Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Greener, Jack M.; Vance, Jerry
An increasingly important treatment group is the expanding population of methamphetamine-using female offenders. This study focused on women methamphetamine-using offenders (n = 359) who were treated either in a modified therapeutic community (TC) program ("Clean Lifestyle is Freedom Forever" [CLIFF]-TC: n = 234) designed for non-violent offenders…
Stretesky, Paul B.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…
Cartier, Jerome; Farabee, David; Prendergast, Michael L.
This study uses data from 641 state prison parolees in California to examine the associations between methamphetamine use and three measures of criminal behavior: (a) self-reported violent criminal behavior, (b) return to prison for a violent offense, and (c) return to prison for any reason during the first 12 months of parole. Methamphetamine use…
Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…
Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan
This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed.
Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L
Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.
Hellem, Tracy L.; Sung, Young-Hoon; Shi, Xian-Feng; Pett, Marjorie A.; Latendresse, Gwen; Morgan, Jubel; Huber, Rebekah S.; Kuykendall, Danielle; Lundberg, Kelly J.; Renshaw, Perry F.
Objective Depression among methamphetamine users is more prevalent in females than males, but gender specific treatment options for this comorbidity have not been described. Reduced brain phosphocreatine levels have been shown to be lower in female methamphetamine users compared to males, and, of relevance, studies have demonstrated an association between treatment resistant depression and reduced brain phosphocreatine concentrations. The nutritional supplement creatine monohydrate has been reported to reduce symptoms of depression in female adolescents and adults taking antidepressants, as well as to increase brain phosphocreatine in healthy volunteers. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate creatine monohydrate as a treatment for depression in female methamphetamine users. Methods Fourteen females with depression and comorbid methamphetamine dependence were enrolled in an 8 week open label trial of 5 grams of daily creatine monohydrate and of these 14, eleven females completed the study. Depression was measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and brain phosphocreatine levels were measured using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy pre- and post-creatine treatment. Secondary outcome measures included anxiety symptoms, measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), as well as methamphetamine use, monitored by twice weekly urine drug screens and self-reported use. Results The results of a linear mixed effects repeated measures model showed significantly reduced HAMD and BAI scores as early as week 2 when compared to baseline scores. This improvement was maintained through study completion. Brain phosphocreatine concentrations were higher at the second phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan compared to the baseline scan; Mbaseline = 0.223 (SD = 0.013) vs. Mpost-treatment = 0.233 (SD = 0.009), t(9) = 2.905, p < .01, suggesting that creatine increased phosphocreatine levels. Also, a reduction in methamphetamine
Shannon, Kate; Strathdee, Steffanie; Shoveller, Jean; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio; Tyndall, Mark
Given growing concern of the sexual risks associated with crystal methamphetamine use and the dearth of research characterizing the use of methamphetamine among street-based sex workers (FSWs), this study aimed to characterize the prevalence and individual, social, and structural contexts of crystal methamphetamine use among FSWs in a Canadian setting. Drawing on data from a prospective cohort, we constructed multivariate logistic models to examine independent correlates of crystal methamphetamine among FSWs over a two-year follow-up period using generalized estimating equations. Of a total of 255 street-based FSWs, 78 (32%) reported lifetime crystal methamphetamine use and 24% used crystal methamphetamine during the two-year follow-up period, with no significant associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk patterns. In a final multivariate GEE model, FSWs who used crystal methamphetamine had a higher proportional odds of dual heroin injection (adjOR=2.98, 95%CI: 1.35-5.22), having a primary male sex partner who procures drugs for them (adjOR=1.79, 95%CI: 1.02-3.14), and working (adjOR=1.62, 95%CI: 1.04-2.65) and living (adjOR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.07-1.99) in marginalized public spaces. The findings highlight the crucial need to move beyond the individual to gender-focused safer environment interventions that mediate the physical and social risk environment of crystal methamphetamine use among FSWs.
Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.
Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C
Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered.
Horton, Davis M., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.
Three themes run through this collection of citations which represent a small fraction of literature on the adult female offender. One is the ideology, implications, and impact of criminological theory to the study of female crime and criminality. A second theme treats the legal and procedural mechanics of justice administration. The final theme…
Urada, Lianne A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Morisky, Donald E; Schilling, Robert F; Simbulan, Nymia P; Estacio, Leonardo R; Raj, Anita
To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009-2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%; AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%; AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population.
Urada, Lianne A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Schilling, Robert F.; Simbulan, Nymia P.; Estacio, Leonardo R.; Raj, Anita
To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009–2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%;AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2–3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%;AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1–0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population. PMID:23343641
Wijkman, Miriam; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan
The authors studied offender, offense, and victim characteristics in a cohort of 111 adult female sex offenders comprising all female sex offenders known to the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2005. In 77% of the cases, the female sex offenders had abused children; almost two thirds of the women had co-offended with a male co-offender. Their backgrounds are on average problematic with sexual abuse being prominent (31%); mental disorders were also prominent (59%). Using multiple correspondence analysis, the authors distinguished four prototypical offender types. They identified the young assaulter and the rapist who are relatively young solo offenders. Two prototypes, the psychologically disturbed co-offender and the passive mother, comprise older women. They mostly abused their own children together with their male/intimate partner. These prototypes partly overlap with previous typologies. The authors discuss implications for theory and treatment.
Solis, O Lizette; Benedek, Elissa P
Female sexual offenders comprise the minority of sexual offenders in the criminal justice system. However, empirical research reveals that sexual offenses against adolescents by females are a bigger problem than previously thought, particularly in the educational system. The authors review some of the data in the criminal justice system as well as in empirical research studies about female sexual offenders, with a specific focus on females who commit sexual crimes against students who are minors.
Vick, Jennifer; McRoy, Ruth; Matthews, Bobbie M.
Reviews the literature on female sex offenders and presents the results of a nationwide survey of mental health providers on approaches to diagnosing prior sexual abuse history and/or perpetration among juvenile females. Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between…
Minimal employable skills, poor work habits, and substance abuse are problems that often result in released female offenders' recidivating within 36 months of their prison release. Recidivism is further compounded when the female offender suffers from a learning disability. Research suggests that correctional education experiences do not address…
Oliver, Brian E; Holmes, Laura
In recent years, there has been accumulating evidence that sexual abuse committed by females is not rare and can be just as traumatic as sexual abuse committed by males. Despite the increased recognition given to sex offending by adult women, however, very little attention has been given to sex offenses committed by juvenile females. There has further been very little published material that has focused specifically on intervening with female children and adolescents before they offend. In an attempt to fill this gap, this article describes common characteristics of juvenile female sex offenders, ways in which juvenile female sex offenders are similar to and different from juvenile male sex offenders, and the limitations that exist related to our knowledge about these offenders. Based on this information, suggestions are given for possible ways to intervene in the lives of at-risk female youth before they offend.
Dedovic, Katarina; Pruessner, Jens; Tremblay, Jacques; Nadeau, Louise; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Lepage, Martin; Brown, Thomas G
Some sex differences have been detected in driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders. However, understanding of the key factors contributing to DWI among male and female drivers remains elusive, limiting development of targeted interventions. Sex-based neurocognitive analyses could provide the much-needed insight. We examined whether male DWI offenders show cortical thickness anomalies that differ from those in female DWI offenders, when compared to their respective controls. Moderating role of sex and alcohol use on DWI status was also investigated. Sixty-one DWI offenders (29 male; 32 female) and 58 controls (29 male; 29 female) completed an anatomical brain scan and assessments on other relevant characteristics. Only male DWI offenders had reduced cortical thickness in the right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a region involved in cognitive control. Lower cortical thickness was associated with increased odds of DWI status only among males who have not engaged in very hazardous pattern of alcohol misuse in the previous 12 months. Thus, for these male DWI drivers, interventions that could impact PCC could be most advantageous. Continued multidimensional sex analysis of the neural characteristics of male and female DWI offenders is warranted.
Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S
This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients.
McClain, Paula D.
Explores the social and environmental characteristics of Black female homicide victims and offenders. Assembled data on 661 Black female homicide victims and 119 Black female homicide offenders. Analyses indicated that Black female homicide victims and offenders exhibit low socioeconomic status and essentially similar behavior patterns. (Author)
Strickland, Susan M.
Few studies have investigated the characteristics of female sex offenders and factors and/or causes of female deviance. Research to date has been descriptive in nature, with few comparison studies. Using a correlational design and three valid instruments, female sexual offenders and a matched group of female nonsexual offenders are compared in the…
Wang, Jun; Li, Chun; Zhu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Si-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Song; Li, Qi-Guang; Wang, Qun; Zhong, Shao-Ling; Ng, Chee H; Ungvari, Gabor S; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Ping
Little is known about the association between schizophrenia and violence in women in China. This study aimed to examine the association between schizophrenia and violence in Chinese female offenders. Fifty-two schizophrenia patients were identified from the female offenders who received forensic psychiatric assessments in 2011 in Hunan province, China. Using a propensity score matching method, 104 matched controls without psychiatric disorders were selected from female criminals in Hunan province. Violent offences and homicides were verified and recorded. The percentages of violent offences and homicides were significantly higher in female offenders with schizophrenia than in controls (78.8% vs. 30.8%, P < 0.001; 44.2% vs. 18.3%, P = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that diagnosis of schizophrenia, younger age at first offence, living in rural area and a lower education level were independently and positively associated with violent offences, while having a diagnosis of schizophrenia and lower education level were associated with homicides. There appears to be an independent and positive association between schizophrenia and violent offence in Chinese female offenders. Effective preventive approaches on violence in female schizophrenia patients are warranted.
Yatsugi, Shinzo; Fujita, Koji; Kashima, Saori; Eboshida, Akira
Few stimulant drug users receive adequate treatment. This cross-sectional study describes the characteristics of female drug offenders that use stimulants and clarifies the factors related to the awareness of treatment for drug dependencies. We included 80 females imprisoned due to stimulant control law violations from 2012 to 2015. The characteristics of the female prisoners were stratified according to various treatment awareness levels, and associations between each characteristic and treatment awareness were evaluated using logistic regression models. The average period of stimulant drug use was 17.7 years. Participants imprisoned for the second time were significantly more likely to consider treatment compared to those imprisoned only once: odds ratio (OR) = 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–10.7). This elevated OR was diluted in repeat offenders. Participants who had experienced multiple aftereffects (≥7) or serious depressive symptoms were also more likely to consider treatment: OR = 6.1 (95% CI: 1.8–20.8) and OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.0–6.2), respectively. Second-time stimulant offenders or offenders who had experienced health problems were more likely to consider it important to receive drug dependence treatment. To overcome relapses of stimulant use, it is recommended that stimulant use offenders are encouraged to accept adequate treatment. PMID:27845738
McCartan, Lisa M.; Gunnison, Elaine
The link between prior sexual abuse and female offending is one of the most consistent findings within the etiology of female offending. It is not, however, part of every female offender's life history. Working from research on the impact of abuse on individuals, the current article examines the individual and relationship factors that…
This research highlights the learning of female offenders on a 20-day tailor-made experiential adventure education course (Women in Action) delivered by Outward Bound New Zealand. The aims of the course were to increase self-awareness, to develop an understanding of the concept of choice and self responsibility, to improve communication skills and…
Wagner, Cynthia Olson; And Others
Fifty female offenders (18 to 44 years old) were individually screened for articulation, hearing, receptive language, fluency (stuttering), and voice disorders. Results indicated that 44 percent of the women evidenced a dysfunction in one or more of these areas. (Author/CL)
Methamphetamine Use Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you have used methamphetamines you are at risk for Pulmonary Hypertension? www. ... are made every year. PH in Association with Methamphetamine Use My doctor recently told me that I ...
Freeman, Naomi J.; Sandler, Jeffrey C.
Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of 780 female and male sex offenders in New York State, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups. Results suggested…
Beling, J; Hudson, S M; Ward, T
This study examined gender differences in undergraduates' attributions for child sex offending. One hundred and sixty-four undergraduates were asked to give the reasons why they think men sexually offend against children and to rate them using Benson's Attributional Scale across four dimensions: stability, locus, controllability and globality. A Grounded Theory methodology was applied to these reasons and a set of nine categories derived from the data. The results showed that undergraduates' reasons for child sexual abuse strongly parallel contemporary scientific theories of abuse, and that there were significant gender differences in the frequency with which participants cited various types of reasons given for sexual abuse. Females endorsed significantly more victim reasons than males, and also more power and control reasons than did males. In contrast, males endorsed significantly more sexual reasons for offending than did females. Furthermore, significant gender differences were found between the ways in which participants construed the reasons for sexual abuse, with females seeing the phenomenon as significantly more stable and internal than males. No significant gender differences were found on the dimensions of controllability and globality.
Cortoni, Franca; Hanson, R Karl; Coache, Marie-Ève
This study examined the recidivism rates of female sexual offenders. A meta-analysis of 10 studies (2,490 offenders; average follow-up 6.5 years) showed that female sexual offenders have extremely low rates of sexual recidivism (less than 3%). The recidivism rates for violent (including sexual) offences and for any type of crime were predictably higher than the recidivism rates for sexual offences but still lower than the recidivism rates of male sexual offenders. These findings indicate the need for distinct policies and procedures for assessing and managing the risk of male and female sexual offenders. Risk assessment tools developed specifically for male sexual offenders would be expected to substantially overestimate the recidivism risk of female sexual offenders.
Kelly, Brian C.; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
In recent decades, methamphetamine developed a peculiar geographic distribution in the United States, with limited diffusion in the Northeast. While use within gay clubs received attention, methamphetamine in club subcultures more broadly remains less clear. Using quantitative and qualitative data, we provide a descriptive assessment of methamphetamine use in club subcultures. Methamphetamine use in club subcultures often has instrumental purposes. The context of initiation into methamphetamine use and its close connection to cocaine shape later patterns of use. Viewing meth solely as a gay party drug misses a significant part of the population and may misguide public health strategies to reduce methamphetamine use in the Northeast. PMID:23848380
Shon, Phillip Chong Ho; Williams, Christopher R
Social and behavioral scientists have increasingly attended to the contexts and motivational dynamics underlying parricidal events. These efforts notwithstanding, most research has focused on adolescent or adult male offender populations. One largely neglected area of study is that of adult female offender parricide. The present study utilizes archival records to examine the contexts and sources of conflict that gave rise to adult female offender parricides in the late 19th century. Three general themes emerged, representing the primary contexts behind adult female offender parricide: (1) abuse and neglect; (2) instrumental, financially-motivated killings; and (3) expressive killings, often during the course of arguments. Each of these contexts is explored.
Widom, Cathy Spatz
Investigates the validity of three assumptions about self-esteem, sex-role identity, and feminism in female offenders in a study of women awaiting trial in Massachusetts. Results did not support assumptions regarding low self-esteem and increased masculinity in female offenders. Speculations were made about the role femininity plays in…
This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.
DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M
Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.
Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen
Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…
Muftic, Lisa R.; Baumann, Miranda L.
Femicide, the murder of females (most often at the hands of males), is an understudied area in homicide research. Furthermore, femicide perpetrated by females has been all but ignored. One reason this may be is because of the rarity of homicide victimization perpetrated by females. Rather, most homicide incidents consist of a male offender and a…
Cunliffe, Ted; Gacono, Carl B
Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures of self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Compared to female offenders with ASPD who were nonpsychopathic, female offenders with ASPD who were psychopathic exhibited marked disturbances in self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the ASPD diagnosis in women, support the utility of the psychopathy construct with female offenders, and implicate important differences between men and women with ASPD. These gender differences have relevance to the evaluation (PCL-R scoring) and treatment of female offenders. Our findings are discussed within the context of the female psychopath's hypothesized hysterical character style.
Beling, Joel; Hudson, Stephen M.; Ward, Tony
Examines gender differences in undergraduates' attributions for child sex offending. Results showed that undergraduates' reasons for child sexual abuse strongly parallel contemporary scientific theories of abuse, and that there were significant gender differences in the frequency with which participants cited various types of reasons given for…
Foy, David W.; Ritchie, Iya K.; Conway, Alison H.
Background While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences. PMID:22893830
Oetting, Eugene R.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Luther, Nathan; Beauvais, Fred; Edwards, Ruth W.
Recent data on 9th-12th grade methamphetamine use (both lifetime and last month prevalence) are summarized. Since 1992 methamphetamine use has increased. There were no significant differences in use noted across school year. Males are more likely to use than females, although female use has also increased. Implications for research, prevention,…
Roberts, James C.; Wolfer, Loreen
This paper examines the experiences of a group of female drug offenders who successfully completed a county drug court program in northeast Pennsylvania. Using the constant comparative method, we analyzed interviews with these women for thematic patterns in order to provide an evaluation of this program based on participants' subjective…
Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Bartholomew, Norma G.; Pankow, Jennifer; Simpson, D. Dwayne
Increasing numbers of women in prison raise concerns about gender-specific problems and needs severity. Female offenders report higher trauma as well as mental and medical health complications than males, but large inmate populations and limited resources create challenges in administering proper diagnostic screening and assessments. This study…
Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy; And Others
Interviews with 40 incarcerated juvenile female offenders found they typically reported failing 1 or more grades; more than having serious arrest; using drugs prior to crimes and as part of their lifestyle; and acting intentionally, and most often with others, to commit crimes. Critical factors included academic deficiencies, siblings who were…
Druckman, Joan M.
Families of female juvenile status offenders were administered the Moos Family Environment Scale. The families could be described as moderately cohesive and adaptive. Results suggest that the dysfunctioning family may not be the primary cause of status offenses and that family-oriented treatment is possibly not the choice treatment for status…
Presents data on methamphetamine use in the United States and the economic and social pressures that may partially explain expanded methamphetamine use. Recommends a policy response that utilizes a public health approach, including prevention campaigns, harm-reduction outreach and treatment approaches, and pharmacologic and abstinence-based drug…
Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping
This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…
Pflugradt, Dawn M.; Allen, Bradley P.
This study examined the association between female sexual offending behavioral patterns, as delineated by Sandler and Freeman's (2007) typologies, and executive functioning. The sample included all referrals for sexual offender assessments within a women's maximum/medium security prison between January 2009 and October 2009. Each subject was…
Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montanaro, Erika A.; Bryan, Angela D.
Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34% of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group. PMID:25107488
Nyamathi, Adeline M; Salem, Benissa E; Hall, Elizabeth; Oleskowicz, Tanya; Ekstrand, Maria; Yadav, Kartik; Toyama, Joy; Turner, Susan; Faucette, Mark
The cyclical pattern of violence in the lives of homeless female ex-offenders may precipitate ongoing substance use and recidivism; all of which have shown to be mounting public health issues affecting successful reentry. This paper, which analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study of 126 female ex-offenders in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, highlighted the factors found to be associated with violent crime among homeless female ex-offenders. A multiple logistic regression model for whether or not the last conviction was for a violent offense indicated that poor housing (p = .011) and self-reported anger or hostility (p < .001) were significant correlates. An ordinal regression model for the number of violent offenses also indicated that affectionate support was associated with committing fewer number of violent crimes (p = .001), while positive social interactions (p = .007), and anger/hostility (p = .015) were associated with greater number of violent crimes. Implications for developing a comprehensive array of strategies that can mitigate the pattern of violence often seen in the lives of homeless female who have recently exited jails and prisons is discussed.
Heinzerling, Keith G; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven
Although stimulant dependence is highly heritable, few studies have examined genetic influences on methamphetamine dependence. We performed a candidate gene study of 52 SNPs and pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency among 263 methamphetamine dependent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White participants of several methamphetamine outpatient clinical trials in Los Angeles. One SNP, rs7591784 was significantly associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency following Bonferroni correction (p < 0.001) in males but not females. We then examined rs7591784 and methamphetamine urine drug screen results during 12 weeks of outpatient treatment among males with treatment outcome data available (N = 94) and found rs7591784 was significantly associated with methamphetamine use during treatment controlling for pretreatment methamphetamine use. rs7591784 is near CREB1 and in a linkage disequilibrium block with rs2952768, previously shown to influence CREB1 expression. The CREB signaling pathway is involved in gene expression changes related to chronic use of multiple drugs of abuse including methamphetamine and these results suggest that variability in CREB signaling may influence pretreatment frequency of methamphetamine use as well as outcomes of outpatient treatment. Medications targeting the CREB pathway, including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, warrant investigation as pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorders.
Heinzerling, Keith G.; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven
Although stimulant dependence is highly heritable, few studies have examined genetic influences on methamphetamine dependence. We performed a candidate gene study of 52 SNPs and pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency among 263 methamphetamine dependent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White participants of several methamphetamine outpatient clinical trials in Los Angeles. One SNP, rs7591784 was significantly associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency following Bonferroni correction (p < 0.001) in males but not females. We then examined rs7591784 and methamphetamine urine drug screen results during 12 weeks of outpatient treatment among males with treatment outcome data available (N = 94) and found rs7591784 was significantly associated with methamphetamine use during treatment controlling for pretreatment methamphetamine use. rs7591784 is near CREB1 and in a linkage disequilibrium block with rs2952768, previously shown to influence CREB1 expression. The CREB signaling pathway is involved in gene expression changes related to chronic use of multiple drugs of abuse including methamphetamine and these results suggest that variability in CREB signaling may influence pretreatment frequency of methamphetamine use as well as outcomes of outpatient treatment. Medications targeting the CREB pathway, including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, warrant investigation as pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorders. PMID:26736037
Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…
Muftić, Lisa R; Baumann, Miranda L
Femicide, the murder of females (most often at the hands of males), is an understudied area in homicide research. Furthermore, femicide perpetrated by females has been all but ignored. One reason this may be is because of the rarity of homicide victimization perpetrated by females. Rather, most homicide incidents consist of a male offender and a male victim. When a homicide does involve a female, either as a victim or as an offender, the other party implicated is generally a male. The primary goal of the proposed study is to provide an in-depth, albeit exploratory, examination of female-perpetrated femicide. Using homicide data taken from the Dallas Homicide Unit, 403 cases of femicide will be analyzed, with special attention devoted to comparing female-perpetrated femicide incidents (n = 39) against male-perpetrated femicide incidents (n = 364). Specifically, the current study will explore the similarities and differences in sociodemographic characteristics of victims and suspects, offense characteristics, and offense circumstances. Contrary to what was expected, results, at first glance, seem to suggest an overwhelming similarity between femicide suspects and victims, irrespective of gender. However, when the relationship between victim and suspect is considered, distinct differences appear. Implications from these findings as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Robertson, Angela A; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie
Exposure to multiple traumatic events and high rates of mental health problems are common among juvenile offenders. This study draws on Conservation of Resources (COR) stress theory to examine the impact of a specific trauma, Hurricane Katrina, relative to other adverse life events, on the mental health of female adolescent offenders in Mississippi. Teenage girls (N=258, 69% African American) were recruited from four juvenile detention centers and the state training school. Participants were interviewed about the occurrence and timing of adverse life events and hurricane-related experiences and completed a self-administered mental health assessment. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to identify predictors of anxiety and depression. Pre-hurricane family stressors, pre-hurricane traumatic events, hurricane-related property damage, and receipt of hurricane-related financial assistance significantly predicted symptoms of anxiety and depression. Findings support COR theory. Family stressors had the greatest influence on symptoms of anxiety and depression, highlighting the need for family based services that address the multiple, inter-related problems and challenges in the lives of female juvenile offenders.
Gizzi, Michael C; Gerkin, Patrick
This research seeks to broaden our understanding of methamphetamine's (meth's) place within the study of drugs and crime. Through extensive court records research and interviews with 200 offenders in local jails in western Colorado, this research contributes to the creation of a meth user profile and begins to identify the place of meth in the drug-crime nexus. The study compares the criminal behavior of meth users with other drug users, finding that meth users are more likely than other drug users to be drunk or high at the time of arrest and claim their crimes were related to drug use in other ways. A content analysis of criminal records demonstrates that meth users have more extensive criminal records and are more likely than other drug users to commit property crimes.
Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders’ problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions. PMID:25598649
Heide, Kathleen M; Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique; Solomon, Eldra P; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver
Murders committed by juveniles remain a serious concern in the United States. Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on male offenders. As a result, little is known about female JHOs and how they differ from their male counterparts on a national level. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to examine more than 40,000 murders committed by male and female juvenile offenders from 1976 to 2005. This research effort, the most expansive to date, replicated previous findings with respect to gender differences using bivariate and multivariate analyses. As predicted, six variables used to test eight hypotheses with respect to male and female JHOs in single-victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim-offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, victim gender, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that all variables remained significant when entered into the model. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research.
Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.
The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…
Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael
This article examined differences between young women and men who were incarcerated juvenile offenders with disabilities in Oregon in terms of the barriers they faced in their transition from the correctional system back into the community. Data were gathered on 72 females and 276 males, all of whom presented disabilities and who were…
Ferranti, Jessica; McDermott, Barbara E; Scott, Charles L
Until recently, there has been little information regarding female offenders who commit homicides that are motivated by psychosis. We investigated gender differences in the characteristics of psychosis and crime variables in psychotically motivated homicide. In the study, conducted at a large U.S. forensic facility, we reviewed the records of women (n = 47) found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) who were hospitalized between January 1991 and August 2005 for a homicide offense. A random sample of 47 men who were committed during the same period for the same offenses was selected for comparison. Religious delusions were found more often in women who killed infants (0-1 year of age) and children between the ages of 2 and 18. Women were more likely to have a diagnosis of an affective problem and borderline personality disorder. The results indicate gender-specific areas to focus on during clinical and forensic assessments of the risk of violence in women with psychosis.
Kimonis, Eva R; Skeem, Jennifer L; Edens, John F; Douglas, Kevin S; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Poythress, Norman G
Childhood abuse is relatively prevalent among women and is an important risk factor for both criminal behavior and suicide-related behavior (SRB). Based on a sample of 266 female offenders, we address one theoretical and one practical issue. First, from a theoretical perspective, we assess whether internalizing (depression and anxiety) and externalizing (substance abuse and antisocial behavior) psychopathology mediate the relation between abuse on the one hand, and SRB or criminal behavior, on the other. Results indicate that externalizing problems mediate the relation between childhood abuse and both lifetime SRB (fully) and lifetime criminality (partially). Second, at a practical level, results indicate that a subscale of the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) that assesses lifetime criminal behavior adds incremental utility to postdicting SRB, beyond the variance accounted for by self-report measures of abuse and externalizing problems. However, none of the measures-including the PCL-R-predicted future recidivism.
Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.
Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…
Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Putkonen, Hanna; Grönroos, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Eronen, Markku; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä
The construct of psychopathy is essential in explaining criminal behavior, but unfortunately the empirical research on psychopathy in women has been inconsistent. In this study the underlying structure of psychopathy in women was examined by testing the two-factor model by Hare (2003) and the three-factor solution by Cooke and Michie (2001) using confirmatory factor analysis. We replicated the study by Warren et al. (2003) using a nationwide sample of 97 female homicide offenders in order to facilitate the comparison of results. The prevalence of psychopathy in the present study was 9.3% with a cut-off of >or=30 and 21.6% with a cut-off of >or=25. The best fit for the data out of the tested models was the three-factor model with six testlets. The two-factor model proved to be too simple a model for the female homicide data. The findings regarding comorbidity of psychopathy with personality disorders show that the concept of psychopathy includes diagnostic criteria of several personality disorders, but further research is needed to establish a possible superordinate dimension. Further research on the PCL-R and putative gender differences in the expression of psychopathy in women and men as well as on the putative impact of cultural differences on the instrument is clearly needed.
Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Osterheider, Michael; Nedopil, Norbert; Stadtland, Cornelis
A clear and structured approach to evidence-based and gender-specific risk assessment of violence in female offenders is high on political and mental health agendas. However, most data on the factors involved in risk-assessment instruments are based on data of male offenders. The aim of the present study was to validate the use of the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), the HCR-20 and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) for the prediction of recidivism in German female offenders. This study is part of the Munich Prognosis Project (MPP). It focuses on a subsample of female delinquents (n = 80) who had been referred for forensic-psychiatric evaluation prior to sentencing. The mean time at risk was 8 years (SD = 5 years; range: 1-18 years). During this time, 31% (n = 25) of the female offenders were reconvicted, 5% (n = 4) for violent and 26% (n = 21) for non-violent re-offenses. The predictive validity of the PCL-R for general recidivism was calculated. Analysis with receiver-operating characteristics revealed that the PCL-R total score, the PCL-R antisocial lifestyle factor, the PCL-R lifestyle factor and the PCL-R impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style factor had a moderate predictive validity for general recidivism (area under the curve, AUC = 0.66, p = 0.02). The VRAG has also demonstrated predictive validity (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.02), whereas the HCR-20 showed no predictive validity. These results appear to provide the first evidence that the PCL-R total score and the antisocial lifestyle factor are predictive for general female recidivism, as has been shown consistently for male recidivists. The implications of these findings for crime prevention, prognosis in women, and future research are discussed.
Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N Dickon; Turkheimer, Eric N
The current study examined the impact of exposure to violence and neighborhood disadvantage on criminal recidivism among Black (n = 69) and White (n = 53) female juvenile offenders. Participants were girls between the ages of 13 and 19 (M = 16.8; SD = 1.2) who were sentenced to secure custody. Using a multi-method research design, the study assessed neighborhood disadvantage through census level data, exposure to violence through self-report, and criminal recidivism through official records. Results indicated that Black girls were significantly more likely than White girls to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods, but both reported similar levels of parental physical abuse and witnessing neighborhood violence. In structural equation models, neighborhood disadvantage and witnessing neighborhood violence were indicative of future recidivism for the group as a whole. However, multiple group analyses indicated the existence of race specific pathways to recidivism. Witnessing neighborhood violence was associated with recidivism for Black girls while parental physical abuse was associated with recidivism for White girls. Results suggest that characteristics within the neighborhood play a considerable role in recidivism among female juvenile offenders generally and Black female juvenile offenders, specifically. Race specific risk models warrant further investigation, and may help lawmakers and clinicians in addressing racial disparities in the justice system.
Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Slocum, Lee Ann; Kruttschnitt, Candace
Sexual assault remains one of the most underreported violent crimes. When victims report, they often are dissatisfied with the police response. The factors influencing one's decision to invoke the law have been widely examined. However, less research examines (a) how the victim's criminality affects this decision and (b) women offenders' characterization of their reporting decisions. We use mixed methods to explore the factors related to an offender's decision to report sexual victimization to police and consider their descriptions of police response when they do report the crime. Our findings provide insight into the gendered relations between offenders and police.
Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.
Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…
Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane
This study describes the extent to which methamphetamine users perceive that their methamphetamine use has resulted in violent behavior, and describes the level of self-reported prevalence of specific violent criminal behaviors irrespective of methamphetamine use. Predictors of these two violence-related indicators, in terms of potential correlates from substance use history, criminal history, and health risk domains are examined. Data are from extensive interviews of 350 methamphetamine users who received substance use treatment in a large California county. A majority (56%) perceived that their methamphetamine use resulted in violent behavior; 59% reported specific violent criminal behaviors. For more than half of those reporting violent criminal behavior, this behavior pattern began before methamphetamine initiation. Thus, for a subsample of methamphetamine users, violence may be related to factors other than methamphetamine use. Users' perceptions that their methamphetamine use resulted in violence appears strongest for those with the most severe methamphetamine-related problems, particularly paranoia.
van der Put, Claudia E
To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Rusch, Melanie L; Lozada, Remedios; Pollini, Robin A; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Case, Patricia; Strathdee, Stefanie A
Tijuana is situated on the Mexico-USA border adjacent to San Diego, CA, on a major drug trafficking route. Increased methamphetamine trafficking in recent years has created a local consumption market. We examined factors associated with methamphetamine use and routes of administration by gender among injection drug users (IDUs). From 2006-2007, IDUs > or =18 years old in Tijuana were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, interviewed, and tested for HIV, syphilis, and TB. Logistic regression was used to assess associations with methamphetamine use (past 6 months), stratified by gender. Among 1,056 participants, methamphetamine use was more commonly reported among females compared to males (80% vs. 68%, p < 0.01), particularly, methamphetamine smoking (57% vs. 34%; p < 0.01). Among females (N = 158), being aged >35 years (AOR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6) was associated with methamphetamine use. Among males (N = 898), being aged >35 years (AOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6), homeless (AOR, 1.4 (0.9-2.2)), and ever reporting sex with another male (MSM; AOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7) were associated with methamphetamine use. Among males, a history of MSM was associated with injection, while sex trade and >2 casual sex partners were associated with multiple routes of administration. HIV was higher among both males and females reporting injection as the only route of methamphetamine administration. Methamphetamine use is highly prevalent among IDUs in Tijuana, especially among females. Routes of administration differed by gender and subgroup which has important implications for tailoring harm reduction interventions and drug abuse treatment.
Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Lagare, Tiffany; Palinkas, Lawrence; Stockman, Jamila K.
Background Hostage-taking, an overlooked phenomenon in public health, constitutes a severe form of intimate partner violence and may be a precursor to female homicide within relationships characterized by substance use. Criminal justice studies indicate that most hostage incidents are male-driven events with more than half of all cases associated with a prior history of violence and substance use. Methamphetamine use increases a woman’s risk of partner violence, with methamphetamine-using individuals being up to nine times more likely to commit homicide. As homicide is the most lethal outcome of partner violence and methamphetamine use, this study aims to characterize the potential role of hostage-taking within these intersecting epidemics. Methods Methamphetamine-using women enrolled in an HIV behavioural intervention trial (FASTLANE-II) who reported experiences of partner violence were purposively selected to participate in qualitative sub-studies (Women’s Study I & II). Twenty-nine women, ages 26–57, participated in semi-structured interviews that discussed relationship dynamics, partner violence, drug use and sexual practices. Results Findings indicated four cases of women being held hostage by a partner, with two women describing two separate hostage experiences. Women discussed partner jealousy, drug withdrawal symptoms, heightened emotional states from methamphetamine use, and escalating violent incidents as factors leading up to hostage-taking. Factors influencing lack of reporting incidents to law enforcement included having a criminal record, fear of partner retaliation, and intentions to terminate the relationship while the partner is incarcerated. Conclusion Educating women on the warning signs of hostage-taking within the context of methamphetamine use and promoting behaviour change among male perpetrators can contribute to reducing the risk of homicide. Furthermore, bridging the gap between health services and law enforcement agencies and
van Wormer, Katherine
This books considers the many aspects of how the criminal justice system can be reshaped to address the needs of victims of violence and offenders who themselves are often the victims of abuse. It presents a new model that offers an integrated framework to combine tenets of social work's strengths framework with the restorative justice model. It…
Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.
Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…
Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
San Diego County, California, is a major distribution center for methamphetamine entering the U.S. from Mexico. All available indicators suggest that the use and abuse of methamphetamine increased between 2001 and 2005. Drug treatment admissions for primary methamphetamine use accounted for 49% of all drug treatment admissions in 2005, up from 37% in 2001, with trends showing smaller proportions of female and Hispanic users and a larger proportion of methamphetamine smokers (vs. inhalation or injection). Increases in prevalence of methamphetamine use were documented among arrestees as well; by 2005, 51% of female and 21% of juvenile arrestees tested positive for methamphetamine The proportion of emergency department visits involving illicit drugs in which methamphetamine was reported increased from 32% in 2004 to 40% in 2005, although this change was not statistically significant, and methamphetamine-related deaths increased 48% between 2001 and 2005. Data from non-federal drug seizures in San Diego County documented an increase from 21 % of all drug items analyzed in 2001 to 32% in 2005 In summary, methamphetamine remains the drug of utmost concern in San Diego. The availability of multiple data sources is imperative for constructing valid characterizations of trends in methamphetamine use and abuse and its affect on health. PMID:18284098
Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T
Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record
Anton, Marja E.; Vitale, Jennifer E.; Curtin, John J.; Newman, Joseph P.
Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity. PMID:22886692
Anton, Marja E; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P
Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity.
Uhlmann, Sasha; DeBeck, Kora; Simo, Annick; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Wood, Evan
Background and objectives Despite recent increases in crystal methamphetamine use among high-risk populations such as street-involved youth, few prospective studies have examined the health and social outcomes associated with active crystal methamphetamine use. Methods We enrolled 1,019 street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada, in a prospective cohort known as the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS). Participants were assessed semi-annually and a generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with active crystal methamphetamine use. Results Among 1,019 participants recruited into ARYS between 2005 and 2012 the median follow up duration was 17 months, 320 (31.4%) participants were female and 454 (44.6%) had previously used crystal methamphetamine at baseline. In adjusted GEE analyses, active crystal methamphetamine use was independently associated with Caucasian ethnicity (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.37; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.04 – 1.81), homelessness (AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.15 – 1.56), injection drug use (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 2.76 – 4.19), non-fatal overdose (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.07 – 2.00), being a victim of violence (AOR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.38), involvement in sex work (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03 – 1.86) and drug dealing (AOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.35 – 1.90). Discussion and conclusions Prevalence of crystal methamphetamine use was high in this setting and active use was independently associated with a range of serious health and social harms. Scientific Significance Evidence-based strategies to prevent and treat crystal methamphetamine use are urgently needed. PMID:24628742
Inglez-Dias, Aline; Hahn, Judith A.; Lum, Paula J.; Evans, Jennifer; Davidson, Peter; Page-Shafer, Kimberly
Aims To describe temporal trends in methamphetamine use among young injection drug users (IDU) in San Francisco. Design and Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data collected for a longitudinal study of young IDU from 1998 to 2004. Participants were 1445 young IDU (< 30 years old) who reported injection in the previous month, English-speaking, and recruited by street outreach methods. We examined trends for: lifetime (ever) and recent (30-day) methamphetamine use, including injected and non-injected, and by age group and sexual risk behaviour [men who have sex with men injecting drug users (MSM-IDU), male IDU (non-MSM) and female IDU]. Results In 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2004 we interviewed 237, 276, 431, 310, 147 and 44 participants, respectively. Overall, median age was 22 years [interquartile range (IQR) 20 – 25], 30.3% were women and median duration of injecting was 4.4 years (IQR 2 – 7). Prevalence of methamphetamine use was high, with 50.1% reporting recent injection, but overall there were no temporal increases in reported ‘ever’ injected use. Recent methamphetamine injection (past 30 days) increased significantly, and peaked at 60% in 2003. MSM-IDU had higher methamphetamine injection ever (92.3%) and recently (59.5%) compared to heterosexual male (non-MSM) IDU (81.6% and 47.3%, respectively) and to female IDU (78.4% and 46.1%, respectively). Conclusions Despite reports of ubiquitous increases in methamphetamine use, there were no significant increases in 6 years in ever injecting methamphetamine overall among young IDU. MSM-IDU who reported the highest methamphetamine use overall reported some increases in recent injected use. The methamphetamine ‘epidemic’ was probably under way among young IDU earlier than other populations. PMID:18368610
Oser, Carrie B.; Havens, Jennifer R.; Mooney, Jennifer L.; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Knudsen, Hannah K.; Duvall, Jamieson L.; Leukefeld, Carl G.
African American female inmates are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), with heterosexual contact as the primary mode of transmission. This could be the result of racial differences in the strategies used by women to persuade a potential sexual partner to discuss AIDS and engage in condom use. Data were collected from 336 female inmates in three correctional institutions as part of the Reducing Risky Relationships for HIV (RRR-HIV) protocol within the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) cooperative agreement. Bivariate analyses indicated that African American drug using women were more likely than Whites to use the rational, withdrawal, and persistence approaches to discuss AIDS with an intimate sexual partner. Negative binomial regression models were used to identify which interpersonal discussion strategies were significant correlates of the number of the times White participants and African American participants had unprotected vaginal sex in the 30 days prior to incarceration. Results from the multivariate model indicate that White women who are more likely to use the rational discussion strategy were 15% less likely to engage in vaginal sex without a condom; however, these findings were not replicated in the African American sample. Findings add to the literature on racial differences in HIV/AIDS discussion strategies and sexual risk behaviors among drug abusing female criminal offenders. PMID:19283952
Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.
Little is known about the perceived perpetration of female-to-male intimate partner violence by victims of male offenders mandated to treatment. Sixty-eight male perpetrators of partner violence completed measures of dyadic violent and aggressive responding at intake and at a 12 week follow-up. Approximately 20% of male offenders reported partner violence perpetration and 30% reported victimization with bi-directional violence as the most common configuration of couple violence. Maladaptive responses to conflict were prevalent across partners. Significant and highly correlated reductions in aversive behaviors were detected across the assessment period for both males and their female partners. Results are interpreted within the context of motivational models of female-to-male partner violence and current treatment approaches. PMID:25750479
Wells-Parker, E; Pang, M G; Anderson, B J; McMillen, D L; Miller, D I
Female DUI offenders who participated in a controlled, random assignment DUI intervention study, the Mississippi DUI Probation Follow-Up Project, were compared to their male counterparts on demographic, drinker status and recidivism variables. In comparison to men, women in the project were less likely to be married, more likely to be between 30 and 50 years of age, less likely to have less than a 9th grade education, less likely to be screened as a high-problem-risk drinker, less likely to have prior DUI and public drunkenness arrests and less likely to recidivate. The effects of short-term rehabilitation, 1 year's probation and administration of the Life Activities Inventory-Current Status Questionnaire (LAI-CSQ) on the long-term recidivism rates of women were examined. The analysis for screened low-problem-risk women was inconclusive due to lack of statistical power. However, the repeated administration of the LAI-CSQ was detrimental for screened high-problem-risk women and tended to be detrimental for women with fewer than 12 years of education. Implications for intervening with female DUIs are discussed.
Cruise, Keith R.; Marsee, Monica A.; Dandreaux, Danielle M.; DePrato, Debra K.
Recent research indicates that adjudicated female youth have higher rates of mental health problems and histories of trauma exposure and abuse relative to adjudicated male youth. These differences are important for gender-specific assessment, intervention, and management strategies. We replicated a subtyping strategy for adjudicated female youth…
Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Broidy, Lisa; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul
This article examines the relation among gender, social-emotional adjustment, and deviant behavior among serious juvenile offenders. A sample of 105 adolescent offenders completed questionnaires assessing social-emotional characteristics and self-reported involvement in deviant behaviors. Results indicate significant associations between distress and restraint in predicting deviance, a finding that was invariant across gender. Analysis of four distinct social-emotional profiles found that membership in the reactive group was associated with the greatest amount of deviant behavior. Results also indicate that not only do serious offending girls internalize more than serious offending boys, they appear equally likely to externalize. However, although boys exhibit less distress than girls, those boys who report high rates of deviance may exhibit internalizing and externalizing problems similar to girls. The use of social-emotional measures in general, and distinct profiles in particular, may aid in targeting specific programming and treatment in an effort to provide offenders with more effective interventions.
Eitle, David J; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering factors associated with methamphetamine use among a cross-sectional sample of rural White and Native American adolescents (n = 573). Results of logistic regression analyses revealed mixed support for the stress process model; while stress exposure and family methamphetamine use predicted past year methamphetamine use, the inclusion of these variables failed to attenuate the association between race and past year use.
As women commit to a conventional lifestyle, the bond of attachment becomes a fundamental component in sustaining the desistance process. If weak attachments in the community cannot be replaced or enhanced with the cultivation of strong conventional attachments while incarcerated, female offenders will leave prison without a supportive network. Strong social networks and a high level of social capital are essential for female offenders to reintegrate successfully; if social bonds are constructed before release, there is a greater chance of maintaining a crime-free lifestyle. One way to cultivate strong bonds of attachment during incarceration is through prison-based programming. This qualitative study, based on the narratives of 49 female offenders, examines the potential for inmates to form prosocial attachments with staff in two HIV prison-based peer programs in New York State. Strong attachments were formed between the inmates and civilian staff during incarceration, maintained upon release, and served to reinforce the establishment of bourgeoning conventional identities. The dedication and commitment of the civilian staff, and the support they provided to the inmates, was essential to achieving both rehabilitative and reintegrative goals.
Powell, Robert E.; And Others
Presents results of a study focusing on a program of dilemma discussion methods for an experimental group of female prisoners and their guards. Concludes that for both the prisoners and staff test scores reflect an increase in moral judgment and ego development. Urges consideration of prison reform from educational and developmental perspectives.…
Verona, Edelyn; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.
The influence of personality and childhood abuse on suicidal behaviors and psychopathy was examined among female prisoners. Scores on the affective/interpersonal component (Factor 1; F1) and the antisocial deviance (Factor 2; F2) component of psychopathy were obtained from the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (R. D. Hare, 1991). Suicide attempt and…
Montoya, Jessica L.; Cattie, Jordan; Morgan, Erin; Woods, Steven Paul; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, Igor
Background Characterizing methamphetamine use in relation to age, HIV serostatus and seroconversion is pertinent given the increasingly older age of the population with HIV and the intertwined epidemics of methamphetamine use and HIV. Objectives Study aims were to investigate whether 1) methamphetamine use differs by age and HIV serostatus and 2) receiving an HIV diagnosis impacts methamphetamine use among younger and older persons with HIV. Methods This study examined methamphetamine use characteristics among 217 individuals with a lifetime methamphetamine dependence diagnosis who completed an in-person study assessment. Results Multivariable regressions revealed that HIV serostatus uniquely attenuates methamphetamine use, such that persons with HIV report a smaller cumulative quantity (β = −.16, p = .01) and a fewer number of days (β = −.18, p = .004) of methamphetamine use than persons without HIV. Among the HIV+ sample, all participants persisted in methamphetamine use after receiving an HIV diagnosis, with about 20% initiating use after seroconversion. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that density of methamphetamine use (i.e., grams per day used) was greater among the younger, relative to the older, HIV+ group (p = .02), and increased for both age groups following seroconversion (p < .001). Conclusion These analyses indicate that although HIV serostatus may attenuate methamphetamine use behaviors, many people with HIV initiate, or persist in, methamphetamine use after receiving an HIV diagnosis. These findings raise the question of whether tailoring of prevention and intervention strategies might reduce the impact of methamphetamine and HIV across the age continuum. PMID:26837461
Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M
Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.
It is estimated that the use of methamphetamine is 5- to 10-times more common in urban gay and bisexual men than in the general US population. Given its effects in stimulating energy, confidence, and libido, as well as its relative inexpensiveness, the drug can efficiently address serious problems in functioning among HIV-infected men, who may suffer significant symptoms of depression or fatigue associated with chronic illness and HIV-related drug treatments. Long-term methamphetamine use is associated with physical, psychologic, and social adverse effects. Increased use of the drug associates with more frequent sexual risk behaviors and increased risks for HIV transmission. Behavioral therapies, notably the approach of contingency management, are being investigated for reducing methamphetamine use and risk behaviors in the urban gay population.
This article examines youth transitions and youth offending in tandem. It argues that the transition to adulthood is heavily implicated in the fact that most offending occurs in the youth phase. Drawing on a study of 20 male and 20 female persistent young offenders in Scotland, it explores young people's desire for integration with others in the…
Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle; Hartman, Jennifer L.
Methamphetamine use was historically a problem facing Western states; however, in recent years it has methodically spread throughout the nation. Methamphetamine use impacts communities, families, and the criminal justice system in a variety of ways. As such, many jurisdictions are developing policies to reduce the sale and consumption of this drug…
Eitle, David J.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering…
Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard
Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…
Sheridan, Janie; Bennett, Sara; Coggan, Carolyn; Wheeler, Amanda; McMillan, Karen
This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sources described cases and others described injury risk as part of an overall review of methamphetamine misuse. Thus, a number of limitations and potential biases exist within the literature. The main areas where associations were noted or extrapolated with methamphetamine use and injury were around driving and violence. Other associations with injury related to methamphetamine manufacture. There was also circumstantial evidence for third party injury (that is injury to those not specifically involved in drug use or drug manufacture); however, the available data are inadequate to confirm these associations/risks. PMID:16571134
Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Kelly, Brian C.; Weiser, Jonathan D.
Research over the past ten years has suggested that methamphetamine use has become a significant problem and is associated with risky sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. In order to better understand initiation into methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men, qualitative analyses were performed on a sample of young gay and bisexual men (ages 18-29) in New York City. Participants were recruited as part of a larger study which used time-space sampling to enroll club-going young adults who indicated recent club-drug (ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, methamphetamine, cocaine, and/or LSD) use. The data for this paper are derived from the qualitative interviews of 54 gay and bisexual male methamphetamine users. At initiation (1) Methamphetamine was used in a social, non-sexual setting for a majority of the participants; (2) participants expressed limited knowledge of methamphetamine; and (3) many participants used cocaine as a basis for comparison when describing various effects of the drug. The understanding that at initiation methamphetamine was not solely used as a sexual enhancement for members of this community may enable health workers to more accurately target potential users when putting forth intervention efforts. Future research should aim to gain a better understanding into the role that methamphetamine plays in non-sexual contexts, particularly among gay and bisexual men who may not be part of the club “scene.” The relationship between attitudes towards methamphetamine and other drugs, particularly cocaine, among gay and bisexual men should be explored. PMID:17398040
This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…
Feinstein, Brian A.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Bovin, Michelle J.; Marx, Brian P.; Resick, Patricia A.
This study examined whether the level of victim-offender relationship (VOR) moderated the relationship between peritraumatic fear and active resistance as well as the relationship between peritraumatic fear and posttraumatic stress symptom severity in a community sample of female rape survivors. One hundred thirty-five participants were interviewed about their emotional and behavioral responses during the rape and assessed for posttraumatic stress symptomatology within one month of the assault. Results indicated that peritraumatic fear was positively associated with active resistance, but only among survivors of acquaintance rape. Additionally, peritraumatic fear was positively associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity, but only among survivors of intimate partner rape. These results suggest that VOR may be an important contextual factor that influences emotional and behavioral responses during rape as well as posttraumatic stress symptomatology in its aftermath. PMID:21731797
Glasner-Edwards, Suzette; Mooney, Larissa J.; Ang, Alfonso; Hillhouse, Maureen; Rawson, Richard
Objective Although trauma is a well-established risk factor for substance use disorders, little is known about the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and treatment outcomes among methamphetamine users. In the present study, we examine the relationship between PTSD and post-treatment methamphetamine use outcomes, hospitalizations, and overall psychiatric impairment. Methods Using data from 526 adults in the largest psychosocial clinical trial of methamphetamine users conducted to date, this study examined: (1) treatment outcomes of methamphetamine users with concomitant PTSD three years after psychosocial treatment for methamphetamine dependence; and (2) PTSD symptom clusters as risk factors for post-treatment relapse to methamphetamine use. Results PTSD was associated with poorer methamphetamine use outcomes; methamphetamine use frequency throughout the 3-year follow-up was significantly greater among individuals with a PTSD diagnosis, and those with PTSD had more than five times the odds of reporting methamphetamine use in the 30 days prior to the follow-up interview, OR= 5.2, 95% CI [2.0–13.3]. Additionally, higher levels of other Axis I psychopathology were observed among methamphetamine users with PTSD. Avoidance and arousal symptoms predicted post-treatment methamphetamine use. Conclusions Addressing these high risk PTSD symptoms and syndromes in methamphetamine users may be helpful as a means of improving treatment outcomes in this population. PMID:24065875
McCollister, Kathryn E.; Scott, Christy K.; Dennis, Michael L.; Freitas, Derek M.; French, Michael T.; Funk, Rodney R.
This study estimates the economic costs of Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (RMC-WO), highlighting the unique mix of services and differential costs between two distinct phases of the intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to quarterly outcome monitoring (OM) only (n=242) or OM plus Recovery Management Checkups (OM-plus-RMC) (n=238). The OM-only condition has a total annual economic cost of $76,010, which equates to $81 quarterly per person. The average cost per OM interview completed is $86. OM-plus-RMC generates a total annual economic cost of $126,717, or $137 quarterly per person. The cost per interview completed is $147 and the cost per intervention session completed is $161. RMC-WO has a relatively modest additional cost compared with the average costs of post-release supervision, which can range from $3.42 ($1,250) per day (year) for probationers to $7.47 ($2,750) per day (year) for parolees. The clinical, economic, and policy implications of incorporating RMC-WO into existing corrections and/or community-based treatment settings are discussed. PMID:27030790
Nakamura, Nadine; Mausbach, Brent T; Ulibarri, Monica D; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L
This study examined attitudes about condoms as a moderator of the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 297 HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM). To test for a moderating effect of attitudes towards condoms, an interaction term was included in multiple regression analysis along with age, income, negative condom attitudes, frequency of methamphetamine use, and Beck depression score. A post hoc analysis was conducted to determine the relations between methamphetamine use and unprotected sex for persons with more vs. less negative attitudes toward condoms. These analyses indicated that when individuals had more negative attitudes toward condoms, the relation between methamphetamine frequency and unprotected sex was significant, while among participants with less negative attitudes toward condoms, no significant association was found. Addressing methamphetamine-using MSM's attitudes about condoms can serve as a form of harm reduction for those who are not yet ready or willing to discontinue methamphetamine use.
Simons, Jeffrey S; Dvorak, Robert D; Batien, Bryan D
This study examined predictors of methamphetamine use in a 6-month prospective study of 2,270 rural young adults. Sensitivity to punishment (SP), sensitivity to reward (SR), and gender were exogenous variables in an observed variable path analysis with 3 endogenous criteria: Time 1 (T1) marijuana use and methamphetamine use at T1 and Time 2 (T2). SP was negatively associated with marijuana use at T1, and this association was attenuated by SR. Male gender was positively associated with marijuana use. T1 marijuana use and SR were positively, and male gender negatively, associated with T1 methamphetamine use. T1 methamphetamine use, T1 marijuana use, and SP were positively associated with T2 methamphetamine use. Methamphetamine use prevalence and the role of distal predictors and proximal indicators of drug involvement are discussed.
Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.
Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…
Mialon, Hugo M; Nesson, Erik T; Samuel, Michael C
Public health officials have cited methamphetamine control as a tool with which to decrease HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, based on previous research that finds a strong positive correlation between methamphetamine use and risky sexual behavior. However, the observed correlation may not be causal, as both methamphetamine use and risky sexual behavior could be driven by a third factor, such as a preference for risky behavior. We estimate the effect of methamphetamine use on risky sexual behavior using monthly data on syphilis diagnoses in California and quarterly data on syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia diagnoses across all states. To circumvent possible endogeneity, we use a large exogenous supply shock in the US methamphetamine market that occurred in May 1995 and a later shock stemming from the Methamphetamine Control Act, which went into effect in October 1997. While the supply shocks had large negative effects on methamphetamine use, we find no evidence that they decreased syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia rates. Our results have broad implications for public policies designed to decrease sexually transmitted infection rates.
MacLean, Sarah; Harney, Angela; Arabena, Kerry
Crystal methamphetamine (commonly known as 'ice') use is currently a deeply concerning problem for some Australian Indigenous peoples and can cause serious harms to individual, families and communities. This paper is intended to support best practice responses by primary health-care staff working with Australian Indigenous people who use methamphetamine. It draws on a systematic search of relevant databases to identify literature from January 1999 to February 2014, providing an overview of prevalence, treatment, education and harm reduction, and community responses. The prevalence of methamphetamine use is higher in Indigenous than non-Indigenous communities, particularly in urban and regional settings. No evidence was identified that specifically related to effective treatment and treatment outcomes for Indigenous Australians experiencing methamphetamine dependence or problematic use. While studies involving methamphetamine users in the mainstream population suggest that psychological and residential treatments show short-term promise, longer-term outcomes are less clear. Community-driven interventions involving Indigenous populations in Australia and internationally appear to have a high level of community acceptability; however, outcomes in terms of methamphetamine use are rarely evaluated. Improved national data on prevalence of methamphetamine use among Indigenous people and levels of treatment access would support service planning. We argue for the importance of a strength-based approach to addressing methamphetamine use, to counteract the stigma and despair that frequently accompanies it.
Gillespie, Steven M.; Rotshtein, Pia; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.
Research with violent offenders has consistently shown impaired recognition of other’s facial expressions of emotion. However, the extent to which similar problems can be observed among sexual offenders remains unknown. Using a computerized task, we presented sexual and violent offenders, and non-offenders, with male and female expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, morphed with neutral expressions at varying levels of intensity (10, 55, and 90% expressive). Based on signal detection theory, we used hit rates and false alarms to calculate the sensitivity index d-prime (d′) and criterion (c) for each emotional expression. Overall, sexual offenders showed reduced sensitivity to emotional expressions across intensity, sex, and type of expression, compared with non-offenders, while both sexual and violent offenders showed particular reduced sensitivity to fearful expressions. We also observed specific effects for high (90%) intensity female faces, with sexual offenders showing reduced sensitivity to anger compared with non-offenders and violent offenders, and reduced sensitivity to disgust compared with non-offenders. Furthermore, both sexual and violent offenders showed impaired sensitivity to high intensity female fearful expressions compared with non-offenders. Violent offenders also showed a higher criterion for classifying moderate and high intensity male expressions as fearful, indicative of a more conservative response style, compared with angry, happy, or sad. These results suggest that both types of offender show problems in emotion recognition, and may have implications for understanding the inhibition of violent and sexually violent behaviors. PMID:26029137
Wong, Thessa M. L.; Van de Schoot, Rens
This article examines the difference in victims' reporting behavior regarding crimes committed by males and by females. The authors expect that victims of female offenders are less likely to report to the police than victims of male offenders because of differences in the victim-offender relationship as well as in the victim's sex. With recent…
Lai, Violet; Chu, Chi Meng
Youth violence is a costly social problem. This study compared the risk and needs of nonviolent youth offenders, with those who had committed violent offenses only (violent only) and those who had committed violent and nonviolent offenses (violent plus) to determine whether violent youth were a different “type” from nonviolent youth. The case files of 3,744 youth offenders (3,327 males and 417 females, between 12 and 18 years old) were retrospectively coded, before official recidivism records were obtained. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), χ2, and Cox regressions were conducted. Violent-plus youth were younger; higher in their total risk and all criminogenic needs; more likely to have several noncriminogenic needs; and at higher risk of any reoffending, violent reoffending, and nonviolent reoffending than nonviolent youth. Violent-only youth had the same total risk and risk of general and violent recidivism as nonviolent offenders but presented different criminogenic and noncriminogenic needs and risk of nonviolent recidivism. Compared to violent-only youth, violent-plus youth were younger, had higher total risk and criminogenic needs on five domains, were more likely to have several noncriminogenic needs, and were at higher risk of all types of reoffending (except sexual reoffending), suggesting subtypes of violent youth offenders. The implication is that nonviolent and violent youth offenders require different dosage and types of intervention. PMID:27274714
Dew, Brian J
Methamphetamine use has increasingly become linked with sexual risk behaviors among men have sex with men (MSM). Yet, the majority of research has been done with methamphetamine dependent MSM or with samples in which addiction to the substance was not evaluated. Furthermore, research with methamphetamine-using MSM in the Southern U.S. is lacking. In this study, focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted in order to understand the motives, context, and other facilitators and barriers of methamphetamine use among non-addicted MSM residing in Atlanta. Participants included 30 non-addicted, methamphetamine-using MSM and 16 local mental and public health officials. Findings from the first of this two-phase formative research project will result in the initial development of a community-tested, culturally-specific social marketing campaign and an individual-based intervention based in HIV-testing facilities.
Bairan, Annette; Boeri, Miriam; Morian, Janice
Purpose The purpose of this article is to provide nurse practitioners (NPs) with more effective strategies to diagnose methamphetamine (MA) use and assess healthcare needs of MA-using women. Data Sources The researchers collected data from 65 suburban women who were MA users living in the suburbs of a large southeastern city in the US. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups examining their life history, drug history, risk behaviors, and access to healthcare. The qualitative findings are examined here. Conclusions Three main themes emerged from the data: 1) gendered stigmatization of MA use; 2) MA related health risk behaviors; and 3) barriers to health and social services, which resulted in a domino effect that led to further life and health complications. When these factors are not effectively addressed, the result is more serious health problems for the women and their children. Implications for Practice This article offers awareness and assessment tools to provide NPs adequate knowledge about the factors associated with MA use in order to treat patients holistically. NPs are strategically positioned to effectively assess, diagnose, treat, and provide linkage to health and social services, especially for suburban females who are a hidden population of drug users. PMID:24510626
Reback, Cathy J; Ling, Deborah; Shoptaw, Steven; Rohde, Jane
Men who have sex with men (MSM) who use methamphetamine experience high risks for HIV infection due to sexual transmission behaviors often engaged in when under the influence of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine-using MSM use various forms of information technology (IT) communication such as instant messaging, social networking sites, and websites to facilitate a sexual and/or drug "hook up." Given the acceptability of IT communication in their daily lives, an IT intervention represents an appropriate strategy to reach and intervene with out-of-treatment, methamphetamine-using MSM. The aim of this study was to conduct formative work to develop a text messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviors among out-of-treatment MSM, which involved conducting focus groups, community partners' meetings, and a pre-test intervention. These activities culminated in the development of a two-week, text-messaging intervention that delivered real-time electronic correspondence based on the behavioral change theories of Social Support Theory, Health Belief Model, and Social Cognitive Theory. The focus groups, community meetings, and pre-test were used to identify the IT communication device, the text messages that best support risk reduction and healthier behavioral choices, and logo, flyer and website development. The input and feedback from the target population and community partners were critical to the successful development of a culturally appropriate intervention. The knowledge gleaned from the formative work of this study will be vitally helpful in designing future IT studies.
Lopez-Zetina, Javier; Sanchez-Huesca, Ricardo; Rios-Ellis, Britt; Friis, Robert; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Torres, Isabel; Rogala, Bridget
This article examines comparative risk behaviors associated with methamphetamine use in a binational sample of women in the border cities of Tijuana, Mexico, and San Diego, California. Specifically, the study examined the differences and similarities in drug use and sexual risk behavior and the patterns of initiation to methamphetamine use. The binational pilot sample consisted of 70 adult women in Tijuana and 55 women in San Diego. Although there were important differences in the presentation of risk behavior and patterns of initiation between the two binational samples, women on both sides of the US-Mexico border also showed remarkable similarities in their risk profile. Results from this study suggest that despite significant cultural and socioeconomic differences between the study cities, certain specific substance abuse patterns (e.g., methamphetamine use) in border regions with an increasing demographic exchange and integration are emerging as an "equalizer" of risk, capable of dissolving context-based differentiating factors, and creating a more homogenous subpopulation of substance users.
Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle
In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…
Lindsay, W. R.; Smith, A. H. W.; Quinn, K.; Anderson, A.; Smith, A.; Allan, R.; Law, J.
There have been a few reports describing the characteristics and outcomes of male offenders with intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, while we are building up a reasonable picture of this client group, there are almost no reports of female offenders with ID. This paper is a preliminary attempt to present information on a small cohort of female…
Proefrock, David W.
