantly associated with HIV infection. It is necessary to increase awareness campaigns and emphasize on condom use among this key population group.

  7. Impact of dropout of female volunteer community health workers: an exploration in Dhaka urban slums.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Khan, Jahangir A M; Walker, Damian G

    2012-08-17

    The model of volunteer community health workers (CHWs) is a common approach to serving the poor communities in developing countries. BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, is a pioneer in this area, has been using female CHWs as core workers in its community-based health programs since 1977. After 25 years of implementing of the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through a community-based maternal health intervention. However, BRAC experiences high dropout rates among CHWs suggesting a need to better understand the impact of their dropout which would help to reduce dropout and increase program sustainability. The main objective of the study was to estimate impact of dropout of volunteer CHWs from both BRAC and community perspectives. Also, we estimated cost of possible strategies to reduce dropout and compared whether these costs were more or less than the costs borne by BRAC and the community. We used the 'ingredient approach' to estimate the cost of recruiting and training of CHWs and the so-called 'friction cost approach' to estimate the cost of replacement of CHWs after adapting. Finally, we estimated forgone services in the community due to CHW dropout applying the concept of the friction period. In 2009, average cost per regular CHW was US$ 59.28 which was US$ 60.04 for an ad-hoc CHW if a CHW participated a three-week basic training, a one-day refresher training, one incentive day and worked for a month in the community after recruitment. One month absence of a CHW with standard performance in the community meant substantial forgone health services like health education, antenatal visits, deliveries, referrals of complicated cases, and distribution of drugs and health commodities. However, with an additional investment of US$ 121 yearly per CHW BRAC could save another US$ 60 invested an ad-hoc CHW plus forgone services in the community. Although CHWs work as volunteers in Dhaka urban slums impact of their dropout is immense

  8. Supporting female survivors of intimate partner violence with disabilities: Recommendations for social workers in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Ballan, Michelle S; Freyer, Molly Burke

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive problem with grave consequences. Women with disabilities are among the most vulnerable groups disproportionately affected, with higher IPV rates than either women without disabilities or men with disabilities. The emergency department (ED) in particular affords a gateway into health services for female survivors of IPV, placing ED social workers in a prime position to observe potential signs of IPV and connect survivors to further assistance. This article explores the critical role ED social workers can fill in addressing the needs of female survivors of IPV with disabilities. We begin by providing background on the characteristics of IPV among women with disabilities, followed by a discussion of the opportunities and challenges inherent to assessing and intervening with survivors. We conclude by outlining recommendations for working with female survivors of IPV with disabilities in EDs, using our previous research on the topic as a guide.

  9. Metal dust exposure and lung function deterioration among steel workers: an exposure-response relationship

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Nurul Ainun; Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2016-01-01

    Background Metallic dust is a heterogeneous substance with respiratory sensitizing properties. Its long term exposure adversely affected lung function, thus may cause acute or chronic respiratory diseases. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a steel factory in Terengganu, Malaysia to assess the metal dust exposure and its relationship to lung function values among 184 workers. Metal dust concentrations values (Co, Cr, and Ni) for each worker were collected using air personal sampling. Lung function values (FEV1, FVC, and %FEV1/FVC) were determined using spirometer. Results Exposure to cobalt and chromium were 1–3 times higher than permissible exposure limit (PEL) while nickel was not exceeding the PEL. Cumulative of chromium was the predictor to all lung function values (FEV1, FVC, and %FEV1/FVC). Frequency of using mask was positively associated with FVC (Adj b = 0.263, P = 0.011) while past respiratory illnesses were negatively associated with %FEV1/FVC (Adj b = –1.452, P = 0.026). Only few workers (36.4%) were found to wear their masks all times during the working hours. Conclusions There was an exposure-response relationship of cumulative metal dust exposure with the deterioration of lung function values. Improvement of control measures as well as proper and efficient use or personal protection equipment while at work could help to protect the respiratory health of workers. PMID:27392157

  10. Ergonomics method for prevention of the musculoskeletal discomforts among female industrial workers: physical characteristics and work factors.

    PubMed

    Chavalitsakulchai, P; Shahnavaz, H

    1993-12-01

    In industrial work, working postures play an important role, separately and combined with other strain factors. The combined effects may be worse than those of single factors. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the body size, work postures and musculoskeletal discomforts between a group of female workers in a pharmaceutical plant and another group in a textile plant. Two hundred workers have participated in the following studies; (i) measuring anthropometric data in the standing and sitting positions, (ii) using the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), and (iii) using the detail Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for analyzing the musculoskeletal troubles in different parts of the body. The investigation has identified five main factors associated with the musculoskeletal discomforts: (i) lack of worker selection and lack of appropriate training to prevent occupational hazards or work-related diseases, (ii) poor ergonomic design of the work place and task including work organization, (iii) poor working postures, (iv) lack of task variation, and (v) insufficient rest breaks. These could be improved by introducing ergonomic interventions for both adjusting the individual work places and the task performed. It is necessary to consider preventive measures for musculoskeletal disorders, especially for female workers in industrially developing countries. Ergonomic aspects of the preventive measures should include: (a) consideration of appropriate worker selection for various works with sufficient training and instruction, (b) ergonomic redesign of work places, and (c) ergonomic considerations in work organization.

  11. Adverse health effects in workers exposed to trace/toxic metals at workplace.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rita; Juneja, Meenu

    2003-04-01

    Widespread use of metals in industrial activities has enhanced the occupational exposure to toxic metals as well as the health risks of metal hazards to humans. Elemental analysis in human tissues is the most common application of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of such exposures and risk. Among various biopsy materials, blood, hair, nail, teeth and body fluids may be used as bioindicators for this purpose. The present paper deals with the determination of Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn elemental concentration in workers exposed to these metals at workplace by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, with adequate quality control measures using hair as biopsy material. The study group includes the male workers such as welders, foundry man, fitter, hammer man, machine man, cupola man etc., besides office workers of locomotive workshop in Ajmer and surrounding areas exposed to different metals. Age and sex matched controls of persons working in the same area of work in offices etc. and not exposed to metal pollution were selected for valid comparison. It is proposed to validate the use of hair as a biological marker for assessing metal body burden of workers. In our study significant correlations have been found between skin disease and Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu; chest pain and Pb; hypertension and Cu, Mn; mental stress and Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn; liver problem and Ni; indigestion and Cr; Ni, diabetes and Cr, Mn, Ni; tuberculosis and Zn; breathing trouble and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn. The advantages of choosing hair as a biopsy material are also given.

  12. HIV-testing among female sex workers on the border between Brazil and French Guiana: the need for targeted interventions.

    PubMed

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Marechal, Emilie; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Rogier, Stéphanie; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    The border between Brazil and French Guiana is a place of economic, cultural, social and sexual exchange. Female sex workers represent a high risk population for HIV in this area where sexual tourism is particularly developed. HIV testing seems to be an important element in the fight against the epidemic. Indeed, early HIV testing gives access to treatments and prevention. An HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices survey was conducted in 2011 among sex workers along the border between Brazil and French Guiana. A total of 213 female sex workers were interviewed. One third (31.5%) of the interviewed had never tested for HIV. Factors associated with non HIV-testing were the lack of knowledge of places where to do an HIV test, to be 30 or older, feeling at risk of HIV, not evaluating one's own risk towards HIV, and living in Oiapoque. These results clearly suggest that targeted interventions are needed to encourage and assist female sex workers to get tested regularly.

  13. Pornography, Sexual Enhancement Products, and Sexual Risk of Female Sex Workers and their Clients in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Isac, Shajy; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, B M; Gowda, Chandrashekhar; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Despite their large numbers, and important role in the HIV epidemic in India, male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a difficult to reach population and little is known about their sexual behaviors. Using data from an integrated behavioral and biological assessment of 684 clients in Bangalore in 2012, we examined factors associated with their reports of having sex with three or more different female sex workers in the last month, and anal sex with sex workers. We included sociodemographic and sexual behavior factors and, for the first time in client studies in India, included data on the use of pornography and sexual enhancement products (SEPs) such as pills, oils, and sprays, in our multivariable analyses of client risk. Seventy-eight percent of clients had seen pornographic material and 8% reported ever having used SEPs. The profiles of men practicing the two risk behaviors examined were quite different. Travel in the past year, drunkenness in the past month, young age at first commercial sex, non-use of condoms at last sex, and finding sex workers in public places (but not use of pornography and SEPs) were independently associated with multiple partnering. Sex with a man or transsexual, being a white collar worker, seeking out FSWs at home, pornography and SEP use, and condom use at last FSW sex, were all independently associated with anal sex with an FSW. More research is needed to better understand the links between pornography and SEPs, and HIV risk behaviors, and HIV prevention programs need to be cognizant of the importance of ensuring that condom use is adequately promoted and supported in the context of anal sex in female sex worker-client interactions.

  14. Leaving sex work: barriers, facilitating factors and consequences for female sex workers in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Manopaiboon, C; Bunnell, R E; Kilmarx, P H; Chaikummao, S; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Supawitkul, S; St Louis, M E; Mastro, T D

    2003-02-01

    Factors facilitating or inhibiting women's ability to leave sex work are still poorly characterized, and little is known about women's lives after they leave the profession. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study about factors affecting women's ability to leave sex work and influencing their lives after leaving. We interviewed 42 current and former female sex workers (FSWs) drawn from a cohort study of 500 FSWs in northern Thailand. All but one of the participants had quit sex work at least once. The majority experienced one or more quit-re-entry-quit cycles. Women's ability and decisions to leave sex work were determined primarily by four factors: economic situation, relationship with a steady partner, attitudes towards sex work and HIV/AIDS experience. Economic concerns, ranging from survival needs to materialistic desires, had the strongest influence. Most women perceived their risk for HIV infection to be lower after leaving sex work, but three of the 17 HIV-infected women acquired infection after having left, presumably from their steady partners. Prevention efforts should guide women as they transition out of commercial sex work. Interventions aimed at assisting women wanting to leave sex work need to address the role of economic factors.

  15. Early Sex Work Initiation and Violence against Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Parcesepe, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly L; Martin, Sandra L; Green, Sherri; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mwarogo, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Between 20 and 40 % of female sex workers (FSWs) began sex work before age 18. Little is known concerning whether early initiation of sex work impacts later experiences in adulthood, including violence victimization. This paper examines the relationship between early initiation of sex work and violence victimization during adulthood. The sample included 816 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, recruited from HIV prevention drop-in centers who were 18 years or older and moderate-risk drinkers. Early initiation was defined as beginning sex work at 17 or younger. Logistic regression modeled recent violence as a function of early initiation, adjusting for drop-in center, age, education, HIV status, supporting others, and childhood abuse. Twenty percent of the sample reported early initiation of sex work. Although both early initiators and other FSWs reported commonly experiencing recent violence, early initiators were significantly more likely to experience recent physical and sexual violence and verbal abuse from paying partners. Early initiation was not associated with physical or sexual violence from non-paying partners. Many FSWs begin sex work before age 18. Effective interventions focused on preventing this are needed. In addition, interventions are needed to prevent violence against all FSWs, in particular, those who initiated sex work during childhood or adolescence.

  16. Outcomes of a Behavioral Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk among Drug-involved Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Surratt, Hilary L.; O’Grady, Catherine; Kurtz, Steven P.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; Chen, Minxing

    2014-01-01

    Although street-based female sex workers (FSWs) are highly vulnerable to HIV, they often lack access to needed health services and medical care. This paper reports the results of a recently completed randomized intervention trial for FSWs in Miami, Florida, which tested the relative efficacy of two case management interventions that aimed to link underserved FSWs with health services and to reduce risk behaviors for HIV. Participants were recruited using targeted sampling strategies and were randomly assigned to: a Strengths-Based/Professional Only (PO) or a Strengths-Based/Professional-Peer condition (PP). Follow-up data were collected 3 and 6 months post-baseline. Outcome analyses indicated that both intervention groups displayed significant reductions in HIV risk behaviors and significant increases in services utilization; the Professional-Peer condition provided no added benefit. HIV seropositive FSWs responded particularly well to the interventions, suggesting the utility of brief strengths-based case management interventions for this population in future initiatives. PMID:24558098

  17. Why female sex workers participate in HIV research: the illusion of voluntariness.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Fisher, Celia B; Blankenship, Kim M; West, Brooke S; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the motivation for and perceived voluntariness of participation in non-intervention HIV research among female sex workers (FSW) in India. FSW (n = 30) who participated in non-intervention HIV studies in the previous three years were recruited from a local community-based organization. Semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on women's personal and economic motivations for participation and their perceptions of the informed consent process. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated, transcribed, and reviewed for common themes. Content analysis indicated that while many women reported willing participation, reports of obligatory participation were also a common theme. Obligations included money-related pressures and coercion by other FSW, social pressures, not wanting to disappoint the researchers, and perceiving that they had a contractual agreement to complete participation as a result of signing the consent form. Findings suggest a need for additional efforts during and following informed consent to prevent obligatory participation in HIV research studies among FSW. Findings emphasize the importance of integrating ongoing participant feedback into research ethics practices to identify issues not well addressed via standard ethics protocols when conducting HIV research among vulnerable populations.

  18. Human papillomavirus prevalence, cervical abnormalities and risk factors among female sex workers in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Byraiah, G; Guerra-Giraldez, C; Sarabia-Vega, V; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Questionnaires were administered to 200 FSWs aged 18–26 years in Lima, Peru, to gather risk behaviours, and cervical swab samples were collected for Pap smears and HPV DNA testing as part of a longitudinal study. Participants reported a median of 120 clients in the past month, and 99.2% reported using condoms with clients. The prevalence of any HPV in cervical samples was 66.8%; 34 (17.1%) participants had prevalent HPV 16 or 18, and 92 (46.2%) had one or more oncogenic types. Fifteen women had abnormal Pap smears, 13 of which were HPV DNA positive. Fewer years since first sex was associated with oncogenic HPV prevalence in a model adjusted for previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and condom use with partners (prevalence ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60–0.97). Our data confirm the high rates of HPV transmission among FSWs in Peru, highlighting the need for early and effective strategies to prevent cervical cancer. PMID:22581946

  19. Human papillomavirus prevalence, cervical abnormalities and risk factors among female sex workers in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Byraiah, G; Guerra-Giraldez, C; Sarabia-Vega, V; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N A

    2012-04-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Questionnaires were administered to 200 FSWs aged 18-26 years in Lima, Peru, to gather risk behaviours, and cervical swab samples were collected for Pap smears and HPV DNA testing as part of a longitudinal study. Participants reported a median of 120 clients in the past month, and 99.2% reported using condoms with clients. The prevalence of any HPV in cervical samples was 66.8%; 34 (17.1%) participants had prevalent HPV 16 or 18, and 92 (46.2%) had one or more oncogenic types. Fifteen women had abnormal Pap smears, 13 of which were HPV DNA positive. Fewer years since first sex was associated with oncogenic HPV prevalence in a model adjusted for previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and condom use with partners (prevalence ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-0.97). Our data confirm the high rates of HPV transmission among FSWs in Peru, highlighting the need for early and effective strategies to prevent cervical cancer.

  20. [Survey adaptation for bio-behavioural surveillance of HIV in Chilean female sex workers].

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Bielka; Stuardo, Valeria; Manríquez, José Manuel; Belmar, Julieta; Folch, Cinta

    2017-04-12

    To adapt a behavioural questionnaire for second-generation HIV/AIDS surveillance in female sex workers (FSWs) in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. Qualitative study of instruments validation. A Spanish instrument adapted in Catalonia was validated through a translation and back-translation of the original version. The content validity was determined through a modified Delphi method, via FSW and HIV experts representing community, political and institutional levels. Applicability aspects were determined by the application of the questionnaire to FSW in the Metropolitan Region. The questionnaire, drafted in Spain, was successfully adapted to Chilean Spanish. The content validity process enabled sections to be created that address HIV in FSWs. The adapted questionnaire takes less than 15minutes to complete, which makes it usable in fieldwork. The 61 women surveyed came from different countries (all were Latin Americans) and had different educational levels; all this enabled potential applicability problems to be detected. The adapted questionnaire for Chile contains all the UNAIDS indicators for FSWs, as well as the recommended indicators of Family Health International for bio-behavioural surveillance. Said questionnaire serves as a tool for second-generation HIV/other STD surveillance and further contributes to preventive policies in Chilean FSWs. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Dose-response relationships for female radium dial workers: A new look

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    The values of initial systemic intake and of skeletal dose for all of the U.S. radium cases have recently been revised. This revision was required following the demonstrations by Rundo and by Keane that humans who were exposed to radium as adults lost radium at a rate that depended on the quantity of radium originally deposited within their bodies. These new values have been used to define new dose-response relationships for both the bone sarcomas and the carcinomas arising in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells induced by internally deposited radium. The population examined was employed in the U.S. dial painting industry prior to 1950 and consisted of 1530 female dial workers for whom radium body burden measurements were available. By the end of 1990, 46 cases of bone sarcomas and 19 cases of head carcinomas had been diagnosed in this cohort. The head carcinoma incidence can be adequately fitted by a simple linear function, as was found in previous analyses. The bone sarcoma cases were previously fitted by a dose-squared-exponential function. With the revised values of systemic intake, the sarcoma results could not be satisfactorily fitted with this expression. When the exponent on D was increased to larger values, excellent fits were obtained.

  2. Condom negotiation and use among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Tran, Ly T H; Beasley, R Palmer; Ross, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom-use negotiation strategies and condom use among 81 female sex workers (FSWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Percentages of FSWs who did not negotiate condom use or could not describe a negotiation strategy with native clients, foreign clients, and non-paying partners were 15.0, 29.0 and 67.6 %, respectively. The most common negotiation strategy used was "provision of risk information" for native clients (43.8 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %), and "direct request" for foreign clients (39.5 %). About half could not describe more than one negotiation strategy. Consistent condom use was high with native clients (98.8 %), yet comparatively lower with foreign clients (86.9 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %). FSWs who did not negotiate or did not know how to negotiate condom use were less likely to report condom use with non-paying regular partners. Future interventions should enhance condom negotiation strategies between FSWs and all partner types.

