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Sample records for female methamphetamine-using offenders

  1. During-Treatment Outcomes among Female Methamphetamine-Using Offenders in Prison-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Greener, Jack M.; Vance, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly important treatment group is the expanding population of methamphetamine-using female offenders. This study focused on women methamphetamine-using offenders (n = 359) who were treated either in a modified therapeutic community (TC) program ("Clean Lifestyle is Freedom Forever" [CLIFF]-TC: n = 234) designed for non-violent offenders…

  2. During-Treatment Outcomes among Female Methamphetamine-Using Offenders in Prison-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Greener, Jack M.; Vance, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly important treatment group is the expanding population of methamphetamine-using female offenders. This study focused on women methamphetamine-using offenders (n = 359) who were treated either in a modified therapeutic community (TC) program ("Clean Lifestyle is Freedom Forever" [CLIFF]-TC: n = 234) designed for non-violent offenders…

  3. National Case-Control Study of Homicide Offending and Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretesky, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…

  4. National Case-Control Study of Homicide Offending and Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretesky, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…

  5. National case-control study of homicide offending and methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Stretesky, Paul B

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the main outcome measure is homicide. Results suggest that the odds of committing a homicide are nearly 9 times greater for an individual who uses methamphetamine. More importantly, the association between methamphetamine use and homicide persists even after adjusting for alternative drug use (i.e., alcohol, heroin, crack, cocaine, PCP, LSD), sex, race, income, age, marital status, previous arrests, military experience, and education level. Methamphetamine was the only drug use variable that was strongly correlated with homicide. These results support recent clinical studies that suggest methamphetamine use is different than other drug use in its effects on violence.

  6. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  7. Methamphetamine Use, Self-Reported Violent Crime, and Recidivism Among Offenders in California Who Abuse Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Jerome; Farabee, David; Prendergast, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses data from 641 state prison parolees in California to examine the associations between methamphetamine use and three measures of criminal behavior: (a) self-reported violent criminal behavior, (b) return to prison for a violent offense, and (c) return to prison for any reason during the first 12 months of parole. Methamphetamine use…

  8. Methamphetamine Use, Self-Reported Violent Crime, and Recidivism Among Offenders in California Who Abuse Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Jerome; Farabee, David; Prendergast, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses data from 641 state prison parolees in California to examine the associations between methamphetamine use and three measures of criminal behavior: (a) self-reported violent criminal behavior, (b) return to prison for a violent offense, and (c) return to prison for any reason during the first 12 months of parole. Methamphetamine use…

  9. Characteristics of Female Solo and Female Co-Offenders and Male Solo Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca; Gillespie, Steven M; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J

    2017-09-01

    Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction. Compared with male offenders, female co-offenders showed poorer self-management, but better sexual self-regulation. Male offenders had a greater history of offending and showed more evidence of sexual abuse supportive cognitions relative to both solo and co-offending females. These results are consistent with the need for a gender-specific approach to working with sexual offenders and may have implications for understanding the often complex treatment needs of these clients.

  10. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  11. Methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviors among incarcerated female adolescents with a diagnosed STD.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jane K; Grella, Christine E; Boudov, Melina R; Kerndt, Peter R; Kadrnka, Carmel M

    2011-04-01

    Juvenile detention settings provide an important venue for addressing the health-related needs of adolescent populations, who often have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and concomitant drug use. This study examines factors associated with methamphetamine use and risky sexual behaviors among 539 incarcerated female adolescents between ages 12-18 years with an STD diagnosis. Data were obtained from interviews with detainees receiving STD case management services within a California juvenile detention facility in January 2006-June 2007. High-risk behaviors characterized the sample, such as low use of condoms consistently (43.3%), prior STD infection (25%), pregnancy history (26%), arrest charge for prostitution or drug use (23%), and a history of prostitution (18%). Half of the sample reported weekly alcohol or drug use; most commonly used drugs were marijuana (37%), alcohol (21%), and methamphetamine (16%). In multivariate analysis, African Americans had a lower odds of methamphetamine use (odds ratio [OR] = .163) compared with whites. Detainees who reported inconsistent condom use had over twice the odds of methamphetamine use (OR = 2.7) compared with consistent condom users. In addition, those who reported alcohol use had twice the odds of methamphetamine use (2.0). There was a significant interaction between Latina ethnicity and having an arrest charge for drugs or prostitution; Latinas who had this charge had over 11 times the odds of using methamphetamine compared with those with other arrest charges (OR = 11.28). A better understanding of the relationship between drug use and sexual risk behaviors of STD-positive incarcerated female adolescents can inform the development of appropriate corrections and community-based interventions serving this segment of high-risk adolescents.

  12. Correlates of Heroin and Methamphetamine Use among Homeless Male Ex-Jail and Prison Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Farabee, David; Hall, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Musto, Stefanie; Leake, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Homeless men exiting California State jails and prisons are a heterogeneous community with varied childhood, incarceration and drug use histories. This cross-sectional study assessed whether homeless men who were discharged from either jail or prison into a residential substance abuse treatment program, differed in terms of methamphetamine and heroin use. This study utilized baseline data collected on 540 recently paroled men randomized to one of three programs that assessed the impact of a peer coaching intervention on subsequent drug use and re-incarceration. We found that younger ex-offenders exiting prisons and jails were more likely to have used methamphetamine alone, whereas African American ex-offenders were less likely to have used methamphetamine alone when compared to other ethnic groups. Further, ex-offenders exiting jails and self-reporting use of heroin only at baseline were significantly more likely than their counterparts to have been removed from home before age 18. For men exiting jails, there was an association between lower self-esteem and having used methamphetamine but not heroin. However, having used both heroin and methamphetamine was associated with both violent crime and cognitive problems in both jail and prison samples. Our findings showcase the need to understand unique correlates of both heroin and methamphetamine as they relate to jail and prison populations. PMID:25489295

  13. Understanding the Female Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…

  14. Drug consumption among sexual offenders against females.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2008-02-01

    This article aims to evaluate the role of drug consumption among sexual offenders against females. Three groups of participants (N = 133) comprising sexual offenders against girls, pubertal females, and women were examined with reference to history of drug and/or alcohol use, impulsivity level, sexual addiction, and recidivism risk. Sexual offenders against women were found to have significantly more difficulties with drug use, higher impulsivity level, and to be younger than the sexual offenders against girls and pubertal females. The combination of drug consumption and higher level of impulsivity may contribute to sexual aggression against adult females.

  15. Offender and victim characteristics of registered female sexual offenders in Texas: a proposed typology of female sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M; Kercher, Glen

    2004-04-01

    Victim and offender characteristic of all registered adult female sexual offenders in Texas (N = 471) were examined. The most common offenses the females were arrested for were indecency with a child--sexual contact, sexual assault on a child, and aggravated sexual assault on a child. The majority (88%) of the females were Caucasian and the ages ranged from 18 to 77 (M = 32). The results of Hierarchical Loglinear Modeling yielded a complex relationship between offender and victim characteristics; thus, identification of preferred victims is mitigated by more than one variable. Additionally, the employment of cluster analysis yielded 6 types of female sexual offenders. The most common group includes 146 offenders, heterosexual nurturers. They were the least likely to have an arrest for a sexual assault. The victims were males who averaged 12 years of age. The other types of offenders included, noncriminal homosexual offenders, female sexual predators, young adult child exploiters, homosexual criminals, and aggressive homosexual offenders.

  16. Group sexual offending by juvenile females.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed.

  17. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

    PubMed

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  18. A Pilot Study of Creatine as a Novel Treatment for Depression in Methamphetamine Using Females

    PubMed Central

    Hellem, Tracy L.; Sung, Young-Hoon; Shi, Xian-Feng; Pett, Marjorie A.; Latendresse, Gwen; Morgan, Jubel; Huber, Rebekah S.; Kuykendall, Danielle; Lundberg, Kelly J.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depression among methamphetamine users is more prevalent in females than males, but gender specific treatment options for this comorbidity have not been described. Reduced brain phosphocreatine levels have been shown to be lower in female methamphetamine users compared to males, and, of relevance, studies have demonstrated an association between treatment resistant depression and reduced brain phosphocreatine concentrations. The nutritional supplement creatine monohydrate has been reported to reduce symptoms of depression in female adolescents and adults taking antidepressants, as well as to increase brain phosphocreatine in healthy volunteers. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate creatine monohydrate as a treatment for depression in female methamphetamine users. Methods Fourteen females with depression and comorbid methamphetamine dependence were enrolled in an 8 week open label trial of 5 grams of daily creatine monohydrate and of these 14, eleven females completed the study. Depression was measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and brain phosphocreatine levels were measured using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy pre- and post-creatine treatment. Secondary outcome measures included anxiety symptoms, measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), as well as methamphetamine use, monitored by twice weekly urine drug screens and self-reported use. Results The results of a linear mixed effects repeated measures model showed significantly reduced HAMD and BAI scores as early as week 2 when compared to baseline scores. This improvement was maintained through study completion. Brain phosphocreatine concentrations were higher at the second phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan compared to the baseline scan; Mbaseline = 0.223 (SD = 0.013) vs. Mpost-treatment = 0.233 (SD = 0.009), t(9) = 2.905, p < .01, suggesting that creatine increased phosphocreatine levels. Also, a reduction in methamphetamine

  19. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  20. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  1. Female sexual homicide offenders: an analysis of the offender racial profiles in offending process.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-12-10

    Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered.

  2. Crystal methamphetamine use among female street-based sex workers: Moving beyond individual-focused interventions.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Kate; Strathdee, Steffanie; Shoveller, Jean; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio; Tyndall, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Given growing concern of the sexual risks associated with crystal methamphetamine use and the dearth of research characterizing the use of methamphetamine among street-based sex workers (FSWs), this study aimed to characterize the prevalence and individual, social, and structural contexts of crystal methamphetamine use among FSWs in a Canadian setting. Drawing on data from a prospective cohort, we constructed multivariate logistic models to examine independent correlates of crystal methamphetamine among FSWs over a two-year follow-up period using generalized estimating equations. Of a total of 255 street-based FSWs, 78 (32%) reported lifetime crystal methamphetamine use and 24% used crystal methamphetamine during the two-year follow-up period, with no significant associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk patterns. In a final multivariate GEE model, FSWs who used crystal methamphetamine had a higher proportional odds of dual heroin injection (adjOR=2.98, 95%CI: 1.35-5.22), having a primary male sex partner who procures drugs for them (adjOR=1.79, 95%CI: 1.02-3.14), and working (adjOR=1.62, 95%CI: 1.04-2.65) and living (adjOR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.07-1.99) in marginalized public spaces. The findings highlight the crucial need to move beyond the individual to gender-focused safer environment interventions that mediate the physical and social risk environment of crystal methamphetamine use among FSWs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CRYSTAL METHAMPHETAMINE USE AMONG FEMALE STREET-BASED SEX WORKERS: MOVING BEYOND INDIVIDUAL-FOCUSED INTERVENTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, K; Strathdee, SA; Shoveller, J; Zhang, R; Montaner, JS; Tyndall, MW

    2012-01-01

    Given growing concern of the sexual risks associated with crystal methamphetamine use and the dearth of research characterizing the use of methamphetamine among street-based sex workers (FSWs), this study aimed to characterize the prevalence and individual, social, and structural contexts of crystal methamphetamine use among FSWs in a Canadian setting. Drawing on data from a prospective cohort, we constructed multivariate logistic models to examine independent correlates of crystal methamphetamine among FSWs over a two-year follow-up period using generalized estimating equations. Of a total of 255 street-based FSWs, 78 (32%) reported lifetime crystal methamphetamine use and 24% used crystal methamphetamine during the two-year follow-up period, with no significant associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk patterns. In a final multivariate GEE model, FSWs who used crystal methamphetamine had a higher proportional odds of dual heroin injection (adjOR = 2.98, 95%CI: 1.35–5.22), having a primary male sex partner who procures drugs for them (adjOR = 1.79, 95%CI: 1.02–3.14), and working (adjOR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.04–2.65) and living (adjOR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.07–1.99) in marginalized public spaces. The findings highlight the crucial need to move beyond the individual to gender-focused safer environment interventions that mediate the physical and social risk environment of crystal methamphetamine use among FSWs. PMID:20810223

  4. The Female Offender: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Davis M., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    Three themes run through this collection of citations which represent a small fraction of literature on the adult female offender. One is the ideology, implications, and impact of criminological theory to the study of female crime and criminality. A second theme treats the legal and procedural mechanics of justice administration. The final theme…

  5. The Female Offender: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Davis M., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    Three themes run through this collection of citations which represent a small fraction of literature on the adult female offender. One is the ideology, implications, and impact of criminological theory to the study of female crime and criminality. A second theme treats the legal and procedural mechanics of justice administration. The final theme…

  6. Sex Work and Its Associations With Alcohol and Methamphetamine Use Among Female Bar and Spa Workers in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Schilling, Robert F.; Simbulan, Nymia P.; Estacio, Leonardo R.; Raj, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009–2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%;AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2–3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%;AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1–0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population. PMID:23343641

  7. Sex work and its associations with alcohol and methamphetamine use among female bar and spa workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Morisky, Donald E; Schilling, Robert F; Simbulan, Nymia P; Estacio, Leonardo R; Raj, Anita

    2014-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009-2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%; AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%; AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population.

  8. Women don't do such things! Characteristics of female sex offenders and offender types.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2010-06-01

    The authors studied offender, offense, and victim characteristics in a cohort of 111 adult female sex offenders comprising all female sex offenders known to the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2005. In 77% of the cases, the female sex offenders had abused children; almost two thirds of the women had co-offended with a male co-offender. Their backgrounds are on average problematic with sexual abuse being prominent (31%); mental disorders were also prominent (59%). Using multiple correspondence analysis, the authors distinguished four prototypical offender types. They identified the young assaulter and the rapist who are relatively young solo offenders. Two prototypes, the psychologically disturbed co-offender and the passive mother, comprise older women. They mostly abused their own children together with their male/intimate partner. These prototypes partly overlap with previous typologies. The authors discuss implications for theory and treatment.

  9. Characteristics of females who sexually offend: a comparison of solo and co-offenders.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Steven M; Williams, Rebecca; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J; Ashfield, Sherry; Beech, Anthony R

    2015-06-01

    Although recent typologies of female sexual offenders have recognized the importance of having a co-offender, the clinical characteristics of solo and co-female sexual offenders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare solo (n = 20) and co- (n = 20) female sexual offenders on a variety of clinical characteristics. It was found that although solo and co-offenders reported similar developmental experiences and psychological dispositions, differences were found in environmental niche, offense preceding, and positive factors. Specifically, solo offenders demonstrated a greater presence of personal vulnerabilities including mental health and substance abuse difficulties. Co-offenders reported a greater presence of environmentally based factors, including a current partner who was a known sex offender and involvement with antisocial peers. It is suggested that these results have implications for understanding assessment and intervention needs for these groups of sexual offenders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Female sexual offenders in the educational system: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Solis, O Lizette; Benedek, Elissa P

    2012-01-01

    Female sexual offenders comprise the minority of sexual offenders in the criminal justice system. However, empirical research reveals that sexual offenses against adolescents by females are a bigger problem than previously thought, particularly in the educational system. The authors review some of the data in the criminal justice system as well as in empirical research studies about female sexual offenders, with a specific focus on females who commit sexual crimes against students who are minors.

  11. Young Female Sex Offenders: Assessment and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Jennifer; McRoy, Ruth; Matthews, Bobbie M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature on female sex offenders and presents the results of a nationwide survey of mental health providers on approaches to diagnosing prior sexual abuse history and/or perpetration among juvenile females. Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between…

  12. Young Female Sex Offenders: Assessment and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Jennifer; McRoy, Ruth; Matthews, Bobbie M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature on female sex offenders and presents the results of a nationwide survey of mental health providers on approaches to diagnosing prior sexual abuse history and/or perpetration among juvenile females. Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between…

  13. Mental health needs of federal female offenders.

    PubMed

    Derkzen, Dena; Booth, Laura; Taylor, Kelly; McConnell, Ashley

    2013-02-01

    Mental health problems are increasingly being recognized as one of the greatest challenges faced by correctional systems in the effective management of their populations. Over the past decade, the number of federally sentenced female offenders in Canada presenting with mental health problems has risen significantly, from 13% in 1996/1997 to 29% in 2008/2009 (Correctional Service of Canada, 2009a). This research used the screener version of the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule (C-DIS-IV; n = 88) to outline the mental health needs of federally sentenced females in Canada. Results provide evidence for extremely elevated rates for certain diagnoses and confirm substance dependence as a significant area of need in this sample. Moreover, alcohol dependence emerged as an area of particular concern for Aboriginal women. Furthermore, all individuals experiencing a lifetime substance dependence disorder have also suffered from an additional psychiatric diagnosis at some point in their lives; thereby highlighting the possible levels of concurrent disorders among this population. This research highlights the critical importance of comprehensive and ongoing mental health assessment, and treatment, for the successful management and reintegration of female offenders.

  14. Female offenders in child sexual abuse cases: a national picture.

    PubMed

    McLeod, David Axlyn

    2015-01-01

    Female sexual offenders are significantly underrepresented in the literature. Largely due to a failure of our society to recognize women as offenders, we allow them to avoid detection, prosecution, and interventions like tracking, registration, or mandated treatment. This could be partially due to differences that exist in their offending behaviors, victim profiles, and personal characteristics that set them apart from male offenders, to whom our systems have become more attuned. This article features an examination of virtually every substantiated child sexual abuse case reported to child protective services in the United States for 2010. Findings detail observed differences between male and female offenders on multiple domains and affirm female sexual offenders to be distinctly different from their male counterparts.

  15. Correctional Education Experiences of Female Offenders with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Minimal employable skills, poor work habits, and substance abuse are problems that often result in released female offenders' recidivating within 36 months of their prison release. Recidivism is further compounded when the female offender suffers from a learning disability. Research suggests that correctional education experiences do not address…

  16. Correctional Education Experiences of Female Offenders with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Minimal employable skills, poor work habits, and substance abuse are problems that often result in released female offenders' recidivating within 36 months of their prison release. Recidivism is further compounded when the female offender suffers from a learning disability. Research suggests that correctional education experiences do not address…

  17. Commercial sex venues, syphilis and methamphetamine use among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zhang, Xijiang; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Ning; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Zhenqiang; Aliyu, Muktar; Wu, Pingsheng; Jiang, Baofa; Jia, Yujiang

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2% ever used MA; 58.3% ever had unprotected commercial sex in the past month. The prevalence rates of syphilis and MA use were 2.5% and 33.0% for participants recruited from saunas, night clubs, bars or hotels; 2.7% and 28.3% for hair/beauty salon-based participants; and 4.5% and 15.8% for street-based participants. Street-based MA users were more likely to be single, non-Shandong residents, have first lifetime sex act at younger age, and recruited in 2008 (vs. 2006). Saunas, night clubs, bars, or hotels-based MA users were more likely to be younger, sex debut at younger age, have longer duration of sex work, have unprotected commercial sex, and be syphilis-infected. Hair/beauty salon-based MA users were more likely to be non-Shandong residents, younger, and to have unprotected commercial sex. Syphilis among the sauna-, night club-, bar-, or hotel-based participants was associated with MA use and ever receipt of HIV testing. Syphilis among the hair/beauty salon-based participants was associated with longer duration of sex work. MA users who frequent commercial sex venues are engaging in high-risk behaviors and are at risk for syphilis/other sexually transmitted diseases. Better-targeted intervention efforts to curtail the epidemics of MA use and HIV/syphilis should therefore take cognizance of the role of commercial sex venues as focal points of MA use and syphilis/sexually transmitted disease transmission.

  18. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among Female Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Morshed, N M; Rahman, F; Shahid, S F; Qusar, M S; Algin, S; Shah, M A; Maruf, M M; Chowdhury, M H

    2016-10-01

    Inmates of Juvenile Developmental Centers are the special group of youth population who are in conflict with law. They are vulnerable to psychiatric illness. The objective of this study was to see the prevalence and type of psychiatric disorders in institutionalized female juvenile offenders and non-offenders of same age, sex and socioeconomic group in the community. The association of mental disorders was examined in 43 female inmates of Juvenile Development Centers and 43 randomly selected comparison subjects in community. One stage-structured assessment of psychopathology was carried out by using a structured and valid Bangla version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Development and Well-Being Assessment generated psychiatric diagnosis was assigned based on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for research. The result revealed that, of those who were in conflict with law, 93% had mental disorder, whereas 14% of non-offenders had psychiatric disorder. Among the offenders with psychiatric disorders, most of them (32.6%) suffered from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), followed by combined MDD & Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). On the other hand, among the non-offenders with psychiatric disorder 9.3% suffered from MDD. It can be concluded that considerable psychiatric disorders are prevalent among the female juvenile offenders with comparison to non-offenders. Broad-based replication study could confirm these findings.

  19. Female Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Understanding Who They Are and Possible Steps That May Prevent Some Girls From Offending.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Brian E; Holmes, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been accumulating evidence that sexual abuse committed by females is not rare and can be just as traumatic as sexual abuse committed by males. Despite the increased recognition given to sex offending by adult women, however, very little attention has been given to sex offenses committed by juvenile females. There has further been very little published material that has focused specifically on intervening with female children and adolescents before they offend. In an attempt to fill this gap, this article describes common characteristics of juvenile female sex offenders, ways in which juvenile female sex offenders are similar to and different from juvenile male sex offenders, and the limitations that exist related to our knowledge about these offenders. Based on this information, suggestions are given for possible ways to intervene in the lives of at-risk female youth before they offend.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients.

  1. Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma, and Cognitive Distortions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the characteristics of female sex offenders and factors and/or causes of female deviance. Research to date has been descriptive in nature, with few comparison studies. Using a correlational design and three valid instruments, female sexual offenders and a matched group of female nonsexual offenders are compared in the…

  2. Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma, and Cognitive Distortions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the characteristics of female sex offenders and factors and/or causes of female deviance. Research to date has been descriptive in nature, with few comparison studies. Using a correlational design and three valid instruments, female sexual offenders and a matched group of female nonsexual offenders are compared in the…

  3. Black Female Homicide Offenders and Victims: Are They from the Same Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Paula D.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the social and environmental characteristics of Black female homicide victims and offenders. Assembled data on 661 Black female homicide victims and 119 Black female homicide offenders. Analyses indicated that Black female homicide victims and offenders exhibit low socioeconomic status and essentially similar behavior patterns. (Author)

  4. Association between schizophrenia and violence among Chinese female offenders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Chun; Zhu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Si-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Song; Li, Qi-Guang; Wang, Qun; Zhong, Shao-Ling; Ng, Chee H; Ungvari, Gabor S; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2017-04-11

    Little is known about the association between schizophrenia and violence in women in China. This study aimed to examine the association between schizophrenia and violence in Chinese female offenders. Fifty-two schizophrenia patients were identified from the female offenders who received forensic psychiatric assessments in 2011 in Hunan province, China. Using a propensity score matching method, 104 matched controls without psychiatric disorders were selected from female criminals in Hunan province. Violent offences and homicides were verified and recorded. The percentages of violent offences and homicides were significantly higher in female offenders with schizophrenia than in controls (78.8% vs. 30.8%, P < 0.001; 44.2% vs. 18.3%, P = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that diagnosis of schizophrenia, younger age at first offence, living in rural area and a lower education level were independently and positively associated with violent offences, while having a diagnosis of schizophrenia and lower education level were associated with homicides. There appears to be an independent and positive association between schizophrenia and violent offence in Chinese female offenders. Effective preventive approaches on violence in female schizophrenia patients are warranted.

  5. Drug Dependence Treatment Awareness among Japanese Female Stimulant Drug Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Yatsugi, Shinzo; Fujita, Koji; Kashima, Saori; Eboshida, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Few stimulant drug users receive adequate treatment. This cross-sectional study describes the characteristics of female drug offenders that use stimulants and clarifies the factors related to the awareness of treatment for drug dependencies. We included 80 females imprisoned due to stimulant control law violations from 2012 to 2015. The characteristics of the female prisoners were stratified according to various treatment awareness levels, and associations between each characteristic and treatment awareness were evaluated using logistic regression models. The average period of stimulant drug use was 17.7 years. Participants imprisoned for the second time were significantly more likely to consider treatment compared to those imprisoned only once: odds ratio (OR) = 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–10.7). This elevated OR was diluted in repeat offenders. Participants who had experienced multiple aftereffects (≥7) or serious depressive symptoms were also more likely to consider treatment: OR = 6.1 (95% CI: 1.8–20.8) and OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.0–6.2), respectively. Second-time stimulant offenders or offenders who had experienced health problems were more likely to consider it important to receive drug dependence treatment. To overcome relapses of stimulant use, it is recommended that stimulant use offenders are encouraged to accept adequate treatment. PMID:27845738

  6. Female and male sex offenders: a comparison of recidivism patterns and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Naomi J; Sandler, Jeffrey C

    2008-10-01

    Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of 780 female and male sex offenders in New York State, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups. Results suggested that male sex offenders were significantly more likely than female sex offenders to be rearrested for both sexual and nonsexual offenses. However, limited differences in terms of risk factors between female and male sex offenders were found.

  7. Individual and Relationship Factors that Differentiate Female Offenders with and without a Sexual Abuse History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartan, Lisa M.; Gunnison, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The link between prior sexual abuse and female offending is one of the most consistent findings within the etiology of female offending. It is not, however, part of every female offender's life history. Working from research on the impact of abuse on individuals, the current article examines the individual and relationship factors that…

  8. Individual and Relationship Factors that Differentiate Female Offenders with and without a Sexual Abuse History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartan, Lisa M.; Gunnison, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The link between prior sexual abuse and female offending is one of the most consistent findings within the etiology of female offending. It is not, however, part of every female offender's life history. Working from research on the impact of abuse on individuals, the current article examines the individual and relationship factors that…

  9. Communicative Disorders in a Group of Adult Female Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cynthia Olson; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Fifty female offenders (18 to 44 years old) were individually screened for articulation, hearing, receptive language, fluency (stuttering), and voice disorders. Results indicated that 44 percent of the women evidenced a dysfunction in one or more of these areas. (Author/CL)

  10. Voices behind the Walls: Female Offenders and Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leberman, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This research highlights the learning of female offenders on a 20-day tailor-made experiential adventure education course (Women in Action) delivered by Outward Bound New Zealand. The aims of the course were to increase self-awareness, to develop an understanding of the concept of choice and self responsibility, to improve communication skills and…

  11. Female Adolescent Sex Offenders--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, J.; Bijleveld, C. C. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 10 female adolescent sex offenders, aged between 11 and 18 years, is studied. They constitute about one-sixth of all young women who were registered at the prosecutor's office in the Netherlands during the past 10 years. Information was gathered from psychological screenings carried out in relation to the sex offence. Most young women…

  12. Female and Male Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Recidivism Patterns and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Naomi J.; Sandler, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of 780 female and male sex offenders in New York State, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups. Results suggested…

  13. Female and Male Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Recidivism Patterns and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Naomi J.; Sandler, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of 780 female and male sex offenders in New York State, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups. Results suggested…

  14. Methamphetamine Use and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... 03-13T18:35:19+00:00 PH and Methamphetamine Use Print PH and Methamphetamine Use Brochure (PDF) ... me if I had ever used stimulants like methamphetamines (speed). Why am I being asked this? Research ...

  15. Female and male undergraduates' attributions for sexual offending against children.

    PubMed

    Beling, J; Hudson, S M; Ward, T

    2001-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in undergraduates' attributions for child sex offending. One hundred and sixty-four undergraduates were asked to give the reasons why they think men sexually offend against children and to rate them using Benson's Attributional Scale across four dimensions: stability, locus, controllability and globality. A Grounded Theory methodology was applied to these reasons and a set of nine categories derived from the data. The results showed that undergraduates' reasons for child sexual abuse strongly parallel contemporary scientific theories of abuse, and that there were significant gender differences in the frequency with which participants cited various types of reasons given for sexual abuse. Females endorsed significantly more victim reasons than males, and also more power and control reasons than did males. In contrast, males endorsed significantly more sexual reasons for offending than did females. Furthermore, significant gender differences were found between the ways in which participants construed the reasons for sexual abuse, with females seeing the phenomenon as significantly more stable and internal than males. No significant gender differences were found on the dimensions of controllability and globality.

  16. Teacher sexual misconduct: grooming patterns and female offenders.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James

    2010-07-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that gender-biased views on sex offenders remain prominent in society. This article will review the literature on female teacher sexual misconduct in addition to what is known about grooming patterns and warning signs. Finally, current dilemmas in resolving cases of educator sexual misconduct will be discussed, and basic prevention strategies will be recommended.

  17. The recidivism rates of female sexual offenders are low: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cortoni, Franca; Hanson, R Karl; Coache, Marie-Ève

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the recidivism rates of female sexual offenders. A meta-analysis of 10 studies (2,490 offenders; average follow-up 6.5 years) showed that female sexual offenders have extremely low rates of sexual recidivism (less than 3%). The recidivism rates for violent (including sexual) offences and for any type of crime were predictably higher than the recidivism rates for sexual offences but still lower than the recidivism rates of male sexual offenders. These findings indicate the need for distinct policies and procedures for assessing and managing the risk of male and female sexual offenders. Risk assessment tools developed specifically for male sexual offenders would be expected to substantially overestimate the recidivism risk of female sexual offenders.

  18. The Love of a Good Man? Romantic Relationships as a Source of Support or Hindrance for Female Ex-Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leverentz, Andrea M.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the impact of romantic relationships on the reentry experiences of female ex-offenders. Although attachment to a prosocial spouse is an important social bond in the desistance of male offenders, male and female offenders have different offending and life experiences and are likely to draw romantic partners from very different…

  19. Methamphetamine Use in Club Subcultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, methamphetamine developed a peculiar geographic distribution in the United States, with limited diffusion in the Northeast. While use within gay clubs received attention, methamphetamine in club subcultures more broadly remains less clear. Using quantitative and qualitative data, we provide a descriptive assessment of methamphetamine use in club subcultures. Methamphetamine use in club subcultures often has instrumental purposes. The context of initiation into methamphetamine use and its close connection to cocaine shape later patterns of use. Viewing meth solely as a gay party drug misses a significant part of the population and may misguide public health strategies to reduce methamphetamine use in the Northeast. PMID:23848380

  20. The family context of relational aggression in "difficult to treat" female juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erin K; Borduin, Charles M

    2014-07-01

    Female juvenile offenders often engage in socially aggressive behaviors that make them more difficult to treat than male juvenile offenders. This social (i.e., relational) aggression may be developed or maintained through transactions with family members. To investigate this issue, we measured relational aggression in the family interactions of 140 adolescents divided by gender and offender status into four equal-sized groups (female juvenile offenders, male juvenile offenders, female nonoffenders, and male nonoffenders). Adolescents and caregivers completed a family discussion task, and raters coded relationally aggressive behaviors at the dyadic level. Results showed that female juvenile offenders and their mothers directed more relational aggression toward each other than did mother-adolescent dyads in the other groups. Implications of these results for treatment and research are discussed. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  1. An archival exploration of 19th-century American adult female offender parricides.

    PubMed

    Shon, Phillip Chong Ho; Williams, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Social and behavioral scientists have increasingly attended to the contexts and motivational dynamics underlying parricidal events. These efforts notwithstanding, most research has focused on adolescent or adult male offender populations. One largely neglected area of study is that of adult female offender parricide. The present study utilizes archival records to examine the contexts and sources of conflict that gave rise to adult female offender parricides in the late 19th century. Three general themes emerged, representing the primary contexts behind adult female offender parricide: (1) abuse and neglect; (2) instrumental, financially-motivated killings; and (3) expressive killings, often during the course of arguments. Each of these contexts is explored.

  2. Differences between Male and Female Juvenile Offenders as Measured by the BASC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Georgia B.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an initial examination of behavioral and emotional differences between male and female juvenile offenders using an omnibus self-report personality inventory. Differences between male and female juvenile offenders were found on 6 of 14 comparisons. Findings provide support for differential treatment planning in addressing the needs of…

  3. Trauma Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress, and Psychiatric Comorbidity in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To document the rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female juvenile offenders and its relationship to trauma history, comorbid diagnoses, attributional style, and family functioning. Method: The psychological profiles and trauma histories of 100 incarcerated female juvenile offenders (ages 13.5-19 years) were assessed using…

  4. Female Offenders: Three Assumptions about Self-Esteem, Sex-Role Identity, and Feminism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the validity of three assumptions about self-esteem, sex-role identity, and feminism in female offenders in a study of women awaiting trial in Massachusetts. Results did not support assumptions regarding low self-esteem and increased masculinity in female offenders. Speculations were made about the role femininity plays in…

  5. Female domestic violence offenders: their attachment security, trauma symptoms, and personality organization.

    PubMed

    Goldenson, Julie; Geffner, Robert; Foster, Sharon L; Clipson, Clark R

    2007-01-01

    Unlike male domestic violence offenders, female domestic violence offenders have traditionally been overlooked in research and theory, despite the fact that females also have high rates of domestic violence perpetration. Towards the aim of extending extant research on male and female pepetrators of domestic violence, we examined attachment style, trauma symptoms, and personality organization in 33 female offenders receiving mandated treatment for domestic violence. These offenders were compared to 32 nonoffending women receiving psychological treatment. The Experiences in Close Relationships Revised (ECR-Revised) was used to examine adult attachment, the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) was used to examine trauma symptomology, and finally, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III) was used to examine cluster B personality traits. Analyses indicated that female domestic violence offenders reported less attachment security, more trauma-related symptoms, and more personality psychopathology (Antisocial, Borderline, and Dependent Subscales) than did nonoffender clinical comparison women.

  6. Offending, Adjudication, and Outcome Patterns of Solo Male, Solo Female, and Partnered Mass Murderers.

    PubMed

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Research on mass murder is limited due to differences in definitions (particularly with respect to victim count), as well as categorizations based on motive. These limitations restrict our understanding of the offending, adjudication, and outcome patterns of these offenders and can obscure potential underlying similarities to comparable types of offenders (e.g., lone actors or terrorists). To address some of these limitations, this research study, which includes an international sample of 434 cases (455 total offenders), uses descriptive and empirical analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered mass murderers (teams of two or more) to explore offending, adjudication, and outcome patterns among these different types offenders. While the results from this research study support much previous mass murder research, the findings also emphasize the importance of large international sample sizes, objective categorizations, and the use of empirically based analyses to further advance our understanding of these offenders.

  7. Sexual abuse in childhood and the mentally disordered female offender.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.

  8. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    PubMed

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  9. An incident-based comparison of female and male sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katria S; Bierie, David M

    2015-06-01

    Identifying the ways in which male and female sex offenders differ is an important but understudied topic. Studies that do exist have been challenged by a reliance on small and select samples. Improving on these limitations, we use the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) to compare male and female sex offenders among all 802,150 incidents of sexual assault reported to police across 37 states between 1991 and 2011. Findings indicated some broad similarities between groups, including the most prominent offense location (home), most common victim-offender relationship (acquaintance), and the rarity of injuries or drug abuse during crimes. However, the data also showed several important differences between male and female sexual offenders. Most notably, females offended with male accomplices in more than 30% of their sexual crimes--far more often than occurred among male sexual offenders (2%). Likewise, females offended against a victim of the same sex in nearly half of their crimes, yet this was only true in approximately 10% of male sexual offenses. Implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Profile of Incarcerated Juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…

  11. Profile of Incarcerated Juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…

  12. Female versus Male Perpetrated Femicide: An Exploratory Analysis of Whether Offender Gender Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muftic, Lisa R.; Baumann, Miranda L.

    2012-01-01

    Femicide, the murder of females (most often at the hands of males), is an understudied area in homicide research. Furthermore, femicide perpetrated by females has been all but ignored. One reason this may be is because of the rarity of homicide victimization perpetrated by females. Rather, most homicide incidents consist of a male offender and a…

  13. Female versus Male Perpetrated Femicide: An Exploratory Analysis of Whether Offender Gender Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muftic, Lisa R.; Baumann, Miranda L.

    2012-01-01

    Femicide, the murder of females (most often at the hands of males), is an understudied area in homicide research. Furthermore, femicide perpetrated by females has been all but ignored. One reason this may be is because of the rarity of homicide victimization perpetrated by females. Rather, most homicide incidents consist of a male offender and a…

  14. A Rorschach investigation of incarcerated female offenders with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Cunliffe, Ted; Gacono, Carl B

    2005-10-01

    Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures of self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Compared to female offenders with ASPD who were nonpsychopathic, female offenders with ASPD who were psychopathic exhibited marked disturbances in self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the ASPD diagnosis in women, support the utility of the psychopathy construct with female offenders, and implicate important differences between men and women with ASPD. These gender differences have relevance to the evaluation (PCL-R scoring) and treatment of female offenders. Our findings are discussed within the context of the female psychopath's hypothesized hysterical character style.

  15. Female and Male Undergraduates' Attributions for Sexual Offending against Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beling, Joel; Hudson, Stephen M.; Ward, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Examines gender differences in undergraduates' attributions for child sex offending. Results showed that undergraduates' reasons for child sexual abuse strongly parallel contemporary scientific theories of abuse, and that there were significant gender differences in the frequency with which participants cited various types of reasons given for…

  16. Borderline personality disorder in male and female offenders newly committed to prison.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Gunter, Tracy; Allen, Jeff; Blum, Nancee; Arndt, Stephan; Wenman, Gloria; Sieleni, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the rate of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in male and female offenders newly committed to the Iowa Department of Corrections. We also compared clinical and demographic characteristics of offenders with and without BPD. A random sample of 220 offenders entering Iowa's prison system were evaluated by using a version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the BPD module of the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form-36 Health Survey, and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised. Borderline personality disorder was present in 65 (29.5%) subjects, although 93.2% had at least one Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV BPD trait. The percentage of women meeting criteria for BPD was more than twice that for men. Subjects with BPD were more likely than those without to be married, employed, and to have a high suicide risk score. Offenders with BPD were more likely than others to report prior mental health treatment, and to have reported high levels of interference from their mental disorder. Offenders with BPD had worse quality of life than offenders without BPD as assessed with the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form 36 Health Survey, and higher rates of mood, anxiety, psychotic, and eating disorders; antisocial personality disorder; and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Borderline personality disorder was also associated with higher Level of Service Inventory-Revised total scores, which indicates their having a greater risk for recidivism than nonborderline offenders. These relationships were observed after adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and presence of antisocial personality disorder. Borderline personality disorder is relatively common among both male and female offenders in prison, and is associated with substantial psychologic stress and impaired quality of life. Early recognition and treatment of BPD in prisons may be

  17. Methamphetamine Use and Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Methamphetamine use and oral health M ethamphetamine is an inexpensive, easy-to-make illicit drug. It is known by several street names: “meth,” “speed,” “ice,” “chalk,” “crank,” “fire,” “glass,” “crystal” and “tina.” It is ...

  18. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress, and comorbidities in female adolescent offenders: findings and implications from recent studies

    PubMed Central

    Foy, David W.; Ritchie, Iya K.; Conway, Alison H.

    2012-01-01

    Background While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences. PMID:22893830

  19. A Family-Oriented Policy and Treatment Program for Female Juvenile Status Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druckman, Joan M.

    1979-01-01

    Families of female juvenile status offenders were administered the Moos Family Environment Scale. The families could be described as moderately cohesive and adaptive. Results suggest that the dysfunctioning family may not be the primary cause of status offenses and that family-oriented treatment is possibly not the choice treatment for status…

  20. Female Drug Offenders Reflect on Their Experiences with a County Drug Court Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James C.; Wolfer, Loreen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the experiences of a group of female drug offenders who successfully completed a county drug court program in northeast Pennsylvania. Using the constant comparative method, we analyzed interviews with these women for thematic patterns in order to provide an evaluation of this program based on participants' subjective…

  1. Brief Trauma and Mental Health Assessments for Female Offenders in Addiction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Bartholomew, Norma G.; Pankow, Jennifer; Simpson, D. Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women in prison raise concerns about gender-specific problems and needs severity. Female offenders report higher trauma as well as mental and medical health complications than males, but large inmate populations and limited resources create challenges in administering proper diagnostic screening and assessments. This study…

  2. Portraits of Dysfunction: Criminal, Education, and Family Profiles of Juvenile Female Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 40 incarcerated juvenile female offenders found they typically reported failing 1 or more grades; more than having serious arrest; using drugs prior to crimes and as part of their lifestyle; and acting intentionally, and most often with others, to commit crimes. Critical factors included academic deficiencies, siblings who were…

  3. Brief Trauma and Mental Health Assessments for Female Offenders in Addiction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Bartholomew, Norma G.; Pankow, Jennifer; Simpson, D. Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women in prison raise concerns about gender-specific problems and needs severity. Female offenders report higher trauma as well as mental and medical health complications than males, but large inmate populations and limited resources create challenges in administering proper diagnostic screening and assessments. This study…

  4. A Family-Oriented Policy and Treatment Program for Female Juvenile Status Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druckman, Joan M.