The recent development of strong statistical techniques has made accurate predictions of recidivism possible. To investigate the utility of discriminant analysis methodology in making predictions of recidivism in juvenile offenders, the court records of 271 male and female juvenile offenders, aged 12-16, were reviewed. A cross validation group…
Mowder, Melissa H.; Cummings, Jack A.; McKinney, Robert
An exploratory study of resiliency profiles of male and female juvenile offenders committed to a juvenile correctional facility was conducted. The goal of the present study was to examine juvenile offenders' positive characteristics (e.g., adaptability, optimism, self-efficacy, tolerance of differences). To assess positive characteristics and…
Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan
This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…
Zhang, Kai; Wang, Qingzhong; Jing, Xuxiu; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Yu, Shunying; Zhao, Min
A previous study reported that the miR-181a level in serum was significantly different between patients with methamphetamine-use disorder and healthy controls and that chronic methamphetamine use down-regulates the expression of miR-181a. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that miR-181a might bind the 3′-UTRs of the mRNA transcripts of the human glutamate receptor genes GRIA2 and GABRA1. In this study, we measured the expression of GRIA2 and GABRA1 in patients with methamphetamine-use disorder. In addition, we examined whether miR-181a down-regulates GRIA2 and GABRA1 in a cell-based assay. We further examined the effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on the expression of miR-181a, GRIA2 and GABRA1. The results demonstrated that serum GRIA2 is higher in patients with methamphetamine-use disorder than in healthy controls. Dual luciferase reporter assays and a cell-based model of methamphetamine exposure also showed that miR-181a directly regulates expression of GRIA2. This study supports the evidence that miR-181a and the glutamate AMPA receptor gene GRIA2 play a critical role in methamphetamine-use disorder. PMID:27767084
Heinzerling, Keith G.; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Hall, Timothy M.; Yi, Yi; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven J.
Aims Two previous randomized trials found an effect for bupropion in reducing methamphetamine use in the subgroup with lower frequency of methamphetamine use at baseline. This study aimed to replicate these results by comparing bupropion versus placebo in methamphetamine dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use at baseline. Methods Methamphetamine dependent volunteers reporting methamphetamine use on ≤ 29 of past 30 days were randomized to bupropion 150mg twice daily (N=41) or placebo (N=43) and outpatient counseling for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion achieving end of treatment (EOT) methamphetamine abstinence (weeks 11 and 12) for bupropion versus placebo. A post hoc analysis compared EOT abstinence by medication adherence assessed via plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion level. Results There was no significant difference in EOT abstinence between bupropion (29%, 12/41) and placebo (14%, 6/43; p = 0.087). Among participants receiving bupropion, EOT abstinence was significantly higher in participants assessed as medication adherent by plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion levels (54%, 7/13) compared to non-adherent participants (18%, 5/28; p = 0.018). Medication adherence by plasma levels was low (32%). Conclusions Bupropion may be efficacious for methamphetamine dependence but only in a highly selected subgroup of medication adherent participants with less than daily baseline methamphetamine use. Even a single objective “snapshot” measure of medication adherence is highly associated with treatment outcomes. PMID:24894963
Harper, Craig A; Bartels, Ross M
Implicit theories structure the way people understand and respond to various human actions. Typically, people believe attributes are either fixed (entitists) or malleable (incrementalists). The present study aimed to examine (a) whether attitudes toward sexual offenders differ depending upon one's implicit theory about human nature and sexual offenders, and (b) whether implicit theories are associated with judgments made about different types of child abusers. A sample of 252 community participants was recruited. Their attitudes, implicit theories, and political orientation were assessed via self-report. One of three vignettes describing an incidence of child sexual abuse was then presented. The cases were identical except the perpetrator was either an adult male, an adult female, or a male juvenile. Participants then made judgments about the offender's deserved sentence and moral character. Entitists (across both domains) held more negative attitudes than incrementalists, although the magnitude of the difference was greatest when examining implicit theories about sexual offenders. Compared with those with an incremental theory of sexual offenders, entity theorists judged sexual offending to be more (a) indicative of the perpetrator's moral character and (b) deserving of punishment. However, scores were greater toward the adult male relative to the adult female and juvenile. The findings suggest that implicit theories about sexual offenders are domain specific. They also indicate that judgments made by those with an entity theory (about sexual offenders) are affected by whether a case is representative of a stereotypical sexual offender. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and future research.
Fussell, Holly; Haaken, Janice; Lewy, Colleen S; McFarland, Bentson H
This study draws on theory by Solomon Asch (1946, 1952) to examine how presenting with intimate partner violence versus methamphetamine use shapes characteristics of substance abuse assessment interviews. When responding to an initial open-ended question from a substance abuse counselor, the methamphetamine user and intimate partner violence survivor may elicit very different reactions from the counselor. We predicted that these differing presenting problems would initiate different trajectories for overall impression formation. To test this hypothesis, 18 substance abuse practitioners interviewed one standardized patient (an actor portraying a substance abuse client) who alternated her presenting problem between a) violence in a domestic setting and b) methamphetamine use. The remainder of her story was identical for counselors in either presenting problem group. Results included differences between the two groups in median length of the interviews and failure of both groups to explore domestic violence as a cooccurring problem. Clinical practices related to substance abuse counseling and intimate partner violence are discussed in light of these findings.
Kesby, James P; Chang, Ariel; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana
Different methamphetamine use patterns in human subjects may contribute to inconsistent findings regarding the effects of methamphetamine abuse on brain and behavior. The present study investigated whether human-derived chronic and binge methamphetamine use patterns have differential effects on reward and neurochemistry in mice. Brain reward function in mice was evaluated during acute/prolonged withdrawal, and in response to methamphetamine challenge using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. Brain dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic neurochemistry was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Chronic and binge regimens induced withdrawal-related decreases in reward function that were more severe during the binge regimen during cycles 1-2. Despite large differences in methamphetamine dose, both regimens induced similar reward deficits during cycles 3-4. Neither methamphetamine regimen led to persistent alterations in the sensitivity to the reward-enhancing effects of acute methamphetamine challenge. The binge regimen severely depleted striatal dopamine levels and increased brain glutamine levels. The chronic regimen had milder effects on striatal dopamine levels and altered cortical dopamine and serotonin levels. This work highlights that the magnitude of acute/prolonged withdrawal may not reflect amount or frequency of methamphetamine intake. In contrast, the array of underlying neurochemical alterations was methamphetamine regimen dependent. Thus, stratifying methamphetamine-dependent individuals based on use pattern may help to cater therapeutic interventions more appropriately by targeting use pattern-specific neurotransmitter systems.
Halkitis, Perry N; Levy, Michael D; Solomon, Todd M
Data from a cross-sectional study of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men who were active methamphetamine users were analyzed to assess temporal relations between HIV seroconversion and initiation of methamphetamine use. Of the 100 men, 58 reported being HIV-positive. Most HIV-positive participants (65%) initiated methamphetamine use after seroconverting. Among those who initiated use before seroconversion, 8 years elapsed between onset of use and time of infection. Findings suggest the need to develop nuanced and targeted interventions aimed at disentangling the "meth-sex" link in this population. Findings also suggest use of the drug as a coping mechanism for those living with HIV.
Seto, Michael C; Wood, J Michael; Babchishin, Kelly M; Flynn, Sheri
The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not differ on other sociodemographic variables. In comparison to child pornography offenders, solicitation offenders had lower capacity for relationship stability and lower levels of sex drive/preoccupation and deviant sexual preference. Solicitation offenders were also more problematic than lower risk contact offenders on sex drive/preoccupation and capacity for relationship stability and had greater self-reported use of child pornography. Differences between groups on two actuarial risk measures, the Static-99 and the VASOR, were inconsistent. This study suggests that solicitation offenders differ in meaningful ways from lower risk contact offenders and child pornography offenders and, consequently, in risk, treatment, and supervision needs.
Alam-Mehrjerdi, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad
As the most populated Persian Gulf country in West Asia, methamphetamine use in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a new health concern in Iran. Methamphetamine use in MMT can originate in methadone misconceptions or the stimulant effects of methamphetamine use. Several research studies have highlighted the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Iran and conducting further studies on this issue is being developed. Opiate use is treated with MMT. But, there is no effective pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine use and cognitive-behavioral interventions have still remained the best practice. As a psychostimulant drug, methamphetamine use can lead to poor treatment outcomes or even treatment failure among patients in MMT. Therefore, the implementation of methamphetamine education and prevention programs in MMT is required. Prescribing adequate methadone dose and the treatment of comorbidities as well as, doing a series of activities outside treatment is underscored. Methamphetamine use has a chronic nature and methamphetamine treatment is a long-term procedure with a high rate of relapse. Therefore, the implementation of long-term motivational interviewing, teaching necessary skills to prevent relapse and case management is highlighted. A long-term collaboration between treatment teams, patients and their families is suggested to manage methamphetamine use in MMT.
Ling, Walter; Chang, Linda; Hillhouse, Maureen; Ang, Alfonso; Striebel, Joan; Jenkins, Jessica; Hernandez, Jasmin; Olaer, Mary; Mooney, Larissa; Reed, Susan; Fukaya, Erin; Kogachi, Shannon; Alicata, Daniel; Holmes, Nataliya; Esagoff, Asher
Background and aims No effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine (MA) use disorder has yet been found. This study evaluated sustained-release methylphenidate (MPH-SR) compared with placebo (PLA) for treatment of MA use disorder in people also undergoing behavioural support and motivational incentives. Design This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design with MPH-SR or PLA provided for 10 weeks (active phase) followed by 4 weeks of single-blind PLA. Twice-weekly clinic visits, weekly group counseling (CBT), and motivational incentives (MI) for MA-negative urine drug screens (UDS) were included. Setting Treatment sites were in Los Angeles, California (LA) and Honolulu, Hawaii (HH), USA. Participants 110 MA-dependent (via DSM-IV) participants (LA = 90; HH = 20). Measurements The primary outcome measure is self-reported days of MA use during the last 30 days of the active phase. Included in the current analyses are drug use (UDS and self-report), retention, craving, compliance (dosing, CBT, MI), adverse events, and treatment satisfaction. Findings No difference was found between treatment groups in self-reported days of MA use during the last 30 days of the active phase (p=0.22). In planned secondary outcomes analyses, however, the MPH group had fewer self-reported MA use days from baseline through the active phase compared with the PLA group (p=0.05). The MPH group also had lower craving scores and fewer marijuana-positive UDS than the PLA group in the last 30 days of the active phase. The two groups had similar retention, other drug use, adverse events, and treatment satisfaction. Conclusions Methylphenidate may lead to a reduction in concurrent methamphetamine use when provided as treatment for patients undergoing behavioural support for moderate to severe methamphetamine use disorder but this requires confirmation. PMID:24825486
Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon
In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…
Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer
There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701
Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire
In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders.
King, Richard B.
The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…
Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.
Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…
Chang, Yu-Ping; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Campbell-Heider, Nancy
Methamphetamine is the leading illicit substance used by adolescents in Taiwan and the rise of its production and use is a major public health concern in Southeast and East Asia. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new instrument to identify high-risk situations related to methamphetamine relapse among incarcerated Taiwanese adolescents. Participants in this study were arrested for methamphetamine use and mandatorily held at an abstinence center. In the instrument development phase, an item pool was generated from a qualitative study and further revised based on content evaluations by 6 clinical content experts. In the instrument analysis phase, the new tool was psychometrically tested. The intra-class correlation coefficient showed high stability of the instrument (r = .92). Factor analysis resulted in a 6-factor solution accounting for 66.68% of the variance in the 16-item model. Although this instrument was developed for use with Taiwanese adolescents, it needs further testing to confirm its usefulness in other cultural groups. The identified risky situations provide a beginning assessment tool that is easy to administer and can be used to identify teens at particular risk for relapse before being released from incarceration or other mandatory treatment programs. More research is needed to target specific and culturally determined triggers that can improve the validity of this tool for non Asian adolescents at risk for methamphetamine relapse.
Originally manufactured by the Germans in the 1880s and later used by the Japanese as a means of keeping military personnel awake on long shifts, methamphetamine first was a significant presence in the Western United States in the late 1940s. For decades, methamphetamine use was limited to the West Coast and Hawaii, becoming popular at various times in a multitude of groups, including Hells Angels.
Chervenkoff, Jordan V; Rajak, Saul N; Selva, Dinesh; Davis, Garry
This case report discusses the case of a 23-year-old male patient who experienced retrobulbar pain, diplopia, proptosis, and mild lower eyelid bruising after consuming 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine. The symptoms settled over 10 days and vision returned to normal without intervention. The authors discuss the differential diagnosis relevant to the presenting complaints and propose several mechanisms linking 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine use to spontaneous nontraumatic intraorbital hematoma.
Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia
The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)
Ferguson, Christopher J.; Meehan, D. Cricket
The phenomenon of female sex offenders has been poorly explored in the scientific literature. In particular, little exploration of possible subtypes of female offenders has been conducted. In the current study, 279 female sexual offenders convicted of a total of 940 separate criminal offenses were examined using hierarchical cluster analysis.…
Hoshen, J.; Drake, G.; Spencer, D.
The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.
Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Sullivan, Kristen
Army data from 2000 to 2004 were used to compare two groups of married, male, Army soldier, first-time family violence offenders: 760 dual offenders (whose initial incident included both child maltreatment and spouse abuse) and 2,209 single offenders (whose initial incident included only child maltreatment). The majority (81%) of dual offenders perpetrated physical spouse abuse; however, dual offenders were less likely than single offenders to perpetrate physical child abuse (16% vs. 42%) or sexual child abuse (1% vs. 11%), but they were more likely to perpetrate emotional child abuse (45% vs. 12%). These findings may be, at least in part, explained in light of the Army Family Advocacy Program policy, which considers spouse offenders as also being emotional child abuse offenders since children may be traumatized by exposure to spouse abuse.
Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian
Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…
Chui, Wing Hong; Wu, Joseph; Kwok, Yan Yuen; Liu, Liu
This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the first part of the Chinese version of the CRIME-PICS II Scale, a self-administrated instrument assessing offending-related attitudes. Data were collected from three samples: male Hong Kong young offenders, female Mainland Chinese prisoners, and Hong Kong college students.…
Specific risk questions concerning sexual offending, such as risk of offending against male victims given identified female victims, have seldom been discussed in the child sexual abuse literature. Two approaches to specific risk questions are described: (a) conditional probability calculations, and (b) the development of risk assessment…
Skorjanc, A D
A group of 39 female and 15 male undergraduate students took part in a study of the relationship between perceived violence of criminal offenders and interpersonal distance preferred by nonoffenders. Preferred interpersonal distance, measured for subjects informed that the person with whom they would be sitting in a room was either a violent offender, nonviolent offender, or nonoffender, was the number of seats subjects chose to sit from the person. Analysis of variance shows subjects preferred significantly less mean distance in the nonoffender condition versus either the nonviolent or violent offender conditions.
Brecklin, Leanne R; Ullman, Sarah E
The impact of victim and offender preassault substance use on the outcomes of sexual assault incidents was analyzed. Nine hundred and seventy female sexual assault victims were identified from the first wave of a longitudinal study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Multivariate models showed that victim injury was more likely in assaults involving offender substance use (regardless of whether or not the victim was also using substances). Offender use of physical force and verbal threats were also related to greater odds of completed rape and injury, and force was associated with medical attention seeking. Based on this study, rape prevention programs should target men and focus on the role of substance use in sexual assault. These prevention programs should incorporate information on the roles of offender and victim substance use, offender aggression, and other situational factors in sexual assault outcomes. Study limitations and suggestions for future research on the role of victim and offender substance use in rape incidents are presented.
Marsh, Robert; Romero, Sergio; Patrick, Steven
Two samples, male college students and convicted male child sex offenders, are compared on their abilities to accurately estimate the age group of a series of photographs of a sole female ranging in age from 11 to 29. Both samples tend to overestimate the age group of the subject photos, and no significant difference was found between college students and convicted child sex offenders in their ability to estimate the age of females. Both groups are compared demographically, and only limited differences were found. The implications are discussed in regard to theory and prevention of child sexual abuse.
The illustrated booklet provides a brief history of Federal prisons and of Federal women's prisons. There is statistical information on women prisoners classified by age, race, period of confinement, marital status, type of crime, and judicial district from which the commitment was made. Tables for the Federal Reformatory for Women, Alderson, West…
Jaffe, Adi; Shoptaw, Steven; Stein, Judith; Reback, Cathy J; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin
Although the cessation of substance use is the principal concern of drug treatment programs, many individuals in treatment experience co-occurring problems such as mood disruptions and sexual risk behaviors that may complicate their recovery process. This study assessed relationships among dynamic changes tracked over time in methamphetamine use, depression symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors (unprotected anal intercourse) in a sample of 145 methamphetamine-dependent gay and bisexual males enrolled in a 16-week outpatient drug treatment research program. Participants were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 conditions: contingency management (CM), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; the control condition), combined CM and CBT, and a tailored gay-specific version of the CBT condition. Using latent growth curve models, the authors assessed the relationship of means (intercepts) and the slopes of the 3 measures of interest over time to test whether changes in methamphetamine use predicted declining rates of depression and risky sexual behavior in tandem. Participants with the greatest downward trajectory in methamphetamine use (urine verified) reported the greatest and quickest decreases in reported depressive symptoms and sexual risk behaviors. The control group reported the most methamphetamine use over the 16 weeks; the tailored gay-specific group reported a more rapidly decreasing slope in methamphetamine use than the other participants. Findings indicate that lowering methamphetamine use itself has a concurrent and synergistic effect on depressive symptoms and risky sexual behavior patterns. This suggests that some users who respond well to treatment may show improvement in these co-occurring problems without a need for more intensive targeted interventions.
Anglin, M Douglas; Urada, Darren; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Hawken, Angela; Rawson, Richard; Longshore, Douglas
Methamphetamine (MA) use is considered as one of the nation's most pressing drug problems. In California, MA use has outstripped all other drugs in epidemiological extent, law enforcement activities, and treatment services demand. An opportunity for further study of MA use and its treatment emerged from a change in offender sentencing options introduced by California's Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act of 2000 (SACPA). Results indicate that statewide admissions for MA rose from 8.4% in FY 1992/1993 to 34.6% in FY 2004/2005, a four-fold increase over the 13 years. From the year before SACPA implementation to the year after, the percentage of treatment admissions due to MA use increased from 18.8% to 25.6%, an increase largely due to the fact that SACPA admissions were over 50% MA users. With the exception of alcohol, MA users entering treatment through SACPA had higher completion rates (about one third) from community based treatment than users of other primary drugs. This result held true for demographic and other subgroups of MA users. Multivariate regression results illuminate the relative importance of the variables examined. Implication of the findings for policy, intervention services, and research are discussed.
Day, David M.; Pleydon, Anne
This study examined the psychosocial, mental health, and intellectual characteristics of young offenders serving a sentence at Syl Apps Youth Centre, a secure custody facility. The sample comprised 50 youths, 37 males and 13 females. The index offenses were varied, but the majority were sentenced for a violent offense. The results showed that…
Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.
Background: There have been limited theoretical developments with respect to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities [Lindsay (2005) Mental Retardation, Vol. 43, pp. 428-441], especially when compared with the development of theories for mainstream sexual offenders. This paper aims at examining a range of theories in their…
Vieira, Tracey A.
Although evidence indicates that Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM) provides an effective alternative to traditional sanctioning for young offenders, research investigating suitable candidates for VOM is lacking. Reintegrative shaming is theorized to be the mechanism underlying successful mediation; however, it is difficult to determine whether shame…
Galski, Thomas; And Others
Attempted to establish the connection between disordered sexuality and brain impairment by using newly developed techniques of neuropsychological investigation with sex offenders (n=35). Results indicated a major portion of the sex offenders showed impaired brain functioning on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. (Author/ABL)
Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.
This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…
Seidel, Eva-Maria; Pfabigan, Daniela Melitta; Keckeis, Katinka; Wucherer, Anna Maria; Jahn, Thomas; Lamm, Claus; Derntl, Birgit
Violent offending has often been associated with a lack of empathy, but experimental investigations are rare. The present study aimed at clarifying whether violent offenders show a general empathy deficit or specific deficits regarding the separate subcomponents. To this end, we assessed three core components of empathy (emotion recognition, perspective taking, affective responsiveness) as well as skin conductance response (SCR) in a sample of 30 male violent offenders and 30 healthy male controls. Data analysis revealed reduced accuracy in violent offenders compared to healthy controls only in emotion recognition, and that a high number of violent assaults was associated with decreased accuracy in perspective taking for angry scenes. SCR data showed reduced physiological responses in the offender group specifically for fear and disgust stimuli during emotion recognition and perspective taking. In addition, higher psychopathy scores in the violent offender group were associated with reduced accuracy in affective responsiveness. This is the first study to show that mainly emotion recognition is deficient in violent offenders whereas the other components of empathy are rather unaffected. This divergent impact of violent offending on the subcomponents of empathy suggests that all three empathy components can be targeted by therapeutic interventions separately.
Deranek, Traci; Gilman, David A.
This study investigates juvenile sex offenders and the predetermining factors that are present in their lives, prior to their first offenses. This study will give an overview of theories, children's sexual behaviors ranging from normal to disturbed, and family dynamics of juvenile offenders. The treatment files of boys and young men, currently in…
Gideonse, Theodore K.
In this article, two ways that HIV-positive drug users survive under the supervision of law enforcement agencies, community health organizations, and social welfare offices are differentiated. First, strategies are long-ranging and often carefully planned, and they involve conscious utilization and manipulation of bureaucratic processes. Second, tactics are short-ranging and often haphazard, and they are used to survive on daily or weekly bases, with entrenched problems and structural solutions avoided or ignored. Data from three years of ethnographic fieldwork with 14 methamphetamine-using HIV-positive men who have sex with men in San Diego, California is used to expand upon these two categories, explaining the different, often ineffectual, ways these men accessed care, services, shelter, drugs, and companionship. This article also examines the policy implications of taking in consideration these different kinds of survival methods, arguing for intensive client-specific interventions when working with long-term addicts with multiple health problems. PMID:26421928
McMurran, Mary; Riemsma, Rob; Manning, Nathan; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos
Treatment programmes specifically for women offenders are under-developed. A systematic review of studies that could inform interventions for alcohol-related offending by women is reported. Three questions were addressed: 1) What is the most up to date knowledge of 'what works' with females who commit alcohol-related offences? 2) What are the identifiable risk-needs factors for non-alcohol dependent women who commit offences involving alcohol misuse? 3) Are there differences between male and female alcohol-related offending? Four studies addressed the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions; three addressed identifiable risk-needs; and 19 addressed differences between male and female offenders' alcohol-related offending. Heterogeneity of these studies precluded meta-analyses, and so a narrative synthesis method was used. There is insufficient evidence to answer the question of what treatment works with women who commit alcohol-related offences. Drunk-driving is most widely studied, and women offenders appear to have more psychosocial problems than men. Alcohol increases the likelihood of violence for both men and women, and, while the mechanisms whereby alcohol increases the likelihood of violence are likely the same in men and women, the effect may be moderated by gender-associated issues. Again, women offenders appear to have more psychosocial problems than men. Implications for developing interventions are discussed.
Carrico, Adam W; Gómez, Walter; Siever, Michael D; Discepola, Michael V; Dilworth, Samantha E; Moskowitz, Judith T
Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based intervention that provides tangible rewards as positive reinforcement for biologically confirmed abstinence from substance use. Integrative approaches targeting positive affect regulation could boost the effectiveness of CM by sensitizing individuals to non-drug-related sources of reward and assisting them with effectively managing symptoms of withdrawal. This pilot randomized controlled trial with 21 methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) examined the feasibility and acceptability of a 5-session, positive affect intervention delivered during CM-Affect Regulation Treatment to Enhance Methamphetamine Intervention Success (ARTEMIS). After completing 4 weeks of a 12-week CM program, participants were randomized to receive ARTEMIS+CM (n = 12) or CM-only (n = 9). Those randomized to receive the ARTEMIS positive affect intervention completed 98 % of sessions and reported marginally significant increases in positive affect over the five sessions. In exit interviews with ARTEMIS+CM participants, individuals noted that the positive affect regulation skills increased self-awareness and led to greater engagement in the recovery process. ARTEMIS+CM participants reported significant increases in positive affect and CM-only participants reported significant reductions in negative affect over a 2-month follow-up. These affective changes were not maintained, and no concurrent effects on stimulant use or sexual risk taking were observed over the 6-month follow-up. More definitive clinical research is necessary to examine the efficacy of ARTEMIS+CM with methamphetamine-using MSM.
Carrico, Adam W; Flentje, Annesa; Gruber, Valerie A; Woods, William J; Discepola, Michael V; Dilworth, Samantha E; Neilands, Torsten B; Jain, Jennifer; Siever, Michael D
Harm reduction approaches endeavor to assist individuals with avoiding the most detrimental consequences of risk taking behaviors, but limited research has documented the outcomes of harm reduction substance abuse treatment. In total, 211 methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in two outcome studies of substance abuse treatment programs that were implementing an evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention (i.e., the Matrix Model) from a harm reduction perspective. Study 1 (N = 123) examined changes in self-reported substance use, Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite scores, and HIV care indicators over a 12-month follow-up. Study 2 (N = 88) assessed changes in substance use, sexual risk taking, and HIV care indicators over a 6-month follow-up. Participants in study 1 reported reductions in cocaine/crack use as well as decreases in the ASI drug and employment composite scores. Among HIV-positive participants in study 1 (n = 75), 47 % initiated or consistently utilized anti-retroviral therapy and this was paralleled by significant increases in self-reported undetectable HIV viral load. Study 2 participants reported reductions in methamphetamine use, erectile dysfunction medication use in combination with other substances, and sexual risk-taking behavior while using methamphetamine. Participants in both studies reported concurrent increases in marijuana use. Taken together, these studies are among the first to observe that clients may reduce stimulant use and concomitant sexual risk-taking behavior during harm reduction substance abuse treatment. Randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the differential effectiveness of harm reduction and abstinence-based approaches to substance abuse treatment.
Gouran Ourimi, Elham; Shabani, Amir; Alavi, Kaveh; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Mirfazeli, Fatemehsadat
Background: Iran is facing an outbreak of methamphetamine-induced disorders and frequent use of these substances in patients with bipolar disorder. Using or intoxication of methamphetamine in patients with bipolar I disorder may alter the patient's clinical profile; however there is limited studies about impact of methamphetamine on clinical manifestation of bipolar disorders. This study aimed to compare psychiatric symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder with and without concomitant use of methamphetamine. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, psychiatric symptoms of bipolar I disorder in patients with (Meth+) and without (Meth-) methamphetamine use was evaluated. A number of 57 participants with Meth + and 50 subjects with Meth- were recruited. The clinical picture of bipolar disorder was investigated by Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), 17-item Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Statistical comparisons were performed using the T-test for independent samples and Mann- Whitney test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding age, duration of illness and hospitalizations. However, male participants were significantly higher in Meth+ group than in Meth- one (p<0.001). The mean (± SD) scores in the two groups of Meth+ and Meth- for YMRS, HDRS, and SAPS were 31.3 (±1.3) and 34.0 (±1.2), 13.7 (±0.7) and 13.5±(0.5), and 50.0 (±1.9) and 48.0 (±2.1), respectively, which were not statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the overall clinical manifestation of bipolar I disorder in patients with and without methamphetamine use. However, in some symptomatology domains, there were some differences between the two groups. PMID:28210586
Gouran Ourimi, Elham; Shabani, Amir; Alavi, Kaveh; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Mirfazeli, Fatemehsadat
Background: Iran is facing an outbreak of methamphetamine-induced disorders and frequent use of these substances in patients with bipolar disorder. Using or intoxication of methamphetamine in patients with bipolar I disorder may alter the patient's clinical profile; however there is limited studies about impact of methamphetamine on clinical manifestation of bipolar disorders. This study aimed to compare psychiatric symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder with and without concomitant use of methamphetamine. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, psychiatric symptoms of bipolar I disorder in patients with (Meth+) and without (Meth-) methamphetamine use was evaluated. A number of 57 participants with Meth + and 50 subjects with Meth- were recruited. The clinical picture of bipolar disorder was investigated by Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), 17-item Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Statistical comparisons were performed using the T-test for independent samples and Mann- Whitney test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding age, duration of illness and hospitalizations. However, male participants were significantly higher in Meth+ group than in Meth- one (p<0.001). The mean (± SD) scores in the two groups of Meth+ and Meth- for YMRS, HDRS, and SAPS were 31.3 (±1.3) and 34.0 (±1.2), 13.7 (±0.7) and 13.5±(0.5), and 50.0 (±1.9) and 48.0 (±2.1), respectively, which were not statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the overall clinical manifestation of bipolar I disorder in patients with and without methamphetamine use. However, in some symptomatology domains, there were some differences between the two groups.
Carrico, Adam W; Nation, Austin; Gómez, Walter; Sundberg, Jeffrey; Dilworth, Samantha E; Johnson, Mallory O; Moskowitz, Judith T; Rose, Carol Dawson
Among men who have sex with men (MSM), the co-occurrence of trauma and stimulant use has negative implications for HIV/AIDS prevention. HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using MSM were recruited to pilot test a 7-session, multicomponent resilient affective processing (RAP) intervention that included expressive writing exercises targeting HIV-related traumatic stress. An open-phase pilot with 10 participants provided support for feasibility of intervention delivery such that 99% of the RAP sessions were completed in a 1-month period. Subsequently, 23 additional participants were enrolled in a pilot randomized controlled trial of the RAP intervention (n = 12) versus an attention-control condition that included writing exercises about neutral topics (n = 11). Acceptability was evidenced by participants randomized to RAP expressing significantly more negative emotions in their writing and reporting greater likelihood of recommending expressive writing exercises to a friend living with HIV. Over the 3-month follow-up period, attention-control participants reported significant decreases in HIV-related traumatic stress while RAP intervention participants reported no significant changes. Compared to attention-control participants, those in the RAP intervention reported significant reductions in the frequency of methamphetamine use immediately following the 1-month RAP intervention period. Thematic analyses of RAP expressive writing exercises revealed that multiple negative life events characterized by social stigma or loss contribute to the complex nature of HIV-related traumatic stress. Findings support the feasibility and acceptability of an exposure-based intervention targeting HIV-related traumatic stress. However, more intensive intervention approaches that simultaneously target trauma and stimulant use will likely be needed to optimize HIV/AIDS prevention efforts with this population. (PsycINFO Database Record
Forrest, David W; Metsch, Lisa R; LaLota, Marlene; Cardenas, Gabriel; Beck, Dano W; Jeanty, Yves
Using data collected through venue-based sampling in South Florida from 2004 to 2005 as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Among Men Who Have Sex with Men, we estimate the prevalence of crystal methamphetamine use and its association with high-risk sexual behaviors among a large and diverse sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in South Florida. We also examine how these associations differ between HIV-positive and HIV-negative men. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the characteristics of study participants and their sexual risk behaviors by drug use and self-reported HIV status group. Of 946 MSM participants in South Florida, 18% reported crystal methamphetamine use in the past 12 months. Regardless of self-reported HIV status, crystal methamphetamine users were more likely to report high-risk sexual behaviors, an increased number of non-main sex partners, and being high on drugs and/or alcohol at last sex act with a non-main partner. Our findings indicate that crystal methamphetamine use is prevalent among the MSM population in South Florida, and this prevalence rate is similar, if not higher, than that found in US cities that have been long recognized for having a high rate of crystal methamphetamine use among their MSM populations. Notably, the use of crystal methamphetamine among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM is associated with increased HIV-related risk behaviors.
Mahoney, James J; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Cooper, Kimberly; Verrico, Christopher D; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard
Previous research has focused on developing theories of addiction that may explain behavior in cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent individuals. The primary goal of this report was to compare and contrast the prevalence of self-reported measures of impulsivity, depression, lifetime stress and sensation-seeking in healthy controls versus individuals with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders. Twenty-nine individuals with cocaine use disorders and 31 individuals with methamphetamine use disorders were matched with 31 healthy control participants on several demographic variables. All participants were administered behavioral questionnaires including the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (assessing impulsivity), Beck Depression Inventory II (assessing depression), Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (assessing lifetime stress) and the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Scale (assessing sensation-seeking). When compared to healthy controls, individuals with cocaine and methamphetamine use disorders had significantly higher levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking. In addition, when compared to healthy controls, individuals with cocaine use disorders had significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory II scores, while individuals with methamphetamine use disorders had significantly higher Life Stressor Checklist-Revised scores. The results revealed that there were significantly higher levels of impulsivity, depression and sensation-seeking in cocaine users and significantly higher impulsivity, lifetime stress and sensation-seeking in methamphetamine users when compared to healthy controls.