  3. Partner Violence and Psychosocial Distress among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW), most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects. Findings: About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China. PMID:23626798

  4. Induced abortion, contraceptive use, and dual protection among female sex workers in Moscow, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Yam, Eileen A.; Wirtz, Andrea L.; Baral, Stefan D.; Peryshkina, Alena; Mogilnyi, Vladmir; Beyrer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe abortion history and current contraceptive use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Moscow, Russia. Methods A clinic-based survey was conducted among 147 FSWs in Moscow during an 8-month period in 2005. Results In total, 83 of 143 (58.0%) FSWs reported a history of abortion, with 45 of 143 (31.5%) indicating multiple abortions. Condoms were the primary form of contraception (145/146 [99.3%]); just 17 of 142 (12.0%) FSWs reported using non-barrier modern contraception. All women who reported using a non-barrier modern method also indicated condom use (i.e. dual protection). Non-barrier contraceptive use was associated with inconsistent condom use (odds ratio [OR] 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–9.02) and multiple abortions (OR 4.71; 95% CI, 1.19–18.62). Conclusion The results illustrate substantial risk for unintended pregnancy among FSWs. Further research is needed regarding the dynamics of non-barrier contraception and condom use. Efforts to improve the health and wellbeing of FSWs should include access to safe and effective contraception, in addition to HIV prevention. PMID:23083495

  5. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B.; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico–US border. Methods. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Results. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Conclusions. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners’ HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers’ intimate relationships. PMID:26066947

  6. Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods/Design Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes. Discussion A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial. Trial registration NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011. PMID:24885949

  7. Attitudes and experiences regarding induced abortion among female sex workers, Savannakhet Province, Laos.

    PubMed

    Cleeve, Amanda; Phrasisombath, Ketkesone; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions (IAs). This study aimed to describe attitudes towards and experiences of IA among FSWs in Laos. 258 FSWs were interviewed in Kaysone Phomvihan, Laos. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Overall, 24% of the respondents reported experience of IA. Fifteen percent reported experience of unintended pregnancy after entering sex work, whereof all had ended in IA. Thirty-six percent had self-induced the last IA and 64% were carried out in private clinics. The main reasons for having IAs were paternity denial and lack of financial and social support. A majority agreed or strongly agreed that IA should not be legal in Laos and that women who undergo IA are immoral, but also that IA is the only option a FSW has when experiencing an unintended pregnancy. A positive attitude towards IA was associated with longer duration of sex work and being unmarried. IAs were common. Respondents' attitudes and practices reflected limited options when experiencing an unintended pregnancy, and were influenced by negative social perceptions. Interventions targeting FSWs should raise awareness of IA and post-abortion care, and promote dual contraceptive use with highly effective contraceptives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Hazardous Drinking among Female Sex Workers in 13 Mexican Cities.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zavala, Rosa Icela; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2016-07-01

    To describe the prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking among female sex workers (FSWs) at 13 sites throughout Mexico. FSWs (N = 1089) who were enrolled in a brief sexual risk reduction intervention (Mujer Segura) were queried about their sexual risk and substance use practices and their work contexts. Participants were classified as hazardous or non-hazardous drinkers based on the Alcohol Use Disorders test (AUDIT-C). Logistic regression models were used to examine individual, contextual, and community-level factors as correlates of hazardous drinking. Ninety-two percent of participants reported alcohol consumption in the past month. Among drinkers (N = 1001), 83% met AUDIT-C criteria for hazardous drinking. Factors that were independently associated with hazardous drinking included: drug use in the past month (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.31; 95% CI 1.29-8.45), being a cigarette smoker (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.13-2.58), being a barmaid or dance hostess (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.95-5.91), alcohol use before or during sex with clients (AOR = 7.78; 95% CI 4.84-12.52), and working in a city with a higher marginalization index (AOR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.11). Findings support the high prioritization by public health authorities of alcohol prevention and treatment programs for FSWs. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of the number of female sex workers in Yangon and Mandalay, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Thein, Si Thu; Aung, Tin; McFarland, Willi

    2015-10-01

    While it is known that HIV prevalence is higher among key affected populations, such as female sex workers (FSW), the sizes of these populations are difficult to estimate. This study aimed to estimate the numbers of FSW in the two largest cities of Myanmar using multiple data-driven methods. A total of 778 FSW (450 in Yangon, 328 in Mandalay) were recruited though time-location sampling during November and December 2013. Five multiplier methods and a modified wisdom of the crowds method were applied within the surveys to calculate the number of FSW in each city. The median of the methods estimated a population size of FSW in Yangon at 4992 (acceptable upper and lower bounds: 4482-5753) and 3315 (2992-3368) in Mandalay. These estimates translate to a population prevalence of FSW among adult women (age 18-49 years) of 0.35 % (0.32-0.40 %) in Yangon and 0.77 % (0.69-0.84 %) in Mandalay.

  10. Association between plasma testosterone and work-related neck and shoulder disorders among female workers.

    PubMed

    Kaergaard, A; Hansen, A M; Rasmussen, K; Andersen, J H

    2000-08-01

    The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints. In a cross-sectional design 145 women from 2 different industries filled out questionnaires about current musculoskeletal complaints, participated in a clinical examination of the neck and upper extremities, and gave a blood sample for the analysis of free testosterone in plasma. Individual characteristics, psychosocial job factors, and stress reactions were evaluated by questionnaires. In a follow-up study a subgroup of 73 sewing machine operators from the cross-sectional study was reexamined after 1 year. The group of women with clinically verified neck or shoulder disorders had significantly lower plasma testosterone than the women with no disorders. Furthermore, the testosterone level showed a negative association with age and a positive association with smoking and body mass index. Changes in pain status or clinically diagnosed musculoskeletal disorders were not associated with changes in testosterone levels. However, this finding may well be due to a strong plant influence in that marked changes in testosterone levels were observed for 2 of the 3 participating plants. There is some indication of an association between musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders and a low level of free plasma testosterone. The study failed to clarify the associations found between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints over time.

  11. Night shift work and lung cancer risk among female textile workers in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Paul; Lundin, Jessica; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta; Littell, Christopher; Gao, Daoli; Thomas, David B; Checkoway, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as a probable human carcinogen. Suppression of the anti-neoplastic hormone, melatonin, is a presumed mechanism of action. We conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. Newly diagnosed lung cancer cases (n = 1451) identified during the study period (1989-2006) were compared with an age-stratified subcohort (n = 3040). Adjusting for age, smoking, parity, and endotoxin exposure, relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs)] were estimated by Cox regression modeling to assess associations with cumulative years and nights of rotating shift work. Results did not consistently reveal any increased risk of lung cancer among rotating shift work or statistically significant trends for both cumulative years (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.02; P(trend) = 0.294) and nights (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.00; P(trend) = 0.415). Further analyses imposing 10- and 20-year lag times for disease latency also revealed similar results. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, rotating nighttime shift work appears to be associated with a relatively reduced lung cancer risk although the magnitude of the effect was modest and not statistically significant.

  12. Unprotected sex with their clients among low-paying female sex workers in southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background China has been experiencing a rapid increase in the HIV epidemic for decades. Commercial sex plays a critical role in heterosexual transmission of HIV. Limited studies suggested that low-paying female sex workers (FSWs) faced a higher risk of HIV infection. Low-paying FSWs are women who usually encounter their clients on the street or small establishments in rural or less-developed areas, or who charge low fees for each sexual service. Methods A total of 720 low-paying FSWs from 130 commercial sex venues/locations in southwest China were included in the data analysis. Multivariate regression models were employed to examine the associations of unprotected sex with a number of exploratory variables among the study sample. Results About 33.9% and 61.5% of low-paying FSWs reported unprotected sex with clients in the last sex act and in the last month, respectively. After controlling for confounders, women’s HIV knowledge, risk perception, experience of police arrest, and venue types were significantly associated with unprotected sex among low-paying FSWs. Discussion Low-paying FSWs are at an alarmingly high risk of HIV infection. HIV prevention programs are urgently needed to address risk factors posit in both individual and contextual levels among this most-at-risk population in order to curb the HIV epidemic in China. PMID:23062062

  13. Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in China: Role of Gatekeepers

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HONGMEI; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; FANG, XIAOYI; ZHAO, RAN; DONG, BAIQING; LIU, WEI; LIANG, SHAOLING; ZHOU, YUEJIAO; HONG, YAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the potential role of gatekeepers of establishments in promoting condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. Goals The goals of this study were to explore FSWs’ perceptions of gatekeeper attitudes and support for condom use, and to assess their association with FSWs’ practice, communication, intention, proper use, knowledge of correct use, and perceptions related to condom use. Study The authors conducted a cross-sectional study among 454 establishment-based FSWs in one Chinese county. Results Perceived gatekeeper support for condom use was low among FSWs. Perceived support was positively associated with condom use communication with sexual partners, condom use frequency and intention, but not associated with proper condom use among FSWs. Perceived support was significantly associated with most condom use-related perceptions (e.g., self-efficacy of condom use, barriers to condom use, and perceived peer condom use) among FSWs. Conclusions Healthcare professionals should work with gatekeepers to create a supportive local environment for condom use in sex work establishments. Gatekeepers need to clearly articulate their support for condom use to the FSWs. Training and skill acquisition regarding correct use of condoms among FSWs will be necessary. PMID:16118607

  14. Pregnancy intentions among female sex workers: Recognising their rights and wants as mothers

    PubMed Central

    DUFF, Putu; SHOVELLER, Jeannie; FENG, Cindy; OGILVIE, Gina; MONTANER, Julio; SHANNON, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Objective To better understand the prevalence and correlates of pregnancy intentions among female sex workers (FSWs). Design Cross-sectional analysis using data from an open prospective cohort of street and off-street FSWs in Vancouver, Canada, in partnership with local sex work and community agencies. Methods FSWs were recruited through outreach to street and off-street locations (e.g., massage parlours, micro-brothels) and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV/STI testing. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate correlates of pregnancy intention, based on a “yes” versus “no” response to “are you planning on have any (any more) children in the future?”. Results Of the 510 women, 394 (77.3%) reported prior pregnancy, with 140 (27.5%) of the entire sample reporting positive pregnancy intentions. 35.3% were Caucasian, and 26.3% were Asian/visible minority, with no differences in pregnancy intention by ethnicity or HIV status. 38.4% reported Canadian Aboriginal ancestry. In our final multivariable model, servicing clients in formal indoor settings, inconsistent condom use by clients, younger age, and intimate partner violence (IPV) were associated with pregnancy intention. Conclusions FSWs may have pregnancy intention levels similar to that of women in other occupations. Policy changes are needed to improve FSWs’ access to integrated HIV and reproductive health services and harm reduction services, particularly for FSWs experiencing IPV. PMID:25056256

  15. Violence against female sex workers in Cameroon: accounts of violence, harm reduction, and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sahnah; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Cange, Charles; Papworth, Erin; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Kamla, Aristide; Billong, Serge; Fokam, Pamella; Njindam, Iliassou; Decker, Michele R; Sherman, Susan G; Baral, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in Cameroon, and West Africa generally, suffer a disproportionate burden of HIV. Although violence against FSWs has been documented extensively in other parts of the world, data on violence from West African countries are lacking. The aim of this study was to qualitatively document violence and harm reduction strategies from the perspective of FSWs in Cameroon as well as to understand how experiences of violence may increase FSWs' HIV risk. FSWs from 7 major cities in Cameroon (Douala, Yaounde, Bamenda, Bertoua, Nagoundere, Kribi, and Bafoussam) were purposively recruited. Data from 31 in-depth interviews and 7 focus groups (n = 70; with some overlapping participants from in-depth interviews) conducted with these FSWs in 6 of these 7 cities (excluding Kribi) were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Transcripts revealed 3 primary themes related to violence: (1) sources and types of violence, including sexual, physical, and financial violence perpetrated by clients and police, (2) harm reduction strategies, including screening clients and safe work locations, receipt of payment before sexual act, and formation of an informal security network, and (3) recommendations on structural changes to reduce violence that emphasized sex work decriminalization and increased police accountability. As in other parts of the world, violence against FSWs is pervasive in Cameroon. Interventions targeting violence and HIV must address the forms of violence cited locally by FSWs and can build on FSWs' existing strengths and harm reduction strategies. Structural changes are needed to ensure access to justice for this population.

  16. Acute lead intoxication in a female battery worker: Diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Dounias, George; Rachiotis, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-07-07

    Lead is a significant occupational and environmental hazard. Battery industry is one of the settings related to lead intoxication. Published information on the use of oral chelating agents for the treatment of anaemia in the context of acute lead intoxication is limited. The patient was a 33 year immigrant female worker in a battery manufacture for 3 months. She complained for malaise that has been developed over the past two weeks. Pallor of skin and conjunctiva was the only sign found in physical examination. The blood test on admission revealed normochromic anaemia. Endoscopic investigation of the gastrointestinal system was negative for bleeding. The bone marrow biopsy was unrevealing.At baseline no attention has been paid to patient's occupational history. Afterwards the patient's occupational history has been re-evaluated and she has been screened for lead intoxication. The increased levels of the lead related biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed the diagnosis. The patient received an oral chelating agent and an improvement in clinical picture, and levels of haematological and lead related biochemical parameters have been recorded. No side effect and no rebound effect were observed. This case report emphasizes the importance of the occupational history in the context of the differential diagnosis. Moreover, this report indicates that lead remains a significant occupational hazard especially in the small scale battery industry.

  17. Induced abortion, contraceptive use, and dual protection among female sex workers in Moscow, Russia.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Yam, Eileen A; Wirtz, Andrea L; Baral, Stefan D; Peryshkina, Alena; Mogilnyi, Vladmir; Beyrer, Chris

    2013-01-01

    To describe abortion history and current contraceptive use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Moscow, Russia. A clinic-based survey was conducted among 147 FSWs in Moscow during an 8-month period in 2005. In total, 83 of 143 (58.0%) FSWs reported a history of abortion, with 45 of 143 (31.5%) indicating multiple abortions. Condoms were the primary form of contraception (145/146 [99.3%]); just 17 of 142 (12.0%) FSWs reported using non-barrier modern contraception. All women who reported using a non-barrier modern method also indicated condom use (i.e. dual protection). Non-barrier contraceptive use was associated with inconsistent condom use (odds ratio [OR] 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-9.02) and multiple abortions (OR 4.71; 95% CI, 1.19-18.62). The results illustrate substantial risk for unintended pregnancy among FSWs. Further research is needed regarding the dynamics of non-barrier contraception and condom use. Efforts to improve the health and wellbeing of FSWs should include access to safe and effective contraception, in addition to HIV prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Trends in HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors in female sex workers in Catalonia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Folch, Cinta; Casabona, Jordi; Sanclemente, Cristina; Esteve, Anna; González, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    To describe trends in HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviors and other sexual health indicators in female sex workers (SW) from 2005 to 2011. Cross-sectional studies were conducted biennially among SW recruited in Catalonia (Spain) in the street, flats and clubs (n = 400). In addition to an anonymous questionnaire, oral fluid samples were collected to estimate HIV prevalence. Linear trends in proportions were assessed by the Mantel test. The percentage of SW who used condoms inconsistently with clients (past 6 months) increased from 5.1% in 2005 to 9.9% in 2011 (p = 0.005); this percentage also increased with steady partners (86.2% in 2005 to 94.4% in 2011, p = 0.002). The prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) increased from 14% in 2005 to 20.6% in 2011 (p = 0.001). The prevalence of HIV held constant over the years (about 2%), being higher in Spanish women (14.7% in 2011). The prevalence of HIV in SW remained stable over the years, being higher in Spanish SW. The increase in unprotected sex and in the prevalence of self-reported STI among SW from 2005 to 2011 highlights a possible relaxation in preventive behaviors in this group. Interventions to reduce the transmission of these infections, as well as unwanted pregnancies, should continue in Catalonia in SW. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Motivations for entry into sex work and HIV risk among mobile female sex workers in India.

    PubMed

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Verma, Ravi K; Halli, Shiva S; Swain, Suvakanta N; Singh, Rajendra; Modugu, Hanimi Reddy; Ramarao, Saumya; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Jain, Anrudh K

    2011-09-01

    This paper assesses the reasons for entry into sex work and its association with HIV risk behaviours among mobile female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts across four high HIV prevalence states in India during 2007-2008. Analyses were limited to 5498 eligible mobile FSWs. The reasons given by FSWs for entering sex work and associations with socio-demographic characteristics were assessed. Reported reasons for entering sex work include poor or deprived economic conditions; negative social circumstances in life; own choice; force by an external person; and family tradition. The results from multivariate analyses indicate that those FSWs who entered sex work due to poor economic conditions or negative social circumstances in life or force demonstrated elevated levels of current inconsistent condom use as well as in the past in comparison with those FSWs who reported entering sex work by choice or family tradition. This finding indicates the need for a careful assessment of the pre-entry contexts among HIV prevention interventions since these factors may continue to hinder the effectiveness of efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in India and elsewhere.

  20. Behavioral Interventions for Cambodian Female Entertainment and Sex Workers who use Amphetamine-Type Stimulants

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Adam W.; Nil, Ean; Sophal, Chhit; Stein, Ellen; Sokunny, Muth; Yuthea, Neak; Evans, Jennifer L.; Ngak, Song; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) and cognitive-behavioral treatments are evidence-based approaches to reduce stimulant use and sexual risk taking. We describe the adaptation and implementation of sequential behavioral interventions for Cambodian female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) who use amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS): 1) a 12-week CCT intervention; and 2) a 4-week cognitive-behavioral aftercare (AC) group. An ongoing cluster randomized stepped wedge trial in 10 Cambodian provinces is enrolling FESW with confirmed recent ATS use to examine the effectiveness of CCT+AC. In the first six provinces, 138 of the 183 eligible FESW (75%) enrolled in CCT and completed a median of 25 (Interquartile Range: 9–32) of the 36 urine screening visits. Of the 84 participants who were eligible for AC, 79 completed at least one session (94%) and 57 completed three or more sessions (68%). Culturally tailored behavioral interventions to reduce ATS use and optimize HIV prevention are feasible in resource-limited settings. PMID:26782667

  1. Application of condoms on male clients by female sex workers in Yerevan, Armenia: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Darbinyan, Nelli; Lang, Delia L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Joseph, Jesse B; Markosyan, Karine

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to assess the prevalence of consistent condom application on male clients by female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia and its association with demographic, psychosocial and behavioural factors. In this cross-sectional study, 120 street-based FSWs aged 20-52 completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was consistent application of condoms by FSWs on their male clients. A total of 21.7% of participants reported consistently applying condoms on clients. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher condom use self-efficacy (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR=1.1; p=0.01), lower perceived condom use barriers (AOR=0.9; p=0.04) and not using douching as a method to prevent STI/HIV (AOR=4.8; p=0.04) significantly predicted consistent condom application. Higher HIV/AIDS knowledge was a marginally significant predictor of condom application (AOR=1.3; p=0.05). Future interventions should address these modifiable factors to encourage FSWs to apply condoms on clients themselves, which may reduce condom failure and exposure to HIV transmission.

  2. Prevalence of HIV infection and predictors for syphilis infection among female sex workers in southern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fan; Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Xinhua; Wang, Lan; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Yan; Zeng, Gang; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Jianbo; Cassell, Holly; Chen, Huey T; Vermund, Sten H

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. A cross-sectional study recruited FSWs using a venue-based method and subsequent snowball sampling with mapping strategies. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect demographic and behavioral information. Blood was tested for syphilis (RPR with TPPA confirmation) and HIV (EIA with Western blot confirmation) infections. Of the 362 eligible participants, 81.7% were non-local residents (60.5% from other parts of Guangxi and 21.2% were non-Guangxi residents); 58.0% belonged to non-Han minority ethnic groups; 37.5% reported inconsistent condom use with their clients and 71.2% reported inconsistent condom use with their regular sex partners during the past month. Nearly 10% reported having had sex with drug users. The prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis infections were 2.3% and 11.0%, respectively. Almost half (46.6%) of participants reported having had STD symptoms. Inconsistent condom use with clients in the past month (AOR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.8-13.8), less education (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.1-7.4), and HIV infection (AOR = 8.1; 95% CI = 1.1-68.5) were independently associated with syphilis infection.

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Warts in Kenyan Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Barbara E.; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Jaoko, Walter; Estambale, Benson; Kiarie, James N.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth; Manhart, Lisa E.; Graham, Susan M.; McClelland, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background Our goal in the present study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of genital warts in a population of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Because of the high prevalence of HIV-1 in this population, we were particularly interested in the association between HIV-1 infection and genital warts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of genital warts among high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. Between 2001 and 2007, 1182 women were enrolled, of whom 613 (51.4%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Chi square tests and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between genital warts and potential correlates. Results Genital warts were identified on clinical examination in 27 (2.3%) women. Women who were HIV-1-seropositive were nearly 8 times as likely to have genital warts compared to HIV-1-seronegative women (OR 7.69, 95% CI 2.30–25.6). Conclusion Understanding the prevalence and correlates of genital warts will help to determine whether coverage for the wart-inducing subtypes 6 and 11 in an HPV vaccine is an important consideration in resource-limited countries. PMID:23060082

  4. Cross-sectional study on risk factors of HIV among female commercial sex workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Ohshige, K.; Morio, S.; Mizushima, S.; Kitamura, K.; Tajima, K.; Ito, A.; Suyama, A.; Usuku, S.; Saphonn, V.; Heng, S.; Hor, L. B.; Tia, P.; Soda, K.

