Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Magagna, Jeanne; Pepper Goldsmith, Tara
This paper describes the struggle to develop a female sexual identity and the importance of the roles of the father and mother in this struggle. The clinical illustration is taken from the psychotherapy of an anorectic adolescent.
Ojeda, S R; Dissen, G A; Junier, M P
The concept is proposed that polypeptide neurotrophic factors contribute to the developmental regulation of ovarian and hypothalamic function in mammals. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3, two members of the neurotrophin family, have been identified in the rat ovary and one of its receptors has been localized to the innervation and thecal cells of developing follicles. Although NGF supports the sympathetic innervation of the gland, the extent to which follicles are innervated appears to be defined by the differential expression of NGF receptors in the theca of developing follicles. The presence of NGF receptors in steroid-producing cells suggests a direct involvement of neurotrophins in the regulation of gonadal endocrine function. Evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that development of the reproductive hypothalamus is affected by insulin-like growth factor 1 secreted by peripheral tissues, and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) produced locally. In the rat hypothalamus, TGF alpha appears to be synthesized in both neurons and glial cells. In glial cells it may interact with epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors to further enhance TGF alpha synthesis and to, perhaps, stimulate eicosanoid formation. In turn, one of these eicosanoids, prostaglandin E2, may act on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons to stimulate the release of LHRH in a genomic-independent manner. This provides the basis for the notion that during development LHRH secretion is regulated by a dual mechanism, one that involves transsynaptic effects exerted by neurotransmitters, the other that requires a glial-neuronal interaction and that may predominantly regulate release of the neuropeptide. An increased expression of the TGF alpha and EGF receptor genes in reactive astrocytes is postulated to contribute to the process by which hypothalamic injury causes sexual precocity. Morphological maturation of the reproductive hypothalamus is thought to occur during
Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.
Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647
Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.
Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.
Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…
Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor
Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery.
This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.
Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…
Wiegel, Markus; Meston, Cindy; Rosen, Raymond
The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is a brief multidimensional scale for assessing sexual function in women. The scale has received initial psychometric evaluation, including studies of reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity (Meston, 2003; Rosen et al., 2000). The present study was designed to crossvalidate the FSFI in several samples of women with mixed sexual dysfunctions (N = 568) and to develop diagnostic cut-off scores for potential classification of women's sexual dysfunction. Some of these samples were drawn from our previous validation studies (N = 414), and some were added for purposes of the present study (N = 154). The combined data set consisted of multiple samples of women with sexual dysfunction diagnoses (N = 307), including female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD), hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), female sexual orgasm disorder (FSOD), dyspareunia/vaginismus (pain), and multiple sexual dysfunctions, in addition to a large sample of nondysfunctional controls (n = 261). We conducted analyses on the individual and combined samples, including replicating the original factor structure using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. We assessed Cronbach's alpha (internal reliability) and interdomain correlations and tested discriminant validity by means of a MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance; dysfunction diagnosis x FSFI domain), with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc comparisons. We developed diagnostic cut off scores by means of standard receiver operating characteristics-curves and the CART (Classification and Regression Trees) procedure. Principal components analysis replicated the original five-factor structure, including desire/arousal, lubrication, orgasm, pain, and satisfaction. We found the internal reliability for the total FSFI and six domain scores to be good to excellent, with Cronbach alpha's >0.9 for the combined sample and above 0.8 for the sexually dysfunctional and nondysfunctional samples
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment.
Buster, John E
Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation.
Barth, H; Döbler, T; Galletzki, R; Amon, K
A questionnaire survey on sex knowledge of 930 female vocational students (17-18 year olds) was done to assess future needs in sex education. Main points in the questionnaire were sex upbringing and education received; peer groups, couple and contraceptive behavior; and attitude to family and family planning. Socioeconomic factors, parents' occupation, and size of residence were considered. Results showed: 70.4% had some kind of sex upbringing before age 12; 24.5% after age 12. Whereas up to 80% wanted sex education from parents, only about 55% actually received this (mothers mostly); 80% of actual sex information came from books and TV. Peers proved closer to the girls in confidence than parents. Although teachers were 3rd in line to provide actual sex education they were last as persons desired by the girls to provide this. Nearly 60% of the subjects desired more information in the areas of love and marriage, sex in adolescence, effects and side effects of the pill, general contraceptive methods and sex behavior. Conclusions from the survey point to the need to start sex education at an early age and extend it into adolescence and beyond; it should be direct, continuous and goal-oriented. Teenagers desire interpersonal dialogue with concerned adults. There should be cooperation in sex education between parents, teachers, and youth organizations. Teachers are insufficiently prepared to assume the role as sex educator. Teenagers need more factual information on conscious family planning and contraceptive methods.
Sharma, J B; Kalra, Bharti
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common complex clinical condition, with multiple etiologies, association and pathophysiologic correlations. This review includes the definition, etiology, and diagnosis of FSD. It calls for a bio psychosocial approach to FSD management, which incorporates, but is not limited to, only the psychological aspects of FSD.
Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith
Sexual medicine has become an integrated part of womens' health care. Physicians need therefore communication skills to talk about sexuality with their female patients and a knowledge about models of human sexuality, about classification systems, and diagnostic and therapeutic concepts and processes. The diagnostic reaches from a clear description of the sexual problem to an exploration of the conditioning factors. These can be differentiated into biological factors, intraindividual and interpersonal psychological factors and sociocultural factors. These factors can become effective as predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. The therapeutic process is based on several steps. The basic step consists in psychoeducation and basic counselling. Therapy usually includes the combination of pharmacologic intervention (hormones, PDE5) and specific psychotherapeutic techniques (sensate focus, cognitive techniques, couple counselling).
Trickett, Penelope K; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W
This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent posttraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives.
Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.
This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689
Starostová, Zuzana; Kubička, Lukáš; Golinski, Alison; Kratochvíl, Lukáš
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is an extensively studied phenomenon in animals, including reptiles, but the proximate mechanism of its development is poorly understood. The most pervasive candidates are: (1) androgen-mediated control of growth, i.e. a positive effect of gonadal androgens (testosterone) on male growth in male-larger species, and a negative effect in female-larger species; and (2) sex-specific differences in energy allocation to growth, e.g. sex with larger reproductive costs should result in smaller body size. We tested these hypotheses in adults of the male-larger lizard Paroedura picta by conducting castrations with and without testosterone implants in males and manipulating reproductive status in females. Castration or testosterone replacement had no significant effect on final body length in males. High investment to reproduction had no significant effect on final body length in intact females. Interestingly, ovariectomized females and females with testosterone implants grew to larger body size than intact females. We did not find support for either of the above hypotheses and suggest that previously reported effects of gonadal androgens on growth in male lizards could be a consequence of altered behaviour or social status in manipulated individuals. Exogenous testosterone in females led to decreased size of ovaries; its effect on body size may be caused by interference with normal ovarian function. We suggest that ovarian factors, perhaps estrogens, not reproductive costs, can modify growth in female lizards and may thus contribute to the development of SSD. This hypothesis is largely supported by published results on the effect of testosterone treatment or ovariectomy on body size in female squamates.
Tolman, Deborah L.
This chapter challenges forthcoming research on adolescent female sexuality to take more seriously the role of dominant cultural ideologies regarding heterosexuality and to consider its theoretical and methodological implications.
This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…
Chen, Ching-Hui; Lin, Yen-Chin; Chiu, Li-Hsuan; Chu, Yuan-Hsiang; Ruan, Fang-Fu; Liu, Wei-Min; Wang, Peng-Hui
Sexual dysfunction refers to difficulties that occur during the sexual response cycle that prevent the individual from experiencing satisfaction from sexual activity. It is relatively difficult to estimate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), because the definition and diagnostic criteria are still controversial and under development. These difficulties reveal our insufficient understanding of the basis of FSD. This review was conducted in an effort to deal with this complicated clinical issue, by examining the most updated clinical criteria of FSD under the context of a redefined female sexual response model.
Mota, Renato Lains
Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.
Mota, Renato Lains
ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522
Abdool, Zeelha; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H
Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause distress to the individual (not her partner). Sexual dysfunction is classified as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain. However, in the postpartum period the most common disorder appears to be that of sexual pain as a consequence of perineal trauma. Health care workers need to be made aware of this silent affliction as sexual morbidity can have a detrimental effect on a women's quality of life impacting on her social, physical and emotional well-being.
Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.
... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... for a long period of time. Thoughts about suicide are also common. Studies estimate that one in ...
... Possibly, a drop in levels of testosterone, which women produce in small amounts, after removal of the ovaries* Psychological and Emotional Causes Mental distress: stress, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, past sexual abuse, fear of unwanted pregnancy Relationship ...
Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Propionate on the Sexual Development of Male and Female Rats: A Dose-Response Study
Cynthia J. Wolf1,2, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Joseph S. Ostby1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2 and
L. Earl Gray1,4, Jr.
Testosterone plays a major role in ...
Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Propionate on Sexual Development of Male and Female Rats: A Dose-Response Study
Cynthia Wolf1,2, Joe Ostby1*, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Gerald LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1
1USEPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC; 2Dept. of To...
Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.
Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968
From the child conception to the early years of life, couples generally present less sexual activity. Parenthood constraints are a burden for the couple's relationships. Generally, persistent sexual difficulties six months after delivery, despite those generated by depression or altered health raise the question of an alteration in the quality of the couple's relationships and lack of satisfaction of the mother with her partner's involvement in family life. Numerous parameters can be implied, especially with persistent trouble of desire, such as fatigue, body image problems and libido lessening of the partner due to modifications of his status. Women who presented sexual difficulties before pregnancy remain the same. In all cases, appropriate information can avoid the intimacy's difficulties and contribute to maintain pleasure and intimacy even when vaginal penetration remains difficult.
... on women with certain sexual dysfunctions, but more study is needed. Yoga. During yoga, you perform a series of postures and controlled breathing exercises to promote a flexible body and a calm mind. Certain subsets of yoga aim to channel the ...
Fantasia, Heidi Collins
Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice.
Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741
Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader
Cognitive models suggest that attention processes maintain sexual dysfunction. However, few published studies have examined attention bias, and even fewer have studied female participants with sexual dysfunction. Using the Female Sexual Function Index, the authors classified undergraduates as experiencing sexual dysfunction (n = 28) or not (n = 28). The authors assessed whether participants showed attention bias for sexual words using a modified dot-probe task. As expected, female participants with sexual dysfunction showed an attention bias to sexual words, whereas control participants did not. The authors discuss implications for models of sexual dysfunction and clinical intervention.
Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli
Background The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender
Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N
perfectionism contributes to women's negative sexual self-concept and female sexual dysfunction.
Khanna, R; Price, J
India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children
Martínez-Torres, Martín; Rubio-Morales, Beatriz; Piña-Amado, José Juan; Luis, Juana
The sexual development of saurians follows a similar pattern to that described for other amniotes. Changes in the timing or sequence of development events are known as heterochrony. We describe the pattern of sexual development in the viviparous Mexican lizard Barisia imbricata and report heterochrony in the regression of hemipenes in this lizard. We collected gestating females; some lizards were subjected to partial hysterectomy and the embryos were processed using routine histological technique to assess gonadal development; the remaining embryos were used to assess the development of hemipenes. Other pregnant females were kept in captivity in individual terraria until the time of delivery. All neonates were sexed by eversion of hemipenes and some of their body characteristics were recorded. Several neonates were sacrificed and processed to establish gonadal histology and the young of the remaining litters were maintained in captivity to observe the fate of the hemipenes in both sexes. Gonadal development began at embryonic stage 33 and the hemipenes were visible at the same stage. In the neonates, the ovary contained oogonias and ovarian follicles, whereas the testicles showed testicular cords. All neonates had hemipenes and sex could only be established through direct observation of the reproductive ducts and gonadal histology. The hemipenes regression in the females begins after approximately 7 months of postnatal development and concludes at about 15 months of age. We think that the delayed regression of the hemipenes reflects evolutionary differences among reptiles and may be an indication of a stage in the evolutionary process of this species.
All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option
Carvalho, Joana; Vieira, Armando Luís; Nobre, Pedro
For the last three decades, male and female sexual responses have been conceptualized as similar, based on separated and sequential phases as proposed by the models of Masters and Johnson (1966) and Kaplan (1979) model. However, there is a growing debate around the need to conceptualize female sexual response and the classification of sexual dysfunction in women, in view of the upcoming editions of the DSM and ICD. The aim of this study was to test, using structural equation modeling, five conceptual, alternative models of female sexual function, using a sample of women with sexual difficulties and a sample of women without sexual problems. A total of 1993 Portuguese women participated in the study and completed a modified version of the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings suggested a four-factor solution as the model that best fit the data regarding women presenting sexual difficulties: (1) desire/arousal; (2) lubrication; (3) orgasm; (4) pain/vaginismus. In relation to sexually healthy women, the best model was a five-factor solution comprising of (1) desire; (2) arousal; (3) lubrication; (4) orgasm; and (5) pain/vaginismus. Discriminant validity between factors was supported, suggesting that these dimensions measure distinct phenomena. Model fit to the data significantly decreased in both samples, as models began to successively consider greater levels of overlap among phases of sexual function, towards a single-factor solution. By suggesting the overlap between pain and vaginismus, results partially support the new classification that is currently being discussed regarding DSM-5. Additionally, results on the relationship between sexual desire and arousal were inconclusive as sexually healthy women were better characterized by a five-factor model that considered the structural independence among these factors, whereas women with sexual difficulties better fit with a four-factor model merging sexual desire and subjective sexual arousal.
Lal, Kalpana; Delves, Michael J; Bromley, Elizabeth; Wastling, Jonathan M; Tomley, Fiona M; Sinden, Robert E
Successful development of Plasmodium sexual stages is essential for parasite survival, but the genes involved are poorly understood. We 'knocked out' the male development gene-1 (mdv-1) locus in Plasmodium berghei and found it to be important in female gametocyte activation. Indirect immunofluorescence assays show MDV-1 has a punctate cytoplasmic distribution in gametocytes. After activation of both females and males, MDV-1 is more peripherally located but in males exclusively it becomes concentrated in a few large foci. In vitro ookinete conversion assays that test the ability of activated female gametocytes to develop into retort stage ookinetes, suggests a complicit role for MDV-1, with the knock-out parasite producing 86% reduction in ookinetes. The retort stage ookinete develops from the zygote by increasing growth of an apical protrusion and MDV-1 locates at the 'leading' extracellular apical pole of this protrusion. In the fully developed ookinete MDV-1 is localised to the posterior pole. In vivo, the knock-out parasites demonstrate a phenotype in which there is a 90% reduction of parasite transmission to oocysts in mosquitoes.
Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu
Nationalist movements are emerging today everywhere in the world. Many of them display a high level of aggression and a negative attitude toward sexuality and especially female sexuality. Along with this, erotic fiction with a sadomasochistic orientation has achieved great success and has hundreds of millions of readers in the world. This collective fantasy allows some integration of aggression in sexual life while questioning liberal morality and its equality in gender roles and conservative morality and its idea of control over passion. Both phenomena may represent different responses to the appearance of a new female sexuality threatening the social structure we know.
In this review, first a historical perspective of serotonin's (5-HT) involvement in female sexual behavior is presented. Then an overview of studies implicating 5-HT is presented. The effect of drugs that increase or decrease CNS levels of 5-HT is reviewed. Evidence is presented that drugs which increase 5-HT have negative effects on female sexual behavior while a decrease in 5-HT is associated with facilitation of sexual behavior. Studies with compounds that act on 5-HT₁, 5-HT₂ or 5-HT₃ receptors are discussed. Most evidence indicates that 5-HT₁A receptor agonists inhibit sexual behavior while 5-HT₂ or 5-HT₃ receptors may exert a positive influence. There is substantial evidence to support a role for 5-HT in the modulation of female consummatory sexual behavior, but studies on the role of 5-HT in other elements of female sexual behavior (e.g. desire, motivation, sexual appetite) are few. Future studies should be directed at determining if these additional components of female sexual behavior are also modulated by 5-HT.
In this review, first a historical perspective of serotonin’s (5-HT) involvement in female sexual behavior is presented. Then an overview of studies implicating 5-HT is presented. The effect of drugs that increase or decrease CNS levels of 5-HT is reviewed. Evidence is presented that drugs which increase 5-HT have negative effects on female sexual behavior while a decrease in 5-HT is associated with facilitation of sexual behavior. Studies with compounds that act on 5-HT1, 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors are discussed. Most evidence indicates that 5-HT1A receptor agonists inhibit sexual behavior while 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors may exert a positive influence. There is substantial evidence to support a role for 5-HT in the modulation of female consummatory sexual behavior, but studies on the role of 5-HT in other elements of female sexual behavior (e.g. desire, motivation, sexual appetite) are few. Future studies should be directed at determining if these additional components of female sexual behavior are also modulated by 5-HT. PMID:24239784
Luria, Mijal; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorit; Mock, Moshe
The successful pharmacological treatment of erectile dysfunction in males has led to increasing interest in the sexual problems of women. Yet in recent years there has been growing consensus regarding the differences between male and female sexuality. William Masters and Virginia Johnson's model of sexual response, revised by Helen Singer Kaplan, has been generally accepted for many decades. This model consists of 4 successive phases: desire, excitement (arousal), orgasm and resolution. Rosemary Basson has suggested a different model, valid especially in long-term relationships. According to Basson, a woman may decide to seek a stimuli necessary to ignite sexual desire, for reasons which are not sexual (such as the need for intimacy or emotional bonding). The desire develops at a latter stage, as a consequence and not as a cause. As the understanding of the sexual response grows, new methods of classification and treatment are being developed. Female sexual dysfunction is common, frequently neglected and has a significant impact on the lives of women. It has a diverse etiology including anatomical, physiological, medical as well as psychological and social factors. The assessment of these disorders incorporates both medical and psychological evaluation. The treatment includes education, improvement of inter-personal communication, behavioral treatment and the solution of medical problems. Different medications are being developed but most have yet to be proven effective. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the different methods of classification, diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction.
Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan
This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed.
Vasey, Paul L
Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques is a sexual behavior, not a sociosexual one. Additional evidence indicates that female Japanese macaques do not engage in homosexual behavior simply because acceptable male mates are unavailable or unmotivated to copulate. Patterns of sexual partner choice by female Japanese macaques that are the focus of intersexual competition indicate that females of this species choose same-sex sexual partners even when they are simultaneously presented with a motivated, opposite-sex alternative. Thus, in some populations of Japanese macaques, females prefer certain same-sex sexual partners relative to certain male mates, and vice versa. Taken together, this evidence suggests that female Japanese macaques are best characterized as bisexual in orientation, not preferentially homosexual or preferentially heterosexual.
Studies of female sexuality in Africa tend to adopt an instrumental approach, many times problematizing sexual conduct in relation to HIV infection and/or reproduction. This study aimed to explore sexuality as a relational concept. Using interviews and participant observation, the paper shows how sexuality becomes a point of self-identification for young professional women in Nairobi between 20 and 30 years-old. These women form a group who implicitly and explicitly criticize conventional gender roles through the overt pursuit of sexual pleasure as recognition of their womanhood. This aspect of the feminine sense of self is at odds with normative notions of femininity. To avoid criticism for being 'un-proper', women adopt a deferential attitude towards men. The focus on upwardly mobile professional women and their experiments with new types of heterosexual relations in dating provides insight into both sexuality and gender.
Mishra, Vineet V.; Nanda, Sakshi; Vyas, Bhumika; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Saini, Suwa Ram
Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is described as difficulty experienced by a female during any stage of a normal sexual activity including physical pleasure, desire, arousal, or orgasm. There are various factors responsible for FSD including psychological status of a person, gynecological or medical problems, long use of certain drugs, and social beliefs. Objectives: To study the prevalence and various factors associated with FSD. Materials and Methods: Study Design - This study design was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Tertiary Care Centre, in Ahmedabad from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample Size - One hundred and fifty-three fertile females in reproductive age group (20–47 years) were included in the study. Written and informed consent was obtained from all the females. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Various associated factors such as gynecological or psychological problems were also studied. Exclusion - Infertile patients were excluded from the study. Results: The prevalence of FSD was 55.55% among 153 fertile females. FSD was more prevalent in the age group of 26–30 years and with duration of marriage >16 years. FSD was also more common in females with middle education and those belonging to upper middle socioeconomic status. Psychological stress was significantly associated with FSD. Conclusion: It is right of every female to lead healthy sexual life as it is key to happiness in marriage. Females with FSD can be managed with proper counseling and treating the underlying etiology. PMID:28096637
This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.
Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating.
Solis, O Lizette; Benedek, Elissa P
Female sexual offenders comprise the minority of sexual offenders in the criminal justice system. However, empirical research reveals that sexual offenses against adolescents by females are a bigger problem than previously thought, particularly in the educational system. The authors review some of the data in the criminal justice system as well as in empirical research studies about female sexual offenders, with a specific focus on females who commit sexual crimes against students who are minors.
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a multifactorial set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological, medical and psychological factors that can have major impact on self-esteem, quality of life, mood and relationships. Studies indicate that FSD is commonly seen in women who report a low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and in women with male partners who have erectile dysfunction. This complexity of FSD is augmented by the presence of chronic disease. Negative sexual effects are widely reported in studies of women with chronic diseases (such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cancer, spinal cord injury, lupus, rheumatic diseases, Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and chronic pain) as compared to a general healthy female population. Physical problems, emotional problems and partnership difficulties arising from disease-related stress contribute to less active and less enjoyable sex life. Chronic pain, fatigue, low self-esteem as well as use of medications might reduce sexual function. These effects of chronic diseases on female sexual function still remain largely unstudied. The study by Manor and Zohar published in this issue of Harefuah draws our attention to the sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer and examines their needs for information regarding their sexual function. In the absence of definite treatment evidence, psychological counseling, improved vaginal lubrication, low dose of hormonal therapy can be used to relieve FSD. Physicians must consider integrating diagnosis of their female patients' sexual needs and dysfunction, especially women with chronic diseases. Patients' education and counseling may contribute to a better quality of life in spite of their chronic disease.
Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A
Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes.
Introduction About 45% of women suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, there are few studies that have systematically evaluated sex therapy in comparison with other interventions. Objective Review randomized clinical trials that present psychotherapeutic interventions for female sexual dysfunctions. Method Through a search in three databases (Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo), 1419 references were found. After an analysis of the abstracts, twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and composed this review. Results Sex therapy, as proposed by Masters and Johnson and Heiman and LoPiccolo, is still the most commonly used form of therapy for sexual dysfunctions; although it has shown results, the results do not consistently support that this is the best alternative in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. Conclusion There is a lack of systematic study of many female sexual dysfunctions. Orgasmic disorder and sexual pain (vaginismus and dyspaurenia) are the most extensively studied disorders and those in which sex therapy seems to have better outcomes. PMID:24066697
Toscano, Sharyl Eve
Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a sex party as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved sex acts without vaginal intercourse. Data were collected through 22 semistructured interviews with female adolescents, ages 15-18. All the participants knew of sex parties, however, only a subgroup of these adolescents actually participated in activities loosely defined by teens as sex parties. Alcohol was common at these parties, but female teens asserted that they consumed alcohol willingly to relax, as opposed to being coerced to do so. Some teens expressed regret following participation in a sex party, although none reported sexual coercion or abuse.
Cortoni, Franca; Hanson, R Karl; Coache, Marie-Ève
This study examined the recidivism rates of female sexual offenders. A meta-analysis of 10 studies (2,490 offenders; average follow-up 6.5 years) showed that female sexual offenders have extremely low rates of sexual recidivism (less than 3%). The recidivism rates for violent (including sexual) offences and for any type of crime were predictably higher than the recidivism rates for sexual offences but still lower than the recidivism rates of male sexual offenders. These findings indicate the need for distinct policies and procedures for assessing and managing the risk of male and female sexual offenders. Risk assessment tools developed specifically for male sexual offenders would be expected to substantially overestimate the recidivism risk of female sexual offenders.
McGregor, Kim; Jülich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had not disclosed reported that they would have liked to but were not asked about child sexual abuse. Thirty-five percent of participants suggested routine questioning about child sexual abuse. Most participants related a fear of common medical examination procedures to their experience of child sexual abuse, and 64% said this stopped them from attending regular health checks. The current study suggests the development of guidelines for dealing with possible child sexual abuse survivors would be useful for health professionals.
Bernardi, Maria M; Scanzerla, Kayne K; Chamlian, Mayra; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Felicio, Luciano F
Previous studies from our laboratory investigated the effects of picrotoxin (PT), a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist administered during several perinatal periods, on the sexual behavior of male and female rats. We observed that the time of perinatal exposure to PT is critical to determine either facilitation or impairment of sexual behavior. The present study evaluated the effects of prenatal administration of a single dose of PT on gestation day 18 of dams (the first critical period of male brain sexual differentiation) on sexual behavior of male and female offspring. Thus, female Wistar rats were mated with males and, on gestation day 18, received 0.6 mg/kg of PT or 0.9% saline solution subcutaneously. On postnatal day 1, the offspring were weighed and several measures of sexual development were assessed. The sexual behaviors and the general activity in the open field of adult male and ovariectomized, hormone-treated female rats were observed. On comparison with the control group, maternal PT treatment: (i) did not alter the maternal weight, pup weight, anogenital distance, or male and female general activity; (ii) increased female sexual behavior, that is, decreased the latencies to first mount, first lordosis, and tenth lordosis, and the percentage of females presenting lordosis; and (iii) did not alter male sexual behavior. It is suggested that prenatal PT exposure interfered with epigenetic mechanisms related to the development of sex differences in the brain, leading to the observed sexually dimorphic effects on sexual behavior.
Pendragon, Diane K
This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.
Berman, J R; Berman, L A; Werbin, T J; Goldstein, I
It has been estimated that up to 76% of women, depending upon their age, have complaints of sexual dysfunction, including decreased libido, vaginal dryness, pain with intercourse, decreased genital sensation and difficulty or inability to achieve orgasm. Female sexual dysfunction is a significant problem that affects the quality of life of many women. This review addresses the etiologies and incidence of female sexual complaints, as well as new findings in the evaluation and treatment of female sexual dysfunction.
Women's sexual function is a complex and dynamic interplay of variables that involve physical, emotional, and psychosocial states. Sexual dysfunction may occur at any level, and diagnosing such issues begins with careful assessment through a sexual health history. However, discussions about female sexual health and function are often deficient in the primary care setting. This article reviews the published research on female sexual function, sexual dysfunction, and sexual function in pregnancy to gain a better understanding of how these aspects of a woman's life impact the health care services she receives. The evaluation of female sexual function is in need of consistent measurement tools and more dialogue during health care visits. Women's health care practitioners have an opportunity to advance patient satisfaction and overall health by evaluating and communicating with female patients about their sexual function.
Langanke, H; Ross, M W
Clients of sex workers in Germany used to be unapproachable for issues of sexual health. Thus, prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases used to focus on sex workers only, even though many sex workers accuse clients preferring unprotected sex. When prostitution was decriminalized in Germany in 2002, a till then unknown platform emerged on the German internet. Clients set up forums for themselves and their peers. These community forums were primarily meant to serve as platforms for the exchange of information, e.g. on the quality of services. We describe the development and expansion of these web-sites for clients of female commercial sex workers, and the clientele and operation of such sites. To study and to describe the sites, a close cooperation with their webmasters and administrators was crucial. The clients' community forums mark a change in paradigm, as clients became an accessible and addressable target group for sexual health and prevention issues on the internet. The Sexsicher sites have been developed to adequately target this group.
Damjanović, Aleksandar; Duisin, Dragana; Barisić, Jasmina
Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes.The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time.The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female's sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes.The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function.The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman's sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions.The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women's problematic sexual experiences.
Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy
This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…
The distinction between the ability to copulate and the desire to copulate is used to understand species differences in hormonal regulation of female sexual behavior. Evidence is presented demonstrating that ovarian hormones modulate female sexual motivation in both rodent and primate females. The thesis is developed that rodent females differ from primate females primarily in their dependence upon hormones for the ability to mate. Thus, apparent differences between the two groups of females in the extent to which hormones control copulatory behavior does not stem from differences in hormonal regulation of female sexual motivation but from the physical ability of primate, but not rodent, females to mate without hormonal stimulation. This emancipation of the ability to copulate from hormonal influence makes female sexual motivation the primary regulator of mating in primates. Dependence upon female sexual motivation means that the copulatory behavior of primate females is easily influenced by their physical and social environment. Because primate females can mate without hormonal input, female sexual initiation, not copulation, is argued to be the only valid indicator of female sexual motivation.
Brask, Josefine B; Croft, Darren P; Thompson, Katharine; Dabelsteen, Torben; Darden, Safi K
Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, we confirmed that non-receptive females were harassed less when they were paired with a more sexually attractive (receptive) female than with another non-receptive female. We then found that, indeed, females exploit this as a strategy to reduce sexual harassment; non-receptive females actively preferred to associate with receptive over non-receptive females. Importantly, when given access only to chemosensory cues, non-receptive females still showed this preference, suggesting that they use information from chemical cues to assess the sexual attractiveness of potential female partners. Receptive females in contrast showed no such preferences. Our results demonstrate that females can decrease male harassment by associating with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others to their advantage; in this case, to reduce the sexual harassment they experience.
Boyer, Stéphanie C; Goldfinger, Corrie; Thibault-Gagnon, Stéphanie; Pukall, Caroline F
Our understanding of the sexual pain disorders vaginismus and dyspareunia has been fundamentally altered over the past two decades due to increased attention and empirically sound research in this domain. This increased knowledge base has included a shift from a dualistic view of the etiology of painful and/or difficult vaginal penetration being due to either psychological or physiological causes, to a multifactorial perspective. The present chapter reviews current classification and prevalence rates, including ongoing definitional debates. Research regarding the etiology, assessment and management of sexual pain disorders is discussed from a biopsychosocial perspective. Cyclical theories of the development and maintenance of sexual pain disorders, which highlight the complex interplay among physiological, psychological and social factors, are described. Medical/surgical treatment options, pelvic floor rehabilitation and psychological approaches are reviewed, as well as future directions in treatment research.
In spite of recent interest in sexual selection in females, debate exists over whether traits that influence female–female competition are sexually selected. This review uses female–female aggressive behavior as a model behavioral trait for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms promoting intrasexual competition, focusing especially on sexual selection. I employ a broad definition of sexual selection, whereby traits that influence competition for mates are sexually selected, whereas those that directly influence fecundity or offspring survival are naturally selected. Drawing examples from across animal taxa, including humans, I examine 4 predictions about female intrasexual competition based on the abundance of resources, the availability of males, and the direct or indirect benefits those males provide. These patterns reveal a key sex difference in sexual selection: Although females may compete for the number of mates, they appear to compete more so for access to high-quality mates that provide direct and indirect (genetic) benefits. As is the case in males, intrasexual selection in females also includes competition for essential resources required for access to mates. If mate quality affects the magnitude of mating success, then restricting sexual selection to competition for quantity of mates may ignore important components of fitness in females and underestimate the role of sexual selection in shaping female phenotype. In the future, understanding sex differences in sexual selection will require further exploration of the extent of mutual intrasexual competition and the incorporation of quality of mating success into the study of sexual selection in both sexes. PMID:22479137
Nakada, Tomoaki; Toyoda, Fumiyo; Matsuda, Kouhei; Nakakura, Takashi; Hasunuma, Itaru; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Onoue, Satomi; Yokosuka, Makoto; Kikuyama, Sakae
The male red-bellied newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster) approaches the female's cloaca prior to performing any courtship behaviour, as if he is using some released substance to gauge whether she is sexually receptive. Therefore, we investigated whether such a female sexual attractiveness pheromone exists. We found that a tripeptide with amino acid sequence Ala-Glu-Phe is secreted by the ciliary cells in the epithelium of the proximal portion of the oviduct of sexually developed newts and confirmed that this is the major active substance in water in which sexually developed female newts have been kept. This substance only attracted sexually developed male newts and acted by stimulating the vomeronasal epithelial cells. This is the first female sexual attractiveness peptide pheromone to be identified in a vertebrate.
Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."
İnan, Cihan; Ağır, Meriç Çağrı; Sağır, Fulya Gökdağlı; Özer, Atınç; Özbek, Özlem; Dayanır, Hakan; Uysal, Gökçe Saygı; Uysal, Onur
Background: The scar tissue formed by episiotomy during vaginal delivery, and the related pain, is very frequent. The change in the normal anatomy can cause cosmetic and physiologic problems. It can affect and cause deterioration in sexual functions. Therefore, making the right diagnosis and applying the right surgical procedures are very important. Aims: Our aim was to examine the effect of the perineoplasty operation on the sexual dysfunctions that present due to vaginal delivery. Study Design: Self-controlled study. Methods: Forty patients, who attended our clinic between April 2012 and May 2013, and who were between the ages of 20 and 50 years, were included in the study. The patients had complaints of scar tissue in the perineum and various sexual dysfunctions after vaginal delivery, and they were suitable for perineoplasty. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was applied to the patients before and 6 months after the operation, and the results were compared. Results: After the perineoplasty operation, there was a statistically significant improvement in the patients in the domains of sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction (p<0.005). However, there was no significant improvement in the feeling of pain during sexual intercourse (p=0.184). The mean±SD total FSFI score increased significantly after the operation (p<0.005). Conclusion: The sexual dysfunctions that develop due to perineal damage during vaginal delivery can benefit significantly from the perineoplasty operation if the indications are correct. However, vaginal perineoplasty did not provide an improvement in dyspareunia. PMID:26185713
Castillo Mezzich, A; Tarter, R E; Giancola, P R; Lu, S; Kirisci, L; Parks, S
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the etiological pathways towards substance use and risky sexual behavior in female adolescent substance abusers. The study had three aims: (1) to determine the relations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior, (2) to determine whether these relations are mediated by internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, and affiliating with an adult boyfriend; and (3) to determine whether age of menarche moderates the relation between the mediating variables and substance use and risky sexual behavior. Multiple behavioral, psychiatric interview, and self-report measures were used to index behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, childhood victimization, internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, affiliation with adult boyfriends, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in 125 substance abusing female adolescents and 78 controls between the ages of 14-18 years. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the etiological pathways. Results indicated that behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization were related to substance use and risky sexual behavior. Age of menarche was significantly correlated with affiliation with an older boyfriend and risky sexual behavior. Antisocial behavior mediated the associations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior. Affiliation with an adult boyfriend was directly associated with substance use involvement and accounted for the relationship between chronological age and risky sexual behavior. Finally, late menarche enhanced the association between internalizing symptomatology and substance use involvement. The results highlight the importance of behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization in predicting substance use and risky sexual
Gordon, Michael; Shankweiler, Penelope J.
Bestselling marriage manuals were examined to see if changes had occurred in the portrayal of female sexuality. It was found that the woman is still assumed to have less sexual interest and experience than the man, who is ascribed the instrumental role of cultivating his wife's sexuality. (Author)
Anding, R; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Rantell, A; Wiedemann, A
With increasing age many women suffer from lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and female sexual dysfunction. An increasing body of evidence supports an association between the 2 conditions. Especially women with urodynamically proved detrusor hyperactivity suffer from sexual dysfunction and there is some evidence that in patients with stress incontinence sexual health improves after successful surgery.
Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius
Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.
Chedraui, Peter; Pérez-López, Faustino R
Assessment of sexual function is a complex process, especially in women, which requires in any individual case: time, appropriate training and experience. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is quite variable depending on the studied population, assessment methods, comorbid conditions and treatments, and age. A large number of screening methods have been developed over the last decades which range from tedious, exhaustive and boring tools to very simple standardized questionnaires. The 19-item female sexual function index (FSFI-19) is among the most used and useful- instrument designed to assess female sexual function in all types of circumstances, sexual orientation and perform the comparison of transcultural factors. A short 6-item- version of the FSFI-19 has been developed to provide a quick general approach to the six original domains (one item per domain). Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations as it has been extensively demonstrated with the original tool.
Bass, Tanya M
Sexuality is inseparable from sexual health and can refer to sex, gender identities, orientation, pleasure, intimacy, expression, and reproduction. While each element of human sexuality is important, all of these components interconnect to make us complete sexual beings. Educators and other human service providers thus require professional preparation to ensure they can meet the needs of their learners, effectively manage programming, and successfully implement strategies that allow individuals to embrace or manage their sexual existence. An inclusive approach to sexual health is best to meet the sexual health needs of all women, while ensuring their agency and control of their own bodies.
Latif, Erin Z; Diamond, Michael P
Female sexual dysfunctions include a group of sexual complaints and disorders affecting women of all ages, and stemming from a heterogeneous array of etiologies and contributing factors. The classification system for sexual dysfunctions in the woman has evolved from a linear categorization of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders to one that is more complex and overlapping. Personal distress is a key factor in defining a sexual problem as a dysfunction. The recently released Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, edition 5, collapses former definitions of female sexual disorders and moves away from the older linear model of diagnostic categories. Physicians should be open to discussing sexual problems with women, and may make use of validated questionnaires in the office setting. Evaluation tools available for assessing sexual function in the woman are in use in the research setting, as are physiological measures of assessment.
Nakada, Tomoaki; Toyoda, Fumiyo; Matsuda, Kouhei; Nakakura, Takashi; Hasunuma, Itaru; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Onoue, Satomi; Yokosuka, Makoto; Kikuyama, Sakae
The male red-bellied newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster) approaches the female’s cloaca prior to performing any courtship behaviour, as if he is using some released substance to gauge whether she is sexually receptive. Therefore, we investigated whether such a female sexual attractiveness pheromone exists. We found that a tripeptide with amino acid sequence Ala-Glu-Phe is secreted by the ciliary cells in the epithelium of the proximal portion of the oviduct of sexually developed newts and confirmed that this is the major active substance in water in which sexually developed female newts have been kept. This substance only attracted sexually developed male newts and acted by stimulating the vomeronasal epithelial cells. This is the first female sexual attractiveness peptide pheromone to be identified in a vertebrate. PMID:28120945
Bond, Dale S.; Wing, Rena R.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Sax, Harry C.; Roye, G. Dean; Ryder, Beth A.; Pohl, Dieter; Giovanni, Jeannine
Background We previously reported that the majority of women seeking bariatric surgery had female sexual dysfunction (FSD) as defined by the validated Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Objective The current study examined whether FSD resolves after bariatric surgery. Setting The Miriam Hospital, Providence RI, USA. Methods Fifty-four reportedly sexually active women (43.3±9.5 years) completed the FSFI pre- and 6-months post-operatively after a mean excess weight loss (%EWL) of 42.3% [Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) n=38; %EWL=34.6±15.7; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) n=16; %EWL=60.0±21.2). The FSFI assesses sexual function across six domains with higher scores indicating better sexual function. Summing of these scores yields a FSFI-total score (range=2–36 with ≤26.55=FSD). Results Before surgery, 34 women (63%) had scores indicative of FSD. By 6-months after surgery, FSD had resolved in 23 of these 34 (68%) women, and only 1 woman developed FSD. In the entire sample, there were significant (p<0.05) improvements from pre- to post-surgery on all FSFI domains. FSFI-total scores improved after LAGB (24.2±5.9 to 29.1±4.1, p<0.001) and RYGB (23.7±7.7 to 30.0±4.7, p<0.001). In regression analyses, being married, younger age, and worse preoperative sexual function were related to greater sexual function improvements. Postoperatively, participants’ FSFI-total scores were indistinguishable from published normative controls (29.4±4.3 vs. 30.5±5.3, p=0.18). Conclusion FSD resolved in a large percentage of women. Sexual functioning in the entire sample improved to levels consistent with normative controls. This improvement in sexual function did not depend on surgery type or weight loss amount, and appears to be an additional benefit for women undergoing bariatric surgery. PMID:20678969
Stoinski, Tara S; Perdue, Bonnie M; Legg, Angela M
Previous research in gorillas suggests that females engage in post-conception mating as a form of sexual competition designed to improve their own reproductive success. This study focused on sexual behaviors in a newly formed group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) housed at Zoo Atlanta. All females engaged in mating outside their conceptive periods, although there was individual variation in the frequency of the behavior. An analysis of the presence/absence of sexual behavior found females, regardless of reproductive condition, were more likely to engage in sexual behavior on days when other females were sexually active. On these "co-occurrence" days, females were significantly more likely to solicit the silverback, but copulations did not differ from expectation. The results find further evidence for sexual competition among female gorillas and suggest that this may occur throughout their reproductive cycle rather than only during pregnancy.
Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L
We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality.
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Meston, Cindy M.