Gurian, Elizabeth A
This comprehensive overview on a sample of 65 cases (134 total offenders, including some partnered teams of more than 2 offenders) provides information on female serial murderers who either work in a mixed-sex offending group or alone. These female serial homicide offenders have a distinct set of offender-victim characteristics, including specific victim preferences, methods, and motivations: Partnered serial homicide offenders are more likely to target adult strangers and dispatch them using a combination of methods, whereas solo female serial murderers are most likely to target adult family members and murder them with poison. These patterns have the potential to add to our understanding of the possible similarities and differences of serial homicide cases by building on established offender characteristics. Convictions and sentences for the offenders are included and areas of future research and implications for treatment with this sample are also explored.
van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul
Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…
Miller, Katrina; Vernon, McCay
A study of 41 sex offenders who are deaf found the rate of sexual offending was 4 times the rate of sexual offending by hearing offenders, with 30% recidivism. Sixty-two percent of subjects were functionally illiterate. However, the performance IQs were comparable to those of the overall prison population. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
While optimism regarding the treatment of sexual offenders has increased over the past couple of decades, research into the factors that assist offenders in maintaining therapeutic changes remains in the dark. Maintenance programs for offenders, while theoretically appearing to have a solid place in offender rehabilitation, surprisingly have not…
The Youth Offender Demonstration Project (YODP) combined oversight of youth offenders with services to support youth offenders' passage into the word of work by providing recommended social development strategies for youth offenders. YODP demonstration projects were funded in the following categories: (1) model community projects; (2) education…
Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W
The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.
Bravo, Amaia; Sierra, María Jesús; del Valle, Jorge F
The present study aims to assess the impact of the Spanish young offenders law (LO/2000). Recidivism and its associated risk factors were used as indicators of impact. Data were collected from young offenders' reports opened after 2001 and closed before 2005. The final sample consisted of 382 young offenders (327 males and 55 females). Results indicated that 70% had not re-offended in an average period of 1.6 years. Most of the youngsters with fewer risk factors, usually start their criminal careers with less serious offences and the interventions seemed to be fairly effective. In the cases of young offenders with a higher number of risk factors, the interventions (custodial and non-custodial) were less effective, as recidivism rates were higher. Interventions must focus on family and community contexts in order to achieve adequate social integration of young delinquents.
Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve
This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders, female juvenile homicide offenders have higher rates of reported childhood abuse, more serious substance abuse, and mental health problems including suicidal ideations, depression, anxiety, anger, and irritability. Male juvenile homicide offenders reported higher rates of substance use than their female counterparts but the females had more serious substance abuse problems. Female juveniles were found to more often kill a person known to them and male homicide offenders were found to more often kill a stranger. These findings suggest strongly that male and female juvenile homicide offenders are dissimilar and require unique assessment and treatment.
Heide, Kathleen M
Almost all of the clinical and empirical literature on female parricide victims focuses on mothers killed, with only little information available on stepmothers murdered. This study is the first to compare the victim, offender, and case correlates in incidents when mothers and stepmothers were killed. Supplementary Homicide Report Data for 1976-2007 were used to investigate similarities and differences between the two female victim types in the United States. Similarities between stepmothers and mothers included that more than 70% were White and killed in single victim, single offender incidents. Their killers were adult sons in between 67% and 87% of incidents. Several significant differences emerged with respect to age, involvement in multiple offender incidents, and weapon use. Stepmothers and their stepchildren, relative to mothers and their offspring, were significantly younger. Sixty-four percent of stepchildren, compared with 35% of biological children, were under age 25 at the time of their arrest for murder. A higher percentage of juveniles than adult killers was involved in multiple offender (MO) incidents involving mothers. Relative to their male counterparts, higher percentages of female juveniles were involved in MO incidents involving the deaths of mothers and stepmothers. A higher proportion of female adults, relative to their male counterparts, were involved in MO matricide incidents. Offenders who killed stepmothers, relative to those who killed mothers, were significantly more likely to use guns. Juvenile matricide offenders were significantly more likely to use firearms than their adult counterparts. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed in the conclusion.
Williams, Lela Rankin; LeCroy, Craig W; Vivian, John P
A recidivism risk instrument was developed and validated on a sample of juvenile offenders (N = 1,987) based on the need to classify juveniles by their likelihood of re-offense. Female recidivism (R(2) = 27%) was predicted by younger age at first expulsion from school, history of parent incarceration, gang involvement, felony class offense, and firearm use. Male recidivism (R(2) = 12%) was predicted by younger age at first adjudication, referrals, school suspensions, history of maternal incarceration, firearm use, running away, gang involvement, and destroying property/stealing. Cross-validation analyses indicated that high-risk offenders recidivated at more than five times the rate of low-risk offenders.
The example of an environmental conservation program for young offenders demonstrates the efficacy of group activities in enhancing self-esteem and coping skills and in enabling transition out of the custodial environment. (SK)
Crane, Cory A.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.
Background Although readiness to change is associated with mandated partner violence treatment compliance and subsequent violent behavior among male offenders (e.g., Eckhardt et al., 2004; Scott & Wolfe, 2003), our understanding of the factors associated with pretreatment change remains limited. Offender research indicates that individual and dyadic violent behavior are highly variable and that such variability may provide insight into levels of pretreatment change (Archer, 2002; Holtzworth-Monroe & Stuart, 1994). Aims/Hypotheses We sought to examine the associations between indicators of change and individual as well as dyadic violence frequency in a sample of male partner violence offenders. Method To determine whether severity and perceived concordance in the use of violence among male offenders and their female partners influenced readiness to change at pretreatment, 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence were recruited into the current study and administered measures of readiness to change violent behavior (Revised Safe at Home Scale; Begun et al., 2008) as well as partner violence experiences (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Straus et al., 1996). Results Analyses revealed an interaction between offender-reported male and female violence in the prediction of pretreatment readiness to change such that greater male violence was associated with greater readiness to change among males who reported that their female partners perpetrated low, but not high, levels of violence. Consistently, greater female violence was associated with lower readiness to change only among the most violent male offenders. Conclusions and Implications for Clinical Practice Results provide support for the assertion that the most violent offenders may be the most resistant to partner violence intervention efforts, particularly when they perceive themselves to be victims as well. Enhanced motivational and couples programming may facilitate treatment
Pleydon, Anne P.; Schner, Joseph G.
Young female offenders (n=29) and female high school students (n=47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Results indicated friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents. (BF)
Bersani, Bianca E; Loughran, Thomas A; Piquero, Alex R
Research on immigration and crime has only recently started to consider potential heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns of immigrant offending. Guided by segmented assimilation and life course criminology frameworks, this article advances prior research on the immigration-crime nexus in three ways: using a large sample of high-risk adjudicated youth containing first and second generation immigrants; examining longitudinal trajectories of official and self-reported offending; and merging segmented assimilation and life course theories to distinguish between offending patterns. Data come from the Pathways to Desistance study containing detailed offending and socio-demographic background information on 1,354 adolescents (13.6 % female; n = 1,061 native-born; n = 210 second generation immigrants; n = 83 first generation immigrants) as they transition to young adulthood (aged 14-17 at baseline). Over 84 months we observe whether patterns of offending, and the correlates that may distinguish them, operate differently across immigrant generations. Collectively, this study offers the first investigation of whether immigrants, conditioned on being adjudicated, are characterized by persistent offending. Results show that first generation immigrants are less likely to be involved in serious offending and to evidence persistence in offending, and appear to be on a path toward desistance much more quickly than their peers. Further, assimilation and neighborhood disadvantage operate in unique ways across generational status and relate to different offending styles. The findings show that the risk for persistent offending is greatest among those with high levels of assimilation who reside in disadvantaged contexts, particularly among the second generation youth in the sample.
Caldwell, Michael F; Dickinson, Casey
Juvenile sex offenders are increasingly included in sex offender registration laws, based, in part, on the assumption that they pose a distinctively high risk for future sexual violence and registration may help to mitigate this risk. To test this assumption, the current study compares risk scores on the static scales of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II; Prentky & Righthand, 2003) and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI; Hoge, Andrews, & Leschied, 2002), between samples of 106 registered and 66 unregistered juvenile sex offenders. New criminal charges, including sexually based crimes, were examined over a mean follow-up of 49.2 months (SD = 29.6 months). Results indicated that registered youth had lower risk scores on scales that most accurately predicted recidivism and registered youth were charged with new crimes at rates similar to those of unregistered youth. Reoffense risk, as measured by the risk scales, was not moderated by registration. The findings did not support the assumption that registration can effectively lower the risk for reoffense in juvenile offenders.
van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.
There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…
Plummer, Malory; Cossins, Annie
Various psychological theories exist in the literature to explain the behavior of men who commit child sex offences, including the belief that child sexual abuse (CSA) is a predisposing factor for the transition from victim to offender. These theories are, however, unable to explain the fact that while most victims of CSA are female, most perpetrators of CSA are male. The sex specificity of CSA in terms of victims and offenders suggests that the experience of CSA and its psychosocial effects may be different for boys, compared to girls. We hypothesize that CSA experiences may involve risk factors that affect the development of sexually abusive behavior for boys, rather than girls. Our aim was to determine whether the literature provides evidence of a cycle of abuse from victim to offender, and, if so, to document its characteristics. We undertook a comprehensive literature review of studies on both victims and offenders, including studies which revealed the following: age of onset of CSA, duration of abuse, gender of the abuser, the relationship between victim and abuser, grooming behaviors, the types and severity of abuse, and disclosure of abuse. While we found no evidence for the existence of a cycle of abuse for female CSA victims, we discovered evidence to support the existence of a cycle of abuse for male CSA victims who had experienced particular abuse characteristics. As an original contribution to the literature, we identified four factors that may be associated with a boy's transition from victim to offender as well as the methodological issues to be addressed in future research. Based on criminological theories, we argue that these four factors share a common theme, that is, that they represent experiences of power (for the abuser) and powerlessness (for the victim).
Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L
Previous research has reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms among methamphetamine users, but little attention has been paid to possible links between family environment and psychological distress. This study examined relationships between family conflict, substance use, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 104 heterosexual methamphetamine users in San Diego, California. Eighty-nine percent of the sample reported conflict with a family member in the past year. Conflict was reported most often with parents and siblings. Sources of conflict included drug use, lifestyle issues, interpersonal and communication issues, and concern for other family members. In regression analyses, being female, being a polydrug user, and facing social and legal stressors were associated with higher levels of family conflict. Multiple regression analyses also revealed a positive association between family conflict and depressive symptoms. Contrary to expectation, methamphetamine dose did not moderate the relationship between family conflict and depressive symptoms. Reducing family conflict may be an important first step toward ameliorating depressive symptoms and creating more supportive environments for methamphetamine users who are in urgent need of effective interventions.
Borschmann, Rohan; Coffey, Carolyn; Moran, Paul; Hearps, Stephen; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kinner, Stuart A; Patton, George
The prevalence and correlates of self-harm and suicidal behavior in 515 young offenders (mean age 17.3 years, SD = 1.7) serving community-based orders (CBOs; n = 242) or custodial sentences (n = 273) in Victoria, Australia, are described. Results from structured interviews showed that 83 (16.1%) participants reported self-harming in the previous 6 months, and this was more common among those serving custodial sentences than those serving CBOs (19.4% vs. 12.4%; OR 3.10, 95% CI: 1.74-5.55). Multiple incidents were more common in females and 24% (95% CI: 19-39) of participants who had self-harmed reported having done so with suicidal intent. Self-harm was associated with recent bullying victimization, expulsion from school, past year violent victimization, cannabis dependence, and risk-taking behavior in the preceding year. The epidemiological profile of self-harm in this population appears to be distinct from that seen in the general population. Young offenders who self-harm are a vulnerable group with high rates of psychiatric morbidity, substance misuse problems, and social risk factors. They may benefit from targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, delivered both within-and during the transition from-the youth justice system.
Addresses some of the perplexing issues involved in understanding and responding to elder-abuse offenders. Offers a typology of offenders to elucidate the dynamics when people mistreat the elderly. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)
Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta
Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)
Esser, Mary M.; Mueller, Charles W.
Research on the female offender has produced two explanations of the female criminal personality: the female offender either as a masculinated women or as an anguished woman possessing low self-esteem and poor self-control. To investigate the applicability of each position, 144 black male and female criminals and noncriminals completed the Bem Sex…
Chen, Lian-Yu; Strain, Eric C.; Alexandre, Pierre Kébreau; Alexander, G. Caleb; Mojtabai, Ramin; Martins, Silvia S.
Background Despite chemical similarities, ADHD stimulants and methamphetamine have distinct use patterns in the community. This study compared the characteristics of nonmedical ADHD stimulants users and methamphetamine users in a household sample. Methods In data from the 2009–2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, adult and adolescent stimulant users were categorized into three mutually exclusive subgroups: nonmedical ADHD stimulant users only (STM users), methamphetamine users (METH users), and both nonmedical ADHD stimulant and methamphetamine users (STM/METH users). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified the substance comorbidity, mental health, and deviant behavior characteristics associated with these three groups. Results Compared to adolescent STM users, STM/METH users were more likely to be female, younger and uninsured while METH users were more likely to be younger, in a minority group and from a higher-income family. Compared to adult STM users, METH and STM/METH users were more likely to be male, older, uninsured, no longer married, and to be from rural areas. Adolescent METH users were more likely than STM users to report illegal drug use while adult METH users were less likely to report prescription drug use than their STM user counterparts. Overall, adult and adolescent STM/METH users were more likely to report substance use, mental health problems and deviant behaviors compared to STM users. Conclusion The characteristics of STM users differ from METH and STM/METH users, and their associations with substance use and psychiatric comorbidities differ by age. Findings have implications for understanding the risks for stimulant use in different age subgroups. PMID:24583271
Day, Andrew; Howells, Kevin; Casey, Sharon; Ward, Tony; Chambers, Jemma C.; Birgden, Astrid
Although violent offenders are widely considered to be difficult to engage in therapeutic change, few methods of assessing treatment readiness currently exist. In this article the validation of a brief self-report measure designed to assess treatment readiness in offenders who have been referred to violent offender treatment programs is described.…
This paper gives the specifics of a federal offenders rehabilitation program implementation and evaluation which will test and demonstrate the effects of providing intensive vocational rehabilitation services to federal offenders. The authors note that criminal offenders have difficulty in vocational adjustment, and this is exacerbated by their…
... COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration Amendments AGENCY: Court Services and... verification of registration information for sex offenders. The proposed rule, if finalized, would permit CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits on its own accord and with its...
... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... verification of registration information for sex offenders. Furthermore, the rule permits CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits on its own accord and with its law enforcement...
Forgays, Deborah Kirby
Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…
Ward, Tony; Durrant, Russil
Treatment programs for serious offenders such as sex offenders typically include an empathy training component as part of a comprehensive intervention package. The reasons for doing so are partly based on research evidence indicating that social disconnection and relationship ruptures related to empathy failures often trigger offending, and also…
Given the histories of employment instability of the offenders entering correctional systems, enhancing an offender's vocational skills is an important need to address prior to their reintegration into the community. The purpose of the current research was to examine offender perceptions of the value of employment and crime, obtained as part of a…
Yu, Hui; Lee, Yirong; Zeng, Gerald
The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory–Screening Version (YLS/CMI-SV) is designed to provide a preliminary estimate of the level of risk for antisocial behaviors as well as an indication of areas for intervention in youth offenders. This study examined the predictive validity of the YLS/CMI-SV for violent, nonviolent, and general recidivism in a sample of 3,264 youth offenders within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,764.5 days; SDfollow-up = 521.5). Cox regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses revealed that the YLS/CMI-SV is significantly predictive of general, violent, and nonviolent recidivism for the male youth offenders, but there were mixed results for the female youth offenders. Overall, these results indicated that the YLS/CMI-SV is a useful measure for assessing the levels of risk for male youth offenders, and more investigation is needed to determine the suitability of the YLS/CMI-SV for the female youth offenders. Its implications for clinical practice and policy are discussed. PMID:25983353
Zlotnick, Caron; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Roberts, Mary B.; Sacks, Stanley; Melnick, Gerald
This study examined gender differences in a range of lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 272 offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program. Although these men and women did not differ in severity of substance use in the six months prior to incarceration, women were significantly more likely than men to report a lifetime psychiatric disorder and a lifetime severe disorder. Furthermore, gender differences emerged in the pattern of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. Women reported greater lifetime major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorder, and borderline personality disorder; men were more likely than women to meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Additionally, female offenders were found to have a higher degree of internalizing disorders than male offenders, but there were no gender differences in degree of externalizing disorders. The study concluded that women offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program present with a greater psychiatric vulnerability and a different pattern of psychiatric comorbidity than their male counterparts. PMID:18683199
Zlotnick, Caron; Clarke, Jennifer G; Friedmann, Peter D; Roberts, Mary B; Sacks, Stanley; Melnick, Gerald
This study examined gender differences in a range of lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 272 offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program. Although these men and women did not differ in severity of substance use in the six months prior to incarceration, women were significantly more likely than men to report a lifetime psychiatric disorder and a lifetime severe disorder. Furthermore, gender differences emerged in the pattern of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. Women reported greater lifetime major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorder, and borderline personality disorder; men were more likely than women to meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Additionally, female offenders were found to have a higher degree of internalizing disorders than male offenders, but there were no gender differences in degree of externalizing disorders. The study concluded that women offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program present with a greater psychiatric vulnerability and a different pattern of psychiatric comorbidity than their male counterparts.
Burrowes, Nina; Day, Jo
The National Probation Service in England and Wales currently delivers community-based accredited offending behavior programs in mixed-gender groups. There is at present a lack of research on the potential impact of mixed-gender group work on female offenders, who are often the minority within the group. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the area using qualitative methods. Sixteen offenders who had participated in a mixed-gender offending behavior program were interviewed as part of this study. Themes from the interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The findings illustrated an overall preference among all participants for mixed-gender rather than single-gender group work. The specific advantages of mixed-gender group work included increased learning about the opposite sex and a more relaxed atmosphere within the group. Although this study reflects positive attitudes to mixed-gender group work, the findings need to be tested further using empirical methodology.
Bharti, Ajay R; Woods, Steven Paul; Ellis, Ronald J; Cherner, Mariana; Rosario, Debra; Potter, Michael; Heaton, Robert K; Everall, Ian P; Masliah, Eliezer; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L
Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methamphetamine use commonly affect neurocognitive (NC) functioning. We evaluated the relationships between NC functioning and two fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in volunteers who differed in HIV serostatus and methamphetamine dependence (MAD). Methods A total of 100 volunteers were categorized into four groups based on HIV serostatus and MAD in the prior year. FGF-1 and FGF-2 were measured in cerebrospinal fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with two reference biomarkers (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1 and neopterin). Comprehensive NC testing was summarized by global and domain impairment ratings. Results Sixty-three volunteers were HIV+ and 59 had a history of MAD. FGF-1, FGF-2, and both reference biomarkers differed by HIV and MAD status. For example, FGF-1 levels were lower in subjects who had either HIV or MAD than in HIV− and MAD− controls (P=0.003). Multivariable regression identified that global NC impairment was associated with an interaction between FGF-1 and FGF-2 (model R2=0.09, P=0.01): higher FGF-2 levels were only associated with neurocognitive impairment among subjects who had lower FGF-1 levels. Including other covariates in the model (including antidepressant use) strengthened the model (model R2=0.18, P=0.004) but did not weaken the association with FGF-1 and FGF-2. Lower FGF-1 levels were associated with impairment in five of seven cognitive domains, more than FGF-2, MCP-1, or neopterin. Conclusion These findings provide in vivo support that HIV and MAD alter expression of FGFs, which may contribute to the NC abnormalities associated with these conditions. These cross-sectional findings cannot establish causality and the therapeutic benefits of recombinant FGF-1 need to be investigated. PMID:27199571
Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D J; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171 men and women from a small Northeastern college exposed to a stimulus in which a rapist's motivation was varied as either sexual or violent. Participants were more certain that the stimulus described a rape, recommended a longer prison sentence for the offender, and assigned less blame to the victim when exposed to an offender motivated by violence as opposed to an offender motivated by sex. Offender motivation also interacted with participant gender and victim gender on participants' perceptions of victim blame and offender responsibility. The results suggest that an offender's motivation for rape can influence perceptions of the offender's and victim's responsibility for the assault.
Hoshen, Joseph; Drake, George; Spencer, Debra D.
The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first- generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender's home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.
In this paper, the author points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its…
Craun, Sarah W.
The goal of sex offender registration is to protect residents from recidivistic sexual offenders by providing public information about local offenders. This study determines what percentage of residents living near registered sex offenders are aware of the offenders and the predictors of awareness. The investigational group includes randomly…
Grady, Melissa D; Rose, Roderick A
This article examines the analysis of the psychometric properties, including the validity and reliability, of the Empathy Index (EI), a new instrument designed to measure empathy deficits of sex offenders. The EI was tested with a sample of 158 sex offenders incarcerated in North Carolina prisons. An exploratory factor analysis yielded three subscales: social aggression; instrumental (proactive) aggression; and justification. Social aggression was an unexpected finding, given this type of aggression is more commonly found in young females rather than adult male sex offenders. The instrument demonstrates promising construct and concurrent validity as well as strong internal reliability. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Hermann, Chantal A
There is much debate as to whether online offenders are a distinct group of sex offenders or if they are simply typical sex offenders using a new technology. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the extent to which online and offline offenders differ on demographic and psychological variables. Online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian and were slightly younger than offline offenders. In terms of psychological variables, online offenders had greater victim empathy, greater sexual deviancy, and lower impression management than offline offenders. Both online and offline offenders reported greater rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse than the general population. Additionally, online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian, younger, single, and unemployed compared with the general population. Many of the observed differences can be explained by assuming that online offenders, compared with offline offenders, have greater self-control and more psychological barriers to acting on their deviant interests.
... of Justice Programs Draft Offender Tracking System Standard AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Draft Offender Tracking System Standard, Selection and Application Guide, and... general public three draft documents: (1) A draft standard entitled, ``Offender Tracking System...
Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve
This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…
This article discusses some of the clinical and practical issues in relation to sex offender treatment in prisons and compares, through the experience of one offender who has been called Sam, how the experiences may differ between offenders with and without learning disabilities. It gives a brief overview of how programmes have developed in…
Nicoll, Matthew; Beail, Nigel
Background: There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy to treat anger in offenders with intellectual disabilities. The aim is to lower anger levels; the rationale is that this will reduce recidivism. However, the hypothesis that anger levels amongst offenders are higher than non-offenders has not been tested.…
Lindsay, William R.
Although many writers have provided a theoretical framework for treatment of mainstream sex offenders, this research has not been extended to sex offenders with mild intellectual disability. My purpose here is to bring together several research strands to provide a theoretical model for working in this field, including theories of sex offending,…
Nijhof, Karin S.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
The present study investigated to what extent the frequency and seriousness of parental offending were related to their offspring offending. Police officers in one Dutch province completed a form to register risk factors and the actions undertaken when they came into contact with offenders aged 8-14 years. These juveniles were followed for 18…
Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia
We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…
Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.
Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798
Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Yee, Leland J; Knipper, Emily; Wilkin, Aimee M; Omli, Morrow R
Crystal methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant that initially gained popularity in the western region of the United States and has spread to all regions of the country. This study was designed to identify factors associated with methamphetamine use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in North Carolina. Participants were recruited in five gay bars and in five geographically defined Internet chat rooms concurrently in 2005 to complete a brief assessment of drug use and other risk behaviors. Of the 1189 MSM who completed the assessment, mean age was 29 years. Two thirds self-identified as black/African American or other minorities, and 25% as bisexual. Nearly 6% reported using methamphetamines during the past 30 days. In multivariable analysis, MSM who reported using methamphetamines were more likely to report higher education; health insurance coverage; inconsistent condom use during anal sex within the past 3 months; a history of sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection; positive HIV serostatus; and use of medications designed to treat erectile dysfunction. A lack of data exists on methamphetamine use among MSM in the southeastern United States, particularly in nonurban regions. Because the southeastern United States carries a disproportionate HIV, AIDS, and STD burden, our findings underscore the need for further research and intervention.
Moore, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Claire; Indig, Devon
Young offenders have a high prevalence of mental illness and a large proportion report experiencing a number of traumatic events during childhood, but there is little research exploring this association. This study describes the prevalence of, and association between, child maltreatment and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among young offenders. The study uses data collected as part of the 2009 NSW Young People in Custody Health Survey which was conducted in nine juvenile detention centers. This paper reports on findings from the baseline questionnaires and 18-months of re-offending data. The analysis included 291 participants who were assessed for PTSD and child maltreatment. The sample was 88% male, 48% Aboriginal, with an average age of 17 years (range 13-21 years). One in five (20%) participants were diagnosed with PTSD, with females significantly more likely to have PTSD than males (40% vs. 17%, p<0.05). Over half (60%) of young offenders reported any child abuse or neglect, with females nearly 10 times more likely to report three or more kinds of severe child maltreatment than males. The main correlate for a diagnosis of PTSD was having three or more kinds of severe child maltreatment (OR=6.73, 95% CI: 1.06-42.92). This study provides evidence for the need to comprehensively assess child abuse and neglect among young offenders in order to provide appropriate treatment in custody and post-release.
Sahin, Esat; Sahin, M Feyzi; Tavasli, Ali; Gul, M Cihad; Seyhan, O Faruk; Demirbuga, Sedat; Aliustaoglu, F Suheyla
The aim of this study was to examine and compare similarities and differences among types of parricide committed by adult offenders. The forensic psychiatric evaluation reports of the 4th Specialization Board of the Council of Forensic Medicine from 2009 to 2011 in Turkey were screened retrospectively. One hundred thirty-five adult perpetrators of parricide (125 male, 10 female) were detected, 51.9% of whom committed patricide, 40% of whom matricide and 8.1% of the perpetrators committed double parricide. Most of the perpetrators used sharp instruments as the killing method. No mental disorders were detected in 58.5% of the perpetrators, while psychotic disorders were identified in 30.4% of the cases. This study supported the predominance of sharp instruments as the killing method and a preponderance of matricide among the offenders with psychotic disorders. Although psychotic disorders were the most commonly detected mental disorders in the parricide offenders, most of them did not suffer from mental disorders.
Carroll, Annemaree; Hemingway, Francene; Bower, Julie; Ashman, Adrian; Houghton, Stephen; Durkin, Kevin
The present research investigated differences in levels of impulsivity among early-onset, late-onset, and non-offending adolescents. 129 adolescents (114 males, 15 females), of whom 86 were institutionalised (M age = 15.52 years) and 43 were regular school students (M age = 15.40 years) participated. Each participant completed the Adapted…
Fields, Diane; Abrams, Laura S.
This study explored how gender differences may influence the community reentry experiences of incarcerated youth. Structured surveys assessing risk factors for re-offending, perceived reentry needs, and anticipated barriers to meeting these needs were administered to a convenience sample of males (n = 36) and females (n = 35) who were within 60…
Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun
The authors examined predictors of offense severity, judicial disposition (e.g., diversion, prosecution, incarceration), and repeat offending. Data were obtained on approximately 100,000 individuals from the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice. Whites and females were more likely to be prosecuted than Blacks and males, particularly for…
Latzman, Natasha E.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Scalora, Mario J.; Ullman, Daniel
Sibling sexual offending has received limited empirical attention, despite estimates that approximately half of all adolescent-perpetrated sexual offenses involve a sibling victim. The present study addresses this gap by examining male adolescent sibling (n = 100) and nonsibling offenders (n = 66) with regard to maltreatment histories and scores…
Pleydon, A P; Schner, J G
Young female offenders (n = 29) and female high school students (n = 47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Young offenders exhibited significantly more delinquent behavior than did high school students in the past year. Delinquents and nondelinquents did not significantly differ in amount of companionship, conflict, help, security, and closeness with their best female friend, and amount of trust, alienation, and perceived intimacy in their peer group. Less communication and more perceived peer pressure in the peer group distinguished delinquent females from nondelinquent females. Perceived peer pressure significantly predicted delinquent behavior in female adolescents. In short, friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents.
Johansson, Pernilla; Kempf-Leonard, Kimberly
In "Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency," Howell proposes a female-specific pathway to serious, violent, and chronic offending. Incorporating ideas from feminist research about risk factors for female delinquency, he proposes five distinct and interrelated risk factors--child abuse victimization, mental health problems, running…
van der Put, C E; van Vugt, E S; Stams, G J J M; Deković, M; van der Laan, P H
It is important to examine whether general risk-assessment instruments developed for nonsex offenders can also be applied to sex offenders, because juvenile sex offenders are much more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense. This study examined to what extent the Washington State Juvenile Court Prescreen Assessment (WSJCPA) can be used to assess the risk for general recidivism among different types of juvenile sex offenders. The predictive validity of the WSJCPA was examined separately for the following subgroups: boys convicted for a misdemeanor sexual offense against a peer (n = 381), boys convicted for a felony sexual offense against a peer (n = 282), boys convicted for a sexual offense against a younger child (n = 521), and girls convicted for a sexual offense (n = 71) and two comparison groups of male (n = 15,155) and female (n = 5,811) juvenile nonsex offenders. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve scores for general recidivism ranged between .64 and .73. The WSJCPA proved to be at least equally predictive of general offending among juvenile sex and nonsex offenders groups.
Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others
An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…
Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh
Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…
Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert
This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…
Veneziano, Carol; And Others
Examined demographic characteristics, arrest and treatment data, symptoms of problem drinking, drug use, stressful life events, and depressive symptomatology among 498 driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders. DWI offenders were likely to have experienced financial problems, new job, job loss or unemployment, conflict at home, illness or death of…
Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony
A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…
Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert
Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…
Ireland, Jane L.
Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…
Langstrom, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Lindblad, Frank
Uses data concerning all young sex offenders (N=56) to construct and validate an introductory young sex offender typology based solely on offense characteristics. A 5-cluster solution received optimal support from cluster analysis of 15 offense-related variables. Survival analysis revealed that the clusters differed with respect to sexual but not…
Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.
The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…
Kahn, Timothy J.; Chambers, Heather J.
Summarizes a two-year study of juvenile sexual offenders in Washington. Evaluates both community- and institution-based treatment programs. Offers a demographic profile of the typical juvenile sexual offender and the recidivism data from a mean 20-month follow-up period. Surprisingly few variables were found to have a significant relationship to…
Walsh, Thomas C.
Examines the incidence of psychopathy among an alcoholic-offender population (N=128) and compares psychopathic and non-psychopathic alcoholics in relation to childhood history, demographics, alcohol dependence, violence, and suicide. Results indicate that 20% of offenders could be classified as psychopaths. These persons were more alcohol…
Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan
This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…
McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John
Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that danger--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…
English, Kim; Retzlaff, Paul; Kleinsasser, Dennis
Documents the development of an adult sex offender risk assessment tool. A risk scale was developed based upon criminal and therapeutic outcomes of 494 sex offenders. The final risk scale included prior juvenile felony convictions, prior adult felony convictions, victim being intoxicated, denial in therapy, sexual deviance in therapy, and…
Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.
This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…
Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.
The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale…
Ryan, Gail; And Others
Three case histories elucidate a discussion of the developmental nature of the behaviors of juvenile male sexual offenders. The sexual assault cycle is defined in the stages of negative self-image, predicting rejection, isolation, fantasies, planning the offense, and committing the offense. Tools for treating the offender are outlined. (Author/JDD)
This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale (ATS) measurement by assessing attitudes of counselors in training towards juvenile sex offenders. The specific aims of this study were to determine (a) internal consistency of the ATS, (b) construct validity of the ATS based on exploratory factor…
Muster, Nori J.