    2000-01-01

    To describe epidemiological features on HIV prevalence among female commercial sex workers (CSWs), a cross-sectional study on sexual behaviour and serological prevalence was carried out in Cambodia. The CSWs were interviewed on their demographic characters and behaviour and their blood samples were taken for testing on sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis, and hepatitis B. Associations between risk factors and HIV seropositivity were analysed. High seroprevalence of HIV and Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibody (CT-IgG-Ab) was shown among the CSWs (54 and 81.7%, respectively). Univariate logistic regression analyses showed an association between HIV seropositivity and age, duration of prostitution, the number of clients per day and CT-IgG-Ab. Especially, high-titre chlamydial seropositivity showed a strong significant association with HIV prevalence. In multiple logistic regression analyses, CT-IgG-Ab with higher titre was significantly independently related to HIV infection. These suggest that existence of Chlamydia trachomatis is highly related to HIV prevalence. PMID:10722142

  5. Occupational injuries: comparing the rates of male and female postal workers.

    PubMed

    Zwerling, C; Sprince, N L; Ryan, J; Jones, M P

    1993-07-01

    To compare the injury rates of male and female postal workers, the authors reanalyzed data on a cohort of 2,337 new postal employees in Boston, Massachusetts, hired between 1986 and 1989. The analysis controlled for potential confounding by age, race, smoking status, and drug use. Using Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent variables, the authors found that, compared with men, women had an increased relative risk for occupational injuries in each of the three largest job classifications: letter carrier, letter-sorting machine clerk, and mail handler. The relative risks were not constant over time. For letter carriers and letter-sorting machine clerks, the increased risks for women were noted only during the first year of employment (relative risk (RR) = 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.67) and RR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.31-5.15, respectively). For mail handlers, the increased risks for women were noted only after the first year of employment (RR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.09-4.15). As the percentage of women in the work force increases, these results suggest the need for further research to define sex-specific injury risks and to devise prevention strategies.

  6. Drinking Reasons and Alcohol Problems by Work Venue among Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Alcohol use is a key determinant of sexual risk behaviors but pathways to alcohol use in the context of commercial sex still remain unclear. The present study explores reasons for drinking and their roles on alcohol use problems among female sex workers (FSWs) in different types of commercial sex venues. Method In 2009, a sample of 1,022 FSWs from Guangxi, China completed a survey containing a 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a 28-item measure of reasons for drinking. Factor analysis revealed five reasons for drinking: suppression, disinhibition, work requirement, sexual enhancement, and confidence booster. Results All identified reasons except for confidence booster appeared to be related to a higher tendency of developing alcohol use problems among FSWs. Types of commercial sex venues moderated the relationship between work requirement and alcohol use problems. Conclusions: Alcohol-risk reduction interventions among this population need to provide them with alternative approaches to regulate emotions and modify their misconceptions about alcohol’s sexual enhancing function. More attention is needed to FSWs’ vulnerability to the negative influence of occupational drinking. PMID:25594829

  7. HIV prevalence and characteristics of sex work among female sex workers in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia.

    PubMed

    Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Testa, Adrienne; Osman, Mohamed; Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Malungu, Jacqueline; Irving, Greg; Abdalla, Ismail

    2010-07-01

    To measure prevalence of HIV and syphilis and describe characteristics of sex work among female sex workers (FSWs) in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia. A cross-sectional survey recruited 237 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). A face-to-face, structured interview using handheld-assisted personal interviewing (HAPI) on personal digital assistants (PDAs) was completed and blood collected for serological testing. FSWs 15-19 years old accounted for 6.9% of the population; 20-24 year-old constituted an additional 18.0%. The majority (86.6%) never attended school. International (59.0%) and interzonal (10.7%) migration was common. Most (95.7%) reported no other source of income; 13.8% had five or more clients in the last 7 days. A minority (38.4%) had heard of STIs, even fewer (6.9%) held no misconceptions about HIV. Only 24% of FSW reported using a condom at last transactional sex, and 4% reported ever been tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 5.2% and syphilis prevalence was 3.1%. Sex work in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia, is characterized by high numbers of sexual acts and extremely low knowledge of HIV. This study illustrates the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions focusing on HIV testing, risk-reduction awareness raising, and review of condom availability and distribution mechanisms among FSWs and males engaging with FSWs.

  8. Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic concentration of the research in Asia and North America. Alcohol use was prevalent among FSWs and clients. Integrating quantitative and qualitative studies, multilevel contexts of alcohol use in the sex work environment were identified, including workplace and occupation-related use, the use of alcohol to facilitate the transition into and practice of commercial sex among both FSWs and male clients, and self-medication among FSWs. Alcohol use was associated with adverse physical health, illicit drug use, mental health problems, and victimization of sexual violence, although its associations with HIV/sexually transmitted infections and unprotected sex among FSWs were inconclusive. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent, harmful among FSWs and male clients, but under-researched. Research in this area in more diverse settings and with standardized measures is required. The review underscores the importance of integrated intervention for alcohol use and related problems in multilevel contexts and with multiple components in order to effectively reduce alcohol use and its harmful effects among FSWs and their clients. PMID:20089544

  9. Correlates of unprotected sex with female sex workers among male clients in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Gallardo Cruz, Manuel; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Nguyen, Lucie; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-05-01

    Tijuana, situated adjacent to San Diego, CA on the US-Mexico border, is experiencing an emerging HIV epidemic, with prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) having risen in recent years from <1% to 6%. Comparable data on FSWs' clients are lacking. We explored correlates of unprotected sex with FSWs among male clients in Tijuana. In 2008, males from San Diego (N = 189) and Tijuana (N = 211) aged 18 or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana's red light district. Participants underwent psychosocial interviews, and were tested for HIV, syphilis (Treponema pallidum), gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), and Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). Of 394 men, median age was 36 years, 42.1% were married, and 39.3% were unemployed. Ethnic composition was 13.2% white, 79.4% Hispanic, and 7.4% black or other. Half (50.3%) reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with FSWs in Tijuana in the past 4 months. High proportions reported using drugs during sex (66%), and 36% reported frequenting the same FSW. Factors independently associated with unprotected sex with FSWs were using drugs during sex, visiting the same FSW, being married, and being unemployed. FSWs' clients represent a sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission "bridge" through unprotected sex with FSWs, wives, and other partners. Tailored interventions to promote consistent condom use are needed for clients, especially within the context of drug use and ongoing relations with particular FSWs.

  10. Predicting health care utilization in marginalized populations: Black, female, street-based sex workers.

    PubMed

    Varga, Leah M; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of social and structural factors experienced by vulnerable populations may negatively affect willingness and ability to seek out health care services, and ultimately, their health. The outcome variable was utilization of health care services in the previous 12 months. Using Andersen's Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, we examined self-reported data on utilization of health care services among a sample of 546 Black, street-based, female sex workers in Miami, Florida. To evaluate the impact of each domain of the model on predicting health care utilization, domains were included in the logistic regression analysis by blocks using the traditional variables first and then adding the vulnerable domain variables. The most consistent variables predicting health care utilization were having a regular source of care and self-rated health. The model that included only enabling variables was the most efficient model in predicting health care utilization. Any type of resource, link, or connection to or with an institution, or any consistent point of care, contributes significantly to health care utilization behaviors. A consistent and reliable source for health care may increase health care utilization and subsequently decrease health disparities among vulnerable and marginalized populations, as well as contribute to public health efforts that encourage preventive health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K.; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J.; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Summary Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers (FSWs) with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 FSWs; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the seven days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street based FSWs respectively. Overall, 28.1% of FSWs negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2.–2.0), and self-perceived risk of HIV infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6–2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel based FSWs, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9), and brothel based FSWs (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5–0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. FSWs in Bangladesh are at high risk for STI/HIV infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by FSWs, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues. PMID:23970599

  12. Factors Related to Pregnancy Among Female Sex Workers Living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Cernigliaro, Dana; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-10-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV are a vulnerable population for multiple health concerns and have been vastly understudied in public health literature. This study analyzes factors related to pregnancy among 268 FSWs living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. Results indicate that 34 % of participants had been pregnant since HIV diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between pregnancy after HIV diagnosis and ART interruption (AOR 2.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 4.94), knowledge of mother-to-child transmission (AOR 2.12; 95 % CI 0.99, 4.55), serostatus disclosure to a sex partner (AOR 2.46; 95 % CI 1.31, 4.62), older age (AOR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.87, 0.95) and a more negative perception of their health provider (AOR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.34, 0.93). Results indicate noteworthy associations between having been pregnant and the health provider experience and ART interruption, indicating a significant need for further research on this population to ensure both maternal and child health.

  13. Clients of Female Sex Workers as a Bridging Population in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nhu T.; Nguyen, Hien T.; Trinh, Huan Q.; Mills, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding bridging behaviors of clients of female sex workers (FSWs) is important for projecting and intervening in the spread of sexually transmitted infections in Vietnam. The goals of the study were to determine HIV/STI prevalence amongst different bridging groups, identify factors associated with being potential and active bridgers, and assess the association of drug use and unsafe sex with HIV and/or STI prevalence. In April, 2007, 292 clients were anonymously interviewed at sex venues in a two-stage time-location cluster sampling survey, followed by HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 testing. Based on condom use with both high-risk (FSWs) and low-risk (wives/girlfriends) sexual partners, clients were classified as unlikely, potential, or active bridgers. The majority of clients were potential or active bridgers (55.8%) who had a significantly higher prevalence of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) (21% and 33%, respectively) than unlikely bridgers (8.7%). HIV seropositivity was 4.4-fold (95% CI 1.1–17.1) higher among those who were HSV-2-positive. Clients of FSWs may be playing a major bridging role in transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Vietnam. An observed synergistic interaction between drug use and condom slippage/breakage emphasizes the importance of proper condom use, particularly among drug users. PMID:18830814

  14. Night shift work and lung cancer risk among female textile workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Paul; Lundin, Jessica; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta; Littell, Christopher; Li, Gao Dao; Thomas, David B.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as a probable human carcinogen. Suppression of the anti-neoplastic hormone, melatonin, is a presumed mechanism of action. We conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. Newly diagnosed lung cancer cases (n=1451) identified during the study period (1989–2006) were compared with an age-stratified subcohort (n=3040). Adjusting for age, smoking, parity and endotoxin exposure, relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs)] were estimated by Cox regression modeling to assess associations with cumulative years and nights of rotating shift work. Results did not consistently reveal any increased risk of lung cancer among rotating shift work or statistically significant trends for both cumulative years (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.02; Ptrend = 0.294) and nights (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.415). Further analyses imposing 10- and 20-year lag times for disease latency also revealed similar results. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, rotating nighttime shift work appears to be associated with a relatively reduced lung cancer risk although the magnitude of the effect was modest and not statistically significant. PMID:25616851

  15. Barriers to Follow-Up for Abnormal Papanicolaou Smears among Female Sex Workers in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Aharon, Devora; Calderon, Martha; Solari, Vicky; Alarcon, Patricia; Zunt, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Peruvian women. Female sex workers (FSW) in Peru are at elevated risk for HPV infection, and receive annual Papanicolaou screening. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to follow-up for abnormal Pap smears among FSW in Peru. 97 FSW attending the Alberto Barton Health Center in Lima were surveyed regarding their STI screening history. 17 women with a history of an abnormal Pap smear were interviewed about their experiences regarding follow-up care. Of the 27 HPV-positive women, only 8 (30%) received follow-up treatment. Of the 19 women who did not receive follow-up, 7 (37%) had not been informed of their abnormal result. Qualitative interviews revealed that the major barrier to follow-up was lack of knowledge about HPV and potential health consequences of an abnormal Pap smear. HPV infection is highly prevalent in Peruvian FSW, yet only 30% of FSW with abnormal Pap smears receive follow-up care. The predominant barriers to follow-up were lack of standardization in recording and communicating results and insufficient FSW knowledge regarding health consequences of HPV infection. Standardization of record-keeping and distribution of educational pamphlets have been implemented to improve follow-up for HPV.

  16. Human papillomavirus infection among male clients of female sex workers soliciting sex in brothels in Peru.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jenell; Calderon, Martha; Hathaway, Alison; Winer, Rachel L; Zunt, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) has been reported to be three times higher in female sex workers (FSWs) in Callao, Peru than in the general population of women in Peru. Prevalence of HR-HPV among male clients has not yet been reported. A total of 150 men soliciting intercourse in sex work venues submitted questionnaires, samples for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, and self-collected penile samples prior to and following intercourse for HPV genotyping. We identified variables associated with pre-coital HR-HPV, and compared HR-HPV detection pre- and post-coitus. Prior to intercourse, HR-HPV prevalence was 41.9%. Married clients were less likely than unmarried clients to have HR-HPV detected ( p = 0.03). While post-coital HR-HPV prevalence was higher (47.6%), the difference was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant increase in the mean number of HR-HPV DNA strains detected before (0.75) and after (0.94) intercourse ( p = 0.02). No cases of gonorrhoea or syphilis and six (4.1%) cases of chlamydial infection were detected. Despite low prevalence of other STIs, male clients had a high HR-HPV prevalence. The increase in detection of HR-HPV following intercourse demonstrates a potential for transmission of HR-HPV despite high self-reported condom use.

  17. Barriers to Follow-Up for Abnormal Papanicolaou Smears among Female Sex Workers in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Aharon, Devora; Calderon, Martha; Solari, Vicky; Alarcon, Patricia; Zunt, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Peruvian women. Female sex workers (FSW) in Peru are at elevated risk for HPV infection, and receive annual Papanicolaou screening. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to follow-up for abnormal Pap smears among FSW in Peru. Methods 97 FSW attending the Alberto Barton Health Center in Lima were surveyed regarding their STI screening history. 17 women with a history of an abnormal Pap smear were interviewed about their experiences regarding follow-up care. Results Of the 27 HPV-positive women, only 8 (30%) received follow-up treatment. Of the 19 women who did not receive follow-up, 7 (37%) had not been informed of their abnormal result. Qualitative interviews revealed that the major barrier to follow-up was lack of knowledge about HPV and potential health consequences of an abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion HPV infection is highly prevalent in Peruvian FSW, yet only 30% of FSW with abnormal Pap smears receive follow-up care. The predominant barriers to follow-up were lack of standardization in recording and communicating results and insufficient FSW knowledge regarding health consequences of HPV infection. Standardization of record-keeping and distribution of educational pamphlets have been implemented to improve follow-up for HPV. PMID:28060937

  18. Understanding STI Risk and Condom Use Patterns by Partner Type Among Female Sex Workers in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Kinsler, Janni J; Blas, Magaly M; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Halsey, Neal; Brown, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    While brothel-based sex work is regulated by the Peruvian government, there is little data on STI risk factors reported by female sex workers (FSW). This study compared high risk behaviors among 120 Peruvian FSW from government regulated brothels with both clients and non-commercial partners. Our study found that 12% of FSW reported unprotected vaginal sex with clients (compared to 75% with non-commercial partners), and 42% reported unprotected anal sex with clients (compared to 87% with non-commercial partners). Group differences were observed in the expectation to have oral sex (32% for partners vs 60% for clients; p<0.01), and a history of anal sex (65% for partners vs 32% for clients; p<0.01) and both vaginal and anal sex with the same partners (46% for partners vs 25% for clients; p<0.001). These findings suggest that FSW constitute an important bridge population for STI/HIV transmission in Peru. PMID:24949112

  19. Drinking reasons and alcohol problems by work venue among female sex workers in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol use is a key determinant of sexual risk behaviors, but pathways to alcohol use in the context of commercial sex still remain unclear. The present study explores reasons for drinking and their roles on alcohol use problems among female sex workers (FSWs) in different types of commercial sex venues. In 2009, a sample of 1,022 FSWs from Guangxi, China completed a survey containing a 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a 28-item measure of reasons for drinking. Factor analysis revealed five reasons for drinking: suppression, disinhibition, work requirement, sexual enhancement, and confidence booster. All identified reasons except confidence booster appeared to be related to a higher tendency of developing alcohol use problems among FSWs. Types of commercial sex venues moderated the relationship between work requirement and alcohol use problems. Alcohol-risk reduction interventions among this population need to provide them with alternative approaches to regulate emotions and modify their misconceptions about alcohol's sexual enhancing function. More attention is needed to FSWs' vulnerability to the negative influence of occupational drinking.

  20. Degree and correlates of sexual mixing in female sex workers in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Lowndes, Catherine M; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Moses, Stephen; Washington, Reynold; Alary, Michel

    2013-08-01

    Background The degree of sexual mixing plays an important role in understanding disparities in sexually transmissible infections and HIV across social groups. This study examines the degree of sexual age mixing, and explores its individual and partnership level correlates among female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Data were drawn from special behavioural surveys conducted in 2006-07 among 577 FSWs in two districts of Karnataka: Belgaum and Bangalore. Sexual mixing in age was assessed as the difference in age between FSWs and their sexual partners, and the degree of assortativeness in sexual mixing was assessed using Newman's assortativity coefficient. A total of 577 FSWs were interviewed; 418 of whom reported two or more partnerships, resulting in 942 partnerships. In about half (52%) of these partnerships, the age difference between the FSW and her sexual partner was 5 years or more. The degree of assortativity in age mixing was 0.098, indicating minimally assortative mixing. The disassortativeness in age mixing was positively associated with young age and no formal education, and negatively with duration in sex work. Partnerships which were of a commercial nature were more likely to be disassortative than noncommercial partnerships. The minimally assortative age mixing indicates sexually transmissible infections can transfer from members of one age group to another. Efforts are required to limit the transmission of infection from one group to other by promoting safer sexual behaviour.

  1. Women's voices: attitudes and behaviors of female Ghanaian sex workers regarding HIV prevention and AIDS-related stigma.

    PubMed

    Raingruber, Bonnie; Uwazie, Ernest; Bowie, Sylvester

    2010-08-01

    Attitudes and behaviors of sex workers have a pivotal influence on the spread of AIDS. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to elicit Ghanaian female sex workers' perspectives regarding effective methods of HIV prevention, sources of AIDS-related stigma, and challenges associated with sex work. Women described that: (1) sex work is hard; (2) they felt God would protect their health; (3) staying safe is both a gift and a priority; (4) sex work allows for autonomy; and (5) AIDS-related stigma is very real. To design effective prevention programs it is necessary to consider the culture and perspectives of those who will be served.

  2. Structural and Interpersonal Benefits and Risks of Participation in HIV Research: Perspectives of Female Sex Workers in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Shira M.; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Fisher., Celia B.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored perceived benefits and risks of participation in HIV research among 33 female sex workers in Tecun Uman, Guatemala. Stigma associated with sex work and HIV was a critical barrier to research participation. Key benefits of participation included access to HIV/STI prevention and testing, as well as positive and trusting relationships between sex workers and research teams. Control exerted by managers had mixed influences on perceived research risks and benefits. Results underscore the critical need for HIV investigators to develop population-tailored procedures to reduce stigma, engage managers, and reinforce trusting, reciprocal relationships between sex work communities and researchers. PMID:27840564

  3. Typology of older female sex workers and sexual risks for HIV infection in China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chun; Sherman, Susan G.; Jiang, Baofa; Li, Xiaojing; Xu, Yongfang; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zang, Chunpeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to develop among older adults in China, including older female sex workers. Yet, few studies have been conducted among this relatively hidden population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the reasons for women's entry into sex work during their thirties and to develop typology of older women sex workers. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with sixty-three older women sex workers and six focus groups interviews with stakeholders were conducted in three cities in China in 2012. Data were analysed inductively using constant comparative method. The mean age of participants was 43 years old and the mean age of entry into sex work was 39 years old. The primary reasons for entry into sex work include heavy economic burdens, limited employment opportunities, and the appealing nature of sex work. Street-based and venue-based older sex workers were identified based on where they solicited clients. Street-based older sex workers were more likely to engage in unsafe commercial sex due to financial incentives, whereas those in entertainment venues were unlikely to use condoms with regular clients. The development of effective HIV interventions needs to consider older women sex workers unique characteristics and target factors that impede safer sex practices. PMID:23998493

  4. Narratives of Violence, Pathology, and Empowerment: Mental Health Needs Assessment of Home-Based Female Sex Workers in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Srishti; Marcus, Marina; Verdeli, Helen

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the narratives of psychological distress and resilience among a group of female sex workers who use residential spaces to attend to clients in rural India. The narratives reflect the lived experiences of these women. They describe the women's reasons for opting into sex work; guilt, shame, and stigma related to their sex worker status; experiences with intimate partner and domestic violence; health-related problems; communication with their family members about their sex worker status; mental health referral practices among the women; and elements of resilience and strength that they experience within themselves and within their community of fellow sex workers. The article also offers elements of our own experiences of recruiting the women to participate in the focus group, training local outreach workers in conducting focus group discussions, and forging a collaboration with a local community-based organization to highlight important barriers, challenges, and strategies for planning a group-based discussion to explore the mental health needs of home-based sex workers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Diversity among clients of female sex workers in India: comparing risk profiles and intervention impact by site of solicitation. implications for the vulnerability of less visible female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

    2013-01-01

    It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients' consistent condom use with FSW. Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.