    1979-01-01

    Families of female juvenile status offenders were administered the Moos Family Environment Scale. The families could be described as moderately cohesive and adaptive. Results suggest that the dysfunctioning family may not be the primary cause of status offenses and that family-oriented treatment is possibly not the choice treatment for status…

  5. Methamphetamine Use by High School Students: Recent Trends, Gender and Ethnicity Differences, and Use of Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetting, Eugene R.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Luther, Nathan; Beauvais, Fred; Edwards, Ruth W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent data on 9th-12th grade methamphetamine use (both lifetime and last month prevalence) are summarized. Since 1992 methamphetamine use has increased. There were no significant differences in use noted across school year. Males are more likely to use than females, although female use has also increased. Implications for research, prevention,…

  6. Methamphetamine Use by High School Students: Recent Trends, Gender and Ethnicity Differences, and Use of Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetting, Eugene R.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Luther, Nathan; Beauvais, Fred; Edwards, Ruth W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent data on 9th-12th grade methamphetamine use (both lifetime and last month prevalence) are summarized. Since 1992 methamphetamine use has increased. There were no significant differences in use noted across school year. Males are more likely to use than females, although female use has also increased. Implications for research, prevention,…

  7. Global patterns of methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Chomchai, Chulathida; Chomchai, Summon

    2015-07-01

    As the most popular psychostimulant in the world, methamphetamine use has reached epidemic proportions. Its enormous popularity has created subcultures of methamphetamine users all over the globe. The purpose of this review is to describe the geographic availability of different types of methamphetamine, the characteristics of each user population, and the psychosocial impact the two have on society. Methamphetamine has diversified immensely from the early days of its use. Different forms of methamphetamine - ICE, powder, and pills - have different pharmacokinetic characteristics that make them popular among certain types of users. New studies have shown that addiction to methamphetamine results in a very characteristic loss of inhibition that augments various risk-taking behaviors in its users. Also, recent seizure data suggest that its production and trafficking is spreading into new areas of the globe. From recreational use to addiction, methamphetamine use represents a serious risk to health and wellbeing of the community. Recognizing the pattern of abuse in specific populations is the key to assessing the risk, implementing prevention, and harm reduction measures, as well as making public policies.

  8. Interventions with Young Female Offenders and Teenage Girls at Risk: Alternative Educational Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping

    2009-01-01

    This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…

  9. An Exploratory Analysis of Executive Functioning for Female Sexual Offenders: A Comparison of Characteristics across Offense Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pflugradt, Dawn M.; Allen, Bradley P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between female sexual offending behavioral patterns, as delineated by Sandler and Freeman's (2007) typologies, and executive functioning. The sample included all referrals for sexual offender assessments within a women's maximum/medium security prison between January 2009 and October 2009. Each subject was…

  10. An Exploratory Analysis of Executive Functioning for Female Sexual Offenders: A Comparison of Characteristics across Offense Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pflugradt, Dawn M.; Allen, Bradley P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between female sexual offending behavioral patterns, as delineated by Sandler and Freeman's (2007) typologies, and executive functioning. The sample included all referrals for sexual offender assessments within a women's maximum/medium security prison between January 2009 and October 2009. Each subject was…

  11. Predictive validity of the MMPI-2 among female offenders in a residential treatment program.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Richard D; McAnulty, David P; Sipp, Jennifer E; Demakis, George J; Heggestad, Eric D

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) validity, clinical, restructured clinical, supplementary, and content scales in a female correctional population. The study used archival data for a final sample of 116 women who had been evaluated for acceptance into a residential rehabilitative treatment program for nonviolent female offenders in North Carolina. MMPI-2 scale elevations are reported and assessed for predictive validity in relation to treatment success, as measured by treatment attendance and graduation status. In relation to predictive validity, logistic regression analyses revealed that elevations on Scales FRS (Fears) and R (Repression) differentiated women who attended the program from women who did not. Elevations on Scales 4, DEP (Depression), Re (Responsibility), and AAS (Addiction Admission Scale) differentiated women who graduated the program from women who did not. Implications for the rehabilitation of female offenders, as well as limitations of this exploratory study, are discussed.

  12. Do risk factors for re-arrest differ for female and male drunk-driving offenders?

    PubMed

    Lapham, S C; Skipper, B J; Hunt, W C; Chang, I

    2000-11-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in factors affecting recidivism among 628 female and 659 male drunk-driving offenders. The study population included residents from New Mexico who completed a screening program for offenders and who were still residents when contacted 5 years later. Risk factors for re-arrest in the 5-year period after screening referral were examined using multiple logistic regression models. Predictor variables included gender, age, ethnicity, education, marital status, blood alcohol concentration at arrest, parental alcohol problems, spousal alcohol problems, lifetime use of cannabis, cocaine, or amphetamines, abusive behavior toward spouse, and scores on two standardized assessments. Risk factors for re-arrest were similar for males and females except that young age predicted higher recidivism among males but not females. The overall 5-year re-arrest rate was 26%-20% for women, 38% for males age 30 and under, and 24% for males age 31 and older. Young age predicts re-arrest for males but not for females. Neither the type of risk factors nor the number of risk factors fully explained female offenders' disproportionately lower recidivism rates, compared with young males.

  13. Methamphetamine Use: Hazards and Social Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermuth, Laurie

    2000-01-01

    Presents data on methamphetamine use in the United States and the economic and social pressures that may partially explain expanded methamphetamine use. Recommends a policy response that utilizes a public health approach, including prevention campaigns, harm-reduction outreach and treatment approaches, and pharmacologic and abstinence-based drug…

  14. Methamphetamine Use: Hazards and Social Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermuth, Laurie

    2000-01-01

    Presents data on methamphetamine use in the United States and the economic and social pressures that may partially explain expanded methamphetamine use. Recommends a policy response that utilizes a public health approach, including prevention campaigns, harm-reduction outreach and treatment approaches, and pharmacologic and abstinence-based drug…

  15. Predictors of sexual coercion and alcohol use among female juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Montanaro, Erika A; Bryan, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34 % of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group.

  16. Predictors of Sexual Coercion and Alcohol Use among Female Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montanaro, Erika A.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34% of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group. PMID:25107488

  17. Violent Crime in the Lives of Homeless Female Ex-Offenders.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Salem, Benissa E; Hall, Elizabeth; Oleskowicz, Tanya; Ekstrand, Maria; Yadav, Kartik; Toyama, Joy; Turner, Susan; Faucette, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The cyclical pattern of violence in the lives of homeless female ex-offenders may precipitate ongoing substance use and recidivism; all of which have shown to be mounting public health issues affecting successful reentry. This paper, which analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study of 126 female ex-offenders in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, highlighted the factors found to be associated with violent crime among homeless female ex-offenders. A multiple logistic regression model for whether or not the last conviction was for a violent offense indicated that poor housing (p = .011) and self-reported anger or hostility (p < .001) were significant correlates. An ordinal regression model for the number of violent offenses also indicated that affectionate support was associated with committing fewer number of violent crimes (p = .001), while positive social interactions (p = .007), and anger/hostility (p = .015) were associated with greater number of violent crimes. Implications for developing a comprehensive array of strategies that can mitigate the pattern of violence often seen in the lives of homeless female who have recently exited jails and prisons is discussed.

  18. The predictive validity of criminogenic needs for male and female offenders: comparing the relative impact of needs in predicting recidivism.

    PubMed

    van der Knaap, Leontien M; Alberda, Daphne L; Oosterveld, Paul; Born, Marise Ph

    2012-10-01

    Most instruments used to assess offenders' risk of recidivism were developed and validated on male samples. Use of these instruments with female offenders is, however, common practice. This use with female offenders implies the assumption that the risk of recidivism can be predicted on the basis of the same risk factors for women as for men. Yet, this implied gender-neutrality of offender risk instruments has been the topic of much debate. This study compared criminogenic needs in male and female offenders and their relevance in predicting recidivism. A large sample of male and female offenders (N = 16,239) charged with a range of index offenses was studied. Results mainly support the gender neutrality of existing offender risk and needs assessment. However, results do suggest that some criminogenic needs may indeed have a different impact on recidivism for men and women. Problems with accommodation, education and work, and relationships with friends were more strongly correlated to general recidivism in men than in women. For women, difficulties with emotional well-being had a stronger correlation with recidivism than for men. In addition, relative to all other criminogenic needs, problems with emotional well-being were more important for women than for men in predicting general as well as violent recidivism. However, because the bivariate correlation for female offenders between emotional difficulties and recidivism is weak (as it is for male offenders), the question remains whether the relative importance of emotional difficulties in predicting recidivism in women actually has clinical relevance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, James

    2010-01-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…

  20. Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, James

    2010-01-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism near CREB1, rs7591784, is associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency and outcome of outpatient treatment for methamphetamine use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Heinzerling, Keith G.; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Although stimulant dependence is highly heritable, few studies have examined genetic influences on methamphetamine dependence. We performed a candidate gene study of 52 SNPs and pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency among 263 methamphetamine dependent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White participants of several methamphetamine outpatient clinical trials in Los Angeles. One SNP, rs7591784 was significantly associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency following Bonferroni correction (p < 0.001) in males but not females. We then examined rs7591784 and methamphetamine urine drug screen results during 12 weeks of outpatient treatment among males with treatment outcome data available (N = 94) and found rs7591784 was significantly associated with methamphetamine use during treatment controlling for pretreatment methamphetamine use. rs7591784 is near CREB1 and in a linkage disequilibrium block with rs2952768, previously shown to influence CREB1 expression. The CREB signaling pathway is involved in gene expression changes related to chronic use of multiple drugs of abuse including methamphetamine and these results suggest that variability in CREB signaling may influence pretreatment frequency of methamphetamine use as well as outcomes of outpatient treatment. Medications targeting the CREB pathway, including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, warrant investigation as pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorders. PMID:26736037

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphism near CREB1, rs7591784, is associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency and outcome of outpatient treatment for methamphetamine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, Keith G; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Although stimulant dependence is highly heritable, few studies have examined genetic influences on methamphetamine dependence. We performed a candidate gene study of 52 SNPs and pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency among 263 methamphetamine dependent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White participants of several methamphetamine outpatient clinical trials in Los Angeles. One SNP, rs7591784 was significantly associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency following Bonferroni correction (p < 0.001) in males but not females. We then examined rs7591784 and methamphetamine urine drug screen results during 12 weeks of outpatient treatment among males with treatment outcome data available (N = 94) and found rs7591784 was significantly associated with methamphetamine use during treatment controlling for pretreatment methamphetamine use. rs7591784 is near CREB1 and in a linkage disequilibrium block with rs2952768, previously shown to influence CREB1 expression. The CREB signaling pathway is involved in gene expression changes related to chronic use of multiple drugs of abuse including methamphetamine and these results suggest that variability in CREB signaling may influence pretreatment frequency of methamphetamine use as well as outcomes of outpatient treatment. Medications targeting the CREB pathway, including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, warrant investigation as pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Female versus male perpetrated femicide: an exploratory analysis of whether offender gender matters.

    PubMed

    Muftić, Lisa R; Baumann, Miranda L

    2012-09-01

    Femicide, the murder of females (most often at the hands of males), is an understudied area in homicide research. Furthermore, femicide perpetrated by females has been all but ignored. One reason this may be is because of the rarity of homicide victimization perpetrated by females. Rather, most homicide incidents consist of a male offender and a male victim. When a homicide does involve a female, either as a victim or as an offender, the other party implicated is generally a male. The primary goal of the proposed study is to provide an in-depth, albeit exploratory, examination of female-perpetrated femicide. Using homicide data taken from the Dallas Homicide Unit, 403 cases of femicide will be analyzed, with special attention devoted to comparing female-perpetrated femicide incidents (n = 39) against male-perpetrated femicide incidents (n = 364). Specifically, the current study will explore the similarities and differences in sociodemographic characteristics of victims and suspects, offense characteristics, and offense circumstances. Contrary to what was expected, results, at first glance, seem to suggest an overwhelming similarity between femicide suspects and victims, irrespective of gender. However, when the relationship between victim and suspect is considered, distinct differences appear. Implications from these findings as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  4. Hurricane Katrina’s Impact on the Mental Health of Adolescent Female Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela A.; Morse, David T.; Baird-Thomas, Connie

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to multiple traumatic events and high rates of mental health problems are common among juvenile offenders. This study draws on Conservation of Resources (COR) stress theory to examine the impact of a specific trauma, Hurricane Katrina, relative to other adverse life events on the mental health of female adolescent offenders in Mississippi. Teenage girls (N = 258, 69% African American) were recruited from 4 juvenile detention centers and the state training school. Participants were interviewed about the occurrence and timing of adverse life events and hurricane-related experiences and completed a self-administered mental health assessment. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to identify predictors of anxiety and depression. Pre-hurricane family stressors, pre-hurricane traumatic events, hurricane-related property damage, and receipt of hurricane-related financial assistance significantly predicted symptoms of anxiety and depression. Findings support COR theory. Family stressors had the greatest influence on symptoms of anxiety and depression, highlighting the need for family-based services that address the multiple, inter-related problems and challenges in the lives of female juvenile offenders. PMID:19296263

  5. Hurricane Katrina's impact on the mental health of adolescent female offenders.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela A; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to multiple traumatic events and high rates of mental health problems are common among juvenile offenders. This study draws on Conservation of Resources (COR) stress theory to examine the impact of a specific trauma, Hurricane Katrina, relative to other adverse life events, on the mental health of female adolescent offenders in Mississippi. Teenage girls (N=258, 69% African American) were recruited from four juvenile detention centers and the state training school. Participants were interviewed about the occurrence and timing of adverse life events and hurricane-related experiences and completed a self-administered mental health assessment. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to identify predictors of anxiety and depression. Pre-hurricane family stressors, pre-hurricane traumatic events, hurricane-related property damage, and receipt of hurricane-related financial assistance significantly predicted symptoms of anxiety and depression. Findings support COR theory. Family stressors had the greatest influence on symptoms of anxiety and depression, highlighting the need for family based services that address the multiple, inter-related problems and challenges in the lives of female juvenile offenders.

  6. Reducing Economic Disparities for Female Offenders: The Oxford House Model.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Sarah; Jason, Leonard A; Robinson, LaVome

    In the past 30 years the rate of increase in incarceration for females who abuse substances has outpaced that of men. Women have increased health and economic disparities, and face barriers to economic mobility, increasing their risk of returning to the criminal justice system. Past research suggests that there is a positive relationship between living in Oxford House and employment wages, yet the impact of having a criminal history on this relationship was unknown. This study used a nationwide sample of 136 women living in Oxford Houses in a regression analysis with length of stay in Oxford House predicting employment wages, and moderated by criminal history. There was a positive relationship between length of stay and wages. Criminal history modified the association between length of stay and wages, and length of stay had a significantly greater impact on wages for women with criminal convictions. The findings provide a contribution to alcohol and drug abuse and economic literature by identifying a setting that decreases economic disparities for formerly incarcerated women. Results can inform future policy, research, and the development of gender sensitive aftercare programs that address the needs of women, assisting transitioning women in reentering mainstream society, and increasing their chances of obtaining and retaining employment.

  7. Early traumatization and psychopathy in female and male juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Krischer, Maya K; Sevecke, Kathrin

    2008-01-01

    Childhood traumatization is expected to have a significant impact on the development of antisocial and aggressive behavior in adulthood. Psychopathy as a syndrome that can predict future violent and aggressive behavior in adults is therefore believed to be associated with early traumatization. The association between early childhood victimization and violence might at least be mediated through psychopathy. The present study examined the relationship between early emotional, physical or sexual trauma and neglect and psychopathy in incarcerated delinquent female and male juveniles using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV). A sample of detained adolescents (n=185) was compared to adolescent students (n=98). Also, gender differences were analyzed with respect to the association of trauma and psychopathy. As expected, our analyses revealed higher scores of traumatization in delinquent juveniles compared to school adolescents. Hypothesized relationships between physical traumatization and the PCL-YV total score could be confirmed among criminal boys, but not among delinquent girls. Results, therefore, indicated that an association exists between early physical, but also emotional traumatic experience and psychopathy in detained boys. In girls, however, other family-related variables, such as non-parental living arrangements, seemed to be more influential in developing the psychopathy syndrome than traumatization.

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms mediate the relationship between substance misuse and violent offending among female prisoners.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ruth; Karatzias, Thanos; Power, Kevin; Mahoney, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Despite empirical evidence suggesting complex associations between psychological trauma, substance misuse, and violent offending, there is a dearth of research investigating these associations in the female prison population. A cross-sectional, interview-format questionnaire study was undertaken with a sample of 89 female prisoners. History of traumatic events, DSM-5 PTSD, drug use, and offending behaviour were assessed. Traumatic experiences had occurred in 97.8 % of the sample, while 60.5 % met criteria for a PTSD diagnosis. The majority of the sample (70.8 %) reported using illicit drugs, and 59.6 % had committed at least one violent offence. History of drug use was significantly correlated with trauma, PTSD status, and violent offending. A mediation analysis identified an indirect effect of PTSD symptoms on the relationship between history of drug use and violent offending. The result of our mediation analysis further highlights the importance of addressing PTSD symptoms and substance misuse, among female offenders, to help prevent violent offending.

  9. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2014-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders’ problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions. PMID:25598649

  10. Methamphetamine use and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gizzi, Michael C; Gerkin, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    This research seeks to broaden our understanding of methamphetamine's (meth's) place within the study of drugs and crime. Through extensive court records research and interviews with 200 offenders in local jails in western Colorado, this research contributes to the creation of a meth user profile and begins to identify the place of meth in the drug-crime nexus. The study compares the criminal behavior of meth users with other drug users, finding that meth users are more likely than other drug users to be drunk or high at the time of arrest and claim their crimes were related to drug use in other ways. A content analysis of criminal records demonstrates that meth users have more extensive criminal records and are more likely than other drug users to commit property crimes.

  11. Gender disparity in utilization rates of substance abuse services among female ex-offenders: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Senik T; Vaughn, Michael G; Mancini, Michael; Fu, Q John

    2013-09-01

    The use and abuse of substances is common among offender populations. Although the female former offender population has risen substantially in recent decades, relatively little is known about their substance abuse treatment experiences. This study examines disparities in substance abuse treatment utilization among the US population with special focus upon formerly incarcerated female offenders. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, n = 43,093) collected in 2001-2002 and 2004-2005 the authors compared lifetime rates of substance abuse treatment utilization between female and male ex-offenders with the U.S. general population. The sample population covered inpatient and community based substance use treatment, detoxification and rehabilitation programs. It is a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized persons over the age of 18. Multinomial logistic regression was performed and likelihood of using substance use treatment and services was calculated using adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Compared to male ex-offenders, female ex-offenders were 52% less likely to use substance-abuse treatment services (AOR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.26-0.89) and 51% less likely to use rehabilitation programs (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.26-0.93). Compared to females in the general population, female ex-offenders were 10 times more likely to use substance-abuse treatment services (AOR = 10.14, 95% CI = 5.71-18.00), 10.5 times more likely to use substance detoxification programs (AOR = 10. 45, 95% CI = 5.64-19.39); 8 times more likely to use inpatient wards (AOR = 8.05, 95% CI = 4.16-15.59); 9 times more likely to use outpatient wards (AOR = 9.06, 95% CI = 4.89-16.81), and 12 times more likely to use substance-abuse rehabilitation programs (AOR = 12.06, 95% CI = 6.55-22.22). While female ex-offenders were more likely to have used a range of substance abuse services when compared to the general population, they were less likely to use

  12. Hope and recovery from substance abuse for female drug offenders in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Law, Fang Mei; Guo, Gwo Jen

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to fulfill a twofold purpose. First, based on the hope theory framework and previous research, a 16-session hope-based substance abuse treatment program to help female drug abusers achieve a better recovery was developed. Second, ANCOVA was used to test the effectiveness of this treatment model. The participants were 40 female drug offenders who were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The 20 experimental group participants received 16 sessions of hope-based substance abuse treatment whereas the 20 control group members were put on the waiting list for another term of treatment. The results indicated that the members of the two groups had significant differences in their posttest scores for recovery goal setting and pursuing, pathway controlling, adequate energy, knowledge of the changing process, ability to cope, adequate cognition, emotion regulation, and self-esteem.

  13. Male and female juveniles arrested for murder: a comprehensive analysis of U.S. data by offender gender.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique; Solomon, Eldra P; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-05-01

    Murders committed by juveniles remain a serious concern in the United States. Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on male offenders. As a result, little is known about female JHOs and how they differ from their male counterparts on a national level. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to examine more than 40,000 murders committed by male and female juvenile offenders from 1976 to 2005. This research effort, the most expansive to date, replicated previous findings with respect to gender differences using bivariate and multivariate analyses. As predicted, six variables used to test eight hypotheses with respect to male and female JHOs in single-victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim-offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, victim gender, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that all variables remained significant when entered into the model. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research.

  14. An exploratory analysis of executive functioning for female sexual offenders: a comparison of characteristics across offense typologies.

    PubMed

    Pflugradt, Dawn M; Allen, Bradley P

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the association between female sexual offending behavioral patterns, as delineated by Sandler and Freeman's (2007) typologies, and executive functioning. The sample included all referrals for sexual offender assessments within a women's maximum/medium security prison between January 2009 and October 2009. Each subject was administered the Stroop (Golden & Freshwater, 2002) and Trail Making Test (Reitan, 2004) and were assigned to a typological category. Nonparametric analyses were conducted to determine if there was an association between typology and performance on neuropsychological tests. Results yielded no significant associations between test scores and typological category. Subjects displayed average capacities for a subset of executive functions, suggesting that the mechanisms for sexually offending behavior in females may differ from males.

  15. Male and Female Single-Victim Sexual Homicide Offenders: Distinguishing the Types of Weapons Used in Killing Their Victims.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Most studies have focused on male sexual homicide offenders (SHOs) without testing whether sex differences exist. Accordingly, little is known about the distinctions between male and female SHOs, particularly with respect to their use of weapons in killing their victims. This study used a sample of 3,160 single-victim sexual homicide cases (3,009 male and 151 female offenders) from the U.S. Supplementary Homicide Reports database to explore sex differences in the types of murder weapons used by offenders in killing victims over the 37-year period 1976 to 2012. Findings indicated that significantly more male SHOs used personal weapons (43%) and more female SHOs used firearms (63%) in their offense commission. In general, female offenders predominantly used weapons that were physically less demanding (e.g., firearms and edged and other weapons; 89%). Different trends in the murder weapons used by male and female SHOs from different age groups were observed. Interestingly, findings showed that the type of weapon used by SHOs was in part influenced by the victims and their characteristics.

  16. Female and Male Juvenile Offenders with Disabilities: Differences in the Barriers to Their Transition to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examined differences between young women and men who were incarcerated juvenile offenders with disabilities in Oregon in terms of the barriers they faced in their transition from the correctional system back into the community. Data were gathered on 72 females and 276 males, all of whom presented disabilities and who were…

  17. Female and Male Juvenile Offenders with Disabilities: Differences in the Barriers to Their Transition to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examined differences between young women and men who were incarcerated juvenile offenders with disabilities in Oregon in terms of the barriers they faced in their transition from the correctional system back into the community. Data were gathered on 72 females and 276 males, all of whom presented disabilities and who were…

  18. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  19. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  20. Suicidal and criminal behavior among female offenders: the role of abuse and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kimonis, Eva R; Skeem, Jennifer L; Edens, John F; Douglas, Kevin S; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Poythress, Norman G

    2010-10-01

    Childhood abuse is relatively prevalent among women and is an important risk factor for both criminal behavior and suicide-related behavior (SRB). Based on a sample of 266 female offenders, we address one theoretical and one practical issue. First, from a theoretical perspective, we assess whether internalizing (depression and anxiety) and externalizing (substance abuse and antisocial behavior) psychopathology mediate the relation between abuse on the one hand, and SRB or criminal behavior, on the other. Results indicate that externalizing problems mediate the relation between childhood abuse and both lifetime SRB (fully) and lifetime criminality (partially). Second, at a practical level, results indicate that a subscale of the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) that assesses lifetime criminal behavior adds incremental utility to postdicting SRB, beyond the variance accounted for by self-report measures of abuse and externalizing problems. However, none of the measures-including the PCL-R-predicted future recidivism.

  1. Characteristics of female homicide offenders found not guilty by reason of insanity.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, Jessica; McDermott, Barbara E; Scott, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, there has been little information regarding female offenders who commit homicides that are motivated by psychosis. We investigated gender differences in the characteristics of psychosis and crime variables in psychotically motivated homicide. In the study, conducted at a large U.S. forensic facility, we reviewed the records of women (n = 47) found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) who were hospitalized between January 1991 and August 2005 for a homicide offense. A random sample of 47 men who were committed during the same period for the same offenses was selected for comparison. Religious delusions were found more often in women who killed infants (0-1 year of age) and children between the ages of 2 and 18. Women were more likely to have a diagnosis of an affective problem and borderline personality disorder. The results indicate gender-specific areas to focus on during clinical and forensic assessments of the risk of violence in women with psychosis.

  2. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among High School Students in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…

  4. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among High School Students in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…

  5. Methamphetamine use: hazards and social influences.

    PubMed

    Wermuth, L

    2000-01-01

    Use of methamphetamine, a potent central nervous system stimulant, increased in the early- to mid-1990s in the United States, concentrated in the west, midwest, and south. The use and trade of methamphetamine was facilitated by a fairly simple production process and the involvement of numerous small entrepreneurs as well as drug-trafficking syndicates. National data from the 1994 Drug Abuse Warning network revealed that for the period from 1991 to 1994 methamphetamine use among short-stay hospital patients more than tripled, and methamphetamine-related deaths reported by medical examiner offices nearly tripled. In addition, the Treatment Episode Data Set revealed a 43 percent increase in treatment-program admissions in which clients identified methamphetamine as the primary drug of abuse. Nonetheless, methamphetamine use did not become widespread in the U.S. population. Low-income and unemployed young white men continue to be the group most likely to use methamphetamine, but by the mid-1990s the drug had increased in popularity in more diverse populations and regions. Economic and social pressures experienced by a broad array of Americans may partially explain expanded methamphetamine use; for example, depressed economic conditions in rural and semi-rural areas have contributed to methamphetamine's appeal as a source of income. A "war against drugs" approach has characterized the policy response, with increased criminal justice penalties. A public health approach is recommended, including prevention campaigns, harm-reduction outreach and treatment approaches, and pharmacologic and abstinence-based drug treatment approaches.

  6. Examination of psychopathy in female homicide offenders--confirmatory factor analysis of the PCL-R.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Putkonen, Hanna; Grönroos, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Eronen, Markku; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2010-01-01

    The construct of psychopathy is essential in explaining criminal behavior, but unfortunately the empirical research on psychopathy in women has been inconsistent. In this study the underlying structure of psychopathy in women was examined by testing the two-factor model by Hare (2003) and the three-factor solution by Cooke and Michie (2001) using confirmatory factor analysis. We replicated the study by Warren et al. (2003) using a nationwide sample of 97 female homicide offenders in order to facilitate the comparison of results. The prevalence of psychopathy in the present study was 9.3% with a cut-off of >or=30 and 21.6% with a cut-off of >or=25. The best fit for the data out of the tested models was the three-factor model with six testlets. The two-factor model proved to be too simple a model for the female homicide data. The findings regarding comorbidity of psychopathy with personality disorders show that the concept of psychopathy includes diagnostic criteria of several personality disorders, but further research is needed to establish a possible superordinate dimension. Further research on the PCL-R and putative gender differences in the expression of psychopathy in women and men as well as on the putative impact of cultural differences on the instrument is clearly needed.

  7. Recidivism in female offenders: PCL-R lifestyle factor and VRAG show predictive validity in a German sample.

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Osterheider, Michael; Nedopil, Norbert; Stadtland, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    A clear and structured approach to evidence-based and gender-specific risk assessment of violence in female offenders is high on political and mental health agendas. However, most data on the factors involved in risk-assessment instruments are based on data of male offenders. The aim of the present study was to validate the use of the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), the HCR-20 and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) for the prediction of recidivism in German female offenders. This study is part of the Munich Prognosis Project (MPP). It focuses on a subsample of female delinquents (n = 80) who had been referred for forensic-psychiatric evaluation prior to sentencing. The mean time at risk was 8 years (SD = 5 years; range: 1-18 years). During this time, 31% (n = 25) of the female offenders were reconvicted, 5% (n = 4) for violent and 26% (n = 21) for non-violent re-offenses. The predictive validity of the PCL-R for general recidivism was calculated. Analysis with receiver-operating characteristics revealed that the PCL-R total score, the PCL-R antisocial lifestyle factor, the PCL-R lifestyle factor and the PCL-R impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style factor had a moderate predictive validity for general recidivism (area under the curve, AUC = 0.66, p = 0.02). The VRAG has also demonstrated predictive validity (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.02), whereas the HCR-20 showed no predictive validity. These results appear to provide the first evidence that the PCL-R total score and the antisocial lifestyle factor are predictive for general female recidivism, as has been shown consistently for male recidivists. The implications of these findings for crime prevention, prognosis in women, and future research are discussed.

  8. Profiles associated with treatment retention in Japanese patients with methamphetamine use disorder: preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ohji; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Otsuki, Masaki; Endo, Keiko; Okudaira, Kenichi; Wada, Kiyoshi; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2008-10-01

    To identify profiles associated with treatment retention in Japanese patients with methamphetamine use disorder. The study used a retrospective design based on clinical records. The subjects were 101 patients at the Kanagawa Psychiatric Center, Serigaya Hospital, who were diagnosed as having methamphetamine use disorder. They were divided in two groups, namely those who remained in treatment 3 months after the initial assessment, and those who did not. The primary analysis compared patient profiles between the two groups to detect discriminating variables, which were then submitted for secondary analysis using logistic regression to determine the most relevant predictor of retention. Primary analysis indicated that older age, having psychotic symptoms, receiving public assistance, and history of incarceration were associated with treatment retention after 3 months. Secondary analysis showed that positive history of incarceration was the most significant predictor of the outcome. History of incarceration had the most significant treatment-retention effect on Japanese patients with methamphetamine use disorder. The development and introduction of integrated programs that link methamphetamine-dependent offenders to drug treatment is recommended in outpatient treatment for Japanese patients with methamphetamine user disorder.

  9. Who is in charge of your recovery? The effectiveness of reality therapy for female drug offenders in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Law, Fang Mei; Guo, Gwo Jen

    2014-06-01

    This study was designed to fulfill a twofold purpose. First, a 12-session reality therapy drug treatment program to help female drug abusers achieve a better recovery was developed. Second, based on previous research in reality therapy, the Index of Sense of Self-Control in Recovery for Drug Offenders was developed, and the instrument was validated using principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Later, ANCOVA was used to test the effectiveness of the treatment program. The participants were 48 female drug offenders, who were randomly assigned to equal-sized experimental and control groups. The results of the study showed significant differences in the posttest scores for the sense of self-determination and sense of self-control for the members of the two groups.

  10. Childhood Maltreatment and Unprotected Sex among Female Juvenile Offenders: Evidence of Mediation by Substance Abuse and Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Larson, Sandra; Buttar, Aliya; Dermid-Gray, Lindsey

    Research has shown that childhood maltreatment is associated with sexual risk taking among female juvenile offenders; however, the mechanisms by which maltreatment influences sexual risk remain poorly understood. We assessed whether substance abuse, psychological distress, and dating violence mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and unprotected sex. Sexually active female juvenile offenders (13-17 years of age) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (n = 232). Logistic regression with a risk decrement approach, the Sobel test, and the Goodman I test were used to evaluate mediation. Maltreatment before sixth grade was common in our sample, including physical abuse (48.7%), sexual abuse (14.7%), supervision neglect (57.3%), and physical neglect (18.5%). Cumulative childhood maltreatment was also high with 42.2% reporting two or more types. In the fully adjusted model, cumulative childhood maltreatment remained associated with unprotected sex (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.27, 4.65). The percent of the total effect in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and unprotected sex that was mediated by substance abuse was 16.4% (Sobel = 2.54 [p = .01]; Goodman I = 2.49 [p = .01]) and psychological distress accounted for 23.7% (Sobel = 2.55 [p = .01]; Goodman I = 2.51 [p = .01]). Dating violence was not a significant mediator in our analyses. We found a strong relationship between childhood maltreatment and unprotected sex among female juvenile offenders that was partially mediated through substance abuse and psychological distress. These findings can be used to develop public health strategies to increase condom use among female juvenile offenders. Trauma-informed approaches to sexual health promotion that address substance abuse and psychological distress are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of female mentally disordered offenders culpable under the new legislation in Japan: A gender comparison study.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Takako; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Matsumoto, Satoko; Shiina, Akihiro; Iyo, Masaomi; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito

    2016-02-01

    Although a substantial increase in the number of female offenders has drawn interest towards understanding their unique characteristics, few studies have investigated the characteristics of female mentally disordered offenders in Japan and none since the legislation enacted in 2005 in Japan, which provided for special services for them. The aim of this study is to identify those characteristics of people detained under this legislation, which distinguish the women from the men and may indicate special needs among the women. A retrospective records-based study of all patients admitted to one secure unit in the 8 years since its opening in July 2005 until a census date of 31 October 2013. Thirty-six (15%) of the patients were women. Marriage, mood disorders, past suicide attempts and homicide were more common among the women than the men. Six of the female offender-patients had committed filicides, of which four were infanticides. There appears to be a particularly vulnerable sub-group of women with severe mood disorders, a history of serious suicide attempts and young children at risk of harming those children. Our sample was small and from a single unit so, given the potential importance of improving understanding of who is at risk in such circumstances, extending our study nationally seems indicated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Racial differences in the associations of neighborhood disadvantage, exposure to violence, and criminal recidivism among female juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N Dickon; Turkheimer, Eric N

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of exposure to violence and neighborhood disadvantage on criminal recidivism among Black (n = 69) and White (n = 53) female juvenile offenders. Participants were girls between the ages of 13 and 19 (M = 16.8; SD = 1.2) who were sentenced to secure custody. Using a multi-method research design, the study assessed neighborhood disadvantage through census level data, exposure to violence through self-report, and criminal recidivism through official records. Results indicated that Black girls were significantly more likely than White girls to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods, but both reported similar levels of parental physical abuse and witnessing neighborhood violence. In structural equation models, neighborhood disadvantage and witnessing neighborhood violence were indicative of future recidivism for the group as a whole. However, multiple group analyses indicated the existence of race specific pathways to recidivism. Witnessing neighborhood violence was associated with recidivism for Black girls while parental physical abuse was associated with recidivism for White girls. Results suggest that characteristics within the neighborhood play a considerable role in recidivism among female juvenile offenders generally and Black female juvenile offenders, specifically. Race specific risk models warrant further investigation, and may help lawmakers and clinicians in addressing racial disparities in the justice system.

  13. A Review of Treatment Options for Co-Occurring Methamphetamine Use Disorders and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hellem, Tracy L.; Lundberg, Kelly J.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2017-01-01

    Co-occurring methamphetamine use and depression interferes with treatment outcomes. Female methamphetamine users are known to have higher rates of depression than male methamphetamine users, although this is also true for the general population. There are limited treatment options for the management of depression among methamphetamine users. In this integrative review, we summarize data on treatment strategies for co-occurring depression and methamphetamine use disorders. English-language articles were identified from PsychINFO, CINAHL, PubMed, and Medline as well as from reference lists of key articles. Search terms included “methamphetamine,” “depression,” and “treatment.” Research articles describing psychological (n =3), pharmacological (n = 6), nutritional supplement (n =1), and psychological combined with pharmacological (n = 3) approaches for the treatment of methamphetamine use or withdrawal and/or depression are included in this review. Psychological and combination of psychological with pharmacological approaches have not been shown to be effective in treating these co-occurring conditions. Antidepressants have been determined to be ineffective and/or to introduce side effects. Gender differences with response to treatment were examined in only one of the published studies. There is a large gap in knowledge regarding treatment of co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders and depression. Considering that female methamphetamine users experience higher rates of depression than men, a focus on gender-specific treatment approaches is warranted. PMID:25761159

  14. Methamphetamine use, aggressive behavior and other mental health issues among high-school students in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Plüddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles; Lombard, Carl

    2010-06-01

    Methamphetamine use has become a growing problem in a number of countries over the past two decades, but has only recently emerged in South Africa. This study investigated the prevalence of methamphetamine use among high-school students in Cape Town and whether students reporting methamphetamine use were more likely to be at risk for mental health and aggressive behavior problems. A cross-sectional survey of 15 randomly selected high schools in Cape Town, of 1561 males and females grade 8-10 students (mean age 14.9), was conducted using the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Findings indicated that 9% of the students had tried methamphetamine at least once. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that methamphetamine use in the past year was significantly associated with higher aggressive behavior scores (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.04-3.15, p<0.05), mental health risk scores (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.26-3.31, p<0.01) and depression scores (OR=2.65, 95% CI: 1.64-4.28, p<0.001). Methamphetamine use has become a serious problem in Cape Town, particularly among adolescents. Screening adolescents in school settings for methamphetamine use and behavior problems may be useful in identifying youth at risk for substance misuse, providing an opportunity for early intervention. These findings have implications for other parts of the world where methamphetamine use may be occurring at younger ages and highlight the importance of looking at co-morbid issues related to methamphetamine use. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methamphetamine use, aggressive behavior and other mental health issues among high school students in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Plüddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles; Lombard, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Objective Methamphetamine use has become a growing problem in a number of countries over the past two decades, but has only recently emerged in South Africa. This study investigated the prevalence of methamphetamine use among high-school students in Cape Town and whether students reporting methamphetamine use were more likely to be at risk for mental health and aggressive behavior problems. Method A cross-sectional survey of 15 randomly selected high-schools in Cape Town, of 1561 male and female grade 8–10 students (mean age 14.9), was conducted using the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Findings indicated that 9% of the students had tried methamphetamine at least once. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that methamphetamine use in the past year was significantly associated with higher aggressive behavior scores (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.04–3.15, p < 0.05), mental health risk scores (OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.26–3.31, p < 0.01) and depression scores (OR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.64–4.28, p < 0.001). Conclusions Methamphetamine use has become a serious problem in Cape Town, particularly among adolescents. Screening adolescents in school settings for methamphetamine use and behavior problems may be useful in identifying youth at risk for substance misuse, providing an opportunity for early intervention. These findings have implications for other parts of the world where methamphetamine use may be occurring at younger ages and highlight the importance of looking at co-morbid issues related to methamphetamine use. PMID:20064699

  16. "Police Wouldn't Give You No Help": Female Offenders on Reporting Sexual Assault to Police.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Slocum, Lee Ann; Kruttschnitt, Candace

    2016-03-01

    Sexual assault remains one of the most underreported violent crimes. When victims report, they often are dissatisfied with the police response. The factors influencing one's decision to invoke the law have been widely examined. However, less research examines (a) how the victim's criminality affects this decision and (b) women offenders' characterization of their reporting decisions. We use mixed methods to explore the factors related to an offender's decision to report sexual victimization to police and consider their descriptions of police response when they do report the crime. Our findings provide insight into the gendered relations between offenders and police. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Identifying gender specific risk/need areas for male and female juvenile offenders: Factor analyses with the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY).

    PubMed

    Hilterman, Ed L B; Bongers, Ilja; Nicholls, Tonia L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2016-02-01

    By constructing risk assessment tools in which the individual items are organized in the same way for male and female juvenile offenders it is assumed that these items and subscales have similar relevance across males and females. The identification of criminogenic needs that vary in relevance for 1 of the genders, could contribute to more meaningful risk assessments, especially for female juvenile offenders. In this study, exploratory factor analyses (EFA) on a construction sample of male (n = 3,130) and female (n = 466) juvenile offenders were used to aggregate the 30 items of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) into empirically based risk/need factors and explore differences between genders. The factor models were cross-validated through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on a validation sample of male (n = 2,076) and female (n = 357) juvenile offenders. In both the construction sample and the validation sample, 5 factors were identified: (a) Antisocial behavior; (b) Family functioning; (c) Personality traits; (d) Social support; and (e) Treatability. The male and female models were significantly different and the internal consistency of the factors was good, both in the construction sample and the validation sample. Clustering risk/need items for male and female juvenile offenders into meaningful factors may guide clinicians in the identification of gender-specific treatment interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  19. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  20. Methamphetamine Use and Violent Behavior: User Perceptions and Predictors.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the extent to which methamphetamine users perceive that their methamphetamine use has resulted in violent behavior, and describes the level of self-reported prevalence of specific violent criminal behaviors irrespective of methamphetamine use. Predictors of these two violence-related indicators, in terms of potential correlates from substance use history, criminal history, and health risk domains are examined. Data are from extensive interviews of 350 methamphetamine users who received substance use treatment in a large California county. A majority (56%) perceived that their methamphetamine use resulted in violent behavior; 59% reported specific violent criminal behaviors. For more than half of those reporting violent criminal behavior, this behavior pattern began before methamphetamine initiation. Thus, for a subsample of methamphetamine users, violence may be related to factors other than methamphetamine use. Users' perceptions that their methamphetamine use resulted in violence appears strongest for those with the most severe methamphetamine-related problems, particularly paranoia.