Introduction Recent research has highlighted a complex association between female sexual function and subjective distress regarding sexual activity. These findings are difficult to explain given limited knowledge as to the mechanisms through which impaired sexual function causes distress. Aim The current study assessed whether a number of specific consequences of impaired sexual function, including decreased physical pleasure, disruption of sexual activity, and negative partner responses, mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Methods Eighty seven women in sexually active relationships reporting impairments in sexual function completed validated self-report measures and daily online assessments of sexual experiences. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Measure of Sexual Consequences (MSC). Results Results suggested that decreased physical pleasure and disruption of sexual activity, but not partner responses, statistically mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Conclusion Sexual consequences represent potential maintaining factors of sexual dysfunction that are highly distressing to women. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical models of sexual dysfunction and related treatments. PMID:25556719
Yeung, Jennifer; Pauls, Rachel N
The female vulva is an intricate structure comprising several components. Each structure has been described separately, but the interplay among them and physiologic significance remain controversial. The structures extend inferiorly from the pubic arch and include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, and clitoris. The clitoris is widely accepted as the most critical anatomic structure to female sexual arousal and orgasm. The female sexual response cycle is also very complex, requiring emotional and mental stimulation in addition to end organ stimulation.
DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder
Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…
This article discusses women who have sexual compulsivity, a disorder that is intensely shame-based and difficult to treat. The case studies presented show the family preconditioning of abandonment in childhood through inadequate care, abuse, neglect, and the presence of other addictions. As children, these women searched for something to soothe their distress when they could not rely on their caregivers. Maladaptive coping mechanisms, such as masturbation, food, romantic or violent fantasies, and any behavior to would gain attention, maintained their sanity in childhood. However, these behaviors also advanced to autonomy, eliminating the option of choices. In adulthood, the numbing of psychic pain by these found solutions became a preoccupation around which life was organized. Consequences developed and as the disease progressed, large amounts of time were regularly lost in fantasy and ritualistic behaviors, causing life to become unmanageable. The fear of being discovered, loneliness, and sexually transmitted diseases typically escalates to spiritual bankruptcy and eventual spiritual, psychological, and possibly physical death. The dilemma is too deep and powerful for women to heal themselves over time, partly because of her impaired thinking, unresolved trauma, and desperation-driven repeat of the behaviors. Proper intervention and treatment can make a difference. Restoration to full health takes years, requiring diligence, motivation, and a therapist who is knowledgeable, committed, patient, and willing to use all available modalities. Trust is a huge issue for these women, and even when taking a positive risk in therapy, trauma responses from early childhood may be evoked. These women are exquisitely sensitive to criticism, but if feeling safe most can learn to trust and will respond to help, because they long to be restored to their values, be self-sufficient, and have a voice that is respected. Uncovering sexual secrets from previous generations, still
van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Talens, Jona G; Woertman, Liesbeth
Studies in the field of body image have primarily addressed its negative aspects, such as body dissatisfaction. The present study focused instead on women who are satisfied with their bodies and on how body satisfaction relates to sexual health. A sample of 319 Dutch female university students completed an online survey that included items about body image evaluation, body image investment, overweight preoccupation, body image affect during sexual activity, sexual frequency, sexual functioning, and sexual self-esteem. We found that the level of body dissatisfaction was minimal in our sample. The majority reported neutral or mildly positive body evaluations, and in 30% of the sample these evaluations were clearly positive. Comparisons between women who reported positive versus neutral body evaluations showed that the body-satisfied women had lower body mass indexes (BMIs) and reported less body image investment, less overweight preoccupation, and less body self-consciousness during sexual activity. With regard to sexual health, they reported higher sexual self-esteem and better sexual functioning. Furthermore, we found that body image self-consciousness was negatively associated with sexual functioning, sexual self-esteem, and frequency of sexual activity with a partner. Body satisfaction did not account for a portion of the relationship of body self-consciousness during sexual activity with sexual health.
Shearer, Meagan K; Katz, Larry S
The hypothesis that female-female mounting is proceptivity in goats, in that male goats are aroused by the visual cues of this mounting behavior, was tested. Once a week, male goats were randomly selected and placed in a test pen in which they were allowed to observe one of six selected social or sexual stimulus conditions. The stimulus conditions were one familiar male with two estrous females (MEE); three estrous females that displayed female-female mounting (E(m)); three estrous females that did not mount (E(nm)); three non-estrous females (N(E)); three familiar males (M); and no animals in the pen (Empty). After 10 min, the stimulus animals were removed, and an estrous female was placed in the test pen with the male for a 20-min sexual performance test. During sexual performance tests, the frequencies and latencies of all sexual behaviors were recorded. This procedure was repeated so all males (n = 6) were tested once each test day, and all the stimulus conditions were presented each test day. This was repeated weekly until all males had been exposed to each stimulus condition. Viewing mounting behavior, whether male-female or female-female, increased the total number of sexual behaviors displayed, increased ejaculation frequency, and decreased latency to first mount and ejaculation, post-ejaculatory interval, and the interval between ejaculations. We conclude that male goats are aroused by the visual cues of mounting behavior, and that female-female mounting is proceptivity in goats.
Garrity, Mary Kate
This social constructivist/constructionist research explores changes in female therapists' intimate relationships after they began working with survivors of female sexual violence. Discourse analysis found that working with survivors shifted participants' initially naive understanding of female sexual violence, as they developed a critical…
Wilkerson, Tracy Kay
Research literature pertaining to revictimization as a sequela to childhood sexual abuse of females is reviewed and the methodology critiqued. Inconsistent definitions of the variables and a variety of possible intervening factors make the attribution of direct causality between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent revictimization in adulthood…
Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…
Toscano, Sharyl Eve
Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…
Journal of Counseling and Development, 1991
A counseling student describes her experience as a target of long-term, systematic harassment in the form of sexual seduction by her practicum supervisor. The author recounts the effects of experiencing the harassment, confronting her harasser, and enduring an investigation. Claims events of case demonstrate sexualization of professor-student…
Snow, Linda J.; Parsons, Jean L.
Investigates the differences among 300 college women in four sex-role categories with regard to sexual behavior and attitudes. Results indicated that androgynous women did not differ significantly from feminine and masculine women with regard to sexual functioning, while undifferentiated women were more restricted. (JAC)
Harvey, S M; Beckman, L J
To examine the effects of alcohol consumption on female sexuality and contraceptive use, 69 sexually active women between the ages of 18 and 34 completed daily logs of their drinking behavior, sexual activity and contraceptive use over three consecutive menstrual cycles. In addition, participants completed a post-study questionnaire that assessed personal beliefs regarding alcohol use and sexual behavior. Although the results from the daily logs failed to show any significant effects of alcohol on subsequent sexual arousal, sexual pleasure or orgasm, female-initiated sexual activity appeared to be inversely related to alcohol use with women initiating significantly fewer sexual activities following the consumption of alcohol. On the contrary, the retrospective questionnaire data indicated that women believed alcohol enhanced sexual desire, enjoyment and activity. The findings further indicated that alcohol consumption immediately prior to sexual intercourse did not significantly alter the use of coitus-dependent contraceptives. These data suggest that women view alcohol as an aphrodisiac despite their physiological and reported behavioral responses.
Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra
Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults.
Vrees, Roxanne A
Sexual assault is characterized by any sexual contact or behavior that occurs without explicit consent. Classifications vary based on the status of the perpetrator's relationship to the victim (eg, stranger, acquaintance) and characteristics of the victim herself (eg, child, elder adult, mentally disabled adult). Regardless of the classification, sexual assault is a significant individual as well as public health issue affecting women of all ages. While the majority of sexual assault cases are not initially reported to law enforcement, the best available data suggest the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault in the United States is approximately 20% among adult women. With such a significant proportion of women affected by sexual assault, women's health care providers in both ambulatory and emergency care settings play key roles in the evaluation, management, and advocacy of these victims. Establishing standard protocols based on state laws and on victim-centered practices to avoid revictimization of the patient is critical. The primary goals of care include the assessment and treatment of physical injuries, psychological assessment and support, pregnancy assessment and prevention, and therapy for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. In addition, evidentiary collection is a critical component of the sexual assault evaluation and subsequent legal proceedings. This report focuses specifically on the immediate evaluation and management of adult female victims of sexual assault. Best practices include the utility of the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner and Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner programs, as well as standardized treatment protocols.
Houman, Justin; Feng, Tom; Eilber, Karyn S; Anger, Jennifer T
Female sexual dysfunction affects approximately 40% of women (Sexual problems and distress in United States women: prevalence and correlates; Shifren et al., Obstet Gynecol, 112(5): 970-978, 2008). Due to its multi-factorial etiology, a wide variety of treatments are available that address specific symptoms, but no treatment exists that treats the overall disorder. Significant strides have recently been made in an effort to treat the plethora of symptoms associated with this disorder. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of recent research on the available treatments for female sexual dysfunction. We discuss novel agents such as flibanserin, as well as various mechanical devices and hormonal treatments aimed at the specific subtypes of female sexual dysfunction.
Mishra, Vineet V.; Nanda, Sakshi; Gandhi, Khushali; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Gondhali, Raveendra
BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in Indian women is often overlooked due to cultural beliefs and considered as social taboos. Sexuality is an important and integral part of life. There are many causes of sexual dysfunction, but the prevalence of FSD in endometriotic patients is still underdiagnosed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design - Cross-sectional observational study conducted at tertiary care center, from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample size - Fifty-one patients in reproductive age group (18–47 years) who were diagnosed with endometriosis on diagnostic laparoscopy were included. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Exclusion - Patients with other gynecological, medical or surgical history were excluded. RESULTS: Out of 51 patients with endometriosis, 47.06% of patients had sexual dysfunction. With the increase in staging of endometriosis, sexual dysfunction prevalence is also rising. FSD was 100% in patients with severe endometriosis as compared to 33.33% in minimal endometriosis. CONCLUSION: Every individual deserves good sexual life. The sexual dysfunction associated with endometriosis should also be taken into consideration while managing these patients. PMID:28216913
West, Suzanne L; Vinikoor, Lisa C; Zolnoun, Denniz
Interest in human sexuality began in the 18th century, but formal and more rigorous studies focused on sexual satisfaction and sexual practices were published in the early 1900s. Alfred Kinsey's pioneering work on sexuality, in which he surveyed over 10,000 men and women age 16 and older, began in the late 1930s. In the mid-1960s, Masters and Johnson published their seminal work characterizing the sexual response cycle. Since then, numerous researchers have attempted to understand and to quantify "normal" sexual behaviors using survey techniques. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction overall and, more specifically, on sexual desire disorder, arousal difficulties, anorgasmia, and dyspareunia. The review also encompassed dysfunction related to the reproductive factors, such as pregnancy, hysterectomy, and menopause. We included sexual dysfunction comorbid with diabetes, depression, and antidepressant therapies. In total, 85 studies are summarized in this review, which spans literature from the early 1900s to the present. We performed a quality assessment of each study, defining quality based on the representativeness of the population studied and the rigor of the instruments used for assessing sexual dysfunction. Although none of the 85 studies included in the review met both standards of quality, some met one criterion and not the other. Definitions of female sexual dysfunction have been developed and refined recently, but there is an urgent need to determine measurable outcomes that can be used for future work.
Taylor, Peggy; And Others
The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…
Hernandez, Belinda F; Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Burr, Jean; Roberts, Timothy; Emery, Susan Tortolero
Despite the sizable population of military-dependent youth (MDY) in the United States and the military stressors they experience (e.g., relocations, parental deployment), little is known about MDY's sexual behavior, especially about the perceived role that military stressors play in their sexual decisions, such as the decision to initiate sex. We conducted 25 semistructured, in-depth interviews with sexually experienced female MDY aged 15 to 19 years to (a) describe MDY's general perceptions of military life and (b) identify intrapersonal and interpersonal characteristics related to MDY's sexual initiation, including the perceived impact of military stressors. We analyzed life history grids and transcripts to identify common and unique themes across participants' experiences. Most participants reported having positive experiences related to military life, and most did not believe that military stressors influenced their decision to initiate sex. Common intrapersonal and interpersonal characteristics related to sexual initiation were having an older first sexual partner, being in a dating relationship, receiving sexual health education prior to their first sexual experience, and discussing sex with a parent prior to their first sexual experience. These intrapersonal and interpersonal characteristics should be considered when developing sexual health programs for MDY, which should focus on building supportive peer and parental relationships.
Feleder, C; Ginzburg, M; Wuttke, W; Moguilevsky, J A; Arias, P
The aim of the present studies was to assess, in immature female rats, the effect of the GABAergic system on the reproductive axis and on pubertal development. With this purpose we initially evaluated, in 30-day-old female rats, the effect of persistently enhanced GABAergic activity (aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) 10 mg/kg per day i.p., during postnatal days 23-29) on hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and amino acid neurotransmitter (AANT; glutamate or GLU, and taurine or TAU) concentrations, on circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol levels, and on ovaric weight. In a second group of similarly treated rats, the date of vaginal opening (VO) was recorded. Complementary in vitro experiments (superfusion of anterior/mediobasal hypothalamic fragments obtained from rats aged 30 days) were performed to evaluate the effect of the short-term activation of the GABAergic system (by means of AOAA, muscimol or baclofen) on hypothalamic GnRH and AANT release. Prolonged treatment with AOAA led to a marked increase in hypothalamic gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) concentrations (p<0.002), and to a significant decrease in hypothalamic GnRH and GLU content (p<0.05 and <0.02, respectively). Furthermore, treated animals showed diminished serum LH (p<0.05) and estradiol (p<0.005) levels, and a clear reduction in ovaric weight (p<0.002). Mean age at VO was 30. 8+/-0.6 days in control animals (range: 29-34 days), and 36.7+/-0.98 days in AOAA-treated rats (range: 33-40 days; p<0.0001). Acute treatment with AOAA resulted in a decreased GnRH and GLU output, and in an increased TAU release from superfused hypothalamic fragments. This effect was mimicked by the GABA-A and GABA-B agonists. Our results show that the activation of the GABAergic system during postnatal days 23-29 significantly restrains the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovaric axis, resulting in a clear-cut delay in sexual development. This can be attributed to the inhibitory effect exerted by GABA (acting on both
Shors, Tracey J.; Tobόn, Krishna; DiFeo, Gina; Durham, Demetrius M.; Chang, Han Yan M.
Sexual aggression can disrupt processes related to learning as females emerge from puberty into young adulthood. To model these experiences in laboratory studies, we developed SCAR, which stands for Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response. During puberty, a rodent female is paired daily for 30-min with a sexually-experienced adult male. During the SCAR experience, the male tracks the anogenital region of the female as she escapes from pins. Concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone were significantly elevated during and after the experience. Moreover, females that were exposed to the adult male throughout puberty did not perform well during training with an associative learning task nor did they learn well to express maternal behaviors during maternal sensitization. Most females that were exposed to the adult male did not learn to care for offspring over the course of 17 days. Finally, females that did not express maternal behaviors retained fewer newly-generated cells in their hippocampus whereas those that did express maternal behaviors retained more cells, most of which would differentiate into neurons within weeks. Together these data support SCAR as a useful laboratory model for studying the potential consequences of sexual aggression and trauma for the female brain during puberty and young adulthood. PMID:26804826
Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.
Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov♂(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov♀(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237
Baltieri, Danilo Antonio
Although health surveys on sexual issues during incarceration have shown that women report having engaged in sexual activities while in prison, studies on sexual functioning in female inmates have been largely dismissed. This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among incarcerated women and determine the psychometric and sociodemographic features that are possibly related to the risk of sexual dysfunction. This was a cross-sectional study conducted inside a penitentiary for women in São Paulo, Brazil. From June 2006 to June 2010, 315 inmates convicted of robbery or homicide were recruited. High risk of female sexual dysfunction (HRFSD) was measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and participants were also evaluated for alcohol and drug misuse, impulsiveness, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial features. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were utilized to analyze the data. Among the participants, 253 (80.32 %) met the criteria for HRFSD. Older age, total time of imprisonment, and depressive symptoms were related to a higher risk, while the status of being married, being Black, having sexual relations with other inmates, and receiving conjugal visits were associated with a lower risk. As only 110 (34.92 %) inmates admitted to having sexual relationships inside prison, we evaluated this sub-sample separately. For this sub-sample, 61 (55.45 %) women met the criteria for HRFSD and the main factors associated with this risk were total time of imprisonment and depressive symptoms. Incarcerated women are uniquely vulnerable because they often have histories of deprivation and violence stemming from multiple sources and experience considerable psychological symptoms as a consequence of imprisonment. With the affected population rarely receiving psychosocial management for sexual dysfunction, service delivery efforts should be intensified to target this high-risk population.
I propose an evolutionary theory of human female sexual fluidity and argue that women may have been evolutionarily designed to be sexually fluid in order to allow them to have sex with their cowives in polygynous marriage and thus reduce conflict and tension inherent in such marriage. In addition to providing an extensive definition and operationalization of the concept of sexual fluidity and specifying its ultimate function for women, the proposed theory can potentially solve several theoretical and empirical puzzles in evolutionary psychology and sex research. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) confirm the theory's predictions that: (i) women (but not men) who experience increased levels of sexual fluidity have a larger number of children (suggesting that female sexual fluidity, if heritable, may be evolutionarily selected); (ii) women (but not men) who experience marriage or parenthood early in adult life subsequently experience increased levels of sexual fluidity; and (iii) sexual fluidity is significantly positively correlated with known markers of unrestricted sexual orientation among women whereas it is significantly negatively correlated with such markers among men.
McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…
Choi, HyeJeong; Van Ouytsel, Joris; Temple, Jeff R
This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females' involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion.
Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.
A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)
Feng, Kai; Palfreyman, Mark T; Häsemeyer, Martin; Talsma, Aaron; Dickson, Barry J
Mating induces pronounced changes in female reproductive behavior, typically including a dramatic reduction in sexual receptivity. In Drosophila, postmating behavioral changes are triggered by sex peptide (SP), a male seminal fluid peptide that acts via a receptor (SPR) expressed in sensory neurons (SPSNs) of the female reproductive tract. Here, we identify second-order neurons that mediate the behavioral changes induced by SP. These SAG neurons receive synaptic input from SPSNs in the abdominal ganglion and project to the dorsal protocerebrum. Silencing SAG neurons renders virgin females unreceptive, whereas activating them increases the receptivity of females that have already mated. Physiological experiments demonstrate that SP downregulates the excitability of the SPSNs, and hence their input onto SAG neurons. These data thus provide a physiological correlate of mating status in the female central nervous system and a key entry point into the brain circuits that control sexual receptivity.
Sexual harassment and abuse by authority figures in sports are discussed in relation to how female athletes might improve their personal safety to guard against such practices. The origins of sport research on this theme are traced, and the processes of sexual harassment and abuse are identified. Risk factors for the coach, the athlete, and the sport are presented, and, finally, sources of prevention measures for coaches, athletes, parents, and clubs are provided.
Wolpe, Raquel E; Zomkowski, Kamilla; Silva, Fabiana P; Queiroz, Ana Paula A; Sperandio, Fabiana F
The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in the Brazilian population. This is a systematic review conducted in July 2016 in which four databases were searched: MEDLINE/Pubmed, Scopus, LILACS, and Cinahl. Two investigators extracted the primary data, which were fully analyzed, and applied the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The search found 113 results, and 20 of them compounded the scope of this study. Only four of the studies showed good methodology quality. The main diagnostics criteria used were validated questionnaires specific for sexual function assessment. Regarding the variation of prevalence values, female sexual dysfunction ranged from 13.3% to 79.3% of the studied population, while this value for changes in sexual desire ranged from 11% to 75%, arousal from 8% to 68.2%, lubrication from 29.1% to 41.4%, orgasm from 18% to 55.4%, and satisfaction from 3.3% to 42%; sexual activity frequency ranged from 55.8% to 78.5%, dyspareunia from 1.2% to 56.1%, and pleasure modifications was not addressed. Beside the divergences among studies, there is still a high prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in Brazil.