  6. Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks. PMID:24023877

  7. [The investigation of adaptation processes in sheet metal workers].

    PubMed

    Konevskikh, L A; Semennikova, T K; Likhacheva, E I; Oranskiĭ, I E

    1998-01-01

    The study covered 100 individuals long working in hot metallurgic shops (forging and nonferrous metals processing) under unfavorable occupational conditions. Heating microclimate appeared to be leading occupational hazard. Adaptation to occupational environment was studied in all the examinees and 4 groups were defined according to the adaptation level and functional state of cardiovascular system. The study also included testing of psychiatric balneologic complex--bromide and iodine baths with magnetic laser therapy on Zakharyin-Ged zones.

  8. Trace metal contamination study on scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M. ); Mohammad, D. )

    1994-10-01

    Scalp hair is a metabolic end product that incorporates metals into its structure during the growth process. The levels of trace elements in the hair are considered to be influenced in particular by food, air and occupational exposure, and in general by race, age, sex, metabolism, hygienic condition and geographical location of individuals. Recently, trace metal content of human hair has been explored as a tool for monitoring the impact of environmental pollution on the inhabitants of a community. In this respect, the endogenous and exogenous contents of metals in hair are understood to play important role towards exposure assessment. The exogenous metal content of hair reflects exposure to the occupational, domestic and recreational environments, provided the donor is not suffering from heavy metal poisoning and depressed endogenous levels arising from dietary deficiencies. Keeping this in view, the exogenous and endogenous metal contents of scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers from various workshops were determined in the present study, both in unwashed and washed hair samples to assess the extent of metal contamination. All donors, within the age group of 6-45 years, were full-time workers of various autoworkshops situated in the densely populated and industrialized city of Lahore. ICP atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods were used for determining the levels of five non-essential and three essential elements in the scalp hair. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Client-Perpetrated Violence against Female Sex Workers in 13 Mexican Cities

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Shirley J.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Mendoza, Doroteo V.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, client-perpetrated violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been associated with multiple health-related harms, including high-risk sexual behavior and increased exposure to HIV/STIs. This study examined correlates of client-perpetrated sexual, physical, and economic violence (e.g., robbery) against FSWs in 13 cities throughout Mexico. Methods FSWs (N = 1,089) who were enrolled in a brief, evidence-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for FSWs (Mujer Segura) were interviewed about their work context, including experiences of violence perpetrated by clients, sexual risk and substance use practices, financial need, and social supports. Three broad categories of factors (sociodemographic, work context, behavioral and social characteristics of FSWs) were examined as correlates of sexual, physical, and economic violence. Results The prevalence of different types of client-perpetrated violence against FSWs in the past 6 months was: sexual (11.7%), physical (11.8%), economic (16.9%), and any violence (22.6%). Greater financial need, self-identification as a street worker, and lower perceived emotional support were independently associated with all three types of violence. Alcohol use before or during sex with clients in the past month was associated with physical and sexual violence. Using drugs before or during sex with clients, injection drug use in the past month, and population size of city were associated with sexual violence only, and FSWs’ alcohol use score (AUDIT-C) was associated with economic violence only. Conclusions Correlates of client-perpetrated violence encompassed sociodemographic, work context, and behavioral and social factors, suggesting that approaches to violence prevention for FSWs must be multi-dimensional. Prevention could involve teaching FSWs strategies for risk avoidance in the workplace (e.g., avoiding use of alcohol with clients), enhancement of FSWs’ community-based supports, development of interventions

  10. Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although female sex workers (FSWs) report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs’ self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU) within non-commercial partnerships. Methods This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., ‘always’ compared to ‘never’, ‘sometimes’ or ‘frequently’) with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents’ husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year]) and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Results Overall, 511 (51.8%) FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7%) reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively). In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32) and almost 6-fold higher if the

  11. High risk of HIV in non-brothel based female sex workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; Kumar, Anil G; McPherson, Sam; Samuels, Fiona; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2005-01-01

    Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs), and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. Methods Detailed documentation of various aspects of sex work, and sexual behaviour with regular sex partners, was done through confidential interviews for 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Multivariate analysis was done to understand condom non-use with clients. Results 5010 (75.4%), 1499 (22.5%), and 139 (2.1%) FSWs were street-, home-, and brothel-based, respectively. Of the total 6648 FSWs, 6165 (92.7%) had penetrative vaginal/anal sex with at least one client in the last 15 days, and of these 2907 (47.2%; 95% CI 41.2–53.2%) reported non-use of condom with at least one of her last three clients. Lack of knowledge that HIV could be prevented (odds ratio 5.01; 95% CI 4.38–5.73), no access to free condoms (odds ratio 3.45; 95% CI 2.99–3.98), being street-based as compared with brothel-based (odds ratio 3.36; 95% CI 1.87–6.04), and no participation in FSW support groups (odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.50–2.70) were the most significant predictors of condom non-use with clients. Other associations included lower social support, lower income, age >24 years, illiteracy, and living in medium-size urban or rural areas. Of the 2582 who had penetrative sex with regular sex partner within the last 7 days, 2428 (94%; 95% CI 92.1–95.9%) had not used condom at last sex, and 1032 (41.8%) had neither used condom consistently with clients nor with regular sex partner. Conclusion About half the FSWs do not use condom consistently with their clients in this Indian state putting them at high risk of HIV infection. Non-brothel-based FSWs, who form the majority of sex workers in India, were at a significantly higher risk of HIV

  12. Low completion rate of hepatitis B vaccination in female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Rosilane de Lima Brito; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Reis, Renata Karina; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Gir, Elucir

    2017-01-01

    to assess predictive factors for noncompletion of the hepatitis B vaccination schedule in female sex workers in the city of Teresina, Northeastern Brazil. 402 women were interviewed and, for those who did not wish to visit specialized sites, or did not know their hepatitis B vaccination status, the vaccine was offered at their workplaces. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. of the 284 women eligible for vaccination, 258 (90.8%) received the second dose, 157/258 (60.8%) and 68/258 (26.3%) received the second and third doses, respectively. Working at clubs and consuming illicit drugs were predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. the high acceptability of the vaccine's first dose, associated with low completion rates of the vaccination schedule in sex workers, shows the need for more persuasive strategies that go beyond offering the vaccine at their workplaces. avaliar fatores preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal contra hepatite B em mulheres que se prostituem em Teresina, Nordeste do Brasil. Um total de 402 mulheres foi entrevistado e, para as que se negaram a irem a lugares especializados, ou desconheciam sua situação vacinal contra hepatite B, a vacina foi oferecida no local do trabalho. Análises bi e multivariadas foram realizadas para identificar potenciais preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal. Das 284 mulheres elegíveis para vacinação, 258 (90,8%) receberam a primeira dose, 157/258 (60,8%) e 68/258 (26,3%) receberam a segunda e terceira doses. Trabalhar em boates e consumir drogas ilícitas foram preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal (p<0,05). A elevada aceitabilidade da primeira dose da vacina, associada à baixa completude do esquema vacinal em profissionais do sexo, evidencia a necessidade de estratégia mais persuasiva que vá além da oferta da vacina no local de trabalho.

  13. Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India.

    PubMed

    Deering, Kathleen N; Bhattacharjee, Paranita; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen S; Shannon, Kate; Shaw, Souradet Y; Washington, Reynold; Lowndes, Catherine M; Boily, Marie-Claude; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Rajaram, S; Gurav, Kaveri; Alary, Michel

    2011-12-29

    Although female sex workers (FSWs) report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs' non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs' self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU) within non-commercial partnerships. This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., 'always' compared to 'never', 'sometimes' or 'frequently') with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents' husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year]) and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Overall, 511 (51.8%) FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7%) reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively). In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs' husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32) and almost 6-fold higher if the FSW was unmarried (AOR: 5.73, 95%CI: 2.79-11.76]. CCU

  14. Multi-instrument assessment of physical activity in female office workers.

    PubMed

    Can, Sema; Gündüz, Nevin; Arslan, Erşan; Biernat, Elżbieta; Ersöz, Gülfem; Kilit, Bülent

    2016-11-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the multi-instrument assessment of physical activity in female office workers. Fifty healthy women (age (mean ± standard deviation): 34.8±5.9 years, body height: 158±0.4 cm, body weight: 61.8±7.5 kg, body mass index: 24.6±2.7 kg/m2) workers from the same workplace volunteered to participate in the study. Physical activity was measured with the 7-day Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (7-d PAAQ), an objective multi-sensor armband tool, and also a waist-mounted pedometer, which were both worn for 7 days. A significant correlation between step numbers measured by armband and pedometer was observed (r = 0.735), but the step numbers measured by these 2 methods were significantly different (10 941±2236 steps/ day and 9170±2377 steps/day, respectively; p < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between the value of 7-d PAAQ total energy expenditure and the value of armband total energy expenditure (r = 0.394, p = 0.005). However, total energy expenditure values measured by armband and 7-d PAAQ were not significantly different (2081±370 kcal/ day and 2084±197 kcal/day, respectively; p = 0.96). In addition, physical activity levels (average daily metabolic equivalents (MET)) measured by armband and 7-d PAAQ were not significantly different (1.45±0.12 MET/day and 1.47±0.24 MET/day, respectively; p = 0.44). The results of this study showed that the correlation between pedometer and armband measurements was higher than that between armband measurements and 7-d PAAQ selfreports. Our results suggest that none of the assessment methods examined here, 7-d PAAQ, pedometer, or armband, is sufficient when used as a single tool for physical activity level determination. Therefore, multi-instrument assessment methods are preferable. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):937-945.

  15. Determinants of inconsistent condom use with female sex workers among men attending the STD clinic in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wee, S; Barrett, M; Lian, W; Jayabaskar, T; Chan, K

    2004-01-01

    Background/objectives: Female sex workers and their male clients have been identified as risk groups for the transmission of STDs and HIV. Behavioural interventions targeting clients need to address inconsistent condom use among them. The aim of the study is to assess the sociodemographic, behavioural, and psychological factors associated with inconsistent condom use among clients of sex workers. Methods: 229 male patients attending the STD clinic in Singapore who reported paying for sex in the previous 6 months were interviewed. Response rate was 91%. Results: Overall, 45% used condoms inconsistently; these clients were more likely to have poor STD knowledge, visit sex workers five or more times in the past 6 months, have lower self efficacy, less favourable social norms for condom use, and more likely to forget condom use when intoxicated (alcohol impaired decision making). Conclusions: Behavioural interventions for clients need to improve STD/HIV transmission knowledge and focus on improving client's self efficacy in using condoms. PMID:15295132

  16. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2008-09-01

    Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers.

  17. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ankomah, Augustine; Omoregie, Godpower; Akinyemi, Zacch; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ladipo, Olaronke; Adebayo, Samson

    2011-01-01

    Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers' own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers. The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria. It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma. From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk.

  18. The dynamics of migration-related stress and coping of female domestic workers from the Philippines: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Alida Joanna; Ujano-Batangan, Maria Theresa; Ignacio, Raquel; Wolffers, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Female domestic workers face many migration-related stressors that affect their mental health, but we know little about the dynamics of stress and coping in different migration phases. This exploratory study aims to assess stress and coping of female migrant domestic workers from the Philippines in different phases of the migration process; prior to migration, in the country of destination and upon return to the Philippines. Data were collected in 2010 using questionnaires (N = 500). Validation of findings took place in a work shop (23 participants) and two focus groups (13 and 8 participants). Stress levels of women were significantly higher abroad than in the Philippines. Stress and coping in the Philippines was primarily related to financial issues, while stress and coping abroad related more strongly loneliness, working conditions and employers. Findings from this study provide insight in the phase-specific and transnational dimensions of stress and coping.

  19. Low prevalences of HIV infection and sexually transmitted disease among female commercial sex workers in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Uribe-Salas, F; Hernández-Avila, M; Conde-González, C J; Juárez-Figueroa, L; Allen, B; Anaya-Ocampo, R; Del Río-Chiriboga, C; Uribe-Zúñiga, P; de Zalduondo, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tried to determine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalences among female commercial sex workers in Mexico City. METHODS: A sampling frame was constructed that included bars, massage parlors, and street corners. RESULTS: Prevalences for Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus type 2, HIV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis were 6.4%, 65%, 0.6%, 3.7%, and 11.1%, respectively. A significant association was found between higher STD frequencies and working at street sites. CONCLUSIONS: Most STD frequencies were lower in comparison with rates found for female sex workers in other countries. However, preventive programs against STD/ HIV are needed in this population. PMID:9224186

  20. HIV Testing and Engagement in Care among Highly Vulnerable Female Sex Workers: Implications for Treatment as Prevention Models

    PubMed Central

    Surratt, Hilary L.; O’Grady, Catherine; Kurtz, Steven P.; Buttram, Mance E.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although emerging Treatment as Prevention models can be effective in reducing HIV incidence among high-risk populations, many HIV infected individuals remain undiagnosed or fail to engage in HIV care. Methods This study examined the factors associated with HIV testing and care among a population of substance using female sex workers. Results Recent HIV testing was associated with higher education level, having a regular health care provider or clinic, recent crack use, and higher sexual risk behaviors; HIV treatment utilization was associated with higher levels of social support, having a regular health care provider or clinic, housing stability and insurance coverage. Qualitative data revealed HIV-related stigma, denial, social isolation, and substance use as barriers to HIV testing and treatment; social support and accessibility of services were key enablers. Conclusions Improving HIV testing and linkage to treatment among female sex workers will require structural initiatives to reduce stigma and increase service seeking support. PMID:25130245

  1. Sexually transmitted infection screening uptake and knowledge of sexually transmitted infection symptoms among female sex workers participating in a community randomised trial in Peru.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues.

  2. Respiratory diseases in hard metal workers: an occupational hygiene study in a factory.

    PubMed Central

    Kusaka, Y; Yokoyama, K; Sera, Y; Yamamoto, S; Sone, S; Kyono, H; Shirakawa, T; Goto, S

    1986-01-01

    A hygiene study of a hard metal factory was conducted from 1981 to 1984. All workers exposed to hard metal were medically examined and their exposure to cobalt measured. Eighteen employees had occupational asthma related to exposure to hard metal, a prevalence rate of 5.6%. Nine had a positive bronchial provocation test to cobalt and reactions of the immediate, late, or dual type were elicited. Exposure measurements suggest that asthma may be caused by cobalt at a mean time weighted average concentration below 0.05 mg/m3. Only two of the nine individuals with cobalt asthma had a positive patch test to cobalt. Chest radiographs of three workers showed diffuse shadows of category 1 or over. X ray microanalysis of lung biopsy specimens from two of these three workers showed the presence of tungsten, titanium, cobalt, nickel, and some minerals. One of the two was diagnosed as having pneumoconiosis due to exposure to silica in a steel industry and the other was suspected of having pulmonary fibrosis caused by dust generated from the carborundum wheels used to grind hard metal. There were no cases with interstitial pneumonitis in the factory. Images PMID:3718895

  3. Screening heavy metals levels in hair of sanitation workers by X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Md Khudzari, Jauharah; Wagiran, Husin; Hossain, I; Ibrahim, Noorddin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study of human hair as a bio-indicator for detection of heavy metals as part of environmental health surveillance programs project to develop a subject of interest in the biomedical and environmental sciences. A total of 34 hair samples were analyzed that consisting of 29 samples from sanitation workers and five samples from students. The hair samples were prepared and treated in accordance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations. The concentrations of heavy metals were analyzed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique by X-50 Mobile X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) at Oceanography Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. The performance of EDXRF analyzer was tested by Standard Reference Material (SRM 2711) Montana Soil which was in good agreement with certified value within 14% deviations except for Hg. While seven heavy metals: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb were detected in both groups, three additional elements, i.e. As, Hg and Pb, were detected only in sanitation workers group. For sanitation workers group, the mean concentration of six elements, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb, shows elevated concentration as compared to the control samples concentration. Results from both groups were compared and discussed in relation to their respective heavy metals concentrations.

  4. Interpersonal and structural contexts of intimate partner violence among female sex workers in conflict-affected northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Master, Aditi; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Akello, Monica; Braschel, Melissa; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2017-07-06

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined the correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV. Of 379 women with noncommercial partners, 59 percent reported having experienced recent moderate/severe physical or sexual IPV. Reporting recent client violence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.67; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-5.83), doing what their partner wanted (AOR: 2.46; 95 percent CI: 1.46-4.13), and forced sexual debut (AOR: 1.92; 95 percent CI: 1.20-3.05) were independently associated with moderate/severe IPV; recent police arrest and/or incarceration were/was marginally significantly associated with IPV (AOR: 2.25; 95 percent CI: 0.86-5.88, p = 0.097). Greater odds of IPV among sex workers were associated with recent workplace violence, forced sexual debut, and gendered power dynamics favoring male partner control. Programs and policies promoting the safety and health of marginalized women and addressing gender dynamics and violence are needed.

  5. Changing gender roles and health impacts among female workers in export-processing industries in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Attanapola, Chamila T

    2004-06-01

    Since the economic liberalization in 1977, a large number of Sri Lankan women have entered the labour market and engaged in income-generating activities. Some women choose to travel abroad as domestic workers, while others choose to work in export-processing industries. This process has a profound impact on gender and gender roles in Sri Lanka. Young rural women have changed their traditional women's roles to become independent daughters, efficient factory workers and partially modernized women. Even though changing gender roles are identified as a positive impact of industrial work, the new social, cultural, and legal environments of industrial work have negative impacts on these women's lives. This paper explores health impacts of changing gender roles and practices of young rural women, focusing on the experiences of female workers in export-processing industries. Further, it contributes to the literature on gender and health, and on qualitative approaches within health geographic studies. A model is formulated to suggest a conceptual framework for studying women's health. The model describes the determinant factors of individual health status based on the question of who (personal attributes) does what (type of work) where (place), when and how (behaviours). These are also determinant factors of gender and gender roles of a society. The three types of health problems (reproductive, productive and mental health) of a woman, in this case a female industrial worker, are determined by her gender roles and practices associated with these roles.

  6. Facilitators and barriers to using treadmill workstations under real working conditions: a qualitative study in female office workers.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Manuel; Qin, Jin; Fulmer, Scott; Bello, Anila

    2015-01-01

    Characterize barriers and facilitators to use treadmill workstations in real work sites. For 6 months, workers tried a sit-stand-walk treadmill workstation at will with expert ergonomic support. Qualitative data were collected monthly. Administrative and academic departments at a higher education institution in Massachusetts, United States. Five female administrative office workers. One monthly group interview and one personal interview per participant during 6 months. Emerging topics from previous interviews were used in successive data gatherings. Transcribed data were manually coded according to the predefined topics of usability, comfort, safety, and productivity. The setup of the work station, communication difficulties while walking (disrespectful, noisy), and peer pressure to maximize use were the main usability barriers. There was no event of falls. Trips were minimized. About comfort, subjects reported it hard to get used to prolonged standing position during the first month. Treadmill speed affected productivity mostly while drawing and working in spreadsheets. Lack of job autonomy was revealed as a generic barrier. In this female group, treadmill workstations had serious design problems for workers with not enough control of their jobs. The early identification and removal of barriers likely needs to be considered when offering these workstations to workers with low job autonomy.