  1. Methamphetamine Use and Violent Behavior: User Perceptions and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the extent to which methamphetamine users perceive that their methamphetamine use has resulted in violent behavior, and describes the level of self-reported prevalence of specific violent criminal behaviors irrespective of methamphetamine use. Predictors of these two violence-related indicators, in terms of potential correlates from substance use history, criminal history, and health risk domains are examined. Data are from extensive interviews of 350 methamphetamine users who received substance use treatment in a large California county. A majority (56%) perceived that their methamphetamine use resulted in violent behavior; 59% reported specific violent criminal behaviors. For more than half of those reporting violent criminal behavior, this behavior pattern began before methamphetamine initiation. Thus, for a subsample of methamphetamine users, violence may be related to factors other than methamphetamine use. Users' perceptions that their methamphetamine use resulted in violence appears strongest for those with the most severe methamphetamine-related problems, particularly paranoia. PMID:26594058

  2. The prevalence of risk factors for general recidivism in female adolescent sexual offenders: a comparison of three subgroups.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E

    2013-09-01

    To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Methamphetamine use can mimic testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael H; Gerscovich, Eugenio O; Corwin, Michael T; Wilkendorf, Stephen R

    2013-09-01

    We report the case of a patient presenting with the classic clinical appearance of testicular torsion. Ultrasound showed testicular ischemia supporting the clinical diagnosis, but the lack of visualization of spermatic cord torsion was of concern. An attempt of clinical detorsion was considered unsuccessful and the patient was explored. No torsion was found. On postoperative review of the patient's medical history, we found methamphetamine use, with a positive urine test at the time of his emergent consultation for the scrotal pain episode. The use of amphetamines has been previously reported as the cause of ischemia of multiple organs, but we could not find previous reports of involvement of the testis mimicking torsion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders: a comparison of the prevalence and impact of risk and protective factors for general recidivism.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E

    2015-10-07

    This study adds to the scarce literature on female adolescent sexual offenders by examining differences between female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk and protective factors for general recidivism. The sample consisted of female adolescents who were convicted for a sexual offense (FSOs; n = 31) or nonsexual violent offense (FNSOs; n = 407), and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment was completed. In FSOs, considerably more protective and fewer risk factors were present than in FNSOs in almost all domains (i.e., school, relationships, family, attitude and aggression). In addition, differences in the impact of risk/protective factors on general recidivism were found. In FSOs, risk/protective factors in the family and aggression domains were especially important, whereas in FNSOs, risk/protective factors in the attitude domain were especially important. The results of this study indicate that treatment programs developed for mainstream female offenders may also be useful for female sexual offenders in reducing general recidivism. Furthermore, the results are of importance for determining the main focus of treatment for both mainstream and sexual female adolescent offenders.

  5. Polydrug use among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico: correlates of methamphetamine use and route of administration by gender.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Melanie L; Lozada, Remedios; Pollini, Robin A; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Case, Patricia; Strathdee, Stefanie A

    2009-09-01

    Tijuana is situated on the Mexico-USA border adjacent to San Diego, CA, on a major drug trafficking route. Increased methamphetamine trafficking in recent years has created a local consumption market. We examined factors associated with methamphetamine use and routes of administration by gender among injection drug users (IDUs). From 2006-2007, IDUs > or =18 years old in Tijuana were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, interviewed, and tested for HIV, syphilis, and TB. Logistic regression was used to assess associations with methamphetamine use (past 6 months), stratified by gender. Among 1,056 participants, methamphetamine use was more commonly reported among females compared to males (80% vs. 68%, p < 0.01), particularly, methamphetamine smoking (57% vs. 34%; p < 0.01). Among females (N = 158), being aged >35 years (AOR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6) was associated with methamphetamine use. Among males (N = 898), being aged >35 years (AOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6), homeless (AOR, 1.4 (0.9-2.2)), and ever reporting sex with another male (MSM; AOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7) were associated with methamphetamine use. Among males, a history of MSM was associated with injection, while sex trade and >2 casual sex partners were associated with multiple routes of administration. HIV was higher among both males and females reporting injection as the only route of methamphetamine administration. Methamphetamine use is highly prevalent among IDUs in Tijuana, especially among females. Routes of administration differed by gender and subgroup which has important implications for tailoring harm reduction interventions and drug abuse treatment.

  6. Live to tell: Narratives of methamphetamine-using women taken hostage by their intimate partners in San Diego, CA

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Lagare, Tiffany; Palinkas, Lawrence; Stockman, Jamila K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hostage-taking, an overlooked phenomenon in public health, constitutes a severe form of intimate partner violence and may be a precursor to female homicide within relationships characterized by substance use. Criminal justice studies indicate that most hostage incidents are male-driven events with more than half of all cases associated with a prior history of violence and substance use. Methamphetamine use increases a woman’s risk of partner violence, with methamphetamine-using individuals being up to nine times more likely to commit homicide. As homicide is the most lethal outcome of partner violence and methamphetamine use, this study aims to characterize the potential role of hostage-taking within these intersecting epidemics. Methods Methamphetamine-using women enrolled in an HIV behavioural intervention trial (FASTLANE-II) who reported experiences of partner violence were purposively selected to participate in qualitative sub-studies (Women’s Study I & II). Twenty-nine women, ages 26–57, participated in semi-structured interviews that discussed relationship dynamics, partner violence, drug use and sexual practices. Results Findings indicated four cases of women being held hostage by a partner, with two women describing two separate hostage experiences. Women discussed partner jealousy, drug withdrawal symptoms, heightened emotional states from methamphetamine use, and escalating violent incidents as factors leading up to hostage-taking. Factors influencing lack of reporting incidents to law enforcement included having a criminal record, fear of partner retaliation, and intentions to terminate the relationship while the partner is incarcerated. Conclusion Educating women on the warning signs of hostage-taking within the context of methamphetamine use and promoting behaviour change among male perpetrators can contribute to reducing the risk of homicide. Furthermore, bridging the gap between health services and law enforcement agencies and

  7. Live to tell: Narratives of methamphetamine-using women taken hostage by their intimate partners in San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Lagare, Tiffany; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K

    2015-09-01

    Hostage-taking, an overlooked phenomenon in public health, constitutes a severe form of intimate partner violence and may be a precursor to female homicide within relationships characterized by substance use. Criminal justice studies indicate that most hostage incidents are male-driven events with more than half of all cases associated with a prior history of violence and substance use. Methamphetamine use increases a woman's risk of partner violence, with methamphetamine-using individuals being up to nine times more likely to commit homicide. As homicide is the most lethal outcome of partner violence and methamphetamine use, this study aims to characterize the potential role of hostage-taking within these intersecting epidemics. Methamphetamine-using women enrolled in an HIV behavioural intervention trial (FASTLANE-II) who reported experiences of partner violence were purposively selected to participate in qualitative sub-studies (Women's Study I & II). Twenty-nine women, ages 26-57, participated in semi-structured interviews that discussed relationship dynamics, partner violence, drug use and sexual practices. Findings indicated four cases of women being held hostage by a partner, with two women describing two separate hostage experiences. Women discussed partner jealousy, drug withdrawal symptoms, heightened emotional states from methamphetamine use, and escalating violent incidents as factors leading up to hostage-taking. Factors influencing lack of reporting incidents to law enforcement included having a criminal record, fear of partner retaliation, and intentions to terminate the relationship when the partner is incarcerated. Educating women on the warning signs of hostage-taking within the context of methamphetamine use and promoting behaviour change among male perpetrators can contribute to reducing the risk of homicide. Furthermore, bridging the gap between health services and law enforcement agencies and providing comprehensive services that address the

  8. The risk of psychotic symptoms associated with recreational methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Hickey, Karina; Devlin, Kristina; Lawrence, Kerri

    2010-07-01

    To determine whether recreational methamphetamine use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic symptoms. A cross-sectional survey of 157 people attending dance events in Sydney, Australia. Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms in the past year using items from the Psychosis Screen. Participants with and without psychotic symptoms were compared on methamphetamine use, polydrug use and other demographic factors. An ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the probability of psychotic symptoms by methamphetamine use and level of polydrug use. Psychotic symptoms in the past year were predicted by methamphetamine use and heavier polydrug use in the past year, and a history of a psychotic disorder (schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar affective disorder). After removing participants with a history of a psychotic disorder (n = 16) and adjusting for polydrug use, methamphetamine use increased the probability of two or more psychotic symptoms (indicative of psychosis risk) from 9% to 21%. There was a non-significant increase in the risk of psychotic symptoms with higher levels of polydrug use. Methamphetamine use was typically monthly or less often (83%), and most users described their use as recreational (85%). Within the context of polydrug use, recreational methamphetamine use is associated with a twofold to threefold increase in the probability of psychotic symptoms.

  9. Counseling Female Offenders and Victims: A Strengths-Restorative Approach. Springer Series on Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wormer, Katherine

    This books considers the many aspects of how the criminal justice system can be reshaped to address the needs of victims of violence and offenders who themselves are often the victims of abuse. It presents a new model that offers an integrated framework to combine tenets of social work's strengths framework with the restorative justice model. It…

  10. Predictors of Offense Severity, Prosecution, Incarceration and Repeat Violations for Adolescent Male and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun

    2006-01-01

    We examined factors predicting severity of first offense, adjudication, incarceration, and repeat offenses for first time juvenile offenders. The sample consisted of 12,468 juveniles, all born in 1985. Each of the juveniles had been assigned to the South Carolina Juvenile Justice System (SCDJJ) on at least one occasion ("referral"). Analysis on…

  11. Counseling Female Offenders and Victims: A Strengths-Restorative Approach. Springer Series on Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wormer, Katherine

    This books considers the many aspects of how the criminal justice system can be reshaped to address the needs of victims of violence and offenders who themselves are often the victims of abuse. It presents a new model that offers an integrated framework to combine tenets of social work's strengths framework with the restorative justice model. It…

  12. Comparisons of Sex Offenders with Non-Offenders on Attitudes Toward Masturbation and Female Fantasy as Related to Participation in Human Sexuality Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…

  13. Comparisons of Sex Offenders with Non-Offenders on Attitudes Toward Masturbation and Female Fantasy as Related to Participation in Human Sexuality Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…

  14. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Eiko; Visrutaratna, Surasing; Maeda, Yuko; Wongchai, Siriporn; Kada, Akiko; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Hayami, Yoko; Kihara, Masahiro

    2009-05-15

    The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548). In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7%) of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand.

  15. The differences between sex offenders who victimise older women and sex offenders who offend against children.

    PubMed

    Browne, K D; Hines, Morag; Tully, Ruth J

    2016-07-01

    Within the literature on sex offending, much attention is paid to the distinction between those sex offenders who offend against adults and those who offend against children. In contrast, there is a paucity of research into sex offenders who offend specifically against elderly or older victims. A detailed interview and psychometric tests were conducted with a sample of 28 sex offenders who had been convicted of a sexually motivated offence against an older female. These data were compared to a sample of 23 child sex offenders. Results indicate that amongst other significant differences between these sub-groups, men who offend against older women are generally younger, are more violent, and are more likely to use a weapon and cause injury and death compared to child sex offenders. The men who offended against children were more likely to think about and plan their offending, spend more time with the victim pre and post offence, admit sexual arousal during the offence, and admit to a sexual motivation for the offence. This study suggests that men who sexually offend against older women and men who sexually offend against children are distinct groups. Treatment and risk management strategies should take this into account. Further exploration of this sub-group of offenders is recommended to help inform treatment and risk management strategies for sex offenders who offend against older people.

  16. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Marja E.; Vitale, Jennifer E.; Curtin, John J.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity. PMID:22886692

  17. Predicting recidivism with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) in community-supervised male and female federal offenders.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T

    2016-06-01

    Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders.

    PubMed

    Anton, Marja E; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity.

  19. Indicators of Methamphetamine Use and Abuse in San Diego County, California: 2001–2005†

    PubMed Central

    Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    San Diego County, California, is a major distribution center for methamphetamine entering the U.S. from Mexico. All available indicators suggest that the use and abuse of methamphetamine increased between 2001 and 2005. Drug treatment admissions for primary methamphetamine use accounted for 49% of all drug treatment admissions in 2005, up from 37% in 2001, with trends showing smaller proportions of female and Hispanic users and a larger proportion of methamphetamine smokers (vs. inhalation or injection). Increases in prevalence of methamphetamine use were documented among arrestees as well; by 2005, 51% of female and 21% of juvenile arrestees tested positive for methamphetamine The proportion of emergency department visits involving illicit drugs in which methamphetamine was reported increased from 32% in 2004 to 40% in 2005, although this change was not statistically significant, and methamphetamine-related deaths increased 48% between 2001 and 2005. Data from non-federal drug seizures in San Diego County documented an increase from 21 % of all drug items analyzed in 2001 to 32% in 2005 In summary, methamphetamine remains the drug of utmost concern in San Diego. The availability of multiple data sources is imperative for constructing valid characterizations of trends in methamphetamine use and abuse and its affect on health. PMID:18284098

  20. Methamphetamine use in nonurban and urban drug court clients.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Tindall, Michele Staton; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Leukefeld, Carl

    2005-06-01

    Population-based surveys suggest that methamphetamine use and abuse may be rising in the United States. However, little is known about methamphetamine use in eastern sections of the United States, particularly nonurban areas. The purpose of the present study was (a) to explore reported methamphetamine use and its correlates among Kentucky drug court clients and(b) to determine whether differences exist between methamphetamine users by drug court location. Of the 500 drug court clients surveyed, approximately 32% n=161) reported lifetime methamphetamine use. Methamphetamine users and nonusers differed in their drug-use profiles, self-reported criminal history, and number of criminal offenses. Nonurban and urban methamphetamine users differed in their drug-use profiles, psychological functioning, self-reported criminal history, and number of criminal offenses. These results suggest that differences exist between these populations and clinicians, and criminal justice officials may need to consider these differences when planning treatment and rehabilitation strategies.

  1. The impact of reality therapy on self-efficacy for substance-involved female offenders in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Law, Fang Mei; Guo, Gwo Jen

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to fulfill a twofold purpose. First, a 12-session reality therapy drug treatment program to enhance substance-involved females' self-efficacy in three aspects, which have been demonstrated to be essential to recovery, was designed and implemented. Second, to test the effectiveness of the treatment program, the Index of Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale was developed and validated using Principal Component Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The participants in the drug treatment program were 40 incarcerated substance-involved female offenders, who were randomly assigned to equal-sized experimental and control groups. The results of the study, obtained by ANCOVA analysis, showed significant differences in the post-test scores for sense of self-efficacy in decision making, action-planning, and coping and social skills for the members of the two groups.

  2. The profile of psychiatric symptoms exacerbated by methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Dawe, Sharon; Burns, Richard A; Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David J; Teesson, Maree; McD Young, Ross; Voce, Alexandra; Saunders, John B

    2016-04-01

    Methamphetamine use can produce symptoms almost indistinguishable from schizophrenia. Distinguishing between the two conditions has been hampered by the lack of a validated symptom profile for methamphetamine-induced psychiatric symptoms. We use data from a longitudinal cohort study to examine the profile of psychiatric symptoms that are acutely exacerbated by methamphetamine use. 164 methamphetamine users, who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for a lifetime primary psychotic disorder, were followed monthly for one year to assess the relationship between days of methamphetamine use and symptom severity on the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms with methamphetamine use was quantified using random coefficient models. The dimensions of symptom exacerbation were examined using principal axis factoring and a latent profile analysis. Symptoms exacerbated by methamphetamine loaded on three factors: positive psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, unusual thought content, hallucinations, bizarre behavior); affective symptoms (depression, suicidality, guilt, hostility, somatic concern, self-neglect); and psychomotor symptoms (tension, excitement, distractibility, motor hyperactivity). Methamphetamine use did not significantly increase negative symptoms. Vulnerability to positive psychotic and affective symptom exacerbation was shared by 28% of participants, and this vulnerability aligned with a past year DSM-IV diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis (38% vs. 22%, χ(2)(df1)=3.66, p=0.056). Methamphetamine use produced a symptom profile comprised of positive psychotic and affective symptoms, which aligned with a diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis, with no evidence of a negative syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health and social harms associated with crystal methamphetamine use among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Sasha; DeBeck, Kora; Simo, Annick; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent increases in crystal methamphetamine use among high-risk populations such as street-involved youth, few prospective studies have examined the health and social outcomes associated with active crystal methamphetamine use. We enrolled 1,019 street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada, in a prospective cohort known as the at-risk youth study (ARYS). Participants were assessed semi-annually and a generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with active crystal methamphetamine use. Among 1,019 participants recruited into ARYS between 2005 and 2012 the median follow up duration was 17 months, 320 (31.4%) participants were female and 454 (44.6%) had previously used crystal methamphetamine at baseline. In adjusted GEE analyses, active crystal methamphetamine use was independently associated with Caucasian ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.81), homelessness (AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.15-1.56), injection drug use (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 2.76-4.19), non-fatal overdose (AOR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.07-2.00), being a victim of violence (AOR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02-1.38), involvement in sex work (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03-1.86), and drug dealing (AOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.35-1.90). Prevalence of crystal methamphetamine use was high in this setting and active use was independently associated with a range of serious health and social harms. Evidence-based strategies to prevent and treat crystal methamphetamine use are urgently needed. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. HEALTH AND SOCIAL HARMS ASSOCIATED WITH CRYSTAL METHAMPHETAMINE USE AMONG STREET-INVOLVED YOUTH IN A CANADIAN SETTING

    PubMed Central

    Uhlmann, Sasha; DeBeck, Kora; Simo, Annick; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Wood, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Despite recent increases in crystal methamphetamine use among high-risk populations such as street-involved youth, few prospective studies have examined the health and social outcomes associated with active crystal methamphetamine use. Methods We enrolled 1,019 street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada, in a prospective cohort known as the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS). Participants were assessed semi-annually and a generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with active crystal methamphetamine use. Results Among 1,019 participants recruited into ARYS between 2005 and 2012 the median follow up duration was 17 months, 320 (31.4%) participants were female and 454 (44.6%) had previously used crystal methamphetamine at baseline. In adjusted GEE analyses, active crystal methamphetamine use was independently associated with Caucasian ethnicity (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.37; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.04 – 1.81), homelessness (AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.15 – 1.56), injection drug use (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 2.76 – 4.19), non-fatal overdose (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.07 – 2.00), being a victim of violence (AOR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.38), involvement in sex work (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03 – 1.86) and drug dealing (AOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.35 – 1.90). Discussion and conclusions Prevalence of crystal methamphetamine use was high in this setting and active use was independently associated with a range of serious health and social harms. Scientific Significance Evidence-based strategies to prevent and treat crystal methamphetamine use are urgently needed. PMID:24628742

  5. Effects of Hurricane Katrina and Other Adverse Life Events on Adolescent Female Offenders: A Test of General Strain Theory

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela R.; Stein, Judith A.; Schaefer-Rohleder, Lacey

    2011-01-01

    This study tested Agnew’s General Strain Theory (GST) by examining the roles of anger, anxiety, and maladaptive coping in mediating the relationship between strain and three outcomes (serious delinquency, minor delinquency, and continued involvement in the juvenile justice system) among adolescent female offenders (N = 261). Strains consisted of adverse life events and exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Greater exposure to Hurricane Katrina was directly related to serious delinquency and maladaptive coping. Hurricane Katrina also had an indirect effect on minor delinquency and Post–Katrina juvenile justice involvement mediated through maladaptive coping. Adverse life events were associated with increased anger, anxiety, and maladaptive coping. Anger mediated the relationship between adverse life events and serious delinquency. Anxiety mediated the relationship between adverse life events and minor delinquency. Maladaptive coping strategies were associated with minor delinquency and juvenile justice involvement. Findings lend support to GST. PMID:21572904

  6. Racial Differences in HIV/AIDS Discussion Strategies and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Drug Abusing Female Criminal Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Havens, Jennifer R.; Mooney, Jennifer L.; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Knudsen, Hannah K.; Duvall, Jamieson L.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2009-01-01

    African American female inmates are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), with heterosexual contact as the primary mode of transmission. This could be the result of racial differences in the strategies used by women to persuade a potential sexual partner to discuss AIDS and engage in condom use. Data were collected from 336 female inmates in three correctional institutions as part of the Reducing Risky Relationships for HIV (RRR-HIV) protocol within the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) cooperative agreement. Bivariate analyses indicated that African American drug using women were more likely than Whites to use the rational, withdrawal, and persistence approaches to discuss AIDS with an intimate sexual partner. Negative binomial regression models were used to identify which interpersonal discussion strategies were significant correlates of the number of the times White participants and African American participants had unprotected vaginal sex in the 30 days prior to incarceration. Results from the multivariate model indicate that White women who are more likely to use the rational discussion strategy were 15% less likely to engage in vaginal sex without a condom; however, these findings were not replicated in the African American sample. Findings add to the literature on racial differences in HIV/AIDS discussion strategies and sexual risk behaviors among drug abusing female criminal offenders. PMID:19283952

  7. School-related factors affecting high school seniors' methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jarrod M; Lo, Celia C

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The results confirmed that likelihood of such use was higher when social bonding factors were weak and social learning factors were strong. Results also showed the social bonds' impact to be mediated by social learning factors. Policy implications are discussed briefly.

  8. Trends in methamphetamine use in young injection drug users in San Francisco from 1998 to 2004: the UFO Study.

    PubMed

    Inglez-Dias, Aline; Hahn, Judith A; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer; Davidson, Peter; Page-Shafer, Kimberly

    2008-05-01

    To describe temporal trends in methamphetamine use among young injection drug users (IDU) in San Francisco. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data collected for a longitudinal study of young IDU from 1998 to 2004. Participants were 1445 young IDU (<30 years old) who reported injection in the previous month, English-speaking, and recruited by street outreach methods. We examined trends for: lifetime (ever) and recent (30-day) methamphetamine use, including injected and non-injected, and by age group and sexual risk behaviour [men who have sex with men injecting drug users (MSM-IDU), male IDU (non-MSM) and female IDU]. In 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2004 we interviewed 237, 276, 431, 310, 147 and 44 participants, respectively. Overall, median age was 22 years [interquartile range (IQR) 20-25], 30.3% were women and median duration of injecting was 4.4 years (IQR 2-7). Prevalence of methamphetamine use was high, with 50.1% reporting recent injection, but overall there were no temporal increases in reported 'ever' injected use. Recent methamphetamine injection (past 30 days) increased significantly, and peaked at 60% in 2003. MSM-IDU had higher methamphetamine injection ever (92.3%) and recently (59.5%) compared to heterosexual male (non-MSM) IDU (81.6% and 47.3%, respectively) and to female IDU (78.4% and 46.1%, respectively). Despite reports of ubiquitous increases in methamphetamine use, there were no significant increases in 6 years in ever injecting methamphetamine overall among young IDU. MSM-IDU who reported the highest methamphetamine use overall reported some increases in recent injected use. The methamphetamine 'epidemic' was probably under way among young IDU earlier than other populations.

  9. Trends in methamphetamine use in young injection drug users in San Francisco from 1998 to 2004: the UFO Study

    PubMed Central

    Inglez-Dias, Aline; Hahn, Judith A.; Lum, Paula J.; Evans, Jennifer; Davidson, Peter; Page-Shafer, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Aims To describe temporal trends in methamphetamine use among young injection drug users (IDU) in San Francisco. Design and Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data collected for a longitudinal study of young IDU from 1998 to 2004. Participants were 1445 young IDU (< 30 years old) who reported injection in the previous month, English-speaking, and recruited by street outreach methods. We examined trends for: lifetime (ever) and recent (30-day) methamphetamine use, including injected and non-injected, and by age group and sexual risk behaviour [men who have sex with men injecting drug users (MSM-IDU), male IDU (non-MSM) and female IDU]. Results In 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2004 we interviewed 237, 276, 431, 310, 147 and 44 participants, respectively. Overall, median age was 22 years [interquartile range (IQR) 20 – 25], 30.3% were women and median duration of injecting was 4.4 years (IQR 2 – 7). Prevalence of methamphetamine use was high, with 50.1% reporting recent injection, but overall there were no temporal increases in reported ‘ever’ injected use. Recent methamphetamine injection (past 30 days) increased significantly, and peaked at 60% in 2003. MSM-IDU had higher methamphetamine injection ever (92.3%) and recently (59.5%) compared to heterosexual male (non-MSM) IDU (81.6% and 47.3%, respectively) and to female IDU (78.4% and 46.1%, respectively). Conclusions Despite reports of ubiquitous increases in methamphetamine use, there were no significant increases in 6 years in ever injecting methamphetamine overall among young IDU. MSM-IDU who reported the highest methamphetamine use overall reported some increases in recent injected use. The methamphetamine ‘epidemic’ was probably under way among young IDU earlier than other populations. PMID:18368610

  10. The occurrence of female-to-male partner violence among male intimate partner violence offenders mandated to treatment: a brief research report.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Mandel, Dolores L; Easton, Caroline J

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the perceived perpetration of female-to-male intimate partner violence by victims of male offenders mandated to treatment. Sixty-eight male perpetrators of partner violence completed measures of dyadic violent and aggressive responding at intake and at a 12-week follow-up. Approximately 20% of male offenders reported partner violence perpetration and 30% reported victimization with bidirectional violence as the most common configuration of couple violence. Maladaptive responses to conflict were prevalent across partners. Significant and highly correlated reductions in aversive behaviors were detected across the assessment period for both males and their female partners. Results are interpreted within the context of motivational models of female-to-male partner violence and current treatment approaches.

  11. The Occurrence of Female-to-Male Partner Violence Among Male Intimate Partner Violence Offenders Mandated to Treatment: A Brief Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the perceived perpetration of female-to-male intimate partner violence by victims of male offenders mandated to treatment. Sixty-eight male perpetrators of partner violence completed measures of dyadic violent and aggressive responding at intake and at a 12 week follow-up. Approximately 20% of male offenders reported partner violence perpetration and 30% reported victimization with bi-directional violence as the most common configuration of couple violence. Maladaptive responses to conflict were prevalent across partners. Significant and highly correlated reductions in aversive behaviors were detected across the assessment period for both males and their female partners. Results are interpreted within the context of motivational models of female-to-male partner violence and current treatment approaches. PMID:25750479

  12. Female DUI offenders: a comparison to male counterparts and an examination of the effects of intervention on women's recidivism rates.

    PubMed

    Wells-Parker, E; Pang, M G; Anderson, B J; McMillen, D L; Miller, D I

    1991-03-01

    Female DUI offenders who participated in a controlled, random assignment DUI intervention study, the Mississippi DUI Probation Follow-Up Project, were compared to their male counterparts on demographic, drinker status and recidivism variables. In comparison to men, women in the project were less likely to be married, more likely to be between 30 and 50 years of age, less likely to have less than a 9th grade education, less likely to be screened as a high-problem-risk drinker, less likely to have prior DUI and public drunkenness arrests and less likely to recidivate. The effects of short-term rehabilitation, 1 year's probation and administration of the Life Activities Inventory-Current Status Questionnaire (LAI-CSQ) on the long-term recidivism rates of women were examined. The analysis for screened low-problem-risk women was inconclusive due to lack of statistical power. However, the repeated administration of the LAI-CSQ was detrimental for screened high-problem-risk women and tended to be detrimental for women with fewer than 12 years of education. Implications for intervening with female DUIs are discussed.

  13. Mental Health Screening of Female Juvenile Offenders: Replication of a Subtyping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruise, Keith R.; Marsee, Monica A.; Dandreaux, Danielle M.; DePrato, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research indicates that adjudicated female youth have higher rates of mental health problems and histories of trauma exposure and abuse relative to adjudicated male youth. These differences are important for gender-specific assessment, intervention, and management strategies. We replicated a subtyping strategy for adjudicated female youth…

  14. Mental Health Screening of Female Juvenile Offenders: Replication of a Subtyping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruise, Keith R.; Marsee, Monica A.; Dandreaux, Danielle M.; DePrato, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research indicates that adjudicated female youth have higher rates of mental health problems and histories of trauma exposure and abuse relative to adjudicated male youth. These differences are important for gender-specific assessment, intervention, and management strategies. We replicated a subtyping strategy for adjudicated female youth…

  15. Heterogeneity in the association between social-emotional adjustment profiles and deviant behavior among male and female serious juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Broidy, Lisa; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul

    2004-04-01

    This article examines the relation among gender, social-emotional adjustment, and deviant behavior among serious juvenile offenders. A sample of 105 adolescent offenders completed questionnaires assessing social-emotional characteristics and self-reported involvement in deviant behaviors. Results indicate significant associations between distress and restraint in predicting deviance, a finding that was invariant across gender. Analysis of four distinct social-emotional profiles found that membership in the reactive group was associated with the greatest amount of deviant behavior. Results also indicate that not only do serious offending girls internalize more than serious offending boys, they appear equally likely to externalize. However, although boys exhibit less distress than girls, those boys who report high rates of deviance may exhibit internalizing and externalizing problems similar to girls. The use of social-emotional measures in general, and distinct profiles in particular, may aid in targeting specific programming and treatment in an effort to provide offenders with more effective interventions.

  16. Female Offenders, HIV Peer Programs, and Attachment: The Importance of Prison-Based Civilian Staff in Creating Opportunities to Cultivate Prosocial Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Collica-Cox, Kimberly

    2016-05-23

    As women commit to a conventional lifestyle, the bond of attachment becomes a fundamental component in sustaining the desistance process. If weak attachments in the community cannot be replaced or enhanced with the cultivation of strong conventional attachments while incarcerated, female offenders will leave prison without a supportive network. Strong social networks and a high level of social capital are essential for female offenders to reintegrate successfully; if social bonds are constructed before release, there is a greater chance of maintaining a crime-free lifestyle. One way to cultivate strong bonds of attachment during incarceration is through prison-based programming. This qualitative study, based on the narratives of 49 female offenders, examines the potential for inmates to form prosocial attachments with staff in two HIV prison-based peer programs in New York State. Strong attachments were formed between the inmates and civilian staff during incarceration, maintained upon release, and served to reinforce the establishment of bourgeoning conventional identities. The dedication and commitment of the civilian staff, and the support they provided to the inmates, was essential to achieving both rehabilitative and reintegrative goals.

  17. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  18. Female Offenders and Their Guards: A Programme to Promote Moral and Ego Development of Both Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Robert E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a study focusing on a program of dilemma discussion methods for an experimental group of female prisoners and their guards. Concludes that for both the prisoners and staff test scores reflect an increase in moral judgment and ego development. Urges consideration of prison reform from educational and developmental perspectives.…

  19. Psychopathy and Suicidality in Female Offenders: Mediating Influences of Personality and Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verona, Edelyn; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of personality and childhood abuse on suicidal behaviors and psychopathy was examined among female prisoners. Scores on the affective/interpersonal component (Factor 1; F1) and the antisocial deviance (Factor 2; F2) component of psychopathy were obtained from the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (R. D. Hare, 1991). Suicide attempt and…

  20. Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders: School, Community, and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberly Lee

    2010-01-01

    Problem. The number of delinquent female youth across the country is on the rise (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007). These young women present unique challenges for their schools, communities, and homes. A Midwest suburb created a diversion program, a Youth Justice Initiative, to address the entire family system of the youth who were committing…

  1. Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders: School, Community, and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberly Lee

    2010-01-01

    Problem. The number of delinquent female youth across the country is on the rise (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007). These young women present unique challenges for their schools, communities, and homes. A Midwest suburb created a diversion program, a Youth Justice Initiative, to address the entire family system of the youth who were committing…

  2. Examining relations between psychopathology and psychopathy dimensions among adolescent female and male offenders.

    PubMed

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Krischer, Maya K

    2009-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate relations between psychopathology and psychopathy in adolescent female and male detainees. We examined 91 male and 123 female adolescent detainees (aged 14-19) for psychopathology -using the Youth Self Report, the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified and a Conduct Disorder Self Report Scale- and for psychopathic dimensions using the psychopathy checklist youth version (PCL:YV). Based on a linear regression analysis we compared the specific associations between psychopathology and psychopathy in both male and female delinquent juveniles. Our results revealed higher scores for externalizing behavior and psychopathic dimensions in delinquent males, and higher internalizing problem scores in delinquent females. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between suicidal behavior and the psychopathy total score as well as the affective, the lifestyle and the antisocial dimension only in girls. No association was found for suicidal behavior in boys. Regarding anxious-depressive behavior, we found a negative relation to the psychopathy total score and to the affective psychopathy factor for the boys. Expectedly, the population of incarcerated adolescents exhibited a high prevalence of psychopathology. At the same time our results referred to meaningful gender-related differences with respect to associations with psychopathy. The gender-related differences in psychopathological symptoms could indicate varied subtypes of psychopathy in boys and girls.

  3. Methamphetamine use among rural White and Native American adolescents: an application of the stress process model.

    PubMed

    Eitle, David J; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering factors associated with methamphetamine use among a cross-sectional sample of rural White and Native American adolescents (n = 573). Results of logistic regression analyses revealed mixed support for the stress process model; while stress exposure and family methamphetamine use predicted past year methamphetamine use, the inclusion of these variables failed to attenuate the association between race and past year use.

  4. The Impact of Age, HIV Serostatus and Seroconversion on Methamphetamine Use

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Jessica L.; Cattie, Jordan; Morgan, Erin; Woods, Steven Paul; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterizing methamphetamine use in relation to age, HIV serostatus and seroconversion is pertinent given the increasingly older age of the population with HIV and the intertwined epidemics of methamphetamine use and HIV. Objectives Study aims were to investigate whether 1) methamphetamine use differs by age and HIV serostatus and 2) receiving an HIV diagnosis impacts methamphetamine use among younger and older persons with HIV. Methods This study examined methamphetamine use characteristics among 217 individuals with a lifetime methamphetamine dependence diagnosis who completed an in-person study assessment. Results Multivariable regressions revealed that HIV serostatus uniquely attenuates methamphetamine use, such that persons with HIV report a smaller cumulative quantity (β = −.16, p = .01) and a fewer number of days (β = −.18, p = .004) of methamphetamine use than persons without HIV. Among the HIV+ sample, all participants persisted in methamphetamine use after receiving an HIV diagnosis, with about 20% initiating use after seroconversion. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that density of methamphetamine use (i.e., grams per day used) was greater among the younger, relative to the older, HIV+ group (p = .02), and increased for both age groups following seroconversion (p < .001). Conclusion These analyses indicate that although HIV serostatus may attenuate methamphetamine use behaviors, many people with HIV initiate, or persist in, methamphetamine use after receiving an HIV diagnosis. These findings raise the question of whether tailoring of prevention and intervention strategies might reduce the impact of methamphetamine and HIV across the age continuum. PMID:26837461

  5. The impact of age, HIV serostatus and seroconversion on methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jessica L; Cattie, Jordan; Morgan, Erin; Woods, Steven Paul; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Characterizing methamphetamine use in relation to age, HIV serostatus and seroconversion is pertinent given the increasingly older age of the population with HIV and the intertwined epidemics of methamphetamine use and HIV. Study aims were to investigate whether (i) methamphetamine use differs by age and HIV serostatus, and (ii) receiving an HIV diagnosis impacts methamphetamine use among younger and older persons with HIV. This study examined methamphetamine use characteristics among 217 individuals with a lifetime methamphetamine dependence diagnosis who completed an in-person study assessment. Multivariable regressions revealed that HIV serostatus uniquely attenuates methamphetamine use, such that persons with HIV report a smaller cumulative quantity (β = -0.16, p = 0.01) and a fewer number of days (β = -0.18, p = 0.004) of methamphetamine use than persons without HIV. Among the HIV+ sample, all participants persisted in methamphetamine use after receiving an HIV diagnosis, with about 20% initiating use after seroconversion. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that density of methamphetamine use (i.e. grams per day used) was greater among the younger, relative to the older, HIV+ group (p = 0.02), and increased for both age groups following seroconversion (p < 0.001). These analyses indicate that although HIV serostatus may attenuate methamphetamine use behaviors, many people with HIV initiate, or persist in, methamphetamine use after receiving an HIV diagnosis. These findings raise the question of whether tailoring of prevention and intervention strategies might reduce the impact of methamphetamine and HIV across the age continuum.

  6. Methamphetamine use in urban gay and bisexual populations.

    PubMed

    Shoptaw, Steven

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that the use of methamphetamine is 5- to 10-times more common in urban gay and bisexual men than in the general US population. Given its effects in stimulating energy, confidence, and libido, as well as its relative inexpensiveness, the drug can efficiently address serious problems in functioning among HIV-infected men, who may suffer significant symptoms of depression or fatigue associated with chronic illness and HIV-related drug treatments. Long-term methamphetamine use is associated with physical, psychologic, and social adverse effects. Increased use of the drug associates with more frequent sexual risk behaviors and increased risks for HIV transmission. Behavioral therapies, notably the approach of contingency management, are being investigated for reducing methamphetamine use and risk behaviors in the urban gay population.

  7. Methamphetamine use and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adam L; Shuler, Carrie; McAllister, Sigrid; Fosheim, Gregory E; Brown, Michael G; Abercrombie, Debra; Anderson, Karen; McDougal, Linda K; Drenzek, Cherie; Arnold, Katie; Jernigan, Daniel; Gorwitz, Rachel

    2007-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and methamphetamine use are emerging public health problems. We conducted a case-control investigation to determine risk factors for MRSA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in residents of a largely rural southeastern community in the United States. Case-patients were persons >12 years old who had culturable SSTIs; controls had no SSTIs. Of 119 SSTIs identified, 81 (68.1%) were caused by MRSA. Methamphetamine use was reported in 9.9% of case-patients and 1.8% of controls. After we adjusted for age, sex, and race, patients with MRSA SSTIs were more likely than controls to have recently used methamphetamine (odds ratio 5.10, 95% confidence interval 1.55-16.79). MRSA caused most SSTIs in this population. Transmission of MRSA may be occurring among methamphetamine users in this community.

  8. Methamphetamine Use and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections

    PubMed Central

    Shuler, Carrie; McAllister, Sigrid; Fosheim, Gregory E.; Brown, Michael G.; Abercrombie, Debra; Anderson, Karen; McDougal, Linda K.; Drenzek, Cherie; Arnold, Katie; Jernigan, Daniel; Gorwitz, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and methamphetamine use are emerging public health problems. We conducted a case–control investigation to determine risk factors for MRSA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in residents of a largely rural southeastern community in the United States. Case-patients were persons >12 years old who had culturable SSTIs; controls had no SSTIs. Of 119 SSTIs identified, 81 (68.1%) were caused by MRSA. Methamphetamine use was reported in 9.9% of case-patients and 1.8% of controls. After we adjusted for age, sex, and race, patients with MRSA SSTIs were more likely than controls to have recently used methamphetamine (odds ratio 5.10, 95% confidence interval 1.55–16.79). MRSA caused most SSTIs in this population. Transmission of MRSA may be occurring among methamphetamine users in this community. PMID:18217555

  9. Adolescent methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in secondary school students in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Plüddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Carney, Tara; Lombard, Carl

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated involvement in substance use and sexual activities among adolescents in Cape Town, and specifically the associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviours. Data were collected from 15 randomly selected and 15 matched schools in Cape Town via quantitative questionnaires. Students used hand-held computers (PDAs) to answer the questions. A total of 4605 grade 9 students were sampled. Male and female students were almost equally likely to have used methamphetamine at least once (13% versus 12%). Students who had used methamphetamine in the past 30 days were significantly more likely to have had vaginal, anal or oral sex than students who had never used it, to have been pregnant/been responsible for a pregnancy and to have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression analysis indicated significant associations between methamphetamine use in the past 12 months and engaging in vaginal and anal sex. Drug abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention services should incorporate the link between drugs and STI into their prevention and education strategies, especially those aimed at school-going adolescents.

  10. Youth Transitions: From Offending to Desistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Monica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines youth transitions and youth offending in tandem. It argues that the transition to adulthood is heavily implicated in the fact that most offending occurs in the youth phase. Drawing on a study of 20 male and 20 female persistent young offenders in Scotland, it explores young people's desire for integration with others in the…

  11. Initiation into methamphetamine use for young gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Kelly, Brian C; Weiser, Jonathan D

    2007-10-08

    Research over the past 10 years has suggested that methamphetamine use has become a significant problem and is associated with risky sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. In order to better understand initiation into methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men, qualitative analyses were performed on a sample of young gay and bisexual men (ages 18-29) in New York City. Participants were recruited as part of a larger study which used time-space sampling to enroll club-going young adults who indicated recent club drug (ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, methamphetamine, cocaine, and/or LSD) use. The data for this paper are derived from the qualitative interviews of 54 gay and bisexual male methamphetamine users. At initiation (1) methamphetamine was used in a social, non-sexual setting for a majority of the participants; (2) participants expressed limited knowledge of methamphetamine; and (3) many participants used cocaine as a basis for comparison when describing various effects of the drug. The understanding that at initiation methamphetamine was not solely used as a sexual enhancement for members of this community may enable health workers to more accurately target potential users when putting forth intervention efforts. Future research should aim to gain a better understanding into the role that methamphetamine plays in non-sexual contexts, particularly among gay and bisexual men who may not be part of the club "scene." The relationship between attitudes towards methamphetamine and other drugs, particularly cocaine, among gay and bisexual men should be explored.

  12. The association of methamphetamine use and cardiomyopathy in young patients.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Khung-Keong; Wijetunga, Mevan; Ito, Hiroki; Efird, Jimmy T; Tay, Kevin; Seto, Todd B; Alimineti, Kavitha; Kimata, Chieko; Schatz, Irwin J

    2007-02-01

    Methamphetamine is the most widespread illegally used stimulant in the United States. Previously published case reports and series suggest a potential association between methamphetamine exposure and cardiomyopathy. The objective of this study is to demonstrate an association between methamphetamine use and cardiomyopathy. Case-control study based on chart review of discharges from a tertiary care medical center from January 2001 to June 2004. Patients were < or =45 years old. Cases included patients with a discharge diagnosis of either cardiomyopathy or heart failure. Controls included hospitalized patients who had an echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function with ejection fraction > or =55% and no wall motion abnormalities. One hundred and seven cases and 114 controls were identified. Both groups had similar gender distribution, length of hospital stay, rates of health insurance, prevalence of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, and marijuana and cocaine use. Cases were older than controls (mean age: 38 vs 35 years; P=.008), had higher body mass index (BMI) (mean BMI: 37 vs 30 kg/m2; P<.001), and higher prevalence of renal failure (13% vs 4.4%; P=.03). Methamphetamine users had a 3.7-fold increased odds ratio [95% confidence interval, 1.8-7.8] for cardiomyopathy, adjusting for age, body mass index, and renal failure. Methamphetamine use was associated with cardiomyopathy in young patients.