Vega Matuszczyk, Josefa
An attempt to elucidate the possible role of prenatal estrogen on the development of feminine sexual behavior and reproductive function was made by treating females with the antiestrogen CI628 prenatally on days 13-19. Control females were prenatally treated with saline or remained untreated. The animals were delivered by caesarian section on day 22 of pregnancy and placed with foster mothers whose newborn pups had been previously removed. Intact peripubertal females in each treatment group were observed for several reproductive measures, including the capacity to become pregnant. Other females were ovariectomized in adulthood and treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) (1, 1.5, 2 or 4 micro g/rat) and 0.5 mg progesterone and tested for receptivity, proceptivity and sexual partner preference. Two weeks after the completion of these tests, the females were injected daily for 7 days with 0.25 mg testosterone and tested for sexual partner preference and mounting behavior. The results obtained showed accelerated vaginal opening, and infertility in the antiestrogen-treated intact females and enhanced receptivity and proceptivity in response to 1 micro g EB in the antiestrogen ovariectomized females. Sexual partner preference and mounting behavior did not differ between groups. These results suggest an involvement of prenatal estrogen on the development of female reproductive function, but not on behavioral differentiation.
Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe
The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.
Elliott Smith, Rebecca A; Pick, Lawrence H
Approximately 25% of hearing women in the United States experience rape in their life-time, whereas deaf women have been found to experience increased rates of assault consistent with other marginalized populations. This study explored sexual assault prevalence and characteristics of assault in deaf female undergraduate students. Results revealed that more than two-thirds of the participants (69%) endorsed experiencing at least one assault and more than half (56%) experienced multiple types of assault. Most assaults were committed by a man known to the survivor. Characteristics (e.g., hearing status, primary language, and ethnicity) of the survivors and the assailants are explored. The implications of this data are discussed as well as the development of culturally and linguistically sensitive outreach and educational programs.
For almost 2000 years, human beings have been discussing about gender. New scientific evidences give interesting new points of view, partially subverting the normal dichotomy described by the "two-gender" theory. In this article, we are going to critically review the history of the approach towards people born with a Sexual-Differentiation-Disorder, passing through the analysis of the Italian National Ethics Committee's opinion, describing the modern scientific evidences on the gender-identity development, furthermore ruling out the new approach borned from the femminist philosophies, and the new biogiuridical experiments borned in Australia and Germany. Would it be possible a world where a person could be more then a male or a female?
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E
Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females.
Cwikel, Julie G; Lazer, Tal; Press, Fernanda; Lazer, Simcha
Due to the mobile and clandestine nature of those who enter a country illegally, female sex workers (FSWs) who are working without papers or work permits often have no access to sexual health care. This study reports on the sexually transmissible infection (STI) prevalence among a sample of 43 sex workers working illegally. Brothel workers from republics of the Former Soviet Union (FSU), working in two locales in Israel were tested for the presence of eight pathogens and the presence of pathology by Pap smear. Of these brothel workers, 48.8% had at least one positive STI result, 14% had two STIs and one woman had three STIs. There were no cases of HIV, gonorrhoea or malignancy detected; high rates of ureaplasma (26.8%) and chlamydia were found (16.7%). Four cases of hepatitis C (9%) and three cases of hepatitis B (7%) and mycoplasma (7%) were detected. There was no relationship between reported symptoms and the detection of STIs. The level of STIs is high among this population of FSWs and it is imperative to develop more accessible health services for these women.
Beling, J; Hudson, S M; Ward, T
This study examined gender differences in undergraduates' attributions for child sex offending. One hundred and sixty-four undergraduates were asked to give the reasons why they think men sexually offend against children and to rate them using Benson's Attributional Scale across four dimensions: stability, locus, controllability and globality. A Grounded Theory methodology was applied to these reasons and a set of nine categories derived from the data. The results showed that undergraduates' reasons for child sexual abuse strongly parallel contemporary scientific theories of abuse, and that there were significant gender differences in the frequency with which participants cited various types of reasons given for sexual abuse. Females endorsed significantly more victim reasons than males, and also more power and control reasons than did males. In contrast, males endorsed significantly more sexual reasons for offending than did females. Furthermore, significant gender differences were found between the ways in which participants construed the reasons for sexual abuse, with females seeing the phenomenon as significantly more stable and internal than males. No significant gender differences were found on the dimensions of controllability and globality.
Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Wen-Ping; Wang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Xu, Xiao-Xue; Zhang, Kun; Deng, Dao-Gui
The water flea Daphnia are planktonic crustaceans commonly found in freshwater environment that can switch their reproduction mode from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction to adapt to the external environment. As such, Daphnia are great model organisms to study the mechanism of reproductive switching, the underlying mechanism of reproduction and development in cladocerans and other animals. However, little is known about the Daphnia’s reproductive behaviour at a molecular level. We constructed a genetic database of the genes expressed in a sexual female (SF) and a parthenogenetic female (PF) of D. similoides using Illumina HiSeq 2500. A total of 1,763 differentially expressed genes (865 up- and 898 down-regulated) were detected in SF. Of the top 30 up-regulated SF unigenes, the top 4 unigenes belonged to the Chitin_bind_4 family. In contrast, of the top down-regulated SF unigenes, the top 3 unigenes belonged to the Vitellogenin_N family. This is the first study to indicate genes that may have a crucial role in reproductive switching of D. similoides, which could be used as candidate genes for further functional studies. Thus, this study provides a rich resource for investigation and elucidation of reproductive switching in D. similoides. PMID:27671106
Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Tomás-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Antón-Ruiz, Fina; Belda-Ibañez, Josefina; Montejo, Ángel Luis; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco
Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms). Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]). Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05) included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008) and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001). Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI. PMID:26966654
LeBas, Natasha R; Hockham, Leon R; Ritchie, Michael G
Female ornamentation has long been overlooked because of the greater prevalence of elaborate displays in males. However, the circumstances under which females would benefit from honestly signalling their quality are limited. Females are not expected to invest in ornamentation unless the fitness benefits of the ornament exceed those derived from investing the resources directly into offspring. It has been proposed that when females gain direct benefits from mating, females may instead be selected for ornamentation that deceives males about their reproductive state. In the empidid dance flies, males frequently provide nuptial gifts and it is usually only the female that is ornamented. Female traits in empidids, such as abdominal sacs and enlarged pinnate leg scales, have been proposed to 'deceive' males into matings by disguising egg maturity. We quantified sexual selection in the dance fly Rhamphomyia tarsata and found escalating, quadratic selection on pinnate scales and that pinnate scales honestly reflect female fecundity. Mated females had a larger total number and more mature eggs than unmated females, highlighting a potential benefit rather than a cost of male mate choice. We also show correlational selection on female pinnate scales and fecundity. Correlational selection, equivalent investment patterns or increased nutrition from nuptial gifts may all maintain honesty in female ornamentation.
Telles-Irvin, Patricia; Schwartz, Ivy S.
A survey of 164 female members of the Texas dental association and 62 junior and senior students at the 3 Texas dental schools investigated sexual harassment experiences with patients and colleagues, reasons for tolerating such behavior, and the manner in which the offensive behavior was handled. Results and implications are discussed. (MSE)
Geller, Sheldon H.
The Toronto Transit Commission employees were on strike for 23 days, producing a total shut-down of all public transportation and a resulting increase in the number of hitch-hiking females. The strike provided a novel and unique opportunity to empirically examine two theories of sexual assault and to evaluate the effects of hitch-hiking upon…
This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.
Simmons, Leigh W.
Theory predicts that females should invest least in mate searching when young, but increase their effort with age if they remain unmated. Few studies have examined variation in female sexual signalling. Female Dawson's burrowing bees (Amegilla dawsoni) search for males by signalling their receptivity on emergence, but many leave the emergence site unmated and must attract males at feeding sites. Female bees prevented from mating on emergence had more extreme versions of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that make them attractive to males, lending empirical evidence of adaptive shifts in female mating effort. PMID:26109613
Forste, R T; Heaton, T B
According to the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, 46% women aged 15-19 had experienced premarital intercourse. Projections based on this study show that by their 20th birthdays, 70% of all women in the US will have experienced premarital intercourse. This article examines the effects of various factors on the likelihood that teenagers will become sexually active. Data for this study were taken from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III. Fieldwork was done in 1982 and included interviews of 7969 women aged 15-44. Data include background characteristics, measures of fertility and contraception, measures of fecundity and birth expectations, use of family planning services, and the respondent's marital history. The study concludes that family stability (intact families), Hispanic ethnicity, high parental education, religious affiliation, regular church attendance, and reproductive education decrease the occurrence of 1st intercourse. Other factors characterize an environment that is unstable and unstructured and has a liberalizing influence upon 1st intercourse. Teens from broken homes, blacks, and the lower social classes are more likely to initiate intercourse. Geographic factors have a very small influence upon the initiation of sexual activity among teens. Similar patterns of influence appear regarding contraceptive use. The same factors that encourage stability, such as high father's education, Catholic or Jewish religious affiliation, religious attendance, and reproductive instruction shift the odds in favor of contracepted rather than noncontracepted sex. Family instability and low social class increase the risk that 1st intercourse will not be contracepted. Providing too much sex education, such as instruction on birth control, may actually contribute to the leniency of the environment, although the authors find no evidence that school-based birth control instruction increases the chances that contraceptives will be used. Environments that are
Stanton, Amelia M; Lorenz, Tierney A; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, which reflects an individual's ability to adapt to physiological and environmental changes. Low resting HRV has been linked to several mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependence (Kemp et al. in Biological Psychiatry 67(11):1067-1074, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.12.012; Kemp et al. in PloS One, 7(2):e30777, 2012; Quintana et al. in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(1-2):395-398, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.025). HRV has also been used as a method for indexing the relative balance of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to parasympathetic nervous system activity. This balance--in particular, moderately dominant SNS activity--has been shown to play a significant role in women's genital sexual arousal in the laboratory; however, the role of SNS activity in clinically relevant sexual arousal function is unknown. The present study assessed the feasibility of using HRV as an index of women's self-reported sexual arousal function outside the laboratory. Sexual arousal function, overall sexual function, and resting HRV were assessed in 72 women, aged 18-39. Women with below average HRV were significantly more likely to report sexual arousal dysfunction (p < .001) and overall sexual dysfunction (p < .001) than both women with average HRV and women with above average HRV. In conclusion, low HRV may be a risk factor for female sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction.
Staffend, Nancy A.; Hedges, Valerie L.; Chemel, Benjamin R.; Watts, Val J.; Meisel, Robert L.
Female sexual behavior is an established model of a naturally motivated behavior which is regulated by activity within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Repeated activation of the mesolimbic circuit by female sexual behavior elevates dopamine release and produces persistent postsynaptic alterations to dopamine D1 receptor signaling within the nucleus accumbens. Here we demonstrate that sexual experience in female Syrian hamsters significantly increases spine density and alters morphology selectively in D1 receptor expressing medium spiny neurons within the nucleus accumbens core, with no corresponding change in dopamine receptor binding or protein expression. Our findings demonstrate that previous life experience with a naturally motivated behavior has the capacity to induce persistent structural alterations to the mesolimbic circuit that can increase reproductive success and are analogous to the persistent structural changes following repeated exposure to many drugs of abuse. PMID:23934655
Diehl, Alessandra; da Silva, Rosiane Lopes; Laranjeira, Ronaldo
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction symptoms and the associated risk factors in a sample of patients with substance-related disorders admitted to a specialized in-patient care unit. METHODS: This study used a cross-section design, with eight months of data collection, conducted with substance-dependent women using structured questionnaires to collect socio-demographic data and identify their drug of choice. The Drug Abuse Screening Test, Short Alcohol Dependence Data questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Arizona Sexual Experience Scale were also administered. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 105 women who had a mean age of 34.8 years (SD = 12.1, range = 18-65) and were predominantly heterosexual (74.3%), single (47.6%), Caucasian (50.5%), catholic (36.2%), and educated only to the level of primary education (40%), with a monthly family income of up to one minimum salary (37.5%). In 42.9% of the patients, crack was the drug of choice; 47.6% of the sample qualified for the Drug Abuse Screening Test (substantial problems related to drugs), 43.8% exhibited Short Alcohol Dependence Data (moderate or severe dependency), 47.6% exhibited Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (high or very high nicotine dependence). The prevalence of sexual dysfunction symptoms was 34.2% (95% CI = [25.3, 44.1]), and a high level of nicotine dependence and low income increased the chances of having sexual dysfunction by 2.72-fold and 2.54 fold, respectively. An association was also observed between female sexual dysfunction symptoms and schooling and levels of drug dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Female sexual dysfunction symptoms were common among this sample and primarily associated with high levels of nicotine use. PMID:23525317
Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A.
In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity.. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data which were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. PMID:21195073
Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A
In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data that were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse.
Wekerle, Christine; Goldstein, Abby L; Tanaka, Masako; Tonmyr, Lil
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with multiple negative outcomes, including increased risky sexual behavior. To date, the majority of research on the relationship between CSA and risky sex in adolescence has been limited, with a lack of focus on males and youth receiving child welfare services. Participants in the current study were 297 youth (mean age=15.98; SD=1.01, 57.6% female) from the child welfare system who reported being sexually active at the time of the survey. CSA was associated with severity of other types of maltreatment for both genders, and exposure to intimate partner violence for females only. In general, males engaged in more sexual risk behaviors than females. Males with CSA had stronger motives to have sex for: (1) coping, (2) peer approval and (3) partner approval, as compared to non-CSA males; as well as (4) greater motives for partner and peer approval compared to females with CSA. Males with no CSA had stronger sexual motives for enhancement (e.g., feeling pleasure) compared to females with no CSA. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect for coping motives for males: CSA was associated with increased motives to use sex for coping which was associated with increased sexual risk-taking. These findings provide important information regarding the relationship between CSA and sexual risk-taking for child welfare sample and highlight coping with negative affect as a potential mechanism that underlies the CSA-risky sex relationship. It also encourages further consideration of motives for risk and resilience behaviors among youth.
Stillwell, R. Craig; Daws, Andrew; Davidowitz, Goggy
Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism) is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high). We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger) increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults. PMID:25184664
Jarząbek-Bielecka, Grażyna; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Mizgier, Małgorzata; Andrzejak, Karolina; Kędzia, Witold; Sajdak, Stefan
Introduction The research was conducted among patients of the Department of Perinatology and Gynaecology of the Poznań University of Medical Sciences. Its aim was to investigate the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopausal period. Preliminary results of the research are presented in the thesis, which was as a matter of fact intended as a preliminary report. The examination of sexual functions of the patients was performed with the use of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) form. Material and methods Sixty-one women during the perimenopausal period filled out the survey, with the average age of these women being 51 years. Forty-two of the examined women had an appropriate body mass index (BMI), i.e. between 18.5 and 25, while for 19 of the women, the BMI was above normal. For statistical analysis and in order to assess the differences between the two above-mentioned groups of patients, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. A statistically significant value was assumed at p < 0.05. The results of the conducted research indicated no such difference between the women with differing BMI for the specific domains of the FSFI test. Results The results obtained show that research in the area needs to be continued. Conclusions All the hitherto existing scientific studies also seem to indicate that the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopause has not yet been unambiguously proven. Beyond any doubt, however, sexual disorders appear in women at this time of life and the factors which determine them can vary greatly. Given the character of the situation, women ought to be supported both by a team of specialists representing different branches of medicine as well as by their relatives. The whole situation also calls for more research of the important subject matter. PMID:26327896
Ernst, E J; Speck, Patricia M; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
With the patient's consent, physical injuries sustained in a sexual assault are evaluated and treated by the sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) and documented on preprinted traumagrams and with photographs. Digital imaging is now available to the SANE for documentation of sexual assault injuries, but studies of the image quality of forensic digital imaging of female genital injuries after sexual assault were not found in the literature. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) was developed to rate the image quality of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries after sexual assault. Three expert observers performed evaluations on 30 separate images at two points in time. An image quality score, the sum of eight integral technical and anatomical attributes on the PDIQSS, was obtained for each image. Individual image quality ratings, defined by rating image quality for each of the data, were also determined. The results demonstrated a high level of image quality and agreement when measured in all dimensions. For the SANE in clinical practice, the results of this study indicate that a high degree of agreement exists between expert observers when using the PDIQSS to rate image quality of individual digital photographs of female genital injuries after sexual assault.
Fritzsche, K.; Timmermeyer, N.; Wolter, M.; Michiels, N. K.
Coevolution between the sexes is often considered to be male-driven: the male genome is constantly scanned by selection for traits that increase relative male fertilization success. Whenever these traits are harmful to females, the female genome is scanned for resistance traits. The resulting antagonistic coevolution between the sexes is analogous to Red Queen dynamics, where adaptation and counteradaptation keep each other in check. However, the underlying assumption that male trait evolution precedes female trait counteradaptation has received few empirical tests. Using the gonochoristic nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, we now show that 20 generations of relaxed versus increased sexual selection pressure lead to female, but not to male, trait evolution, questioning the generality of a male-driven process. PMID:25339719
Fishman, Jennifer R
The process of bringing new drugs to market interweaves commercialism, science, clinical medicine, and governmental regulation. Through their authority and public persona as medical experts, academic clinical trial researchers studying these pharmaceuticals are integral to this process, serving as mediators between producers (the pharmaceutical companies) and consumers (clinicians and patients) of new drugs through a complex set of exchange networks. Using examples from my ethnographic research on the search for pharmaceuticals to treat what has become known as female sexual dysfunction, this paper explores the links academic researchers make with drug manufacturers and consumer markets. Academic researchers have become an integral aspect of drug development, not only by conducting clinical trial research, but also by participating in a number of other activities that assist pharmaceutical companies in identifying and creating new markets. In this paper, i examine how researchers attend professional meetings where they present clinical trial data, lecture at continuing medical education conferences, and offer themselves as ' experts' to raise awareness about disorders and their treatments. Modifying a sociology of technology approach, this paper focuses on the actors in the social network who mediate the junctions between technological producers and consumers. This extends work in this area through theorizing the linkages between exchange networks, commodification techniques, and technoscientific developments.
Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M
Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly.
Farr, Rachel H.; Diamond, Lisa M.; Boker, Steven M.
Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or “fluid” based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women’s reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a “core sexual orientation” for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132
Raffaelli, Marcela; Zamboanga, Byron L; Carlo, Gustavo
The authors examined relations among different measures of acculturation, and between acculturation and sexual behavior, in a sample of female Cuban American college students (n=61, M age = 18.4 years) who completed self-report surveys. In the first set of analyses, weak to moderate associations emerged among 4 measures of acculturation (birthplace, childhood language use, current language use, and ethnic identity), suggesting that inconsistent findings from prior research may have resulted from measurement limitations. In multivariate analyses, the authors examined predictors of sexual behavior and found that 1 aspect of acculturation (higher levels of ethnic identity) and background characteristics (being older and less religious) were associated with voluntary sexual intercourse. Moreover, higher levels on a sexual risk composite were associated with being born in the United States, more ethnically identified, older, and less religious. These analyses highlight the need for specificity in assessing acculturation in a college student population and support the need to examine cultural factors directly in sexuality research.
Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin
African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.
Svenson, Gavin J.; Brannoch, Sydney K.; Rodrigues, Henrique M.; O’Hanlon, James C.; Wieland, Frank
Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects. Male flower mantises, however, remained small and mobile to facilitate mate-finding and reproductive success, consistent with ancestral male life strategy. Although moderate sexual size dimorphisms are common in many arthropod lineages, the predominant explanation is female size increase for increased fecundity. However, sex-dependent selective pressures acting outside of female fecundity have been suggested as mechanisms behind niche dimorphisms. Our hypothesised role of predatory selection acting on females to generate both extreme sexual size dimorphism coupled with niche dimorphism is novel among arthropods. PMID:27905469
Svenson, Gavin J; Brannoch, Sydney K; Rodrigues, Henrique M; O'Hanlon, James C; Wieland, Frank
Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects. Male flower mantises, however, remained small and mobile to facilitate mate-finding and reproductive success, consistent with ancestral male life strategy. Although moderate sexual size dimorphisms are common in many arthropod lineages, the predominant explanation is female size increase for increased fecundity. However, sex-dependent selective pressures acting outside of female fecundity have been suggested as mechanisms behind niche dimorphisms. Our hypothesised role of predatory selection acting on females to generate both extreme sexual size dimorphism coupled with niche dimorphism is novel among arthropods.