Many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. Treatment primarily focuses on juvenile's criminal acts in confrontational, nonsympathetic manner. Surveyed 18 professionals in sexual abuse treatment field to assess attitudes toward juvenile sex offender treatment. Those in corrections field were greatest supporters of confrontational…
Pointer, W. Donald; Kravitz, Marjorie
The bibliography on handicapped adult offenders covers all aspects of the criminal justice process--arrest, pretrial evaluation, determination of competency to stand trial, civil vs. criminal proceedings, and community and institutional treatment. An introduction discusses the number of offenders who are mentally retarded or physically…
Proeve, Michael; Howells, Kevin
In this article, the authors build on previous discussions of the possible role of shame and guilt in sexual offending. They review the general psychological literature on shame and guilt and conclude that the distinction between internal and external shame is an important one in considering sexual offenders. The effects of shame and guilt on victim empathy and relapse are discussed, and it is proposed that the phenomena of shame and guilt have implications for treatment beyond those identified in previous studies. Shame is a salient feature in the initial presentation of many sexual offenders against children. Furthermore, aspects of the treatment of sexual offenders can be characterized as a shift from shame toward guilt. Implications of shame and guilt for treatment of sexual offenders are described.
Mancini, Christina; Pickett, Justin T
Public opinion has played a critical role in the development of sex crime laws. However, little scholarly work has focused directly on the origins of negative attitudes toward sex offenders. We address this research gap by developing and testing a theoretical account of such views. Drawing on recent national survey data, we examine the extent to which typifications about sexual victims and offenders--believing sex crime typically affects children and female victims and is committed by strangers--explain beliefs about the reformability of sex offenders, harm inflicted on victims, and the causes of offending. Results indicate that judging children to be typical targets of sex crimes is a key determinant of public views. We discuss the implications of our findings.
Vries, Anne M; Liem, Marieke
Serious offenses against persons perpetrated by juveniles raise fundamental questions about the background, causes, and prevention of future crime. The current study addresses the potential of future crime of all juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) in the Netherlands in the period 1992-2007. In contrast to former research on recidivism of JHOs, which has been merely descriptive, the present study integrates theoretical perspectives as to why some of these juveniles turn back to crime, while others do not. To this end, relationships are investigated between recidivism behavior and risk factors. Results indicate that male JHOs, and JHOs who maintain relationships with delinquents, run a greater risk of reoffending.
Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.
Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…
Mennis, Jeremy; Harris, Philip
This research investigates the role of repeat offending and spatial contagion in juvenile delinquency recidivism using a database of 7166 male juvenile offenders sent to community-based programs by the Family Court of Philadelphia. Results indicate evidence of repeat offending among juvenile delinquents, particularly for drug offenders. The…
Ardino, Vittoria; Milani, Luca; Di Blasio, Paola
Background Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are mainly focused on victims of trauma. Very few studies explored the links between PTSD symptoms and re-offending risk in perpetrators of violence. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the effect of PTSD symptoms on re-offending risk in prisoner populations with a focus on indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Methods 75 prisoners (25 females, mean age: 44.36 years; 50 males, mean age: 34.7 years) were assessed for exposure to child abuse and neglect, PTSD symptoms, worry, a negative perception of other people’s support and re-offending risk. Mediation analyses tested the indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Results 72% participants presented PTSD symptoms and 30.7% were at risk of re-offending. Mediation analyses supported the hypothesis of a mediation pathway from PTSD to worry and a negative perception of other people’s support to an increased risk of re-offending. Conclusions The results indicate that prisoners report high rates of PTSD symptoms; furthermore, they highlight an important relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Findings suggest that future research should test further the indirect effects of negative cognitive and emotional states on the relationship of PTSD and re-offending risk and explore more in depth the role of PTSD to assess and treat prisoners. PMID:24371516
Lin, Jeffrey; Simon, Walter
A prevailing cultural stereotype about sex offenders is that they tend to specialize in sexual offending. Many recent policy developments-mainly aimed to restrict the liberties of sex offenders-are rooted in this idea. We examined the correctional and arrest records of a sample of 312 sex offenders released on parole in Colorado to determine the prevalence of sexual specialization among these offenders, and to compare the legal and social characteristics of specialists and versatile sex offenders. Overall we found that very few participants officially classified as sex offenders fit the specialist stereotype. Study participants generally displayed versatile histories of criminal offending. We also found that specialists were distinguishable from versatile offenders on certain indices of social integration and mental health, and they were more likely to have had a history of offending against children.
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A; Bolen, Rebecca M
Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscuous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation toward sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings.
There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243
There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper.
Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne
The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical
Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa
Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213
Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa
Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided.
This article uses feminist theory to investigate how the socialization processes used to maintain the clergy community in the Roman Catholic Church contributes to a vulnerability in some clergy for sexually abusing children. This vulnerability is identified first in an examination of the literature on the impact of socialization processes on clergy offenders between the 1960s and 1980s. A comparison is then made with the implications of the apostolic exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, which provides a theological basis to clergy formation. The article argues that the document works to ensure a continuity of socialization processes that not only have been shown to create a vulnerability for committing child sexual abuse but compound existing vulnerabilities. The article concludes that constraints produced by the preservation of a hegemonic masculinity and patriarchy retain a threat of violence against children and require recommended reforms.
Rossegger, A; Gerth, J; Urbaniok, F; Laubacher, A; Endrass, J
In North America, the use of actuarial instruments is considered to be state of the art in the assessment of offender recidivism risk. One of these instruments is the "Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide" (SORAG), which was developed specifically for the use in sex offender risk assessment. The present review investigates the current state of knowledge regarding the instrument's validity specifically for its use in German-speaking countries. Overall the results speak for the instrument's good discriminatory power. However, this is not true to the same degree for all types of sex offender populations. The discriminatory power is especially good in the subpopulation of child molesters. Part of the present review is a German translation of the instrument authorised by the developers of the SORAG.
Meers, Gary D.
Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)
Walters, Glenn D
The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11-wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non-aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive-personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus-partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive-personality variables-may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence.
Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick
A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…
Chan, Eric J; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renee L
With most youths now using the Internet and social networking sites (SNSs), the public has become increasingly concerned about risks posed by online predators. In response, lawmakers have begun to pass laws that ban or limit sex offenders' use of the Internet and SNSs. At the time of this article, 12 states and the federal government have passed legislation attempting to restrict or ban the use of SNSs by registered sex offenders. These laws have been successfully challenged in 4 states. In this article, we discuss examples of case law that illustrate evolving trends regarding Internet and social networking site restrictions on sex offenders on supervised release, as well as those who have already completed their sentences. We also review constitutional questions and empirical evidence concerning Internet and social networking use by sex offenders. To our knowledge, this is the first paper in the psychiatric literature that addresses the evolving legal landscape in reference to sex offenders and their use of the Internet and SNSs. This article is intended to help inform forensic mental health professionals who work with sex offenders on current concerns in this rapidly evolving legal landscape.
Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J
Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders.
Hershberger, Alexandra; Zapolski, Tamika; Aalsma, Matthew C.
Cigarette use is a prominent problem in juvenile offenders, leading to negative health outcomes and substance use. One interesting precipitator of cigarette use in this population is discrimination. Social support could potentially buffer the positive relationship between cigarette use and discrimination in juvenile offenders, which could be dependent on the context in which the discrimination is experienced, such as peer, institutional (e.g., stores, restaurants), or educational contexts. The present study explored the relationship between three types of discrimination, social support, and smoking outcomes among 112 detained and probated juvenile offenders (mean age = 16.24, SD = 2.11, 29.2% female, 54.9% Caucasian, 40.4% detention, 53.8% smokers). Results indicated that the relationship between institutional discrimination (OR = −0.10, p = 0.005) and peer discrimination (OR = −0.11, p = 0.01) were significantly moderated by social support, with a higher likelihood of being a smoker, compared to a non-smoker at higher levels of peer and institutional discrimination. Further, based on a moderated regression analysis, results indicated that youth who experienced greater educational discrimination and lower levels of social support, they were at higher risk of nicotine addiction (b = −0.09, p = 0.03). Overall, results indicate that varying avenues of social support, such as parent, peer, and teacher support, can mitigate negative effects of discrimination on juvenile offenders, particularly cigarette use. Addressing discrimination in smoking treatment and prevention in juvenile offenders may be of great utility. Future studies should examine the potential mechanisms underlying the discrimination and cigarette use connection in juvenile offenders. PMID:27010849
Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D. J.; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171…
Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.
Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…
Ackerman, Alissa R.; Sacks, Meghan; Osier, Lindsay N.
For over two decades, U.S. state and federal governments have enacted broad legislation in an effort to keep communities aware about and safe from sex offenders living nearby. The current study qualitatively analyzes unsolicited responses from sex offenders regarding their feelings, attitudes, and experiences living under the auspices of such…
Wilkerson, J Michael; Noor, Syed W; Breckenridge, Ellen D; Adeboye, Adeniyi A; Rosser, B R Simon
Research indicates that men who have sex with men (MSM), use methamphetamine, and inject drugs are at high risk of HIV infection and they employ multiple harm reduction strategies simultaneously to reduce that risk. In this study, we identified substances most commonly injected and harm reduction strategies most often employed by methamphetamine-using MSM, used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of harm reduction strategies, and differentiated MSM within each class by individual characteristics. We analyzed data from 284 participants who completed an online cross-sectional survey. Commonly injected substances were methamphetamine (93.70%), gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (41.55%), flunitrazepam (40.49%), and cocaine (35.56%). The substance-use strategies most often used were avoidance of sharing needles (85.92%) and use of bleach to clean drug paraphernalia (64.08%). The sexual strategy most often used was avoidance of condomless anal intercourse (CAS) while using drugs (77.11%). Using an LCA approach, we identified three classes distinguishable by age, race/ethnicity, and outness. One class (19%) employed lay strategies to reduce harm: they avoided sharing drug preparation equipment, serosorted when sharing needles and equipment or having CAS, and practiced withdrawal when having CAS. The largest class (53%) combined sexual and substance-use strategies: they avoided sharing needles, used bleach to clean needles and equipment, avoided CAS when using drugs, and used extra lubricant when having CAS. The remaining class (28%) employed only substance-use rather than sexual strategies. More MSM of color were in the substance-use class, and more young, non-Hispanic White men were in the lay class. The low utilization of sexual strategies by younger, non-Hispanic White men in the lay class is concerning as they are just as likely as older, non-Hispanic White men in the combined class to have CAS with multiple male partners. Interventionists should
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Noor, Syed W.; Breckenridge, Ellen D.; Adeboye, Adeniyi A.; Rosser, B. R. Simon
Research indicates that men who have sex with men (MSM), use methamphetamine, and inject drugs are at high risk of HIV infection and they employ multiple harm reduction strategies simultaneously to reduce that risk. In this study, we identified substances most commonly injected and harm reduction strategies most often employed by methamphetamine-using MSM, used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of harm reduction strategies, and differentiated MSM within each class by individual characteristics. We analyzed data from 284 participants who completed an online cross-sectional survey. Commonly injected substances were methamphetamine (93.70%), gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (41.55%), flunitrazepam (40.49%), and cocaine (35.56%). The substance-use strategies most often used were avoidance of sharing needles (85.92%) and use of bleach to clean drug paraphernalia (64.08%). The sexual strategy most often used was avoidance of condomless anal intercourse (CAS) while using drugs (77.11%). Using an LCA approach, we identified three classes distinguishable by age, race/ethnicity, and outness. One class (19%) employed lay strategies to reduce harm: they avoided sharing drug preparation equipment, serosorted when sharing needles and equipment or having CAS, and practiced withdrawal when having CAS. The largest class (53%) combined sexual and substance use strategies: they avoided sharing needles, used bleach to clean needles and equipment, avoided CAS when using drugs, and used extra lubricant when having CAS. The remaining class (28%) employed only substance-use rather than sexual strategies. More MSM of color were in the substance-use class, and more young, non-Hispanic White men were in the lay class. The low utilization of sexual strategies by younger, non-Hispanic White men in the lay class is concerning as they are just as likely as older, non-Hispanic White men in the combined class to have CAS with multiple male partners. Interventionists should
Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Childs, Kristina
This paper reports the results of developing and evaluating a classification of 315 arrested youth processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center from September 1, 1994 to January 31, 1998. Youth were characterized as physically or sexually abused if they reported abuse or if they had been referred to juvenile court for abuse.…
Becker, Marion A; Andel, Ross; Boaz, Timothy; Constantine, Robert
Despite the increasing number of men and women with serious mental illness (SMI) incarcerated in America's jails, little research exists on the role gender may play in arrest among persons with SMI. This study examined correlates of arrests among offenders with SMI, specifically the role of gender. County criminal justice records, as well as county and statewide social service archival databases, were used to identify jail inmates with SMI in a large urban county in Florida. Of the 3,769 inmates identified, 41% were female. This study identified three distinct classes of male and female offenders within which persons had similar trajectories of arrests over the 4-year study period representing those with minimal, low, and high arrest rates. Findings suggest some important differences between women and men in risk factors for re-arrests. Attention to these factors may improve the ability to prevent future recidivism among men and women with SMI.
Leue, Anja; Brocke, Burkhard; Hoyer, Jürgen
This study tested predictions of Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) in subgroups of sex offenders and male non-offenders using an experimental choice task consisting of a reward and a non-reward phase. In addition, RST-related psychometric measures were used. Both experimental and psychometric data were of interest to determine whether sex offenders could be reliably differentiated from non-offenders. Paraphilic (N=50) and impulse control-disordered (N=48) sex offenders showed greater sensitivity to continuous reward than male non-offenders (N=51). Impulse control-disordered sex offenders showed less behavioural adaptation under non-reward than both paraphilic sex offenders and male non-offenders. In addition, reward sensitivity, rash-spontaneous impulsivity, and anxiety measures discriminated sex offenders from male non-offenders. The results suggest that reinforcement sensitivity is a promising personality trait for differentiating subgroups of sex offenders from non-offenders. The experimental and psychometric results illustrate that predictive accuracy in forensic settings could be improved by combining several types of data.
Boccardi, Marina; Ganzola, Rossana; Rossi, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Laakso, Mikko P; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Könönen, Mervi; Aronen, Hannu J; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Tiihonen, Jari
Posterior hippocampal volumes correlate negatively with the severity of psychopathy, but local morphological features are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate hippocampal morphology in habitually violent offenders having psychopathy. Manual tracings of hippocampi from magnetic resonance images of 26 offenders (age: 32.5 +/- 8.4), with different degrees of psychopathy (12 high, 14 medium psychopathy based on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised), and 25 healthy controls (age: 34.6 +/- 10.8) were used for statistical modelling of local changes with a surface-based radial distance mapping method. Both offenders and controls had similar hippocampal volume and asymmetry ratios. Local analysis showed that the high psychopathy group had a significant depression along the longitudinal hippocampal axis, on both the dorsal and ventral aspects, when compared with the healthy controls and the medium psychopathy group. The opposite comparison revealed abnormal enlargement of the lateral borders in both the right and left hippocampi of both high and medium psychopathy groups versus controls, throughout CA1, CA2-3 and the subicular regions. These enlargement and reduction effects survived statistical correction for multiple comparisons in the main contrast (26 offenders vs. 25 controls) and in most subgroup comparisons. A statistical check excluded a possible confounding effect from amphetamine and polysubstance abuse. These results indicate that habitually violent offenders exhibit a specific abnormal hippocampal morphology, in the absence of total gray matter volume changes, that may relate to different autonomic modulation and abnormal fear-conditioning.
Cauffman, Elizabeth; Fine, Adam; Thomas, April G; Monahan, Kathryn C
Both the psychological and criminological fields have long hypothesized the mechanisms that influence desistance from violent offending, but few studies have focused on violent females. This study identifies patterns of violent behavior across 7 years among 172 females and 172 matched males ages 15-24, testing if heterogeneity in violent offending is linked to (a) developmental change in impulse control and (b) attainment of adult milestones. Fewer females persist in violence (25%) than males (46%); 19% of males increase in violent behavior. Females who develop impulse control and are employed are more likely to desist from violence. Violent offending is unrelated to other adult milestones. Developmental increases in impulse control may trigger desistance, while employment may maintain desistance from violence.
Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro
Empirical research has primarily focused on the differences between rapists and child molesters. Nonetheless, a greater understanding of specific needs of specific subtypes of sex offenders is necessary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the early maladaptive schemas and different types of sexual offending behavior. Fifty rapists, 59 child molesters (19 pedophilic and 40 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Data were analyzed using sets of multinomial logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographic variables, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that pedophilic offenders were more likely to hold the defectiveness and subjugation schemas compared to the other three groups. Likewise, nonpedophilic child molesters were more likely to hold the social isolation, enmeshment, and unrelenting standards schemas compared to rapists. Additionally, rapists were more likely to hold the vulnerability to harm, approval-seeking, and punitiveness schemas compared to nonpedophiles and/or nonsex offenders. Overall, our findings suggest that cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending and corroborate the need to distinguish between the two subtypes of child molesters. Despite the need for further investigation, findings may have important implications for the treatment of sex offenders and for the prevention of sexual crimes.
Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey
Data for both sexual and violent recidivism for the Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM 2000), Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR), and Static-2002 are reported for 419 released sexual offenders assessed at the Regional Treatment Centre Sexual Offender Treatment Program. Data are analyzed by offender type as well as the group as…
This memorandum describes the programs and services available to women offenders in the Wisconsin correctional institutions for women. In the area of vocational and educational programs and services, this memorandum also briefly compares those available to women offenders with those available to male offenders in Wisconsin correctional…
The Federal Offenders Rehabilitation Program is designed to test experimentally the centrality of employment in offender rehabilitation. Specifically, does appropriate employment, obtained through the services of vocational rehabilitation counseling, change an offender's pattern of behavior? Does this change occur in the direction of integration…
Courtright, Kevin E.; Berg, Bruce L.; Mutchick, Robert J.
Evaluates the first 57 offenders who participated in an electronic monitoring (EM) program and compared them to offenders who went to jail. Analysis revealed no difference between the groups with respect to rearrest, revocations, and detainers filed. The overwhelming majority of EM offenders completed their period of supervision without incident.…
This article outlines the evidence about education, schooling and young offenders of secondary school age. Education and experiences of schooling are shown to be potentially risk or protective factors in relation to offending behaviour by young people. The victimisation and vulnerability of more serious young offenders is highlighted in the case…
Ikomi, Philip A.; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H. Elaine
A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average…
Day, David M.; Bevc, Irene; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.; Duchesne, Thierry; Rossman, Lianne; Theodor, Frances
This study examined the relationship between adolescent (10-17 years) criminal offending and adult (18-33 years) offending. The sample comprised 378 Canadian male offenders whose criminal trajectory was tracked for an average of 12.1 years, from adolescence into adulthood. Their man age at the time of the most recent follow-up was 27.5 years. The…
Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.
It is proffered rather frequently that co-offending is the dominate form of criminal offending among juveniles because of the enhanced salience of peer pressure during adolescence, and that this enhanced propensity to co-offend is pivotal for understanding the age-crime curve. Using National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data for 2002,…
Koenig, Lori A.
Offenders involved in this study lacked basic financial knowledge which presented a barrier to their success upon release. The researcher modified existing curriculum and created a course in financial literacy for offenders within a medium security correctional facility based upon their personal experiences. The offenders gained financial…
Nally, John M.; Lockwood, Susan R.; Ho, Taiping
Researchers have rarely examined post-release employment among offenders during a period of economic recession. However, studies on employment issues among post-release offenders have showed that released offenders would likely have a higher unemployment rate due to their inadequate education and job skills (Batiuk, 1997; Harlow, 2003; Vacca,…
Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T
While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%-8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.
Baglivio, Michael T.; Wolff, Kevin T.
While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention. PMID:28212340
Penner, Erika K; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S; Roesch, Ronald
Theories of procedural justice suggest that individuals who experience respectful and fair legal decision-making procedures are more likely to believe in the legitimacy of the law and, in turn, are less likely to reoffend. However, few studies have examined these relationships in youth. To begin to fill this gap in the literature, in the current study, the authors studied 92 youth (67 male, 25 female) on probation regarding their perceptions of procedural justice and legitimacy, and then monitored their offending over the subsequent 6 months. Results indicated that perceptions of procedural justice predicted self-reported offending at 3 months but not at 6 months, and that youths' beliefs about the legitimacy of the law did not mediate this relationship. Furthermore, procedural justice continued to account for unique variance in self-reported offending over and above the predictive power of well-established risk factors for offending (i.e., peer delinquency, substance abuse, psychopathy, and age at first contact with the law). Theoretically, the current study provides evidence that models of procedural justice developed for adults are only partially replicated in a sample of youth; practically, this research suggests that by treating adolescents in a fair and just manner, justice professionals may be able to reduce the likelihood that adolescents will reoffend, at least in the short term.
Evans, Ceri; Mezey, Gillian; Ehlers, Anke
Amnesia for the perpetration of violent offences is an important issue in medico-legal proceedings. Previous studies of amnesia have mainly relied on selected groups of unconvicted offenders, which raises the question of how reliable the findings are. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and phenomenological qualities of amnesia in violent offenders. In semi-structured interviews with 105 young offenders convicted of serious violence, 20 (19%) reported partial amnesia for their offence and only one (1%) reported complete amnesia. Amnesia was associated with high alcohol intake, emotional ties to the victim, and cognitive processing during the assault. Complete amnesia for violent crime appears to be less frequent than suggested by previous reports using unconvicted samples. The findings have implications for the clinical assessment of claimed amnesia for violent crime and are potentially of medico-legal significance. PMID:19668341
Stahler, Gerald J.; Mennis, Jeremy; Belenko, Steven; Welsh, Wayne N.; Hiller, Matthew L.; Zajac, Gary
We examined the influence of individual and neighborhood characteristics and spatial contagion in predicting reincarceration on a sample of 5,354 released Pennsylvania state prisoners. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, offense type, drug involvement, various neighborhood variables (e.g., concentrated disadvantage, residential mobility), and spatial contagion (i.e., proximity to others who become reincarcerated). Using geographic information systems (GIS) and logistic regression modeling, our results showed that the likelihood of reincarceration was increased with male gender, drug involvement, offense type, and living in areas with high rates of recidivism. Older offenders and those convicted of violent or drug offenses were less likely to be reincarcerated. For violent offenders, drug involvement, age, and spatial contagion were particular risk factors for reincarceration. None of the neighborhood environment variables were associated with increased risk of reincarceration. Reentry programs need to particularly address substance abuse issues of ex-offenders as well as take into consideration their residential locations. PMID:24443612
Long, Matthew L; Alison, Laurence A; McManus, Michelle A
This study examined a sample of 120 adult males convicted of offences involving indecent images of children (IIOC); 60 had a previous contact child sexual offence (dual offenders) and 60 had no evidence of an offence against a child. Analyses explored socio-demographic characteristics, previous convictions, and access to children. Of the 120 offenders, a subsample of 60 offenders (30 dual offenders and 30 non-contact) were further examined in terms of the quantity of IIOC, types of IIOC, and offending behavior. The study found the two offender groups could be discriminated by previous convictions, access to children, the number, proportion, and type of IIOC viewed. The IIOC preferences displayed within their possession differentiated dual offenders from non-contact IIOC offenders. Within group comparisons of the dual offenders differentiated sadistic rapists from sexual penetrative and sexual touching offenders. The paper suggests there may be a homology between IIOC possession, victim selection, and offending behavior. Implications for law enforcement are discussed in terms of likelihood of contact offending and assisting in investigative prioritization.
Middleton, David; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Hayes, Elizabeth
The increase in convictions for internet-related sexual offending has led to new challenges for treatment providers. By 2005 nearly one-third of all sexual convictions in England and Wales were for internet-related sexual offending. In late 2006 a treatment programme for internet-related sexual offending (the i-SOTP) was given accreditation for…
Howard, R C; Longmore, F J; Mason, P A; Martin, J L
Contingent negative variation (CNV) was recorded bilaterally from central electrodes using a "match/mismatch" paradigm in (Study 1) samples of heterosexual men (N = 6), gay men (N = 10) and lesbian women (N = 14) and (Study 2) in samples of child sex offenders (N = 34) and heterosexual control men (N = 19). Sexual orientation was assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality (MSS) and the Human Sexuality Questionnaire (HSQ). Separate CNV averages were formed for each condition of stimulation: for Study 1, slides of adult male and female nudes; for Study 2, slides of child, pubescent and adult male and female nudes. Penile plethysmographic (PPG) data were also obtained from 15 of the child sex offender sample while they viewed stimuli of the same categories as were used in the CNV recording. On the basis of their PPG responses to children, child sex offenders were classified as either "pedophiles" or "non-pedophiles". In Study 1 significant Group x Sex (of slide) and Group x Electrode interactions indicated that: (i) heterosexual men (but neither homosexual group) showed significantly larger CNVs to female than to male slides; (ii) both homosexual groups showed significantly asymmetrical (R > L) CNVs. In Study 2, controls showed significantly greater CNVs to adult females than to both adult males and female children. Child sex offenders showed no significant differences in CNV to male and female slides for any age. "Non-pedophiles" showed significantly larger CNVs to female adults than to female children, but "pedophiles" did not. It is concluded that CNV has promise as a measure of both deviant and non-deviant sexual preference.
Carich, Mark S; Metzger, Carole K; Baig, Mirza S A; Harper, Joseph J
Victim empathy is a widely used component of sex offender treatment throughout North America and Great Britain. Yet, it has been controversial over the past few years. One of the complications involves giving empathy a solid definition. Empathy was defined as the capacity to express compassion for victims. A multi-level system was developed to help specify the definition. The second issue concerns which methods to use in enhancing victim empathy. A variety of techniques are provided as specific ways in which clinicians can help enhance an offender's empathy level.
Jasperson, Rachael A.
Female offenders' mental health needs have consistently been shown to exceed those of male offenders. Incarcerated women report higher rates of violent victimization, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders. For years, researchers have examined the human-animal…
Dickson, Megan F.; Wasarhaley, Nesa E.; Webster, J. Matthew
The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the differences found between first time and repeat rural DUI offenders were the same as those found previously in urban samples. A total of 118 rural DUI offenders were interviewed, approximately half (51.7%) of which were repeat offenders. Although demographic and mental health characteristics were similar across the two groups, repeat offenders reported more extensive substance use and criminal histories. Results suggest that the pattern of differences between rural first time and repeat DUI offenders may be different from the pattern found in prior urban-based studies. Treatment implications are discussed. PMID:26225118
Dickson, Megan F; Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Webster, J Matthew
The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the differences found between first time and repeat rural DUI offenders were the same as those found previously in urban samples. A total of 118 rural DUI offenders were interviewed, approximately half (51.7%) of which were repeat offenders. Although demographic and mental health characteristics were similar across the two groups, repeat offenders reported more extensive substance use and criminal histories. Results suggest that the pattern of differences between rural first time and repeat DUI offenders may be different from the pattern found in prior urban-based studies. Treatment implications are discussed.
Corson, Tyler Rogers; Nadash, Pamela
The high risk for recidivism among sex offenders who need long term care (LTC) raises serious issues when they are cared for alongside frail, vulnerable adults. LTC providers must balance offenders' right to access care with other residents' right to be free from abuse and must assess and manage the risks associated with admitting offenders. This article identifies sources of legal liability that derive from sex offender management and discusses the need for the LTC community to develop reasonable, balanced guidance on how best to mitigate the risks associated with sex offenders, protect the rights of all residents, and reduce provider liabilities.
Andresen, Martin A; Felson, Marcus
There is theoretical and empirical support for co-offending being important not only for understanding current offending but also subsequent offending. The fundamental question is--why? In this article, an aggregate analysis is performed that begins to answer this question. Disaggregating solo- and co-offending by single year of age (12-29 years) and crime type in a largely metropolitan data set from British Columbia, Canada, 2002 to 2006, it is shown that the distribution of co-offences is significantly more varied than the distribution of solo offences. This more varied distribution of co-offences favors property crimes during youth but fades as offenders age.
Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying
The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness.
Laajasalo, Taina; Salenius, Stephan; Lindberg, Nina; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä
There is a paucity of studies examining psychopathy in comparable samples of violent individuals with and without psychotic illness. The main goal of the study was to assess the prevalence and nature of psychopathic traits as measured by PCL-R among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Further, the impact of co-morbid psychopathy on the homicidal incidents, as well as the associations of psychopathy and offender background factors, among offenders with schizophrenia was investigated. A retrospective study was performed using extensive forensic psychiatric evaluation reports and crime reports as sources of information. The sample consisted of 72 homicide offenders with schizophrenia and 72 controls without psychotic illness. Psychopathic features were prevalent among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia, although for the most parts to a lesser extent compared to other homicide offenders. Like non-mentally ill psychopathic offenders, offenders with schizophrenia and many psychopathic traits are likely to present early starting problems in many areas of life and they also commit homicides that resemble other psychopathic offenders' in their choice of victims, intoxication and post-offense behavior. The observed prevalence of psychopathic traits highlights the importance of psychopathy assessment among violence-prone individuals with schizophrenia. In most respects, offenders with schizophrenia and high levels of psychopathic traits seem to be similar to psychopathic offenders without psychotic illness, which has implications for early intervention and management.
Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael
Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences.
Hampton, Ashley S.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Steinberg, Laurence
Although evidence indicates that both psychopathy and intelligence independently predict juvenile offending, relations among IQ, psychopathy, and offending are inconsistent. We investigated whether intelligence moderates the relation between psychopathy and aggressive and income offending concurrently and over time among 1,354 juvenile offenders enrolled in Pathways to Desistance, a prospective study of serious juvenile offenders in Philadelphia and Phoenix. Participants were assessed on intelligence, psychopathy, and self-reported offending both at their initial interview (ages 14–18 years old), and 36 and 84 months later. Results indicate that intelligence moderates the concurrent relation between both aggressive and income offending and total psychopathy, as well as scores on Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and Factor 2 (social deviance); the 36-month prospective relation between all aspects of psychopathy and income offending; and the 84-month prospective relation between Factor 2 psychopathy and aggressive offending. As expected, higher levels of psychopathy are associated with higher levels of offending, but the highest levels of offending are evinced among youth with relatively higher levels of psychopathy and relatively higher IQ. PMID:23750597
Knoth, Lauren K; Ruback, R Barry
A victim's decision to report a crime to the police is typically made after talking with someone else, usually a friend or relative, but sometimes a stranger. The advice this person gives depends primarily on the seriousness of the crime, and to some extent on the gender and age of the victim. The present research, which used experimental vignettes, examined the role of social networks in reporting: How do the relationships among a victim, the advisor, and the offender affect the advice to report or not to report a violent or nonviolent crime? Results from Study 1 indicated that relationships matter: Crimes are least likely to be reported if the offender is part of the same triad as the victim and the advisor, and crimes are most likely to be reported if the victim, the advisor, and the offender are all strangers. Study 1 also found that males are more likely to protect friends who are offenders (by advising against reporting), while females are more likely to protect friends who are victims (by advising them to report). Study 2 found that the effect of these relationships on reporting is conditioned by the nature of the organization to which the offender belongs, such that males are particularly likely to protect their friends in athletic organizations and fraternities when accused of minor property crimes. Both studies found that gender differences in the advice to report are moderated by characteristics of the crime and triad structure.
Caldwell, Michael F
This study compares the recidivism patterns of a cohort of 249 juvenile sexual offenders and 1,780 non-sexual offending delinquents who were released from secured custody over a two and one half year period. The prevalence of sex offenders with new sexual offense charges during the 5 year follow-up period was 6.8%, compared to 5.7% for the non-sexual offenders, a non-significant difference. Juvenile sex offenders were nearly ten times more likely to have been charged with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense. Eighty-five percent of the new sexual offenses in the follow-up period were accounted for by the non-sex offending delinquents. None of the 54 homicides (including three sexual homicides) was committed by a juvenile sex offender. The implications of the results for recent public policy trends that impose restrictions that are triggered by a sexual offense adjudication are discussed.
Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; VanZuylen, Heather
The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences between groups. Offenders who committed contact sex offences were more likely to have access to children than those with only child pornography offences. In contrast, offenders who used the internet to commit sexual offences had greater access to the internet than those with contact sex offenders. Differences between the groups, however, were not limited to differential opportunities. Sex offenders against children and mixed offenders were found to score higher on indicators of antisociality than online child pornography offenders (CPOs). CPOs were also more likely to have psychological barriers to sexual offending than sex offenders against children and mixed offenders (e.g., greater victim empathy). Mixed offenders were found to be the most pedophilic, even more than CPOs. The findings suggest that offenders who restricted their offending behavior to online child pornography offences were different from mixed offenders and offline sex offenders against children, and that mixed offenders were a particularly high risk group.
Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; van Marle, Hjalmar
The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of serious juvenile offenders on the basis of their risk profiles, using a data-driven approach. The sample consists of 1,147 of the top 5% most serious juvenile offenders in the Netherlands. A part of the sample, 728 juvenile offenders who had been released from the institution for at least 2 years, was included in analyses on recidivism and the prediction of recidivism. Six subgroups of serious juvenile offenders were identified with cluster analysis on the basis of their scores on 70 static and dynamic risk factors: Cluster 1, antisocial identity; Cluster 2, frequent offenders; Cluster 3, flat profile; Cluster 4, sexual problems and weak social identity; Cluster 5, sexual problems; and Cluster 6, problematic family background. Clusters 4 and 5 are the most serious offenders before treatment, committing mainly sex offences. However, they have significantly lower rates of recidivism than the other four groups. For each of the six clusters, a unique set of risk factors was found to predict severity of recidivism. The results suggest that intervention should aim at different risk factors for each subgroup.
Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro
Available literature suggests that sexual self-schemas (i.e., cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself) influence sexual behavior. Nonetheless, there is a lack of research regarding their role in sexual offending. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the men's sexual self-schema dimensions (passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal) and different types of sexual-offending behavior. A total of 50 rapists, 65 child molesters (21 pedophilic, 44 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Men's Sexual Self-Schema Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, controlling for age, school education, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that rapists as well as nonsexual offenders were more likely to hold the powerful-aggressive sexual self-view compared to pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters. Overall, findings seem to be consistent with both a sociocultural component of aggression and the general cognitive profile of offenders. If further research corroborates these preliminary findings, sexual self-concept may be integrated into a comprehensive multifactorial approach of offending behavior.
Babchishin, Kelly M; Nunes, Kevin L; Kessous, Nicolas
Research and theoretical models have consistently identified sexual interest in children as a key factor involved in child sexual offending. However, there is only moderate agreement in the diagnosis of pedophilia and different assessment methods identify different offenders as pedophiles. The current study examined the discriminative and convergent validity of three different measures of sexual interest in children. Participants included sex offenders and nonsex offenders recruited from federal prisons (i.e., offenders serving sentences of more than 2 years) in Ontario, Canada. Child molesters' responses (n = 35) were not significantly different from nonsex offenders (n = 21) on an implicit measure of sexual interest in children (Sexual Attraction to Children Implicit Association Test [SAC-IAT] d = 0.44, 95% CI [-0.11, 0.99]), but differed on the self-report (Sexual Interest Profiling System; d = 0.83, 95% CI [0.27, 1.39]) and viewing time (d = 1.15, 95% CI [0.54, 1.75]) measures. Findings did not provide clear support for the superiority of a multimodal approach, possibly due to the relatively small sample. More often than not, convergence between the three measures was observed (n = 74). Findings from the present study are an important step toward understanding the relationship between different measures of sexual interest in children and establishing their validity.
Thomas Grisso points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its consequences for the community. In this article, Grisso examines research and clinical evidence that may help in shaping a public policy that addresses that question. Clinical science, says Grisso, offers a perspective that explains why the symptoms of mental disorders in adolescence can increase the risk of impulsive and aggressive behaviors. Research on delinquent populations suggests that youth with mental disorders are, indeed, at increased risk for engaging in behaviors that bring them to the attention of the juvenile justice system. Nevertheless, evidence indicates that most youth arrested for delinquencies do not have serious mental disorders. Grisso explains that a number of social phenomena of the past decade, such as changes in juvenile law and deficiencies in the child mental health system, appear to have been responsible for bringing far more youth with mental disorders into the juvenile justice system. Research shows that almost two-thirds of youth in juvenile justice detention centers and correctional facilities today meet criteria for one or more mental disorders. Calls for a greater emphasis on mental health treatment services in juvenile justice, however, may not be the best answer. Increasing such services in juvenile justice could simply mean that youth would need to be arrested in order to get mental health services. Moreover, many of the most effective treatment methods work best when applied in the community, while youth are with their families rather than removed from them. A more promising approach, argues Grisso, could be to develop community systems of care that create a network of services cutting across public child
Zaitsev, G. K.; Zaitsev, A. G.; Dmitriev, M. G.; Apal'kova, I. Iu.
Russian youth has in recent years been increasingly involved in crime, narcotics addiction, and alcoholism, possibly due to a failure of socialization in childhood. Researchers are seeking the origins of this phenomenon and searching for ways to combat it through rehabilitation of juvenile offenders. The essential nature of social and pedagogical…
Cohen, Ben-Zion; Sordo, Itzhak
Presents a version of reality therapy with adult offenders. Focuses on the normative principles underlying the theory, and outlines five basic treatment techniques--involvement, current behavior, evaluation of behavior, planning, and commitment, illustrated with case vignettes. Concludes that reality therapy can promote more responsible behavior…
North, David S.
Vocational training programs in womens prisons have tended to reflect a traditional attitude towards women as members of the work force. This traditional attitude is changing in some institutions as training is provided women offenders in nontraditional jobs: welding, cosmetology, and home economics. (BP)
Shivy, Victoria A.; Wu, J. Juana; Moon, Anya E.; Mann, Shay C.; Holland, Jo G.; Eacho, Christine
Approximately 650,000 individuals will be released from incarceration in state and federal prisons this year. However, little is known about the challenges ex-offenders face when they endeavor to reenter the workforce. The authors used consensual qualitative research methods to analyze data from 2 focus groups: one for male (n=6) and another for…
Arrigo, Bruce A.
Examines the manner in which substance-using shelter tenants, many of them ex-offenders, who lived in an urban, single- room-occupancy neighborhood, engaged in the process of recommunalization. Identifies and describes eight developmental stages of recommunalization, and links recommunalization to proposals for solving the war on drugs. (RJM)
Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E
The appraisal of risk among sex offenders has seen recent advances through the advent of actuarial assessments. Statistics derived from Relative Operating Characteristics (ROCs) permit the comparison of predictive accuracies achieved by different instruments even among samples that exhibit different base rates of recidivism. Such statistics cannot, however, solve problems introduced when items from actuarial tools are omitted, when reliability is low, or when there is high between-subject variability in the duration of the follow-up. We present empirical evidence suggesting that when comprehensive actuarial tools (VRAG and SORAG) are scored with high reliability, without missing items, and when samples of offenders have fixed and equal opportunity for recidivism, predictive accuracies are maximized near ROC areas of 0.90. Although the term "dynamic" has not been consistently defined, such accuracies leave little room for further improvement in long-term prediction by dynamic risk factors. We address the mistaken idea that long-term, static risk levels have little relevance for clinical intervention with sex offenders. We conclude that highly accurate prediction of violent criminal recidivism can be achieved by means of highly reliable and thorough scoring of comprehensive multi-item actuarial tools using historical items (at least until potent therapies are identified). The role of current moods, attitudes, insights, and physiological states in causing contemporaneous behavior notwithstanding, accurate prediction about which sex offenders will commit at least one subsequent violent offense can be accomplished using complete information about past conduct.
This study explored the relationship between children's sense of justice for a criminal offender and their cognitive level. Subjects were 60 children, 10 boys and 10 girls at each of the following developmental or cognitive levels: preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Each child was individually pretested for cognitive…
Describes the Ventura Restitution Project which is aimed at making juvenile offenders understand the ramifications of their behavior and making it clear that they have a direct responsibility for their actions. Journal available from National Office for Social Responsibility, 208 North Washington, Alexandria, VA 22314. (CT)
Ruddell, Rick; Broom, Ian; Young, Matthew
Offenders sentenced to terms of life imprisonment pose special challenges for correctional systems. The Correctional Service of Canada collaborated with nongovernmental agencies to develop programmatic interventions to better prepare this population to survive their prison sentences and transition to the community. This study describes the…
Wiecko, Filip M
This research focuses on a detailed exploration of late-onset offending. Using the National Youth Survey, this work seeks to answer three questions. First, is late-onset offending a real phenomenon? Second, if late onset does exist, is the evidence for it conditioned by how we define crime and delinquency? Finally, is late-onset offending an artifact of measurement methodology? Most literature evidencing late onset relies on official police contact and arrest data. Propensity or control theories in general posit that late onset should not exist. Propensity, namely self-control, should be instilled early in life and if absent, results in early initiation into crime and delinquency. Research in developmental psychology seems to support this notion. The findings from this study indicate that late-onset offending is almost nonexistent when self-reported measures are used leading one to conclude that contemporary evidence for late-onset is heavily conditioned by how we measure crime and delinquency. A comprehensive discussion includes future directions for research, and implications for theory development and methodology.
Nijman, Henk; Merckelbach, Harald; Cima, Maaike
Previous studies have suggested that offenders have lowered verbal intelligence compared to their performance intelligence. This phenomenon has been linked traditionally to childhood risk factors (e.g. deficient education, abuse and neglect). Substantial discrepancies between performance intelligence quotients (PIQ) and verbal intelligence…
Perry, Amanda E; Olason, Daniel T
This study aimed to develop a new psychometric instrument to assess vulnerability to risk of suicide and nonfatal self-harm behaviour in young adult male and female offenders. In total three studies were conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the new instrument using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in different samples. Participants in all three studies included a total of 1,166 young adult offenders across six Her Majesty's Prisons. The new instrument, Suicide Concerns for Offenders in Prison Environment (SCOPE), contained 28 items scoring on two subscales. The factorial structure of the new instrument initially obtained with exploratory factor analysis was subsequently confirmed in a new sample. The internal consistency of the two subscales were acceptable but the test-retest reliability coefficients were moderate. Concurrent validation with the Beck Hopelessness Scale was acceptable and SCOPE showed the ability to discriminate between those at risk and those with no known history of attempted suicide and nonfatal self-harm behaviour ( p < 0.01).
Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David
When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…
Heide, Kathleen M; Sellers, Brian G
Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on adolescent male offenders. As a result, little is known about the population of female juveniles arrested for murder. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to investigate age differences between younger (aged 6-12 years) and older (aged 13-17 years) females arrested for murder in the United States from 1976 to 2007. As predicted, six variables used to test seven hypotheses with respect to younger and older female JHOs in single victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim gender, victim offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that younger girls were seven times more likely than older girls to kill children aged 0-12 years. Girls aged 6-12 years were five times more likely than their teen counterparts to be involved in conflict-related homicides as opposed to crime-related homicides. Although approximately the same percentages of younger and older girls killed infants under the age of 1, the victims were significantly different for the two offender age groups. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research.
Vandiver, Donna M
This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male who was arrested for sexual assault or indecency with a child. The majority of the victims are females with an average age of 8. Although only 13 are rearrested during the follow-up period for a sex offense, more than half of the sample is arrested at least once for a nonsexual offense. The results of a Cox regression indicate that victim age, offender age, and victim sex are significant predictors of recidivism during adulthood.
Stevenson, Margaret C; Sorenson, Katlyn M; Smith, Amy C; Sekely, Ady; Dzwairo, Rukudzo A
We investigated effects of defendant race, victim race, and juror gender on public perceptions of a juvenile sex offense. We predicted that participants, particularly men, would support registering a juvenile defendant as a sex offender more when he was Black than White and that participants, particularly women, would support registering the defendant more when the female crime victim was portrayed as White than as Black. We also expected that support for registration would be higher when the defendant and victim were different races than when they were the same race. As expected, women (but not men) recommended registration more when the victim was White than Black. Further, participants supported registration more when the defendant and the victim were different races than when they were the same race. These effects were mediated by retributive goals to punish the offender-not by utilitarian goals to protect society. Explanations and implications are discussed.
Snow, Pamela C; Powell, Martine B
Previous research in Australia and overseas has shown that young offenders serving community-based orders are at high-risk for undetected but clinically significant oral language difficulties. However, this phenomenon has received little attention in incarcerated samples, and links with offending severity, mental health, and other markers of early risk have not previously been systemically examined. A cross-sectional examination of 100 young offenders (mean age 19.03 years) completing custodial sentences in Victoria, Australia was conducted. A range of standardized oral language, IQ, mental health, and offending severity measures was employed. Forty-six per cent of participants were classified as language impaired (LI), and these were compared with the non-LI sub-group on background and offending variables. When the sub-group with high scores on a measure of offending severity was compared with those with (relatively) lower offending scores, significant differences on a range of language measures were identified. A range of early risk indicators (such as placement in Out of Home Care) was also examined with respect to language impairment in this high-risk group. Results are discussed with respect to policy and practice pertaining to early intervention for vulnerable children, and implications for service delivery within the justice system. In particular, emphasis is placed on the need to closely examine the oral language skills of children who struggle with the transition to literacy and then display behavioural difficulties in the classroom. Once a young person is engaged with youth justice services, a high index of suspicion should be maintained with respect to their oral language skills; for example, in relation to forensic interviewing and the ability to benefit from verbally mediated interventions.
... teeth. According to the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 1 12.3 million Americans aged 12 years and older (5.2 percent of the population) had Figure. Clinical intraoral photograph of a metham- phetamine abuser (photograph reproduced with permis- sion of Stephen Wagner, ...
Methamphetamine (meth) is the most widely used illegal stimulant in the United States and is especially prevalent in Midwestern states. The sense of euphoria caused by the drug, the ease of manufacturing and the relatively low cost make it a drug of choice for many. The broad range of systemic effects potentially caused by the use of this drug is wide reaching and can vary in degree and presentation from patient to patient. Abnormalities include cardiac and pulmonary disorders as well as observable integumentary problems, psychoses, CNS disturbances, problems associated with immunity and constitutional signs and symptoms. Health care providers need to be vigilant in their efforts to identify patients who may be users of meth and to identify any subtle abnormal findings that may be indicative of significant underlying systemic pathology. Questionnaires like the RAFFT (Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble) and the MINI (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview) can be helpful in identifying substance abuse disorders in patients.
... of Justice Programs Draft Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard and Companion Documents... draft documents: (1) A draft standard entitled, ``Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard''; (2) a draft companion document entitled, ``Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System...
Zeng, Gerald; Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Teoh, Jennifer
An increasing amount of research has been carried out to understand the characteristics of subgroups of adult sex offenders, but there is limited research into the risk factors and criminogenic needs of subgroups of youth who sexually offended. The current study investigated if there were differences in the risk and criminogenic needs of 167 Singaporean youth who sexually offended based on two typologies - youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually versus youth who offended only sexually, and youth who offended against child victims versus youth who offended against nonchild victims. Results show that youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually were found to have higher risk and criminogenic needs as compared to youth who only sexually offended. In addition, youth who offended against child victims were found to have higher numbers of previous sexual assaults as compared to youth who offended against nonchild victims. These differences have implications for the management and intervention of youth who sexually offended. PMID:24503949
Hanson, R K
Static-99 (Hanson & Thornton, 2000) is the most commonly used actuarial risk tool for estimating sexual offender recidivism risk. Recent research has suggested that its methods of accounting for the offenders' ages may be insufficient to capture declines in recidivism risk associated with advanced age. Using data from 8 samples (combined size of 3,425 sexual offenders), the present study found that older offenders had lower Static-99 scores than younger offenders and that Static-99 was moderately accurate in estimating relative recidivism risk in all age groups. Older offenders, however, had lower sexual recidivism rates than would be expected based on their Static-99 risk categories. Consequently, evaluators using Static-99 should considered advanced age in their overall estimate of risk.
Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather
Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim.
Nadeau, Louise; Vanlaar, Ward; Jarvis, Juliette; Brown, Thomas G
In many jurisdictions, drivers convicted for the first-time of driving while impaired by alcohol undertake a risk assessment that will determine the severity of sanctions and the remedial measures they must follow as requisites for re-licensing. There is uncertainty inherent in the assessment of risk for recidivism, however, many offenders feel unfairly assessed and discommoded by the decision-making process and its consequences. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into the perspectives of offenders regarding re-licensing decision making and sanctioning. Specifically, in focus groups first-time offenders and recidivists were probed as to whether they favoured erring on the side of road safety in decision making, with its consequent greater risk of false positive assessments, or erring on the side of maintaining driving privileges, with its consequent greater risk of false negative assessments. In general, participants preferred a higher probability of false negative vs. false positive assessments. Most cited the consequences of sanctions and remedial measures as too severe to impose them on potentially low-risk drivers, as the assessment and monitoring protocols' limitations could lead to non-equitable treatment. At the same time, recidivists evoked a greater preference for a higher probability of false positive assessments compared to first-time offenders, as they believed that recidivism was more likely to follow a first conviction than did first-time offenders. This information can be useful for a more comprehensive and societally coherent exercise of DWI prevention policies.
Data are reported on the sexual behavior of 39 released sex offenders who agreed voluntarily to surgical castration while imprisoned in West Germany. Findings indicated that frequency of coitus, masturbation, and sexual thoughts are seen as strongly reduced after castration. Sexual desire and sexual arousability are perceived by the subjects as having been considerably impaired by castration. In comparison with other studies, however, it was shown that male sexual capacity was not extinguished soon after castration. Particularly noteworthy is that 11 of 35 castrates (31%) stated they were still able to engage in sexual intercourse. Rapists proved to be sexually more active after castration than homosexuals or pedophiliacs. There seems to be a strong effect on sexual behavior only if castration is performed on males between the age of 46 and 59 years. In general, the findings do not justify recommending surgical castration as a reliable treatment for incarcerated sex offenders.
Lund, Christina; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas
Criminal recidivism was studied during 2 years in a Swedish population-based cohort (N = 318) of mentally disordered male offenders who had undergone a pretrial forensic psychiatric investigation, been convicted in subsequent trials, and been sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment (FPT; n = 152), prison (n = 116), or noncustodial sanctions (n = 50). Recidivism was analysed in relation to index sanctions, levels of supervision, diagnoses, and criminological factors. Significantly lower recidivism in the FPT group was related to lower crime rates during periods at conditional liberty in this group alone, and recidivism was significantly more common among offenders with at least one of the two diagnoses of substance abuse disorder and personality disorder than among those with psychotic or other mental disorders alone. Age at index crime and number of previous crimes emerged as significant predictors of recidivism. The results of this study suggest that the relapse rates depend as much on level of supervision as on individual characteristics.
Carabellese, Felice; Candelli, Chiara; Vinci, Francesco; Tamma, Manuela; Catanesi, Roberto
The aim of this case report is to describe two cases of sexual abuse by elderly subjects for which the Judge commissioned an expert psychiatric-forensic opinion. The elderly are generally believed to commit nonviolent crimes, whereas the two cases we observed feature forcible rape committed by elderly offenders, who showed no form of mental disease and had rationally planned their offense. They had never previously committed similar acts and had no history of homosexuality; both had been married for many years before the death of their wives and had adult children. Finally, no previous episodes of rape emerged in their personal histories during interrogations. The sociocultural context in which the crimes were committed was identical and arouses interest as regards both the method employed and how the crimes were discovered. The legal authorities then commissioned accurate investigations including medicolegal and psychiatric-forensic evaluations of the offenders and their victims.
Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Objectives Drawing on Sampson and Laub’s age-graded theory of informal social control, this research tests the generalizability of the marriage effect on desistance from crime. Specifically, do urban African American men and women living in the United States benefit from marriage similarly to Whites? Methods The authors use hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the relationship between marriage and official arrest counts among African American male and female first graders from Woodlawn, an inner-city community in Chicago, first assessed in 1966 and followed up at three time points (ages 16, 32, and 42). Results The authors find strong evidence of a marriage effect for the males across crime type, with a reduction in offending between 21 percent and 36 percent when in a state of marriage. The findings for females were less consistent across crime type, a 10 percent reduction in the odds of a property arrest and a 9 percent increase in the odds of a drug arrest when in a state of marriage. Conclusions Their findings provide evidence in favor of the generality of Sampson and Laub’s theory, at least for males. However, the authors were not able to evaluate the mechanisms of desistance and identify this as an area of future research. PMID:24817770
Hartley, Richard D; Kwak, Dae-Hoon; Park, Mirang; Lee, Min-Sik
Most research on sentencing outcomes reveals that legally relevant factors such as the seriousness of the offense and prior criminal record are primary determinants. There is, however, a substantial body of research that finds that extralegal factors such as a defendant's sex also influence these outcomes. Most of these latter studies conclude that female defendants receive less severe outcomes compared to their male counterparts. Most of this research, however, is limited to Western societies. To extend this body of research, the current study examines sex differences in sentencing practices for a sample of narcotics offenders in South Korea. Results support previous research; female drug offenders in South Korea are generally treated more leniently than their male counterparts. Tests for interaction effects reveal that the defendant's sex also interacts with other constellations of factors to produce lenient treatment for certain female defendants. These tests, however, also reveal that lenient sentence outcomes are not extended to all female defendants; those with prior drug convictions do not fare better than their male counterparts at the incarceration decision.
Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J
Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended.
Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer
There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended-especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth's engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended.
Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu
This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation.
Joyal, Christian C; Beaulieu-Plante, Jolyane; de Chantérac, Antoine
Typically, neuropsychological studies of sex offenders have grouped together different types of individuals and different types of measures. This is why results have tended to be nonspecific and divergent across studies. Against this background, the authors undertook a review of the literature regarding the neuropsychology of sex offenders, taking into account subgroups based on criminological theories. They also conducted a meta-analysis of the data to demonstrate the cognitive heterogeneity of sex offenders statistically. Their main objective was to test the hypothesis to the effect that the neuropsychological deficits of sex offenders are not broad and generalized compared with specific subgroups of participants based on specific measures. In all, 23 neuropsychological studies reporting data on 1,756 participants were taken into consideration. As expected, a highly significant, broad, and heterogeneous overall effect size was found. Taking subgroups of participants and specific cognitive measures into account significantly improved homogeneity. Sex offenders against children tended to obtain lower scores than did sex offenders against adults on higher order executive functions, whereas sex offenders against adults tended to obtain results similar to those of non-sex offenders, with lower scores in verbal fluency and inhibition. However, it is concluded that neuropsychological data on sex offenders are still too scarce to confirm these trends or to test more precise hypotheses. For greater clinical relevance, future neuropsychological studies should consider specific subgroups of participants and measures to verify the presence of different cognitive profiles.
Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K
This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities.
Kim, Bitna; Benekos, Peter J; Merlo, Alida V
The effectiveness of sex offender treatment programs continues to generate misinformation and disagreement. Some literature reviews conclude that treatment does not reduce recidivism while others suggest that specific types of treatment may warrant optimism. The principal purpose of this study is to update the most recent meta-analyses of sex offender treatments and to compare the findings with an earlier study that reviewed the meta-analytic studies published from 1995 to 2002. More importantly, this study examines effect sizes across different age populations and effect sizes across various sex offender treatments. Results of this review of meta-analyses suggest that sex offender treatments can be considered as "proven" or at least "promising," while age of participants and intervention type may influence the success of treatment for sex offenders. The implications of these findings include achieving a broader understanding of intervention moderators, applying such interventions to juvenile and adult offenders, and outlining future areas of research.
Mooney, Louise; Strelan, Peter; McKee, Ian
Although relationship restoration is an important outcome of forgiveness, little is known about how forgiveness facilitates such an outcome. In addition, in forgiveness research, little attention is paid to the perspective of the offender. We address these two shortcomings simultaneously, testing the idea that forgiveness promotes offender gratitude, which in turn encourages offender pro-relational intentions. Across three experimental studies, participants were induced to believe they had transgressed; recalled a time when they had transgressed; and imagined transgressing. In studies 1 and 2, forgiveness was manipulated; in Study 3, victim motivation for forgiving was manipulated. State gratitude--in comparison with guilt, indebtedness, and positive affect--was consistently found to play the primary mediating role between forgiveness and pro-relational intentions.
Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette
We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again.
Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.
Mercer, Dave; Perkins, Liz
This article reports findings from a discourse analytic study which critically explored the language of mental health nurses, and detained sexual offenders, in relation to pornography in one high-security hospital. It recognised previous empirical investigation, and pro-feminist theorising, into mediated representations and male sexual violence, but situated the research process in a forensic nursing context. Decision-making about access to, or restriction of, commercial sexual literature, as a component of therapeutic intervention and offender management, reveals tensions between service-user rights and treatment goals. The aim was to access nurse and patient talk in a specific culture. Semi-structured interviews with eighteen nursing staff, and nine patients, were used to co-construct accounts of pornography, sexual offending, and treatment. Analysis and data collection were undertaken concurrently. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Data was coded to identify theoretical/conceptual themes and sub-themes representing discursive repertoires. Attention was given to how textual variation positioned respondents in relation to each other and the institution. Findings suggested collective male talk textured the environment, promoted gendered inequality, marginalised female nurses, and undermined rehabilitation. Shared discourse enabled male staff and patients to relate to each other as men, while maintaining distance through constructions of otherness. Discussion focuses on discriminatory discursive-practices, where men's talk about pornography and sexual violence embodied gendered knowledge/experience and contributed to a toxic culture. Consideration is given to ways of resisting institutional impediments and promoting positive therapeutic relations.
Kemper, Therese Skubic; Kistner, Janet A
This study compared subgroups of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) who victimized children (child offenders), peers (peer offenders), or both children and peers (mixed offenders) on sexual and nonsexual offense history, treatment outcomes, and recidivism to determine if these are distinct and valid subgroups. Though the group of mixed offenders was small, results showed that they exhibited a more diverse and more physically intrusive sexual offense history than the other JSOs and were less likely to successfully complete treatment. Sexual and nonsexual recidivism rates of mixed offenders did not differ from the other subgroups despite subgroup differences in juvenile sexual and nonsexual criminal records. However, differences in sexual recidivism rates of child versus peer offenders were found when the mixed offenders were either excluded from the sample or combined with child offenders. The results highlight the need to include mixed offenders in future research examining the etiology of sexual offending, treatment, and recidivism of JSOs.
Wasserman, Gail A.; Miller, Laurie S.; Cothern, Lynn
This bulletin explores the proximal risk factors for juvenile offending, reviews the early developmental precursors to violent offending, and summarizes approaches to prevention. It also discusses components of intervention programs, limitations of single-focus prevention, examples of multi systemic interventions, and limitations of prevention…
Stys, Yvonne; Ruddell, Rick
This study extends our knowledge about the rehabilitation of criminal organization offenders by focusing on their community outcomes upon release, and identifying the risk factors related to reoffending for 332 organized crime offenders released from federal penitentiaries in Canada prior to March 31, 2009. Of that group, 12.7% were readmitted to…
Miller, Melissa A; Fillmore, Mark T
Objective: A high proportion of individuals convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) are repeat offenders. Efforts have sought to identify specific factors underlying DUI recidivism. Of particular interest is the role that alcohol-related cognitions might play in the development and escalation of alcohol use. The present study investigated the degree to which preoccupation with, and attentional bias to, alcohol are heightened among repeat DUI offenders. Method: Three groups of participants (recidivist DUI offenders, first-time offenders, and controls; n = 20 per group) performed a visual probe task to measure attentional bias and completed questionnaires regarding their cognitive and emotional preoccupation with alcohol and drinking habits. Results: Recidivist offenders displayed a significantly heightened alcohol attentional bias and reported greater preoccupation with alcohol compared with both first-time offenders and controls. By contrast, none of the groups differed with regard to the self-reported quantity and frequency of their consumption. Conclusions: Factors reflecting preoccupation with alcohol have utility for differentiating recidivist offenders from both first-time offenders and nonoffenders. These findings highlight the value of moving beyond self-reported assessments of drinking patterns toward assessing specific cognitive and behavioral characteristics that can improve our understanding, assessment, and treatment of the problem of DUI recidivism. PMID:25343660
Glanz, Lorraine, Ed.
An extensive research project to develop a national strategy to prevent juvenile offending was undertaken in South Africa. The following proceedings of a workshop, which involved representatives of relevant organizations, are reported in this book: "Setting Goals" (Lorraine Glanz); "The Prevention of Juvenile Offending: Problems and…
Seto, Michael C; Hanson, R Karl; Babchishin, Kelly M
There is much concern about the likelihood that online sexual offenders (particularly online child pornography offenders) have either committed or will commit offline sexual offenses involving contact with a victim. This study addresses this question in two meta-analyses: the first examined the contact sexual offense histories of online offenders, whereas the second examined the recidivism rates from follow-up studies of online offenders. The first meta-analysis found that approximately 1 in 8 online offenders (12%) have an officially known contact sexual offense history at the time of their index offense (k = 21, N = 4,464). Approximately one in two (55%) online offenders admitted to a contact sexual offense in the six studies that had self-report data (N = 523). The second meta-analysis revealed that 4.6% of online offenders committed a new sexual offense of some kind during a 1.5- to 6-year follow-up (k = 9, N = 2,630); 2.0% committed a contact sexual offense and 3.4% committed a new child pornography offense. The results of these two quantitative reviews suggest that there may be a distinct subgroup of online-only offenders who pose relatively low risk of committing contact sexual offenses in the future.
Schaefer, Nicole J.; Stefancic, Ana
Mentally ill offenders represent a substantial proportion of jail and prison inmates. Despite the fact that confining mentally ill offenders can and often will exacerbate their mental illness, the quality of mental health services available to them remains poor and insufficient. Up to date, only a few cities and counties have considered a more…
Moulden, Heather M.; Firestone, Philip; Kingston, Drew A.; Wexler, Audrey F.
The aim of this investigation was to describe teachers who sexually offend against youth and the circumstances related to these offenses. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim…
Hundersmarck, Steven F.; Durkin, Keith F.; Delong, Ronald L.
Televised features such as NBC's "To Catch a Predator" have highlighted the growing problem posed by Internet sexual predators. This paper reports on the authors' attempts in designing a classification system for Internet offenders. The classification system was designed based on existing theory, understanding the nature of Internet offenders and…
Otey, Emeline M., Ed.; Ryan, Gail D., Ed.
This document contains an introduction by Richard D. Krugman and five papers from the Adolescent Sex Offender Work Group meeting, which provide an overview of the present status of treatment programs for adolescent sexual offenders, methodological and ethical issues in research on etiology and treatment, and perspectives on research from those…
Laflen, Bruce; Sturm, William R., Jr.
Focuses on the recognition and treatment of denial in adult sexual offenders. The theoretical framework is based on Salter's "types" of denial in combination with the underlying theoretical constructs of object relations theory. Denial is viewed as stages through which the sexual offender will clinically progress during treatment. (JPS)
Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.
This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusion of violent offenders. 93.5 Section 93.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROVISIONS IMPLEMENTING THE VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a)...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion of violent offenders. 93.5 Section 93.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROVISIONS IMPLEMENTING THE VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a)...
Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris
The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…
Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy
Background: Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of…
Anderson, Kirstin; Overy, Katie
This study examined music and art classes as a way to engage young offenders in education, and to see if such engagement had an effect on their further participation in education, self-esteem, self-control, behaviour and literacy skills. The arts are often discussed as being an inviting and safe method of entry for young offenders who may have had…
Chui, Wing Hong
This paper presents a clinical inquiry at how one young male ex-offender described his time in custody, how his time had been constructively spent during detention, and the effect of a detention center order on his offending behavior one year after his discharge. In so doing, it allowed him to talk about his institutionalized experience and to…
Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne
The motto of the Hong Kong Correctional Services Department (CSD) is to "Support Rehabilitative Offenders for a More Inclusive Society." The Hong Kong CSD has developed a correctional system which has placed increasing emphasis on correction and rehabilitation of offenders over the years. This paper describes the efforts of the Hong Kong…
Rasmussen, Lucinda A.
This paper presents the author's comments on the Michigan sex offender registration article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration" (Comartin, Kernsmith, & Miles, 2010). The article is an important piece of research that addresses a much neglected and almost invisible population in the annals of research: the…
Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Miles, Bart W.
Since 1994, policies have been instituted throughout the United States that require sex offenders to register their personal information with law enforcement officials (Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Program, 1994). With the passage of additional laws, this information is now available to the…
Educating incarcerated youthful offenders is described from the perspective of a teacher who incorporates W. Glasser's (1998) counseling philosophy into her relationships with students. She reveals the results of her caring, encouraging, and goal-directed behavior with sex offenders and other young inmates.
Past and present policies and practices in education and vocational training for offenders in the United Kingdom were examined. Changes in the content, delivery, and funding of education and vocational training for offenders over the past decade were reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following changes that took place in 2001: (1)…
Pacific Inst. for Research and Evaluation, Walnut Creek, CA.
Guidelines for the general development and implementation of accountability-based approaches for juvenile drug offenders are presented in this monograph. These topics are discussed: (1) the accountability approach; (2) the relevance of the accountability approach to drug offenders and its relationship to drug abuse treatment; (3) surveys of chief…
Toombs, Nancy J.; Benda, Brent B.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn
Examines what sociodemographic and criminogenic factors discriminate between inmates in a boot camp for non-violent offenders who commit crimes against persons and other offenders. Stepwise discriminant analysis results are discussed. The intervention implications of the findings are also discussed. (Author/MKA)
Allen, Brad; Brekke, Karl E.
Explores the processes involved in treating sex offenders. Focuses on how therapists can feel traumatized by this patient population, the dynamism of transference, and tactics used by sex offender patients, such as seduction, imitation, intimidation, and invalidation. Describes ways for therapists to maintain objectivity and use transference…
Pelayo, Stephanie L.
This paper reviews the literature on the subject of forgiveness and suggests clinical implications for the treatment of adolescent offenders. Although research has been done in the areas of forgiveness, no studies have been conducted with adolescent offenders. This dearth of information points to a gap in understanding the role of forgiveness in…
Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J
Although the role of interpersonal factors on sexual offending is already recognized, there is a need for further investigation on the psychosocial correlates of pedophilic behavior. This study aimed to examine the relationship between adult interpersonal features and subtypes of sexual offending. The study involved the participation of a total of 164 male convicted offenders namely 50 rapists, 63 child molesters (20 pedophilic and 43 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders. All participants were assessed using the Adult Attachment Scale, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results from sets of multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that pedophilic offenders were more likely to present anxiety in adult relationships compared to nonsex offenders. Likewise, nonpedophilic child molesters were less likely to be generally aggressive compared to rapists and nonsex offenders, as well as less generally assertive than rapists. Overall, findings indicated that certain interpersonal features characterized subtypes of offenders, thus providing some insight on their particular therapeutic needs. Further replications with larger samples particularly of pedophilic child molesters are required.
Graffam, Joe; Shinkfield, Alison; Lavelle, Barbara; McPherson, Wenda
Six broad domains were identified as influencing reintegration of ex-offenders including personal conditions, social network/environment, accommodation, criminal justice system, rehabilitation and counselling support, and employment and training support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 offenders and 22 professionals from criminal…
Boer, Douglas P.
Until the systematic work on the Good Lives Model (GLM) produced by Tony Ward, not a great deal of conceptual structure existed to provide sex offender treatment specialists with a theoretical underpinning for their work in helping offenders develop a better life as a way to prevent reoffending. However, the work of Ward and colleagues initially…
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same; youth offenders. 2.45 Section 2.45 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.45 Same;...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same; youth offenders. 2.45 Section 2.45 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.45 Same;...
Davis, Karen M; Archer, Robert P
This review provides a critical analysis of the ability of multiscale inventories to distinguish between sex offender and nonoffender control groups, as well as to discriminate sex offenders from other types of offenders. In addition to expanding upon previous reviews that examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with this population (e.g., Levin & Stava, 1987), the current review included studies that utilized other multiscale inventories commonly used in forensic practice (i.e., MMPI-2, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III [MCMI-III], Personality Assessment Inventory) and, when possible, provides effect sizes to evaluate group differences. Based on the review, the various forms of the MMPI and MCMI are clearly the most widely used instruments in sex offender populations. The MMPI Pd scale has shown moderate to large effect sizes when distinguishing between sex offender and nonsex offender groups, but this relationship may be reflective of antisocial behavior in general rather than traits specific to sex offenders. Recommendations to standardize future research classification strategies and more effectively utilize these instruments when assessing sex offenders are also provided.
Bevc, Irene; Duchesne, Thierry; Rosenthal, Jeffrey; Rossman, Lianne; Theodor, Frances; Sowa, Edward
This longitudinal study of 248 male offenders examined the relationship between psychiatric disorders, diagnosed in adolescence, and subsequent adult criminal activity. Criminal offences were tracked for an average of 8.7 years from age 18-33. Cox Proportional Intensity regression analyses were conducted to predict the rates of adult offending of…
Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.
In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…
Tewksbury, Richard; Lees, Matthew B.
Sex offender registries (SORs) are a societal response to serious and presumably dangerous criminal offenders. Existing research on registries has focused on demographic overviews of registrants, assessments of registrants' recidivism, accuracy and completeness of listed information, and collateral consequences for registrants. The present…
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...
... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...
... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...
... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...
... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...
Marshall, William L.; Ward, Tony; Mann, Ruth E.; Moulden, Heather; Fernandez, Yolanda M.; Serran, Geris; Marshall, Liam E.
In this article, the authors draw on literatures outside sexual offending and make suggestions for working more positively and constructively with these offenders. Although the management of risk is a necessary feature of treatment, it needs to occur in conjunction with a strength-based approach. An exclusive focus on risk can lead to overly…
Stevenson, Howard C.; And Others
Urges use of familial context of adolescent sex offender as necessary direction to take when treating denial suppression among offenders and their families. Notes that families can contribute to or refuse to support denial of adolescents. Discusses some reasons for denial in the adolescent and his family and presents some transcripts of case…
Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.
This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same; youth offenders. 2.45 Section 2.45 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.45 Same;...
Lawing, Kathryn; Frick, Paul J.; Cruise, Keith R.
In the present study, the authors investigated whether callous and unemotional (CU) traits designated a distinct and important group of adolescent sex offender. A sample of 150 detained adolescents (mean age = 15.89, SD = 1.53) with a current sexual offense disposition was assessed with a self-report measure of CU traits and through extensive…
Khan, Omer; Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick; Smailagic, Nadja
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the effects of pharmacological interventions on target sexual behaviour for people who have been convicted or at risk of sexual offending. PMID:25267896
Peller, Allyson J; Najavits, Lisa M; Nelson, Sarah E; LaBrie, Richard A; Shaffer, Howard J
Recent studies indicate that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common psychiatric comorbidities among driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenders in treatment. Investigation of DUI offenders' PTSD and clinical characteristics could have important implications for prevention and treatment. This prospective study examined the demographic and clinical characteristics of repeat DUI offenders with PTSD symptoms at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Seven hundred twenty-nine DUI offenders admitted to a 2-week inpatient program participated in the study. Participants with PTSD evidenced more severe psychiatric comorbidity and reported a higher DUI recidivism rate at 1-year than those without PTSD. This study suggests a need to address PTSD among DUI offenders, as well as to further develop methodologies for accurately reporting DUI recidivism.
Mason, O J; Medford, S; Peters, E R
Previous research has highlighted increased risk for schizophrenia in Afro-Caribbeans as well as over-representation in the prison population. This small-scale study examined the relationship between criminality, ethnicity, and psychosis-proneness in a male prison sample. Twenty British Caucasian and 20 Afro-Caribbean prisoners were divided into equal sub-groups of violent and non-violent offenders. Participants completed measures of schizotypy, delusional ideation, and hostility. Afro-Caribbean offenders scored more highly on negative schizotypy and delusional ideation than their Caucasian counterparts. Violent offenders scored more highly on the positive symptoms of schizotypy than non-violent prisoners. Both ethnicity and violent offending may be relevant factors when considering vulnerability to psychosis in the offending population.
Rettenberger, Martin; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Eher, Reinhard
The present study examines recidivism rates in sexual offenders using officially registered reconvictions in a representative data set of N = 1,115 male sexual offenders from Austria. In general, results indicate that most sexual offenders do not reoffend sexually after release from prison. More detailed, within the first 5 years after release, the sexual recidivism rate was 6% for the total sample, 4% for the rapist subgroup, and 8% for the child molester subgroup. The findings confirmed previous studies about sex offender recidivism which have shown that first-time sexual offenders are significantly less likely to sexually reoffend than those with previous sexual convictions. With regard to the relationship between age and sexual recidivism, the results challenged the traditional assumption of a clear linear function between age and recidivism. Taken together, compared with previous studies, the recidivism rates found in the present investigation are substantially lower than previous research has indicated.
Fazel, Seena; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin
Sexual offenders constitute a substantial proportion of the older male prison population. Recent research findings, with potential consequences for risk management, indicate that recidivism risk might be lower in older sexual offenders. We followed up all adult male sexual offenders released from prison in Sweden during 1993-1997 (N=1,303) for criminal reconviction for an average of 8.9 years. We studied rates of repeat offending (sexual and any violent) by four age bands (<25, 25-39, 40-54, and 55+years), and examined whether risk factors for recidivism remained stable across age groups. Results showed that recidivism rates decreased significantly in older age bands. In addition, the effect of certain risk factors varied by age band. These findings on recidivism rates in older sexual offenders concur with studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada and may suggest some generalizability in Western settings. Further research is needed to address underlying mechanisms.
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Lo, T Wing; Zhong, Lena Y; Chui, Wing Hong
Criminal recidivism of the incarcerated population in Hong Kong has rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the recidivism rates and to identify significant predictors of reoffending among incarcerated male offenders convicted of a nonviolent offense in Hong Kong. Using a self-reported methodological design, 278 offenders were sampled. These offenders' immediate past incarceration is used as the benchmark for this recidivism study. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year recidivism rates are 21%, 68%, and 87%, respectively. The findings denote that offending history, psychological attributes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences are significant reoffending risk factors. These findings, especially the alarming failure rates, highlight the need to seriously assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies used by the Hong Kong correctional system in preventing future offending. Implications for intervention strategies with emphasis on the risk factors for recidivism are discussed.
Sex of the offender is a significant determinant of length and type of sentence imposed. Sometimes this discrimination on basis of sex works in favor of females before the law; most of the time it works against them. Statutes and sentencing practices incorporate a double standard of morality. (Author)
Hazama, Kyoko; Katsuta, Satoshi
Research in Western countries has indicated that the cognitive distortions of sexual offenders play an etiological and maintenance role in offending. The present study examines whether the cognitive distortions hypothesized by previous Western studies can be found in Japanese sexual offenders against women. This study used the questionnaire administered by probation officers in the special cognitive-behavioral treatment programs for sexual offenders, which have been implemented since 2006 in Japan. Participants in the offender group were 80 Japanese male probationers and parolees (more than 19 years old, M age = 34.6, SD = 8.8) convicted of rape (n = 39) or indecent assault (n = 41). All of them attended special treatment programs at probation offices. The non-offender comparison group consisted of 95 Japanese male probation officers and police officers (M age = 35.5, SD = 11.4). A factor analysis of the questionnaire responses extracted three factors: Blaming the Victim, Minimization, and Avoidance of Responsibility. The data analyses showed that sexual offenders scored significantly higher than non-offender participants on the three subscales. No significant differences were found among four sexual offender groups classified as rapists or indecent assaulters and with or without previous convictions for sexual offenses. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that rapists and indecent assaulters placed on probation or parole in Japan hold cognitive distortions concerning sexual assaults against women than the control group of probation and police officers. The findings of this study also suggest that cognitive distortions exhibited by sexual offenders against women transcend cultural divides.
Gery, Isabelle; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Berthoz, Sylvie; Soussignan, Robert
Research conducted on empathy and emotional recognition in sex offenders is contradictory. The present study was aimed to clarify this issue by controlling for some affective and social variables (depression, anxiety, and social desirability) that are presumed to influence emotional and empathic measures, using a staged multicomponent model of empathy. Incarcerated sex offenders (child molesters), incarcerated non-sex offenders, and non-offender controls (matched for age, gender, and education level) performed a recognition task of facial expressions of basic emotions that varied in intensity, and completed various self-rating scales designed to assess distinct components of empathy (perspective taking, affective empathy, empathy concern, and personal distress), as well as depression, anxiety, and social desirability. Sex offenders were less accurate than the other participants in recognizing facial expressions of anger, disgust, surprise and fear, with problems in confusing fear with surprise, and disgust with anger. Affective empathy was the only component that discriminated sex offenders from non-sex offenders and was correlated with accuracy recognition of emotional expressions. Although our findings must be replicated with a larger number of participants, they support the view that sex offenders might have impairments in the decoding of some emotional cues conveyed by the conspecifics' face, which could have an impact on affective empathy.
Langdon, Peter E.; Maxted, Helen; Murphy, Glynis H.
Background: It was predicted that offenders with intellectual disability (ID) categorised according to Ward & Hudson's (1998b) self-regulation theory as having an "Approach" goal would have higher levels of distorted cognitions, less victim empathy, and a history of more prolific offending compared to those with an "Avoidant" goal. Offenders…
Bullens, Ruud; van Wijk, Anton; Mali, Bas
Research was undertaken on the criminal careers of a large group of juvenile sexual and non-sexual offenders (of violence and property) in the Netherlands. Data from police records over a 6-year period from 1996 to 2002 were analysed. Results show that, with the exception of those in the exhibitionist subgroup, young sexual offenders start their…
Based on an examination of the earnings records of ex-offenders released from Virginia correctional institutions from fiscal year 1999 to 2003, this article provides an industrial profile testing the presumption that most ex-offenders are only able to find employment in low-level occupations, with low rates of job retention, and limited customer…
Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek
Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…
This report focuses on recent policy, and academic and clinical developments in the therapeutic management of sex offenders, including the need for more robust assessment and risk management protocols. Information is provided on current thinking about psychological and pharmacological interventions. Meta-analytic studies clearly indicate that cognitive behavioural and relapse prevention programmes are the most effective intervention, but there is a small amount of literature suggesting that pharmacological treatments may have some utility. With advances in our understanding of the neural substrates of deviant sexual arousal we may be able to develop and trial novel neuropharmacological agents that target dysfunctional neurochemical circuits in this field. PMID:20948736
May, David C.; Wood, Peter B.; Mooney, Jennifer L.; Minor, Kevin I.
We solicited offender-generated exchange rates between prison and several noncustodial sanctions from a sample of 588 offenders currently serving community-based punishments. We then regressed these exchange rates on demographic, attitudinal, and correctional experience indicators. Males, Blacks, older offenders, offenders with prison experience,…
Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt
High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders.
Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn
Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.
Fagan, Abigail A.; Mazerolle, Paul
The overlap between victims and offenders is increasingly being recognized, with mounting evidence that victims and offenders have similar demographic characteristics, that victimization increases the likelihood of offending, and that offenders are at high risk for becoming victims of crime. Despite this evidence, there is limited research…
Ireland, J.L.; Boustead, R.; Ireland, C.A.
The current study explores the role of coping styles as a predictor of poor psychological health among adolescent offenders. It presents the first study to compare young and juvenile offenders. Two hundred and three male offenders took part: 108 young (18-21 years) and 95 juvenile (15-17 years) offenders. All completed the General Health…
Feldman, Sylvia D.
The American penal system of placing criminal offenders in institutions has evolved from two major goals: (1) to punish offenders as an example to the rest of the community, and (2) to rehabilitate offenders into the community. Since the mid-1960's there has been a trend toward placing offenders in the community and away from isolating them in…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.4 Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. Committed youth offenders and...
Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Udell, Wadiya
Youth involved in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV as a result of high rates of sexual risk taking, substance use, mental health problems and sexually transmitted infections. Yet few HIV prevention programs exist for young offenders. This pilot study examined change in juvenile offenders’ sexual activity, drug/alcohol use, HIV testing and counseling, and theoretical mediators of risk taking following participation in PHAT Life, an HIV-prevention program for teens on probation. Participants (N=54) were 13–17 year-old arrested males and females remanded to a detention alternative setting. Youth participated in a uniquely tailored HIV prevention intervention and completed a baseline and 3-month follow up assessment of their HIV and substance use knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. At 3-month follow up, teens reported less alcohol use, more positive attitudes toward peers with HIV, greater ability to resist temptation to use substances, and for males, improved HIV prevention self-efficacy and peer norms supporting prevention. Teens were also more likely to seek HIV counseling and males were more likely to get tested for HIV. Effect sizes revealed moderate change in sexual behavior. Findings support PHAT Life as a promising intervention to reduce HIV-risk among youth in juvenile justice. PMID:26097376
Loving, J L; Russell, W F
Despite the widely accepted utility of assessing psychopathic personality features in forensic and clinical settings, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) stands virtually alone in its ability to do so with adequate reliability and validity. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the Rorschach Inkblot Method in assessing psychopathy in adult samples, but almost no studies are currently available investigating the Rorschach's ability to assess the condition in younger samples of precisely defined psychopathic groups. In this study, 66 male juvenile offenders, ages 14 to 17, were placed into 3 groups according to level of psychopathy as measured by the youth version of the PCL-R (PCL:YV; Forth, 1995). Nine Rorschach variables conceptually related to various psychopathic features were investigated. Two of the variables (Reflections and Texture Responses) demonstrated statistically significant differences across groups (p < .05). Two additional variables (Vista and White Space) were produced in patterns consistent with existing research, although only to a weak degree. The remaining variables (Egocentricity Index, Form Dimension, Pure Human Content, Inanimate Movement, and Diffuse Shading) did not differ across groups in the predicted directions. Overall, these results offer some support for the validity of the Rorschach as a method of detecting certain psychopathic personality features, including pathological narcissism and interpersonal detachment, in adolescent male offenders.
Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon
The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…
Slotboom, Jantine; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bouman, Yvonne H A; In 't Hout, Willem; Sergiou, Carmen; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Theeuwes, Jan
Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention. We expected offenders to have impaired visual attention, as revealed by increased attentional capture, compared to healthy controls. When comparing the performance of 62 offenders to 69 healthy community controls, we found our hypothesis to be partly confirmed. Offenders were more accurate overall, more accurate in the absence of distracting information, suggesting superior attention. In the presence of distracting information offenders were significantly less accurate compared to when no distracting information was present. Together, these findings indicate that violent offenders may have superior attention, yet worse control over attention. As such, violent offenders may have trouble adjusting to unexpected, irrelevant stimuli, which may relate to failures in self-regulation and inhibitory control.
Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge
Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system.
Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Blanchard, Ray
Adult men's height reflects, not only their genetic endowment, but also the conditions that were present during their development in utero and in childhood. We compared the adult heights of men who committed one or more sexual offenses and who were erotically interested in prepubescent children (pedophilic sexual offenders; n=223), those who were erotically interested in pubescent children (hebephilic sexual offenders; n=615), and those who were erotically interested in adults (teleiophilic sexual offenders; n=187), as well as men who had no known sexual offenses and who were erotically interested in adults (teleiophilic nonoffender controls; n=156). The pedophilic and the hebephilic sexual offenders were significantly shorter than the teleiophilic nonoffender controls. The teleiophilic sexual offenders were intermediate in height between the nonoffenders and the pedophilic and hebephilic sexual offenders and not significantly different from any of the other groups. This suggests that-regardless of whatever psychological sequelae might also have followed from the conditions present during early development-pedophilic and hebephilic sexual offenders were subject to conditions capable of affecting their physiological development.
Evans, Elizabeth; Li, Libo; Hser, Yih-Ing
To explore why some Proposition 36 offenders do not enter drug treatment, we analyzed self-reported and administrative data to compare the characteristics, perceptions, and re-arrest rates of 124 untreated and 1,335 treated offenders assessed by thirty sites in five California counties. Offenders were comparable in many domains at assessment, however untreated offenders were younger, not employed, more criminally severe, and less motivated for treatment. To avoid incarceration was the primary reason for choosing Proposition 36, but fewer untreated offenders felt treatment-ready (12.9% vs. 35.7%) and more accepted the Proposition 36 program only upon recommendation by others (37.9% vs. 11.7%). Reasons for not entering treatment included re-arrest (31.6%), no desire for treatment (23.9%), and assignment to a program that was too far away (11.1%). Both groups had fewer total arrests after assessment, but recidivism was higher among untreated offenders. Understanding untreated Proposition 36 offenders can aid efforts to improve treatment entry rates and related outcomes. PMID:18514474
Newbury-Helps, John; Feigenbaum, Janet; Fonagy, Peter
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition). The results were compared with a partially matched sample of 42 nonoffending controls. The offender group showed impaired mentalizing on all of the tasks when compared with the control group for this study when controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and the offending group performed poorly in comparisons with participants in published studies, suggesting that limited capacity to mentalize may be part of the picture presented by individuals with histories of offending behavior. Offenders with ASPD demonstrated greater difficulty with mentalizing than non-ASPD offenders. Mentalization subscales were able to predict offender status and those with ASPD, indicating that specific impairments in perspective taking, social cognition, and social sensitivity, as well as tendencies toward hypomentalizing and nonmentalizing, are more marked in individuals who meet criteria for a diagnosis of ASPD. Awareness of these deficits may be helpful to professionals working with offenders, and specifically addressing these deficits may be a productive aspect of therapy for this "hard to reach" clinical group.
Philipp-Wiegmann, Florence; Rösler, Michael; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Retz, Wolfgang
The purpose of this study is to analyse individual differences in the ability of emotional facial recognition in violent offenders, who were characterised as either reactive or proactive in relation to their offending. In accordance with findings of our previous study, we expected higher impairments in facial recognition in reactive than proactive violent offenders. To assess the ability to recognize facial expressions, the computer-based Facial Emotional Expression Labeling Test (FEEL) was performed. Group allocation of reactive und proactive violent offenders and assessment of psychopathic traits were performed by an independent forensic expert using rating scales (PROREA, PCL-SV). Compared to proactive violent offenders and controls, the performance of emotion recognition in the reactive offender group was significantly lower, both in total and especially in recognition of negative emotions such as anxiety (d = -1.29), sadness (d = -1.54), and disgust (d = -1.11). Furthermore, reactive violent offenders showed a tendency to interpret non-anger emotions as anger. In contrast, proactive violent offenders performed as well as controls. General and specific deficits in reactive violent offenders are in line with the results of our previous study and correspond to predictions of the Integrated Emotion System (IES, 7) and the hostile attribution processes (21). Due to the different error pattern in the FEEL test, the theoretical distinction between proactive and reactive aggression can be supported based on emotion recognition, even though aggression itself is always a heterogeneous act rather than a distinct one-dimensional concept.
Comartin, Erin B; Kernsmith, Poco D; Miles, Bart W
Since 1994, policies have been instituted throughout the United States that require sex offenders to register their personal information with law enforcement officials (Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Program, 1994). With the passage of additional laws, this information is now available to the public via the Internet or a request to a police department. These laws have brought about consequences for both the registrants and for members of their families. A focus group was held with four mothers who have sons listed on the Michigan Sex Offender Registry. Psychological and social consequences of registration were found and policy implications are discussed.
Frost, Andrew; Connolly, Marie
This study explores the therapeutic engagement experiences of men who have sexually offended against children and who are involved in a prototypical prison-based group treatment programme. The study examined factors relating to the therapeutic engagement of the offender in treatment, and in particular, the impact of the "out-of-group" time between sessions. The findings, although tentative, suggest that between formal therapy sessions, clients of the programme make significant movement either toward or away from engagement in the therapy. The implications of these processes with respect to clinical practice and the development of offender services are discussed.
Nitschke, Joachim; Istrefi, Shota; Osterheider, Michael; Mokros, Andreas
Previous studies suggest that severe sexual sadism and psychopathy are phenotypically different, although both are characterized by deficits in emotional processing. We assessed empathic capacity in a sample of 12 sexual sadists in comparison with 23 non-sadistic offenders using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). All participants were forensic patients under mandatory treatment orders who had committed sexual offenses. The MET is a computerized rating task that differentiates and measures cognitive and emotional components of empathy, or perspective-taking versus compassionate components. To identify the effects of possible empathy deficits caused by psychopathic traits, we controlled both samples for psychopathy as a covariate, measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). According to our results, sexual sadists did not differ from non-sadistic sexual offenders with regard to emotional empathy for either positive or negative stimuli. The results suggest that severe sexual sadism is a distinct, pathological sexual arousal response, not a deficit in emotional processing.
Kärgel, Christian; Massau, Claudia; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Borchardt, Viola; Krueger, Tillmann H C; Tenbergen, Gilian; Kneer, Jonas; Wittfoth, Matthias; Pohl, Alexander; Gerwinn, Hannah; Ponseti, Jorge; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M; Mohnke, Sebastian; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris
Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40). As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control as reflected by significantly lower rate of commission errors. Group-by-condition interaction analysis also revealed inhibition-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and the left superior frontal cortex that distinguished between offending and non-offending pedophiles, while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls. Both areas showing distinct activation pattern among pedophiles play a critical role in linking neural networks that relate to effective cognitive functioning. Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment of these areas as well as decreased amount of commission errors is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1092-1104, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wanklyn, Sonya G; Ward, Ashley K; Cormier, Nicole S; Day, David M; Newman, Jennifer E
Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature regarding the generalist and specialist positions of criminal behavior, the aim of the present study was to compare childhood risk factors for three groups of juvenile offenders: (a) pure sex offenders (PSO; n = 28); (b) violent non-sex offenders (VNSO; n = 172); and (c) versatile violent sex offenders (VVSO; n = 24). Nineteen risk factors comprising four life domains (individual, family, peer, and school) were identified from a file review. Three hierarchical logistic regression analyses examined associations between risk factors and offender groups. The results reflected the underlying heterogeneity of the sample, offering support for both the specialist and generalist positions of criminal behavior. PSOs differed from VNSOs on the basis of higher odds for precocious sexual behavior. Second, VVSOs differed from VNSOs on the basis of higher odds for precocious sexual behavior, criminal family members, and an adolescent mother, as well as lower odds for poor school behavior. Third, PSOs were marginally more likely to have engaged in early overt antisocial behavior compared with VVSOs. Fourth, many of the childhood risk factors examined were not associated with any offender group. In conclusion, VVSOs appeared to differ on the greatest number of risk factors from VNSOs, suggesting that VVSOs share a more similar developmental pathway with PSOs. The prevention and future research implications of these findings are discussed.
Condoms for women; Contraception - female condom; Family planning - female condom; Birth control - female condom ... care provider or pharmacy for information about emergency contraception (Plan B) if the condom tears or the ...
Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Dortaj, Fariborz; Esmaeili, Alireza; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally, driver behavior rather than technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In a previous study, we showed that among young Iranian male traffic offenders, poor mental health status, along with aggression, predicted poor driving behavior. The aims of the present study were twofold, to determine whether this pattern could be replicated among non-traffic offenders, and to compare the mental health status, aggression, and driving behavior of male traffic offenders and non-offenders. Methods A total of 850 male drivers (mean age =34.25 years, standard deviation =10.44) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Of these, 443 were offenders (52.1%) and 407 (47.9%) were non-offenders with lowest driving penalty scores applying for attaining an international driving license. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering socio-demographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer mental health status, and worse driving behavior. Among non-offenders, multiple regression indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer health status and driving behavior. Further, the predictive power of poorer mental health status, but not aggression, for driving behavior was replicated for male non-offenders. PMID:26300646
The present study investigated the scope, nature, and determinants of intimate partner femicide-suicides (IPFS) that occurred in Ghana during 1990 to 2009. All 35 reported cases of intimate partner homicide-suicides with female homicide victims that occurred during the study period were extracted from a major Ghanaian daily newspaper. Findings indicate that offenders were of lower socioeconomic background and tended to be older than their victims. The results further show that shooting with a firearm and hacking with a machete were the primary homicide methods, whereas self-inflicted gunshots and hanging were the dominant suicide methods. Results showed that suspicion of infidelity and sexual jealousy were core contributing factors in arguments, disputes, and altercations that preceded the femicide-suicides. Furthermore, estrangement and threatened divorce or separation by the female intimate partner was a major precipitant of femicide-suicides.
Stryker, Lois E.; Scorzelli, James F.
The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the strategies available to the counselor that will help the offender place work in its proper perspective and recognize its potential for growth and creativity. (Author)
Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E; Quinsey, Vernon L; Lalumière, Martin L; Boer, Douglas; Lang, Carol
Four actuarial instruments for the prediction of violent and sexual reoffending (the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide [VRAG], Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide [SORAG], Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offender Recidivism [RRASOR] and Static-99) were evaluated in 4 samples of sex offenders (N = 396). Although all 4 instruments predicted violent (including sexual) recidivism and recidivism known to be sexually motivated, areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were consistently higher for the VRAG and the SORAG. The instruments performed better when there were fewer missing items and follow-up time was fixed, with an ROC area up to .84 for the VRAG, for example, under such favorable conditions. Predictive accuracy was higher for child molesters than for rapists, especially for the Static-99 and the RRASOR. Consistent with past research, survival analyses revealed that those offenders high in both psychopathy and sexual deviance were an especially high-risk group.
Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.
Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths’ odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement is associated with increased odds of cohabitation and cohabiting at younger ages while substance use is not related to cohabiting during early adulthood. Further analysis indicates that cohabitation is associated with lower reports of substance use. However, cohabitation is not associated with self-reported offending. The results help to unravel the connection between cohabitation experience, offending and substance use, and early adult outcomes. PMID:21359092
Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) as an adjunct to standard psychiatric care can make substantial difference in symptom distress, insight, and adherence to treatment. However, studies on the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy on offending behaviours influenced by psychotic experience are in its very early stage. This paper summarizes the conceptualization, treatment programme development, and individual therapy to address psychotic experience involved in offending behaviours in mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). It is argued that, 1) intensive intervention is recommended for those MDOs with general risk factors in addition to psychosis-related-risk factors, 2) MDOs may benefit from CBTp and general offending behaviour programmes, 3) it is important to focus on aggression-neutralization cognitions.
Douds, Alexander F.; And Others
The use of contracts between parents and youths, specifying in detail the responsibilities and rewards for changes in behavior was shown effective in improving family relations and in reducing recidivism in juvenile offenders. (MS)
Collingwood, Thomas R.; And Others
Describes an innovative Youth Services Program, an operational unit of the Dallas Police Department, which has drastically reduced the rearrest/recidivism rate for juvenile offenders. The program teaches three basic skills: physical fitness, interpersonal skills and study skills. (HMV)
Calley, Nancy G
One hundred and seventy three male juvenile offenders were followed two years postrelease from a residential treatment facility to assess recidivism and factors related to recidivism. The overall recidivism rate was 23.9%. Logistic regression with stepwise and backward variable selection methods was used to examine the relationship between recidivism and nine specific variables: offense type, age at initial involvement in juvenile justice, child welfare system involvement, termination of parental rights, parental criminal history, family support, program completion status, length of treatment stay, and discharge placement. Offender type was the only factor found to have a significant impact on recidivism with general and substance-involved offenders more likely to recidivate than sex offenders. Implications for future research are discussed.