  13. Methamphetamine Use Is Independently Associated with Recent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Adolescent Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…

  14. Combating Methamphetamine Use in the Community: The Efficacy of the Drug Court Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle; Hartman, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine use was historically a problem facing Western states; however, in recent years it has methodically spread throughout the nation. Methamphetamine use impacts communities, families, and the criminal justice system in a variety of ways. As such, many jurisdictions are developing policies to reduce the sale and consumption of this drug…

  15. Methamphetamine Use Is Independently Associated with Recent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Adolescent Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…

  16. Methamphetamine Use among Rural White and Native American Adolescents: An Application of the Stress Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitle, David J.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering…

  17. Methamphetamine Use among Rural White and Native American Adolescents: An Application of the Stress Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitle, David J.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering…

  18. Combating Methamphetamine Use in the Community: The Efficacy of the Drug Court Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle; Hartman, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine use was historically a problem facing Western states; however, in recent years it has methodically spread throughout the nation. Methamphetamine use impacts communities, families, and the criminal justice system in a variety of ways. As such, many jurisdictions are developing policies to reduce the sale and consumption of this drug…

  19. Contextualizing gender differences and methamphetamine use with HIV prevalence within a South African community.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Myers, Bronwyn; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Emanuel, Andrea; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy L; Zule, William A

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted in a large Black African township outside of Cape Town, South Africa, where HIV infection has been endemic at extremely high levels for years. Problems associated with high HIV prevalence are compounded by gender inequality and high rates of gender-based violence exacerbated by heavy alcohol use and increasing methamphetamine use. Informal drinking establishments (known as shebeens) were geocoded and mapped. Based on visual examination, we identified 36 neighbourhoods, each of which contained between three to seven drinking venues clustered together. Neighbourhoods were separated from each other by at least 200m. We randomly selected 30 of the 36 neighbourhoods. Outreach workers screened males in shebeens and screened their female partners. This analysis includes 580 study participants recruited from 30 neighbourhoods between 2010 and 2012. All participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included individual-level, couple-level, and neighbourhood-level measures of alcohol and other drug use, HIV infection, and HIV risk behaviours. Multilevel fixed effects regression analyses stratified by gender were conducted to examine correlates of HIV infection. Women were twice as likely as men to be HIV infected, yet they reported fewer sex partners. Neighbourhood prevalence of HIV was correlated with greater likelihood of HIV infection among women, but not men. Neighbourhood methamphetamine use was marginally associated with HIV among women but not among men. At the individual level, heavy alcohol use was marginally associated with HIV infection among men but not among women. Having an HIV positive partner was the strongest correlate of being HIV positive among both men and women. Findings from this study underscore the need for policy makers to direct scarce resources to the communities, places within communities, and populations, especially vulnerable women, where the impact on HIV prevention and onward transmission will be greatest

  20. Contextualizing Gender Differences and Methamphetamine Use with HIV Prevalence within a South African Community

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Doherty, Irene A.; Myers, Bronwyn; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Emanuel, Andrea; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy L.; Zule, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted in a large Black African township outside of Cape Town, South Africa, where HIV infection has been endemic at extremely high levels for years. Problems associated with high HIV prevalence are compounded by gender inequality and high rates of gender-based violence exacerbated by heavy alcohol use and increasing methamphetamine use. Methods Informal drinking establishments (known as shebeens) were geocoded and mapped. Based on visual examination, we identified 36 neighborhoods, each of which contained between three to seven drinking venues clustered together. Neighborhoods were separated from each other by at least 200 meters. We randomly selected 30 of the 36 neighborhoods. Outreach workers screened males in shebeens and screened their female partners. This analysis includes 580 study participants recruited from 30 neighborhoods between 2010 and 2012. All participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included individual-level, couple-level, and neighborhood-level measures of alcohol and other drug use, HIV infection, and HIV risk behaviors. Multilevel fixed effects regression analyses stratified by gender were conducted to examine correlates of HIV infection. Results Women were twice as likely as men to be HIV infected, yet they reported fewer sex partners. Neighborhood prevalence of HIV was correlated with greater likelihood of HIV infection among women, but not men. Neighborhood methamphetamine use was marginally associated with HIV among women but not among men. At the individual level, heavy alcohol use was marginally associated with HIV infection among men but not among women. Having an HIV positive partner was the strongest correlate of being HIV positive among both men and women. Conclusion Findings from this study underscore the need for policy makers to direct scarce resources to the communities, places within communities, and populations, especially vulnerable women, where the impact on HIV prevention and onward

  1. Injury associated with methamphetamine use: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Janie; Bennett, Sara; Coggan, Carolyn; Wheeler, Amanda; McMillan, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sources described cases and others described injury risk as part of an overall review of methamphetamine misuse. Thus, a number of limitations and potential biases exist within the literature. The main areas where associations were noted or extrapolated with methamphetamine use and injury were around driving and violence. Other associations with injury related to methamphetamine manufacture. There was also circumstantial evidence for third party injury (that is injury to those not specifically involved in drug use or drug manufacture); however, the available data are inadequate to confirm these associations/risks. PMID:16571134

  2. Changes over time in homicides by women: a register-based study comparing female offenders from 1982 to 1992 and 1993 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Lindberg, Nina; Rovamo, Tuija; Häkkänen, Helinä

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of women to violent offending, including homicide, may be increasing as society changes. The aim of this paper was to test for trends in homicide by women in Finland. A retrospective register-based study was conducted by comparing two national cohorts: one from 1982 to 1992 and the other from 1993 to 2005. There was a small increase in the proportion of homicides committed by women over time, but the most striking difference between the cohorts was in the significantly higher frequency of alcohol abuse/dependence in the later cohort and of being under the influence of alcohol during the crime. Fewer perpetrators were regarded as lacking or being of diminished responsibility in the later cohort. The victims of the earlier cohort were emotionally closer to the offender than those of the later one. In Finland, there have been changes in characteristics of women who commit homicide and their crimes over time, with the apparent development of a subgroup of women who kill who are much more like men who kill than women in the 1980s and early 1990s. Preventing substance abuse and marginalization are likely to be important ways of preventing homicide by both female and male perpetrators. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Initiation into Methamphetamine Use For Young Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Kelly, Brian C.; Weiser, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Research over the past ten years has suggested that methamphetamine use has become a significant problem and is associated with risky sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. In order to better understand initiation into methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men, qualitative analyses were performed on a sample of young gay and bisexual men (ages 18-29) in New York City. Participants were recruited as part of a larger study which used time-space sampling to enroll club-going young adults who indicated recent club-drug (ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, methamphetamine, cocaine, and/or LSD) use. The data for this paper are derived from the qualitative interviews of 54 gay and bisexual male methamphetamine users. At initiation (1) Methamphetamine was used in a social, non-sexual setting for a majority of the participants; (2) participants expressed limited knowledge of methamphetamine; and (3) many participants used cocaine as a basis for comparison when describing various effects of the drug. The understanding that at initiation methamphetamine was not solely used as a sexual enhancement for members of this community may enable health workers to more accurately target potential users when putting forth intervention efforts. Future research should aim to gain a better understanding into the role that methamphetamine plays in non-sexual contexts, particularly among gay and bisexual men who may not be part of the club “scene.” The relationship between attitudes towards methamphetamine and other drugs, particularly cocaine, among gay and bisexual men should be explored. PMID:17398040

  4. Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  5. Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  6. Factors affecting attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had been victims of sexual abuse and those that had not. Sex offenses committed by juvenile female sex offenders were viewed to be more serious and require more intervention than those committed by juvenile male sex offenders.

  7. Victim-Offender Relationship Status Moderates the Relationships of Peritraumatic Emotional Responses, Active Resistance, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology in Female Rape Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Feinstein, Brian A.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Bovin, Michelle J.; Marx, Brian P.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the level of victim-offender relationship (VOR) moderated the relationship between peritraumatic fear and active resistance as well as the relationship between peritraumatic fear and posttraumatic stress symptom severity in a community sample of female rape survivors. One hundred thirty-five participants were interviewed about their emotional and behavioral responses during the rape and assessed for posttraumatic stress symptomatology within one month of the assault. Results indicated that peritraumatic fear was positively associated with active resistance, but only among survivors of acquaintance rape. Additionally, peritraumatic fear was positively associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity, but only among survivors of intimate partner rape. These results suggest that VOR may be an important contextual factor that influences emotional and behavioral responses during rape as well as posttraumatic stress symptomatology in its aftermath. PMID:21731797

  8. Correlates of methamphetamine use among young Iranians: Findings of a population-based survey in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nahid; Mirzaee, Moghaddameh; Jahani, Yunes; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Sharifi, Hamid

    2017-10-01

    Methamphetamine use remains an important public health concern among young people across various international settings. The present study is aimed at investigating the correlates of methamphetamine use among young Iranians within the general population. This study was carried out in 13 provinces of Iran in 2013. Through multistage sampling, 3,246 young adults (aged 19-29 years) were recruited in the study. Weighted multilevel logistic regression methods were applied to identify the correlates of methamphetamine use. The lifetime prevalence of methamphetamine use was 7.1% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 5.4, 8.8). In the multivariable logistic regression, gender (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.57, 95%CI: 1.37, 4.82), marital status (AOR: 4.91, 95%CI: 2.26, 10.7), education level (AOR: 2.56, 95%CI: 1.3, 5.06), profession (AOR: 2.64, 95%CI: 1.63, 4.29), overall knowledge level of methamphetamine use (AOR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.39, 0.76), knowing a methamphetamine user among family members or friends (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.71, 4.42), knowing an ecstasy user among family members or friends (AOR: 3.36, 95%CI: 1.92, 5.9), and extramarital sex (AOR: 6.29, 95%CI: 4.29, 9.22) were significantly associated with methamphetamine use. The lifetime prevalence of methamphetamine use among young Iranian adults is concerning. Educational settings should be equipped with the required resources to take a proactive role in educating adolescents and young adults on substance use including methamphetamine. This study was done on a national level and identified the factors that can correlate with methamphetamine use. Its results can be very useful for policy decision makers. (Am J Addict 2017;26:731-737). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Does Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Affect Post-Treatment Methamphetamine Use?

    PubMed Central

    Glasner-Edwards, Suzette; Mooney, Larissa J.; Ang, Alfonso; Hillhouse, Maureen; Rawson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although trauma is a well-established risk factor for substance use disorders, little is known about the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and treatment outcomes among methamphetamine users. In the present study, we examine the relationship between PTSD and post-treatment methamphetamine use outcomes, hospitalizations, and overall psychiatric impairment. Methods Using data from 526 adults in the largest psychosocial clinical trial of methamphetamine users conducted to date, this study examined: (1) treatment outcomes of methamphetamine users with concomitant PTSD three years after psychosocial treatment for methamphetamine dependence; and (2) PTSD symptom clusters as risk factors for post-treatment relapse to methamphetamine use. Results PTSD was associated with poorer methamphetamine use outcomes; methamphetamine use frequency throughout the 3-year follow-up was significantly greater among individuals with a PTSD diagnosis, and those with PTSD had more than five times the odds of reporting methamphetamine use in the 30 days prior to the follow-up interview, OR= 5.2, 95% CI [2.0–13.3]. Additionally, higher levels of other Axis I psychopathology were observed among methamphetamine users with PTSD. Avoidance and arousal symptoms predicted post-treatment methamphetamine use. Conclusions Addressing these high risk PTSD symptoms and syndromes in methamphetamine users may be helpful as a means of improving treatment outcomes in this population. PMID:24065875

  10. Economic Costs of a Postrelease Intervention for Incarcerated Female Substance Abusers: Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (RMC-WO)

    PubMed Central

    McCollister, Kathryn E.; Scott, Christy K.; Dennis, Michael L.; Freitas, Derek M.; French, Michael T.; Funk, Rodney R.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the economic costs of Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (RMC-WO), highlighting the unique mix of services and differential costs between two distinct phases of the intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to quarterly outcome monitoring (OM) only (n=242) or OM plus Recovery Management Checkups (OM-plus-RMC) (n=238). The OM-only condition has a total annual economic cost of $76,010, which equates to $81 quarterly per person. The average cost per OM interview completed is $86. OM-plus-RMC generates a total annual economic cost of $126,717, or $137 quarterly per person. The cost per interview completed is $147 and the cost per intervention session completed is $161. RMC-WO has a relatively modest additional cost compared with the average costs of post-release supervision, which can range from $3.42 ($1,250) per day (year) for probationers to $7.47 ($2,750) per day (year) for parolees. The clinical, economic, and policy implications of incorporating RMC-WO into existing corrections and/or community-based treatment settings are discussed. PMID:27030790

  11. Is the self-report of recent cocaine or methamphetamine use reliable in illicit stimulant drug users who present to the Emergency Department with chest pain?

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon O; Vivier, Patrick M; Diercks, Deborah B

    2009-08-01

    Use of illicit drugs results in an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, which is often seen in the Emergency Department (ED). Chest pain is frequently associated with cocaine and methamphetamine use. To determine if the self-report of recent cocaine or methamphetamine use is reliable in illicit stimulant drug users who present to the ED with chest pain. A retrospective review of patients presenting to the ED from July 1, 2004 through June 30, 2006 was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were: age >or= 18 years, chief complaint of chest pain, documented social history of drug abuse, positive urine toxicology screen and myoglobin and troponin levels measured, sent from the ED. For the 318 patients who met the inclusion criteria, the self-report rate of cocaine or methamphetamine use was 51.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.57). No difference was found in the self-report rate between users of methamphetamine vs. cocaine (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.7-1.7). There also was no difference in the self-report rate by patient age < 50 years compared to patient age >or= 50 years (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.42-1.08). The self-report rate for males compared to females was not significantly different (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.54-1.4). Patients who had a positive troponin were not significantly more likely to self-report drug use than patients who did not have a positive troponin (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.55-2.2). The self-report rate among cocaine- or methamphetamine-using patients presenting to the ED with chest pain was 51.8%. There seems to be no significant difference in the self-report rate among those who use methamphetamine vs. those who use cocaine, nor by gender, nor stratified by age over 50 years.

  12. Methamphetamine use and treatment in Iran: A systematic review from the most populated Persian Gulf country.

    PubMed

    Alam-mehrjerdi, Zahra; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Dolan, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Methamphetamine use is a new health concern in Iran, the most populated Persian Gulf country. However, there is no well-documented literature. The current study objectives were to systematically review all published English and Persian studies of the prevalence of methamphetamine use, the general physical and psychiatric-related harms and the availability of methamphetamine treatment and harm reduction services for adult users in Iran. A comprehensive search of the international peer-reviewed and gray literature was undertaken. Multiple electronic and scientific English and Persian databases were systematically searched from January 2002 to September 2014. Additionally, English and Persian gray literature on methamphetamine use was sought using online gray literature databases, library databases and general online searches over the same period of time. Nineteen thousand and two hundred and eight studies, reports and conference papers were identified but only 42 studies were relevant to the study objectives. They were mainly published in 2010-2014. The search results confirmed the seizures of methamphetamine (six studies), the prevalence of methamphetamine use among the general population (three studies), drug users (four studies), women (nine studies) and opiate users in opiate treatment programs (five studies). In addition, methamphetamine use had resulted in blood-borne viral infections (one study), psychosis and intoxication (ten studies). Different reasons had facilitated methamphetamine use. However, the Matrix Model, community therapy and harm reduction services (four studies) had been provided for methamphetamine users in some cities. The current situation of methamphetamine use necessitates more research on the epidemiology and health-related implications. These studies should help in identifying priorities for designing and implementing prevention and educational programs. More active models of engagement with Persian methamphetamine users and the

  13. Methamphetamine use in a rural college population: associations with marijuana use, sensitivity to punishment, and sensitivity to reward.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Dvorak, Robert D; Batien, Bryan D

    2008-09-01

    This study examined predictors of methamphetamine use in a 6-month prospective study of 2,270 rural young adults. Sensitivity to punishment (SP), sensitivity to reward (SR), and gender were exogenous variables in an observed variable path analysis with 3 endogenous criteria: Time 1 (T1) marijuana use and methamphetamine use at T1 and Time 2 (T2). SP was negatively associated with marijuana use at T1, and this association was attenuated by SR. Male gender was positively associated with marijuana use. T1 marijuana use and SR were positively, and male gender negatively, associated with T1 methamphetamine use. T1 methamphetamine use, T1 marijuana use, and SP were positively associated with T2 methamphetamine use. Methamphetamine use prevalence and the role of distal predictors and proximal indicators of drug involvement are discussed.

  14. Methamphetamine use, attitudes about condoms, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Mausbach, Brent T; Ulibarri, Monica D; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    This study examined attitudes about condoms as a moderator of the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 297 HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM). To test for a moderating effect of attitudes towards condoms, an interaction term was included in multiple regression analysis along with age, income, negative condom attitudes, frequency of methamphetamine use, and Beck depression score. A post hoc analysis was conducted to determine the relations between methamphetamine use and unprotected sex for persons with more vs. less negative attitudes toward condoms. These analyses indicated that when individuals had more negative attitudes toward condoms, the relation between methamphetamine frequency and unprotected sex was significant, while among participants with less negative attitudes toward condoms, no significant association was found. Addressing methamphetamine-using MSM's attitudes about condoms can serve as a form of harm reduction for those who are not yet ready or willing to discontinue methamphetamine use.

  15. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  16. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  17. Results of a pilot study to reduce methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors among methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) not currently in treatment.

    PubMed

    Zule, William A; Poulton, Winona E; Coomes, Curtis M; Mansergh, Gordon; Charania, Mahnaz; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Jones, Hendree E

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine use, which has been linked to unprotected anal intercourse and incident HIV infection, is an important contributor to HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot test a single-session motivational interviewing (MI) intervention for reducing HIV risk among an out-of-treatment sample of MSM who use methamphetamine. MSM who use methamphetamine (n = 39) were recruited in 2008 and 2009 in North Carolina. They completed baseline data collection and a single-session MI intervention. Eighty percent completed a follow-up interview two months after enrollment. Men reported reductions in methamphetamine use during the previous 60 days from an average of 9.4 days at baseline to 3.3 days at follow-up (p < 0.05) and unprotected anal intercourse from an average of 4.8 sex partners during the previous 60 days at baseline to 2.9 at follow-up (p < 0.05). Self-reported unprotected anal intercourse at last sex with a nonprimary partner decreased significantly (from 81% at baseline to 25% at follow-up; p = 0.001). These results suggest that a single-session MI intervention may be useful for reducing methamphetamine use and sexual risk among MSM who use methamphetamine, especially in settings where multisession interventions are not feasible.

  18. Text messaging reduces HIV risk behaviors among methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Reback, Cathy J; Grant, Deborah Ling; Fletcher, Jesse B; Branson, Catherine M; Shoptaw, Steven; Bowers, Jane Rohde; Charania, Mahnaz; Mansergh, Gordon

    2012-10-01

    Text-messaging interventions present a novel approach for targeting high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) who may not respond to or may be difficult to reach for face-to-face or site-based interventions. Project Tech Support (N = 52) was an open label pilot study testing the feasibility and utility of a text-messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviors among out-of-treatment MSM. Participants in the two-week intervention received social support and health education text messages transmitted in real-time. At follow-up, there were significant decreases in frequency of methamphetamine use and unprotected sex while on methamphetamine (both p < 0.01), and a significant increase in self-reported abstinence from methamphetamine use (13.3 % vs. 48.9 %; p < 0.001). Additionally, participants reported reductions of unprotected anal intercourse with HIV-positive partners (p < 0.01); with HIV-negative partners, participants reported fewer insertive and receptive episodes (both p < 0.05). Findings demonstrate that text messaging is a promising intervention for reaching and potentially changing HIV high-risk behaviors among out-of-treatment, methamphetamine-using MSM.

  19. Text Messaging Reduces HIV Risk Behaviors among Methamphetamine-using Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Reback, Cathy J.; Grant, Deborah Ling; Fletcher, Jesse B.; Branson, Catherine M.; Shoptaw, Steven; Bowers, Jane Rohde; Charania, Mahnaz; Mansergh, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Text-messaging interventions present a novel approach for targeting high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) who may not respond to or may be difficult to reach for face-to-face or site-based interventions. Project Tech Support (N = 52) was an open label pilot study testing the feasibility and utility of a text-messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviors among out-of-treatment MSM. Participants in the two-week intervention received social support and health education text messages transmitted in real-time. At follow-up, there were significant decreases in frequency of methamphetamine use and unprotected sex while on methamphetamine (both p < .01), and a significant increase in self-reported abstinence from methamphetamine use (13.3% vs. 48.9%; p<.001). Additionally, participants reported reductions of unprotected anal intercourse with HIV-positive partners (p < .01); with HIV-negative partners, participants reported fewer insertive and receptive episodes (both p < .05). Findings demonstrate that text messaging is a promising intervention for reaching and potentially changing HIV high-risk behaviors among out-of-treatment, methamphetamine-using MSM. PMID:22610370

  20. Primary health-care responses to methamphetamine use in Australian Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Sarah; Harney, Angela; Arabena, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Crystal methamphetamine (commonly known as 'ice') use is currently a deeply concerning problem for some Australian Indigenous peoples and can cause serious harms to individual, families and communities. This paper is intended to support best practice responses by primary health-care staff working with Australian Indigenous people who use methamphetamine. It draws on a systematic search of relevant databases to identify literature from January 1999 to February 2014, providing an overview of prevalence, treatment, education and harm reduction, and community responses. The prevalence of methamphetamine use is higher in Indigenous than non-Indigenous communities, particularly in urban and regional settings. No evidence was identified that specifically related to effective treatment and treatment outcomes for Indigenous Australians experiencing methamphetamine dependence or problematic use. While studies involving methamphetamine users in the mainstream population suggest that psychological and residential treatments show short-term promise, longer-term outcomes are less clear. Community-driven interventions involving Indigenous populations in Australia and internationally appear to have a high level of community acceptability; however, outcomes in terms of methamphetamine use are rarely evaluated. Improved national data on prevalence of methamphetamine use among Indigenous people and levels of treatment access would support service planning. We argue for the importance of a strength-based approach to addressing methamphetamine use, to counteract the stigma and despair that frequently accompanies it.

  1. Crystal Clear? The Relationship Between Methamphetamine Use and Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Mialon, Hugo M; Nesson, Erik T; Samuel, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    Public health officials have cited methamphetamine control as a tool with which to decrease HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, based on previous research that finds a strong positive correlation between methamphetamine use and risky sexual behavior. However, the observed correlation may not be causal, as both methamphetamine use and risky sexual behavior could be driven by a third factor, such as a preference for risky behavior. We estimate the effect of methamphetamine use on risky sexual behavior using monthly data on syphilis diagnoses in California and quarterly data on syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia diagnoses across all states. To circumvent possible endogeneity, we use a large exogenous supply shock in the US methamphetamine market that occurred in May 1995 and a later shock stemming from the Methamphetamine Control Act, which went into effect in October 1997. While the supply shocks had large negative effects on methamphetamine use, we find no evidence that they decreased syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia rates. Our results have broad implications for public policies designed to decrease sexually transmitted infection rates. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Additive Effects of HIV and Chronic Methamphetamine Use on Brain Metabolite Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Speck, Oliver; Grob, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) showed decreased neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate and increased glial marker myo-inositol in subjects with chronic methamphetamine use and in subjects infected with HIV. The authors sought to determine whether HIV and a history of chronic methamphetamine use might have additive or interactive effects on brain metabolite abnormalities. Method 1H-MRS was performed in 68 HIV-positive subjects (24 with a history of chronic methamphetamine use with a lifetime exposure of a mean of 2,167 g [SD=2,788] and last use a mean of 4.9 months earlier [SD=6.0]; 44 with no history of drug abuse) and 75 HIV-negative subjects (36 with a history of chronic methamphetamine use with a lifetime exposure of a mean of 8,241 g [SD=16,850] and last use a mean of 6.3 months earlier [SD=7.8]; 39 with no history of drug abuse). Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol were measured in the frontal cortex, frontal white matter, and basal ganglia. Results HIV-negative subjects with a history of chronic methamphetamine use showed lower concentrations of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate in the frontal white matter and basal ganglia and higher concentrations of choline compounds and the glial marker myo-inositol in the frontal cortex, relative to subjects with no history of drug abuse. HIV-positive status was associated with lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate and creatine in the frontal cortex and higher concentrations of myo-inositol in the white matter, compared with HIV-negative status. Compared to the mean concentrations of metabolites in HIV-negative subjects with no history of drug abuse, the mean concentrations in subjects with HIV and chronic methamphetamine use showed additive effects on N-acetylaspartate in all three regions (−9% in the basal ganglia, −7% in the frontal white matter, and −6% in the frontal gray matter), on creatine in the basal ganglia (−7%), and on myo-inositol in

  3. Additive effects of HIV and chronic methamphetamine use on brain metabolite abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Speck, Oliver; Grob, Charles S

    2005-02-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) showed decreased neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate and increased glial marker myo-inositol in subjects with chronic methamphetamine use and in subjects infected with HIV. The authors sought to determine whether HIV and a history of chronic methamphetamine use might have additive or interactive effects on brain metabolite abnormalities. 1H-MRS was performed in 68 HIV-positive subjects (24 with a history of chronic methamphetamine use with a lifetime exposure of a mean of 2,167 g [SD=2,788] and last use a mean of 4.9 months earlier [SD=6.0]; 44 with no history of drug abuse) and 75 HIV-negative subjects (36 with a history of chronic methamphetamine use with a lifetime exposure of a mean of 8,241 g [SD=16,850] and last use a mean of 6.3 months earlier [SD=7.8]; 39 with no history of drug abuse). Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol were measured in the frontal cortex, frontal white matter, and basal ganglia. HIV-negative subjects with a history of chronic methamphetamine use showed lower concentrations of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate in the frontal white matter and basal ganglia and higher concentrations of choline compounds and the glial marker myo-inositol in the frontal cortex, relative to subjects with no history of drug abuse. HIV-positive status was associated with lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate and creatine in the frontal cortex and higher concentrations of myo-inositol in the white matter, compared with HIV-negative status. Compared to the mean concentrations of metabolites in HIV-negative subjects with no history of drug abuse, the mean concentrations in subjects with HIV and chronic methamphetamine use showed additive effects on N-acetylaspartate in all three regions (-9% in the basal ganglia, -7% in the frontal white matter, and -6% in the frontal gray matter), on creatine in the basal ganglia (-7%), and on myo-inositol in the frontal white matter (+11

  4. Emotional expression recognition and attribution bias among sexual and violent offenders: a signal detection analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Rotshtein, Pia; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Research with violent offenders has consistently shown impaired recognition of other’s facial expressions of emotion. However, the extent to which similar problems can be observed among sexual offenders remains unknown. Using a computerized task, we presented sexual and violent offenders, and non-offenders, with male and female expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, morphed with neutral expressions at varying levels of intensity (10, 55, and 90% expressive). Based on signal detection theory, we used hit rates and false alarms to calculate the sensitivity index d-prime (d′) and criterion (c) for each emotional expression. Overall, sexual offenders showed reduced sensitivity to emotional expressions across intensity, sex, and type of expression, compared with non-offenders, while both sexual and violent offenders showed particular reduced sensitivity to fearful expressions. We also observed specific effects for high (90%) intensity female faces, with sexual offenders showing reduced sensitivity to anger compared with non-offenders and violent offenders, and reduced sensitivity to disgust compared with non-offenders. Furthermore, both sexual and violent offenders showed impaired sensitivity to high intensity female fearful expressions compared with non-offenders. Violent offenders also showed a higher criterion for classifying moderate and high intensity male expressions as fearful, indicative of a more conservative response style, compared with angry, happy, or sad. These results suggest that both types of offender show problems in emotion recognition, and may have implications for understanding the inhibition of violent and sexually violent behaviors. PMID:26029137

  5. The Relationship between Methamphetamine Use and Dental Caries and Missing Teeth.

    PubMed

    Boyer, E Marcia; Thompson, Nancy; Hill, Tracy; Zimmerman, M Bridget

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between methamphetamine use and oral health status. Using a cross-sectional design, data were collected in 1998 from 174 newly admitted prisoners in Iowa. Oral examinations identified dental caries and missing teeth, and personal interviews identified methamphetamine use and covariates. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, and bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, including testing for interaction effects, were used to examine the effects of methamphetamine use on oral health status. Multivariate regression analyses for carious teeth and surfaces showed significant interaction effects: methamphetamine*race/ethnicity (carious teeth: p=0.039; surfaces: p=0.023) and methamphetamine*tooth brushing when on drugs (carious teeth: p=0.044; surfaces: p=0.035). Methamphetamine use had a significant effect on dental caries among Non-Whites and among those who brushed their teeth less than once a day when on drugs. Soda consumption (carious teeth: p=0.026; surfaces: p=0.030) and reason for last dental visit (carious teeth: p=0.025; surfaces: p=0.011) were also associated with caries. For missing teeth there was a significant methamphetamine*race/ethnicity interaction (p=0.028) among Whites who used methamphetamine compared to Whites who did not use methamphetamine. Age (p=0.0001) and reason for last dental visit (p=0.0001) were also associated with missing teeth. The effect of methamphetamine use on missing teeth was moderated by race/ethnicity,; while its effect on dental caries was moderated by race/ethnicity and tooth brushing when on drugs. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  6. Violent and Nonviolent Youth Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Violet; Chu, Chi Meng

    2015-01-01

    Youth violence is a costly social problem. This study compared the risk and needs of nonviolent youth offenders, with those who had committed violent offenses only (violent only) and those who had committed violent and nonviolent offenses (violent plus) to determine whether violent youth were a different “type” from nonviolent youth. The case files of 3,744 youth offenders (3,327 males and 417 females, between 12 and 18 years old) were retrospectively coded, before official recidivism records were obtained. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), χ2, and Cox regressions were conducted. Violent-plus youth were younger; higher in their total risk and all criminogenic needs; more likely to have several noncriminogenic needs; and at higher risk of any reoffending, violent reoffending, and nonviolent reoffending than nonviolent youth. Violent-only youth had the same total risk and risk of general and violent recidivism as nonviolent offenders but presented different criminogenic and noncriminogenic needs and risk of nonviolent recidivism. Compared to violent-only youth, violent-plus youth were younger, had higher total risk and criminogenic needs on five domains, were more likely to have several noncriminogenic needs, and were at higher risk of all types of reoffending (except sexual reoffending), suggesting subtypes of violent youth offenders. The implication is that nonviolent and violent youth offenders require different dosage and types of intervention. PMID:27274714

  7. The Effect of Offenders' Sex on Reporting Crimes to the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Van de Schoot, Rens

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the difference in victims' reporting behavior regarding crimes committed by males and by females. The authors expect that victims of female offenders are less likely to report to the police than victims of male offenders because of differences in the victim-offender relationship as well as in the victim's sex. With recent…

  8. The Effect of Offenders' Sex on Reporting Crimes to the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Van de Schoot, Rens

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the difference in victims' reporting behavior regarding crimes committed by males and by females. The authors expect that victims of female offenders are less likely to report to the police than victims of male offenders because of differences in the victim-offender relationship as well as in the victim's sex. With recent…

  9. Initial feasibility and acceptability of a comprehensive intervention for methamphetamine-using pregnant women in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Myers, Bronwyn; O'Grady, Kevin E; Gebhardt, Stefan; Theron, Gerhard B; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a women-focused intervention addressing methamphetamine use and HIV sexual risk among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. A two-group randomized pilot study was conducted, comparing a women-focused intervention for methamphetamine use and related sexual risk behaviors to a psychoeducational condition. Participants were pregnant women who used methamphetamine regularly, had unprotected sex in the prior month, and were HIV-negative. Primary maternal outcomes were methamphetamine use in the past 30 days, frequency of unprotected sexual acts in the past 30 days, and number of antenatal obstetrical appointments attended. Primary neonatal outcomes were length of hospital stay, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery. Of the 57 women initially potentially eligible, only 4 declined to participate. Of the 36 women who were eligible and enrolled, 92% completed all four intervention sessions. Women in both conditions significantly reduced their methamphetamine use and number of unprotected sex acts. Therefore, delivering comprehensive interventions to address methamphetamine use and HIV risk behaviors among methamphetamine-using pregnant women is feasible in South Africa. Further testing of these interventions is needed to address methamphetamine use in this vulnerable population.

  10. Initial Feasibility and Acceptability of a Comprehensive Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using Pregnant Women in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hendrée E.; Myers, Bronwyn; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Gebhardt, Stefan; Theron, Gerhard B.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a women-focused intervention addressing methamphetamine use and HIV sexual risk among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. A two-group randomized pilot study was conducted, comparing a women-focused intervention for methamphetamine use and related sexual risk behaviors to a psychoeducational condition. Participants were pregnant women who used methamphetamine regularly, had unprotected sex in the prior month, and were HIV-negative. Primary maternal outcomes were methamphetamine use in the past 30 days, frequency of unprotected sexual acts in the past 30 days, and number of antenatal obstetrical appointments attended. Primary neonatal outcomes were length of hospital stay, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery. Of the 57 women initially potentially eligible, only 4 declined to participate. Of the 36 women who were eligible and enrolled, 92% completed all four intervention sessions. Women in both conditions significantly reduced their methamphetamine use and number of unprotected sex acts. Therefore, delivering comprehensive interventions to address methamphetamine use and HIV risk behaviors among methamphetamine-using pregnant women is feasible in South Africa. Further testing of these interventions is needed to address methamphetamine use in this vulnerable population. PMID:24829904

  11. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of comorbid cannabis and methamphetamine use on mental health among regular ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Scott, Laura A; Roxburgh, Amanda; Bruno, Raimondo; Matthews, Allison; Burns, Lucy

    2012-09-01

    Residual effects of ecstasy use induce neurotransmitter changes that make it biologically plausible that extended use of the drug may induce psychological distress. However, there has been only mixed support for this in the literature. The presence of polysubstance use is a confounding factor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether regular cannabis and/or regular methamphetamine use confers additional risk of poor mental health and high levels of psychological distress, beyond regular ecstasy use alone. Three years of data from a yearly, cross-sectional, quantitative survey of Australian regular ecstasy users was examined. Participants were divided into four groups according to whether they regularly (at least monthly) used ecstasy only (n=936), ecstasy and weekly cannabis (n=697), ecstasy and weekly methamphetamine (n=108) or ecstasy, weekly cannabis and weekly methamphetamine (n=180). Self-reported mental health problems and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) were examined. Approximately one-fifth of participants self-reported at least one mental health problem, most commonly depression and anxiety. The addition of regular cannabis and/or methamphetamine use substantially increases the likelihood of self-reported mental health problems, particularly with regard to paranoia, over regular ecstasy use alone. Regular cannabis use remained significantly associated with self reported mental health problems even when other differences between groups were accounted for. Regular cannabis and methamphetamine use was also associated with earlier initiation to ecstasy use. These findings suggest that patterns of drug use can help identify at risk groups that could benefit from targeted approaches in education and interventions. Given that early initiation to substance use was more common in those with regular cannabis and methamphetamine use and given that this group had a higher likelihood of mental health problems, work around delaying onset of initiation

  13. Neuropsychological effects of chronic methamphetamine use on neurotransmitters and cognition: a review.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Thomas E; Salo, Ruth; Leamon, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Methamphetamine use is on the rise, with an imminent upsurge of abuse and dependence reported across the United States. Currently, preliminary evidence suggests that methamphetamine dependence may cause long-term neural damage in humans, with concomitant deleterious effects on cognitive processes such as memory and attention. This selective review provides an outline and synthesis of studies that assess the neurotoxic mechanisms of methamphetamine, as well as those that evaluate the cognitive sequelae of methamphetamine abuse.

  14. Methamphetamine use is an independent predictor of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Moon, Karam; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Mitkov, Mario; Ducruet, Andrew F; Wilson, David A; Crowley, R Webster; Nakaji, Peter; McDougall, Cameron G

    2015-05-01

    Clinical outcomes of methamphetamine users with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are unknown. To analyze differences in presentation, in-hospital morbidity, and outcomes between methamphetamine users and non-users. All 472 patients included in the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial from 2003 to 2007 were reviewed. Patients with 1- and 3-year follow-up were included in this analysis (n=398). Methamphetamine users were identified as patients who provided a history of methamphetamine use on admission or tested positive on urine toxicology testing. Methamphetamine users were compared with non-users using univariate analysis. Outcomes were then analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models for demographic characteristics, medical comorbidities, radiographic and clinical presentation, and vasospasm. Thirty-one patients (7.8%) were identified as methamphetamine users in this cohort. Methamphetamine users were younger than non-users (mean age 42.8 vs 55 years, p<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression models, methamphetamine use was an independent predictor of poor Glasgow Outcome Scale score at both 1 year (OR=5.02; 95% CI 1.03 to 24.48; p<0.05) and 3 years (OR=7.18; 95% CI 1.73 to 29.87; p=0.007). Other independent predictors in this model included older age, clinical vasospasm, diabetes, and aneurysm size. Cocaine and tobacco use were not significantly associated with poor outcome in our cohort. Methamphetamine use was not significantly associated with vasospasm, higher Fisher or Hunt and Hess grade, or intraparenchymal hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage. Methamphetamine users have significantly worse outcomes at 1 and 3 years following aSAH. Further analysis is necessary to understand the pathological response associated with methamphetamine use in this setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Toward a Better Understanding of Non-Addicted, Methamphetamine-Using, Men who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Dew, Brian J

    2010-05-14

    Methamphetamine use has increasingly become linked with sexual risk behaviors among men have sex with men (MSM). Yet, the majority of research has been done with methamphetamine dependent MSM or with samples in which addiction to the substance was not evaluated. Furthermore, research with methamphetamine-using MSM in the Southern U.S. is lacking. In this study, focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted in order to understand the motives, context, and other facilitators and barriers of methamphetamine use among non-addicted MSM residing in Atlanta. Participants included 30 non-addicted, methamphetamine-using MSM and 16 local mental and public health officials. Findings from the first of this two-phase formative research project will result in the initial development of a community-tested, culturally-specific social marketing campaign and an individual-based intervention based in HIV-testing facilities.

  16. Initiation to methamphetamine use in a binational sample of women at the US-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zetina, Javier; Sanchez-Huesca, Ricardo; Rios-Ellis, Britt; Friis, Robert; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Torres, Isabel; Rogala, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    This article examines comparative risk behaviors associated with methamphetamine use in a binational sample of women in the border cities of Tijuana, Mexico, and San Diego, California. Specifically, the study examined the differences and similarities in drug use and sexual risk behavior and the patterns of initiation to methamphetamine use. The binational pilot sample consisted of 70 adult women in Tijuana and 55 women in San Diego. Although there were important differences in the presentation of risk behavior and patterns of initiation between the two binational samples, women on both sides of the US-Mexico border also showed remarkable similarities in their risk profile. Results from this study suggest that despite significant cultural and socioeconomic differences between the study cities, certain specific substance abuse patterns (e.g., methamphetamine use) in border regions with an increasing demographic exchange and integration are emerging as an "equalizer" of risk, capable of dissolving context-based differentiating factors, and creating a more homogenous subpopulation of substance users.

  17. Developing a Text Messaging Risk Reduction Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using MSM: Research Note.

    PubMed

    Reback, Cathy J; Ling, Deborah; Shoptaw, Steven; Rohde, Jane

    2010-05-14

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) who use methamphetamine experience high risks for HIV infection due to sexual transmission behaviors often engaged in when under the influence of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine-using MSM use various forms of information technology (IT) communication such as instant messaging, social networking sites, and websites to facilitate a sexual and/or drug "hook up." Given the acceptability of IT communication in their daily lives, an IT intervention represents an appropriate strategy to reach and intervene with out-of-treatment, methamphetamine-using MSM. The aim of this study was to conduct formative work to develop a text messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviors among out-of-treatment MSM, which involved conducting focus groups, community partners' meetings, and a pre-test intervention. These activities culminated in the development of a two-week, text-messaging intervention that delivered real-time electronic correspondence based on the behavioral change theories of Social Support Theory, Health Belief Model, and Social Cognitive Theory. The focus groups, community meetings, and pre-test were used to identify the IT communication device, the text messages that best support risk reduction and healthier behavioral choices, and logo, flyer and website development. The input and feedback from the target population and community partners were critical to the successful development of a culturally appropriate intervention. The knowledge gleaned from the formative work of this study will be vitally helpful in designing future IT studies.

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with methamphetamine use among adult substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Barati, Majid; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Soltanian, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine and other drugs among young adults has been a theme of growing interest and concern on the part of researchers and health associations. This paper reports recent use of methamphetamine and its relation with some demographic variables among substance users in west of Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 559 substance users of Hamadan, western Iran recruited through a snowball sampling method in 2012. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire contained questions regarding substance use, reasons of drug abuse and pattern of MA use. Data were analyzed using SPSS software using Chi-square, Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression methods. A number of 248 (44.4%) people reported a history of having ever used methamphetamine and the mean drug abuse initiation age was 17.8 (SD= 3.9). According to the history, reducing effect of previous drug and resurfacing of new drug were common reasons associated with the changes in previous drug to use of methamphetamine. In multivariate analysis, 'being single' and higher school were obtained as independent predictors of methamphetamine use (P<0.001). Methamphetamine use is common among adult substance abusers in Iran. Demographic, behavioral and psychosocial correlates of methamphetamine use identified in this research may be helpful for the development of preventive interventions.