Gorter, Jenke A.; Jagadeesh, Samyukta; Gahr, Christoph; Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Levine, Joel D.; Billeter, Jean-Christophe
Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these foods should inform female reproductive behaviours. Yet mechanisms coupling food and sex are poorly understood. Here we show that yeast increases female sexual receptivity through interaction between its protein content and its odorous fermentation product acetic acid, sensed by the Ionotropic odorant receptor neuron Ir75a. A similar interaction between nutritional and hedonic value applies to sugars where taste and caloric value only increase sexual receptivity when combined. Integration of nutritional and sensory values would ensure that there are sufficient internal nutrients for egg production as well as sufficient environmental nutrients for offspring survival. These findings provide mechanisms through which females may maximize reproductive output in changing environments. PMID:26777264
Gorter, Jenke A; Jagadeesh, Samyukta; Gahr, Christoph; Boonekamp, Jelle J; Levine, Joel D; Billeter, Jean-Christophe
Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these foods should inform female reproductive behaviours. Yet mechanisms coupling food and sex are poorly understood. Here we show that yeast increases female sexual receptivity through interaction between its protein content and its odorous fermentation product acetic acid, sensed by the Ionotropic odorant receptor neuron Ir75a. A similar interaction between nutritional and hedonic value applies to sugars where taste and caloric value only increase sexual receptivity when combined. Integration of nutritional and sensory values would ensure that there are sufficient internal nutrients for egg production as well as sufficient environmental nutrients for offspring survival. These findings provide mechanisms through which females may maximize reproductive output in changing environments.
Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.
Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female's behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male's accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm.
Eftekhar, Tahereh; Dashti, Mahboobeh; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram
Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexual problems in Iranian women and association of sexual dysfunction with menopausal symptoms. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 151 married women with the age of 40-60 yearsold who were referred for treatmentto Department of Gynecology in Vali-e-Asr Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from April to July 2012, were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire.Menopause rating scale (MRS) was developed for the diagnosis and quantification of climacteric symptoms. Results: Total frequency of sexual dysfunction was 53% with the domains of lubrication, arusal and desire being commonly affected 62%, 70% and 98.5% of cases respectively. There is a relationship between severity of somatic and urogenital symptoms with sexual dysfunction (p = 0.03, p = 0.00 respectively). Conclusion: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in this period. Somatic and urogenital symptoms during the menopausal period could be a factor to maintain or intensity of sexual dysfunctions. PMID:27648093
Sancak, Eyup Burak; Oguz, Sevilay; Akbulut, Tugba; Uludag, Aysegul; Akbas, Alpaslan; Kurt, Omer; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih
Introduction: We sought to evaluate the association of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in premenopausal women. Methods: From December 2013 to June 2015, we performed a case-control, prospective study of 115 patients with AGA and 97 age-matched control patients without AGA from among premenopausal women who visited dermatology clinics of the two reference hospitals. Comprehensive history, anthropometric measurements, and questionnaire administration were performed for each of the total of 212 women. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to assess the key dimensions of female sexual function. AGA was assessed and graded by an experienced dermatologist according to Ludwig’s classification. The MetS assessment was made according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. Results: In univariate analysis, age, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI), AGA, MetS, cardiovascular event, marital status, hypertension, high fasting plasma glucose, high triglyceride, large waist, total testosterone, and free testosterone were associated with presence of FSD. In logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–1.30; p<0.001), AGA (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.31–8.94; p=0.017), MetS (OR 5.39, 95% CI 1.34–21.62; p=0.012), and free testosterone (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.09–0.37; p<0.001) were independently associated with FSD. Conclusions: Our study suggests that age, AGA, MetS, and free testosterone may have strong impact on sexual function in premenopausal women. Further studies with population-based and longitudinal design should be conducted to confirm this finding. PMID:28255417
Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E
We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.
Barelli, Claudia; Heistermann, Michael; Boesch, Christophe; Reichard, Ulrich H
Conspicuous sexual swellings in the females of some primate species have been a focus of scientific interest since Darwin first wrote about them in 1871. To understand these visual signals, research focused on exaggerated sexual swellings of Old World primates. However, some primate species develop much smaller sexual swellings and it is as yet unclear if these smaller swellings can serve similar functions as those proposed for exaggerated swellings, i.e. advertising fertility to attract mates. We studied the temporal patterns of sexual swellings, timing of ovulation and female reproductive status in wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, where this species has a variable social organization. We established fecal progestogen profiles in fifteen cycles of eight cycling females and, to detect swellings outside the menstrual cycle, five pregnant and six lactating females. In 80% of menstrual cycles, ovulation and maximum swelling phase (duration: Ø 9.3 days; 42.8% of cycle length), overlapped tightly. The probability of ovulation peaked on day 3 of the maximum swelling period. Nevertheless, the temporal relationship between maximum swelling and probability of ovulation varied from day -1 to day 13 of the swelling period and three times ovulations fell outside the maximum swelling phase. The different swellings phases occurred in similar proportions in cycling and pregnant, but not lactating females, which were rarely swollen. Despite their smaller size, gibbons' sexual swellings probably serve functions similar to those suggested for exaggerated swellings by the graded-signal hypothesis, which predicts that sexual swellings indicate the probability of ovulation, without allowing males to pinpoint its exact time.
Al-Abbadey, Miznah; Liossi, Christina; Curran, Natasha; Schoth, Daniel E; Graham, Cynthia A
Sexual pain disorders affect women's sexual and reproductive health and are poorly understood. Although many treatments have been evaluated, there is no one "gold standard" treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate what treatments for female sexual pain have been evaluated in clinical studies and their effectiveness. The search strategy resulted in 65 papers included in this review. The articles were divided into the following categories: medical treatments; surgical treatments; physical therapies; psychological therapies; comparative treatment studies; and miscellaneous and combined treatments. Topical and systemic medical treatments have generally been found to lead to improvements in, but not complete relief of, pain, and side effects are quite common. Surgical procedures have demonstrated very high success rates, although there has been variability in complete relief of pain after surgery, which suggests less invasive treatments should be considered first. Physical therapies and psychological therapies have been shown to be promising treatments, supporting a biopsychosocial approach to sexual pain disorders. Although most of the interventions described have been reported as effective, many women still experience pain. A multidisciplinary team with active patient involvement may be needed to optimize treatment outcome.
Vasey, Paul L; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; VanderLaan, Doug P
In this paper, we review research related to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), including our 20-year program of research on this species. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in this species is sexually motivated. In contrast, many sociosexual hypotheses have been tested in relation to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques, but none have been supported. Female Japanese macaques sometimes engage in same-sex sexual activity even when motivated opposite-sex alternatives are available. Within this context of mate choice, males compete inter-sexually for opportunities to copulate with females above and beyond any intra-sexual competition that is required. Anecdotal evidence suggests that inter-sexual competition for female sexual partners has been observed in a number of other species, including humans. At present it is unclear whether inter-sexual competition for sexual partners influences patterns of reproduction. Our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems may be improved by investigating whether inter-sexual mate competition influences the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive partners in those species in which such interactions occur.
Daskalos, C T
Researchers traditionally have assumed that sex reassignment procedures do not change sexual orientation. Of 20 transsexuals of various types that were interviewed, 6 heterosexual male-to-female transsexual respondents reported that their sexual orientation had changed since transitioning from male to female. These respondents stated that before transitioning they had been sexually orientated towards females. After transitioning, these same respondents reported that they were sexually orientated towards males. Five of the six respondents reported having various sexual encounters with males since transitioning. The respondents explained the changes in their sexual orientation as part of their emerging female gender identities. Three of the respondents claimed that the use of female hormones played a role in changing their sexual orientation. It did not appear that the respondents' post-transitional sexual attractions towards males were similar to autogynephilic images and fantasies described by Blanchard (1991).
Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.
Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female’s behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male’s accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm. PMID:9520491
The 2010 U.S. teen birth rate of 34.3 births per 1,000 females reflected a 44% decline from 1990. Despite this trend, U.S. teen birth rates remain higher than rates in other developed countries; approximately 368,000 births occurred among teens aged 15-19 years in 2010, and marked racial/ethnic disparities persist. To describe trends in sexual experience and use of contraceptive methods among females aged 15-19 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Survey of Family Growth collected for 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010. During 2006-2010, 57% of females aged 15-19 years had never had sex (defined as vaginal intercourse), an increase from 49% in 1995. Younger teens (aged 15-17 years) were more likely not to have had sex (73%) than older teens (36%); the proportion of teens who had never had sex did not differ by race/ethnicity. Approximately 60% of sexually experienced teens reported current use of highly effective contraceptive methods (e.g., intrauterine device [IUD] or hormonal methods), an increase from 47% in 1995. However, use of highly effective methods varied by race/ethnicity, with higher rates observed for non-Hispanic whites (66%) than non-Hispanic black (46%) and Hispanic teens (54%). Addressing the complex issue of teen childbearing requires a comprehensive approach to sexual and reproductive health that includes continued promotion of delayed sexual debut and increased use of highly effective contraception among sexually experienced teens.
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.
Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…
Pauls, Rachel N
The clitoris may be the most pivotal structure for female sexual pleasure. While its significance has been reported for hundreds of years, no complete anatomical description was available until recently. Most of the components of the clitoris are buried under the skin and connective tissues of the vulva. It comprises an external glans and hood, and an internal body, root, crura, and bulbs; its overall size is 9-11 cm. Clitoral somatic innervation is via the dorsal nerve of the clitoris, a branch of the pudendal nerve, while other neuronal networks within the structure are complex. The clitoris is the center for orgasmic response and is embryologically homologous to the male penis. While the source of vaginal eroticism might or might not be exclusively clitoral stimulation, it is necessary to understand the intricate anatomy of the organ to assess the data in this regard. Ultimately, sexual enjoyment entails a balance of physical and emotional factors and should be encouraged.
Graham, Cynthia A
This article reviews and critiques the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD). An overview of how the diagnostic criteria for FSAD have evolved over previous editions of the DSM is presented and research on prevalence and etiology of FSAD is briefly reviewed. Problems with the essential feature of the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis-"an inability to attain, or to maintain...an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement"-are identified. The significant overlap between "arousal" and "desire" disorders is highlighted. Finally, specific recommendations for revision of the criteria for DSM-V are made, including use of a polythetic approach to the diagnosis and the addition of duration and severity criteria.
Yalom, Marilyn; And Others
Reports findings of two surveys representing mothers in college in the l950s (N=141) and daughters in college in the 1970s (N=184) about female sexuality. While both groups expressed similar sexual attitudes, the class of 1980 reported considerably more sexual activity than the class of 1954. Communication about sexuality appears to have improved.…
Gold, Melanie A.; Bost, James E.; Adimora, Ada A.; Orr, Donald P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Purpose Little is known about how adolescent sexual behaviors develop and the influence of personal or perceived social attitudes. We sought to describe how personal, perceived peer and perceived family attitudes towards adolescent sexual activity influences adolescent females’ sexual behaviors over time. Methods Between 1999–2006, 358 English-speaking females, aged 14–17 were recruited from three urban adolescent clinics. Participants completed quarterly and annual questionnaires over 4 years. Primary outcomes were engagement in eight sexual behaviors: kissing, having breasts or genitals touched, touching partners’ genitals, and oral (giving or receiving), anal, or vaginal sex. Three attitudinal scales assessed personal importance of abstinence, perceived peer beliefs about when to have sex and perceived family beliefs that adolescent sex is negative.. We used generalized estimating equations to identify predictors of each sexual behavior and compared whether personal, perceived peer or perceived family attitudes predicted sexual behaviors over time. Results The odds of reporting each sexual behavior increased with age but were lower among those whose personal or perceived family attitudes were less positive. Participants’ personal attitudes towards adolescent sex were the strongest predictor of engagement in all eight sexual behaviors even after controlling for perceived peer and perceived family attitudes. Conclusions Female adolescent’s personal attitudes towards abstinence appear to be the strongest predictor of engagement in a variety of sexual behaviors. Efforts to influence adolescent attitudes towards abstinence may be an important approach to reducing sexual behaviors that increase the risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:21185529
Horgan, M; Bersoff-Matcha, S
Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.
Carroll, J L; Volk, K D; Hyde, J S
In a test of the hypothesis that a difference exists between males and females in motives for participating in sexual intercourse, a random sample of 249 college students was given a questionnaire containing questions about sexual behavior and attitudes, focusing on motives for having intercourse. There were significant differences between males and females in approval of casual sexual intercourse, number of premarital sexual partners, most important part of sexual behavior, and whether an emotional involvement was a prerequisite for participating in sexual intercourse. Effect-size analyses indicated that these differences are large, with a median omega 2 = 0.24. Both males and females approved of premarital sexual intercourse in a serious relationship and stressed the importance of feeling loved and needed. However, males found it easier to participate in sexual intercourse without an emotional commitment, whereas females were unlikely to want intercourse for physical pleasure in the absence of psychological involvement.
Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.
Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105
Katz, Phyllis A.
This article explores some of the major influences affecting the development of female sex-role identity and the psychological and social consequences of this deveopment during childhood and adolescence. (Author/EB)
Spitalnick, Joshua S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sales, Jessica M; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a clinic-based sample of African-American adolescent females (N=715) enrolled in an STD/HIV prevention intervention. Participants (ages 15-21) endorsing higher levels of sexual sensation seeking reported higher levels of sexual risk-taking behaviours (e.g. frequency of vaginal intercourse, number of sexual partners, and poorer condom use). Results remained significant after controlling for known covariates associated with sexual risk-taking behaviours. Results are consistent with the adult literature and highlight the need for future investigations examining sexual sensation seeking among adolescents. These results, though preliminary, could be used to better inform prevention interventions and clinicians/health educators who provide direct services to adolescents.
The 19th century medical attitude to normal female sexuality was cruel, with gynecologists and psychiatrists leading the way in designing operations for the cure of the serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynecologist Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873) and the distinguished endocrinologist Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-7, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. Or perhaps it led and encouraged public opinion. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with 'a past' survives to the end. H. G. Wells's Ann Veronica and Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, both of which appeared in 1909, broke the mould and are important milestones. In the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided an understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment, either by various forms of counseling or by the use of hormones, particularly estrogens and testosterone.
Cherkasskaya, Eugenia; Rosario, Margaret
The etiology of low female sexual desire, the most prevalent sexual complaint in women, is multi-determined, implicating biological and psychological factors, including women's early parent-child relationships and bodily self-representations. The current study evaluated a model that hypothesized that sexual body self-representations (sexual subjectivity, self-objectification, genital self-image) explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment, separation-individuation, parental identification) and sexual desire in heterosexual women. We recruited 614 young, heterosexual women (M = 25.5 years, SD = 4.63) through social media. The women completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used. The hypotheses were supported in that the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment and separation-individuation) and sexual desire was mediated by sexual body self-representations (sexual body esteem, self-objectification, genital self-image). However, parental identification was not related significantly to sexual body self-representations or sexual desire in the model. Current findings demonstrated that understanding female sexual desire necessitates considering women's internalized working models of early parent-child relationships and their experiences of their bodies in a sexual context. Treatment of low or absent desire in women would benefit from modalities that emphasize early parent-child relationships as well as interventions that foster mind-body integration.
Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice
Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development.
Denov, Myriam S
Although the long-term effects of sexual abuse by men have been studied extensively, minimal research has explored the effects of sexual abuse by women. This qualitative study explores the experience and long-term impact of sexual abuse by women. The data were derived from in-depth interviews with 14 adult victims (7 men, 7 women) of child sexual abuse by females. Most respondents reported severe sexual abuse by their mothers. The vast majority of participants reported that the experience of female-perpetrated sexual abuse was harmful and damaging. As a result of the sexual abuse, male and female respondents reported long-term difficulties with substance abuse, self-injury, suicide, depression, rage, strained relationships with women, self-concept and identity issues, and a discomfort with sex. In light of the popular and professional perceptions that sexual abuse by women is relatively harmless as compared to sexual abuse by men, the implications of these long-term effects are discussed, particularly in relation to professionals working in the area of child sexual abuse.
van Haute, Philippe
The author attempts to show why and in what respect Freud's famous article 'Female sexuality' can still be a source of inspiration for a contemporary metapsychology. In this text, Freud acknowledges the importance of the child's tie to its mother for the first time. Both Balint and Bowlby consider this text to be a distant forerunner of their own theories on primary object-love and attachment respectively. At the same time, Freud's text contains some elements of a 'theory of generalized seduction' as it was developed in the last decades by Jean Laplanche. 'Female sexuality' therefore presents itself as the perfect point of departure for a discussion of the relation between primary object-love (and attachment) and sexuality. Based on his reading of Freud's text, the author argues that human subjectivity is characterized by the lack of attunement between the world of the adult and the world of the child. This insight allows for a reformulation of the anthropological significance of the Oedipus and castration complexes. They are no longer interpreted as universal problems that every child has to face, but as historical and contingent solutions to the lack of attunement between the child and the adult that is essential to human subjectivity.
Karlsson Green, Kristina; Kovalev, Alexander; Svensson, Erik I; Gorb, Stanislav N
During sexual conflict, males and females are expected to evolve traits and behaviours with a sexually antagonistic function. Recently, sexually antagonistic coevolution was proposed to occur between male and female diving beetles (Dytiscidae). Male diving beetles possess numerous suction cups on their forelegs whereas females commonly have rough structures on their elytra. These rough structures have been suggested to obstruct adhesion from male suction cups during mating attempts. However, some diving beetle species are dimorphic, where one female morph has a rough elytra and the other has a smooth elytra. Here, we used biomechanics to study the adhesive performance of male suction cups on the female morphs in two diving beetle species: Dytiscus lapponicus and Graphoderus zonatus. We compared adhesion on the rough and the smooth female morphs to infer the function of the rough elytral modifications. We found that the adhesive force on the rough structures was much lower than on other surfaces. These findings support the suggestion of sexual conflict in diving beetles and a sexually antagonistic function of the rough female structures. In addition, males differed in their adhesive capacity on different female surfaces, indicating a male trade-off between adhering to smooth and rough female morphs.
Disease classification is an important part in the process of medicalisation and one important tool by which medical authority is exerted. The demand for, or proposal of a diagnosis may be the first step in casting life's experiences as medical in nature. Aronowitz has written about how diagnoses result from social framing mechanisms (2008) and consensus (2001), while Brown (1995) has demonstrated a complex range of interactions between lay and professionals, institutions and industries which underpin disease discovery. In any case, there are numerous social factors which shape the diagnosis, and in turn, provide a mechanism by which medicalisation can be enacted. Focussing on diagnostic classification provides an important perspective on the human condition and its relationship to medicine. To illustrate how layers of social meaning may be concealed in a diagnosis, this paper uses as heuristic the relatively obscure diagnosis of Female Hyposexual Desire Disorder which is currently surfacing in medical and marketing literature as a frequent disorder worthy of concern. I describe how this diagnosis embodies long-standing fascination with female libido, a contemporary focus on female hypersexuality, and commercial interest of the pharmaceutical industry and its medical allies to reify low sexual urge as a pathological disorder in women.
Rabaneda-Bueno, Rubén; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel Á.; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H.; Moya-Laraño, Jordi
Background Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. Conclusions/Significance In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that
Rhen, T; Ross, J; Crews, D
The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is a species in which testosterone (T) is the primary circulating sex hormone in adults of both sexes. There are, however, sex differences in T physiology. Whereas males have prolonged periods with high T levels, T levels cycle in accord with follicular development in females. Specifically, T concentration increases during vitellogenesis, drops after ovulation, and then remains at previtellogenic levels until eggs are laid and the next follicular cycle begins. To determine the function of T in females, we manipulated both the level and the duration of T elevation using Silastic implants in intact, adult female leopard geckos. Females had low ( approximately 1 ng/ml), medium ( approximately 100 ng/ml), or high ( approximately 200 ng/ml) T levels for either a short (8 days) or a long (35 days) duration. Behavior tests with males were conducted on days 1-5 in the short-duration group or on days 29-33 in the long-duration group. For both short- and long-duration groups, T treatment decreased attractivity in females with medium and high T levels compared to females with low T levels. In contrast, females with a medium T level were more receptive than females with a low T level in the short-duration group. Females in the long-duration group were unreceptive regardless of T level. Females treated for a long duration also displayed more aggression toward and evoked more aggression from males than short duration females. Short-duration T treatment had no masculinizing effect on female morphology, whereas medium and high T levels for a long duration induced development of hemipenes. Overall, these results suggest that T can both increase and decrease sexual behaviors in the female leopard gecko.