  7. Gender, Cultural Influences, and Coping with Musculoskeletal Pain at Work: The Experience of Malaysian Female Office Workers.

    PubMed

    Maakip, Ismail; Oakman, Jodi; Stuckey, Rwth

    2016-06-23

    Purpose Workers with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) often continue to work despite their condition. Understanding the factors that enable them to remain at work provides insights into the development of appropriate workplace accommodations. This qualitative study aims to explore the strategies utilised by female Malaysian office workers with MSP to maintain productive employment. Methods A qualitative approach using thematic analysis was used. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 female Malaysian office workers with MSP. Initial codes were identified and refined through iterative discussion to further develop the emerging codes and modify the coding framework. A further stage of coding was undertaken to eliminate redundant codes and establish analytic connections between distinct themes. Results Two major themes were identified: managing the demands of work and maintaining employment with persistent musculoskeletal pain. Participants reported developing strategies to assist them to remain at work, but most focused on individually initiated adaptations or peer support, rather than systemic changes to work systems or practices. A combination of the patriarchal and hierarchical cultural occupational context emerged as a critical factor in the finding of individual or peer based adaptations rather than organizational accommodations. Conclusions It is recommended that supervisors be educated in the benefits of maintaining and retaining employees with MSP, and encouraged to challenge cultural norms and develop appropriate flexible workplace accommodations through consultation and negotiation with these workers.

  8. Low prevalence of hepatitis B markers among Mexican female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Juarez-Figueroa, L.; Uribe-Salas, F.; Conde-Glez, C.; Hernandez-Avila, M.; Olamendi-Portugal, M.; Uribe-Zuniga, P.; Calderon, E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in female sex workers (FSW) in Mexico City. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1498 FSW who attended a detection centre for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mexico City, between January and October 1992. Study participants responded to a standardised questionnaire and provided a blood sample for serology of syphilis, HIV, and HBV. RESULTS: A total of 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.3) of the population were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. The general prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was 6.3% (95% CI 5.5-7.1). This marker of previous exposition to HBV, was independently associated by logistic regression multivariate analysis with age, working in the street, and history of blood transfusion (BT) before 1987 (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.1-11.3). Syphilis prevalence was 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-8.9) and HIV prevalence was 0.1% (95% CI 0-0.3). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBV infection in this group of Mexican FSW is lower than previously reported in other countries. In addition, the frequency of HBsAg carriers is similar to that in the general Mexican population. The absence of two major risk factors for HBV transmission in this group of FSW--that is, injecting drug use and anal intercourse, could help to explain this finding. However, the positive association between anti-HBc and history of blood transfusion demonstrated here, highlights the need to reinforce strict control of blood supplies in Mexico. 




 PMID:10195057

  9. Sexual and reproductive health behaviors of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Anadil; Sultana, Salima; Alam, Nazmul; Somrongthong, Ratana

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to document sexual and reproductive health (SRH) practices among female sex workers (FSWs) including abortion, pregnancy, use of maternal healthcare services and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with the aim of developing recommendations for action. Methods A total of 731 FSWs aged between 15 and 49 years were surveyed using a stratified sampling in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A workshop with 23 participants consisted of policy makers, researchers, program implementers was conducted to formulate recommendations. Results About 61.3% of 731 FSWs reported SRH-related experiences in the past one year, including abortion (15.5%), ongoing pregnancy (9.0%), childbirth (8.3%) or any symptoms of STIs (41.6%). Among FSWs who had an abortion (n = 113), the most common methods included menstrual regulation through manual vacuum aspiration (47.8%), followed by Dilation and Curettage procedure (31%) and oral medicine from pharmacies (35.4%). About 57.5% of 113 cases reported post abortion complications. Among FSWs with delivery in the past year (n = 61), 27.7% attended the recommended four or more antenatal care visits and more than half did not have any postnatal visit. Adopting sustainable and effective strategies to provide accessible and adequate SRH services for FSWs was prioritized by workshop participants. Conclusion There was substantial unmet need for SRH care among FSWs in urban areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Therefore, it is important to integrate SRH services for FSWs in the formal healthcare system or integration of abortion and maternal healthcare services within existing HIV prevention services. PMID:28369093

  10. Prevalence and correlates of violence against female sex workers in Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Dagunduro, Abosede T

    2014-06-01

    Few studies in Africa provide detailed descriptions of the vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) to violence. To document the prevalence and types of violence experienced by FSWs, identify the risk factors of experiencing violence to women (VAW) and the perpetrators of these acts. An analytical cross sectional survey of 305 brothel-based FSWs and in-depth interview of 20 chairpersons residing in brothels in Abuja, Nigeria was done. The prevalence of VAW six months preceding the survey was 52.5%. Sexual violence was the commonest type (41.9%) of violence experienced, followed by economic (37.7%), physical violence (35.7%) and psychological (31.9%). The main perpetrators of sexual violence were clients (63.8%) and brothel management (18.7%). Sexual violence was significantly more experienced (aOR 2.23; 95%CI 1.15-4.36) by older FSWs than their younger counterparts, by permanent brothel residents (aOR 2.08; 95%CI 1.22-3.55) and among those who had been in the sex industry for more than five years (aOR 2.01; 95%CI 0.98-4.10). Respondents with good knowledge levels of types of violence were less vulnerable to physical violence (aOR 0.45; 95%CI 0.26-0.77). Psychological violence was more likely among FSWs who smoked (aOR 2.16; 95%CI 1.26-3.81). Risk of economic violence decreased with educational levels (aOR 0.54; 95%CI 0.30-0.99 and aOR 0.42; 95%CI 0.22-0.83 for secondary and post secondary respectively). Consequences of the violence included sexually transmitted infections (20%) and HIV (8.0%). Interventions that educate FSWs on their rights and enable them avoid violence are urgently required. Young women need economic and educational empowerments to enable them avoid sex work.

  11. Relationship between Community Collectivization and Financial Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Jain, Anrudh Kumar; Saggurti, Niranjan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra

    2016-01-01

    Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs) are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS)-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400) in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Most FSWs (87%) reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5) and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3) as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt). This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.

  12. Social context factors, refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use among female sex workers in China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yeujiao

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health-risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in social and individual contexts can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSWs were recruited from two cities in southern China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the direct effects of alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence on FSWs' alcohol use. In addition, the mediation effects of refusal self-efficacy were also examined in the SEM model. Results showed that alcohol use by family members and alcohol use by peers significantly predicted FSWs' alcohol use; the prediction effect of alcohol use by peers on FSWs' alcohol use was stronger than that of alcohol use by family members; client-perpetrated pressure or violence directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use and indirectly influenced FSWs' alcohol use through refusal self-efficacy; refusal self-efficacy directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use. Administrators of effective intervention programs focused on alcohol use in China should adopt a multilevel approach to reduce negative social influences, particularly the influence from peer and sex work establishments on FSWs' alcohol use. Meanwhile, training to improve refusal self-efficacy should also be included in the intervention programs to reduce FSWs' alcohol use.

  13. Genetic drift. The ancient Egyptian dwarfs of the pyramids: the high official and the female worker.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira; Sarry El Din, Azza Mohamed; El Shafy El Banna, Rokia Abd; El Samie Kandeel, Wafaa Abd; Lachman, Ralph

    2011-08-01

    The existence of dwarfism is amply documented in ancient Egypt due to the rich biological and artistic legacies. In previous articles published in this journal, I discussed the roles of people with skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egyptian civilization. In this article I, along with my Egyptian and American colleagues, describe two skeletons of dwarfs that date to 2700-2184 BCE and were unearthed from a funerary complex near the Great Pyramids in Giza. The first skeleton belongs to a high official, Per-ni-ankh-w, who died between 45 and 50 years of age. His statue is on display in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo. The second skeleton belongs to a pregnant female worker found with a fetus in situ. Her estimated age at death was 25-30 years. She most likely died during childbirth due to a small pelvic outlet as supported by her narrow sacrum. The fetal bones appear normal. Radiological examination of both skeletons confirmed the clinical diagnosis of achondroplasia. Ancient Egyptians concerned themselves with the search for spiritual fulfillment through the tradition of moral teachings. Amenemope, a wise man who lived during the reign of Amenhotep III (1391-1354 BCE), advocated respect toward individuals with disabilities: Do not jeer at a blind man nor tease a dwarf, Neither interfere with the condition of a cripple. Do not taunt a man who is in the hand of God, Nor scowl at him if he errs. In summary, artistic, biological, and written resources indicate that dwarfs were well integrated in ancient Egyptian society.

  14. High HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among female sex workers in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Samuel, Malamba S; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gasasira, Antoine R; Chitou, Bassirou; Boer, Kimberly; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Gupta, Neil; Ntaganira, Joseph; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is often high among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the dynamics of HIV infection in this key population is critical to developing appropriate prevention strategies. We aimed to describe the prevalence and associated risk factors among a sample of FSWs in Rwanda from a survey conducted in 2010. A cross-sectional biological and behavioral survey was conducted among FSWs in Rwanda. Time-location sampling was used for participant recruitment from 4 to 18 February 2010. HIV testing was done using HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as per Rwandan national guidelines at the time of the survey. Elisa tests were simultaneously done on all samples tested HIV-positive on RDT. Proportions were used for sample description; multivariable logistic regression model was performed to analyze factors associated with HIV infection. Of 1338 women included in the study, 1112 consented to HIV testing, and the overall HIV prevalence was 51.0%. Sixty percent had been engaged in sex work for less than five years and 80% were street based. In multivariable logistic regression, HIV prevalence was higher in FSWs 25 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.83, 95% [confidence interval (CI): 1.42-2.37]), FSWs with consistent condom use in the last 30 days (aOR = 1.39, [95% CI: 1.05-1.82]), and FSWs experiencing at least one STI symptom in the last 12 months (aOR = 1.74 [95% CI: 1.34-2.26]). There was an inverse relationship between HIV prevalence and comprehensive HIV knowledge (aOR = 0.65, [95% CI: 0.48-0.88]). HIV prevalence was high among a sample of FSWs in Rwanda, and successful prevention strategies should focus on HIV education, treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and proper and consistent condom use using an outreach approach.

  15. Characteristics of Female Sex Workers With US Clients in Two Mexico-US Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    STRATHDEE, STEFFANIE A.; LOZADA, REMEDIOS; SEMPLE, SHIRLEY J.; OROZOVICH, PRISCI; PU, MINYA; STAINES-OROZCO, HUGO; FRAGA-VALLEJO, MIGUEL; AMARO, HORTENSIA; DELATORRE, ADELA; MAGIS-RODRíGUEZ, CARLOS; PATTERSON, THOMAS L.

    2009-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence is increasing among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, 2 Mexican cities on the US border. Quasilegal prostitution in both cities attracts large numbers of sex tourists. We compared FSWs with and without US clients in both cities. Methods FSWs aged ≥18 years reporting unprotected sex with ≥1 client within the last 2 months, who were not knowingly HIV-infected, were enrolled in a behavioral intervention study. At baseline, participants underwent interviews, antibody testing for HIV and syphilis, and vaginal swabs for detecting gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression identified factors associated with reporting >1 US client. Results Of 924 FSWs, 69% had US clients. Median age and duration in sex work were 32 and 4 years. Prevalence of HIV, infectious syphilis (titer ≥1:8), gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and any STI was 6%, 14%, 6%, 13%, and 27%, respectively. Compared with other FSWs, FSWs with US clients were more likely to have syphilis titers ≥1:8 (16% vs. 10%, P = 0.01), gonorrhea (8% vs. 2%, P <0.001) or any STI, including HIV (30% vs. 20%, P = 0.002). Factors independently associated with having US clients were: living in Tijuana, being younger, speaking English, being paid more for having sex without a condom, having >250 clients in the last 6 months, having syphilis titers ≥1:8, and injecting drugs. Conclusions In these border cities, FSWs reporting US clients were more likely to have current STIs and to engage in higher-risk behaviors. Intensified binational prevention efforts involving both FSWs and their clients are urgently needed. PMID:18032996

  16. Intravaginal Practices in Female Sex Workers in Cambodia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Hor, Leng Bun; Scheurer, Michael E.; Vidrine, Damon J.; Markham, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs) are associated with several adverse health outcomes, including HIV infection. However, few studies have examined this topic in Asian cultures, particularly in female sex workers (FSWs). This theory-based qualitative study aimed to describe the IVPs and to identify salient determinants of these practices in FSWs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We conducted in-depth interviews using open-ended questions with 30 FSWs in July–August 2014. We analyzed data using thematic content analysis, with thematic codes based on the constructs of the theory of planned behavior. The results showed that the most common IVP was a combination of intravaginal washing and wiping, to which we refer as intravaginal cleansing. There was a clear and close connection between IVP and sex work. Perceived benefits of intravaginal cleansing were numerous, while the perceived risks were few. As a result, the attitude toward intravaginal cleansing was favorable. A common misperception of benefit was that intravaginal cleansing could prevent sexually transmitted infections. Local physicians considerably influenced the subjective norm related to IVP. Intention to quit IVPs was suboptimal. In conclusion, the psychological factors associated with IVPs in FSWs were somewhat different from those in the general population of Cambodian women and women in other countries. Behavioral beliefs, attitude, and subjective norms appeared salient and important factors in IVPs. Interventions aimed at reducing IVPs should target these constructs as well as the sex-work-associated economic motives. Local physicians may be an agent to change IVP and an effective channel to deliver interventions. PMID:26742508

  17. Clinical Characteristics Associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gomih-Alakija, Ayodele; Ting, Jie; Mugo, Nelly; Kwatampora, Jessie; Getman, Damon; Chitwa, Michael; Patel, Suha; Gokhale, Mugdha; Kimani, Joshua; Behets, Frieda S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is high in vulnerable populations of women in low-resource settings. However, the epidemiology of infection in these populations is not well established. To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and its association with cervical cytology and other correlates, we recruited 350 female sex workers (FSW) who were 18 to 50 years old in Nairobi, Kenya, for a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered at baseline to obtain information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviors. Women underwent a pelvic exam, during which a physician collected cervical-exfoliation samples for conventional cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Samples were tested for M. genitalium and other STI organisms (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) and the E6/E7 mRNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) by Aptima nucleic amplification assays. The prevalence of M. genitalium was 12.9%. FSW who engaged in sexual intercourse during menses were less likely to have M. genitalium infection than those who did not (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.1, 0.9). M. genitalium was also less prevalent among FSW who had worked in prostitution for >5 years (6.2%) than among those who had worked for <3 years (17.6%) (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1, 0.8). FSW who reported more frequent condom use were more likely to be infected with M. genitalium than those who reported less frequent use (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2, 11.6). These correlates differ from those found in M. genitalium studies conducted with FSW from West Africa and China. Further longitudinal analyses assessing associations with persistent M. genitalium infection are needed. PMID:25100823

  18. Integrated bio-behavioural HIV surveillance surveys among female sex workers in Sudan, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Elhadi, Magda; Elbadawi, Abdulateef; Abdelrahman, Samira; Mohammed, Ibtisam; Bozicevic, Ivana; Hassan, Ehab A; Elmukhtar, Mohammed; Ahmed, Sally; Abdelraheem, Mohammed Sidahmed; Mubarak, Nazik; Elsanousi, Salwa; Setayesh, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV and syphilis prevalence, HIV-related behaviours and testing for HIV in female sex workers (FSW) in Sudan. Design Bio-behavioural surveys using respondent-driven sampling were carried out among FSW in the capital cities of 14 states in Sudan in 2011–2012. HIV and syphilis testing was done by rapid tests. Results 4220 FSW aged 15–49 years were recruited. The median age of recruited women varied from 21 to 28 years per site. The highest HIV prevalence was measured at two sites in the eastern zone (5.0% and 7.7%), while in the other zones it ranged from 0% to 1.5%. Syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% in the northern zone to 8.9% in the eastern zone. Ever having been tested for HIV was reported by 4.4%–23.9% of FSW across all sites. Condom use at last sex with a client varied from 4.7% to 55.1%, while consistent condom use with clients in the month preceding the surveys was reported by 0.7%–24.5% of FSW. The highest reporting of ever injecting drugs was measured at a site in the western zone (5.0%). Conclusions The surveys’ findings indicate that the highest burden of HIV in FSW is in the eastern states of the country. Condom use and HIV testing data demonstrate the need for HIV interventions that should focus on HIV testing and risk reduction strategies that include stronger condom promotion programmes in FSW and their clients. PMID:23996450

  19. Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005–06. Regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sexual risk behaviors and HIV infection based on experience of violence and mobility after adjusting for socio-demographic and sex work related characteristics. Results One-fifth of FSWs (19%) reported experiencing violence; 68% reported travelling outside their current place of residence at least once in the past year and practicing sex work during their visit. Mobile FSWs were more likely to report violence compared to their counterparts (23% vs. 10%, p < 0.001). Approximately 1 in 5 tested positive for HIV. In adjusted models, FSWs reporting both mobility and violence as compared to their counterparts were more likely to be infected with HIV (Adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR): 2.07, 95% CI: 1.42–3.03) and to report unprotected sex with occasional (adjusted OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.76–4.65) and regular clients (adjusted OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.40–3.06). Conclusions The findings indicate that mobility and violence were independently associated with HIV infection. Notably, the combined effect of mobility and violence posed greater HIV risk than their independent effect. These results point to the need for the provision of an enabling environment and safe spaces for FSWs who are mobile, to augment existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22967276

  20. Sex trafficking, sexual risk, sexually transmitted infection and reproductive health among female sex workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; McCauley, Heather L; Phuengsamran, Dusita; Janyam, Surang; Silverman, Jay G

    2011-04-01

    The trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is an internationally recognised form of gender-based violence, and is thought to confer unique sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities. To date, little research has compared sexual risk or health outcomes among female sex workers (FSWs) on the basis of experiences of sex trafficking. To compare experiences of sexual risk and sexual and reproductive health outcomes among FSWs on the basis of experiences of trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Data from a national sample of FSWs in Thailand (n=815) was used to assess (a) the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism into sex work and (b) associations of sex trafficking with sexual risk and health outcomes. Approximately 10% of FSWs met criteria for trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Compared with their non-trafficked counterparts, sex-trafficked FSWs were more likely to have experienced sexual violence at initiation to sex work (adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 2.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.72), recent workplace violence or mistreatment (ARR 1.38, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.67), recent condom failure (ARR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.80), condom non-use (ARR 3.35, 95% CI 1.49 to 7.52) and abortion (ARR 2.83, 95% CI 1.48 to 5.39). Both the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work and the threats to sexual and reproductive health observed on the basis of trafficking status show the need for comprehensive efforts to identify and support this vulnerable population. Moreover, existing STI/HIV-prevention programming may be stymied by the limited condom-use capacity and high levels of violence observed among those trafficked into sex work.

  1. Sustainability of Evidence-Based Practices for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Chavarin, Claudia V; Rafful, Claudia M; Um, Mee Young; Mendoza, Doroteo V; Staines, Hugo; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined service provider perceptions of requirements for successful sustainment of an efficacious intervention for preventing HIV/AIDS and STIs in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 77 leaders and counselors from 12 community-based reproductive health clinics located throughout Mexico participating in a large hybrid effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial to scale-up the use of Mujer Segura, a psychoeducational intervention designed to promote condom use and enhance safer sex negotiation skills among FSWs. Five sets of requirements for sustainment were identified: 1) characteristics of the provider, including competence in delivering the intervention, need for continued technical support and assistance from outside experts, and satisfaction with addressing the needs of this population; 2) characteristics of the clients (i.e., FSWs), including client need and demand for services and incentives for participation; 3) characteristics of the organization, including its mission, benefits, and operations; 4) characteristics of the outer setting, including financial support and relationship with the community-based organization's central offices, and transportation and security in areas where FSWs live and work; and 5) outcomes associated with the intervention itself, including a reduction of risk through education and increased outreach through referrals from FSWs who received the intervention. Although the requirements for successful sustainment of interventions like Mujer Segura are consistent with the factors identified in many models of implementation, the results illustrate the importance of local context in assigning priority to these model elements and suggest that the five categories are not discrete entities but interconnected.