  19. Methamphetamine use among suburban women: Implications for nurse practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Bairan, Annette; Boeri, Miriam; Morian, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to provide nurse practitioners (NPs) with more effective strategies to diagnose methamphetamine (MA) use and assess healthcare needs of MA-using women. Data Sources The researchers collected data from 65 suburban women who were MA users living in the suburbs of a large southeastern city in the US. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups examining their life history, drug history, risk behaviors, and access to healthcare. The qualitative findings are examined here. Conclusions Three main themes emerged from the data: 1) gendered stigmatization of MA use; 2) MA related health risk behaviors; and 3) barriers to health and social services, which resulted in a domino effect that led to further life and health complications. When these factors are not effectively addressed, the result is more serious health problems for the women and their children. Implications for Practice This article offers awareness and assessment tools to provide NPs adequate knowledge about the factors associated with MA use in order to treat patients holistically. NPs are strategically positioned to effectively assess, diagnose, treat, and provide linkage to health and social services, especially for suburban females who are a hidden population of drug users. PMID:24510626

  20. Methamphetamine use among suburban women: implications for nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Bairan, Annette; Boeri, Miriam; Morian, Janice

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide nurse practitioners (NPs) with more effective strategies to diagnose methamphetamine (MA) use and assess healthcare needs of MA-using women. The researchers collected data from 65 suburban women who were MA users living in the suburbs of a large southeastern city in the United States. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups examining their life history, drug history, risk behaviors, and access to health care. The qualitative findings are examined here. Three main themes emerged from the data: (a) gendered stigmatization of MA use; (b) MA-related health risk behaviors; and (c) barriers to health and social services, which resulted in a domino effect that led to further life and health complications. When these factors are not effectively addressed, the result is more serious health problems for the women and their children. This article offers awareness and assessment tools to provide NPs adequate knowledge about the factors associated with MA use in order to treat patients holistically. NPs are strategically positioned to effectively assess, diagnose, treat, and provide linkage to health and social services, especially for suburban females who are a hidden population of drug users. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  2. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  3. Offenders: Characteristics and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith V.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews what is known about child sex offenders and their treatment. The author discusses the role of paraphilia in child molestation and reviews what is known about juvenile and incest offenders and recidivism rates. What is known about recidivism of untreated offenders and treatment practices is also summarized. Recommendations conclude the…

  4. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  5. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  6. Women with Intellectual Disability Who Have Offended: Characteristics and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, W. R.; Smith, A. H. W.; Quinn, K.; Anderson, A.; Smith, A.; Allan, R.; Law, J.

    2004-01-01

    There have been a few reports describing the characteristics and outcomes of male offenders with intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, while we are building up a reasonable picture of this client group, there are almost no reports of female offenders with ID. This paper is a preliminary attempt to present information on a small cohort of female…

  7. Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents: Profiles of Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Melissa H.; Cummings, Jack A.; McKinney, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study of resiliency profiles of male and female juvenile offenders committed to a juvenile correctional facility was conducted. The goal of the present study was to examine juvenile offenders' positive characteristics (e.g., adaptability, optimism, self-efficacy, tolerance of differences). To assess positive characteristics and…

  8. Women with Intellectual Disability Who Have Offended: Characteristics and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, W. R.; Smith, A. H. W.; Quinn, K.; Anderson, A.; Smith, A.; Allan, R.; Law, J.

    2004-01-01

    There have been a few reports describing the characteristics and outcomes of male offenders with intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, while we are building up a reasonable picture of this client group, there are almost no reports of female offenders with ID. This paper is a preliminary attempt to present information on a small cohort of female…

  9. Prediction of Recidivism in Juvenile Offenders Based on Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proefrock, David W.

    The recent development of strong statistical techniques has made accurate predictions of recidivism possible. To investigate the utility of discriminant analysis methodology in making predictions of recidivism in juvenile offenders, the court records of 271 male and female juvenile offenders, aged 12-16, were reviewed. A cross validation group…

  10. Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents: Profiles of Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Melissa H.; Cummings, Jack A.; McKinney, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study of resiliency profiles of male and female juvenile offenders committed to a juvenile correctional facility was conducted. The goal of the present study was to examine juvenile offenders' positive characteristics (e.g., adaptability, optimism, self-efficacy, tolerance of differences). To assess positive characteristics and…

  11. Interaction of 5HTTLPR and marijuana use on property offending.

    PubMed

    Vaske, Jamie; Newsome, Jamie; Makarios, Matthew; Wright, John Paul; Boutwell, Brian B; Beaver, Kevin M

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine whether a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SHTTLPR) moderates the effects of marijuana use on property offending. The results reveal that 5HTTLPR interacts with marijuana use to predict significantly higher levels of property offending for African American females. The interaction coefficient is not statistically significant for Caucasian males, African American males, or Caucasian females. These findings suggest that marijuana use is associated only with higher levels of property offending among African American females who carry one or more copies of the 5HTTLPR short allele.

  12. Implicit Theories and Offender Representativeness in Judgments About Sexual Crime.

    PubMed

    Harper, Craig A; Bartels, Ross M

    2016-07-01

    Implicit theories structure the way people understand and respond to various human actions. Typically, people believe attributes are either fixed (entitists) or malleable (incrementalists). The present study aimed to examine (a) whether attitudes toward sexual offenders differ depending upon one's implicit theory about human nature and sexual offenders, and (b) whether implicit theories are associated with judgments made about different types of child abusers. A sample of 252 community participants was recruited. Their attitudes, implicit theories, and political orientation were assessed via self-report. One of three vignettes describing an incidence of child sexual abuse was then presented. The cases were identical except the perpetrator was either an adult male, an adult female, or a male juvenile. Participants then made judgments about the offender's deserved sentence and moral character. Entitists (across both domains) held more negative attitudes than incrementalists, although the magnitude of the difference was greatest when examining implicit theories about sexual offenders. Compared with those with an incremental theory of sexual offenders, entity theorists judged sexual offending to be more (a) indicative of the perpetrator's moral character and (b) deserving of punishment. However, scores were greater toward the adult male relative to the adult female and juvenile. The findings suggest that implicit theories about sexual offenders are domain specific. They also indicate that judgments made by those with an entity theory (about sexual offenders) are affected by whether a case is representative of a stereotypical sexual offender. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and future research.

  13. Long-term effects of universal preventive interventions on methamphetamine use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Spoth, Richard L; Clair, Scott; Shin, Chungyeol; Redmond, Cleve

    2006-09-01

    To examine the long-term effects of universal preventive interventions on methamphetamine use by adolescents in the general population during their late high school years. Two randomized, controlled prevention trials. Public schools in the Midwest from 1993 to 2004. Study 1 began with 667 sixth grade students from 33 rural public schools; the follow-up included 457 students. Study 2 began with 679 seventh grade students from 36 rural public schools; the follow-up assessment included 597 students. In study 1, schools were assigned to the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP), Preparing for the Drug Free Years, or a control condition. In study 2, schools were assigned to a revised ISFP (SFP 10-14) plus Life Skills Training (SPF 10-14 + LST), LST alone, or a control condition. Self-reports of lifetime and past-year methamphetamine use were collected at 6(1/2) years past baseline (study 1) and at 4(1/2) and 5(1/2) years past baseline (study 2). In study 1, the ISFP past-year rate was 0.0% compared with 3.2% in the control condition (P = .04). In study 2, SFP 10-14 + LST showed significant effects on lifetime and past-year use at the 4(1/2) year follow-up (eg, 0.5% lifetime use in the intervention condition vs 5.2% in the control condition, P = .006); both SFP 10-14 + LST and LST alone had significant lifetime use effects at the 5(1/2) year follow-up. Brief universal interventions have potential for public health impact by reducing methamphetamine use among adolescents.

  14. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, Keith G; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Hall, Timothy M; Yi, Yi; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven J

    2014-11-01

    Two previous randomized trials found an effect for bupropion in reducing methamphetamine use in the subgroup with lower frequency of methamphetamine use at baseline. This study aimed to replicate these results by comparing bupropion versus placebo in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use at baseline. Methamphetamine-dependent volunteers reporting methamphetamine use on ≤29 of past 30 days were randomized to bupropion 150 mg twice daily (n = 41) or placebo (n = 43) and out-patient counseling for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion achieving end-of-treatment (EOT) methamphetamine abstinence (weeks 11 and 12) for bupropion versus placebo. A post-hoc analysis compared EOT abstinence by medication adherence assessed via plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion level. There was no significant difference in EOT abstinence between bupropion (29%, 12 of 41) and placebo (14%, six of 43; P = 0.087). Among participants receiving bupropion, EOT abstinence was significantly higher in participants assessed as medication adherent by plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion levels (54%, seven of 13) compared to non-adherent participants (18%, five of 28; P = 0.018). Medication adherence by plasma levels was low (32%). Bupropion may be efficacious for reducing methamphetamine in people with less than daily baseline methamphetamine use, but the evidence remains inconclusive. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. miR-181a is a negative regulator of GRIA2 in methamphetamine-use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Qingzhong; Jing, Xuxiu; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Yu, Shunying; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    A previous study reported that the miR-181a level in serum was significantly different between patients with methamphetamine-use disorder and healthy controls and that chronic methamphetamine use down-regulates the expression of miR-181a. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that miR-181a might bind the 3′-UTRs of the mRNA transcripts of the human glutamate receptor genes GRIA2 and GABRA1. In this study, we measured the expression of GRIA2 and GABRA1 in patients with methamphetamine-use disorder. In addition, we examined whether miR-181a down-regulates GRIA2 and GABRA1 in a cell-based assay. We further examined the effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on the expression of miR-181a, GRIA2 and GABRA1. The results demonstrated that serum GRIA2 is higher in patients with methamphetamine-use disorder than in healthy controls. Dual luciferase reporter assays and a cell-based model of methamphetamine exposure also showed that miR-181a directly regulates expression of GRIA2. This study supports the evidence that miR-181a and the glutamate AMPA receptor gene GRIA2 play a critical role in methamphetamine-use disorder. PMID:27767084

  16. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use

    PubMed Central

    Heinzerling, Keith G.; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Hall, Timothy M.; Yi, Yi; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Two previous randomized trials found an effect for bupropion in reducing methamphetamine use in the subgroup with lower frequency of methamphetamine use at baseline. This study aimed to replicate these results by comparing bupropion versus placebo in methamphetamine dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use at baseline. Methods Methamphetamine dependent volunteers reporting methamphetamine use on ≤ 29 of past 30 days were randomized to bupropion 150mg twice daily (N=41) or placebo (N=43) and outpatient counseling for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion achieving end of treatment (EOT) methamphetamine abstinence (weeks 11 and 12) for bupropion versus placebo. A post hoc analysis compared EOT abstinence by medication adherence assessed via plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion level. Results There was no significant difference in EOT abstinence between bupropion (29%, 12/41) and placebo (14%, 6/43; p = 0.087). Among participants receiving bupropion, EOT abstinence was significantly higher in participants assessed as medication adherent by plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion levels (54%, 7/13) compared to non-adherent participants (18%, 5/28; p = 0.018). Medication adherence by plasma levels was low (32%). Conclusions Bupropion may be efficacious for methamphetamine dependence but only in a highly selected subgroup of medication adherent participants with less than daily baseline methamphetamine use. Even a single objective “snapshot” measure of medication adherence is highly associated with treatment outcomes. PMID:24894963

  17. Elderly Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brad D

    2016-04-01

    With the ever-aging population, the number of elderly sexual offenders are also on the rise. The courts and correctional system are increasingly faced with older individuals who have offended sexually. Previously, these older offenders were thought to be similar to younger sexual offenders. However, closer analysis suggests that many of these individuals pose a much lower risk to recidivate than the risk to recidivate of their younger counterparts. Still, an individualized approach to manage the risk of older offenders is required, as some may have particular risk factors relevant for their treatment and future stability, such as dementia or other mental health issues. Further, this population often has particular physical health issues and requires special consideration when being placed in the community. Assessment, treatment, and risk management in this special population of sexual offenders are discussed.

  18. Acute bacterial meningitis with coincident methamphetamine use: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Heninger, Michael; Collins, Kim A

    2013-07-01

    Methamphetamine is a synthetic stimulant that can adversely affect the central nervous system and the immune system. Through various mechanisms, methamphetamine is toxic to neurons, endothelial cells, lymphocytes, granulocytes, and macrophages resulting in systemic damage. Reported is the sudden demise of an otherwise healthy 31-year-old woman with a history of stimulant abuse. At autopsy, acute bacterial meningitis was identified. Microbiology cultures grew a single isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Toxicology was positive for amphetamine (0.13 mg/L) and methamphetamine (0.8 mg/L). The cause of death was classified as acute bacterial meningitis with methamphetamine use. Either the acute bacterial meningitis or the methamphetamine toxicity would have been sufficient to result in death; however, the concurrent pathophysiology of the two entities must be understood. A review of the current literature assesses the mechanisms of injury attributed to acute and chronic methamphetamine use, bacterial meningitis, and the synergy between the two. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Modeling human methamphetamine use patterns in mice: chronic and binge methamphetamine exposure, reward function and neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Chang, Ariel; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2017-02-21

    Different methamphetamine use patterns in human subjects may contribute to inconsistent findings regarding the effects of methamphetamine abuse on brain and behavior. The present study investigated whether human-derived chronic and binge methamphetamine use patterns have differential effects on reward and neurochemistry in mice. Brain reward function in mice was evaluated during acute/prolonged withdrawal, and in response to methamphetamine challenge using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. Brain dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic neurochemistry was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Chronic and binge regimens induced withdrawal-related decreases in reward function that were more severe during the binge regimen during cycles 1-2. Despite large differences in methamphetamine dose, both regimens induced similar reward deficits during cycles 3-4. Neither methamphetamine regimen led to persistent alterations in the sensitivity to the reward-enhancing effects of acute methamphetamine challenge. The binge regimen severely depleted striatal dopamine levels and increased brain glutamine levels. The chronic regimen had milder effects on striatal dopamine levels and altered cortical dopamine and serotonin levels. This work highlights that the magnitude of acute/prolonged withdrawal may not reflect amount or frequency of methamphetamine intake. In contrast, the array of underlying neurochemical alterations was methamphetamine regimen dependent. Thus, stratifying methamphetamine-dependent individuals based on use pattern may help to cater therapeutic interventions more appropriately by targeting use pattern-specific neurotransmitter systems.

  20. Sociometric network structure and its association with methamphetamine use norms among homeless youth

    PubMed Central

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Begun, Stephanie; Rice, Eric; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Perez-Portillo, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Homeless youths' social networks are consistently linked with their substance use. Social networks influence behavior through several mechanisms, especially social norms. This study used sociometric analyses to understand whether social norms of drug use behaviors are clustered in network structures and whether these perceived norms (descriptive and injunctive) influence youths' drug use behaviors. An event-based approach was used to delineate boundaries of the two sociometric networks of homeless youth, one in Los Angeles, CA (n = 160) and the other in Santa Monica, CA (n = 130). Network characteristics included centrality (i.e., popularity) and cohesiveness (location in dense subnetworks). The primary outcome was recent methamphetamine use. Results revealed that both descriptive and injunctive norms influenced methamphetamine use. Network cohesion was found to be associated with perception of both descriptive and injunctive norms in both networks, however in opposite directions. Network interventions therefore might be effective if designed to capitalize on social influence that naturally occurs in cohesive parts of networks. PMID:27194667

  1. Clinical perception: a study of intimate partner violence versus methamphetamine use as presenting problems.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Holly; Haaken, Janice; Lewy, Colleen S; McFarland, Bentson H

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on theory by Solomon Asch (1946, 1952) to examine how presenting with intimate partner violence versus methamphetamine use shapes characteristics of substance abuse assessment interviews. When responding to an initial open-ended question from a substance abuse counselor, the methamphetamine user and intimate partner violence survivor may elicit very different reactions from the counselor. We predicted that these differing presenting problems would initiate different trajectories for overall impression formation. To test this hypothesis, 18 substance abuse practitioners interviewed one standardized patient (an actor portraying a substance abuse client) who alternated her presenting problem between a) violence in a domestic setting and b) methamphetamine use. The remainder of her story was identical for counselors in either presenting problem group. Results included differences between the two groups in median length of the interviews and failure of both groups to explore domestic violence as a cooccurring problem. Clinical practices related to substance abuse counseling and intimate partner violence are discussed in light of these findings.

  2. Sexual offender containment: use of the postconviction polygraph.

    PubMed

    English, Kim; Jones, Linda; Patrick, Diane; Pasini-Hill, Diane

    2003-06-01

    Victims of sexual assault are unlikely to report the crime. For many sexual offenders, then, their sexually deviant behavior remains largely unknown except for crimes that result in arrest or notification to social services. Little is known about the offender's past behavior and little will be known about the offender's future abusive behavior. It is within this context that the containment approach for managing sexual offenders becomes critical to protecting future victimization by known offenders. This paper describes the need to incorporate information learned from the postconviction polygraph examination into intense treatment and criminal justice supervision. Age of onset and frequency and variety of deviant behavior are known risk factors, probably because they reflect the extent to which deviancy is part of the offender's lifestyle. Treatment and supervision plans must incorporate this information, along with the risk presented by these offenders to very specific age and gender groups. This study of data collected on disclosures made by 180 convicted sexual offenders (most were convicted of crimes against children) during the course of four different treatment/polygraph programs found that 39% had a history of sexually assaulting adults, 31% had sexually assaulted both male and female victims, 36% had engaged in bestiality, and two-thirds of the incest offenders had assaulted victims outside the family. Complete information is necessary for treatment providers and supervising officers to develop meaningful and relevant treatment and supervision plans, and for imminent, situational risk factors to be managed and contained.

  3. Temporal relations between methamphetamine use and HIV seroconversion in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry N; Levy, Michael D; Solomon, Todd M

    2016-01-01

    Data from a cross-sectional study of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men who were active methamphetamine users were analyzed to assess temporal relations between HIV seroconversion and initiation of methamphetamine use. Of the 100 men, 58 reported being HIV-positive. Most HIV-positive participants (65%) initiated methamphetamine use after seroconverting. Among those who initiated use before seroconversion, 8 years elapsed between onset of use and time of infection. Findings suggest the need to develop nuanced and targeted interventions aimed at disentangling the "meth-sex" link in this population. Findings also suggest use of the drug as a coping mechanism for those living with HIV.

  4. Child maltreatment victimization by type in relation to criminal recidivism in juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; de Ruiter, Corine

    2016-02-05

    This study aimed to examine the relation between different types of child abuse victimization and criminal recidivism among juvenile offenders. Secondary analyses were conducted on data collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment and general recidivism. The sample consisted of female (n = 3502) and male (n = 10,111) juvenile offenders. For male juvenile offenders, neglect and physical abuse victimization were significantly but rather weakly associated with both general and violent recidivism. For female juvenile offenders, neglect and physical abuse were weakly associated with general recidivism, but not with violent recidivism. Sexual abuse was not related to either general or violent recidivism in both male and female juvenile offenders. Most associations between dynamic (treatable) risk domains and recidivism were stronger in male juvenile offenders than in female juvenile offenders. In addition, most risk domains were more strongly related to general recidivism than to violent felony recidivism. For male juvenile offenders, neglect victimization was uniquely related to general recidivism whereas physical abuse victimization was uniquely related to violent recidivism, over and above dynamic risk factors for recidivism. For female juvenile offenders none of the maltreatment variables were uniquely related to general or violent felony recidivism. Childhood experiences of neglect and physical abuse predict reoffending in male juvenile offenders, pointing at a possible need to address these in risk management interventions.

  5. Comparison of sexual offenders against children with sexual offenders against adolescents and adults: data from the New York State Sex Offender Registry.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa J; Frenda, Steven; Mojtabai, Ramin; Katsavdakis, Kostas; Galynker, Igor

    2007-11-01

    To examine whether sexual offenders against children have fewer characteristics associated with impulsive-aggression and more characteristics associated with aberrant sexual arousal than do sexual offenders against adolescents and adults. Data on 837 sex offenders from the New York State Sex Offender Registry for the five counties of New York City were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Compared to offenders against older age groups, offenders against children were older and less likely to use force or a weapon. They were more likely to molest males or victims of both genders than female victims only, and they were also more likely to molest known victims. They were also more likely to commit multiple acts and "deviate intercourse" and less likely to commit sexual intercourse. Offenders against adolescents largely fell between the two other groups. Relative to sexual offenders against adults, pedophiles may be characterized more by aberrant sexual arousal than by impulsivity and aggression. This distinction has significant implications for the selection of targeted treatments and for the direction of future research.

  6. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  7. Offender Rehabilitation Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…

  8. Offender Rehabilitation Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…

  9. The Persian methamphetamine use in methadone treatment in Iran: implication for prevention and treatment in an upper-middle income country.

    PubMed

    Alam-Mehrjerdi, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-11-17

    As the most populated Persian Gulf country in West Asia, methamphetamine use in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a new health concern in Iran. Methamphetamine use in MMT can originate in methadone misconceptions or the stimulant effects of methamphetamine use. Several research studies have highlighted the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Iran and conducting further studies on this issue is being developed. Opiate use is treated with MMT. But, there is no effective pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine use and cognitive-behavioral interventions have still remained the best practice. As a psychostimulant drug, methamphetamine use can lead to poor treatment outcomes or even treatment failure among patients in MMT. Therefore, the implementation of methamphetamine education and prevention programs in MMT is required. Prescribing adequate methadone dose and the treatment of comorbidities as well as, doing a series of activities outside treatment is underscored. Methamphetamine use has a chronic nature and methamphetamine treatment is a long-term procedure with a high rate of relapse. Therefore, the implementation of long-term motivational interviewing, teaching necessary skills to prevent relapse and case management is highlighted. A long-term collaboration between treatment teams, patients and their families is suggested to manage methamphetamine use in MMT.

  10. Sex differences in predictors of violent and non-violent juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders.

  11. Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard B.

    The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…

  12. Bipolar disorder and criminal offending: a data linkage study.

    PubMed

    Daff, Elizabeth; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2014-12-01

    The current study explored criminal offending among people diagnosed with bipolar disorder with and without comorbid substance use and compared this with a community sample with no history of bipolar disorder. A case-linkage design was used to compare patterns of officially recorded criminal offending between 1,076 people with bipolar disorder drawn from a state-wide psychiatric case register with a community comparison group. Those with bipolar disorder were significantly more likely than community members to be charged with, convicted of, and be found guilty of, violent, non-violent and intermediate level criminal offences. Those with a comorbid substance use disorder were two times more likely than those without a substance use disorder to offend; both groups had a significantly higher chance of offending than the community sample. Females with bipolar disorder were significantly more likely to have been convicted of violent offences, irrespective of substance use. Significant interactions were found between bipolar disorder and substance use for males and females with respect to violent offending and for males with respect to non-violent offending. There is a statistically significant association between bipolar disorder and the likelihood of having a criminal history. Co-occurring substance use differentially impacts on the likelihood of criminal offending for males and females.

  13. Child sexual exploitation and youth offending: A research note

    PubMed Central

    Brayley, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Links between child sexual exploitation (CSE) and youth offending should be better recognised, according to these preliminary research findings from the UK. Data from a leading CSE service provider and Youth Offending Team were analysed for the period 2001–2010 inclusive. Of CSE victims, 40 percent had offending records and recidivism rates were high. Together they committed 1586 offences – 5 percent of all local youth crime. Male and female offending behaviour differed significantly. The types of offences identified were potentially symptomatic of CSE. Referral to CSE services typically post-dated arrest, indicating that children were recognised first as offenders. Challenges in researching the interactions between these two complex issues are discussed. This study has important implications for youth justice policy and practice, both nationally and internationally. PMID:28596712

  14. Sustained-Release Methylphenidate in a Randomized Trial of Treatment of Methamphetamine Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Walter; Chang, Linda; Hillhouse, Maureen; Ang, Alfonso; Striebel, Joan; Jenkins, Jessica; Hernandez, Jasmin; Olaer, Mary; Mooney, Larissa; Reed, Susan; Fukaya, Erin; Kogachi, Shannon; Alicata, Daniel; Holmes, Nataliya; Esagoff, Asher

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims No effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine (MA) use disorder has yet been found. This study evaluated sustained-release methylphenidate (MPH-SR) compared with placebo (PLA) for treatment of MA use disorder in people also undergoing behavioural support and motivational incentives. Design This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design with MPH-SR or PLA provided for 10 weeks (active phase) followed by 4 weeks of single-blind PLA. Twice-weekly clinic visits, weekly group counseling (CBT), and motivational incentives (MI) for MA-negative urine drug screens (UDS) were included. Setting Treatment sites were in Los Angeles, California (LA) and Honolulu, Hawaii (HH), USA. Participants 110 MA-dependent (via DSM-IV) participants (LA = 90; HH = 20). Measurements The primary outcome measure is self-reported days of MA use during the last 30 days of the active phase. Included in the current analyses are drug use (UDS and self-report), retention, craving, compliance (dosing, CBT, MI), adverse events, and treatment satisfaction. Findings No difference was found between treatment groups in self-reported days of MA use during the last 30 days of the active phase (p=0.22). In planned secondary outcomes analyses, however, the MPH group had fewer self-reported MA use days from baseline through the active phase compared with the PLA group (p=0.05). The MPH group also had lower craving scores and fewer marijuana-positive UDS than the PLA group in the last 30 days of the active phase. The two groups had similar retention, other drug use, adverse events, and treatment satisfaction. Conclusions Methylphenidate may lead to a reduction in concurrent methamphetamine use when provided as treatment for patients undergoing behavioural support for moderate to severe methamphetamine use disorder but this requires confirmation. PMID:24825486

  15. Psychosocial treatment for methamphetamine use disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    PubMed

    Smout, Matthew F; Longo, Marie; Harrison, Sonia; Minniti, Rinaldo; Wickes, Wendy; White, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) incorporates developments in behavior therapy, holds promise but has not been evaluated for methamphetamine use disorders. The objective of this study was to test whether ACT would increase treatment attendance and reduce methamphetamine use and related harms compared to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). One hundred and four treatment-seeking adults with methamphetamine abuse or dependence were randomly assigned to receive 12 weekly 60-minute individual sessions of ACT or CBT. Attrition was 70% at 12 weeks and 86% at 24 weeks postentry. Per intention-to-treat analysis, there were no significant differences between the treatment groups in treatment attendance (median 3 sessions), and methamphetamine-related outcomes; however, methamphetamine use (toxicology-assessed and self-reported), negative consequences, and dependence severity significantly improved over time in both groups. Although ACT did not improve treatment outcomes or attendance compared to CBT, it may be a viable alternative to CBT for methamphetamine use disorders. Future rigorous research in this area seems warranted.

  16. Methamphetamine ("tik") use and its association with condom use among out-of-school females in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Jones, Hendree E; Zule, William A; Myers, Bronwyn J; Browne, Felicia A; Kaufman, Michelle R; Luseno, Winnie; Flisher, Alan J; Parry, Charles D H

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the association between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors among young South African women between 13 and 20 years of age. To examine the association between methamphetamine use and condom use among out-of-school South African female adolescents. Black and Coloured female adolescents were interviewed and categorized into methamphetamine user (n = 261) or non-user (n = 188) groups. Methamphetamine use was reported by 58% of the total sample. Higher methamphetamine rates were found among young Coloured females (87%) than among young Black females (11%). In a multiple logistic regression analysis that adjusted for relevant confounders and included an interaction term for race and methamphetamine use, Coloured female methamphetamine users were over six times more likely than other participants to report not using a condom the last time they had sex (OR = 6.21; 95% CI = 1.21, 31.94). Efforts are needed to reduce methamphetamine use and related sexual risk among adolescent females in Coloured communities and to prevent the spread of methamphetamine use in Black African communities.

  17. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  18. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  19. Mentally Retarded Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jill; Hoover, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Critically reviews data about the behavioral characteristics of mentally retarded sexual offenders. Discusses possible interactions between mental retardation and the provision of services and directions for future research. (Author)

  20. Fearlessness in juvenile offenders is associated with offending rate.

    PubMed

    Syngelaki, Eva M; Fairchild, Graeme; Moore, Simon C; Savage, Justin C; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2013-01-01

    Poor fear conditioning is a correlate of violent offending in adults, but there is no evidence concerning juvenile offenders. Our aim was to compare emotional learning in juvenile offenders and controls and establish whether crime rate is related to seriousness of emotional learning problems. To this end, emotional learning was assessed in 42 juvenile offenders by measuring skin conductance responding (SCR) during fear conditioning. Compared to controls, juvenile offenders showed lower conditioned SCRs to visual stimuli associated with a subsequent aversive stimulus and the magnitude of the SCR during fear acquisition was inversely associated with the number of their recorded offences. These findings suggest that juvenile offenders have impairments in the neural systems that subserve emotional learning. The implication is that using punitive measures to control persistent offenders is unlikely to be effective in an identifiable group of juvenile offenders. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Methamphetamine (“tik”) Use and Its Association with Condom Use among Out-of-School Females in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Jones, Hendree E.; Zule, William A.; Myers, Bronwyn J.; Browne, Felicia A.; Kaufman, Michelle R.; Luseno, Winnie; Flisher, Alan J.; Parry, Charles D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the association between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors among young South African women between 13 and 20 years of age. Objective To examine the association between methamphetamine use and condom use among out-of-school South African female adolescents. Methods Black and Coloured female adolescents were interviewed and categorized into methamphetamine user (n = 261) or non-user (n = 188) groups. Results Methamphetamine use was reported by 58% of the total sample. Higher methamphetamine rates were found among young Coloured females (87%) than among young Black females (11%). In a multiple logistic regression analysis that adjusted for relevant confounders and included an interaction term for race and methamphetamine use, Coloured female methamphetamine users were over six times more likely than other participants to report not using a condom the last time they had sex (OR = 6.21; 95% CI = 1.21, 31.94). Conclusions and Scientific Significance Efforts are needed to reduce methamphetamine use and related sexual risk among adolescent females in Coloured communities and to prevent the spread of methamphetamine use in Black African communities. PMID:20560840

  2. Interim evaluation of a university-community collaboration to address methamphetamine use in a rural Missouri community.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Wilma J; Allen, Kimberly R; Brockman-Jankowski, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine use remains a significant public health problem. A multifaceted problem requires a collaborative effort. Community partners and university faculty collaborated to address meth use in a rural Missouri county. The objectives for this collaboration were to a) support current community partnerships by working with parents and teachers to incorporate a sustainable drug education curriculum in an elementary school and b) provide learning opportunities for senior nursing students. Various strategies were used in the collaboration, including focus groups with school personnel and piloting the curriculum in a local school. Community members and university faculty worked together in all stages of the collaboration. The collaboration allowed the community to continue and expand its efforts in reducing methamphetamine use. Community and university team members are working together to expand the implementation in additional grades. A real-world community problem can be addressed through a university-community collaboration.

  3. High-risk situations related to relapse of methamphetamine use among Taiwanese adolescents: an instrumentation study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ping; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Campbell-Heider, Nancy

    2012-02-01

    Methamphetamine is the leading illicit substance used by adolescents in Taiwan and the rise of its production and use is a major public health concern in Southeast and East Asia. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new instrument to identify high-risk situations related to methamphetamine relapse among incarcerated Taiwanese adolescents. Participants in this study were arrested for methamphetamine use and mandatorily held at an abstinence center. In the instrument development phase, an item pool was generated from a qualitative study and further revised based on content evaluations by 6 clinical content experts. In the instrument analysis phase, the new tool was psychometrically tested. The intra-class correlation coefficient showed high stability of the instrument (r = .92). Factor analysis resulted in a 6-factor solution accounting for 66.68% of the variance in the 16-item model. Although this instrument was developed for use with Taiwanese adolescents, it needs further testing to confirm its usefulness in other cultural groups. The identified risky situations provide a beginning assessment tool that is easy to administer and can be used to identify teens at particular risk for relapse before being released from incarceration or other mandatory treatment programs. More research is needed to target specific and culturally determined triggers that can improve the validity of this tool for non Asian adolescents at risk for methamphetamine relapse.

  4. Methamphetamine use patterns among urban Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Jerome, Roy C; Halkitis, Perry N; Coley, Michael A

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigates patterns of methamphetamine, contexts of use and sources for purchasing methamphetamine in a sample of gay, bisexual and heterosexually identified Black men who have sex with men living in New York City. Participants reported using multiple substances and used, on average, nine days within the last 30 days. They spent an average of US$159 per month on methamphetamine and a median of US$398 on all substances. Frequency of monthly methamphetamine use was related to the use of powdered cocaine and alcohol use, but not to the use of other substances. Black men who have sex with men primarily used in private venues, such as at home or in the homes of friends, and reported obtaining methamphetamine from multiple sources. Men who reported exchanging sex for methamphetamine reported greater use in public venues, such as sex clubs, sex parties and circuit parties. Findings from the present study may be critical in establishing culturally-appropriate treatment modalities for Black men who have sex with men who use methamphetamine.

  5. Utility of preclinical drug versus food choice procedures to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    Substance use disorders are diagnosed as a manifestation of inappropriate behavioral allocation toward abused drugs and away from other behaviors maintained by more adaptive nondrug reinforcers (e.g., money and social relationships). Substance use disorder treatment goals include not only decreasing drug-maintained behavior but also promoting behavioral reallocation toward these socially adaptive alternative reinforcers. Preclinical drug self-administration procedures that offer concurrent access to both drug and nondrug reinforcers provide a translationally relevant dependent measure of behavioral allocation that may be useful for candidate medication evaluation. In contrast to other abused drugs, such as heroin or cocaine, preclinical methamphetamine versus food choice procedures have been a more recent development. We hypothesize that preclinical to clinical translatability would be improved by the evaluation of repeated pharmacological treatment effects on methamphetamine self-administration under a methamphetamine versus food choice procedure. In support of this hypothesis, a literature review suggests strong concordance between preclinical pharmacological treatment effects on methamphetamine versus food choice in nonhuman primates and clinical medication treatment effects on methamphetamine self-administration in human laboratory studies or methamphetamine abuse metrics in clinical trials. In conclusion, this literature suggests preclinical methamphetamine versus food choice procedures may be useful in developing innovative pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorder. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  7. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  8. Association of methamphetamine use and restrictive interventions in an acute adult inpatient mental health unit: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; McEvedy, Samantha; Kelly, Kathleen; Long, Bec; Anderson, Jess; Dalzell, Elaine; Maguire, Tessa; Tacey, Mark; Furness, Trentham

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe incidences of restrictive interventions and the association of methamphetamine use at an acute adult inpatient mental health unit in metropolitan Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A total of 232 consecutive consumer admissions to the inpatient unit across a 3-month period were described for illicit substance use and the use of restrictive interventions (seclusion, mechanical restraint, and physical restraint) prior to and during admission. Of all admissions, 25 (10.8%) involved consumers subjected to a restrictive intervention. Methamphetamine use was either self-reported or detected by saliva test for 71 (30.6%) consumers. Following multivariate analyses, methamphetamine use (odds ratio (OR): 7.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.33-26.31) and restrictive intervention in the emergency department prior to admission (OR: 8.85, 95% CI: 2.83-27.70) were significant independent predictors of the use of restrictive interventions after inpatient admission. Anecdotal observations provided by clinical mental health staff that consumers intoxicated with methamphetamine appear to require restrictive intervention more frequently than other consumers was confirmed with the results of the current study. As the state of Victoria in Australia is on a pathway to the elimination of the use of restrictive interventions in mental health services, clinicians need to develop management strategies that provide specialist mental health care using the least-restrictive interventions. Although 26.8% of methamphetamine users were secluded after admission, restrictive interventions should not be the default management strategy for consumers who present with self-report or positive screen for methamphetamine use. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. Methamphetamine use dates to post-WWII era. Drug little-known risk factor in early AIDS days.

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    Originally manufactured by the Germans in the 1880s and later used by the Japanese as a means of keeping military personnel awake on long shifts, methamphetamine first was a significant presence in the Western United States in the late 1940s. For decades, methamphetamine use was limited to the West Coast and Hawaii, becoming popular at various times in a multitude of groups, including Hells Angels.

  10. A comparative analysis of methamphetamine use: black gay and bisexual men in relation to men of other races.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry N; Jerome, Roy C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the patterns and correlates of methamphetamine use among Black gay and bisexual men who participated in a large-scale study of club drug use, and sexual behavior in combination with club drug use in New York City. Almost half of the Black men (49%) in the sample indicated use of methamphetamine in the 4 months prior to assessment, a proportion somewhat lower than their White counterparts. In terms of the overall sample, the proportion of the Black men in the study was equivalent to the proportion of methamphetamine users who identified as Black. Black methamphetamine users tended not to reside in neighborhoods considered traditionally gay, were more likely to be HIV-positive, have lower educational attainment, and have lower levels of income than other methamphetamine users. In terms of frequency and reasons for use, Black methamphetamine users did not differ in any substantive way compared to other races and ethnicities. In addition, they did not differ along any key demographic lines from Black non-methamphetamine users. Poly-drug use was common among all Black men in the sample, with almost all methamphetamine users also reporting use of cocaine, but cocaine users not necessarily reporting methamphetamine use. Once a drug that was considered popular only among White gay men, methamphetamine use has been shown to transcend racial and ethnic lines. Because of the synergy that exists between use of the drug, the concentrated levels of HIV in the Black gay population, and the sexual disinhibition engendered with methamphetamine use, this drug presents a potentially mounting public health challenge.

  11. Frequency of Methamphetamine Use as a Major Contributor Toward the Severity of Cardiomyopathy in Adults ≤50 Years.

    PubMed

    Neeki, Michael M; Kulczycki, Michael; Toy, Jake; Dong, Fanglong; Lee, Carol; Borger, Rodney; Adigopula, Sasikanth

    2016-08-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most commonly abused illegal drugs in the United States. Health care providers are commonly faced with medical illness caused by methamphetamine. This study investigates the impact of methamphetamine use on the severity of cardiomyopathy and heart failure in young adults. This retrospective study analyzed patients seen at Arrowhead Regional Medical Center from 2008 to 2012. Patients were between 18 and 50 years old. All patients had a discharge diagnosis of cardiomyopathy or heart failure. The severity of disease was quantified by left ventricular systolic dysfunction: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction to mildly reduced if ejection fraction was >40% and moderate to severely depressed if ejection fraction was ≤40%. Methamphetamine abuse was determined by a positive urine drug screen or per documented history. Of the 590 patients, 223 (37.8%) had a history of methamphetamine use. More than half the population was men (n = 389, 62.3%); 41% was Hispanic (n = 243), 25.8% was Caucasian (n = 152), and 27.8% was African-American (n = 164); 60.9% were in the age range of 41 to 50 years (n = 359). Patients with a history of methamphetamine use had increased odds (odds ratio = 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 2.57) of having a moderately or severely reduced ejection fraction. Additionally, men were more likely (odds ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 2.14 to 4.56) to have worse left ventricular systolic dysfunction. In conclusion, methamphetamine use was associated with an increased severity of cardiomyopathy in young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Case of a Spontaneous Self-resolving Retrobulbar Hemorrhage Following 3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine Use.

    PubMed

    Chervenkoff, Jordan V; Rajak, Saul N; Selva, Dinesh; Davis, Garry

    2016-10-20

    This case report discusses the case of a 23-year-old male patient who experienced retrobulbar pain, diplopia, proptosis, and mild lower eyelid bruising after consuming 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine. The symptoms settled over 10 days and vision returned to normal without intervention. The authors discuss the differential diagnosis relevant to the presenting complaints and propose several mechanisms linking 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine use to spontaneous nontraumatic intraorbital hematoma.

  13. Methamphetamine use and risk for HIV among young men who have sex with men in 8 US cities.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Peter; Walker, Bendu C; Harris, D Robert; Garofalo, Robert; Willard, Nancy; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2011-08-01

    To examine methamphetamine use and its association with sexual behavior among young men who have sex with men. Cross-sectional observational analysis. Eight US cities. As part of the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions, adolescent boys and young men who have sex with men, aged 12 to 24 years, were recruited from social venues (e.g., clubs, parks, and street corners) between January 3, 2005, and August 21, 2006, to complete a study survey. Reported methamphetamine use in the past 90 days and reported sexual risk behavior compared with individuals reporting no hard drug use and individuals reporting hard drug use in the past 90 days. Among 595 adolescent boys and young men, 64 reported recent methamphetamine use, and 444 reported no recent hard drug use (87 reported use of hard drugs other than methamphetamine). Recent methamphetamine use was associated with a history of sexually transmitted diseases (51.6%), 2 or more sex partners in the past 90 days (85.7%), sex with an injection drug user (51.6%), and sex with someone who has human immunodeficiency virus (32.8%) compared with individuals reporting no recent hard drug use (21.1%, 63.1%, 10.7%, and 11.1%, respectively; P < .05 for all [n = 441]). Recent users of methamphetamine were more likely to have a history of homelessness (71.9%) and were less likely to be currently attending school (35.9%) compared with individuals reporting no recent hard drug use (28.4% and 60.4%, respectively; P < .001 for both). Adolescent boys and young men who have sex with men and use methamphetamine seem to be at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus. Prevention programs among this age group should address issues like housing, polydrug use, and educational needs.

  14. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshen, J.; Drake, G.; Spencer, D.

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  15. Types of Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Sheri

    2002-01-01

    Although juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) account for a significant percentage of sex crimes committed in this country, researchers have only recently begun to study this population. One line of inquiry has been to investigate sub-types of offenders, in order to determine whether different types of offenders have different personality profiles and…

  16. An Analysis of Females Convicted of Sex Crimes in the State of Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Christopher J.; Meehan, D. Cricket

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of female sex offenders has been poorly explored in the scientific literature. In particular, little exploration of possible subtypes of female offenders has been conducted. In the current study, 279 female sexual offenders convicted of a total of 940 separate criminal offenses were examined using hierarchical cluster analysis.…

  17. An Analysis of Females Convicted of Sex Crimes in the State of Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Christopher J.; Meehan, D. Cricket

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of female sex offenders has been poorly explored in the scientific literature. In particular, little exploration of possible subtypes of female offenders has been conducted. In the current study, 279 female sexual offenders convicted of a total of 940 separate criminal offenses were examined using hierarchical cluster analysis.…

  18. Male soldier family violence offenders: spouse and child offenders compared to child offenders.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Sullivan, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Army data from 2000 to 2004 were used to compare two groups of married, male, Army soldier, first-time family violence offenders: 760 dual offenders (whose initial incident included both child maltreatment and spouse abuse) and 2,209 single offenders (whose initial incident included only child maltreatment). The majority (81%) of dual offenders perpetrated physical spouse abuse; however, dual offenders were less likely than single offenders to perpetrate physical child abuse (16% vs. 42%) or sexual child abuse (1% vs. 11%), but they were more likely to perpetrate emotional child abuse (45% vs. 12%). These findings may be, at least in part, explained in light of the Army Family Advocacy Program policy, which considers spouse offenders as also being emotional child abuse offenders since children may be traumatized by exposure to spouse abuse.