Syriatowicz, Alexandra; Brooks, Robert
Background Variation in mate choice behaviour among females within a population may influence the strength and form of sexual selection, yet the basis for any such variation is still poorly understood. Condition-dependence may be an important source of variation in female sexual responsiveness and in the preference functions for male display traits that she expresses when choosing. We manipulated food intake of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), and examined the effect on several measures of condition and various components of mate choice behaviour. Results Diet significantly influenced four measures of female condition: standard length, weight, reproductive status and somatic fat reserves. Diet also significantly affected female sexual responsiveness, but not preference functions: females in good and poor condition prefer the same males. Conclusions Variation in female condition within populations is therefore unlikely to influence the direction of sexual selection imposed by female choice. It may, however, influence the strength of sexual selection due to its effects on female responsiveness. The relative importance of female choice as a sexually selective force may also covary with female condition, however, because low responsiveness may result in sneak copulations being relatively more important as a determinant of the paternity of offspring. Differences among populations in mean condition may also influence geographic differences in the strength of sexual selection. PMID:15117410
Jones, Bryan A; Shimell, Jordan J; Watson, Neil V
Perinatal administration of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) reportedly inhibits the sexual behavior of sexually naïve adult male rats. In order to evaluate the effects of BPA administration during early development on later reproductive behavior, we administered one of five doses of bisphenol A daily to pregnant female rats throughout gestation and lactation, and quantified the appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors of the resultant male and female offspring over multiple sexual encounters in adulthood. Males receiving low dose perinatal BPA (50 μg/kg bw/day) showed persistent deficits in sexual behavior in adulthood. Males receiving the highest dose (5 mg/kg bw/day), however, were indistinguishable from controls with respect to consummatory sexual behaviors but showed decreased latencies to engage in those behaviors when sexually naïve, with significant non-linear, or U-shaped, dose-response relationships observed on the first and last day of testing. Adult female sexual behavior was not affected by early BPA administration at any dose tested. These results are consistent with previous reports that BPA exerts behavioral effects especially at low doses, and further indicates that BPA can cause lasting impairment of sexual behavior in males, but does not alter the normal development of female appetitive or consummatory sexual behaviors. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that adult sexual performance is impaired in sexually experienced animals following perinatal exposure to bisphenol A.
Berenbaum, S A; Meyer-Bahlburg, H F L
Understanding psychological development in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) is important for optimizing their clinical care and for identifying paths to competence and health in all individuals. In this paper, we focus on psychological outcomes likely to be influenced by processes of physical sexual differentiation that may be atypical in DSD, particularly characteristics related to being male or female (those that show sex differences in the general population, gender identity, and sexuality). We review evidence suggesting that (a) early androgens facilitate several aspects of male-typed behavior, with large effects on activity interests, and moderate effects on some social and personal behaviors (including sexual orientation) and spatial ability; (b) gender dysphoria and gender change occur more frequently in individuals with DSD than in the general population, with rates varying in relation to syndrome, initial gender assignment, and medical treatment; and (c) sexual behavior may be affected by DSD through several paths related to the condition and treatment, including reduced fertility, physical problems associated with genital ambiguity, social stigmatization, and hormonal variations. We also consider limitations to current work and challenges to studying gender and sexuality in DSD. We conclude with suggestions for a research agenda and a proposed research framework.
Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Munns, Rosemary A; Weber-Main, Anne M; Lowe, Margaret A; Raymond, Nancy C
Using the Sexual Health Model as a framework, this case study illustrates the treatment of female orgasmic and low desire disorder in a long-term case with numerous complexities and other co-morbid mental health diagnoses. Derived from a sexological approach to education, the Sexual Health Model defines 10 key components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality: talking about sex, culture and sexual identity, sexual anatomy and functioning, sexual health care and safer sex, challenges to sexual health, body image, masturbation and fantasy, positive sexuality, intimacy and relationships, and spirituality. The client was selected because of the commonality of her initial presenting concerns and the etiological and treatment complexity of the case, which necessitated the use of all the sexual health treatment modalities provided at our center-individual, couple, and group therapy, sexual medicine, and psychiatric care. Her case is distinct in that her sexual dysfunctions and negative cognitions, while common, occurred in the context of serious relational, family sexual abuse, depression, and life-threatening medical problems, which necessitated long-term treatment. This case illustrates the multifactoral etiology of complex sexual dysfunctions requiring treatment that deals with varied psychosocial and biological factors.
Schoen, Corina; Bachmann, Gloria
Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a common disorder encountered in clinical practice, with self-reported arousal difficulties reported in up to 26% of American women. Various oral therapies for FSAD have been studied, including sildenafil citrate, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is currently used to treat male erectile dysfunction. In vitro studies of sildenafil citrate have demonstrated smooth-muscle relaxation in clitoral tissue, and phosphodiesterase type-5 has been shown to be present in vaginal, clitoral and labial smooth muscle; these findings have led to theories that sildenafil citrate might be successful for treating FSAD. This Review discusses the data from clinical trials that have assessed sildenafil citrate for the treatment of FSAD; the trials show that sildenafil citrate is moderately effective. Sildenafil citrate may also be effective in women with FSAD secondary to multiple sclerosis, diabetes or antidepressant use; however, more trials in these patient populations are required to confirm these findings.
Hurowitz, Laurie; Gaier, Eugene
Focuses on one specific kind of information and guidance employed by many adolescent females as a source of information on sexuality, female erotica, and for information on the female role--the female self concept. (Author/RK)
Kennett, Deborah J.; Humphreys, Terry P.; Patchell, Meghan
We examined the relationship between learned resourcefulness skills and the manner in which undergraduate heterosexual women handle unwanted sexual advances/activity. Participants consisted of 150 females completing a set of questionnaires assessing general learned resourcefulness, sexual giving-in experience, sexual resourcefulness, sexual…
Hucker, Alice; McCabe, Marita P
The current randomized study evaluated an online cognitive behavioral therapy program for female sexual problems. PursuingPleasure (PP) consisted of six online modules that included psychoeducation, sensate focus, communication exercises, cognitive exercises, and e-mail contact with a therapist. PP incorporated mindfulness training and online chat groups as well as assessed partner sexual functioning. Participants demonstrated a completion rate of 57%, with 26 women with female sexual problems and related distress completing the program compared to a wait-list control group of 31 women also experiencing sexual problems and distress. Sexual problems reported by women in both groups included difficulties with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. The treatment group demonstrated significant improvements in all domains of female sexual response (except for sexual pain) and significant reductions in the reported frequency of sexual problems and distress. Partner sexual functioning showed positive change. Improvements in female sexual functioning and some improvements in male partner sexual functioning were maintained at three-month follow-up. Limitations and suitability of clients for this treatment approach for women who are geographically isolated, who are unable to attend face-to-face therapy, and who possess a high degree of motivation are discussed.
Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve; Gallagher, James; Risinger, Markus; Hickle, Kristine
The role of women in the sex trafficking of minors in the United States has received limited research attention. Case study analysis of 49 female pimps from federal, state, and local cases were analyzed to explore whether there were differences in the penalties given to females when compared with their male co-defendants, and cross-case analysis was conducted to identify themes that represent female pimp typologies. Both prison sentence and probation sentences were significantly lower for female co-defendants when compared with their male co-defendants. Five discrete typologies were developed including Bottom, Madam/Business Partner, Family, Girilla, and Handler. Each of these had unique features regarding violence toward their minor victims, co-defendants, actions during the sexual exploitation of the minor, and sentencing outcomes. Implications for practice and future research were recommended.
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Berman, J R; Adhikari, S P; Goldstein, I
Female sexual dysfunction is a significant age-related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women in the United States. The female sexual response cycle is initiated by neurotransmitter-mediated vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle relaxation resulting in increased pelvic blood flow, vaginal lubrication, and clitoral and labial engorgement. These mechanisms are mediated by a combination of neuromuscular and vasocongestive events. Physiological impairments that interfere with the normal female sexual response bring about complaints associated with diminished sexual arousal, libido, vaginal lubrication, genital sensation, and ability to achieve orgasm. Therapy aimed at restoring hormone levels as well as genital blood flow will be discussed.
Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…
Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada
The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…
Cheong, Ji In; Lee, Chang Hun; Park, Jae Hong; Ye, Byeong Jin; Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Young Seok
Purpose This study examined the relationships between early menarche and sexual behaviors among Korean female adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted on female high school students in grades 10-12. The survey included 17,867 students, and 974 students were assigned to the early menarche group because they had experienced menarche when they were in grade four or below, and 16,893 students were assigned to the normal menarche group because they had experienced menarche during or after grade five. The characteristics of the sexual behaviors in the early menarche and normal menarche group were analyzed. Results The early menarche group was at a higher risk of intersexual kissing or petting (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.87), intersexual intercourse (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.65-3.36), homosexual kissing or petting (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 2.22-5.59), homosexual intercourse (OR, 7.70; 95% CI, 4.04-14.66), being the victim (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.98-4.22) or the assailant (OR, 13.55; 95% CI, 6.61-27.78) of sexual assaults, intercourse without any contraception (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.06-3.46), and pregnancy (OR, 5.72; 95% CI, 2.31-14.15) than the normal menarche group. Conclusion Early menarche is associated with risky sexual behaviors among adolescent females; therefore, developing comprehensive sexual health education programs and tools for early intervention are required for children who are expected to experience early menarche. PMID:26512348
Buttram, Mance E.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.
Research among sexual minorities has traditionally examined problems such as substance use, HIV risk, mental health problems, and victimization. Among sexual minority street-based female sex workers, these vulnerabilities can be magnified. Grounded in theories of resilience, this study examines risk and protective factors associated with a high level of personal mastery among a vulnerable population of women. Data are drawn from baseline interviews from street-based African American female sex workers enrolled in a randomized intervention trial in Miami, Florida. We compare sexual minority (N=197) and heterosexual (N=365) women on measures of risk and protective factors; among sexual minority women we present logistic regression analyses which reveal that severe mental distress and HIV transmission risk are associated with low levels of personal mastery, while protective factors of transportation access and social support are associated with high levels of personal mastery. These findings suggest that these protective factors may potentially facilitate the development of personal mastery and represent beneficial avenues for intervention efforts. PMID:25530691
Spritzer, Mark D.; Curtis, Molly G.; DeLoach, Julia P.; Maher, Jack; Shulman, Leanne M.
Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of BrdU (200 mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30 min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohisotchemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. There were no differences in the amount of sexual behavior (mounts, intromissions, ejaculations, or contact time) that the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in, indicating that the differences in neurogenesis were not due to the relative amounts of sexual activity. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect
Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M
Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual
The risk of sexual misconduct by forensic professionals appears at first glance to be far less than the risk of sexual misconduct by other clinical professionals. Yet, Faulkner and Regehr's article draws our attention to the unique and intriguing situation of females working in forensic settings and the very real risk of their engaging in sexual misconduct with male prisoners. The female workers described are professionals: nurses, prison staff, and security officers. Analogies are made between Gabbard's proposed categories of professionals who commit sexual boundary violations and groups of female forensic workers' sexual misconduct with male prisoners. Faulkner and Regehr detail the characteristics of prisoners and the prison setting and how they relate to detrimental interpersonal behavior by female forensic workers. The role of security officers is discussed along with the need for policy-makers to minimize the risks inherent in working with incarcerated populations. The potential for gender-biased explanations of misconduct among female forensic workers is also considered.
Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359
Rosen, Raymond C
Despite the high prevalence of sexual problems in women, relatively few clinical trials have been conducted to date of either vasoactive drugs (e.g., sildenafil, apomorphine) or hormone replacement therapy or a combination of the two on sexual function problems in women. This article addresses the key conceptual and methodological issues to be addressed in clinical trials, particularly in the area of response outcomes or efficacy assessment. In particular, the use of self-report questionnaires and event-log or diary-based responses as primary outcome variables or endpoints in clinical trials is considered. Physiological measures, such as the vaginal photoplethysmograph probe, are being used in early proof of concept studies. There may be some value in the use of these measures for proof-of-concept and early dose-finding studies. Physiological measures are not used in large-scale, multicenter clinical trials, where patient-based or diary measures are clearly preferable. Clinical trials in this area should also make use of the new consensus classification system for female sexual dysfunction in determining inclusion and exclusion criteria for the trial.
Sugar, Max, Ed.
This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female…
Christensen, Amy; Dewing, Phoebe
Estrogens have profound actions on the structure of the nervous system during development and in adulthood. One of the signature actions of estradiol is to alter the morphology of neural processes. In the hippocampus, estradiol modulates spines and cellular excitability that affect cognitive behaviors. In the hypothalamus, estradiol increases spine density in mediobasal hypothalamic nuclei that regulate reproduction. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH), an important site for modulation of female sexual receptivity, has a sexual dimorphism in dendritic spine density that favors females. In the present study, we used both β-actin immunostaining and Golgi staining to visualize estradiol-induced changes in spine density in Long–Evans rats. Golgi impregnation was used to visualize spine shape, and then β-actin immunoreactivity was used as a semiquantitative measure of spine plasticity since actin forms the core of dendritic spines. At 4 h after estradiol treatment, both β-actin immunofluorescence and filopodial spines were increased (from 70.57 ± 1.09% to 78.01 ± 1.05%, p < 0.05). Disruption of estradiol-induced β-actin polymerization with cytochalasin D attenuated lordosis behavior, indicating the importance of estradiol-mediated spinogenesis for female sexual receptivity (81.43 ± 7.05 to 35.00 ± 11.76, p < 0.05). Deactivation of cofilin, an actin depolymerizing factor is required for spinogenesis. Membrane-initiated estradiol signaling involving the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a was responsible for the phosphorylation and thereby deactivation of cofilin. These data demonstrate that estradiol-induced spinogenesis in the ARH is an important cellular mechanism for the regulation of female sexual behavior. PMID:22131419
Aono, Naoki; Inoue, Tan; Shiraishi, Hideaki
Volvox carteri is a multicellular green alga with only two cell types, somatic cells and reproductive cells. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this organism has evolved from a Chlamydomonas-like unicellular ancestor along with multicellularity, cellular differentiation, and a change in the mode of sexual reproduction from isogamy to oogamy. To examine the mechanism of sexual differentiation and the evolution of oogamy, we isolated 6 different cDNA sequences specifically expressed in sexually differentiated female spheroids. The genes for the cDNAs were designated SEF1 to SEF6. The time course of accumulation of each mRNA was shown to be distinct. The expression of some of these genes was not significantly affected when the sexual inducer was removed after the induction of sexual development. Sequence analysis indicates that SEF5 and SEF6 encode pherophorin-related proteins. Of these, SEF5 has the unique structural feature of a polyproline stretch in the C-terminal domain in addition to the one found in the central region.
Maiorino, Leonardo; Farke, Andrew A.; Kotsakis, Tassos; Piras, Paolo
Background Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae) is a well-known dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Some previous workers hypothesized sexual dimorphism in the cranial shape of this taxon, using qualitative and quantitative observations. In particular, width and height of the frill as well as the development of a nasal horn have been hypothesized as potentially sexually dimorphic. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we reassess potential sexual dimorphism in skulls of Protoceratops andrewsi by applying two-dimensional geometric morphometrics to 29 skulls in lateral and dorsal views. Principal Component Analyses and nonparametric MANOVAs recover no clear separation between hypothetical “males” and “females” within the overall morphospace. Males and females thus possess similar overall cranial morphologies. No differences in size between “males” and “females” are recovered using nonparametric ANOVAs. Conclusions/Significance Sexual dimorphism within Protoceratops andrewsi is not strongly supported by our results, as previously proposed by several authors. Anatomical traits such as height and width of the frill, and skull size thus may not be sexually dimorphic. Based on PCA for a data set focusing on the rostrum and associated ANOVA results, nasal horn height is the only feature with potential dimorphism. As a whole, most purported dimorphic variation is probably primarily the result of ontogenetic cranial shape changes as well as intraspecific cranial variation independent of sex. PMID:25951329
Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea
Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought.
Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Wantia, Jan; Isler, Karin
The processes that underlie the formation of the dominance hierarchy in a group are since long under debate. Models of self-organisation suggest that dominance hierarchies develop by the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing fights (the so-called winner-loser effect), but according to ‘the prior attribute hypothesis’, dominance hierarchies develop from pre-existing individual differences, such as in body mass. In the present paper, we investigate the relevance of each of these two theories for the degree of female dominance over males. We investigate this in a correlative study in which we compare female dominance between groups of 22 species throughout the primate order. In our study female dominance may range from 0 (no female dominance) to 1 (complete female dominance). As regards ‘the prior attribute hypothesis’, we expected a negative correlation between female dominance over males and species-specific sexual dimorphism in body mass. However, to our surprise we found none (we use the method of independent contrasts). Instead, we confirm the self-organisation hypothesis: our model based on the winner-loser effect predicts that female dominance over males increases with the percentage of males in the group. We confirm this pattern at several levels in empirical data (among groups of a single species and between species of the same genus and of different ones). Since the winner-loser effect has been shown to work in many taxa including humans, these results may have broad implications. PMID:18628830
Kraaijeveld, Ken; Franco, Padu; Reumer, Barbara M; van Alphen, Jacques J M
Population divergence in sexual traits is affected by different selection pressures, depending on the mode of reproduction. In allopatric sexual populations, aspects of sexual behavior may diverge due to sexual selection. In parthenogenetic populations, loss-of-function mutations in genes involved in sexual functionality may be selectively neutral or favored by selection. We assess to what extent these processes have contributed to divergence in female sexual traits in the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina clavipes in which some populations are infected with parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia bacteria. We find evidence consistent with both hypotheses. Both arrhenotokous males and males derived from thelytokous strains preferred to court females from their own population. This suggests that these populations had already evolved population-specific mating preferences when the latter became parthenogenetic. Thelytokous females did not store sperm efficiently and fertilized very few of their eggs. The nonfertility of thelytokous females was due to mutations in the wasp genome, which must be an effect of mutation accumulation under thelytoky. Divergence in female sexual traits of these two allopatric populations has thus been molded by different forces: independent male/female coevolution while both populations were still sexual, followed by female-only evolution after one population switched to parthenogenesis.
Fokidis, H.B., T.S. Risch and T.C. Glenn
Factors underlying the evolution of female-biased sexual size dimorphism in mammals are poorly understood. In an effort to better understand these factors we tested whether larger female southern flying squirrels, Glaucomys volans, gained reproductive advantages (larger litters or more male mates) and direct resource benefits, such as larger home ranges or access to more food (i.e. mast-producing trees). As dimorphism can vary with age in precocial breeding species, we compared females during their first reproduction and during a subsequent breeding attempt. Females were not significantly larger or heavier than males at first reproduction, but became about 7% heavier and 22% larger than males at subsequent breeding. Larger females produced larger litters and had home ranges containing a greater proportion of upland hardwood trees. Female body size was not associated with either multiple male mating or home range size, but females with larger home ranges had higher indexes of body condition. Females in precocial breeding flying squirrels initiate reproduction before sexual size dimorphism is evident, and thus, may be allocating resources to both reproduction and growth simultaneously, or delaying growth entirely. Larger females produce more pups and have access to more food resources. Thus, selection for increased female size may partly explain how female-biased sexual size dimorphism is maintained in this species.
Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakai, Takaomi
In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, females take the initiative to mate successfully because they decide whether to mate or not. However, little is known about the molecular and neuronal mechanisms regulating sexual receptivity in virgin females. Genetic tools available in Drosophila are useful for identifying molecules and neural circuits involved in the regulation of sexual receptivity. We previously demonstrated that insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the female brain are critical to the regulation of female sexual receptivity. Ablation and inactivation of IPCs enhance female sexual receptivity, suggesting that neurosecretion from IPCs inhibits female sexual receptivity. IPCs produce and release insulin-like peptides (Ilps) that modulate various biological processes such as metabolism, growth, lifespan and behaviors. Here, we report a novel role of the Ilps in sexual behavior in Drosophila virgin females. Compared with wild-type females, females with knockout mutations of Ilps showed a high mating success rate toward wild-type males, whereas wild-type males courted wild-type and Ilp-knockout females to the same extent. Wild-type receptive females retard their movement during male courtship and this reduced female mobility allows males to copulate. Thus, it was anticipated that knockout mutations of Ilps would reduce general locomotion. However, the locomotor activity in Ilp-knockout females was significantly higher than that in wild-type females. Thus, our findings indicate that the high mating success rate in Ilp-knockout females is caused by their enhanced sexual receptivity, but not by improvement of their sex appeal or by general sluggishness.
Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Deng, Vivianne; Matagne, Valerie; Ronnekleiv, Oline; Bosch, Martha; Han, Victor; Percy, Alan K.; Ojeda, Sergio R.