  2. Sustainability of Evidence-Based Practices for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Rafful, Claudia M.; Um, Mee Young; Mendoza, Doroteo V.; Staines, Hugo; Aarons, Gregory A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined service provider perceptions of requirements for successful sustainment of an efficacious intervention for preventing HIV/AIDS and STIs in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 77 leaders and counselors from 12 community-based reproductive health clinics located throughout Mexico participating in a large hybrid effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial to scale-up the use of Mujer Segura, a psychoeducational intervention designed to promote condom use and enhance safer sex negotiation skills among FSWs. Results Five sets of requirements for sustainment were identified: 1) characteristics of the provider, including competence in delivering the intervention, need for continued technical support and assistance from outside experts, and satisfaction with addressing the needs of this population; 2) characteristics of the clients (i.e., FSWs), including client need and demand for services and incentives for participation; 3) characteristics of the organization, including its mission, benefits, and operations; 4) characteristics of the outer setting, including financial support and relationship with the community-based organization’s central offices, and transportation and security in areas where FSWs live and work; and 5) outcomes associated with the intervention itself, including a reduction of risk through education and increased outreach through referrals from FSWs who received the intervention. Conclusions Although the requirements for successful sustainment of interventions like Mujer Segura are consistent with the factors identified in many models of implementation, the results illustrate the importance of local context in assigning priority to these model elements and suggest that the five categories are not discrete entities but interconnected. PMID:26517265

  3. Social and cultural contexts of HIV risk behaviors among Thai female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs were recruited for qualitative interviews (n=50) and survey interviews (n=205). Based on mixed methods, the study revealed that HIV risk and substance use behaviors among FSWs significantly differed depending on work venues, although there were no significant differences between work venues on some key risk behaviors (e.g., inconsistent condom use with primary partners and customers; willingness to engage in unsafe sex with customers). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that FSWs who had used illicit drugs, were young, had low levels of self-esteem, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with customers. Also, FSWs who worked at bars/clubs, were young, had higher income, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. Qualitative interviews illustrated FSWs' alcohol and drug use due to their stressful life (e.g., long working hours and a large number of customers) and easy access to alcohol and drugs. FSWs had shown inaccurate knowledge about HIV prevention methods and engaged in risky behaviors, such as washing vagina with water or toothpaste after having had sex with customers. The HIV prevention strategies in Thailand need to be re-structured through implementing evidence-based HIV prevention intervention programs for FSWs, which must address sociocultural factors (e.g., self-esteem) and alcohol and drug use specific to work venues.

  4. Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sowmya; Ganju, Deepika; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2012-09-11

    Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005-06. Regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sexual risk behaviors and HIV infection based on experience of violence and mobility after adjusting for socio-demographic and sex work related characteristics. One-fifth of FSWs (19%) reported experiencing violence; 68% reported travelling outside their current place of residence at least once in the past year and practicing sex work during their visit. Mobile FSWs were more likely to report violence compared to their counterparts (23% vs. 10%, p < 0.001). Approximately 1 in 5 tested positive for HIV. In adjusted models, FSWs reporting both mobility and violence as compared to their counterparts were more likely to be infected with HIV (Adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR): 2.07, 95% CI: 1.42-3.03) and to report unprotected sex with occasional (adjusted OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.76-4.65) and regular clients (adjusted OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.40-3.06). The findings indicate that mobility and violence were independently associated with HIV infection. Notably, the combined effect of mobility and violence posed greater HIV risk than their independent effect. These results point to the need for the provision of an enabling environment and safe spaces for FSWs who are mobile, to augment existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  5. Determinants of Heterosexual Adolescents Having Sex with Female Sex Workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, Junice Y S; Wong, Mee-Lian

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs) among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs. This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73%) of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences) and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30-2.46), never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28-2.38), reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93-0.98), higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00-1.07) and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04-2.09). Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%. A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance.

  6. Cost effectiveness of targeted HIV prevention interventions for female sex workers in India.

    PubMed

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Rudra, Shalini; Gupta, Indrani; Kaur, Manmeet; Mehendale, S M; Chatterjee, Susmita; Panda, Samiran; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-06-01

    To ascertain the cost effectiveness of targeted interventions for female sex workers (FSW) under the National AIDS Control Programme in India. A compartmental mathematical Markov state model was used over a 20-year time horizon (1995-2015) to estimate the cost effectiveness of FSW targeted interventions, with a health system perspective. The incremental costs and effects of FSW targeted interventions were compared against a baseline scenario of mass media for the general population alone. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was computed at a 3% discount rate using HIV infections averted and disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) as benefit measures. It was assumed that the transmission of the HIV virus moves from a high-risk group (FSW) to the client population and finally to the general population (partners of clients). Targeted interventions for FSW result in a reduction of 47% (1.6 million) prevalent and 36% (2.7 million) cumulative HIV cases, respectively, in 2015. Adult HIV prevalence in India, with and without (mass media only) FSW interventions, would be 0.25% and 0.48% in 2015. Indian government and development partners spend an average US $104 (INR4680) per HIV infection averted and US $10.7 (INR483) per DALY averted. Discounting at 3%, FSW targeted interventions cost US $105.5 (INR4748) and US $10.9 (INR490) per HIV case and DALY averted, respectively. At the current gross domestic product in India, targeted intervention is a cost-effective strategy for HIV prevention in India.

  7. Correlates of Heart Rate Measures with Incidental Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Female Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tonello, Laís; Reichert, Felipe F.; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Del Rosso, Sebastián; Leicht, Anthony S.; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) levels and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) impact on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR). However, previous studies evaluating PA levels did not discriminate between incidental PA and regular exercise. We hypothesized that incidental PA “per se” would influence cardiac autonomic indices as assessed via HR variability (HRV) and HR recovery (HRR) in non-exercisers. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective PA levels, CRF, and cardiac autonomic indices in adult, regular non-exercising female workers. After familiarization with procedures and evaluation of body composition, 21 women completed a submaximal cycling test and evaluation of HRR on four different days. Resting (2-min seated and standing) and ambulatory (4-h) HRV were also recorded. Levels of PA were assessed by accelerometry over five consecutive days (i.e., Wednesday to Sunday). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured as an index of CRF. As reliability was low to moderate for most HR measures, relationships between these and PA and CRF were examined using the 4-day average measures. Significant correlations were identified between post-exercise HRR in the first min with various PA indices (daily moderate PA, daily vigorous PA, and the sum of vigorous and very vigorous daily PA). Additionally, VO2max was significantly correlated to HRV but not to HRR. The current results indicated that CRF was influential in enhancing HRV while incidental or non-exercise based PA was associated with greater autonomic reactivation in adult overweight women. Therefore, both CRF and non-exercise based PA contribute significant but diverse effects on cardiac health. The use of 4-day averages instead of single measures for evaluation of autonomic control of HR may provide a better indication of regular cardiac autonomic function that remains to be refined. PMID:26779034

  8. Relationship between Community Collectivization and Financial Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Jain, Anrudh Kumar; Saggurti, Niranjan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs) are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India. Data and Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS)—2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400) in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Results Most FSWs (87%) reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3–0.5) and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1–0.3) as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt). Conclusion This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial

  9. Associations between Migrant status and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Victoria D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Rusch, Melanie L.A.; Fraga, Miguel; Orozovich, Prisci; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; De La Torre, Adela; Amaro, Hortensia; Cornelius, Wayne; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between migration and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among Mexican female sex workers (FSW). Methods FSW aged ≥18 years in Tijuana, Baja California (BC) underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Multivariate logistic regressions identified correlates of STI. Results Of 471 FSW, 79% were migrants to BC. Among migrant FSW, prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and any STI was 6.6%, 13.2%, 7.8%, 16.3%, and 31.1% vs. 10.9%, 18.2%, 13.0%, 19.0%, and 42.4% among FSW born in BC. A greater proportion of migrant FSW were registered with local health services and were ever tested for HIV. Migrant status was protective for any STI in unadjusted models (Unadj. OR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.39, 0.97). In multivariate models controlling for confounders, migrant status was not associated with an elevated odds of STI acquisition and trended towards a protective association. Conclusions Unexpectedly, migrant status (vs. native-born status) appeared protective for any STI acquisition. It is unclear which social or economic conditions may protect against STI and whether these erode over time in migrants. Additional research is needed to inform our understanding of whether or how geography, variations in health capital, or social network composition and information sharing attributes can contribute to health protective behaviors in migrant FSW. By capitalizing on such mechanisms, efforts to preserve protective health behaviors in migrant FSW will help control STI in the population and may lead to the identification of strategies that are generalizable to other FSW. PMID:19188211

  10. Violence and HIV risk among female sex workers in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Deering, Kathleen N; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Mohan, H L; Bradley, Janet; Shannon, Kate; Boily, Marie-Claude; Ramesh, B M; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James

    2013-02-01

    This study characterized the type and frequency of violence against female sex workers (FSWs) perpetrated by their clients and their main intimate or other nonpaying partner (NPP) and examined the relationship between violence and inconsistent condom use (ICU, G100%). The factors associated with client violence were also assessed. Data were analyzed from cross-sectional surveys of FSWs in Karnataka state (2007-2008), India. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the following: (1) relationship between client or NPP violence (physical and/or sexual) and ICU by occasional/repeat clients or the NPP and (2) relationship between social and environmental factors and client violence. Of 1219 FSWs, 9.6% (111) and 3.7% (42) reported experiencing violence by clients and the NPP, respectively. In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for social and environmental factors, the odds of ICU by occasional clients were significantly higher for women who had experienced client violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-4.4). Similar results were found with repeat clients (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.4). Nonpaying partner violence was not significantly associated with ICU by the NPP. In multivariable analysis, only being recently arrested remained significantly associated with experiencing client violence (AOR, 1.8; 95% CIs, 1.0-3.3). The findings from this study provide evidence of a relationship between experiencing client violence and ICU by occasional and repeat clients, and a relationship between being arrested and client violence. Comprehensive structural/policy programming for FSWs, including within HIV-focused prevention programs, is urgently needed to help reduce FSWs' vulnerability to violence

  11. Commercial sex venues, syphilis and methamphetamine use among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zhang, Xijiang; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Ning; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Zhenqiang; Aliyu, Muktar; Wu, Pingsheng; Jiang, Baofa; Jia, Yujiang

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2% ever used MA; 58.3% ever had unprotected commercial sex in the past month. The prevalence rates of syphilis and MA use were 2.5% and 33.0% for participants recruited from saunas, night clubs, bars or hotels; 2.7% and 28.3% for hair/beauty salon-based participants; and 4.5% and 15.8% for street-based participants. Street-based MA users were more likely to be single, non-Shandong residents, have first lifetime sex act at younger age, and recruited in 2008 (vs. 2006). Saunas, night clubs, bars, or hotels-based MA users were more likely to be younger, sex debut at younger age, have longer duration of sex work, have unprotected commercial sex, and be syphilis-infected. Hair/beauty salon-based MA users were more likely to be non-Shandong residents, younger, and to have unprotected commercial sex. Syphilis among the sauna-, night club-, bar-, or hotel-based participants was associated with MA use and ever receipt of HIV testing. Syphilis among the hair/beauty salon-based participants was associated with longer duration of sex work. MA users who frequent commercial sex venues are engaging in high-risk behaviors and are at risk for syphilis/other sexually transmitted diseases. Better-targeted intervention efforts to curtail the epidemics of MA use and HIV/syphilis should therefore take cognizance of the role of commercial sex venues as focal points of MA use and syphilis/sexually transmitted disease transmission.

  12. Sexual risk behaviors, HIV, and syphilis among female sex workers in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kakchapati, Sampurna; Singh, Dipendra Raman; Rawal, Bir Bahadhur; Lim, Apiradee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Female sex workers (FSWs) are a key-affected population susceptible to acquiring HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as transmitting the virus to others. The aim of the study was to assess HIV and syphilis prevalence among FSWs in Nepal and to examine factors associated with it. Materials and methods The study was based on Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) surveys among FSWs in Nepal from 2004 to 2015. Statistical analysis used chi-squared test to assess statistically significant risk factors for HIV and syphilis. Logistic regression models were used to identify the most important determinants for each outcome. Results A total of 5,958 FSWs were tested, and among them, 100 (1.7%) were HIV positive and 230 (3.9%) were syphilis positive. The multivariate analysis revealed that syphilis was higher among those street-based, aged ≥35 years, illiterate, and with a duration of sex work of >3 years. HIV was higher among those aged ≥35 years, illiterate, street-based, and with a duration of sex work >3 years. Syphilis was strongly correlated with HIV. Conclusion HIV epidemic among FSWs in Nepal appears in the stagnant trend, whereas STI epidemic has increased in recent years. The high influencing factors for HIV and syphilis prevalence were advanced age, street-based, lower education, and longer duration of sex work. Urgent efforts, as part of routine HIV/STI prevention and intervention, are required to reduce the high burden of syphilis among FSWs. PMID:28184170

  13. HIV Risk Behaviours Differ by Workplace Stability Among Mexican Female Sex Workers With Truck Driver Clientele

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nadine E.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Rangel, Gudelia; Patterson, Thomas L.; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J.; Rosen, Perth; Villalobos, Jorge; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

    2012-01-01

    Background In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was primary place of sex work defined as unstable (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) vs stable (bar, brothel, and hotel). Logistic regression was used to identify correlates associated with trading sex at unstable workplaces in the last month. Results Of the FSWs surveyed, 18% reported an unstable workplace. The majority of FSWs surveyed were young (<30 years), single, had <9th grade education, and had worked in the sex trade for a median of 4.9 years. After controlling for study site, FSWs with unstable vs stable workplaces were more likely to have a majority/all truck driver clientele, but were less likely to have visited a gynaecologist in the last year (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.03-0.4) or ever had an HIV test (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.06-0.3), and there was a trend towards lower condom use self-efficacy scores (OR 0.8 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.7-1.0). On multivariate regression, unstable workplace was associated with having majority/all truck driver clientele, being surveyed in Nuevo Laredo, and decreased odds of ever having an HIV test. Conclusions Among Mexican FSWs with truck driver clients, providing safe indoor spaces for sex work may help facilitate public health interventions that improve HIV/STI prevention and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:24724056

  14. Correlates of Heart Rate Measures with Incidental Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Female Workers.

    PubMed

    Tonello, Laís; Reichert, Felipe F; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Del Rosso, Sebastián; Leicht, Anthony S; Boullosa, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) levels and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) impact on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR). However, previous studies evaluating PA levels did not discriminate between incidental PA and regular exercise. We hypothesized that incidental PA "per se" would influence cardiac autonomic indices as assessed via HR variability (HRV) and HR recovery (HRR) in non-exercisers. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective PA levels, CRF, and cardiac autonomic indices in adult, regular non-exercising female workers. After familiarization with procedures and evaluation of body composition, 21 women completed a submaximal cycling test and evaluation of HRR on four different days. Resting (2-min seated and standing) and ambulatory (4-h) HRV were also recorded. Levels of PA were assessed by accelerometry over five consecutive days (i.e., Wednesday to Sunday). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured as an index of CRF. As reliability was low to moderate for most HR measures, relationships between these and PA and CRF were examined using the 4-day average measures. Significant correlations were identified between post-exercise HRR in the first min with various PA indices (daily moderate PA, daily vigorous PA, and the sum of vigorous and very vigorous daily PA). Additionally, VO2max was significantly correlated to HRV but not to HRR. The current results indicated that CRF was influential in enhancing HRV while incidental or non-exercise based PA was associated with greater autonomic reactivation in adult overweight women. Therefore, both CRF and non-exercise based PA contribute significant but diverse effects on cardiac health. The use of 4-day averages instead of single measures for evaluation of autonomic control of HR may provide a better indication of regular cardiac autonomic function that remains to be refined.

  15. Determinants of intention to use condoms among clients of female sex workers in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Soto, Julio C; Akom, Edit; Joseph, Gerard; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2010-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine factors influencing intention of condom use among 378 clients of female sex workers (FSWs) visiting commercial sex sites in St-Marc and Gonaives, Haiti. Mean age of the study participants was 24 years. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs. Seventy-four percentage of clients reported having used condoms with a FSW the last time they had had sexual intercourse. The majority (81.7%) firmly intended to use condoms during the next sexual encounter with a FSW. Multivariate logistic models revealed that subjective norms (odds ratio (OR)=1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-2.88), perceived behavioral control (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.09-1.63) and attitudes (OR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.04-1.44) were predictors of intention to use condoms, with norms being more important. Clients having used condoms the last time they had a sexual intercourse with a FSW, were more likely to have the intention to use them in the future (OR=3.17; 95% CI: 1.65-6.10), indicating an adopted behavior. Lastly, having had a previous sexually transmitted infection was associated with intention, suggesting that a negative experience can influence a future behavior. In conclusion, intention to use condoms among the clients of Haitian FSWs was well predicted by TPB constructs. Our findings provide evidence for designing interventions targeted at reducing risky sex behaviors in this population.

  16. The Impact of Syphilis Screening among Female Sex Workers in China: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kate M.; Cox, Andrew P.; Mabey, David; Tucker, Joseph D.; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Vickerman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background In China, female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of syphilis infection, but are hard to reach for interventions. Point-of-care testing introduces opportunities for expanding syphilis control measures. Modelling is used to estimate the impact of using rapid tests to screen FSWs for syphilis. In other settings, modelling has predicted large rebounds in infectious syphilis following screening, which may undermine any impact achieved. Methods A deterministic syphilis transmission model among FSWs and clients was fitted to data from Yunnan Province (FSW syphilis prevalence = 7.5%), and used to estimate the impact of rapid syphilis testing and treatment for FSWs. Impact projections were compared for different model structures that included risk heterogeneity amongst FSWs, incoming syphilis infections amongst new FSWs and clients and re-infection from FSWs' regular non-commercial partners. The rebound in syphilis prevalence after screening ceased was explored. Results All model structures suggest yearly syphilis screening could substantially reduce (by 72–88%) syphilis prevalence amongst FSWs in this setting over five years. However, incoming syphilis infections amongst new FSWs and clients or re-infections from regular non-commercial partners of FSWs can considerably reduce (>30%) the proportion of infections averted. Including heterogeneity in risk amongst FSWs had little effect upon the proportion of infections averted. In this setting, the rebound in syphilis prevalence after screening ceased is predicted to be slight, but it could be large in high prevalence settings. Conclusions Rapid test screening could dramatically reduce syphilis prevalence amongst hard-to-reach groups, but strategies to reduce re-infection from regular non-commercial partners are needed to maximise impact. PMID:23383249

  17. The HIV Care Continuum among Female Sex Workers: A Key Population in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Kathryn Elizabeth; Powers, Kimberly A.; Lungu, Thandie; Mmodzi, Pearson; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Chadwick, Katy; Go, Vivian F.; Pence, Brian W.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Miller, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The HIV care continuum among female sex workers (FSW), a key population, has not been well characterized, especially within the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa. This was the first study to characterize the HIV care continuum among FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods From July through September 2014, we used venue-based sampling to enroll 200 adult FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi into a cross-sectional evaluation assessing HIV care continuum outcomes. Seropositive FSW, identified using HIV rapid testing, received rapid CD4 counts in addition to viral loads using dried blood spots. We calculated proportions of HIV-infected FSW who had history of care, were on ART, and had suppressed viral load and we used Poisson regression to estimate the associations of demographic characteristics and transmission risk behaviors with each outcome. Results HIV seroprevalence was 69% (n = 138). Among all FSW the median age was 24 years (IQR: 22–28). Among the 20% who were newly diagnosed and reported previously testing negative, the median time since last HIV test was 11 months (interquartile range: 3–17). The majority (69%) of HIV-infected FSW had a history of HIV care, 52% reported current ART use, and 45% were virally suppressed. Of the FSW who reported current ART use, 86% were virally suppressed. Transmission risk behaviors were not associated with continuum outcomes. Conclusions FSW in Lilongwe were predominately young and have a high HIV prevalence. Only half of HIV-infected FSW reported current ART use, but the majority of those on ART were virally suppressed. To reduce ongoing transmission and improve health outcomes, increased HIV testing, care engagement, and ART coverage is urgently needed among FSW. Universal testing and treatment strategies for all FSW in Malawi must be strongly considered. PMID:26808043

  18. Neck and shoulder ailments in a group of female industrial workers with monotonous work.

    PubMed

    Björkstén, M G; Boquist, B; Talbäck, M; Edling, C

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to study the comprehension of exposure to different physical and psycho-social factors at work, at home and during leisure time and the lifestyle of a group of unskilled female workers, and also their reports of musculoskeletal ailments, especially in the neck, shoulders and thoracic back. Furthermore an evaluation of the relevance of the methods used and the validity of the results are discussed. One hundred and seventy-three women, aged 20-45 years, from, in total, 26 large, medium-sized and small enterprises in three counties in Sweden participated in the study. Each woman answered a questionnaire in the presence of the project leader in a separate room close to her workplace. The questionnaires comprised questions on demographic, work-related and domestic factors; smoking habits, lifestyle and level of physical activity, leisure activities, health status and musculoskeletal problems. The prevalence of musculoskeletal ailments and the smoking habits among the 173 women was compared to a group of 153 women of the same age from the general population. The environmental factors reported as being most disturbing at work were noise, temperature and humidity, and the most frequent adverse physical factors were repetition of movements, precision and uncomfortable posture. The women in the studied group were largely responsible for domestic tasks such as laundry, cleaning and cooking but to a greater extent shared the responsibility for the children with their partners. The highest prevalence of ailments in the study group were in the neck (68%) and shoulders (74%); in the group from the general population these prevalences were 35 and 42%, respectively. The relevance of methods used and the validity of the results were found to be acceptable.