  19. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  20. Online solicitation offenders are different from child pornography offenders and lower risk contact sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Wood, J Michael; Babchishin, Kelly M; Flynn, Sheri

    2012-08-01

    The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not differ on other sociodemographic variables. In comparison to child pornography offenders, solicitation offenders had lower capacity for relationship stability and lower levels of sex drive/preoccupation and deviant sexual preference. Solicitation offenders were also more problematic than lower risk contact offenders on sex drive/preoccupation and capacity for relationship stability and had greater self-reported use of child pornography. Differences between groups on two actuarial risk measures, the Static-99 and the VASOR, were inconsistent. This study suggests that solicitation offenders differ in meaningful ways from lower risk contact offenders and child pornography offenders and, consequently, in risk, treatment, and supervision needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Comparing Sexual Offender Treatment Efficacy: Mainstream Sexual Offenders and Sexual Offenders with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This paper investigates the efficacy of a treatment program for sexual offenders with special needs in comparison to treatment outcomes for mainstream sexual offenders. Follow-up data is also presented for the group of offenders with special needs. Method: Participants from the two groups were matched on four variables (risk category,…

  2. Critical considerations in responding to crystal methamphetamine use in Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Sarah; Hengsen, Ross; Stephens, Raelene

    2017-07-01

    This article identifies factors that participants in a study based in an Australian regional centre believed to be critical to understanding and responding to crystal methamphetamine (ice) use among Aboriginal people. The study entailed a participatory methodology involving a university and an Aboriginal community controlled organisation. Semi-structured interviews conducted with ice users (n = 14), family members (n = 6) and workers (n = 6) were analysed thematically. Interviewees believed that historical trauma, contemporary disadvantage and racism cohere to produce a market for ice and other drugs within Aboriginal communities. Intense shame prevented some ice users and their families from seeking help, while fear about ice use was exacerbated when suppliers of ice threatened violence. Disconnection from family and community further intensified a sense of isolation and despair. By contrast, family reintegration provided ice users in the study with the strongest motivation for change. Although drawing only on a small sample of participants, the study suggests that Aboriginal people's experiences of ice use may have some distinct characteristics, meaning that tailored responses are required. Interventions should address the shame and ameliorate the fear that surround problematic ice use for families and users, provide help to those who feel trapped because of drug debts and relationships with dealers, and support families to maintain contact with ice users where this is manageable. Supports for users to remain connected to family and community are also critical. The effectiveness of family wellbeing interventions as adjuncts to treatment could be evaluated. [MacLean S, Hengsen R, Stephens R Critical considerations in responding to crystal methamphetamine use in Australian Aboriginal communities Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:502-508]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Validation of the Offending-Related Attitudes Questionnaire of CRIME-PICS II Scale (Chinese)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chui, Wing Hong; Wu, Joseph; Kwok, Yan Yuen; Liu, Liu

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the first part of the Chinese version of the CRIME-PICS II Scale, a self-administrated instrument assessing offending-related attitudes. Data were collected from three samples: male Hong Kong young offenders, female Mainland Chinese prisoners, and Hong Kong college students.…

  4. Validation of the Offending-Related Attitudes Questionnaire of CRIME-PICS II Scale (Chinese)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chui, Wing Hong; Wu, Joseph; Kwok, Yan Yuen; Liu, Liu

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the first part of the Chinese version of the CRIME-PICS II Scale, a self-administrated instrument assessing offending-related attitudes. Data were collected from three samples: male Hong Kong young offenders, female Mainland Chinese prisoners, and Hong Kong college students.…

  5. A Preliminary Examination of Specific Risk Assessment for Sexual Offenders against Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proeve, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Specific risk questions concerning sexual offending, such as risk of offending against male victims given identified female victims, have seldom been discussed in the child sexual abuse literature. Two approaches to specific risk questions are described: (a) conditional probability calculations, and (b) the development of risk assessment…

  6. A Preliminary Examination of Specific Risk Assessment for Sexual Offenders against Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proeve, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Specific risk questions concerning sexual offending, such as risk of offending against male victims given identified female victims, have seldom been discussed in the child sexual abuse literature. Two approaches to specific risk questions are described: (a) conditional probability calculations, and (b) the development of risk assessment…

  7. Differences in interpersonal distance among nonoffenders as a function of perceived violence of offenders.

    PubMed

    Skorjanc, A D

    1991-10-01

    A group of 39 female and 15 male undergraduate students took part in a study of the relationship between perceived violence of criminal offenders and interpersonal distance preferred by nonoffenders. Preferred interpersonal distance, measured for subjects informed that the person with whom they would be sitting in a room was either a violent offender, nonviolent offender, or nonoffender, was the number of seats subjects chose to sit from the person. Analysis of variance shows subjects preferred significantly less mean distance in the nonoffender condition versus either the nonviolent or violent offender conditions.

  8. The roles of victim and offender substance use in sexual assault outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brecklin, Leanne R; Ullman, Sarah E

    2010-08-01

    The impact of victim and offender preassault substance use on the outcomes of sexual assault incidents was analyzed. Nine hundred and seventy female sexual assault victims were identified from the first wave of a longitudinal study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Multivariate models showed that victim injury was more likely in assaults involving offender substance use (regardless of whether or not the victim was also using substances). Offender use of physical force and verbal threats were also related to greater odds of completed rape and injury, and force was associated with medical attention seeking. Based on this study, rape prevention programs should target men and focus on the role of substance use in sexual assault. These prevention programs should incorporate information on the roles of offender and victim substance use, offender aggression, and other situational factors in sexual assault outcomes. Study limitations and suggestions for future research on the role of victim and offender substance use in rape incidents are presented.

  9. Estimating age: college males versus convicted male child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Robert; Romero, Sergio; Patrick, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Two samples, male college students and convicted male child sex offenders, are compared on their abilities to accurately estimate the age group of a series of photographs of a sole female ranging in age from 11 to 29. Both samples tend to overestimate the age group of the subject photos, and no significant difference was found between college students and convicted child sex offenders in their ability to estimate the age of females. Both groups are compared demographically, and only limited differences were found. The implications are discussed in regard to theory and prevention of child sexual abuse.

  10. Effectiveness of sex offender treatment for psychopathic sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Doren, Dennis M; Yates, Pamela M

    2008-04-01

    Meta-analyses have suggested that sexual offender treatment (SOT) completion is associated with lowered sexual recidivism rates for convicted sexual offenders. The paucity of properly designed studies allows for the alternative explanation of less recidivism among treated samples as reflecting that lower risk offenders disproportionately self-select into treatment. A test of the "self-selection explanation" can occur by investigating treatment effect on known high-risk offenders. Psychopathy correlates with increased sexual recidivism risk, such that an exploration of the SOT effect on psychopathic offenders could clarify the accuracy of the self-selection hypothesis. Additionally, the debated degree to which psychopaths are treatable might obtain clarification by a research review. This article examines empirical findings concerning the effectiveness of SOT for psychopathic sexual offenders. Ten studies were found to meet the minimal quality standards used, stemming from only four data sources. Shortcomings of existing research precluded clear conclusions, though trends in the data are delineated.

  11. Methamphetamine use in a nationwide online sample of older Australian HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Pitts, Marian; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2013-11-01

    Use of methamphetamine appears to be greater among gay men than in the general population, yet little data are available on factors associated with use, especially among older men. This study identifies factors associated with reported methamphetamine use among older Australian gay men. Data were collected from an online survey involving 1135 HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay-identified men aged 40 years and older. One in eight men in the sample, or 13%, reported using methamphetamine in the past 12 months. Patterns of reported use were similar across the country, with no significant differences between major states and territories. Reported methamphetamine use was considerably more prevalent among HIV-positive (24%) than HIV-negative men (11%). In a multivariable logistic regression, reported use was significantly greater among men in their 40s compared with those in their 50s and older (P = 0.002), who were single as opposed to being in an ongoing relationship (P = 0.03), who were HIV-positive (P = 0.003), and who reported using other drugs for non-medical purposes in the past 12 months (P < 0.001). Socioeconomic status and psychosocial variables, such as experiences of discrimination and psychological distress, were not significant factors for reported methamphetamine use. Relatively high rates of reported use of methamphetamine were found across the country in this online sample of older Australian gay men. National approaches to health education strategies may be needed, with a focus on high prevalence populations, such as those infected with HIV. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Female Offenders in the Federal Correctional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Euphesenia

    The illustrated booklet provides a brief history of Federal prisons and of Federal women's prisons. There is statistical information on women prisoners classified by age, race, period of confinement, marital status, type of crime, and judicial district from which the commitment was made. Tables for the Federal Reformatory for Women, Alderson, West…

  13. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  14. Preintervention Profiles of Information, Motivational, and Behavioral Self-Efficacy for Methamphetamine Use and HIV Medication Adherence Among Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Millar, Brett M; Lassiter, Jonathan M; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-02-01

    Although rates of crystal methamphetamine use in the United States have fallen from their peak in the mid-2000s, use remains a major public health concern, which disproportionately affects gay and bisexual men (GBM). It poses a particular challenge for HIV-positive men, for whom it has been linked to medication adherence problems as well as compromised immune function. Although the information, motivation, and behavioral skills (IMB) model has been widely used to conceptualize health behavior, little is known about GBM's initial levels of information, motivation, and behavioral self-efficacy to improve HIV medication adherence and to reduce crystal methamphetamine use at the outset of treatment. The present study identified profiles of IMB factors related to HIV medication adherence and crystal methamphetamine use in a sample of 210 HIV-positive GBM who consented to participate in an intervention study. Results indicated three distinct patterns of IMB factors. The largest group was ready to change both adherence and methamphetamine use (n = 104). This group also had depression scores that were significantly lower than other groups. A second group appeared ready to change medication adherence, but was ambivalent about changing methamphetamine use (n = 60). This group reported significantly more symptoms of methamphetamine dependence than the other groups. A third group was characterized by global IMB barriers to change (n = 46). Results are discussed in the context of tailoring psychoeducation, motivational interviewing, and cognitive behavioral interventions to match these preintervention patterns of IMB factors.

  15. [Criminal recidivism among sexual offenders].

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Susanne; Lund, Jens

    2008-12-01

    No previous reports have been published on the rate, frequency and nature of long-term sexual recidivism for a large cohort of Danish sexual offenders who have been through a forensic psychiatric evaluation. A retrospective follow-up study of all male sexual offenders evaluated between 1st January 1978 and 31st December 1992 at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, or at the Clinic of Forensic Psychiatry, Ministry of Justice, Copenhagen (n = 441). Of the followed cohort (n = 342) 30% were sentenced for a new sexual criminal offence (including severe sexual acts), 17% for severe sexual acts, 32% for nonsexual violence and 61% for general crime during follow-up (average 16.5 years). There was a low rate of repeated sexual recidivism (12%) and severe sexual recidivism (6%). Extra-familial child molesters and exhibitionists had the highest risk of sexual recidivism and repeated sexual offences. Rapists had the highest risk of severe sexual recidivism and re-offended more rapidly than the other offender subgroups. Intra-familial child molesters had a low recidivism rate. Young offenders had a higher recidivism risk than older offenders. Severely mentally ill or retarded had a statistically lower rate of sexual recidivism than less disturbed offenders. The sexual recidivism rate varies across sexual offender types. The management and prevention of sexual recidivism need to focus on treatment of sexual offenders with the highest risk of severe and repeated sexual offences.

  16. Offenders' attachment and sexual abuse onset: a test of theoretical propositions.

    PubMed

    McKillop, Nadine; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard; Andjic, Ivana

    2012-12-01

    Confidential self-report data obtained on 107 adult male child sexual abusers were analyzed to test theoretical propositions concerning the role of attachment problems in the onset of sexual offending. Offenders' parent-child attachment relationships were most frequently characterized by affectionless control, reflecting low parental care and high overprotection and control. Offenders reported significantly less secure attachment with their fathers than with their mothers. Overall, weak continuity from childhood attachment to trait (general) adult attachment was found, with insecure attachment more stable than secure attachment. Childhood attachment problems, particularly with fathers, were more clearly reflected in state adult attachment (i.e., in the month preceding sexual offending onset) than in trait adult attachment. Offenders who were in an adult intimate relationship prior to their onset sexual offense reported significant state increases in attachment avoidance, and their onset offenses were more likely to involve a female familial victim. Offenders who were not in a relationship prior to offending onset were younger, and their onset sexual offenses occurred in much more diverse circumstances. These findings provide tentative evidence that directly and indirectly implicates offenders' attachment problems specifically in the onset of their sexual abuse behavior. Implications for developmental prevention and early intervention, situational prevention, and offender treatment are discussed.

  17. Meta-analysis of the association between methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behavior among heterosexuals.

    PubMed

    Hittner, James B

    2016-03-01

    A large body of research has found that nonheterosexual methamphetamine users engage in substantially higher levels of risky sex compared to nonusers. Considerably fewer studies have examined methamphetamine use and high-risk sex among heterosexuals. The present study is a meta-analysis of the empirical literature on methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behavior among heterosexual individuals. Four risky sex outcomes were examined: unprotected vaginal intercourse, unprotected anal sex, inconsistent condom use, and sex with multiple partners. Analysis of 24 studies (26 independent samples) including 286,781 individuals found that the pooled mean weighted odds ratios ranged from 1.37 (unprotected vaginal intercourse) to 1.72 (inconsistent condom use), indicating that the odds of engaging in risky sex for heterosexual methamphetamine users is, on average, between 37% and 72% greater than for nonmethamphetamine users. Date of publication, percentage of White Caucasian respondents, and sample size were significant moderators of effect size magnitude. Moreover, symmetry plots revealed little direct evidence for publication bias. It is recommended that future research explore additional categorical and continuous variables as potential moderators of effect size strength. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Emotions and Young Offenders' Suitability for Victim-Offender Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Tracey A.

    Although evidence indicates that Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM) provides an effective alternative to traditional sanctioning for young offenders, research investigating suitable candidates for VOM is lacking. Reintegrative shaming is theorized to be the mechanism underlying successful mediation; however, it is difficult to determine whether shame…

  19. Sexual Offending Theories and Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There have been limited theoretical developments with respect to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities [Lindsay (2005) Mental Retardation, Vol. 43, pp. 428-441], especially when compared with the development of theories for mainstream sexual offenders. This paper aims at examining a range of theories in their…

  20. Sexual Offending Theories and Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There have been limited theoretical developments with respect to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities [Lindsay (2005) Mental Retardation, Vol. 43, pp. 428-441], especially when compared with the development of theories for mainstream sexual offenders. This paper aims at examining a range of theories in their…

  1. Identifying the Psychosocial and Mental Health Needs of Young Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David M.; Pleydon, Anne

    This study examined the psychosocial, mental health, and intellectual characteristics of young offenders serving a sentence at Syl Apps Youth Centre, a secure custody facility. The sample comprised 50 youths, 37 males and 13 females. The index offenses were varied, but the majority were sentenced for a violent offense. The results showed that…

  2. Identifying the Psychosocial and Mental Health Needs of Young Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David M.; Pleydon, Anne

    This study examined the psychosocial, mental health, and intellectual characteristics of young offenders serving a sentence at Syl Apps Youth Centre, a secure custody facility. The sample comprised 50 youths, 37 males and 13 females. The index offenses were varied, but the majority were sentenced for a violent offense. The results showed that…

  3. Depression ratings, reported sexual risk behaviors, and methamphetamine use: latent growth curve models of positive change among gay and bisexual men in an outpatient treatment program.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Adi; Shoptaw, Steven; Stein, Judith; Reback, Cathy J; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin

    2007-06-01

    Although the cessation of substance use is the principal concern of drug treatment programs, many individuals in treatment experience co-occurring problems such as mood disruptions and sexual risk behaviors that may complicate their recovery process. This study assessed relationships among dynamic changes tracked over time in methamphetamine use, depression symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors (unprotected anal intercourse) in a sample of 145 methamphetamine-dependent gay and bisexual males enrolled in a 16-week outpatient drug treatment research program. Participants were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 conditions: contingency management (CM), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; the control condition), combined CM and CBT, and a tailored gay-specific version of the CBT condition. Using latent growth curve models, the authors assessed the relationship of means (intercepts) and the slopes of the 3 measures of interest over time to test whether changes in methamphetamine use predicted declining rates of depression and risky sexual behavior in tandem. Participants with the greatest downward trajectory in methamphetamine use (urine verified) reported the greatest and quickest decreases in reported depressive symptoms and sexual risk behaviors. The control group reported the most methamphetamine use over the 16 weeks; the tailored gay-specific group reported a more rapidly decreasing slope in methamphetamine use than the other participants. Findings indicate that lowering methamphetamine use itself has a concurrent and synergistic effect on depressive symptoms and risky sexual behavior patterns. This suggests that some users who respond well to treatment may show improvement in these co-occurring problems without a need for more intensive targeted interventions.

  4. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  5. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  6. Empathic competencies in violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Eva-Maria; Pfabigan, Daniela Melitta; Keckeis, Katinka; Wucherer, Anna Maria; Jahn, Thomas; Lamm, Claus; Derntl, Birgit

    2013-12-30

    Violent offending has often been associated with a lack of empathy, but experimental investigations are rare. The present study aimed at clarifying whether violent offenders show a general empathy deficit or specific deficits regarding the separate subcomponents. To this end, we assessed three core components of empathy (emotion recognition, perspective taking, affective responsiveness) as well as skin conductance response (SCR) in a sample of 30 male violent offenders and 30 healthy male controls. Data analysis revealed reduced accuracy in violent offenders compared to healthy controls only in emotion recognition, and that a high number of violent assaults was associated with decreased accuracy in perspective taking for angry scenes. SCR data showed reduced physiological responses in the offender group specifically for fear and disgust stimuli during emotion recognition and perspective taking. In addition, higher psychopathy scores in the violent offender group were associated with reduced accuracy in affective responsiveness. This is the first study to show that mainly emotion recognition is deficient in violent offenders whereas the other components of empathy are rather unaffected. This divergent impact of violent offending on the subcomponents of empathy suggests that all three empathy components can be targeted by therapeutic interventions separately.

  7. Children as Sex Offenders, Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deranek, Traci; Gilman, David A.

    This study investigates juvenile sex offenders and the predetermining factors that are present in their lives, prior to their first offenses. This study will give an overview of theories, children's sexual behaviors ranging from normal to disturbed, and family dynamics of juvenile offenders. The treatment files of boys and young men, currently in…

  8. Brain Dysfunction in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galski, Thomas; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to establish the connection between disordered sexuality and brain impairment by using newly developed techniques of neuropsychological investigation with sex offenders (n=35). Results indicated a major portion of the sex offenders showed impaired brain functioning on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. (Author/ABL)

  9. Criminal justice itreatment admissions for methamphetamine use in California: a focus on Proposition 36.

    PubMed

    Anglin, M Douglas; Urada, Darren; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Hawken, Angela; Rawson, Richard; Longshore, Douglas

    2007-11-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use is considered as one of the nation's most pressing drug problems. In California, MA use has outstripped all other drugs in epidemiological extent, law enforcement activities, and treatment services demand. An opportunity for further study of MA use and its treatment emerged from a change in offender sentencing options introduced by California's Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act of 2000 (SACPA). Results indicate that statewide admissions for MA rose from 8.4% in FY 1992/1993 to 34.6% in FY 2004/2005, a four-fold increase over the 13 years. From the year before SACPA implementation to the year after, the percentage of treatment admissions due to MA use increased from 18.8% to 25.6%, an increase largely due to the fact that SACPA admissions were over 50% MA users. With the exception of alcohol, MA users entering treatment through SACPA had higher completion rates (about one third) from community based treatment than users of other primary drugs. This result held true for demographic and other subgroups of MA users. Multivariate regression results illuminate the relative importance of the variables examined. Implication of the findings for policy, intervention services, and research are discussed.

  10. Deaf Sex Offenders in a Prison Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina; Vernon, McCay

    2003-01-01

    A study of 41 sex offenders who are deaf found the rate of sexual offending was 4 times the rate of sexual offending by hearing offenders, with 30% recidivism. Sixty-two percent of subjects were functionally illiterate. However, the performance IQs were comparable to those of the overall prison population. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  11. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  12. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  13. Deaf Sex Offenders in a Prison Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina; Vernon, McCay

    2003-01-01

    A study of 41 sex offenders who are deaf found the rate of sexual offending was 4 times the rate of sexual offending by hearing offenders, with 30% recidivism. Sixty-two percent of subjects were functionally illiterate. However, the performance IQs were comparable to those of the overall prison population. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. Youth Offender Demonstration Project Technical Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, Lois

    The Youth Offender Demonstration Project (YODP) combined oversight of youth offenders with services to support youth offenders' passage into the word of work by providing recommended social development strategies for youth offenders. YODP demonstration projects were funded in the following categories: (1) model community projects; (2) education…

  15. Community Maintenance Programs for Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Carollyne

    2013-01-01

    While optimism regarding the treatment of sexual offenders has increased over the past couple of decades, research into the factors that assist offenders in maintaining therapeutic changes remains in the dark. Maintenance programs for offenders, while theoretically appearing to have a solid place in offender rehabilitation, surprisingly have not…

  16. Community Maintenance Programs for Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Carollyne

    2013-01-01

    While optimism regarding the treatment of sexual offenders has increased over the past couple of decades, research into the factors that assist offenders in maintaining therapeutic changes remains in the dark. Maintenance programs for offenders, while theoretically appearing to have a solid place in offender rehabilitation, surprisingly have not…

  17. Interventions for alcohol-related offending by women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McMurran, Mary; Riemsma, Rob; Manning, Nathan; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos

    2011-08-01

    Treatment programmes specifically for women offenders are under-developed. A systematic review of studies that could inform interventions for alcohol-related offending by women is reported. Three questions were addressed: 1) What is the most up to date knowledge of 'what works' with females who commit alcohol-related offences? 2) What are the identifiable risk-needs factors for non-alcohol dependent women who commit offences involving alcohol misuse? 3) Are there differences between male and female alcohol-related offending? Four studies addressed the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions; three addressed identifiable risk-needs; and 19 addressed differences between male and female offenders' alcohol-related offending. Heterogeneity of these studies precluded meta-analyses, and so a narrative synthesis method was used. There is insufficient evidence to answer the question of what treatment works with women who commit alcohol-related offences. Drunk-driving is most widely studied, and women offenders appear to have more psychosocial problems than men. Alcohol increases the likelihood of violence for both men and women, and, while the mechanisms whereby alcohol increases the likelihood of violence are likely the same in men and women, the effect may be moderated by gender-associated issues. Again, women offenders appear to have more psychosocial problems than men. Implications for developing interventions are discussed.

  18. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.

  19. [Outcome assessment in the Spanish young offenders' law. Recidivism and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Amaia; Sierra, María Jesús; del Valle, Jorge F

    2009-11-01

    The present study aims to assess the impact of the Spanish young offenders law (LO/2000). Recidivism and its associated risk factors were used as indicators of impact. Data were collected from young offenders' reports opened after 2001 and closed before 2005. The final sample consisted of 382 young offenders (327 males and 55 females). Results indicated that 70% had not re-offended in an average period of 1.6 years. Most of the youngsters with fewer risk factors, usually start their criminal careers with less serious offences and the interventions seemed to be fairly effective. In the cases of young offenders with a higher number of risk factors, the interventions (custodial and non-custodial) were less effective, as recidivism rates were higher. Interventions must focus on family and community contexts in order to achieve adequate social integration of young delinquents.

  20. Relationship factors in sex offender couples: a pilot study in an outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Iffland, Judith Antonia; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that sex offenders' relationships are often unstable and superficial. Sex offenders are portrayed as showing little empathy toward their partners and being incapable of sharing intimacy. This study aimed to explore sex offenders' intimate relationships and identify potential stabilizing factors in an outpatient setting. In an exploratory pilot study, the authors used standardized instruments to assess 17 heterosexual sex offenders and their intimate partners. Results indicate that both partners rate high in attachment anxiety. The authors found a high level of correlation between both partners with regard to attachment avoidance. The sex offender couples demonstrate similarly low scores for "dominance, pugnaciousness, and aggression" in intimate relationships, and the female partners revealed high neuroticism and conscientiousness scores.

  1. Female serial murderers: directions for future research on a hidden population.

    PubMed

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2011-02-01

    This comprehensive overview on a sample of 65 cases (134 total offenders, including some partnered teams of more than 2 offenders) provides information on female serial murderers who either work in a mixed-sex offending group or alone. These female serial homicide offenders have a distinct set of offender-victim characteristics, including specific victim preferences, methods, and motivations: Partnered serial homicide offenders are more likely to target adult strangers and dispatch them using a combination of methods, whereas solo female serial murderers are most likely to target adult family members and murder them with poison. These patterns have the potential to add to our understanding of the possible similarities and differences of serial homicide cases by building on established offender characteristics. Convictions and sentences for the offenders are included and areas of future research and implications for treatment with this sample are also explored.

  2. Are offending trajectories identified in population sample studies relevant for treatment settings? A comparison of long-term offending trajectories in individuals treated for substance abuse in adolescence, to a matched general population sample.

    PubMed

    Molero, Yasmina; Larsson, Agne; Tengström, Anders; Eklund, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Most studies on offending heterogeneity have been conducted with general population samples. It is not clear to what extent these can inform such outcomes for individuals with substance use disorders specifically. The aim of this study is to compare the offending trajectories of individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence with a matched general population sample, and to test for gender differences in this respect. Growth mixture models were applied to identify offending trajectories from age 15 to 33 of 1568 individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence, and in a matched population-based sample of 1500 individuals. Several parallel trajectories for men and for women were identified in both samples. The substance misuse treatment sample, however, had higher levels of offending, larger offender classes, longer careers and two additional, distinct trajectories. Although there were similarities between the men and women, the men were more heterogeneous offenders. There were two distinct offending trajectories among male substance misusers-decreasing high level and decreasing low level offending. Differences between substance using and general population samples indicate that results from the latter could underestimate the severity, heterogeneity, and persistence of offending trajectories if merely generalised to individuals with substance use disorders. Our results also indicated that population--based samples might be underpowered for detecting female offending heterogeneity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Life satisfaction and status among adolescent law offenders.

    PubMed

    Buunk, Abraham P; Peiró, José María; Rocabert, Esperanza; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2016-04-01

    Life satisfaction among young offenders may be affected by the subjective experience of their social status and by the feeling of being a 'loser' compared with others, but it is not clear what variables affect such experiences in this group. To examine relationships of type of sentence (prison or probation) and of gender with subjective social status, sense of defeat and life satisfaction among young offenders. One hundred and five participants were randomly selected from a cohort of young offenders, stratifying for sentence type and for gender. They were interviewed by trained and experienced interviewers. Young people in a correctional facility experienced lower life satisfaction and greater sense of defeat than those on probation. Independently of judicial measure, low life satisfaction was correlated with sense of defeat among young men but not young women, whereas among young women, but not young men, low life satisfaction was associated with low subjective status. Our findings of a correlation between sentence type and life satisfaction needs new, longitudinal research to determine the direction of this relationship. Whether low life satisfaction is predictive of a custodial disposal for young offenders or such a sentence lowers life satisfaction, those trying to supervise or help these young people may need to take account of it. Further, our findings suggest that young male and young female offenders should perhaps be treated in different ways to improve their sense of satisfaction with life, which may, in turn, reduce their risk of reoffending. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Survival Tactics and Strategies of Methamphetamine-Using HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Gideonse, Theodore K.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, two ways that HIV-positive drug users survive under the supervision of law enforcement agencies, community health organizations, and social welfare offices are differentiated. First, strategies are long-ranging and often carefully planned, and they involve conscious utilization and manipulation of bureaucratic processes. Second, tactics are short-ranging and often haphazard, and they are used to survive on daily or weekly bases, with entrenched problems and structural solutions avoided or ignored. Data from three years of ethnographic fieldwork with 14 methamphetamine-using HIV-positive men who have sex with men in San Diego, California is used to expand upon these two categories, explaining the different, often ineffectual, ways these men accessed care, services, shelter, drugs, and companionship. This article also examines the policy implications of taking in consideration these different kinds of survival methods, arguing for intensive client-specific interventions when working with long-term addicts with multiple health problems. PMID:26421928

  5. Survival Tactics and Strategies of Methamphetamine-Using HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Gideonse, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, two ways that HIV-positive drug users survive under the supervision of law enforcement agencies, community health organizations, and social welfare offices are differentiated. First, strategies are long-ranging and often carefully planned, and they involve conscious utilization and manipulation of bureaucratic processes. Second, tactics are short-ranging and often haphazard, and they are used to survive on daily or weekly bases, with entrenched problems and structural solutions avoided or ignored. Data from three years of ethnographic fieldwork with 14 methamphetamine-using HIV-positive men who have sex with men in San Diego, California is used to expand upon these two categories, explaining the different, often ineffectual, ways these men accessed care, services, shelter, drugs, and companionship. This article also examines the policy implications of taking in consideration these different kinds of survival methods, arguing for intensive client-specific interventions when working with long-term addicts with multiple health problems.

  6. Pilot trial of an expressive writing intervention with HIV-positive methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Carrico, Adam W; Nation, Austin; Gómez, Walter; Sundberg, Jeffrey; Dilworth, Samantha E; Johnson, Mallory O; Moskowitz, Judith T; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2015-06-01

    Among men who have sex with men (MSM), the co-occurrence of trauma and stimulant use has negative implications for HIV/AIDS prevention. HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using MSM were recruited to pilot test a 7-session, multicomponent resilient affective processing (RAP) intervention that included expressive writing exercises targeting HIV-related traumatic stress. An open-phase pilot with 10 participants provided support for feasibility of intervention delivery such that 99% of the RAP sessions were completed in a 1-month period. Subsequently, 23 additional participants were enrolled in a pilot randomized controlled trial of the RAP intervention (n = 12) versus an attention-control condition that included writing exercises about neutral topics (n = 11). Acceptability was evidenced by participants randomized to RAP expressing significantly more negative emotions in their writing and reporting greater likelihood of recommending expressive writing exercises to a friend living with HIV. Over the 3-month follow-up period, attention-control participants reported significant decreases in HIV-related traumatic stress while RAP intervention participants reported no significant changes. Compared to attention-control participants, those in the RAP intervention reported significant reductions in the frequency of methamphetamine use immediately following the 1-month RAP intervention period. Thematic analyses of RAP expressive writing exercises revealed that multiple negative life events characterized by social stigma or loss contribute to the complex nature of HIV-related traumatic stress. Findings support the feasibility and acceptability of an exposure-based intervention targeting HIV-related traumatic stress. However, more intensive intervention approaches that simultaneously target trauma and stimulant use will likely be needed to optimize HIV/AIDS prevention efforts with this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Pilot Trial of an Expressive Writing Intervention with HIV-positive Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Adam W.; Nation, Austin; Gómez, Walter; Sundberg, Jeffrey; Dilworth, Samantha E.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2017-01-01

    Among men who have sex with men (MSM), the co-occurrence of trauma and stimulant use has negative implications for HIV/AIDS prevention. HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using MSM were recruited to pilot test a 7-session, multi-component resilient affective processing (RAP) intervention that included expressive writing exercises targeting HIV-related traumatic stress. An open-phase pilot with 10 participants provided support for feasibility of intervention delivery such that 99% of the RAP sessions were completed in a 1-month period. Subsequently, 23 additional participants were enrolled in a pilot randomized controlled trial of the RAP intervention (n = 12) versus an attention-control condition that included writing exercises about neutral topics (n = 11). Acceptability was evidenced by participants randomized to RAP expressing significantly more negative emotions in their writing and reporting greater likelihood of recommending expressive writing exercises to a friend living with HIV. Over the 3-month follow-up period, attention-control participants reported significant decreases in HIV-related traumatic stress while RAP intervention participants reported no significant changes. Compared to attention-control participants, those in the RAP intervention reported significant reductions in the frequency of methamphetamine use immediately following the 1-month RAP intervention period. Thematic analyses of RAP expressive writing exercises revealed that multiple negative life events characterized by social stigma or loss contribute to the complex nature of HIV-related traumatic stress. Findings support the feasibility and acceptability of an exposure-based intervention targeting HIV-related traumatic stress. However, more intensive intervention approaches that simultaneously target trauma and stimulant use will likely be needed to optimize HIV/AIDS prevention efforts with this population. PMID:25437153

  8. Risk factors associated with methamphetamine use and heart failure among native Hawaiians and other Pacific Island peoples.

    PubMed

    Mau, Marjorie K; Asao, Karynna; Efird, Jimmy; Saito, Erin; Ratner, Robert; Hafi, Muhannad; Seto, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), a long term outcome of chronic methamphetamine use (MU), occurs more frequently in racial and ethnic minority populations at high risk for cardiovascular disparities. This study examined the association of socio-demographic and clinical risk factors with MU among heart failure patients who are Native Hawaiians (NH) or other Pacific Island peoples (PIP). DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENT POPULATION: Cross-sectional study of NHs and PIPs with advanced heart failure enrolled in the Malama Pu'uwai Study, a randomized control trial to test an educational intervention to reduce re-hospitalization and/or death. A total of 82 participants were enrolled between 6/1/06 to 12/31/07 and met the following eligibility criteria: 1) self-identified NH or PIP, 2) Left ventricular systolic ejection fraction Methamphetamine use. Twenty-two percent of HF participants were identified as being current or prior methamphetamine users. Younger age and non-married status (combined never married or divorced/separated) were independently associated with MU after adjustment for sex, education, and other co-morbidities associated with HF (ie, age >50 years, OR = 0.16, 95% CI, 0.03-0.84; non-married status combined as never married OR = 8.5, CI, 1.5-47; divorced/separated OR = 11, CI 1.8-75). RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MU IN NH AND PIPS WITH HEART FAILURE INCLUDE: younger age and being divorced/separated or never married. Health care providers should be aware of MU as a contributing factor in the approach and treatment of HF in NHs and PIPs.

  9. A comparison of pattern of psychiatric symptoms in inpatients with bipolar disorder type one with & without methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Gouran Ourimi, Elham; Shabani, Amir; Alavi, Kaveh; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Mirfazeli, Fatemehsadat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Iran is facing an outbreak of methamphetamine-induced disorders and frequent use of these substances in patients with bipolar disorder. Using or intoxication of methamphetamine in patients with bipolar I disorder may alter the patient's clinical profile; however there is limited studies about impact of methamphetamine on clinical manifestation of bipolar disorders. This study aimed to compare psychiatric symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder with and without concomitant use of methamphetamine. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, psychiatric symptoms of bipolar I disorder in patients with (Meth+) and without (Meth-) methamphetamine use was evaluated. A number of 57 participants with Meth + and 50 subjects with Meth- were recruited. The clinical picture of bipolar disorder was investigated by Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), 17-item Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Statistical comparisons were performed using the T-test for independent samples and Mann- Whitney test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding age, duration of illness and hospitalizations. However, male participants were significantly higher in Meth+ group than in Meth- one (p<0.001). The mean (± SD) scores in the two groups of Meth+ and Meth- for YMRS, HDRS, and SAPS were 31.3 (±1.3) and 34.0 (±1.2), 13.7 (±0.7) and 13.5±(0.5), and 50.0 (±1.9) and 48.0 (±2.1), respectively, which were not statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the overall clinical manifestation of bipolar I disorder in patients with and without methamphetamine use. However, in some symptomatology domains, there were some differences between the two groups.

  10. Pilot randomized controlled trial of an integrative intervention with methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Carrico, Adam W; Gómez, Walter; Siever, Michael D; Discepola, Michael V; Dilworth, Samantha E; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2015-10-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based intervention that provides tangible rewards as positive reinforcement for biologically confirmed abstinence from substance use. Integrative approaches targeting positive affect regulation could boost the effectiveness of CM by sensitizing individuals to non-drug-related sources of reward and assisting them with effectively managing symptoms of withdrawal. This pilot randomized controlled trial with 21 methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) examined the feasibility and acceptability of a 5-session, positive affect intervention delivered during CM-Affect Regulation Treatment to Enhance Methamphetamine Intervention Success (ARTEMIS). After completing 4 weeks of a 12-week CM program, participants were randomized to receive ARTEMIS+CM (n = 12) or CM-only (n = 9). Those randomized to receive the ARTEMIS positive affect intervention completed 98 % of sessions and reported marginally significant increases in positive affect over the five sessions. In exit interviews with ARTEMIS+CM participants, individuals noted that the positive affect regulation skills increased self-awareness and led to greater engagement in the recovery process. ARTEMIS+CM participants reported significant increases in positive affect and CM-only participants reported significant reductions in negative affect over a 2-month follow-up. These affective changes were not maintained, and no concurrent effects on stimulant use or sexual risk taking were observed over the 6-month follow-up. More definitive clinical research is necessary to examine the efficacy of ARTEMIS+CM with methamphetamine-using MSM.

  11. A comparison of pattern of psychiatric symptoms in inpatients with bipolar disorder type one with & without methamphetamine use

    PubMed Central

    Gouran Ourimi, Elham; Shabani, Amir; Alavi, Kaveh; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Mirfazeli, Fatemehsadat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Iran is facing an outbreak of methamphetamine-induced disorders and frequent use of these substances in patients with bipolar disorder. Using or intoxication of methamphetamine in patients with bipolar I disorder may alter the patient's clinical profile; however there is limited studies about impact of methamphetamine on clinical manifestation of bipolar disorders. This study aimed to compare psychiatric symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder with and without concomitant use of methamphetamine. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, psychiatric symptoms of bipolar I disorder in patients with (Meth+) and without (Meth-) methamphetamine use was evaluated. A number of 57 participants with Meth + and 50 subjects with Meth- were recruited. The clinical picture of bipolar disorder was investigated by Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), 17-item Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Statistical comparisons were performed using the T-test for independent samples and Mann- Whitney test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding age, duration of illness and hospitalizations. However, male participants were significantly higher in Meth+ group than in Meth- one (p<0.001). The mean (± SD) scores in the two groups of Meth+ and Meth- for YMRS, HDRS, and SAPS were 31.3 (±1.3) and 34.0 (±1.2), 13.7 (±0.7) and 13.5±(0.5), and 50.0 (±1.9) and 48.0 (±2.1), respectively, which were not statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the overall clinical manifestation of bipolar I disorder in patients with and without methamphetamine use. However, in some symptomatology domains, there were some differences between the two groups. PMID:28210586

  12. Community-based harm reduction substance abuse treatment with methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Carrico, Adam W; Flentje, Annesa; Gruber, Valerie A; Woods, William J; Discepola, Michael V; Dilworth, Samantha E; Neilands, Torsten B; Jain, Jennifer; Siever, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    Harm reduction approaches endeavor to assist individuals with avoiding the most detrimental consequences of risk taking behaviors, but limited research has documented the outcomes of harm reduction substance abuse treatment. In total, 211 methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in two outcome studies of substance abuse treatment programs that were implementing an evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention (i.e., the Matrix Model) from a harm reduction perspective. Study 1 (N = 123) examined changes in self-reported substance use, Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite scores, and HIV care indicators over a 12-month follow-up. Study 2 (N = 88) assessed changes in substance use, sexual risk taking, and HIV care indicators over a 6-month follow-up. Participants in study 1 reported reductions in cocaine/crack use as well as decreases in the ASI drug and employment composite scores. Among HIV-positive participants in study 1 (n = 75), 47 % initiated or consistently utilized anti-retroviral therapy and this was paralleled by significant increases in self-reported undetectable HIV viral load. Study 2 participants reported reductions in methamphetamine use, erectile dysfunction medication use in combination with other substances, and sexual risk-taking behavior while using methamphetamine. Participants in both studies reported concurrent increases in marijuana use. Taken together, these studies are among the first to observe that clients may reduce stimulant use and concomitant sexual risk-taking behavior during harm reduction substance abuse treatment. Randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the differential effectiveness of harm reduction and abstinence-based approaches to substance abuse treatment.