The excitatory tone to GnRH neurones is a critical component underlying the pubertal increase in GnRH secretion. However, the homeostatic mechanisms modulating the response of GnRH neurones to excitatory inputs remain poorly understood. A basic mechanism of neuronal homeostasis is the Na+, K+-ATPase-dependent restoration of Na+ and K+ transmembrane gradients after neuronal excitation. This activity is reduced in a mouse model of Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder in which expression of FXYD1, a modulator of Na+, K+-ATPase activity, is increased. We now report that the initiation, but not the completion of puberty, is advanced in girls with RTT, and that in rodents FXYD1 may contribute to the neuroendocrine regulation of female puberty by modulating GnRH neuronal excitability. Fxyd1 mRNA abundance reaches maximal levels in the female rat hypothalamus by the fourth postnatal week of life, i.e., around the time when the mode of GnRH secretion acquires an adult pattern of release. Although Fxyd1 mRNA expression is low in the hypothalamus, about 50% of GnRH neurones contain Fxyd1 transcripts. Whole-cell patch recording of GnRH-EGFP neurones revealed that the neurones of Fxyd1-null female mice respond to somatic current injections with a lower number of action potentials than wild-type cells. Both the age at vaginal opening and at first oestrous were delayed in Fxyd1-/- mice, but adult reproductive capacity was normal. These results suggest that FXYD1 contributes to facilitating the advent of puberty by maintaining GnRH neuronal excitability to incoming transsynaptic stimulatory inputs. PMID:19187398
Seth, Puja; Patel, Shilpa N; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve S
Adolescents, particularly African American adolescents, are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behavior has been well established. However, only a small number of studies have examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology among African American female adolescents, specifically over time. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a predictor of risky sexual behavior, sexual communication, and STIs longitudinally among African American female adolescents between the ages 15 and 21. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of depressive symptoms at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STIs over six- and 12-months follow-up. Age, intervention group, and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that high levels of depressive symptoms predicted no condom use during last sexual encounter and multiple sexual partners over six-months follow-up. Depressive symptoms also predicted having a main partner with concurrent partners, high fear of communication about condoms, and sex while high on alcohol or drugs over six- and 12-months follow-up. These findings could be used to inform HIV/STI prevention intervention programs and clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior.
Anvar Abnavi, Marjan; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Hamidian, Sajedeh; Ghaffarpour, Sara
Background Opiate abuse in males has significant effects on their sexual functions. In contrast, sexuality in females is a multidimensional issue that can strongly be affected by several factors in their partners. However, only a limited number of studies have assessed the role of males’ opioid dependency in their female partners’ sexual function. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of males’ opioid dependency on their wives’ sexual function compared to the sexual function of the females whose husbands were not opioid dependent. Patients and Methods This study included 340 women who were selected through convenience sampling and divided into a control (females whose husbands were not opioid dependent) and a case group (women whose husbands were opioid dependent). The data were collected through an interview according to the DSM-IV-R criteria for female sexual dysfunctions by a senior female medical student who was one of the researchers. Finally, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 15) and analyzed using the t-test and chi-square test. Results According to the results, the frequency of hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual aversion disorder in the control group was significantly higher than that of the case group (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results showed that having an addicted husband could strongly affect some sexual domains in women. It could change the pattern of desire and motivation for sexual contact in females and alter their attitude toward the sexual relationship, thereby causing disturbances in the females’ normal sexual function. PMID:27218067
Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montanaro, Erika A.; Bryan, Angela D.
Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34% of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group. PMID:25107488
Elgar, M A; Schneider, J M; Herberstein, M E
Sexual conflict theory predicts an antagonistic coevolution, with each sex evolving adaptations and counter-adaptations to overcome a temporary dominance of the other sex over the control of paternity. Polyandry allows sexual selection to operate after mating has commenced, with male and female interests competing for control of fertilization. There are numerous examples of male control of paternity, but few studies have unambiguously revealed female control. Attributing variance in paternity to females is often difficult since male and female influences cannot be separated unambiguously. However, we show that polyandrous female orb-web spiders Argiope keserlingi (Arancidae) control the paternity of their offspring by adjusting the timing of sexual cannibalism. Our experiments reveal that females copulating with relatively smaller males delay sexual cannibalism, thereby prolonging the duration of copulation, and that these males consequently fertilize relatively more eggs. PMID:11133035
Althof, Stanley E; Rosen, Raymond C; DeRogatis, Leonard; Corty, Eric; Quirk, Frances; Symonds, Tara
Defining and measuring Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) is a complex and challenging task. Several factors have confounded the theory and measurement of FSD including: the use of an inappropriate male paradigm; difficulty in capturing the complexity of women's sexual response; an evolving but presently untested nosology; and the relative independence between subjective and objective aspects of women's sexual response. Each of these factors have contributed to the difficulty in developing meaningful and valid endpoints for clinical trials. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) 2000 draft guidance document for female sexual dysfunction clinical trials recommended the use of daily diary measures as primary and self-administered questionnaires (SAQs) as secondary endpoints. Event logs or diary measures may be adequate for assessing aspects of male sexual performance (e.g., erectile function), or in other therapeutic areas with discrete and readily observable endpoints (e.g., incontinence). However, psychometric theory suggests that for female sexual dysfunction clinical trials, SAQ instruments may provide more sensitive and reliable measures of outcome. We offer an alternative set of recommendations in the hope that the FDA will reconsider its position and to serve as potential guidelines for non-industry sponsored research on female sexuality as well. First, we propose that SAQs be elevated from their current status as secondary endpoints to be considered as potential primary endpoints in clinical trials of FSD. Second, we recommend that depending on the trial design and intervention under study, either an SAQ or diary measure (typically one or the other, and not both), might serve as a primary endpoint in a clinical trial. Third, SAQs and diaries should be employed, analyzed and interpreted in their particular areas of strength. Diaries are most useful for enumerating events and/or counting frequencies. SAQs are superior at gathering subjective data related to
Eberhard, W G; Cordero, C
Selection clearly focuses on differences in reproduction, but studies of reproductive physiology generally have been carried out in a near vacuum of modern evolutionary theory. This lack of contact between the two fields may be about to change. New ideas indicate that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has affected the evolution of products in male semen that influence female reproductive behavior and physiology.
Martinez, Luis A; Petrulis, Aras
Precopulatory behaviors that are preferentially directed towards opposite-sex conspecifics are critical for successful reproduction, particularly in species wherein the sexes live in isolation, such as Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). In females, these behaviors include sexual odor preference and vaginal scent marking. The neural regulation of precopulatory behaviors is thought to involve a network of forebrain areas that includes the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the medial preoptic area (MPOA). Although MA and BNST are necessary for sexual odor preference and preferential vaginal marking to male odors, respectively, the role of MPOA in odor-guided female precopulatory behaviors is not well understood. To address this issue, female Syrian hamsters with bilateral, excitotoxic lesions of MPOA (MPOA-X) or sham lesions (SHAM) were tested for sexual odor investigation, scent marking, and lordosis. MPOA-X females did not investigate male odors more than female odors in an odor preference test, indicating that MPOA may be necessary for normal sexual odor preference in female hamsters. This loss of preference cannot be attributed to a sensory deficit, since MPOA-X females successfully discriminated male odors from female odors during an odor discrimination test. Surprisingly, no deficits in vaginal scent marking were observed in MPOA-X females, although these females did exhibit decreased overall levels of flank marking compared to SHAM females. Finally, all MPOA-X females exhibited lordosis appropriately. These results suggest that MPOA plays a critical role in the neural regulation of certain aspects of odor-guided precopulatory behaviors in female Syrian hamsters.
Patrice-Coy, Celestine; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Boodram, Cheryl Ann Sarita
Abstract This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Carriacou. The authors aimed at finding out whether adolescent females in Carriacou receive adequate information about HIV and other STDs. Where did students receive most of their information about HIV/STDs and whether the knowledge has influenced their sexual behaviors? Furthermore, this study focused on how female adolescents feel toward people living with HIV/STDs. Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis. The findings revealed that female adolescents were highly aware of HIV/STDs-related facts. They were knowledgeable and have received adequate information about HIV/STDs. PMID:27603390
Patrice-Coy, Celestine; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Boodram, Cheryl Ann Sarita
This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Carriacou. The authors aimed at finding out whether adolescent females in Carriacou receive adequate information about HIV and other STDs. Where did students receive most of their information about HIV/STDs and whether the knowledge has influenced their sexual behaviors? Furthermore, this study focused on how female adolescents feel toward people living with HIV/STDs.Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis.The findings revealed that female adolescents were highly aware of HIV/STDs-related facts. They were knowledgeable and have received adequate information about HIV/STDs.
Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C; Sanchez, Diana T
The present research uniquely compared male control theory (MCT) versus female control theory (FCT) to illuminate motives for the sexual double standard (SDS), whereby men gain status from engaging in casual sex or having many sexual partners, but women are stigmatized for it. Consistent with MCT, men were more likely than women to endorse the SDS and to give sexual advice in ways that reinforce it-gender differences that were mediated by hostile sexism (HS) and endorsing the SDS, respectively. The data did not support FCT's argument that women are motivated by sexual economics to restrict female sexuality (Baumeister & Twenge, 2002). Both genders discouraged women from having casual sex to protect women from social stigma and rape myths that justify violence against sexual women. In concert, the findings support MCT more than FCT and suggest that sexism, stigma, and rape myths are primary obstacles to sexual equality.
Stephenson, Kyle R; Toorabally, Nasreen; Lyons, Leah; M Meston, Cindy
Female sexual function is a multi-faceted psychophysiological construct. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is considered a "gold standard" self-report instrument that assesses the various aspects of sexual function. However, researchers have recently proposed potential limitations of the FSFI, highlighting the need for continued validation research. The aims of the current analyses were (a) to assess the correlations between FSFI scores and information regarding specific rates of functional impairment gained via clinical interview; and (b) to assess the specificity of FSFI subscale scores in reflecting corresponding aspects of sexual function (e.g., whether the Sexual Desire subscale reflects sexual desire specifically rather than sexual arousal, orgasm, etc.). The participants were 97 sexually active women who reported impairments in sexual function. Clinical interview data exhibited moderate-to-strong correlations with FSFI scores. Additionally, FSFI subscales generally exhibited adequate specificity in terms of reflecting their corresponding aspects of sexual function more strongly than other aspects. The results generally supported the validity of the FSFI. Implications for the measurement and conceptualization of female sexual function are discussed.
Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri
African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior and substance use in a sample of 214 low-income, urban AA female caregivers and daughters recruited from outpatient mental health clinics in Chicago. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that sexual risk reported by female caregivers was associated with adolescent sexual risk, and illicit drug use reported by female caregivers was related to adolescent-reported substance use, which was in turn associated with adolescent-reported sexual risk behavior. These findings suggest that female caregivers' sexual behavior and substance use both relate to girls' sexual risk. Thus, results emphasize the role of female caregivers in transmitting risk.
Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.
Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…
Debelle, Allan; Ritchie, Michael G; Snook, Rhonda R
Sexual selection is predicted to drive the coevolution of mating signals and preferences (mating traits) within populations, and could play a role in speciation if sexual isolation arises due to mating trait divergence between populations. However, few studies have demonstrated that differences in mating traits between populations result from sexual selection alone. Experimental evolution is a promising approach to directly examine the action of sexual selection on mating trait divergence among populations. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection (low vs. high) in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previous studies on these experimental populations have shown that sexual selection manipulation resulted in the divergence between sexual selection treatments of several courtship song parameters, including interpulse interval (IPI) which markedly influences male mating success. Here, we measure female preference for IPI using a playback design to test for preference divergence between the sexual selection treatments after 130 generations of experimental sexual selection. The results suggest that female preference has coevolved with male signal, in opposite directions between the sexual selection treatments, providing direct evidence of the ability of sexual selection to drive the divergent coevolution of mating traits between populations. We discuss the implications in the context sexual selection and speciation.
Kudwa, A E; López, F J; McGivern, R F; Handa, R J
Androgens influence many aspects of reproductive behavior, including sexual preference of females for males. In oophorectomized women with sexual desire disorder, testosterone patches improve libido, but their use is limited because of adverse side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators offer an improved safety profile for both sexes: enhancing libido and muscle and bone growth in a manner similar to steroidal androgens but with fewer adverse effects, such as hirsutism, acne, and prostate growth. The current study investigated the action of a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (LGD-3303 [9-chloro-2-ethyl-1-methyl-3-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3H-pyrrolo-[3,2-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one]) on male-directed sexual preference, proceptivity, and lordosis behavior of female rats. LGD-3303 is a nonsteroidal, nonaromatizable, highly selective ligand for the androgen receptor and effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier. Gonadectomized female rats were treated with LGD-3303 (3-30 mg/kg) or vehicle by daily oral gavage. Results showed that LGD-3303 treatment enhanced sexual preference of females for males but only if females had previous sexual experience. This occurred after 1 or 7 d of treatment. In contrast, preference for males was inhibited by LGD-3303 treatments of sexually naive females. The LGD-3303 increase in male preference was blocked by pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. LGD-3303 treatment increased lordosis and proceptivity behaviors in ovariectomized females primed with suboptimal doses of estradiol benzoate plus progesterone. These data support the concept that LGD-3303 can stimulate aspects of female sexual behavior and may serve as a potential therapeutic for women with sexual desire disorders.
Women who deployed and reported combat experiences were significantly more likely to report sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% confidence...experiences (Table 2). Women who were deployed who experi enced combat reported the highest cumulative incidence of sexual harassment (19.9%) and sexual ... sexual harassment and sexual assault (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.61 3.78), but not the sexual assault only category. Women who deployed before baseline had
Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi
A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677
Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L
The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.
McCartan, Lisa M.; Gunnison, Elaine
The link between prior sexual abuse and female offending is one of the most consistent findings within the etiology of female offending. It is not, however, part of every female offender's life history. Working from research on the impact of abuse on individuals, the current article examines the individual and relationship factors that…
Under sexual conflict, males evolve traits to increase their mating and reproductive success that impose costs on females. Females evolve counter-adaptations to resist males and reduce those costs. Female resistance may instead serve as a mechanism for mate choice if the male-imposed costs are outwe...
Snoeren, Eelke M S
Three different phases can be distinguished in rats' sexual cycle, the introductory (precopulatory), the copulatory and the executive (ejaculatory) phases. In this review, a new analysis of existing pharmacological data is made, both in male and female rats, in which the different aspects of sexual behavior are taken into account. An effort is made to distinguish pharmacological effects on sexual behavior from a possible physiological role of noradrenaline. In addition, new data on the role of α2-adrenoceptors on female sexual behavior is presented. The new analysis suggests that noradrenaline has a stimulatory role on the executive phase of male sexual behavior, while the introductory and copulatory phases remain unaffected. Adrenoceptors play a role in the regulation of sexual behavior in the medial preoptic area and the lateral septum. In female rats, noradrenaline also does not play a vital role in the introductory phase. Only the lordosis behavior of the copulatory phase is sometimes affected by adrenergic agents, but only under a certain hormonal condition. The medial preoptic area, the ventromedial nucleus, the arcuate ventromedial nucleus and median eminence are involved in the regulation of female sexual behavior. The new data suggest that α2-adrenoceptors play no major role on any indices of female sexual behavior.
Sexual health is vital to overall well-being. Orgasm is a normal psycho-physiological function of human beings and every woman has the right to feel sexual pleasure. The anatomy of the vulva and of the female erectile organs (trigger of orgasm) is described in human anatomy textbooks. Female sexual physiology was first described in Dickinson's textbook in 1949 and subsequently by Masters and Johnson in 1966. During women's sexual response, changes occur in the congestive structures that are essential to the understanding of women's sexual response and specifically of their orgasm. Female and male external genital organs arise from the same embryologic structures, i.e. phallus, urogenital folds, urogenital sinus and labioscrotal swellings. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and vestibule, with its erectile apparatus: clitoris (glans, body, crura), labia minora, vestibular bulbs and corpus spongiosum. Grafenberg, in 1950, discovered no "G-spot" and did not report an orgasm of the intraurethral glands. The hypothetical area named "G-spot" should not be defined with Grafenberg's name. The female orgasm should be a normal phase of the sexual response cycle, which is possible to achieve by all healthy women with effective sexual stimulation. Knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs are important in the field of women's sexual health.
Pfaus, James G; Shadiack, Annette; Van Soest, Tanya; Tse, Maric; Molinoff, Perry
Disorders of sexual desire affect an estimated 30% of women in North America and Europe, with etiologies based on interpersonal, personal, and physiological factors. There are currently no pharmacological agents approved for use in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. This is due, in part, to a focus on the effects of experimental drugs on reflexive components of sexual behavior, such as lordosis, in animal models. Here we report that PT-141, a peptide analogue of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone that binds to central melanocortin receptors, selectively stimulates solicitational behaviors in the female rat. This occurs without affecting lordosis, pacing, or other sexual behaviors. PT-141 did not cause generalized motor activation, nor did it affect the perception of sexual reward. A selective pharmacological effect on appetitive sexual behavior in female rats has not been reported previously, and indicates that central melanocortin systems are important in the regulation of female sexual desire. Accordingly, PT-141 may be the first identified pharmacological agent with the capability to treat female sexual desire disorders.
Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C
Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a preliminary analysis of the reliability and validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) for a sample drawn from a high-risk population-African American adolescent females. Our analyses indicate good internal consistency for the SES with this sample. Convergent validity is demonstrated. Specifically, scores on the SES are associated with significantly lower levels of self-esteem and mastery, higher levels of depression, lower levels of family cohesion, higher levels of family conflict, and higher levels of using alcohol and being a smoker. Preliminary support for discriminant validity is also obtained. This study is a stepping stone for future investigations into the psychometric evaluation of the SES.
Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy; Adams, Sarah; Murillo, Vanessa; Martinez, Monique
These experiments were designed to determine if prior sexual experience reduced the negative effect of mild stress on female sexual behavior. In the first experiment, ovariectomized rats were hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone for 3 consecutive weeks during which they received six mating experiences in a male's home cage or received no sexual experience. The next week, females were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate two days before a 5 min restraint. Both groups were resistant to the negative effects of the stressor. In the second experiment, females received 0, 1, 2, or 3 weeks of 10 μg estradiol benzoate and were restrained on the fourth week after priming with 10 μg estradiol benzoate. Rats without prior hormonal priming showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint but prior priming with estradiol benzoate reduced this effect. In the third experiment, rats received 3 weeks of hormonal priming with estradiol benzoate and progesterone with or without sexual experience. An additional group received no sexual experience or hormonal priming. Females were then given a 3-week hormone vacation before testing in the restraint paradigm. All groups showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint. The fourth experiment was identical to the third except that sexual experience in the male's cage and in a pacing apparatus were compared. There was no effect of either type of sexual experience on the response to restraint. Possible mechanisms responsible for effects of prior hormonal priming are presented and the absence of an effect of sexual experience is discussed in comparison to findings in male rats.
Currier, Ashley; Migraine-George, Thérèse
Understandings of African lesbian sexualities have been affected by silence, repression, and uncertainty. The subject of lesbian experiences and sexualities in Africa constitutes an opportunity for feminist scholars to address the transnational politics of knowledge production about African lesbians' lives and the contours of lesbian art, activism, and relationships in African nations. This article contextualizes the state of research on African lesbian sexualities and introduces the special issue.
van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan
The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed Sexual Offenses (AMSO, n = 743). Results showed that AFSOs and AMSOs were remarkably similar, whereas AFSOs and AFVOs were remarkably different on the measured variables. Compared to AFVOs, AFSOs less often had antisocial friends and problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school) and family (e.g., parental problems, poor authority and control, and run away from home). Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family and social isolation were found to be more common in AFSOs than in AFVOs. Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family was the only specific characteristic of female adolescent sexual offending, as this was more common in AFSOs than in both AMSOs and AFVOs.
Laan, E; Everaerd, W; van Bellen, G; Hanewald, G
Whether erotic films made by women are more arousing for women than erotic films made by men was studied. Forty-seven subjects were exposed to both a woman-made, female-initiated, and female centered, erotic film excerpt. Photoplethysmographic vaginal pulse amplitude was recorded continuously. Self-report ratings of sexual arousal and affective reactions were collected after each stimulus presentation. Contrary to expectation, genital arousal did not differ between films, although genital response to both films was substantial. Subjective experience of sexual arousal was significantly higher during the woman-made film. The man-made film evoked more feelings of shame, guilt, and aversion. Correlations between subjective experience of sexual arousal and photoplethysmographic measures of sexual arousal were nonsignificant. The largest contribution to female sexual excitement might result from the processing of stimulus-content and stimulus-meaning and not from peripheral vasocongestive feedback.