  19. Alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence against female sex workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Hong, Yan; Chen, Yiyun; Shan, Qiao; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2012-01-01

    Background The global literature suggests that female sex workers (FSWs) experience high rates of sexual violence perpetrated by their clients, especially when FSWs are under the influence of alcohol. However, such data are limited in China. The current study is aimed to fill in the literature gap by examining the association between alcohol use by FSWs and client-perpetrated sexual violence against FSWs in China. Methods A total of 1,022 FSWs were recruited through community outreach in Guangxi, China. FSWs completed a self-administered survey on their demographic information, alcohol use, and sexual violence perpetrated by clients. Multivariable regression was employed to assess the relationship between alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence among FSWs while controlling for possible confounders. Results Alcohol use was positively associated with the experience of sexual violence in both bivariate and multivariable analyses. Women who were at a higher risk level of alcohol use were more likely to experience sexual violence perpetrated by clients even after controlling confounders (e.g., demographics and alcohol-serving practice). Conclusion Given the association between alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence, preventing or reducing alcohol use among FSWs could be an effective strategy to protect these women from sexual violence perpetrated by their clients. Alternatively, psychological counseling and other support should be available to these women so they can reduce their alcohol use as a maladaptive coping strategy. We call for culturally appropriate alcohol use reduction components, incorporated with sexual violence reduction strategies including adaptive coping skills training as well as empowerment, and targeting both FSWs and their clients. PMID:22882121

  20. Characteristics of female sex workers with US clients in two Mexico-US border cities.

    PubMed

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J; Orozovich, Prisci; Pu, Minya; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Amaro, Hortensia; Delatorre, Adela; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L

    2008-03-01

    HIV prevalence is increasing among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, 2 Mexican cities on the US border. Quasilegal prostitution in both cities attracts large numbers of sex tourists. We compared FSWs with and without US clients in both cities. FSWs aged > or =18 years reporting unprotected sex with > or =1 client within the last 2 months, who were not knowingly HIV-infected, were enrolled in a behavioral intervention study. At baseline, participants underwent interviews, antibody testing for HIV and syphilis, and vaginal swabs for detecting gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression identified factors associated with reporting >1 US client. Of 924 FSWs, 69% had US clients. Median age and duration in sex work were 32 and 4 years. Prevalence of HIV, infectious syphilis (titer > or =1:8), gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and any STI was 6%, 14%, 6%, 13%, and 27%, respectively. Compared with other FSWs, FSWs with US clients were more likely to have syphilis titers > or =1:8 (16% vs. 10%, P = 0.01), gonorrhea (8% vs. 2%, P <0.001) or any STI, including HIV (30% vs. 20%, P = 0.002). Factors independently associated with having US clients were: living in Tijuana, being younger, speaking English, being paid more for having sex without a condom, having >250 clients in the last 6 months, having syphilis titers > or =1:8, and injecting drugs. In these border cities, FSWs reporting US clients were more likely to have current STIs and to engage in higher-risk behaviors. Intensified binational prevention efforts involving both FSWs and their clients are urgently needed.

  1. Associations between migrant status and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, V D; Strathdee, S A; Lozada, R; Rusch, M L A; Fraga, M; Orozovich, P; Magis-Rodriguez, C; De La Torre, A; Amaro, H; Cornelius, W; Patterson, T L

    2009-10-01

    To examine associations between migration and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among Mexican female sex workers (FSW). FSW aged 18 years and older in Tijuana, Baja California (BC) underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Multivariate logistic regressions identified correlates of STI. Of 471 FSW, 79% were migrants to BC. Among migrant FSW, prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and any STI was 6.6%, 13.2%, 7.8%, 16.3% and 31.1% compared with 10.9%, 18.2%, 13.0%, 19.0% and 42.4% among FSW born in BC. A greater proportion of migrant FSW were registered with local health services and were ever tested for HIV. Migrant status was protective for any STI in unadjusted models (unadjusted odds ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.97). In multivariate models controlling for confounders, migrant status was not associated with an elevated odds of STI acquisition and trended towards a protective association. Unexpectedly, migrant status (vs native-born status) appeared protective for any STI acquisition. It is unclear which social or economic conditions may protect against STI and whether these erode over time in migrants. Additional research is needed to inform our understanding of whether or how geography, variations in health capital, or social network composition and information-sharing attributes can contribute to health protective behaviours in migrant FSW. By capitalising on such mechanisms, efforts to preserve protective health behaviours in migrant FSW will help control STI in the population and may lead to the identification of strategies that are generalisable to other FSW.

  2. Pregnancy intentions among female sex workers: recognising their rights and wants as mothers.

    PubMed

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jeannie; Feng, Cindy; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the prevalence and correlates of pregnancy intentions among female sex workers (FSWs). Cross-sectional analysis using data from an open prospective cohort of street and off-street FSWs in Vancouver, Canada, in partnership with local sex work and community agencies. FSWs were recruited through outreach to street and off-street locations (e.g. massage parlours, micro-brothels) and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate correlates of pregnancy intention, based on a 'yes' or 'no' response to the question "Are you planning on have any (any more) children in the future?". Of the 510 women, 394 (77.3%) reported prior pregnancy, with 140 (27.5%) of the entire sample reporting positive pregnancy intentions. Regarding ethnicity, 35.3% were Caucasian and 26.3% were Asian/visible minority, with no differences in pregnancy intention by ethnicity or HIV status; 38.4% reported Canadian Aboriginal ancestry. In our final multivariable model, servicing clients in formal indoor settings, inconsistent condom use by clients, younger age, and intimate partner violence (IPV) were associated with pregnancy intention. FSWs may have pregnancy intention levels similar to that of women in other occupations. Policy changes are needed to improve FSWs' access to integrated HIV and reproductive health services and harm reduction services, particularly for FSWs experiencing IPV. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Correlates of unprotected sex with female sex workers among male clients in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Cruz, Manuel Gallardo; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Nguyen, Lucie; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    Background Tijuana, situated adjacent to San Diego, CA on the US-Mexico border, is experiencing an emerging HIV epidemic, with prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) having risen in recent years from <1% to 6%. Comparable data on FSWs’ clients are lacking. We explored correlates of unprotected sex with FSWs among male clients in Tijuana. Methods In 2008, males from San Diego (N=189) and Tijuana (N=211) aged 18 or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana’s red light district. Participants underwent psychosocial interviews and were tested for HIV, syphilis (Treponema pallidum), gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), and Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). Results Of 394 men, median age was 36 years, 42.1% were married, and 39.3% were unemployed. Ethnic composition was 13.2% white, 79.4% Hispanic and 7.4% black or other. Half (50.3%) reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with FSWs in Tijuana in the past 4 months. High proportions reported using drugs during sex (66%), and 36% reported frequenting the same FSW. Factors independently associated with unprotected sex with FSWs were using drugs during sex, visiting the same FSW, being married, and being unemployed. Conclusions FSWs’ clients represent an STI/HIV transmission “bridge” through unprotected sex with FSWs, wives and other partners. Tailored interventions to promote consistent condom use are needed for clients, especially within the context of drug use and ongoing relations with particular FSWs. PMID:20081558

  4. The Prevalence and Correlates of Physical and Sexual Violence Affecting Female Sex Workers in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Berger, Blair O; Grosso, Ashley; Adams, Darrin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sithole, Bhekie; Mabuza, Xolile S; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo J; Baral, Stefan

    2016-02-12

    Female sex workers (FSW) have a heightened vulnerability to violence and negative sexual/reproductive health outcomes. Limited research has examined how experiencing physical and sexual violence (PSV) mediates risk for poor health outcomes among FSW in Swaziland. The present analyses aim to contribute to literature linking violence with poor health outcomes, high-risk behaviors, and reduced health service-seeking among FSW. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study conducted in Swaziland between July and September 2011 with 325 adult women who reported exchanging sex for money, goods, or favors in the last 12 months, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between PSV and ancillary violence/abuse exposures, risk behaviors, and sexual/reproductive and mental health outcomes. PSV was conceptualized as either ever having been beaten up as a result of selling sex or ever being forced to have sex since the age of 18, or both. Prevalence of PSV in this sample was 59.0% in crude estimation, and 48.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]:[39.2,57.6]) with RDS weighting. Separate RDS-weighted estimates of being beaten up as a result of sex work and ever being forced to have sex were 32.4% (95%CI=[24.4,40.4]) and 33.1% (95%CI =[25.0,41.2%]), respectively. Experiencing PSV was associated with being blackmailed (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]= 1.93, 95%CI= [1.07,3.52]), non-injection drug use in the last 12 months (aOR= 1.84, 95%CI= [1.02,3.33]), and feeling afraid to seek health services as a result of selling sex (aOR = 1.74, 95%CI= [1.01,2.99]). Given these findings, violence prevention strategies should be prioritized in programs that address Swazi FSW health, empowerment, and safety.

  5. Reaching the Unreachable: Providing STI Control Services to Female Sex Workers via Mobile Team Outreach

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Pablo E.; Buffardi, Anne L.; Cárcamo, César P.; García, Patricia J.; Buendia, Clara; Chiappe, Marina; Garnett, Geoff P.; Xet-Mull, Ana Maria; Holmes, King K.

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of a community-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections, we created Mobile Teams (MTs) in ten intervention cities across Peru to improve outreach to female sex workers (FSW) for strengthened STI prevention services. Methods Throughout 20 two-month cycles, MTs provided counseling; condoms; screening and specific treatment for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and vaginal Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infections; and periodic presumptive metronidazole treatment for vaginal infections. Results MTs had 48,207 separate encounters with 24,814 FSW; numbers of sex work venues and of FSW reached increased steadily over several cycles. Approximately 50% of FSW reached per cycle were new. Reported condom use with last client increased from 73% to 93%. Presumptive metronidazole treatment was accepted 83% of times offered. Over 38 months, CT prevalence declined from 15·4% to 8·2%, and TV prevalence from 7·3% to 2·6%. Among participants in ≥9 cycles, CT prevalence decreased from 12·9% to 6·0% (p <0·001); TV from 4·6% to 1·5% (p <0·001); and NG from 0·8% to 0·4% (p =0·07). Conclusions Mobile outreach to FSW reached many FSW not utilizing government clinics. Self-reported condom use substantially increased; CT and TV prevalences declined significantly. The community-randomized trial, reported separately, demonstrated significantly greater reductions in composite prevalence of CT, NG, TV, or high-titer syphilis serology in FSW in these ten intervention cities than in ten matched control cities. PMID:24282565

  6. Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Practices among Female Sex Workers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Lowndes, Catherine M.; Mohanty, Sanjay Kumar; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Moses, Stephen; Washington, Reynold; Alary, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of this study are to develop a summary measure of risky sexual practice and examine the factors associated with this among female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods Data were drawn from special behavioral surveys (SBS) conducted in 2007 among 577 FSWs in two districts of Karnataka, India: Belgaum and Bangalore. FSWs were recruited using the two-stage probability sampling design. FSWs' sexual practice was considered risky if they reported inconsistent condom use with any sexual partner and reported experience of one of the following vulnerabilities to HIV risk: anal sex, alcohol consumption prior to sex and concurrent sexual relationships. Results About 51% of FSWs had engaged in risky sexual practice. The odds of engaging in risky sex were higher among FSWs who were older (35+ years) than younger (18–25 years) (58% vs. 45%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–3.4), who were currently married than never married (61% vs. 51%, AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5–9.3), who were in sex work for 10+ years than those who were in sex work for less than five years (66% vs. 39%, AOR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6–4.2), and who had sex with 3+ clients/day than those who had sex with fewer clients (67% vs. 38%, AOR: 3.7, 95% CI:2.5–5.5). Conclusion FSWs who are older, currently married, practicing sex work for longer duration and with higher clientele were more likely to engage in risky sexual practices. HIV prevention programs should develop strategies to reach these most-at risk group of FSWs to optimize the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:23637991

  7. Violence, condom breakage, and HIV infection among female sex workers in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Tounkara, Fatoumata K; Diabaté, Souleymane; Guédou, Fernand A; Ahoussinou, Clément; Kintin, Frédéric; Zannou, Djimon M; Kpatchavi, Adolphe; Bédard, Emmanuelle; Bietra, Raphaël; Alary, Michel

    2014-05-01

    To examine the relationship between violence, condom breakage, and HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). Data were obtained from the 2012 cross-sectional integrated biological and behavioral survey conducted in Benin. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of HIV infection and condom breakage in relation to violence toward FSWs. A score was created to examine the relationship between the number of violence types reported and HIV infection. Among the 981 women who provided a blood sample, HIV prevalence was 20.4%. During the last month, 17.2%, 13.5%, and 33.5% of them had experienced physical, sexual, and psychological violence, respectively. In addition, 15.9% reported at least 1 condom breakage during the previous week. There was a significant association between all types of violence and HIV prevalence. The adjusted prevalence ratios of HIV were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05-2.00), 1.42 (95% CI, 1.02-1.98), and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.08-1.41) among those who had ever experienced physical, sexual, and psychological violence, respectively. HIV prevalence increased with the violence score (P = 0.002, test for trend), and physical and sexual violence were independently associated with condom breakage (P = 0.010 and P = 0.003, respectively). The results show that violence is associated with a higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and that condom breakage is a potential mediator for this association. Longitudinal studies designed to analyze this relationship and specific interventions integrated to current HIV prevention strategies are needed to reduce the burden of violence among FSWs.

  8. Violence, condom breakage and HIV infection among female sex workers in Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tounkara, Fatoumata K.; Diabaté, Souleymane; Guédou, Fernand A.; Ahoussinou, Clément; Kintin, Frédéric; Zannou, Djimon M.; Kpatchavi, Adolphe; Bédard, Emmanuelle; Bietra, Raphaël; Alary, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between violence, condom breakage and HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Data were obtained from the 2012 cross-sectional integrated biological and behavioural survey conducted in Benin. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of HIV infection and condom breakage in relation to violence towards FSWs. A score was created to examine the relationship between the number of violence types reported and HIV infection. Results Among the 981 women who provided a blood sample, HIV prevalence was 20.4%. During the last month, 17.2%, 13.5% and 33.5% of them had experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. In addition, 15.9% reported at least one condom breakage during the previous week. There was a significant association between all types of violence and HIV prevalence. The APRs of HIV were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.05 – 2.00), 1.42 (95%CI: 1.02 – 1.98), and 1.41 (95%CI: 1.08 – 1.41) among those who had ever experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. HIV prevalence increased with the violence score (p=0.002, test for trend), and physical and sexual violence were independently associated with condom breakage (p values 0.010 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion The results show that violence is associated with a higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and that condom breakage is a potential mediator for this association. Longitudinal studies designed to analyse this relationship and specific interventions integrated to current HIV prevention strategies are needed to reduce the burden of violence among FSWs. PMID:24722385

  9. Factors associated with risky sexual practices among female sex workers in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Lowndes, Catherine M; Mohanty, Sanjay Kumar; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Moses, Stephen; Washington, Reynold; Alary, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop a summary measure of risky sexual practice and examine the factors associated with this among female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Data were drawn from special behavioral surveys (SBS) conducted in 2007 among 577 FSWs in two districts of Karnataka, India: Belgaum and Bangalore. FSWs were recruited using the two-stage probability sampling design. FSWs' sexual practice was considered risky if they reported inconsistent condom use with any sexual partner and reported experience of one of the following vulnerabilities to HIV risk: anal sex, alcohol consumption prior to sex and concurrent sexual relationships. About 51% of FSWs had engaged in risky sexual practice. The odds of engaging in risky sex were higher among FSWs who were older (35+ years) than younger (18-25 years) (58% vs. 45%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-3.4), who were currently married than never married (61% vs. 51%, AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5-9.3), who were in sex work for 10+ years than those who were in sex work for less than five years (66% vs. 39%, AOR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6-4.2), and who had sex with 3+ clients/day than those who had sex with fewer clients (67% vs. 38%, AOR: 3.7, 95% CI:2.5-5.5). FSWs who are older, currently married, practicing sex work for longer duration and with higher clientele were more likely to engage in risky sexual practices. HIV prevention programs should develop strategies to reach these most-at risk group of FSWs to optimize the effectiveness of such programs.

  10. Determinants of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intention Among Female Sex Workers in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Marra, Elske; van Dam, Laura; Kroone, Niki; Craanen, Marianne; Zimet, Gregory D; Heijman, Titia; Hogewoning, Arjan A; Sonder, Gerard J B; de Vries, Henry J C; Alberts, Catharina J; Paulussen, Theo G W M; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F

    2017-07-17

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced diseases but are currently not targeted by the HPV vaccination program in the Netherlands. We explored determinants of their intention to get vaccinated against HPV in case vaccination would be offered to them. In 2016, FSWs 18 years and older having a sexually transmitted infection consultation with the Prostitution & Health Center (P&G292) in Amsterdam, either at the clinic or at their working location, were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing sociopsychological determinants of HPV vaccination intention (scale ranging from -3 to +3). Determinants of HPV vaccination intention were assessed with univariable and multivariable linear regression. In addition, we explored the effect of out-of-pocket payment on intention. Between May and September 2016, 294 FSWs participated. The median age was 29 years (interquartile range, 25-37 years). Human papillomavirus vaccination intention was high (mean, 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). In multivariable analysis, attitude (β = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.7), descriptive norm (β = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.3), self-efficacy (β = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.3), beliefs (β = 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.2), and subjective norm (β = 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.2) seemed to be the strongest predictors of HPV vaccination intention (R = 0.54). Human papillomavirus vaccination intention decreased significantly to a mean of 0.2 when vaccination would require out-of-pocket payment of &OV0556;350. The HPV vaccination intention among FSWs seems relatively high and is most strongly constituted in attitudinal, normative, and self-efficacy beliefs. Out-of-pocket payment will probably have a negative impact on their HPV vaccination acceptability.