  13. Increased prevalence of self-reported psychotic illness predicted by crystal methamphetamine use: Evidence from a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Julia M; Roxburgh, Amanda; Kaye, Sharlene; Chalmers, Jenny; Sara, Grant; Dobbins, Timothy; Burns, Lucinda; Farrell, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The potential of methamphetamine, and high-potency crystal methamphetamine in particular, to precipitate psychotic symptoms and psychotic illness is the subject of much speculation internationally. Established psychotic illness is disabling for individuals and costly to society. The aim of this study was to investigate whether use of crystal methamphetamine was associated with greater prevalence of self-reported psychotic illness, compared to use of other forms of methamphetamine. The sample comprised participants interviewed as part of an annual cross-sectional survey of Australian people who inject drugs. Comparisons were made between groups according to the nature of their methamphetamine use: crystal methamphetamine or other forms of methamphetamine. Self-reported diagnoses of psychotic illness and other mental health problems were compared between groups. Predictors of self-reported psychotic illness were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Self-reported psychotic illness was highly prevalent among users of crystal methamphetamine (12.0%), and significantly more so than among users of other forms of methamphetamine (3.9%) (OR=3.36; CI: 1.03-10.97). Significant predictors of self-reported psychosis in the cohort were: use of crystal methamphetamine; dependent use; lack of education beyond high school; and younger age. Highly increased prevalence of self-reported psychotic illness is associated with use of high-potency crystal methamphetamine in people who inject drugs, particularly where there is dependent use. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions for dependent crystal methamphetamine use; and a need to monitor for symptoms of psychotic illness in drug-using populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of impulsivity, depressive symptoms, lifetime stress and sensation seeking in healthy controls versus participants with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, James J; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Cooper, Kimberly; Verrico, Christopher D; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has focused on developing theories of addiction that may explain behavior in cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent individuals. The primary goal of this report was to compare and contrast the prevalence of self-reported measures of impulsivity, depression, lifetime stress and sensation-seeking in healthy controls versus individuals with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders. Twenty-nine individuals with cocaine use disorders and 31 individuals with methamphetamine use disorders were matched with 31 healthy control participants on several demographic variables. All participants were administered behavioral questionnaires including the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (assessing impulsivity), Beck Depression Inventory II (assessing depression), Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (assessing lifetime stress) and the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Scale (assessing sensation-seeking). When compared to healthy controls, individuals with cocaine and methamphetamine use disorders had significantly higher levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking. In addition, when compared to healthy controls, individuals with cocaine use disorders had significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory II scores, while individuals with methamphetamine use disorders had significantly higher Life Stressor Checklist-Revised scores. The results revealed that there were significantly higher levels of impulsivity, depression and sensation-seeking in cocaine users and significantly higher impulsivity, lifetime stress and sensation-seeking in methamphetamine users when compared to healthy controls.

  15. Crystal methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men in South Florida.

    PubMed

    Forrest, David W; Metsch, Lisa R; LaLota, Marlene; Cardenas, Gabriel; Beck, Dano W; Jeanty, Yves

    2010-05-01

    Using data collected through venue-based sampling in South Florida from 2004 to 2005 as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Among Men Who Have Sex with Men, we estimate the prevalence of crystal methamphetamine use and its association with high-risk sexual behaviors among a large and diverse sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in South Florida. We also examine how these associations differ between HIV-positive and HIV-negative men. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the characteristics of study participants and their sexual risk behaviors by drug use and self-reported HIV status group. Of 946 MSM participants in South Florida, 18% reported crystal methamphetamine use in the past 12 months. Regardless of self-reported HIV status, crystal methamphetamine users were more likely to report high-risk sexual behaviors, an increased number of non-main sex partners, and being high on drugs and/or alcohol at last sex act with a non-main partner. Our findings indicate that crystal methamphetamine use is prevalent among the MSM population in South Florida, and this prevalence rate is similar, if not higher, than that found in US cities that have been long recognized for having a high rate of crystal methamphetamine use among their MSM populations. Notably, the use of crystal methamphetamine among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM is associated with increased HIV-related risk behaviors.

  16. Sex Differences in the Personality and Cognitive Characteristics of First-Time DWI Offenders.

    PubMed

    Brown, Thomas G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Nadeau, Louise; Tremblay, Jacques; Pruessner, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) is a significant yet preventable public health problem. The overrepresentation of males among DWI offenders has been attributed in part to greater sensation seeking and impulsivity features in males, although recent evidence points to increasing female DWI events. Studies exploring sex differences in DWI to better understand and intervene in these trends are rare and often methodologically lacking. This study examined sex differences among first-time DWI offenders by testing the hypotheses that, compared with non-DWI drivers, male offending is primarily associated with greater impulsive and sensation-seeking personality features and response disinhibition, whereas female offending is primarily associated with greater alcohol misuse. Male and female drivers ages 18-44 years convicted of a first DWI offense (n = 217) and non-DWI driver controls (n = 79) were recruited and compared on measures of psychosocial characteristics, substance use, personality, and response inhibition. In partial support of our hypotheses, greater alcohol misuse severity was found in female DWI offenders compared with female non-DWI drivers but an equivalent effect was not detected in males. Counter to hypothesis, greater impulsivity, sensation seeking, and response disinhibition were not found in male non-DWI drivers compared with male non-DWI drivers. Unexpectedly, greater impulsivity was found in female DWI offenders compared with female DWI drivers. Little evidence was found for impulsivity, sensation seeking, and response disinhibition being factors that directly explain higher rates of DWI offending in males. In contrast, more marked alcohol misuse and trait impulsivity in female DWI drivers suggest a greater vulnerability to uncontrolled drinking leading to dangerous driving. These findings represent a basis for examining sex-related responsivity to distinct approaches to DWI prevention.

  17. Comparing male and female juveniles charged with homicide: child maltreatment, substance abuse, and crime details.

    PubMed

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-04-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders, female juvenile homicide offenders have higher rates of reported childhood abuse, more serious substance abuse, and mental health problems including suicidal ideations, depression, anxiety, anger, and irritability. Male juvenile homicide offenders reported higher rates of substance use than their female counterparts but the females had more serious substance abuse problems. Female juveniles were found to more often kill a person known to them and male homicide offenders were found to more often kill a stranger. These findings suggest strongly that male and female juvenile homicide offenders are dissimilar and require unique assessment and treatment.

  18. Informal Education with Young Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David

    1994-01-01

    The example of an environmental conservation program for young offenders demonstrates the efficacy of group activities in enhancing self-esteem and coping skills and in enabling transition out of the custodial environment. (SK)

  19. Assessing risk of recidivism among juvenile offenders: the development and validation of the recidivism risk instrument.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lela Rankin; LeCroy, Craig W; Vivian, John P

    2014-01-01

    A recidivism risk instrument was developed and validated on a sample of juvenile offenders (N = 1,987) based on the need to classify juveniles by their likelihood of re-offense. Female recidivism (R(2) = 27%) was predicted by younger age at first expulsion from school, history of parent incarceration, gang involvement, felony class offense, and firearm use. Male recidivism (R(2) = 12%) was predicted by younger age at first adjudication, referrals, school suspensions, history of maternal incarceration, firearm use, running away, gang involvement, and destroying property/stealing. Cross-validation analyses indicated that high-risk offenders recidivated at more than five times the rate of low-risk offenders.

  20. What Keeps Them Together? Insights into Sex Offender Couples Using Qualitative Content Analyses.

    PubMed

    Iffland, J A; Berner, W; Dekker, A; Briken, P

    2016-08-17

    Research on sex offenders' relationships is scarce. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate sex offenders' relationships as well as their female partners' adjustment strategies by means of interview analysis. Both partners profit from the relationship in terms of mutual support and acceptance. The sexual offense is a taboo subject, and the female partners were found to demonstrate cognitive distortions. The imbalance of power found in the sex offenders' relationships is discussed, as is the finding that those sexual offenders interviewed live out their need for dominance and sometimes their aggression. The women interviewed were found to cling to their partners as a result of their insecure attachment style. We discuss couples counseling and therapy as possibilities for addressing the imbalance of power and casting light upon the sexual aspect of the relationship.

  1. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Assessing Youth Who Sexually Offended

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kynaston; Fong, June; Teoh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggested that the predictive validity of adult sexual offender risk assessment measures can be affected when used cross-culturally, but there is no published study on the predictive validity of risk assessment measures for youth who sexually offended in a non-Western context. This study compared the predictive validity of three youth risk assessment measures (i.e., the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism [ERASOR], the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II [J-SOAP-II], and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory [YLS/CMI]) for sexual and nonviolent recidivism in a sample of 104 male youth who sexually offended within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,637 days; SD follow-up = 491). Results showed that the ERASOR overall clinical rating and total score significantly predicted sexual recidivism but only the former significantly predicted time to sexual reoffense. All of the measures (i.e., the ERASOR overall clinical rating and total score, the J-SOAP-II total score, as well as the YLS/CMI) significantly predicted nonsexual recidivism and time to nonsexual reoffense for this sample of youth who sexually offended. Overall, the results suggest that the ERASOR appears to be suited for assessing youth who sexually offended in a non-Western context, but the J-SOAP-II and the YLS/CMI have limited utility for such a purpose. PMID:21825111

  3. Deconstructing Incidents of Female Perpetrated Sex Crimes.

    PubMed

    Budd, Kristen M; Bierie, David M; Williams, Katria

    2017-04-01

    Very little is known about co-offending by female sexual offenders (FSOs), especially in terms of diverse forms of offender groupings. To address this gap in the literature, this study uses 21 years (1992-2012) of National Incident-Based Reporting System data to analyze incidents of sexual offending committed by four female groupings: solo FSOs ( n = 29,238), coed pairs consisting of one male and one FSO ( n = 11,112), all-female groups ( n = 2,669), and multiple perpetrator groups that consist of a combination of three or more FSOs and male sexual offenders (MSOs; n = 4,268). Using a multinomial logistic regression model, the data show significant differences in offender, victim, and crime context incident characteristics. The data also indicate that incidents with solo FSOs and all-female groups have similar characteristics, coed pairs and multiple perpetrator incidents have similar characteristics, and these two categorizations are fairly distinct from one another. Implications of this research are discussed in addition to directions for future research on female sexual offending.

  4. Dyadic Violence and Readiness to Change among Male Intimate Partner Violence Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although readiness to change is associated with mandated partner violence treatment compliance and subsequent violent behavior among male offenders (e.g., Eckhardt et al., 2004; Scott & Wolfe, 2003), our understanding of the factors associated with pretreatment change remains limited. Offender research indicates that individual and dyadic violent behavior are highly variable and that such variability may provide insight into levels of pretreatment change (Archer, 2002; Holtzworth-Monroe & Stuart, 1994). Aims/Hypotheses We sought to examine the associations between indicators of change and individual as well as dyadic violence frequency in a sample of male partner violence offenders. Method To determine whether severity and perceived concordance in the use of violence among male offenders and their female partners influenced readiness to change at pretreatment, 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence were recruited into the current study and administered measures of readiness to change violent behavior (Revised Safe at Home Scale; Begun et al., 2008) as well as partner violence experiences (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Straus et al., 1996). Results Analyses revealed an interaction between offender-reported male and female violence in the prediction of pretreatment readiness to change such that greater male violence was associated with greater readiness to change among males who reported that their female partners perpetrated low, but not high, levels of violence. Consistently, greater female violence was associated with lower readiness to change only among the most violent male offenders. Conclusions and Implications for Clinical Practice Results provide support for the assertion that the most violent offenders may be the most resistant to partner violence intervention efforts, particularly when they perceive themselves to be victims as well. Enhanced motivational and couples programming may facilitate treatment

  5. Comparing patterns and predictors of immigrant offending among a sample of adjudicated youth.

    PubMed

    Bersani, Bianca E; Loughran, Thomas A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-11-01

    Research on immigration and crime has only recently started to consider potential heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns of immigrant offending. Guided by segmented assimilation and life course criminology frameworks, this article advances prior research on the immigration-crime nexus in three ways: using a large sample of high-risk adjudicated youth containing first and second generation immigrants; examining longitudinal trajectories of official and self-reported offending; and merging segmented assimilation and life course theories to distinguish between offending patterns. Data come from the Pathways to Desistance study containing detailed offending and socio-demographic background information on 1,354 adolescents (13.6 % female; n = 1,061 native-born; n = 210 second generation immigrants; n = 83 first generation immigrants) as they transition to young adulthood (aged 14-17 at baseline). Over 84 months we observe whether patterns of offending, and the correlates that may distinguish them, operate differently across immigrant generations. Collectively, this study offers the first investigation of whether immigrants, conditioned on being adjudicated, are characterized by persistent offending. Results show that first generation immigrants are less likely to be involved in serious offending and to evidence persistence in offending, and appear to be on a path toward desistance much more quickly than their peers. Further, assimilation and neighborhood disadvantage operate in unique ways across generational status and relate to different offending styles. The findings show that the risk for persistent offending is greatest among those with high levels of assimilation who reside in disadvantaged contexts, particularly among the second generation youth in the sample.

  6. Comparing sexual offender treatment efficacy: mainstream sexual offenders and sexual offenders with special needs.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Jenny A; Rose, John L; Beech, Anthony R

    2007-06-01

    This paper investigates the efficacy of a treatment program for sexual offenders with special needs in comparison to treatment outcomes for mainstream sexual offenders. Follow-up data is also presented for the group of offenders with special needs. Participants from the two groups were matched on four variables (risk category, sex of victim, type of offence and age). All participants completed an assessment battery pre- and post-treatment and the scores on these tests were analysed for each group. Change on these measures was also compared between the two groups. Follow-up data for the special needs cohort were collected from an offender database. Overall, both groups made few significant changes on the tests post-treatment, however individual results demonstrated that some offenders in both groups had achieved reliable change. In comparing treatment results between the two groups, the sexual offenders with special needs differed only on progress relating to "avoidant" relationship styles. The results also indicated that social desirability bias played a significant role in self-report assessment for both groups. Follow-up data for the group with special needs identified that none of the offenders had committed further sexual offences, after an average release time of 16 months. There are a number of limitations to this study, particularly as a result of the experimental design and the small number of participants, and these should be considered as a major limitation on the conclusions drawn from the results. However, it is suggested that the program had some positive effects for some offenders, with little difference in progress detected between the two groups. Possible explanations for the varied outcomes are discussed.

  7. Female Adolescent Friendship and Delinquent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleydon, Anne P.; Schner, Joseph G.

    2001-01-01

    Young female offenders (n=29) and female high school students (n=47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Results indicated friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents. (BF)

  8. PTSD and re-offending risk: the mediating role of worry and a negative perception of other people's support.

    PubMed

    Ardino, Vittoria; Milani, Luca; Di Blasio, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are mainly focused on victims of trauma. Very few studies explored the links between PTSD symptoms and re-offending risk in perpetrators of violence. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of PTSD symptoms on re-offending risk in prisoner populations with a focus on indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people's support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. 75 prisoners (25 females, mean age: 44.36 years; 50 males, mean age: 34.7 years) were assessed for exposure to child abuse and neglect, PTSD symptoms, worry, a negative perception of other people's support and re-offending risk. Mediation analyses tested the indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people's support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. 72% participants presented PTSD symptoms and 30.7% were at risk of re-offending. Mediation analyses supported the hypothesis of a mediation pathway from PTSD to worry and a negative perception of other people's support to an increased risk of re-offending. The results indicate that prisoners report high rates of PTSD symptoms; furthermore, they highlight an important relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Findings suggest that future research should test further the indirect effects of negative cognitive and emotional states on the relationship of PTSD and re-offending risk and explore more in depth the role of PTSD to assess and treat prisoners.

  9. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  10. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  11. Alcohol and Sex Offending: What Do Child Sex Offenders Think about Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Candice M.; Jones, Lisa M.; Rivers, P. Clayton; Blum, Steven B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines relationships between general and sex-specific alcohol expectancies and drinking before offending with child sex offenders. Results show that sex-specific expectancies were the best predictor of the proportion of times the offenders reported drinking before offending. Highlights the importance of assessing expectancies related to…

  12. Sex offender registration and recidivism risk in juvenile sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael F; Dickinson, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders are increasingly included in sex offender registration laws, based, in part, on the assumption that they pose a distinctively high risk for future sexual violence and registration may help to mitigate this risk. To test this assumption, the current study compares risk scores on the static scales of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II; Prentky & Righthand, 2003) and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI; Hoge, Andrews, & Leschied, 2002), between samples of 106 registered and 66 unregistered juvenile sex offenders. New criminal charges, including sexually based crimes, were examined over a mean follow-up of 49.2 months (SD = 29.6 months). Results indicated that registered youth had lower risk scores on scales that most accurately predicted recidivism and registered youth were charged with new crimes at rates similar to those of unregistered youth. Reoffense risk, as measured by the risk scales, was not moderated by registration. The findings did not support the assumption that registration can effectively lower the risk for reoffense in juvenile offenders.

  13. Relating psychiatric disorders, offender and offence characteristics in a sample of adolescent sex offenders and non-sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Van Wijk, A Ph; Blokland, A A J; Duits, N; Vermeiren, R; Harkink, J

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have paid attention to the relationship between psychiatric disorders and adolescent offending but few have distinguished different types of offenders, especially within the category of youngsters who have committed sex offences. To test for relationships between psychiatric disorder and specific offence category among young male offenders. Nationwide data were extracted from Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Services (FPD) files for five groups of offenders, as defined by their index offence: 308 violent sex offenders; 134 non-violent sex-offenders; 270 sex offenders against children; 3148 violent offenders and 1620 offenders charged with any crime other than interpersonal body contact crimes. They were compared on individual characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM-IV criteria. Having a diagnosis of a paraphilia alone was exclusively associated with sex offending, therefore all such youths were excluded from further analyses. The OVERALS technique was used to explore possible relationships between offence, psychiatric diagnoses, sociodemographic and individual characteristics among the remaining young men for whom all pertinent data were available (n = 1894). Sex offenders constituted a distinct group of juvenile delinquents. Developmental disorders were more common among non-violent sex offenders and child molesters. Violent offences were more typical of delinquents from immigrant backgrounds. Group differences in types of psychiatric diagnoses may reflect differences in aetiological factors for the various types of sexual and other delinquent behaviour, and this would be worthy of further study. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Elder-Abuse Offenders: A Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Addresses some of the perplexing issues involved in understanding and responding to elder-abuse offenders. Offers a typology of offenders to elucidate the dynamics when people mistreat the elderly. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)

  15. Serum Testosterone Levels in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta

    1986-01-01

    Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)

  16. Serum Testosterone Levels in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta

    1986-01-01

    Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)

  17. Finnish sexual homicides: offence and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Lindberg, Nina; Salenius, Stephan; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2009-07-01

    Information on sexual homicide offenders is limited. The current study estimates the rate of sexual homicides in Finland and analyses sociodemographic characteristics, crime history, life course development, psychopathy, and psychopathology in sexual homicide and nonsexual homicide offenders. Crime reports and forensic examination reports of all offenders subjected to forensic examination and convicted for homicide in 1995-2004 (n=676) were retrospectively analyzed for offence and offender variables and scored with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Eighteen sexual homicides (2.8%) were identified. Co-offending, strangulation and disposal of the body were more frequent crime scene variables in sexual than nonsexual homicides. Mental health problems and sexual abuse in childhood and sexual crime history were significantly more frequent in sexual than nonsexual homicide offenders. Over half of the sexual homicide offenders were psychopathic: compared to nonsexual homicide offenders they scored significantly higher on interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy.

  18. The Cycle of Abuse: When Victims Become Offenders.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Malory; Cossins, Annie

    2016-07-19

    Various psychological theories exist in the literature to explain the behavior of men who commit child sex offences, including the belief that child sexual abuse (CSA) is a predisposing factor for the transition from victim to offender. These theories are, however, unable to explain the fact that while most victims of CSA are female, most perpetrators of CSA are male. The sex specificity of CSA in terms of victims and offenders suggests that the experience of CSA and its psychosocial effects may be different for boys, compared to girls. We hypothesize that CSA experiences may involve risk factors that affect the development of sexually abusive behavior for boys, rather than girls. Our aim was to determine whether the literature provides evidence of a cycle of abuse from victim to offender, and, if so, to document its characteristics. We undertook a comprehensive literature review of studies on both victims and offenders, including studies which revealed the following: age of onset of CSA, duration of abuse, gender of the abuser, the relationship between victim and abuser, grooming behaviors, the types and severity of abuse, and disclosure of abuse. While we found no evidence for the existence of a cycle of abuse for female CSA victims, we discovered evidence to support the existence of a cycle of abuse for male CSA victims who had experienced particular abuse characteristics. As an original contribution to the literature, we identified four factors that may be associated with a boy's transition from victim to offender as well as the methodological issues to be addressed in future research. Based on criminological theories, we argue that these four factors share a common theme, that is, that they represent experiences of power (for the abuser) and powerlessness (for the victim).

  19. National study of suicide method in violent criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Webb, R T; Qin, P; Stevens, H; Shaw, J; Appleby, L; Mortensen, P B

    2013-09-05

    Gaining a greater knowledge of the mechanisms and means by which violent offenders die by suicide can inform tailored preventive strategies. Using interlinked national Danish registry data we constructed a nested case-control study dataset of all adult suicides during 1994-2006: N=9708 cases and N=188,134 age and gender matched living controls. Completely ascertained International Classification of Diseases 10th revision cause-specific mortality codes were examined, with all criminal charges since 1980, and covariate information on psychiatric treatment and socio-demographics. Self-poisonings were classified as 'nonviolent' suicide and all other methods as being 'violent' ones. Compared with the general population, risk among male and female violent offenders was strongly and significantly elevated for suicide by either a violent or a nonviolent method, although the relative risk was greater for nonviolent suicide. These patterns were also observed among nonviolent offenders, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Risk was especially raised for self-poisoning with narcotics & hallucinogens. We could only examine the full range of suicide methods in male violent offenders. In these men, hanging was the most frequently used method, although risk was markedly and significantly elevated virtually across the entire range of regularly used suicide methods. We lacked sufficient statistical power for undertaking a detailed profiling of specific suicide methods among female violent offenders. Our findings indicate that comprehensive and broadly-based preventive approaches are needed for tackling the markedly raised risk of suicide by both violent and nonviolent means in this population. Their high relative risk for self-poisoning by illicit or illegal drugs underlines the importance of access to means and of prevailing subculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-harm in young offenders.

    PubMed

    Borschmann, Rohan; Coffey, Carolyn; Moran, Paul; Hearps, Stephen; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kinner, Stuart A; Patton, George

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence and correlates of self-harm and suicidal behavior in 515 young offenders (mean age 17.3 years, SD = 1.7) serving community-based orders (CBOs; n = 242) or custodial sentences (n = 273) in Victoria, Australia, are described. Results from structured interviews showed that 83 (16.1%) participants reported self-harming in the previous 6 months, and this was more common among those serving custodial sentences than those serving CBOs (19.4% vs. 12.4%; OR 3.10, 95% CI: 1.74-5.55). Multiple incidents were more common in females and 24% (95% CI: 19-39) of participants who had self-harmed reported having done so with suicidal intent. Self-harm was associated with recent bullying victimization, expulsion from school, past year violent victimization, cannabis dependence, and risk-taking behavior in the preceding year. The epidemiological profile of self-harm in this population appears to be distinct from that seen in the general population. Young offenders who self-harm are a vulnerable group with high rates of psychiatric morbidity, substance misuse problems, and social risk factors. They may benefit from targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, delivered both within-and during the transition from-the youth justice system.

  1. Adult attachment and sexual offender status.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Tamara S; Burton, David L

    2004-04-01

    This study investigates whether insecure attachment distinguishes sexual from nonsexual offenders and whether insecure attachment is reflected in the choices of victims, modus operandi, and nature of the sexual acts. Incarcerated male sexual and nonsexual offenders were surveyed. Insecure attachment distinguished sexual offenders from nonsexual offenders but was not related to the characteristics of the sexual offenses, with the exception of victim age. The methodological, theoretical, and clinical implications of the findings are discussed, and an alternative line of inquiry is proposed.

  2. Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-10-01

    Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol or heroin use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol- or heroin-use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation-seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. PMID:21550758

  4. A prospective study of methamphetamine use as a predictor of high school non-attendance in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This prospective study investigated the association between life-long methamphetamine and other drug use and high school non-attendance, in a sample of high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A random sample of 1535 high school students completed a baseline questionnaire in 2006, and were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. The questionnaire included questions on substance use, including tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis use, demographic factors, and questions relating to school attendance and performance. Results Forty-three percent of the students surveyed at baseline did not complete a follow-up questionnaire after 12 months. Compared with students who were not using selected substances, an adjusted logistic regression model showed that life-time methamphetamine use in addition to other substances was significantly associated with non-attendance (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24 - 5.36) when other non-substance use factors (repeating a year at school and being older than the norm for current grade) were taken into account. Conclusions Early identification of students with methamphetamine and other substance use problems, and a supportive rather than punitive school policy, may be valuable in improving high school completion and student retention rates. PMID:20964830

  5. A prospective study of methamphetamine use as a predictor of high school non-attendance in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Plüddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D; Lombard, Carl J

    2010-10-21

    This prospective study investigated the association between life-long methamphetamine and other drug use and high school non-attendance, in a sample of high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. A random sample of 1535 high school students completed a baseline questionnaire in 2006, and were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. The questionnaire included questions on substance use, including tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis use, demographic factors, and questions relating to school attendance and performance. Forty-three percent of the students surveyed at baseline did not complete a follow-up questionnaire after 12 months. Compared with students who were not using selected substances, an adjusted logistic regression model showed that life-time methamphetamine use in addition to other substances was significantly associated with non-attendance (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24-5.36) when other non-substance use factors (repeating a year at school and being older than the norm for current grade) were taken into account. Early identification of students with methamphetamine and other substance use problems, and a supportive rather than punitive school policy, may be valuable in improving high school completion and student retention rates.

  6. Estimating the Size of the Methamphetamine-Using Population in New York City Using Network Sampling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Kirk; Khan, Bilal; Wendel, Travis; McLean, Katherine; Misshula, Evan; Curtis, Ric

    2012-12-01

    As part of a recent study of the dynamics of the retail market for methamphetamine use in New York City, we used network sampling methods to estimate the size of the total networked population. This process involved sampling from respondents' list of co-use contacts, which in turn became the basis for capture-recapture estimation. Recapture sampling was based on links to other respondents derived from demographic and "telefunken" matching procedures-the latter being an anonymized version of telephone number matching. This paper describes the matching process used to discover the links between the solicited contacts and project respondents, the capture-recapture calculation, the estimation of "false matches", and the development of confidence intervals for the final population estimates. A final population of 12,229 was estimated, with a range of 8235 - 23,750. The techniques described here have the special virtue of deriving an estimate for a hidden population while retaining respondent anonymity and the anonymity of network alters, but likely require larger sample size than the 132 persons interviewed to attain acceptable confidence levels for the estimate.

  7. 77 FR 73558 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration Amendments AGENCY: Court Services and... verification of registration information for sex offenders. The proposed rule, if finalized, would permit CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits on its own accord and with its...

  8. 78 FR 23835 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... verification of registration information for sex offenders. Furthermore, the rule permits CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits on its own accord and with its law enforcement...

  9. Altruism, Empathy, and Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Durrant, Russil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment programs for serious offenders such as sex offenders typically include an empathy training component as part of a comprehensive intervention package. The reasons for doing so are partly based on research evidence indicating that social disconnection and relationship ruptures related to empathy failures often trigger offending, and also…

  10. Federal Offenders Rehabilitation Collaboration Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1964

    This paper gives the specifics of a federal offenders rehabilitation program implementation and evaluation which will test and demonstrate the effects of providing intensive vocational rehabilitation services to federal offenders. The authors note that criminal offenders have difficulty in vocational adjustment, and this is exacerbated by their…

  11. Assessing Treatment Readiness in Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Andrew; Howells, Kevin; Casey, Sharon; Ward, Tony; Chambers, Jemma C.; Birgden, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Although violent offenders are widely considered to be difficult to engage in therapeutic change, few methods of assessing treatment readiness currently exist. In this article the validation of a brief self-report measure designed to assess treatment readiness in offenders who have been referred to violent offender treatment programs is described.…

  12. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  13. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  14. [Offender's health state and his typing process].

    PubMed

    Bloch-Bogusławska, Elzbieta; Sygit, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The problem of offender typing has been repeatedly discussed in criminalistic literature. The inference about physical health or psychophysical health of an unknown offender may significantly accelerate his identification. To achieve this objective, both serological as well as bacteriological tests have been used. The considerable progress in natural sciences indicates a possibility of employing genetic research to define the offender's health state.

  15. Offender Perceptions on the Value of Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terri-Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Given the histories of employment instability of the offenders entering correctional systems, enhancing an offender's vocational skills is an important need to address prior to their reintegration into the community. The purpose of the current research was to examine offender perceptions of the value of employment and crime, obtained as part of a…

  16. Offender Perceptions on the Value of Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terri-Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Given the histories of employment instability of the offenders entering correctional systems, enhancing an offender's vocational skills is an important need to address prior to their reintegration into the community. The purpose of the current research was to examine offender perceptions of the value of employment and crime, obtained as part of a…

  17. The Relationship of Sex-Role Orientation, Self-Concept and Self-Control to Female Criminality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Mary M.; Mueller, Charles W.

    Research on the female offender has produced two explanations of the female criminal personality: the female offender either as a masculinated women or as an anguished woman possessing low self-esteem and poor self-control. To investigate the applicability of each position, 144 black male and female criminals and noncriminals completed the Bem Sex…

  18. Cross-border activities and association with current methamphetamine use among Chinese injection drug users (IDUs) in a China-Myanmar border region.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Duo, Lin; McNeil, Edward; Li, Jianhua

    2014-05-01

    Methamphetamine has become one of the most widely used illicit substances in the world. We measured the prevalence and identified the correlates of methamphetamine use amongst current injection drug users (IDUs) in a China-Myanmar border region. A cross-sectional survey including interviews and serological testing was conducted in 2012. Chinese IDUs who had injected within the past six months and aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Logistic regression indentified factors associated with current methamphetamine use. Among 370 IDUs recruited, prevalence of lifetime and current methamphetamine use was 84.2% and 75.2% respectively. Amongst 293 current users, 18.1% ever purchased methamphetamine from Myanmar while 8.9% ever used it there during the past 6 months. IDUs who had cross-border activities, including purchasing drugs (AOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) and visiting family/friends, doing business or odd jobs in Myanmar (AOR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.24) were more likely to use methamphetamine in the past six months. Other factors independently associated with current methamphetamine use included being younger (aged  ≤ 25 years, AOR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.41), being syphilis positive (AOR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.33), having used previously self-used needle/syringe (AOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.34) and recently received prevention services (AOR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.28). Methamphetamine has become another major drug of use and poses the serious concern among injecting drug users living in the China/Myanmar border region. The bi-national cooperation is urgently needed to develop targeted effective intervention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intimacy, loneliness and sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W L

    1989-01-01

    As part of a general theory of sexual offending, it is suggested that the failure to achieve intimacy in relations with adults produces emotional loneliness, which leads to an aggressive disposition, and a tendency to pursue sex with diverse partners in the hope of finding intimacy through sexuality or through less threatening partners. The development of intimacy and its benefits are described, as are the consequences that befall those who fail to achieve it. The history of sexual offenders illustrates why they fail to develop the attitudes and skills necessary to attain intimacy, and why this failure leads to sexual abuse. Finally, suggestions are made for the modification of programs for the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders, in order to include problems of intimacy and loneliness.

  20. A case-matched comparison of readmission patterns between primary methamphetamine-using and primary cocaine-using adolescents engaged in inpatient substance-abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Russell; Taylor, Lawren; Victor, J Charles; Lentz, Tim

    2007-12-01

    In the United States and Canada, elevated patterns of methamphetamine-related treatment admissions among youth have triggered questions about appropriate substance-abuse treatment strategies for methamphetamine-using adolescents. This study aimed to provide a comparative examination of the readmission patterns of primary methamphetamine-using and primary cocaine-using adolescents to a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based alcohol-and-drug inpatient treatment program. The current study employed a 5-year medical-chart review of all consecutive admissions to an inpatient, hospital-based substance-abuse treatment program for adolescents in northern British Columbia, Canada. After using a propensity-score-matching approach to construct a case-matched sample (n=202) of primary methamphetamine-using and primary cocaine-using adolescents, we employed a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis technique to test group differences in time-to-readmission. The findings demonstrated that the methamphetamine group did not have a more severe time-to-readmission profile. General CBT-based treatment-as-usual approaches appear to produce similar long-term readmission outcomes for these two groups of treatment-seeking adolescents.

  1. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of data from 8 studies conducted between 2004 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Parry, C D H; Plüddemann, A; Myers, B; Wechsberg, W M; Flisher, A J

    2011-11-01

    Community studies and studies of admissions to drug treatment centers indicate a dramatic increase in the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Cape Town since 2003. There has also been a substantial increase over this time period in the prevalence of HIV infection among women attending public antenatal clinics in the Western Cape province. This study aimed to review research conducted in Cape Town on the link between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour. A review of published research conducted in Cape Town between 2004 and 2007 was undertaken using PubMed, EBSCOhost and Science Direct. Eight studies were identified, both quantitative and qualitative, and focusing on diverse populations, such as learners in school, out of school youth, adults in the community, men who have sex with men and sex workers. The total sample across the studies was 8153. Across multiple studies methamphetamine was fairly consistently associated with early vaginal sex, condom use during sex, having casual sex and other HIV risk behaviours. For some sub-groups the direction of the relationship was in an unexpected direction. The consistency of the findings across studies highlights the increased risk for contracting HIV among methamphetamine users, and reinforces the importance of interventions addressing both methamphetamine use and unsafe sexual behaviour among young people and other sectors of the population. The need for further research is also considered, particularly research that will explain some of the racial differences that were found.

  2. Family conflict and depression in HIV-negative heterosexuals: the role of methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2009-06-01

    Previous research has reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms among methamphetamine users, but little attention has been paid to possible links between family environment and psychological distress. This study examined relationships between family conflict, substance use, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 104 heterosexual methamphetamine users in San Diego, California. Eighty-nine percent of the sample reported conflict with a family member in the past year. Conflict was reported most often with parents and siblings. Sources of conflict included drug use, lifestyle issues, interpersonal and communication issues, and concern for other family members. In regression analyses, being female, being a polydrug user, and facing social and legal stressors were associated with higher levels of family conflict. Multiple regression analyses also revealed a positive association between family conflict and depressive symptoms. Contrary to expectation, methamphetamine dose did not moderate the relationship between family conflict and depressive symptoms. Reducing family conflict may be an important first step toward ameliorating depressive symptoms and creating more supportive environments for methamphetamine users who are in urgent need of effective interventions.

  3. The Utility of the YLS/CMI-SV for Assessing Youth Offenders in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; Lee, Yirong; Zeng, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory–Screening Version (YLS/CMI-SV) is designed to provide a preliminary estimate of the level of risk for antisocial behaviors as well as an indication of areas for intervention in youth offenders. This study examined the predictive validity of the YLS/CMI-SV for violent, nonviolent, and general recidivism in a sample of 3,264 youth offenders within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,764.5 days; SDfollow-up = 521.5). Cox regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses revealed that the YLS/CMI-SV is significantly predictive of general, violent, and nonviolent recidivism for the male youth offenders, but there were mixed results for the female youth offenders. Overall, these results indicated that the YLS/CMI-SV is a useful measure for assessing the levels of risk for male youth offenders, and more investigation is needed to determine the suitability of the YLS/CMI-SV for the female youth offenders. Its implications for clinical practice and policy are discussed. PMID:25983353

  4. Offender experiences and opinions of mixed-gender group work in the community: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Nina; Day, Jo

    2011-10-01

    The National Probation Service in England and Wales currently delivers community-based accredited offending behavior programs in mixed-gender groups. There is at present a lack of research on the potential impact of mixed-gender group work on female offenders, who are often the minority within the group. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the area using qualitative methods. Sixteen offenders who had participated in a mixed-gender offending behavior program were interviewed as part of this study. Themes from the interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The findings illustrated an overall preference among all participants for mixed-gender rather than single-gender group work. The specific advantages of mixed-gender group work included increased learning about the opposite sex and a more relaxed atmosphere within the group. Although this study reflects positive attitudes to mixed-gender group work, the findings need to be tested further using empirical methodology.

  5. Gender differences in comorbid disorders among offenders in prison substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Zlotnick, Caron; Clarke, Jennifer G; Friedmann, Peter D; Roberts, Mary B; Sacks, Stanley; Melnick, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in a range of lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 272 offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program. Although these men and women did not differ in severity of substance use in the six months prior to incarceration, women were significantly more likely than men to report a lifetime psychiatric disorder and a lifetime severe disorder. Furthermore, gender differences emerged in the pattern of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. Women reported greater lifetime major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorder, and borderline personality disorder; men were more likely than women to meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Additionally, female offenders were found to have a higher degree of internalizing disorders than male offenders, but there were no gender differences in degree of externalizing disorders. The study concluded that women offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program present with a greater psychiatric vulnerability and a different pattern of psychiatric comorbidity than their male counterparts.

  6. Gender Differences in Comorbid Disorders among Offenders in Prison Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnick, Caron; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Roberts, Mary B.; Sacks, Stanley; Melnick, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in a range of lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 272 offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program. Although these men and women did not differ in severity of substance use in the six months prior to incarceration, women were significantly more likely than men to report a lifetime psychiatric disorder and a lifetime severe disorder. Furthermore, gender differences emerged in the pattern of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. Women reported greater lifetime major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorder, and borderline personality disorder; men were more likely than women to meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Additionally, female offenders were found to have a higher degree of internalizing disorders than male offenders, but there were no gender differences in degree of externalizing disorders. The study concluded that women offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program present with a greater psychiatric vulnerability and a different pattern of psychiatric comorbidity than their male counterparts. PMID:18683199

  7. Correlates of nonmedical use of stimulants and methamphetamine use in a national sample

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lian-Yu; Strain, Eric C.; Alexandre, Pierre Kébreau; Alexander, G. Caleb; Mojtabai, Ramin; Martins, Silvia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite chemical similarities, ADHD stimulants and methamphetamine have distinct use patterns in the community. This study compared the characteristics of nonmedical ADHD stimulants users and methamphetamine users in a household sample. Methods In data from the 2009–2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, adult and adolescent stimulant users were categorized into three mutually exclusive subgroups: nonmedical ADHD stimulant users only (STM users), methamphetamine users (METH users), and both nonmedical ADHD stimulant and methamphetamine users (STM/METH users). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified the substance comorbidity, mental health, and deviant behavior characteristics associated with these three groups. Results Compared to adolescent STM users, STM/METH users were more likely to be female, younger and uninsured while METH users were more likely to be younger, in a minority group and from a higher-income family. Compared to adult STM users, METH and STM/METH users were more likely to be male, older, uninsured, no longer married, and to be from rural areas. Adolescent METH users were more likely than STM users to report illegal drug use while adult METH users were less likely to report prescription drug use than their STM user counterparts. Overall, adult and adolescent STM/METH users were more likely to report substance use, mental health problems and deviant behaviors compared to STM users. Conclusion The characteristics of STM users differ from METH and STM/METH users, and their associations with substance use and psychiatric comorbidities differ by age. Findings have implications for understanding the risks for stimulant use in different age subgroups. PMID:24583271

  8. Effects of offender motivation, victim gender, and participant gender on perceptions of rape victims and offenders.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D J; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-09-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171 men and women from a small Northeastern college exposed to a stimulus in which a rapist's motivation was varied as either sexual or violent. Participants were more certain that the stimulus described a rape, recommended a longer prison sentence for the offender, and assigned less blame to the victim when exposed to an offender motivated by violence as opposed to an offender motivated by sex. Offender motivation also interacted with participant gender and victim gender on participants' perceptions of victim blame and offender responsibility. The results suggest that an offender's motivation for rape can influence perceptions of the offender's and victim's responsibility for the assault.

  9. Wide-area continuous offender monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshen, Joseph; Drake, George; Spencer, Debra D.

    1997-02-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first- generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender's home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  10. Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with HIV disease, methamphetamine use, and neurocognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ajay R; Woods, Steven Paul; Ellis, Ronald J; Cherner, Mariana; Rosario, Debra; Potter, Michael; Heaton, Robert K; Everall, Ian P; Masliah, Eliezer; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methamphetamine use commonly affect neurocognitive (NC) functioning. We evaluated the relationships between NC functioning and two fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in volunteers who differed in HIV serostatus and methamphetamine dependence (MAD). Methods A total of 100 volunteers were categorized into four groups based on HIV serostatus and MAD in the prior year. FGF-1 and FGF-2 were measured in cerebrospinal fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with two reference biomarkers (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1 and neopterin). Comprehensive NC testing was summarized by global and domain impairment ratings. Results Sixty-three volunteers were HIV+ and 59 had a history of MAD. FGF-1, FGF-2, and both reference biomarkers differed by HIV and MAD status. For example, FGF-1 levels were lower in subjects who had either HIV or MAD than in HIV− and MAD− controls (P=0.003). Multivariable regression identified that global NC impairment was associated with an interaction between FGF-1 and FGF-2 (model R2=0.09, P=0.01): higher FGF-2 levels were only associated with neurocognitive impairment among subjects who had lower FGF-1 levels. Including other covariates in the model (including antidepressant use) strengthened the model (model R2=0.18, P=0.004) but did not weaken the association with FGF-1 and FGF-2. Lower FGF-1 levels were associated with impairment in five of seven cognitive domains, more than FGF-2, MCP-1, or neopterin. Conclusion These findings provide in vivo support that HIV and MAD alter expression of FGFs, which may contribute to the NC abnormalities associated with these conditions. These cross-sectional findings cannot establish causality and the therapeutic benefits of recombinant FGF-1 need to be investigated. PMID:27199571

  11. Young Offender Information Sharing Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Special Education Branch.

    Schools have expressed a need to know the identity and/or circumstances of young offenders in order to address school safety and security issues, and to provide a collaborative and coordinated case management approach for the rehabilitation of the young person. A framework for the exchange of information between youth justice and school officials…

  12. Women offenders and reentry issues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S D

    1996-01-01

    Women parallel men in their profile of physical disease, psychosocial configuration, addictive patterns, and criminal deviance. For women offenders in particular, the prison environment reinforces a victim role that originated in childhood and adolescence. In addition, such settings discourage both emotional expression (except for aggression) and responsibility, since basic needs such as food, lodging, and clothing are provided. Incarcerated women have significant treatment issues, including the lack of social and vocational role definition, psychological dependence and psychic craving, poorly developed social skills, and conflicts in social, family, and intimate relationships. This article describes the unique psychoeducational and skills-training needs of women offenders as they adjust to community living, and outlines specific treatment interventions that have proven to effect successful patient outcomes. Case studies are used to illustrate the reentry experiences of three women offenders with distinct backgrounds. One example illustrates how a woman who had been involved in the criminal justice system for 24 years overcame her addiction and self-confidence issues. A second case study profiles an offender with three children who had experienced sexual trauma during her childhood and adult years. A third case reports on an African-American woman whose crack-cocaine addiction resulted in the birth of a drug-exposed son. The treatment model tested in all three cases emphasized the practical and often overlooked treatment issues of incarcerated women.