Recommendations of British reports on education for mentally disordered prisoners include (1) financial flexibility to purchase educational services; (2) core teams of teachers, social service providers, and solicitors; and (3) 1 full-time teacher for every 15 offenders. (SK)
Russell, Gemma; Seymour, Fred; Lambie, Ian
Reintegration of offenders following incarceration is most successful if matched to the needs of offenders, victims, and the community. This study explored child sex offenders' expectations for and experiences of reintegration into the community. A longitudinal design was used in which semistructured interviews covered issues identified in the literature as being related to reintegration. Nine offenders were interviewed within 1 week prior to release, 3 months post release, and 6 months post release. Interviews were analysed using thematic analyses producing six key themes. The interviews revealed that most of the participants feared their release from prison into the community and once released struggled to live in society. Overall, reintegration planning was simplistic and aimed primarily to manage risk factors rather than promote reintegration. Those participants who reported most satisfaction with their adjustment following release had more comprehensive reintegration plans, which enabled them to visualise what life would be like after release.
Hughes, Melissa A; Dolan, Mairead C; Stout, Julie C
In this study, we investigated whether differences in the experience of regret may be a potential explanation for damaging behaviours associated with psychopathy and criminal offending. Participants were incarcerated offenders (n = 60) and non-incarcerated controls (n = 20). Psychopathic traits were characterised with the Psychopathic Checklist: Screening Version. Regret was assessed by responses to outcomes on a simulated gambling task. Incarcerated offenders experienced a reduced sense of regret as compared to non-incarcerated controls. We obtained some evidence that specific psychopathic factors and facets could differentially relate to the experience and use of emotions. Our data provide initial evidence of important associations between negative emotions and decision behaviour in the context of criminal offending.
Smith, Paul; Waterman, Mitch
As part of an ongoing research project we examined information-processing biases in forensic and nonforensic participants (n = 10 sex offenders, n = 10 violent offenders, n = 10 nonviolent offenders, and n = 13 undergraduates). A computerised version of the Stroop task demonstrated that offenders convicted of both sexual and violent offences were significantly slower than undergraduates to color-name words relating to sexual offending (with sex offenders demonstrating the greatest interference bias). Furthermore, processing bias was also evident for aggression words in violent offenders and violent sexual offenders but not in non-violent sexual offenders. Specifically, paedophiles convicted of indecent assault presented different response profiles compared to heterosexual rapists. These findings suggest that tests that assess information processing bias for salient material may also prove useful as an assessment tool within forensic populations.
Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L.; Moore, Simon C.; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.
Background Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Methods Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Results Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. Conclusions The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending. PMID:26121148
Goodwin, Sarah; Carter, Helen
Young people in young offender institutions experience more physical and mental health problems than the general population. This article explores how the primary nursing service at HM Young Offenders Institution Huntercombe used national policy as a framework for managing change. In outlining the challenges and opportunities that influence practice development, we hope to demystify nursing in a prison setting, which is a hidden and often misunderstood aspect of healthcare.
Chung, Moonyoung; Han, Inbo; Chung, Sang-Sup; Huh, Ryoong
The side predilections of various offending arteries in hemifacial spasm (HFS) have not been well studied. The relationship between clinical and radiological features of HFS and offending arteries were investigated in the present study. A retrospective analysis of 370 patients who underwent microvascular decompression for HFS was performed. The patients were divided into four groups based on the offending arteries, namely anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), vertebral artery, and multiple offending arteries. Affected side, age at onset, presence of hypertension, and sigmoid sinus area and dominance were compared between groups. The mean age of patients with a left HFS was significantly greater than that of patients with a right HFS (P=0.009). The AICA affected primarily the right side and PICA and multiple offending arteries the left side (P<0.001). Side of sigmoid sinus dominance was significantly different among groups (P<0.001). The offending arteries in HFS may be related to these differences. AICA was associated with right-sided symptoms, younger age at onset, and presence of left dominant sigmoid sinus, while PICA was associated with left-sided symptoms, older age at onset, and smaller right sigmoid sinus area.
Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Borduin, Charles M.
This article raises serious concerns regarding the widespread use of unproven interventions with juveniles who sexually offend and suggests innovative methods for addressing these concerns. Dominant interventions (i.e., cognitive-behavioral group treatments with an emphasis on relapse prevention) typically fail to address the multiple determinants of juvenile sexual offending and could result in iatrogenic outcomes. Methodologically sophisticated research studies (i.e., randomized clinical trials) are needed to examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group interventions, especially those delivered in residential settings. The moral and ethical mandate for such research is evident when considering the alternative, in which clinicians and society are willing to live in ignorance regarding the etiology and treatment of juvenile sexual offending and to consign offending youths to the potential harm of untested interventions. Encouraging signs of a changing ethical climate include recent federal funding of a randomized clinical trial examining treatment effectiveness with sexually offending youths and the introduction of separate (i.e., developmentally informed) clinical and legal interventions for juvenile vs. adult sexual offenders. PMID:20721303
Elias, Wafa; Blank-Gomel, Aharon; Habib-Matar, Caroline; Shiftan, Yoram
Marginalized populations, particularly ethnic minorities, are often at a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes and committing traffic violations. Prominent explanations for this "ethnic traffic risk gap" include cultural and socioeconomic factors, usually measured at an aggregate level. In particular, it has been hypothesized that ethnic minorities commit traffic violations as a form of social resistance to what they perceive to be an oppressing regime. The current study examined the mechanisms underlying traffic violations at the individual level within a single ethnic minority, Israeli-Arabs. The study sample (n=231) included a group of known offenders (n=60) and non-offenders (n=171), all of which completed the Traffic Violation Questionnaire. The results show that offenders and non-offenders tended to have different types of occupations, although these did not translate into significant differences in level of income. Offenders reported significantly lower levels of trust in some hegemonic institutions (the police, government ministries) but not others (parliament, the juridical system). However, offenders displayed remarkably different daily activity patterns, including much higher exposure to traffic (3h/day vs. 0.75) and more complex trip patterns. Our results find little support for the social resistance hypothesis, as it fails to explain the differential treatment of hegemonic institutions. Daily activity patterns stand out as a central mechanism influencing the risk of violations. These results suggest policymakers should adopt a holistic approach for traffic safety interventions but avoid monolithic views of ethnic minorities which may lead to an inefficient use of resources.
Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Spada, Ashley; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins
Little is known about suicide attempts among sex offenders. This study examines the rates of nonfatal suicide attempts among a sample (N = 3,030) of incarcerated male sex offenders. Overall, the authors found that 14% of sex offenders in the study sample had made a suicide attempt at some point in their lives. Of those, 11% had reported a suicide attempt prior to incarceration, 0.5% had made a suicide attempt while incarcerated, and 2.5% made suicide attempts both prior to and during incarceration. Sex offenders who made suicide attempts were significantly more likely than those who did not make suicide attempts to have had an abusive childhood, a history of psychiatric problems, intellectual impairment, male victims, and related victims. Suicide attempters also scored higher on actuarial risk measures than nonattempters. No differences were found in attempter status between sex offenders who committed sex offenses against children and those who committed sex offenses against adults. A history of psychiatric problems and treatment as well as childhood abuse/neglect and perpetration against male victims predicted suicide attempter status. These findings are discussed as they pertain to suicide prevention, risk assessment, and the collateral consequences of sex offender legislation.
Current American policies and responses to juvenile sex offending have been criticized for being based on myths, misconceptions, and unsubstantiated claims. In spite of the criticism, no organizing framework has been proposed to guide policy development with respect to the prevention of juvenile sex offending. This article proposes a developmental life course (DLC) criminology perspective to investigate the origins, development, and termination of sex offending among youth. It also provides a review of the current state of knowledge regarding various parameters characterizing the development of sex offending (e.g., prevalence, age of onset, frequency, persistence, continuity in adulthood, and versatility). The review highlights some heterogeneity across these developmental parameters suggesting the presence of different sex offending patterns among youth. In fact, it is proposed that, based on the current knowledge, such heterogeneity can be accounted for by a dual taxonomy of adolescents involved in sexual offenses: (a) the adolescent-limited and (b) the high-rate/slow-desister. The DLC criminology approach and the dual taxonomy are proposed as organizing frameworks to conduct prospective longitudinal research to better understand the origins and development of sex offending and to guide policy development and responses to at-risk youth and those who have committed sexual offenses.
Coviello, Donna M; Zanis, Dave A; Wesnoski, Susan A; Palman, Nicole; Gur, Arona; Lynch, Kevin G; McKay, James R
While it is known that community-based outpatient treatment for substance abusing offenders is effective, treatment completion rates are low and much of the prior research has been conducted with offenders in residential treatment or therapeutic communities. The aim of the present study was to assess whether offenders who are mandated to community-based outpatient treatment have better completion rates compared to those who enter treatment voluntarily. The 160 research participants were a heterogeneous group of substance abusers who were under various levels of criminal justice supervision (CJS) in the community. The participants were enrolled in an intensive outpatient program and were recruited into the study between July 2007 and October 2010. All offenders received weekly therapy sessions using a cognitive problem solving framework and 45% completed the 6 month treatment program. Interestingly, those who were mandated demonstrated less motivation at treatment entry, yet were more likely to complete treatment compared to those who were not court-ordered to treatment. While controlling for covariates known to be related to treatment completion, the logistic regression analyses demonstrated that court-ordered offenders were over 10 times more likely to complete treatment compared to those who entered treatment voluntarily (OR=10.9, CI=2.0-59.1, p=.006). These findings demonstrate that stipulated treatment for offenders may be an effective way to increase treatment compliance.
Li, Dongdong; Chu, Chi Meng; Goh, Joseph Teck Ling; Ng, Irene Y. H.; Zeng, Gerald
The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of childhood maltreatment on youth offender recidivism in Singapore. The study used case file coding on a sample of 3,744 youth offenders, among whom about 6% had a childhood maltreatment history. The results showed that the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory 2.0 (YLS/CMI 2.0) ratings significantly predicted recidivism for nonmaltreated youth offenders, but not for maltreated youth offenders. Using propensity score matching, the result from a Cox regression analysis showed that maltreated youth offenders were 1.38 times as likely as their nonmaltreated counterparts to reoffend with a follow-up period of up to 7.4 years. The results implied that the YLS/CMI 2.0 measures were insufficient for assessing the risk for recidivism for the maltreated youth offenders, and that other information is needed to help assessors use the professional override when making the overall risk ratings. PMID:26819485
McNulty, James K; Russell, V Michelle
How does forgiveness predict the likelihood of reoffending? One survey study, one experiment, one 4-year longitudinal study, and one 2-week diary study examined the implications of forgiveness for reoffending in relationships. In all four studies, agreeableness interacted with partner forgiveness to predict subsequent offending; partner forgiveness was negatively associated with subsequent offending among more agreeable people but positively associated with subsequent offending among less agreeable people. Furthermore, Study 4 demonstrated a unique mechanism of each simple effect; relatively agreeable people engaged in fewer transgressions against more forgiving partners because they felt obligated to refrain from transgressing against such partners whereas relatively disagreeable people engaged in more transgressions against more forgiving partners because they perceived those partners were less easily angered. These studies indicate that completely understanding the intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences of forgiveness requires recognizing the dyadic nature of forgiveness and attending to qualities of the offender.
Vaske, Jamie; Wright, John Paul; Beaver, Kevin M
Research has shown that offenders, on average, are more likely to be violently victimized than nonoffenders. However, a substantial percentage of offenders are not violently victimized. The current study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to investigate whether variants of a polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) distinguish between offenders who are violently victimized and offenders who are not violently victimized. The results show that offenders who are violently victimized are more likely to carry the DRD2 (A1) risk allele than offenders who have not been violently victimized.
Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W
In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation.
Reingle, Jennifer M; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim-offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim-offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed.
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Myers, Wade C
Limited information is available on racial offending patterns of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study used a 30-year U.S. Supplementary Homicide Reports sample of SHOs arrested in single-victim situations (N = 3745). The analysis strength was used to determine whether the findings yielded meaningful patterns for offender profiling. Several important findings emerged for the juvenile offenders. Juvenile White SHOs were likely to target victims with whom they shared a mutual relationship. In contrast, Black juveniles were equally likely to murder strangers and those with whom they had prior and familial relationships. Notably, no juvenile Black SHOs were arrested for murdering intimate partners. Juvenile White SHOs were twice as likely to use edged weapons as their Black counterparts. Black juveniles, conversely, were more likely than White juveniles to use personal weapons. Beyond these findings, known victim-offender relationships and weapon used may not have significant utility for investigators in identifying the SHO race, even after controlling for offender age. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Chorn, R; Parekh, A
Following a request for assistance in formulating a treatment philosophy for adolescent sexual offenders, a qualitative study of seven adolescent offenders was designed with a view to elaborating pre-offense, and post-offense dynamics. The point of departure was the hypothesis that sexual offending had relation to object relations. It was further hypothesized that offenders' object relations and self-development had been disfigured in childhood and adolescent development. The developmental theories of Mahler, Stern, Winnicott, and Kohut were reviewed in order to shed light on the connection between disfigured self-development and sexual offending. Mahler's work suggested that anomalies during the separation-individuation process were heavily implicated. Winnicott's thinking on transitional functioning in potential space and his employment of the concepts of the true self and false self were especially useful. These bodies of work were assimilated to Kohut's theory of self development in which three nuclear sectors of the self, namely, the grandiose-exhibitionistic sector, the idealizing-voyeuristic sector, and the twinship-alterego sector, gradually coalesce and cohere through the moderating influence of parental empathy with the child's developmental tasks. Where such empathy is unforthcoming, or when the normal parental functions are obliterated by traumatic experiences of abuse, unmoderated needs for exhibitionism and voyeurism continue through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Victims of sexual offending were hypothesized to perform functions of restoration and preservation of a chronically weak and threatened self. The sample's interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed and aggregated. Analysis suggested that, indeed, offenses appeared to have been motivated to preserve a weakened sense of self and that the thoughts and perceptions surrounding the offenses resonated with expressions of problematic separation from parental objects. In addition, it
Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P
The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk.
Chitsabesan, Prathiba; Rothwell, Justine; Kenning, Cassandra; Law, Heather; Carter, Lesley- Ann; Bailey, Sue; Clark, Andrew
Longitudinal studies are helpful in understanding developmental trajectories and recognising opportunities for early intervention. This paper describes the long-term needs and mental health of an initial sample of male juvenile offenders, now adults 6 years after their index admission to secure care. In this prospective cohort study of 97 male juvenile offenders admitted to secure, offenders were assessed initially on admission, 2 and 6 years later. Interviews were conducted with 54 offenders at the 6-year follow-up and included an assessment of psychosocial need, mental health and psychopathy. Outcome data on offending behaviour were collected on a total of 71 offenders. Persistent offenders have needs in multiple domains as they transition into adulthood. The majority of offenders were single and about a half were in neither employment nor training. Almost nine out of ten offenders had a substance misuse disorder and a similar number met the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. Substance misuse in adolescence was strongly correlated with later substance misuse in adulthood, emphasising the importance of early intervention. A diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and living with friends and family were both significantly associated with persistent offending behaviour. Many offenders continued to reoffend despite receiving offence-related interventions and custodial care. Interventions currently aimed at reducing recidivism in more severe offenders appear to be ineffective. Persistent offenders would benefit from a multi-modal approach based on individual needs, rather than receiving generic interventions.
Arslan, M. Mustafa; Demirkiran, D. Sumeyra; Akcan, Ramazan; Zeren, Cem; Kokacya, M. Hanifi
Objective: Child sexual offenders are a poorly studied and relatively neglected population in our country. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between criminal behavior and socio-demographic characteristics of a series of child sexual offenders. Materials and Methods: The records of social worker interviews with 48 child sexual offenders between 2009 and 2013 were used. The reports issued by social workers regarding child sexual offenders were retrospectively examined, since these reports were relatively the most thorough documents including offenders’ personal and familial characteristics, and criminal event information. Cases were investigated in terms of socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results: There were 48 children interviewed based on an alleged sexual crime, during four-year of study period. All of the cases were male and their ages ranged between 12 and 17 years. Of these, 50% were students at any grade of school. Five cases were living in social service facilities. Only two cases involved incest. Of all, three offenders were accused of repeated sexual crimes. Type of sexual assault was anal penetration in 20 (41.7%) cases. Of all cases, 19 were cigarette smoker, while 4 were drug abusers. The families of 12 (25%) cases suffered from low socio-economic status, while 23 (47.9%) offenders were members of broken families. According to social worker reports, 47 cases had criminal responsibility based on their psychosocial development. Out of all cases, 7 children were suspected of suffering from impulse control disorder and one was suspected to be mentally retarded. Twelve cases were reported to need consulting and social protective services. Conclusion: The rate of offenders with interrupted education was considerably high. Interestingly the number of male victims and the frequency of cases involving anal penetration were high. Obtained results suggest that male children of broken and scattered families, and particularly those
Over the past decade researchers have identified intervention strategies and program models that reduce delinquency and promote pro-social development. Preventing delinquency, says Peter Greenwood, not only saves young lives from being wasted, but also prevents the onset of adult criminal careers and thus reduces the burden of crime on its victims and on society. It costs states billions of dollars a year to arrest, prosecute, incarcerate, and treat juvenile offenders. Investing in successful delinquency-prevention programs can save taxpayers seven to ten dollars for every dollar invested, primarily in the form of reduced spending on prisons. According to Greenwood, researchers have identified a dozen "proven" delinquency-prevention programs. Another twenty to thirty "promising" programs are still being tested. In his article, Greenwood reviews the methods used to identify the best programs, explains how program success is measured, provides an overview of programs that work, and offers guidance on how jurisdictions can shift toward more evidence-based practices The most successful programs are those that prevent youth from engaging in delinquent behaviors in the first place. Greenwood specifically cites home-visiting programs that target pregnant teens and their at-risk infants and preschool education for at-risk children that includes home visits or work with parents. Successful school-based programs can prevent drug use, delinquency, anti-social behavior, and early school drop-out. Greenwood also discusses community-based programs that can divert first-time offenders from further encounters with the justice system. The most successful community programs emphasize family interactions and provide skills to the adults who supervise and train the child. Progress in implementing effective programs, says Greenwood, is slow. Although more than ten years of solid evidence is now available on evidence-based programs, only about 5 percent of youth who should be eligible
Chu, Chi Meng; Lee, Yirong; Zeng, Gerald; Yim, Grace; Tan, Chen Yeh; Ang, Yaming; Chin, Shannon; Ruby, Kala
Empirical support for the usage of the Youth Level of Service measures has been reported in studies conducted in the North America, United Kingdom, and Australia. Recent meta-analytic studies on the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have revealed that the measure has modest to moderate predictive validity for general recidivism, but there are very few studies on the predictive validity of the YLS/CMI ratings for recidivism in non-Western contexts. This study examined the predictive validity of the YLS/CMI 2.0 ratings for general recidivism in a sample of 3,264 youth offenders within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,764.5 days; SDfollow-up = 521.5). Results showed that the YLS/CMI 2.0 overall risk ratings and total scores significantly predicted general recidivism for both male and female youth offenders. Overall, the results suggest that the YLS/CMI 2.0 is suited for assessing youth offenders in terms of their risk for general recidivism within a non-Western context.
Bader, Shannon M.; Scalora, Mario J.; Casady, Thomas K.; Black, Shannon
Objective: The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Methods: Cases were drawn…
Rosenman, Marc B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.; Scanlon, Michael L.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Objectives. We sought to estimate rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among criminal offenders in the 1 year after arrest or release from incarceration. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study of risk of having a positive STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis) or incident-positive HIV test in the 1 year following arrest or incarceration in Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana. Participants were 247 211 individuals with arrest or incarceration in jail, prison, or juvenile detention between 2003 and 2008. Results. Test positivity rates (per 100 000 and per year) were highest for chlamydia (2968) and gonorrhea (2305), and lower for syphilis (278) and HIV (61). Rates of positive STI and HIV were between 1.5 and 2.8 times higher in female than male participants and between 2.7 and 6.9 times higher for Blacks than Whites. Compared with nonoffenders, offenders had a relative risk of 3.9 for chlamydia, 6.6 for gonorrhea, 3.6 for syphilis, and 4.6 for HIV. Conclusions. The 1-year period following arrest or release from incarceration represents a high-impact opportunity to reduce STI and HIV infection rates at a population level. PMID:26469659
McMillen, D L; Adams, M S; Wells-Parker, E; Pang, M G; Anderson, B J
Using an interview and questionnaire format, 358 driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) first offenders and 141 DUI multiple offenders were compared on measures of personality traits, drinking behavior and problems, and driving behavior and history. In addition, official driving records for the two groups were compared. Results indicated that multiple offenders were significantly higher in hostility, sensation seeking, psychopathic deviance, mania, and depression than first offenders. Multiple offenders were significantly lower in emotional adjustment and assertiveness. Multiple offenders had significantly more nontraffic arrests, accidents, and traffic tickets than first offenders. They also consumed significantly more alcohol, evidenced more alcohol problems, and had higher BACs at the time of arrest than first offenders. Results are discussed in terms of general problem behavior and implications for intervention and treatment.
Forgays, Deborah Kirby; DeMilio, Lisa
Teen Courts are an effective judicial alternative for many youth offenders. The majority of youth courts deal solely with first-time offenders. However, repeat offenders are at a greater risk for future crime. Is Teen Court effective with more experienced offenders? In this study, the authors examine the outcomes of 26 Whatcom County Teen Court offenders with at least one prior conviction. The sentence completion rate was higher and the recidivism was lower for the Teen Court offenders when compared with a sample of first-time Court Diversion offenders. This objective evidence of program success is augmented by an offender's perspective on his or her court experience. These perspectives as well as the continued voluntary involvement with Teen Court are discussed in relation to empowerment theory.
Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.
The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)
Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Ward, Ashley K.; Cormier, Nicole S.; Day, David M.; Newman, Jennifer E.
Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature…
Zador, Paul L.; Ahlin, Eileen M.; Howard, Jan M.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Duncan, G. Doug
Objectives. We sought to determine the statewide impact of having prior alcohol-impaired driving violations of any type on the rate of first occurrence or recidivism among drivers with 0, 1, 2, or 3 or more prior violations in Maryland. Methods. We analyzed more than 100 million driver records from 1973 to 2004 and classified all Maryland drivers into 4 groups: those with 0, 1, 2, or 3 or more prior violations. The violation rates for approximately 21 million drivers in these 4 groups were compared for the study period 1999 to 2004. Results. On average, there were 3.4, 24.3, 35.9, and 50.8 violations per 1000 drivers a year among those with 0, 1, 2, or 3 or more priors, respectively. The relative risks for men compared with women among these groups of drivers were 3.8, 1.2, 1.0, and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions. The recidivism rate among first offenders more closely resembles that of second offenders than of nonoffenders. Men and women are at equal risk of recidivating once they have had a first violation documented. Any alcohol-impaired driving violation, not just convictions, is a marker for future recidivism. PMID:19846687
Abracen, Jeffrey; Langton, Calvin M; Looman, Jan; Gallo, Alessandra; Ferguson, Meaghan; Axford, Marsha; Dickey, R
Although the issue of mental illness among offender populations has received attention in the last number of years, there are a number of issues related to mental illness among such groups that require more study. One such topic relates to the association between mental illness, actuarially assessed risk of recidivism, and observed rates of reoffending. In the present investigation, file information was reviewed to determine the presence of a variety of mental health conditions. Actuarially based risk assessment data were also collected for participants as well as information regarding suspension, new charges, and convictions. A sample of 136 offenders housed in a halfway house operated by Correctional Service of Canada was included in the present investigation. Results indicated very high rates of serious mental illness in this high-risk population. Offenders with borderline personality disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly more likely to recidivate or be suspended. Suspensions refer to administrative decisions to place an offender in jail due to problematic behaviour (typically involving a breach of his release conditions or new charges/convictions). Offenders with a diagnosis of paraphilic disorder were significantly less likely to recidivate or be suspended. Results are discussed in light of the available literature.
Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly
This article describes trends in child pornography (CP) possession cases that ended in arrest in 2000 and in 2006, using data from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, a two-wave longitudinal survey of a national sample of more than 2,500 U.S. law enforcement agencies. In 2006, there were an estimated 3,672 arrests for CP possession, compared with 1,713 arrests in 2000. Many characteristics of the offenders and the offense remained stable. In both 2006 and 2000, most offenders were White, non-Hispanic males and socioeconomically diverse. Few were known to have committed previous sex crimes. Most had CP that depicted preteen children and serious sexual abuse. In 2006, however, a higher proportion of offenders were aged 18 to 25 years, used peer-to-peer (p2p) networks, had images of children younger than 3 years, and had CP videos. P2p users had more extreme images (e.g., younger victims, sexual violence) and larger numbers of images than those who did not use p2p networks. Findings reflect heightened efforts in the criminal justice system to combat CP crimes. More cases originated with investigations of CP possession and involved proactive investigations aimed at detecting CP. The great majority of cases were successfully prosecuted, with more offenders sentenced to incarceration and serving longer sentences than in 2000. As in 2000, one in six cases that began with investigations of CP possession detected offenders who had molested children.
Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J; Hardcastle, Lesley
A large-scale study was conducted to examine the perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. Four participant groups comprising 596 (50.4%) employers, 234 (19.8%) employment service workers, 176 (14.9%) corrections workers, and 175 (14.8%) prisoners and offenders completed a questionnaire assessing the likelihood of a hypothetical job seeker's both obtaining and maintaining employment; the importance of specific skills and characteristics to employability; and the likelihood that ex-prisoners, offenders, and the general workforce exhibit these skills and characteristics. Apart from people with an intellectual or psychiatric disability, those with a criminal background were rated as being less likely than other disadvantaged groups to obtain and maintain employment. In addition, ex-prisoners were rated as being less likely than offenders and the general workforce to exhibit the skills and characteristics relevant to employability. Implications for the preparation and support of ex-prisoners and offenders into employment are discussed, together with broader community-wide initiatives to promote reintegration.
Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent.
The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) have conducted visits and written reports criticising the surgical castration of sex offenders in the Czech Republic and Germany. They claim that surgical castration is degrading treatment and have called for an immediate end to this practice. The Czech and German governments have published rebuttals of these criticisms. The rebuttals cite evidence about clinical effectiveness and point out this is an intervention that must be requested by the sex offender and cannot occur without informed consent. This article considers a number of relevant arguments that are not discussed in these reports but which are central to how we might assess this practice. First, the article discusses the possible ways in which sex offenders could be coerced into castration and whether this is a decisive moral problem. Then, it considers a number of issues relevant to determining whether sex offenders are harmed by physical castration. The article concludes by arguing that sex offenders should not be coerced into castration, be that via threats or offers, but that there is no reason to think that this is occurring in the Czech Republic or Germany. In some cases, castration might be useful for reconfiguring a life that has gone badly awry and where there is no coercion, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment are mistaken about this being degrading treatment.
Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Nicholaichuk, Terry P.
The treatment outcome of a high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment program was evaluated by comparing the sexual recidivism rates of 472 treated and 282 untreated sex offenders. The program is designed for moderate- to high-risk sex offenders and follows the principles of effective correctional treatment. The current investigation is an…
Simon, Leonore M.
Investigates whether the victim-offender relationship plays a role in determining the original charge, crime conviction, and sentence length of inmates in prison for violent crimes. Results indicate the victim-offender relationship is related to the legal processing in paradoxical ways. Thus, although nonstranger offenders are charged with and…
Openshaw, D. Kim; And Others
Bibliography assimilates two decades of research focusing on youthful sexual offending. Articles are categorized into six areas (literature reviews, theories of sexual offending, conceptualization, assessment, intervention/prevention strategies, research methods in the investigation of youthful sexual offenders), based on primary focus, with…
Santtila, Pekka; Runtti, Markus; Mokros, Andreas
The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of predicting the presence of a criminal record in the background of a homicide offender on the basis of victim characteristics. Eight victim characteristics, as well as the presence or absence of offender criminal record and offender violent criminal record, were coded for 502 Finnish…
Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.
This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…
Reijnen, Lotte; Bulten, Erik; Nijman, Henk
This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…
... Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting System, Extension... support the Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult (RExO-Adult) grants, which expires on March 31, 2012. A... Reintegration of Ex-Offender-Adult (formerly Prisoner Reentry Initiative) grants, faith-based and...
Failure to find steady and rewarding employment and stabilizing economic resources are key contributors to recidivism among ex-offenders. Within 3 years of their release, almost two thirds of ex-offenders return to prison. Ex-offenders face formidable barriers to employment including legal limitations and those specific to their skills, education,…
Carswell, Kenneth; Maughan, Barbara; Davis, Hilton; Davenport, Franscesca; Goddard, Nick
To date, assessments of the prevalence of mental health problems in young offenders have largely focused on incarcerated samples. This paper describes a quantitative study of a sample of 47 male young offenders under the supervision of an inner city Youth Offending Team. A semi-structured interview, modified from previous studies, was used to…
... developing model programs for serving young offenders. The Department expects over the next few years to... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for a Youthful Offender... collection of data for a proposed management information system for Youthful Offender Grants. DATES:...
Objective: To explore the barriers to positive mental health in a group of young offenders. Design: A qualitative approach was used to provide insight into the ways in which mental health for young offenders is experienced and managed. Setting: A Young Offenders Institute (YOI) accommodating males aged between 18 and 21 years. Method: Participants…
Low, Kyra; Day, Andrew
Violent offender rehabilitation programs aim to reduce the risk of re-offending in known offenders by addressing a range of different treatments needs, often with core intervention targets of improving anger regulation and altering antisocial beliefs and thinking styles. Such programs have proven efficacy in reducing recidivism for some, but not all, violent offenders, and little is known about the effects of these programs on different offender types. This study investigates whether subtypes of violent offenders can be meaningfully identified and considers how this influences short-term treatment outcomes. Cluster analysis identified three distinctive violent offender groups within a sample of 305 male offenders who had been assessed for participation in a violent offender rehabilitation program. An "unregulated" group had high levels of anger experience and expression and low levels of anger control, and held beliefs that were strongly supportive of a criminal lifestyle. A "regulated" group demonstrated levels of anger and beliefs supporting criminal activity that were not in a range that warranted treatment. Finally, an "overregulated" group was assessed as the group at highest risk of violent re-offending and had low levels of anger experience and expression and an absence of beliefs supporting criminal activity. The unregulated group appeared to gain the most benefit from treatment, although it had the highest levels of criminal thinking and problematic anger. These findings nonetheless offer support for the hypothesis that violent offender treatment programs may be optimally effective when targeted at particular types of offenders.
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of drug offender's driver's license suspension... PROCEDURES DRUG OFFENDER'S DRIVER'S LICENSE SUSPENSION § 192.4 Adoption of drug offender's driver's license... for at least 6 months, of the driver's license of any individual who is convicted, after the...
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of drug offender's driver's license suspension... PROCEDURES DRUG OFFENDER'S DRIVER'S LICENSE SUSPENSION § 192.4 Adoption of drug offender's driver's license... for at least 6 months, of the driver's license of any individual who is convicted, after the...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of drug offender's driver's license suspension... PROCEDURES DRUG OFFENDER'S DRIVER'S LICENSE SUSPENSION § 192.4 Adoption of drug offender's driver's license... for at least 6 months, of the driver's license of any individual who is convicted, after the...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of drug offender's driver's license suspension... PROCEDURES DRUG OFFENDER'S DRIVER'S LICENSE SUSPENSION § 192.4 Adoption of drug offender's driver's license... for at least 6 months, of the driver's license of any individual who is convicted, after the...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of drug offender's driver's license suspension... PROCEDURES DRUG OFFENDER'S DRIVER'S LICENSE SUSPENSION § 192.4 Adoption of drug offender's driver's license... for at least 6 months, of the driver's license of any individual who is convicted, after the...