  11. Attrition and Rape Case Characteristics: A Profile and Comparison of Female Sex Workers and Non-Sex Workers.

    PubMed

    Lea, Susan J; Callaghan, Lynne; Grafton, Iain; Falcone, M Aurora; Shaw, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The attrition of rape cases from the criminal justice system (CJS) remains high and there is a paucity of research in relation to marginalized groups. Sex workers (SWs) are vulnerable to sexual violence due to the nature of their work. They are also unlikely to report such violence to police for a range of reasons. Two stages of research sought to describe the victim, perpetrator, and offense characteristics of SW rape and to examine the attrition of these cases. All rapes and attempted rapes (N = 1,146) reported to police in a large city in the South West of England over a 21-year period were examined; 67 cases involved SWs. Data were extracted from police files in line with the variables of interest. Secondary analysis of the total number of SW rapes (n = 67) resulted in a profile of these cases. A matched pairs study revealed significant differences in victim, perpetrator, and assault characteristics between SW (n = 62) and non-sex-worker (NSW) samples (n = 62). Although no significant difference was found in terms of attrition from the CJS, SW cases were observed to secure more convictions for rape than NSW cases. The implications of the findings for practice and future research are discussed.

  12. Prevalence of low back disorders among female workers and biomechanical limits on the handling of load and patients.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Monzó, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the association between prevalence of low back disorders in female workers and biomechanical demands of compressive and shear forces at the lumbar spine. A descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational study was carried out in 11 groups of female workers in the Province of Concepción. An interview was performed to investigate the prevalence of low back pain. To estimate biomechanical demands on the lumbar spine, it was used the 3DSSPP software. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the prevalence of low back disorders and peak compression force at the lumbar spine was r = (p<0.005). The Spearman correlation coefficient between the prevalence of low back disorders and peak shear force was r = 0.9 (p <0.005). To protect 90% of female workers studied, the limits of compression and shear forces should be at 2.8 kN and 0.3 kN, respectively. These values differ from the recommendations currently used, 3.4 kN for peak compression force and 0.5 kN for peak shear force.

  13. Efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to promote condom use among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Thomas L; Mausbach, Brent; Lozada, Remedios; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Semple, Shirley J; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Orozovich, Prisci; Abramovitz, Daniela; de la Torre, Adela; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez, Gustavo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-11-01

    We examined the efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to promote condom use among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. We randomized 924 female sex workers 18 years or older without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recently had unprotected sex with clients to a 30-minute behavioral intervention or a didactic control condition. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. We observed a 40% decline in cumulative sexually transmitted illness incidence (P = .049) in the intervention group. Incidence density for the intervention versus control groups was 13.8 versus 24.92 per 100 person-years for sexually transmitted illnesses combined (P = .034) and 0 versus 2.01 per 100 person-years for HIV (P < .001). There were concomitant increases in the number and percentage of protected sex acts and decreases in the number of unprotected sex acts with clients (P < .05). This brief behavioral intervention shows promise in reducing HIV and sexually transmitted illness risk behaviors among female sex workers and may be transferable to other resource-constrained settings.

  14. Efficacy of a Brief Behavioral Intervention to Promote Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent; Lozada, Remedios; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Semple, Shirley J.; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Orozovich, Prisci; Abramovitz, Daniela; de la Torre, Adela; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez, Gustavo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to promote condom use among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods. We randomized 924 female sex workers 18 years or older without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recently had unprotected sex with clients to a 30-minute behavioral intervention or a didactic control condition. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Results. We observed a 40% decline in cumulative sexually transmitted illness incidence (P = .049) in the intervention group. Incidence density for the intervention versus control groups was 13.8 versus 24.92 per 100 person-years for sexually transmitted illnesses combined (P = .034) and 0 versus 2.01 per 100 person-years for HIV (P < .001). There were concomitant increases in the number and percentage of protected sex acts and decreases in the number of unprotected sex acts with clients (P < .05). Conclusions. This brief behavioral intervention shows promise in reducing HIV and sexually transmitted illness risk behaviors among female sex workers and may be transferable to other resource-constrained settings. PMID:18799768

  15. Baseline survey of sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of female bar workers in Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Riedner, G; Rusizoka, M; Hoffmann, O; Nichombe, F; Lyamuya, E; Mmbando, D; Maboko, L; Hay, P; Todd, J; Hayes, R; Hoelscher, M; Grosskurth, H

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine baseline prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and other reproductive tract infections (RTI) and their association with HIV as well as sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics in a newly recruited cohort of female bar workers in Mbeya Region, Tanzania Methods: 600 female bar workers were recruited from 17 different communities during September to November 2000 and underwent gynaecological examination, laboratory testing for HIV/STI, and interviews using structured questionnaires. Results: HIV-1 seroprevalence was 68%. Prevalences of STI/RTI were high titre syphilis (TPPA/RPR ⩾1/8), 9%; herpes simplex virus 2 antibodies, 87%; chlamydia, 12%; gonorrhoea, 22%; trichomoniasis, 24%; and bacterial vaginosis, 40%. HIV infection was associated with TPPA and HSV-2 seropositivity, bacterial vaginosis and clinically diagnosed genital ulcers, blisters, and warts. Reported high risk sexual behaviour during the past year (having multiple casual partners) was associated with prevalent STI. Conclusion: Female bar workers in Mbeya are at high risk of STI and HIV infection. Targeted STI/HIV prevention interventions for these women and their sexual partners need to be reinforced. Methods should be sought to improve healthcare seeking and to provide easily accessible and affordable STI care services. PMID:14573833

  16. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ankomah, Augustine; Omoregie, Godpower; Akinyemi, Zacch; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ladipo, Olaronke; Adebayo, Samson

    2011-01-01

    Background Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers. Methods The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria. Results It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma. Conclusion From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk. PMID:22096411

  17. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is associated with heavy metal exposure in welding workers

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Pan, Chih-Hong; Su, Chien-Ling; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lin, Wen-Yi; Ma, Chih-Ming; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Metals cause nephrotoxicity with acute and/or chronic exposure; however, few epidemiological studies have examined impacts of exposure to metal fumes on renal injury in welding workers. In total, 66 welding workers and 12 office workers were recruited from a shipyard located in southern Taiwan. Urine samples from each subject were collected at the beginning (baseline) and end of the work week (1-week exposure). Personal exposure to PM2.5 was measured. The 8-h mean PM2.5 was 50.3 μg/m3 for welding workers and 27.4 μg/m3 for office workers. iTRAQs coupled with LC-MS/MS were used to discover the pathways in response to welding PM2.5 in the urine, suggesting that extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions are a critical mechanism. ECM-receptor interaction-related biomarkers for renal injury, kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), were significantly elevated in welding workers post-exposure, as well as were urinary Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni levels. NGAL was more significantly associated with Al (r = 0.737, p < 0.001), Cr (r = 0.705, p < 0.001), Fe (r = 0.709, p < 0.001), and Ni (r = 0.657, p < 0.001) than was KIM-1, suggesting that NGAL may be a urinary biomarker for welding PM2.5 exposure. Nephrotoxicity (e.g., renal tubular injury) may be an emerging concern in occupational health. PMID:26673824

  18. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is associated with heavy metal exposure in welding workers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Pan, Chih-Hong; Su, Chien-Ling; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lin, Wen-Yi; Ma, Chih-Ming; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-12-17

    Metals cause nephrotoxicity with acute and/or chronic exposure; however, few epidemiological studies have examined impacts of exposure to metal fumes on renal injury in welding workers. In total, 66 welding workers and 12 office workers were recruited from a shipyard located in southern Taiwan. Urine samples from each subject were collected at the beginning (baseline) and end of the work week (1-week exposure). Personal exposure to PM2.5 was measured. The 8-h mean PM2.5 was 50.3 μg/m(3) for welding workers and 27.4 μg/m(3) for office workers. iTRAQs coupled with LC-MS/MS were used to discover the pathways in response to welding PM2.5 in the urine, suggesting that extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions are a critical mechanism. ECM-receptor interaction-related biomarkers for renal injury, kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), were significantly elevated in welding workers post-exposure, as well as were urinary Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni levels. NGAL was more significantly associated with Al (r = 0.737, p < 0.001), Cr (r = 0.705, p < 0.001), Fe (r = 0.709, p < 0.001), and Ni (r = 0.657, p < 0.001) than was KIM-1, suggesting that NGAL may be a urinary biomarker for welding PM2.5 exposure. Nephrotoxicity (e.g., renal tubular injury) may be an emerging concern in occupational health.

  19. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is associated with heavy metal exposure in welding workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Pan, Chih-Hong; Su, Chien-Ling; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lin, Wen-Yi; Ma, Chih-Ming; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-12-01

    Metals cause nephrotoxicity with acute and/or chronic exposure; however, few epidemiological studies have examined impacts of exposure to metal fumes on renal injury in welding workers. In total, 66 welding workers and 12 office workers were recruited from a shipyard located in southern Taiwan. Urine samples from each subject were collected at the beginning (baseline) and end of the work week (1-week exposure). Personal exposure to PM2.5 was measured. The 8-h mean PM2.5 was 50.3 μg/m3 for welding workers and 27.4 μg/m3 for office workers. iTRAQs coupled with LC-MS/MS were used to discover the pathways in response to welding PM2.5 in the urine, suggesting that extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions are a critical mechanism. ECM-receptor interaction-related biomarkers for renal injury, kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), were significantly elevated in welding workers post-exposure, as well as were urinary Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni levels. NGAL was more significantly associated with Al (r = 0.737, p < 0.001), Cr (r = 0.705, p < 0.001), Fe (r = 0.709, p < 0.001), and Ni (r = 0.657, p < 0.001) than was KIM-1, suggesting that NGAL may be a urinary biomarker for welding PM2.5 exposure. Nephrotoxicity (e.g., renal tubular injury) may be an emerging concern in occupational health.

  20. Changes in work situation and work ability in young female and male workers. A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female and male workers. Methods A sample of 1,311 (718 women and 593 men) was selected from a Swedish cohort of workers aged 21–25 years. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire including ratings of physical and psychosocial work factors and current work ability. Prevalence ratios were calculated to assess univariate and multivariate associations between changes in work factors and changes in work ability. Results Decreased job control (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.49–2.12) and increased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.25–1.69) were associated with reduced work ability for both female and male workers in the multivariate analyses. Among female workers, an association was found between improved work ability and increased social support at work (PR 2.4, CI 1.43–3.95). For male workers, increased job control (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.21–4.54) and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10–3.87) were associated with improved work ability in the multivariate analyses. Conclusions Decreased job control and increased negative influence of job demands on private life over time seem to be the most important work factors associated with reduced work ability among young workers of both sexes. Increased social support at work, increased job control, and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life were also found to be the main work factors associated with improved work ability, although with possible gender differences. PMID:22920936

  1. Change in prevalence of asbestos-related disease among sheet metal workers 1986 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Welch, Laura S; Haile, Elizabeth; Dement, John; Michaels, David

    2007-03-01

    In 1985, the Sheet Metal Workers International Association and the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Association formed The Sheet Metal Occupational Health Institute Trust to examine the health hazards of the sheet metal industry in the United States and Canada. Between 1986 and 2004, 18,211 individuals were examined. The mean age of this cohort was 57.9 years, and the participants had worked for a mean (+/- SD) duration of 32.9 +/- 6 years in the sheet metal trade. Twenty-three percent of participants were current smokers, 49% were former smokers, and 28% were never-smokers. A total of 9.6% of participants (1,745 participants) had findings that were consistent with parenchymal disease (International Labor Organization [ILO] score, >/= 1/0); 60% of those with an ILO score >/= 1/0 were classified as 1/0, 34% as 1/1 to 1/2, and 6% as >/= 2/1. A total of 21% of participants (3,827 participants) had pleural scarring. There was a lower prevalence of nonmalignant asbestos-related disease among those who began to work after 1970, when compared to workers who began to work before 1949; those who began to work between 1950 and 1969 had a prevalence between the other two groups. The strongest predictor of both parenchymal and pleural disease on a chest radiograph was the calendar year in which the worker began sheet metal work; work in a shipyard was also an important risk. The results of this study suggest that the efforts to reduce asbestos exposure in the 1980s through strengthened Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulation have had a positive public health impact.

  2. Intimate partner violence is as important as client violence in increasing street-based female sex workers' vulnerability to HIV in India.

    PubMed

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A K; Latkin, Carl; Bentley, Margaret E; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F; Celentano, David

    2008-04-01

    There are no studies that examine street-based female sex workers' vulnerability to HIV from both clients and intimate partners. This study documents street-based female sex workers' experiences of client and intimate partners, examines the intersections of violence, alcohol use in condom use, and highlights survival strategies used to avert harm. Ethnographic data were collected from 49 female sex workers through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Female sex workers experienced multifarious forms of severe client and intimate partner violence. Sexual coercion and forced group sex in the context of alcohol use posed formidable barriers for condom use negotiation. Further, traditional gender norms dictated women's inabilities to negotiate condom-use with intimate partners. However, there was evidence of adoption of successful survival strategies in the face of danger and women's positive evaluations of the benefits of sex work and their contributions to family well-being. Harm reduction efforts with female sex workers need to account for their vulnerability to HIV from intimate partners in addition to clients. HIV prevention programmes need to include male clients in order to reduce harm among street-based female sex workers. There is an urgent need to build on sex workers' strengths and involve them in designing individual level, community, and structural interventions that could help in reducing women's vulnerability to intimate partner violence and HIV in India.

  3. Cross-sectional study of platinum salts sensitization among precious metals refinery workers.

    PubMed

    Baker, D B; Gann, P H; Brooks, S M; Gallagher, J; Bernstein, I L

    1990-01-01

    A cross-sectional medical evaluation was conducted to determine respiratory and dermatological effects of platinum salts sensitization among workers in a secondary refinery of precious metals. Fifteen of 107 current employees and eight (28%) of 29 former employees, who had been terminated from employment on average for 5 years because of respiratory symptoms, had positive skin reactivity to platinum salts. Platinum salts skin reactivity was significantly associated with average air concentrations of platinum salts in employees' present work area. Workers with positive platinum salts skin tests had significantly higher prevalences of reported rhinitis, asthma, and dermatitis than negative skin test workers. They also had increased bronchial response to cold air challenge and elevated levels of total serum IgE. Platinum salts sensitization was not associated with atopic tendency as measured by sensitivity to common aeroallergens, but was strongly associated with cigarette smoking status. The findings indicate that cigarette smoking may be a risk factor for the development of platinum salts allergy. The persistence of platinum salts sensitization and high prevalence of adverse health outcomes among former workers demonstrate the importance of regular medical monitoring so that sensitized workers can be removed from exposure before they develop long-term health problems.

  4. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in workers exposed to PCDD/Fs of metal recovery plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Hsu, Ching-Yi; Hung, Dong-Zong; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2006-12-15

    Secondary copper smelters, which primarily utilize the waste materials that contain organic impurities, and the zinc recovery plant, which handles mostly fly ash and slag from the iron and steel industry, are major emission sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Taiwan. In this study, we compared the levels of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) in workers at a secondary copper smelting plant and a zinc recovery plant who may have been exposed to PCDD/Fs. Though the PCDD/F levels were higher in workers of zinc recovery plant than those of secondary copper smelting plant, no significant difference was found for serum PCDD/F levels between the two kinds of plants. We observed a significant difference in plasma MDA levels between workers at the zinc recovery plant (2.54 microM) and those at the copper smelting plant (1.79 microM). There was and a significant positive correlation between plasma MDA levels and the PCDD/Fs levels. In addition, we observed that the MDA levels were not affected by smoking and exercise status. Therefore, the data suggest that the MDA levels of the metal recovery workers are influenced by their PCDD/F exposure. The erythrocyte SOD activity in workers from the zinc recovery plant was marginally higher than that from the secondary copper plant (196 vs. 146 units/ml, p<0.06). In both plants, large variations in the MDA and SOD levels were found, especially in the high-PCDD/Fs-exposure group, which may be attributed, at least partially, to the differences in smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked. Overall, our results indicate a higher oxidative stress in workers of the zinc recovery plant than in workers of the secondary copper smelting plant in Taiwan.

  5. Children of female sex workers and drug users: a review of vulnerability, resilience and family-centred models of care.

    PubMed

    Beard, Jennifer; Biemba, Godfrey; Brooks, Mohamad I; Costello, Jill; Ommerborn, Mark; Bresnahan, Megan; Flynn, David; Simon, Jonathon L

    2010-06-23

    Injection drug users and female sex workers are two of the populations most at risk for becoming infected with HIV in countries with concentrated epidemics. Many of the adults who fall into these categories are also parents, but little is known about the vulnerabilities faced by their children, their children's sources of resilience, or programmes providing services to these often fragile families. This review synthesizes evidence from disparate sources describing the vulnerabilities and resilience of the children of female sex workers and drug users, and documents some models of care that have been put in place to assist them. A large literature assessing the vulnerability and resilience of children of drug users and alcoholics in developed countries was found. Research on the situation of the children of sex workers is extremely limited. Children of drug users and sex workers can face unique risks, stigma and discrimination, but both child vulnerability and resilience are associated in the drug use literature with the physical and mental health of parents and family context. Family-centred interventions have been implemented in low- and middle-income contexts, but they tend to be small, piecemeal and struggling to meet demand; they are poorly documented, and most have not been formally evaluated. We present preliminary descriptive data from an organization working with pregnant and new mothers who are drug users in Ukraine and from an organization providing services to sex workers and their families in Zambia. Because parents' drug use or sex work is often illegal and hidden, identifying their children can be difficult and may increase children's vulnerability and marginalization. Researchers and service providers, therefore, need to proceed with caution when attempting to reach these populations, but documentation and evaluation of current programmes should be prioritized.

  6. Quantification of transition metals in biological samples and its possible impact on ferro-alloy workers.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandhya; Ramteke, Dilip S; Wate, Satish R

    2007-10-01

    Increased risk of ill-health and diseases has been associated with employment in the ferro-alloy factory. Since measurement of transition metals in human blood and hair along with respective exposure rates, provides a means of assessing individual risk, it has been the most important part of the study. In the study majority of the elements in the transition series, such as, vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), cobalt, (Co) nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo) and cadmium (Cd) were considered which are randomly emitted from the source, that is, manganese ore (used during ferro-alloy manufacturing process). The commonly available transition, metals, observed in biological samples of ferro-alloy workers, were found to be Fe, Zn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cr, Cd, V Mn and Mo in blood, while in hair, Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cr, Cd, V and Mo were present in decreasing order Surveillance of bio-concentration of these metals in workers, exposed to close proximity of the coke-ovens and smelting furnaces, revealed that the workers were prone to several physical disorders.

  7. Mammography Screening Uptake among Female Health Care Workers in Primary Health Care Centers in Palestine - Motivators and Barriers.

    PubMed

    Nazzal, Zaher; Sholi, Hisham; Sholi, Suha; Sholi, Mohammad; Lahaseh, Rawya

    2016-01-01

    Early detection remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control in terms of outcome and survival. Thus far the only breast cancer screening method proven effective is mammography. The awareness of female health care workers (HCW) about breast cancer prevention is of vital importance, as their beliefs and behavior may have a major impact on other women. This study was designed to assess mammography screening uptake among female healthcare workers at primary healthcare centers, and to identify the primary motivators and barriers that affect uptake results. A cross sectional study design was used to assess mammography screening by 299 female healthcare workers who completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed demographics, screening uptake, motivators and barriers. The mean age was 46 years (within age of risk). The majority (95.1%) demonstrated adequate knowledge about breast cancer and mammography screening and 50% of the participants reported having at least one mammogram; however only 21% of them had regularly scheduled mammograms. The most frequent reported motivator was the perceived benefit that early detection of breast cancer is important for its management (89.6%), followed by the belief that mammography can detect breast cancer before its symptoms appear (84.4%). On the other hand, the most frequent barrier reported was being busy (46.7%), followed by the lack of perceived susceptibility (41.5%). Mammography screening was found to be sub-optimal in a population of HCW's with 50 % stating that they received a mammogram at least once, and a minority reported regular screening. There is a pressing need for educational programs aimed at removing the barriers that limit compliance with recommendations for mammography screening, and to emphasize the importance of early detection in breast cancer treatment. Ensuring the availability and accessibility of screening services, particularly for healthcare workers within their work settings are other

  8. A comparison of respondent-driven and venue-based sampling of female sex workers in Liuzhou, China