  13. Personal Space of Incarcerated Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormith, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the proxemic test and a psychometric test battery to 49 incarcerated offenders on two occasions, with a three-year follow-up. The Behind distance was largest on both occasions. There were no changes in the four distance measures over time. An algebraic formula was devised to calculate personal space area. (JAC)

  14. Adolescent Offenders with Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisso, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its…

  15. Distinguishing among weapons offenders, drug offenders, and weapons and drug offenders based on childhood predictors and adolescent correlates.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Skye; Day, David M

    2013-07-01

    Weapons and drug offences incur a large cost to society and tend to be strongly associated. Improved understanding of their antecedents could inform targeted early intervention and prevention programmes. This study aimed to examine differences in criminal careers, childhood predictors and adolescent correlates among weapons-only offenders, drugs-only offenders and a versatile group of weapons + drugs offenders. We conducted a longitudinal records study of 455 young Canadians charged with drug and/or weapons offences who started their offending in late childhood/early adolescence. Consistent with expectation, differences emerged in their criminal careers as the versatile group had a longer criminal career and desisted from offending at a later age than weapons-only offenders. Against prediction, weapons-only offenders experienced the greatest number of childhood predictors and adolescent correlates. The three offending groups could be differentiated on offending trajectories and developmental factors.In making links between past events and later behaviour, life-course criminology may inform development of effective early intervention and prevention strategies.As weapons-only offenders experience the greatest level of adversity in childhood and adolescence, they may benefit most (of these three groups) from early intervention and prevention programmes.A reduction in weapon carrying and use might be achieved by early identification of children risk factors (e.g. family adversity) and appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evaluating Awareness of Registered Sex Offenders in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of sex offender registration is to protect residents from recidivistic sexual offenders by providing public information about local offenders. This study determines what percentage of residents living near registered sex offenders are aware of the offenders and the predictors of awareness. The investigational group includes randomly…

  17. Evaluating Awareness of Registered Sex Offenders in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of sex offender registration is to protect residents from recidivistic sexual offenders by providing public information about local offenders. This study determines what percentage of residents living near registered sex offenders are aware of the offenders and the predictors of awareness. The investigational group includes randomly…

  18. Child care providers who commit sexual offences: a description of offender, offence, and victim characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moulden, Heather M; Firestone, Philip; Wexler, Audrey F

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to undertake an exploratory analysis of child care providers who sexually offend against children and adolescents and the circumstances related to these offences. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System (ViCLAS) reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim and offence, were selected for analyses. A descriptive approach was used to analyze the qualitative reports for a group of 305 Canadian sexual offenders between 1995 and 2002. Adult male (N = 163) and female ( N = 14), along with juvenile male (N = 100) and female (N = 28) child care providers who were involved in a sexual offence against a child or adolescent are described. This article provides unique information about the crimes committed by child care providers in that it is focused on crime characteristics, rather than on personality or treatment variables. Furthermore, it represents a comprehensive examination of this type of offender by including understudied groups, namely juvenile and female offenders.

  19. Domestic homicide cases related to schizophrenic offenders.

    PubMed

    Kovacević, Drazen; Zarković Palijan, Tija; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Ljubin Golub, Tajana

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was identification of highly specific patterns of schizophrenia related domestic homicides by comparing schizophrenic homicide offenders with related domestic homicide group of offenders diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders. This study was based on the comparison of schizophrenic homicide group and other homicide group of offenders on the basis of differences in psychosocial and sociodemographic patterns and the modality of crime. The survey was conducted on mentally insane domestic homicide offenders diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=44) and second group of mentally insane offenders diagnosed with other psychiatric diagnosis (n=43). All offenders were admitted to Department of Forensic Psychiatry (Neuropsychiatric Hospital "Dr. Ivan Barbot", Popovaca, Croatia) for psychiatric evaluation. They have undergone psychological testing and psychiatric evaluation in order to make forensic expert analyses of each case particularly. This study showed some specific characteristics in the cases of schizophrenic offenders; they are more often commit parricides and siblicides, the victims are often males with their own physical strength. Furthermore, schizophrenic offenders were indifferent upon killing their victim; they were less often provoked by a victim itself and were sober tempore criminis. Moreover, in the same homicide group we found young, single offenders with high school education, average intelligence and with positive psychiatric heredity. Finally, in the same group of offenders we have found no history of military serving, less social developmental disruptions, less history of drug and alcohol abuse during adolescence and adult age.

  20. The Empathy Index: an evaluation of the psychometric properties of a new empathy measure for sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Grady, Melissa D; Rose, Roderick A

    2011-12-01

    This article examines the analysis of the psychometric properties, including the validity and reliability, of the Empathy Index (EI), a new instrument designed to measure empathy deficits of sex offenders. The EI was tested with a sample of 158 sex offenders incarcerated in North Carolina prisons. An exploratory factor analysis yielded three subscales: social aggression; instrumental (proactive) aggression; and justification. Social aggression was an unexpected finding, given this type of aggression is more commonly found in young females rather than adult male sex offenders. The instrument demonstrates promising construct and concurrent validity as well as strong internal reliability. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  1. Serious, Violent Young Offenders in South Africa: Are They Life-Course Persistent Offenders?

    PubMed

    Souverein, Fleur A; Ward, Catherine L; Visser, Ingmar; Burton, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Life-course persistent offending contributes greatly to violent offending in any country. South Africa has high rates of violence; this study investigated what proportion of young South African offenders might be identified as life-course persistent, and what risk factors identified this group. Offenders aged 12 to 25 years (N = 395) were selected from eight different correctional facilities in four provinces of South Africa. Latent class analysis identified 164 offenders (41.5%) with distinctly earlier starts and more serious offending. These (probably life-course persistent) offenders were distinguished from others by male gender, violence at home, other victimization, familial crime, school performance, violence at school, and alcohol abuse and gang membership. Correctional services should be specifically targeted at this large subgroup of offenders to prevent recidivism. Primary prevention efforts should be targeted at preventing violence at home and school, at promoting school attachment, at substance abuse treatment, and at gang membership. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. The Roles of Victim and Offender Substance Use in Sexual Assault Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brecklin, Leanne R.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The impact of victim and offender pre-assault substance use on the outcomes of sexual assault incidents was analyzed. Method Nine hundred and seventy female sexual assault victims were identified from the first wave of a longitudinal study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Results Multivariate models showed that victim injury was more likely in assaults involving offender substance use (regardless of whether or not the victim was also using substances). Offender use of physical force and verbal threats were also related to greater odds of completed rape and injury, and force was associated with medical attention-seeking. Conclusion Based on this study, rape prevention programs should target men and focus on the role of substance use in sexual assault. These prevention programs should incorporate information on the roles of offender and victim substance use, offender aggression, and other situational factors in sexual assault outcomes. Study limitations and suggestions for future research on the role of victim and offender substance use in rape incidents are presented. PMID:20056819

  3. The characteristics of online sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Hermann, Chantal A

    2011-03-01

    There is much debate as to whether online offenders are a distinct group of sex offenders or if they are simply typical sex offenders using a new technology. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the extent to which online and offline offenders differ on demographic and psychological variables. Online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian and were slightly younger than offline offenders. In terms of psychological variables, online offenders had greater victim empathy, greater sexual deviancy, and lower impression management than offline offenders. Both online and offline offenders reported greater rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse than the general population. Additionally, online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian, younger, single, and unemployed compared with the general population. Many of the observed differences can be explained by assuming that online offenders, compared with offline offenders, have greater self-control and more psychological barriers to acting on their deviant interests.

  4. Towards a neurobiological model of offending.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ian J; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we consider how disturbances in the neurobiological/neurochemical processes at a young age lead to problematic attachment styles in later life, and which can potentiate probability of offending behavior. In particular, we will contrast attachment and offending patterns of the more generalist type of offender (i.e., those who have a varied criminal career, committing both violent and non-violent offenses, in extremis the psychopathic type of offender), with the more specialist sexual offender (prototypically, the fixated pedophile), in the light of a preliminary neurobiological model. Here, we will argue that these two extremes of offenders show, or are predicted to show, differential patterns of neurochemical/neurobiological functioning.

  5. Impulsivity and methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Zians, Jim; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between methamphetamine (meth) use and impulsivity in a sample of 385 HIV-negative heterosexually identified meth users. Participants who scored highest on a self-report measure of impulsivity were compared with those who scored lower in terms of background characteristics, meth use patterns, use of alcohol and other illicit drugs, sexual risk behavior, and psychiatric health variables. Methamphetamine users in the high impulsivity group were younger, less educated, used larger quantities of meth, were more likely to be binge users, had a larger number of sexual partners, engaged in more unprotected vaginal and oral sex, and scored higher on the Beck Depression Inventory as compared with those in the low impulsivity group. In a logistic regression analysis, Beck depression was the factor that best distinguished between meth users who scored high and those who scored low on impulsivity. Neurophysiological pathways that may underlie the relationship between impulsivity and meth use are discussed.

  6. Event-level relationship between methamphetamine use significantly associated with non-adherence to pharmacologic trial medications in event-level analyses.

    PubMed

    Hermanstyne, Keith A; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Vittinghoff, Eric; Santos, Deirdre; Colfax, Grant; Coffin, Phillip

    2014-10-01

    Methamphetamine use has been previously associated with poor medication adherence, but, to date, there have been no studies that have conducted event-level analyses on correlates of medication adherence in studies of pharmacologic agents for methamphetamine dependence. We pooled data from two previous, randomized controlled trials (using bupropion and mirtazapine, respectively) for methamphetamine dependence and used a mixed effects logistic model to examine correlates of daily opening of the medication event monitoring system (MEMS) cap as a repeated measure. We explored whether periods of observed methamphetamine use via urine testing were associated with study medication adherence based on MEMS cap openings. We found a significant negative association between methamphetamine-urine positivity and event-level study medication adherence as measured by MEMS cap openings (AOR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.49-0.98). In addition, age (AOR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02-1.11) and depressive symptoms (AOR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.90) were significantly associated with adherence. Finally, participants were more likely to open their study medication bottles on days when they presented for in-person urine testing. Our event-level analysis shows that methamphetamine use can be associated with reduced medication adherence as measured by MEMS cap openings in pharmacologic trials, which corroborates prior research. These findings may suggest that medication adherence support in pharmacologic trials among methamphetamine users may be needed to improve study compliance and could be targeted towards periods of time when there are more likely to not open their study medication pill bottles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Model Underpinning Treatment for Sex Offenders with Mild Intellectual Disability: Current Theories of Sex Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Although many writers have provided a theoretical framework for treatment of mainstream sex offenders, this research has not been extended to sex offenders with mild intellectual disability. My purpose here is to bring together several research strands to provide a theoretical model for working in this field, including theories of sex offending,…

  8. Do Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities Benefit from Sex Offender Treatment Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses some of the clinical and practical issues in relation to sex offender treatment in prisons and compares, through the experience of one offender who has been called Sam, how the experiences may differ between offenders with and without learning disabilities. It gives a brief overview of how programmes have developed in…

  9. The Relationship of Trauma Exposure to Sex Offending Behavior among Male Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMackin, Robert A.; Leisen, Mary Beth; Cusack, John R.; LaFratta, Joseph; Litwin, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Study identifies ways that traumatic experiences and trauma-associated feelings can be offense triggers for juvenile sex offenders. Researchers interviewed the treating clinicians of 40 male juvenile sex offenders. Overall, clinicians identified prior trauma exposure as being related to the offense triggers in 85% of offenders. Implications for…

  10. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  11. Misperceptions of Sex Offender Perpetration: Considering the Impact of Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    A popular misconception among the general public is that sex offenders most often victimize strangers. To better understand these misconceptions about sex offenders, this study determines the frequency of misperception in the general public and establishes if the misconceptions are related to the policy of sex offender registration. Using a…

  12. A Comparison of Anger in Offenders and Non-Offenders Who Have Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Matthew; Beail, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy to treat anger in offenders with intellectual disabilities. The aim is to lower anger levels; the rationale is that this will reduce recidivism. However, the hypothesis that anger levels amongst offenders are higher than non-offenders has not been tested.…

  13. Frequency and Seriousness of Parental Offending and Their Impact on Juvenile Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent the frequency and seriousness of parental offending were related to their offspring offending. Police officers in one Dutch province completed a form to register risk factors and the actions undertaken when they came into contact with offenders aged 8-14 years. These juveniles were followed for 18…

  14. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  15. Preventative Services for Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Piché, Lyne; Mathesius, Jeffrey; Lussier, Patrick; Schweighofer, Anton

    2016-02-15

    The role of primary prevention of sexual offences is an understudied area. The current study examined a sample (N = 100) of men charged or convicted of a sexual offence to determine their interest in interventions that could be offered prior to offending, reasons for not seeking out interventions in the past, and demographic information including onset of deviant sexual fantasy and interests. The majority indicated that preventative interventions, including individual and group treatment, would have been beneficial, but inaccessibility of interventions and fear of arrest prevented them from seeking services. The findings suggest that men who progress to committing a sexual offence are interested in preventative interventions but require information regarding availability of accessible support and the development of primary prevention structures to fulfill society's desire to prevent sexual offending. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Methamphetamine use among gay, bisexual and non-identified men-who-have-sex-with-men: an analysis of daily patterns.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry N; Solomon, Todd M; Moeller, Robert W; Doig, Stephanie A R; Espinosa, Lindsay S; Siconolfi, Daniel; Homer, Bruce D

    2009-03-01

    This study sought to understand the patterns, methods of administration and contexts for methamphetamine use (MA) in a sample of racially diverse men who have sex with men (MSM). Inclusion into the study required participants to be classified as clinically dependent on MA, but indicate no other illicit substance use. Use was assessed using Timeline Followback for a period of 30 days. Of the 900 assessed days, MA use was reported on 217. Participants reported an average of seven days of use, with the majority of use occurring on the weekend. The weekend usage pattern suggests an incorporation of drugs into the lives of gay men as a means of socialization and recreation.

  17. Formative Assessment of ARM-U: A Modular Intervention for Decreasing Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Methamphetamine-Using MSM

    PubMed Central

    Garfein, Richard S; Metzner, Mitcheal; Cuevas, Jazmine; Bousman, Chad A; Patterson, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine is a major contributor to HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Recent studies show that up to one-third of methamphetamine-using MSM (MUMSM) inject the drug. We developed a behavioral intervention for MUMSM to decrease unprotected anal intercourse and increase awareness of parenteral HIV transmission risk. This 6-session (3 in-person, 3 by telephone) modular intervention was designed to be tailored to participants’ HIV (+/-) and injection drug user ([IDU] yes/no) status. We present results of formative research used to evaluate the content and to assess feasibility and acceptability of this individual-level HIV risk-reduction intervention. Setting: HIV research clinic in a high MSM and methamphetamine prevalence neighborhood. Project: Avoiding Risks from Methamphetamine-Use (ARM-U) is a brief toolbox intervention that allows counselors to select modules that suit a client’s individual risk profile and intervention needs employing motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral theory. We evaluated the format and content of the intervention through focus groups and pre-testing of the entire intervention using volunteers from the target population stratified into four groups (HIV+/IDU, HIV-/IDU, HIV+/non-IDU, HIV-/non-IDU). Four individuals in each stratum were recruited to undergo the intervention and complete a satisfaction survey at the end of each in-person session. Results: In total, 25 MUMSM attended one of five focus groups. Participants thought all proposed intervention topics were important and could aid in reducing sexual risk behaviors among MUMSM. However, the neurocognitive effects of methamphetamine were reported to be a barrier to practicing safer sex, condom use negotiation or HIV status disclosure. Fifteen (94%) of 16 participants completed all 6 sessions and the satisfaction survey. On average, participants felt the intervention was useful for MUMSM, made them contemplate and move toward behavior

  18. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  19. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  20. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  1. Childhood maltreatment and post-traumatic stress disorder among incarcerated young offenders.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Claire; Indig, Devon

    2013-10-01

    Young offenders have a high prevalence of mental illness and a large proportion report experiencing a number of traumatic events during childhood, but there is little research exploring this association. This study describes the prevalence of, and association between, child maltreatment and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among young offenders. The study uses data collected as part of the 2009 NSW Young People in Custody Health Survey which was conducted in nine juvenile detention centers. This paper reports on findings from the baseline questionnaires and 18-months of re-offending data. The analysis included 291 participants who were assessed for PTSD and child maltreatment. The sample was 88% male, 48% Aboriginal, with an average age of 17 years (range 13-21 years). One in five (20%) participants were diagnosed with PTSD, with females significantly more likely to have PTSD than males (40% vs. 17%, p<0.05). Over half (60%) of young offenders reported any child abuse or neglect, with females nearly 10 times more likely to report three or more kinds of severe child maltreatment than males. The main correlate for a diagnosis of PTSD was having three or more kinds of severe child maltreatment (OR=6.73, 95% CI: 1.06-42.92). This study provides evidence for the need to comprehensively assess child abuse and neglect among young offenders in order to provide appropriate treatment in custody and post-release.

  2. Language functioning, mental health and alexithymia in incarcerated young offenders.

    PubMed

    Snow, Pamela C; Woodward, Mary; Mathis, Monique; Powell, Martine B

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies describe high rates of language impairment in young offenders; however, important correlates such as mental health status and alexithymia have received little attention. This study describes a cross-sectional study of the language, emotion recognition and mental health of 100 young people completing custodial sentences in New South Wales (Australia). The sample comprised 70 young people from non-indigenous backgrounds (n = 60 male) and 30 from indigenous backgrounds (n = 25 male). The mean age of the sample was 17.1 years. It was hypothesized that, in addition to elevated rates of language impairment, alexithymia would be over-represented in this group. It was further predicted that impoverished language skills would contribute to alexithymia scores. Only a quarter of the sample overall achieved Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF-4) Core Language Scores in the expected range; rates of language impairment were higher in indigenous males than in non-indigenous males and in the females. Alexithymia was present in 59% of the sample, but appeared to be associated with poor mental health, rather than with language impairment. Interventions for young offenders (e.g. psychological counselling, restorative justice conferencing) should be framed around these difficulties. Validated language measures for use with young indigenous offenders are needed.

  3. Parricide cases of adult offenders from Turkey: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Esat; Sahin, M Feyzi; Tavasli, Ali; Gul, M Cihad; Seyhan, O Faruk; Demirbuga, Sedat; Aliustaoglu, F Suheyla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and compare similarities and differences among types of parricide committed by adult offenders. The forensic psychiatric evaluation reports of the 4th Specialization Board of the Council of Forensic Medicine from 2009 to 2011 in Turkey were screened retrospectively. One hundred thirty-five adult perpetrators of parricide (125 male, 10 female) were detected, 51.9% of whom committed patricide, 40% of whom matricide and 8.1% of the perpetrators committed double parricide. Most of the perpetrators used sharp instruments as the killing method. No mental disorders were detected in 58.5% of the perpetrators, while psychotic disorders were identified in 30.4% of the cases. This study supported the predominance of sharp instruments as the killing method and a preponderance of matricide among the offenders with psychotic disorders. Although psychotic disorders were the most commonly detected mental disorders in the parricide offenders, most of them did not suffer from mental disorders.

  4. Sexual Offending in Adolescence: A Comparison of Sibling Offenders and Nonsibling Offenders across Domains of Risk and Treatment Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzman, Natasha E.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Scalora, Mario J.; Ullman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Sibling sexual offending has received limited empirical attention, despite estimates that approximately half of all adolescent-perpetrated sexual offenses involve a sibling victim. The present study addresses this gap by examining male adolescent sibling (n = 100) and nonsibling offenders (n = 66) with regard to maltreatment histories and scores…

  5. Sexual Offending in Adolescence: A Comparison of Sibling Offenders and Nonsibling Offenders across Domains of Risk and Treatment Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzman, Natasha E.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Scalora, Mario J.; Ullman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Sibling sexual offending has received limited empirical attention, despite estimates that approximately half of all adolescent-perpetrated sexual offenses involve a sibling victim. The present study addresses this gap by examining male adolescent sibling (n = 100) and nonsibling offenders (n = 66) with regard to maltreatment histories and scores…

  6. Gender Differences in the Perceived Needs and Barriers of Youth Offenders Preparing for Community Reentry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Diane; Abrams, Laura S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how gender differences may influence the community reentry experiences of incarcerated youth. Structured surveys assessing risk factors for re-offending, perceived reentry needs, and anticipated barriers to meeting these needs were administered to a convenience sample of males (n = 36) and females (n = 35) who were within 60…

  7. Impulsivity in Juvenile Delinquency: Differences among Early-Onset, Late-Onset, and Non-Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Hemingway, Francene; Bower, Julie; Ashman, Adrian; Houghton, Stephen; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The present research investigated differences in levels of impulsivity among early-onset, late-onset, and non-offending adolescents. 129 adolescents (114 males, 15 females), of whom 86 were institutionalised (M age = 15.52 years) and 43 were regular school students (M age = 15.40 years) participated. Each participant completed the Adapted…

  8. The Role of Victim-Offender Relationship in Women's Sexual Assault Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Starzynski, Laura L.

    2006-01-01

    This study's goal is to identify differences in background, assault, and post assault factors according to the victim-offender relationship. A mail survey is conducted with more than 1,000 female sexual assault survivors (response rate 90%) recruited from college, community, and mental health agency sources. Stranger assailants are associated with…

  9. The Roles of Victim and Offender Substance Use in Sexual Assault Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecklin, Leanne R.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of victim and offender preassault substance use on the outcomes of sexual assault incidents was analyzed. Nine hundred and seventy female sexual assault victims were identified from the first wave of a longitudinal study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Multivariate models showed that victim injury was more likely in assaults…

  10. Predictors of Offense Severity, Adjudication, Incarceration, and Repeat Referrals for Juvenile Offenders: A Multicohort Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of offense severity, judicial disposition (e.g., diversion, prosecution, incarceration), and repeat offending. Data were obtained on approximately 100,000 individuals from the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice. Whites and females were more likely to be prosecuted than Blacks and males, particularly for…

  11. Impulsivity in Juvenile Delinquency: Differences among Early-Onset, Late-Onset, and Non-Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Hemingway, Francene; Bower, Julie; Ashman, Adrian; Houghton, Stephen; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The present research investigated differences in levels of impulsivity among early-onset, late-onset, and non-offending adolescents. 129 adolescents (114 males, 15 females), of whom 86 were institutionalised (M age = 15.52 years) and 43 were regular school students (M age = 15.40 years) participated. Each participant completed the Adapted…

  12. Short-term general recidivism risk of juvenile sex offenders: validation of the Washington State Juvenile Court Prescreen Assessment.

    PubMed

    van der Put, C E; van Vugt, E S; Stams, G J J M; Deković, M; van der Laan, P H

    2013-11-01

    It is important to examine whether general risk-assessment instruments developed for nonsex offenders can also be applied to sex offenders, because juvenile sex offenders are much more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense. This study examined to what extent the Washington State Juvenile Court Prescreen Assessment (WSJCPA) can be used to assess the risk for general recidivism among different types of juvenile sex offenders. The predictive validity of the WSJCPA was examined separately for the following subgroups: boys convicted for a misdemeanor sexual offense against a peer (n = 381), boys convicted for a felony sexual offense against a peer (n = 282), boys convicted for a sexual offense against a younger child (n = 521), and girls convicted for a sexual offense (n = 71) and two comparison groups of male (n = 15,155) and female (n = 5,811) juvenile nonsex offenders. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve scores for general recidivism ranged between .64 and .73. The WSJCPA proved to be at least equally predictive of general offending among juvenile sex and nonsex offenders groups.

  13. Feasibility and promise of a couple-based HIV/STI preventive intervention for methamphetamine-using, black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; McVinney, L Donald; Hess, Leona; Remien, Robert H; Charania, Mahnaz; Mansergh, Gordon

    2011-11-01

    Accumulating evidence supports couple-based approaches for HIV/STI preventive interventions. Yet, to date, no studies have examined couple-based sexual risk reductions intervention specifically for men who have sex with men (MSM) from populations with elevated rates of HIV/STI transmission, such as black MSM and methamphetamine-involved MSM. We pilot tested-using a pre-/post-test design-a seven-session couple-based intervention for black, methamphetamine-using, black MSM couples engaging in sexual risk. Feasibility was assessed via recruitment and retention rates; potential efficacy relied on self-reported sexual risk and drug use prior to and two months following intervention delivery. We enrolled 34 couples (N = 68 men). Over 80% attended all seven intervention sessions, and retention exceeded 95% at two-month follow-up. At follow-up, participants reported significantly fewer sexual partners, fewer episodes of unprotected anal sex, and greater condom use with their main partner; participants also reported significantly less methamphetamine use, any illicit drug use, and number of illicit drugs used. These findings indicate that couple-based HIV/STI intervention is feasible and promising for at-risk black MSM couples.

  14. Characteristics of a sample of men who have sex with men, recruited from gay bars and Internet chat rooms, who report methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Yee, Leland J; Knipper, Emily; Wilkin, Aimee M; Omli, Morrow R

    2007-08-01

    Crystal methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant that initially gained popularity in the western region of the United States and has spread to all regions of the country. This study was designed to identify factors associated with methamphetamine use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in North Carolina. Participants were recruited in five gay bars and in five geographically defined Internet chat rooms concurrently in 2005 to complete a brief assessment of drug use and other risk behaviors. Of the 1189 MSM who completed the assessment, mean age was 29 years. Two thirds self-identified as black/African American or other minorities, and 25% as bisexual. Nearly 6% reported using methamphetamines during the past 30 days. In multivariable analysis, MSM who reported using methamphetamines were more likely to report higher education; health insurance coverage; inconsistent condom use during anal sex within the past 3 months; a history of sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection; positive HIV serostatus; and use of medications designed to treat erectile dysfunction. A lack of data exists on methamphetamine use among MSM in the southeastern United States, particularly in nonurban regions. Because the southeastern United States carries a disproportionate HIV, AIDS, and STD burden, our findings underscore the need for further research and intervention.

  15. A Gender-Specific Pathway to Serious, Violent, and Chronic Offending?: Exploring Howell's Risk Factors for Serious Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Pernilla; Kempf-Leonard, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    In "Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency," Howell proposes a female-specific pathway to serious, violent, and chronic offending. Incorporating ideas from feminist research about risk factors for female delinquency, he proposes five distinct and interrelated risk factors--child abuse victimization, mental health problems, running…

  16. Juvenile Sex Offenders: Development and Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gail; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three case histories elucidate a discussion of the developmental nature of the behaviors of juvenile male sexual offenders. The sexual assault cycle is defined in the stages of negative self-image, predicting rejection, isolation, fantasies, planning the offense, and committing the offense. Tools for treating the offender are outlined. (Author/JDD)

  17. Types of Empathy and Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale…

  18. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  19. Validating the Attitudes toward Sex Offenders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Charmeka

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale (ATS) measurement by assessing attitudes of counselors in training towards juvenile sex offenders. The specific aims of this study were to determine (a) internal consistency of the ATS, (b) construct validity of the ATS based on exploratory factor…

  20. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  1. A Preliminary Typology of Young Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langstrom, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Lindblad, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Uses data concerning all young sex offenders (N=56) to construct and validate an introductory young sex offender typology based solely on offense characteristics. A 5-cluster solution received optimal support from cluster analysis of 15 offense-related variables. Survival analysis revealed that the clusters differed with respect to sexual but not…

  2. Risk Assessment with Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…

  3. Attitudes regarding life sentences for juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Greene, Edie; Evelo, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Twice in recent years, the U.S. Supreme Court has considered the constitutionality of life sentences without the possibility of parole (LWOP) for juvenile offenders. Given the public nature of this issue, there is scant information on beliefs about imposing LWOP on juveniles. Attitudes on related issues suggest two possibilities. On the one hand, because public opinion regarding juvenile offenders has become somewhat less punitive recently, LWOP may be viewed as excessively harsh punishment. On the other hand, portrayal of some juvenile offenders as superpredators suggests that LWOP may still have public support. We used survey methodology and the unique "ninth justice paradigm" to examine how an offender's age influences beliefs about the appropriateness of LWOP, and the relationship between those beliefs and punishment-related ideologies. Results showed that, except in the case of murder, the majority of respondents disfavored imposing LWOP on juveniles, though a subset approved broad use of LWOP even for young offenders. In fact, after removing from consideration those who oppose LWOP under any circumstances, youthfulness of the offender has little impact on the beliefs about the types of crimes in which LWOP should be imposed (Study 1) or the mean sentence lengths imposed on juvenile offenders (Study 2). Respondents' punishment goals influenced their attitudes, as did beliefs about the likelihood of rehabilitation and reform. Harsh judgments of juveniles who commit serious crimes may result from dispositional attributions of youthful offenders as irredeemable.

  4. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  5. Assessing Reoffense Risk with Juvenile Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Timothy J.; Chambers, Heather J.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes a two-year study of juvenile sexual offenders in Washington. Evaluates both community- and institution-based treatment programs. Offers a demographic profile of the typical juvenile sexual offender and the recidivism data from a mean 20-month follow-up period. Surprisingly few variables were found to have a significant relationship to…

  6. The Colorado Sex Offender Risk Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kim; Retzlaff, Paul; Kleinsasser, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Documents the development of an adult sex offender risk assessment tool. A risk scale was developed based upon criminal and therapeutic outcomes of 494 sex offenders. The final risk scale included prior juvenile felony convictions, prior adult felony convictions, victim being intoxicated, denial in therapy, sexual deviance in therapy, and…

  7. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  8. Danger and the Decision to Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John

    2005-01-01

    Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that danger--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…

  9. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  10. Sentencing Outcomes of Convicted Child Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…

  11. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  12. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  13. Sentencing Outcomes of Convicted Child Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…

  14. Sex Offender Treatment: The Case for Manualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out the case for the manualization of sex offender treatment. The movement towards evidence-based practice in psychotherapy has led to strongly voiced opposing views on the value of manualization. However, "what works" evidence, i.e. the meta-analytical research behind the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation,…

  15. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  16. A Preliminary Typology of Young Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langstrom, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Lindblad, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Uses data concerning all young sex offenders (N=56) to construct and validate an introductory young sex offender typology based solely on offense characteristics. A 5-cluster solution received optimal support from cluster analysis of 15 offense-related variables. Survival analysis revealed that the clusters differed with respect to sexual but not…

  17. Psychosocial and Sociodemographic Characteristics of DWI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veneziano, Carol; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined demographic characteristics, arrest and treatment data, symptoms of problem drinking, drug use, stressful life events, and depressive symptomatology among 498 driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders. DWI offenders were likely to have experienced financial problems, new job, job loss or unemployment, conflict at home, illness or death of…

  18. Psychopathic and Non-Psychopathic Alcoholic Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the incidence of psychopathy among an alcoholic-offender population (N=128) and compares psychopathic and non-psychopathic alcoholics in relation to childhood history, demographics, alcohol dependence, violence, and suicide. Results indicate that 20% of offenders could be classified as psychopaths. These persons were more alcohol…

  19. Offending Behaviour in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…

  20. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  1. Danger and the Decision to Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John

    2005-01-01

    Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that danger--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…

  2. Offending Behaviour in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…

  3. Psychopathic and Non-Psychopathic Alcoholic Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the incidence of psychopathy among an alcoholic-offender population (N=128) and compares psychopathic and non-psychopathic alcoholics in relation to childhood history, demographics, alcohol dependence, violence, and suicide. Results indicate that 20% of offenders could be classified as psychopaths. These persons were more alcohol…

  4. The Handicapped Offender: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, W. Donald; Kravitz, Marjorie

    The bibliography on handicapped adult offenders covers all aspects of the criminal justice process--arrest, pretrial evaluation, determination of competency to stand trial, civil vs. criminal proceedings, and community and institutional treatment. An introduction discusses the number of offenders who are mentally retarded or physically…

  5. Treating the Adolescent Victim-Turned-Offender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muster, Nori J.

    1992-01-01

    Many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. Treatment primarily focuses on juvenile's criminal acts in confrontational, nonsympathetic manner. Surveyed 18 professionals in sexual abuse treatment field to assess attitudes toward juvenile sex offender treatment. Those in corrections field were greatest supporters of confrontational…

  6. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  7. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  8. Female adolescent friendship and delinquent behavior.

    PubMed

    Pleydon, A P; Schner, J G

    2001-01-01

    Young female offenders (n = 29) and female high school students (n = 47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Young offenders exhibited significantly more delinquent behavior than did high school students in the past year. Delinquents and nondelinquents did not significantly differ in amount of companionship, conflict, help, security, and closeness with their best female friend, and amount of trust, alienation, and perceived intimacy in their peer group. Less communication and more perceived peer pressure in the peer group distinguished delinquent females from nondelinquent females. Perceived peer pressure significantly predicted delinquent behavior in female adolescents. In short, friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents.

  9. Emotional disclosure and closeness toward offenders.

    PubMed

    Harber, Kent D; Wenberg, Karen E

    2005-06-01

    Two studies tested whether emotional disclosure increases feelings of closeness toward offenders. In Study 1, participants recalled either someone who had offended them or a neutral acquaintance. "Disclosure" participants then expressed their thoughts and feelings regarding their targets, and "suppression" participants described their targets nonemotionally. As predicted, disclosure increased closeness toward offenders but not toward acquaintances. Study 2 extended these results by including a good friend to test whether disclosure selectively increases closeness toward offenders, and not simply toward any person who evokes strong feelings. This prediction was confirmed. Furthermore, the disclosure effect remained reliable even after controlling for mood. Studies 1 and 2 also showed that closeness toward offenders, but not toward friends or acquaintances, was positively related to the proportion of emotion-related words disclosed. Collectively, these findings suggest that confronting the emotions associated with an offense may be an important first step toward forgiveness.

  10. Shame and guilt in child sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Proeve, Michael; Howells, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    In this article, the authors build on previous discussions of the possible role of shame and guilt in sexual offending. They review the general psychological literature on shame and guilt and conclude that the distinction between internal and external shame is an important one in considering sexual offenders. The effects of shame and guilt on victim empathy and relapse are discussed, and it is proposed that the phenomena of shame and guilt have implications for treatment beyond those identified in previous studies. Shame is a salient feature in the initial presentation of many sexual offenders against children. Furthermore, aspects of the treatment of sexual offenders can be characterized as a shift from shame toward guilt. Implications of shame and guilt for treatment of sexual offenders are described.

  11. Gender differences in homicide offenders' criminal career, substance abuse and mental health care. A nationwide register-based study of Finnish homicide offenders 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Lindberg, Nina; Rovamo, Tuija; Häkkänen-nyholm, Helinä

    2011-02-01

    It is generally considered that women who kill are more likely to have a psychiatric disorder than their male counterparts, but as a relatively small group, women are much less often studied than men in this context. To explore gender differences in the psychosocial history of homicide offenders. In this nationwide register-based study, data were extracted from the forensic psychiatric examination and crime reports of all 91 women prosecuted for homicide in Finland between 1995 and 2004 and from those of the next adjacent man convicted of a separate homicide (n = 91). Both female and male homicide offenders had a troubled childhood, but more women had witnessed or experienced family violence; more women had failed to complete their primary education. Men, however, were more likely to have had an offending history. Although there were no differences between the men and women in the frequencies of psychiatric diagnoses or of substance abuse, the women had more often received prior mental health treatment. The women were also more likely to have had a history of suicidal behaviour. Both female and male homicide offenders are a troubled group of people, with slightly different criminal careers. Many use mental health services and therefore prevention could be improved. The suggestion of a special sub-group of women characterised by early educational and behavioural difficulties needs replication, as it may have implications for service development. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. [Sexual offending in schizophrenia - a comparative trial].

    PubMed

    Pitum, S V; Konrad, N

    2008-11-01

    Studies suggest a complex relationship between schizophrenia and sexually offensive behaviour. The mental disorder itself, antisocial personality traits, drug abuse and adverse childhood experiences are suggested to have an impact on sexual offending in mentally disordered offenders. Similarities in psychosexual variables for schizophrenic and sexual offenders in general are found. This study aimed to preserve first findings of sex offence features and behaviours exhibited by psychotic men in Germany. Furthermore a typology of the schizophrenic offenders was developed. Records of 64-male restricted hospital order in-patients (32 patients with and 32 patients without an ICD-10 psychotic disorder) examined at the Institute for Forensic Psychiatry or resident in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the prisons in Berlin from 1980 - 2006 with an index conviction for a contact sex offence against a woman provided the material for research. A comparative trial design was used to differentiate the psychotic and non psychotic offender group. A check list which based on the method of a content analysis containing items related to the offender and the index offence was developed and applied to the records of men. A similar extent of social isolation, psychosexual variables and adverse childhood experiences are found for schizophrenic and non schizophrenic offenders. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia as well as antisocial traits had a great impact on schizophrenic sexual offending. Solely the occurrence of bizarre behaviour was influenced by positive symptoms. Different offence characteristics appeared in the four outlined schizophrenic subgroups such as bizarre behaviour of the psychotic, assaultive behaviour of the dissocial, chaotic behaviour of the substance abusive and negative childhood experiences of the sadistic schizophrenic offenders. The partly controversial findings underline the need for further studies to understand sexual offending in the

  13. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…

  14. Contagion and Repeat Offending among Urban Juvenile Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennis, Jeremy; Harris, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the role of repeat offending and spatial contagion in juvenile delinquency recidivism using a database of 7166 male juvenile offenders sent to community-based programs by the Family Court of Philadelphia. Results indicate evidence of repeat offending among juvenile delinquents, particularly for drug offenders. The…

  15. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…

  16. Contagion and Repeat Offending among Urban Juvenile Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennis, Jeremy; Harris, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the role of repeat offending and spatial contagion in juvenile delinquency recidivism using a database of 7166 male juvenile offenders sent to community-based programs by the Family Court of Philadelphia. Results indicate evidence of repeat offending among juvenile delinquents, particularly for drug offenders. The…

  17. The Good, the Bad, and the Incomprehensible: Typifications of Victims and Offenders as Antecedents of Beliefs About Sex Crime.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Christina; Pickett, Justin T

    2016-01-01

    Public opinion has played a critical role in the development of sex crime laws. However, little scholarly work has focused directly on the origins of negative attitudes toward sex offenders. We address this research gap by developing and testing a theoretical account of such views. Drawing on recent national survey data, we examine the extent to which typifications about sexual victims and offenders--believing sex crime typically affects children and female victims and is committed by strangers--explain beliefs about the reformability of sex offenders, harm inflicted on victims, and the causes of offending. Results indicate that judging children to be typical targets of sex crimes is a key determinant of public views. We discuss the implications of our findings.

  18. The roles of victim and offender alcohol use in sexual assaults: results from the National Violence Against Women Survey.

    PubMed

    Brecklin, Leanne R; Ullman, Sarah E

    2002-01-01

    The roles of victim and offender alcohol use in the outcomes of sexual assault incidents (rape completion, injury and medical care) were studied. Data from 859 female sexual assault victims identified from the National Violence against Women Survey were examined. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that offender drinking was associated with greater likelihood of rape completion, but was unrelated to physical injury or medical care when victim demographics and assault characteristics were controlled. Offender aggression was the strongest predictor of both victim injury and medical care outcomes (but not rape completion). Furthermore, neither victim drinking at the time of the incident nor victim past-year drinking was significantly related to assault outcomes. These results suggest that offender behavior is most important for predicting assault outcomes sustained by sexual assault victims.

  19. PTSD and re-offending risk: the mediating role of worry and a negative perception of other people's support

    PubMed Central

    Ardino, Vittoria; Milani, Luca; Di Blasio, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are mainly focused on victims of trauma. Very few studies explored the links between PTSD symptoms and re-offending risk in perpetrators of violence. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the effect of PTSD symptoms on re-offending risk in prisoner populations with a focus on indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Methods 75 prisoners (25 females, mean age: 44.36 years; 50 males, mean age: 34.7 years) were assessed for exposure to child abuse and neglect, PTSD symptoms, worry, a negative perception of other people’s support and re-offending risk. Mediation analyses tested the indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Results 72% participants presented PTSD symptoms and 30.7% were at risk of re-offending. Mediation analyses supported the hypothesis of a mediation pathway from PTSD to worry and a negative perception of other people’s support to an increased risk of re-offending. Conclusions The results indicate that prisoners report high rates of PTSD symptoms; furthermore, they highlight an important relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Findings suggest that future research should test further the indirect effects of negative cognitive and emotional states on the relationship of PTSD and re-offending risk and explore more in depth the role of PTSD to assess and treat prisoners. PMID:24371516

  20. Addressing Social Anxiety Concurrently With Prison-Based Sex Offender Treatment: A Case of Individual Needs in an Era of Manualized Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lasher, Michael P; Webb, Jon R; Stinson, Jill D; Cantrell, Peggy J

    2017-07-01

    Emotional regulation may be an underaddressed therapeutic target in sex offender treatment. This article presents a case report of "Adam," a Caucasian male referred to a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Adam's social anxiety was recognized as an antecendent to his sexual offending, and treatment of such, as a critical adjunct to sex offender treatment, is discussed herein. Adam's individualized treatment included aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy and time-limited dynamic psychotherapy. Adam showed an increased understanding of his anxiety and improvement in his social interactions, both in the context of treatment groups and with female staff, and was willing to continue follow-up care in the community. This case provides support for the individualized treatment of incarcerated offenders as opposed to exclusively utilizing manualized psychoeducational interventions.