Normandin, J J; Murphy, A Z
Little is known regarding the descending inhibitory control of genital reflexes such as ejaculation and vaginal contractions. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) projects bilaterally to the lumbosacral motoneuron pools that innervate the genital musculature of both male and female rats. Electrolytic nPGi lesions facilitate ejaculation in males, leading to the hypothesis that the nPGi is the source of descending inhibition to genital reflexes. However, the function of the nPGi in female sexual behavior remains to be elucidated. To this end, male and female rats received bilateral excitotoxic fiber-sparing lesions of the nPGi, and sexual behavior and sexual behavior-induced Fos expression were examined. In males, nPGi lesions facilitated copulation, supporting the hypothesis that the nPGi, and not fibers-of-passage, is the source of descending inhibition of genital reflexes in male rats. nPGi lesions in males did not alter sexual behavior-induced Fos expression in any brain region examined. nPGi-lesioned females spent significantly less time mating with stimulus males and had significantly longer ejaculation-return latencies compared to baseline. These results did not significantly differ from control females, but this trend warranted further analysis of the reinforcing value of sexual behavior. Both lesioned and non-lesioned females formed a conditioned place preference (CPP) for artificial vaginocervical stimulation (aVCS). However, post-reinforcement, nPGi-lesioned females did not differ in the percentage of time spent in the non-reinforced chamber versus the reinforced chamber, suggesting a weakened CPP for aVCS. nPGi lesions in females reduced sexual behavior-induced Fos expression throughout the hypothalamus and amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest that while nPGi lesions in males facilitate copulation, such lesions in females attenuate several aspects of sexual behavior resulting in a reduction in the rewarding value of copulation
Thibodeau, Rachel B; Ornelas, Laura C; Romero, Jordan; Memos, Nicoletta; Scheible, Matthew; Avila, Alfred; Schumacher, Abby; Navarro, April; Zimmermann, Karen; Cuenod, Bethany A; Frohardt, Russell J; Guarraci, Fay A
The present study was designed to investigate the long-term effects of repeated methamphetamine (MA) exposure on sexual motivation in female rats tested after a period of drug abstinence. In Experiment 1, female subjects received three injections of MA (1.0mg/kg/day, every other day) or saline and were tested for paced mating behavior (where females could control the receipt of sexual stimulation from one male rat) 21 days after their last injection. In Experiment 2, female subjects received 12 consecutive injections of MA (1.0mg/kg/day) or saline and were tested for mate choice (where females could control the receipt of sexual stimulation from two male rats simultaneously) 6 days after their last injection. Experiment 3 was identical to Experiment 2 except that female subjects received no baseline mating test and were tested for mate choice 24h and 6 days after their last injection. Open field tests were conducted in each experiment to measure locomotor activity after repeated exposure to MA. Although repeated MA exposure increased locomotor activity, mating behavior was not facilitated after either a short (6 days) or long (21 days) period of drug abstinence. Nevertheless, sexual behavior was disrupted during the 24h acute withdrawal period. Therefore, although the present study found no evidence of cross-sensitization between female sexual behavior and MA after either a short or a long period of drug abstinence, sexual behavior in sexually naïve female rats is sensitive to the depressive state associated with acute withdrawal from MA. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that MA acts differently from other psychomotor stimulants, and that the effects of MA withdrawal on sexual behavior differ between male and female rats.
Moore, A J; Gowaty, P A; Wallin, W G; Moore, P J
Conflicts between the sexes over control of reproduction are thought to lead to a cost of sexual selection through the evolution of male traits that manipulate female reproductive physiology and behaviour, and female traits that resist this manipulation. Although studies have begun to document negative fitness effects of sexual conflict, studies showing the expected association between sexual conflict and the specific behavioural mechanisms of sexual selection are lacking. Here we experimentally manipulated the opportunity for sexual conflict in the cockroach. Nauphoeta cinerea and showed that, for this species, odour cues in the social environment influence the behavioural strategies and fitness of males and females during sexual selection. Females provided with the opportunity for discriminating between males but not necessarily mating with preferred males produced fewer male offspring than females mated at random. The number of female offspring produced was not affected, nor was the viability of the offspring. Experimental modification of the composition of the males' pheromone showed that the fecundity effects were caused by exposure to the pheromone component that makes males attractive to females but also makes males less likely to be dominant. Female mate choice therefore carries a demographic cost but functions to avoid male manipulation and aggression. Male-male competition appears to function to circumvent mate choice rather than directly manipulating females, as the mate choice can be cryptic. The dynamic struggle between the sexes for control of mating opportunities and outcomes in N. cinerea therefore reveals a unique role for sexual conflict in the evolution of the behavioural components of sexual selection.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland.
Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719
Guarraci, Fay A; Bolton, Jessica L
Research indicates gender differences in sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. Preclinical work investigating the interaction between drugs of abuse and sex-specific behaviors, such as sexual behavior, is critical to our understanding of such gender differences in humans. A number of behavioral paradigms can be used to model aspects of human sexual behavior in animal subjects. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture of the female rat has been used to map the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to uniquely female copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms discussed in the current review have helped us expand our description of the appetitive and consummatory patterns of sexual behavior in the female rat. Measuring appetitive behavior is particularly important for assessing sexual motivation, the equivalent of "desire" in humans. By investigating the effects of commonly abused drugs on female sexual motivation, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission, a neural system also known to be critical to the neurobiology of drug addiction, in female sexual motivation. A better understanding of the nexus of sex and drugs in the female brain will help advance our understanding of motivation in general and explain how psychomotor stimulants affect males and females differently.
Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.
Li, Shiyue; Zuo, Dan; Xu, Delong; Xu, Xunyu; Zhang, Dongxian; Lu, Zuxun
To get information in the sexual and contraceptive behaviors in Chinese female college students, a randomized cluster sampling was conducted in colleges and universities in Wuhan Area, China, in terms of types of colleges, subjects (literature, sciences, medicines, art etc), and grades etc. A total number of 2450 questionnaires were distributed, with 2365 questionnaires returned being valid. The return rate of valid questionnaires was 96.6%. The questionnaire investigation was conducted on a multiple-choice and anonymous basis. Data were input into computer and SPSS12.0 software package was employed for statistical analysis. Among the female students, 1196 had the experiences of hug and kiss (50.57%) and 423 (17.89%) had sexual experiences (sexual intercourse). The first sexual intercourse took place at the age of 19.23+/-1.74 y. There were significant differences in the sexual experiences among the majors of different subjects, with the rate of sexual experiences in art majors (43.17%) and high-grade students (34.31%) being the highest. The causes of the first sexual intercourse included sexual impulse, curiosity, intention to strengthen the relationship or to show loyalty to boyfriend and sometimes violence. While the motives of the sexual intercourse within the past one year before the investigation were to satisfy the sexual needs and to strengthen the relation with their boyfriends. With both first intercourse and sexual experiences within last one year, the partners of the sexual intercourse were mainly their boyfriends (95.7% and 97.3% respectively), but the partners also included acquaintances, "one night stand" partners and customers of sex trade. Some of them had multiple sexual partners, with the highest number of the sexual partners being 11. In the first sexual intercourse of the subjects, 44.0 % of them did not take any contraceptive measures; only 16.4% of them used condoms. In the sexual intercourse within the last one year, only 44.6% took
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Wojcicki, Janet; Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira
Safe sex skills training often teach women to be assertive in condom use negotiations. However, it has been suggested that assertiveness training may be inappropriate for women who lack power in their sexual relationship. Our qualitative study of 62 women attending a family planning clinic explored various communication styles they used to introduce and negotiate female condom use in their sexual relationships. We further examined how different introduction and negotiation styles were related to actual use of the device. The device was introduced using a direct, semidirect, indirect, or nonverbal communication approach. Use of the female condom was negotiated by avoiding sex, using humor, discussing the possibility of using the condom, or being argumentative with partners. The outcome of introducing and negotiating female condom use was often mediated by other factors including partner characteristics, relationship power dynamics, situational context, and use of additional discourse strategies (e.g., describing the female condom as a sexual toy or taking the opportunity to educated partners about the female condom). Less direct approaches appeared to be as effective in facilitating use of the female condom as more direct approaches. Female condom introduction and negotiation styles that continued to engage their partners by using additional discourse strategies led to more frequent use of the device. Implications of our findings for HIV risk reduction program development are discussed.
Monks, Stormy M; Tomaka, Joe; Palacios, Rebecca; Thompson, Sharon E
Alcohol and alcohol expectancies relate to sexual victimization. The present study examined these links in a sample of 407 predominantly Hispanic male and female college students, along the Mexico-US border. The study also examined the independent contribution of sexual sensation seeking to the prediction of victimization. Results showed that victimization was associated with alcohol risk, alcohol consumption-related problems, and positive alcohol expectancies. Importantly, sexual sensation seeking independently predicted victimization and did so after controlling for alcohol risk and expectancies. Our results suggest that associations among victimization, alcohol risk, and expectancies generalize to Hispanic women and men. The study's limitations are noted.
Hollis, Brian; Keller, Laurent; Kawecki, Tadeusz J
Explanations for the evolution of delayed maturity usually invoke trade-offs mediated by growth, but processes of reproductive maturation continue long after growth has ceased. Here, we tested whether sexual selection shapes the rate of posteclosion maturation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that populations maintained for more than 100 generations under a short generation time and polygamous mating system evolved faster posteclosion maturation and faster egg-to-adult development of males, when compared to populations kept under short generations and randomized monogamy that eliminated sexual selection. An independent assay demonstrated that more mature males have higher fitness under polygamy, but this advantage disappears under monogamy. In contrast, for females greater maturity was equally advantageous under polygamy and monogamy. Furthermore, monogamous populations evolved faster development and maturation of females relative to polygamous populations, with no detectable trade-offs with adult size or egg-to-adult survival. These results suggest that a major aspect of male maturation involves developing traits that increase success in sexual competition, whereas female maturation is not limited by investment in traits involved in mate choice or defense against male antagonism. Moreover, rates of juvenile development and adult maturation can readily evolve in opposite directions in the two sexes, possibly implicating polymorphisms with sexually antagonistic pleiotropy.
Ever since the release of sildenafil (Viagra) two decades ago to treat erectile dysfunction in men, there has been a conversation around whether there is a need for a "female Viagra." Last year's release of flibanserin (Addyi) was hailed by some as an achievement in women's sexual health. But how effective is this drug in affecting women's sexual desire? And are the things being labeled as women's sexual desire problems really problems to be fixed with a drug?
Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Poels, Saskia; Goldstein, Irwin; Everaerd, Walter; Koppeschaar, Hans; Chivers, Meredith; Gerritsen, Jeroen; van Ham, Diana; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan
In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women (with HSDD) could be due to either a relative insensitive brain system for sexual cues or to enhanced activity of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. This distinction in etiological background was taken into account when designing and developing new pharmacotherapies for this disorder. Irrespective of circulating plasma levels of testosterone, administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. The effects of an increase in sexual sensitivity of the brain depend on the motivational state of an individual. It might activate sexual excitatory mechanisms in low sensitive women, while it could evoke (or strengthen) sexual inhibitory mechanisms in women prone to sexual inhibition. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i)-mediated increase in genital sexual response. Accordingly, a single dose of T+PDE5i might enhance sexual responsiveness, especially in women with low sensitivity to sexual cues. In other women sexual stimulation might elicit a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated phasic increase in sexual inhibition, in which activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is involved. We hypothesize that a single dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (5-HT(1A)ra) will reduce the sexual-stimulation-induced PFC-mediated sexual inhibition during a short period after administration. Consequently, treatment with T+5-HT(1A)ra will be more effective, in particular in women exhibiting sexual inhibition. Based on the results of our efficacy studies described in parts 2 and 3 of the series, we conclude that tailoring on-demand therapeutics to different underlying etiologies might be a
Kayhan, Fatih; Küçük, Adem; Satan, Yılmaz; İlgün, Erdem; Arslan, Şevket; İlik, Faik
Background We aimed to investigate the current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD), mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods This case–control study involved 96 patients with FM and 94 healthy women. The SD diagnosis was based on a psychiatric interview in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview. Personality disorders were diagnosed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders. Results Fifty of the 96 patients (52.1%) suffered from SD. The most common SD was lack of sexual desire (n=36, 37.5%) and arousal disorder (n=10, 10.4%). Of the 96 patients, 45 (46.9%) had a mood or anxiety disorder and 13 (13.5%) had a personality disorder. The most common mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were major depression (26%), generalized anxiety disorder (8.3%), and histrionic personality disorder (10.4%). Conclusion SD, mood, and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in female patients with FM. Pain plays a greater role in the development of SD in female patients with FM. PMID:26937190
Russell, Kate; Hills, Susan L; Oster, Alexandra M; Porse, Charsey Cole; Danyluk, Gregory; Cone, Marshall; Brooks, Richard; Scotland, Sarah; Schiffman, Elizabeth; Fredette, Carolyn; White, Jennifer L; Ellingson, Katherine; Hubbard, Allison; Cohn, Amanda; Fischer, Marc; Mead, Paul; Powers, Ann M; Brooks, John T
We report on 9 cases of male-to-female sexual transmission of Zika virus in the United States occurring January-April 2016. This report summarizes new information about both timing of exposure and symptoms of sexually transmitted Zika virus disease, and results of semen testing for Zika virus from 2 male travelers.
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Migliuri, Savannah; Lac, Andrew
This study examines the relationship between sexual experience and various drinking measures in 550 incoming first-year college females. During this transition period, sexually experienced participants reported stronger alcohol expectancies and endorsed higher drinking motives, and drank more frequently and in greater quantities than sexually…
Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth
This study used the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to assess whether characteristics of females' sexual partners, relationships, and choice of contraceptive methods were associated with contraceptive use patterns within their first sexual relationship. White, black, and Hispanic females under age 25 (N=915) provided retrospective information on sexual activity and contraceptive use for first sexual relationships that occurred between 1991 and 1995. Females with older sexual partners and with same race/ethnicity partners (among Hispanics) had reduced odds of ever using contraception and/or uninterrupted use. Longer sexual relationships were associated with higher odds of ever using contraception but lower odds of uninterrupted use. Females who were older at first sex, who used hormonal methods (among whites), or who switched to more effective methods during their first sexual relationships had higher odds of ever using contraception and/or uninterrupted use. In contrast, switching to less effective methods during a first sexual relationship was associated with reduced odds of uninterrupted use.
Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau
Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…
Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.
Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…
Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth
The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to…
In this article, the author discusses the social issues that concern the young adolescents in Russia and their early onset to sexual activity. The early onset of sexual activity among adolescents in Russia is taking place under conditions that are quite specific. These conditions include: a low level of contraceptive awareness, a very small number…
Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen N
Women are less likely than men are to report receiving oral sex from their partners. Elements of sexual subjectivity may have implications for women's communication of consent to specific sexual acts. Sexually active women (n = 237) between 18 and 71 years of age (M = 28.85 years) completed an online survey measuring sociodemographic variables, entitlement to pleasure from partner, self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure, and consent communication at last receptive oral sex event. Participants were predominantly White (84.8%, n = 201) and in exclusive or monogamous sexual relationships (54.9%, n = 130). The authors used a 4-step test of mediation to determine whether self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure mediated the relation between entitlement to pleasure from partner and verbal consent communication. Self-efficacy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal consent communication (p <.01) in the fourth step, while entitlement to pleasure dropped out of the model (p >.05), indicating full mediation. Therefore, entitlement to pleasure predicted verbal consent to oral sex as a function of self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure. Sex-positive educational interventions may improve disparities between men and women in receiving oral sex from their partners. Results of this study offer insight into the ways in which culture-level forces affect interpersonal and intraindividual sexual health behaviors.
Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K
Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.
Uhl, Gabriele; Zimmer, Stefanie M; Renner, Dirk; Schneider, Jutta M
Sexual cannibalism is a particularly extreme example of conflict between the sexes, depriving the male of future reproduction. Theory predicts that sexual conflict should induce counter-adaptations in the victim. Observations of male spiders mating with moulting and hence largely immobile females suggest that this behaviour functions to circumvent female control and cannibalism. However, we lack quantitative estimates of natural frequencies and fitness consequences of these unconventional matings. To understand the importance of mating while moulting in cannibalistic mating systems, we combined mating experiments and paternity assessment in the laboratory with extensive field observations using the sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. Copulations with moulting females resulted in 97% male survival compared with only 20% in conventional matings. Mating while moulting provided similar paternity benefits compared with conventional matings. Our findings support the hypothesis that mating with moulting females evolved under sexual conflict and safely evades sexual cannibalism. Despite male benefits, natural frequencies were estimated around 44% and directly predicted by a male guarding a subadult female. Since only adult females signal their presence, the difficulty for males to locate subadult females might limit further spreading of mating with moulting females.
Wallner, Bernard; Aspernig, Doris; Millesi, Eva; Machatschke, Ivo H
Female Japanese macaques are seasonal breeders distinguished by their red-colored hindquarters, face, and nipple skin areas. Intensity of coloration seems to be associated with sexual attractiveness, behavior, and fluctuating sex steroids. Our aim was to investigate whether the color intensity of these regions differed between lactating (LA) and non-lactating (NLA) females during sexually inactive (SI) and active (SA) phases. Coloration scores of 19 adult females were classified using color tables. Estrogen and progesterone metabolites were determined in fecal samples. Weekly comparison between both groups revealed significantly increased coloration of the hindquarters area from week 13 (SI) until the end of the observation period, and for the nipple skin throughout the SI and SA periods. Face coloration differed marginally. Hormonally, NLA females showed significantly increased excretion rates of sex steroids at the end of the SI phase and throughout the whole SA period. Logistic regression analyses between elevated fecal steroids and nipple coloration disclosed a significant relationship for NLA females during the SI period. This connection persisted and included hindquarter coloration during the SA period. NLA females showed increased intromission with ejaculation, but no difference was found for intromission without ejaculation. In conclusion, results demonstrate increased endocrine excretion rates for NLA females during the whole observation period, paralleled by an enhanced, fertility-signaling sexual attractiveness.
Mpofu, Sibonginkosi; Odimegwu, Clifford; De Wet, Nicole; Adedini, Sunday; Akinyemi, Joshua
One of the reasons for the perpetuation of female circumcision is that it controls female sexuality. In this study, the authors examined the relationship between female circumcision and the sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. Data on women who were aware of circumcision and were circumcised were extracted from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey of 2008-09 as well as the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008. The sample size was 7,344 for Kenya and 16,294 for Nigeria. The outcome variables were age at first intercourse and total lifetime number of sexual partners. The study hypothesis was that women who were circumcised were less likely to have initiated sex early and to have only one sex partner. Cox proportional hazards regression and Poisson regression were used to examine the relations of female circumcision and other selected variables to sexual behavior. No association was observed between female circumcision and the outcomes for sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. The argument of sexual chastity is insufficient to sustain the perpetuation of female circumcision.
Abdel-Nasser, Ahmed M; Ali, Essam I
Previous research has identified two main problems of sexuality in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: difficulties in sexual performance and diminution of sexual desire and satisfaction. This study attempts to determine the clinical and psychological factors significantly contributing to sexual disability and dissatisfaction in female RA patients. Ninety consecutive female RA outpatients were assessed by a gynecologist. After excluding patients who were not sexually active and those with genital tract abnormalities, 52 patients were examined and investigated rheumatologically and given questionnaires assessing sexual performance, desire, and satisfaction, as well as demographic variables, pain, disability, anxiety, and depression. Following a correlation analysis, the contributions of demographic, disease, and psychological variables to sexual disability and dissatisfaction were explored by hierarchical and stepwise regression. Thirty-two patients (62%) had difficulties in sexual performance including nine patients (17%) who were totally unable to engage in sexual intercourse because of arthritis. Sexual desire or satisfaction were diminished in 24 patients (46%) and completely lost in 24 patients (46%). Sexual disability was not significantly correlated with any psychodemographic variables, but with parameters of disease activity (p<0.001), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)-disability (p<0.001), hip (p<0.001) but not knee joint disease, seropositivity (p<0.05), and diminished desire (p<0.05). However, HAQ-disability and hip joint disease were the only independent and significant determinants of sexual disability in the regression model after controlling for the effects of age and disease duration. These variables together explained 64% of the variance of sexual disability. On the other hand, pain (p<0.001), age (p<0.05), and depression (p<0.05) were the significant determinants in the regression model for sexual dissatisfaction, all together
Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment.
Background Sexual function is an essential component of life. For this reason, sexual dysfunction can have a negative impact on the wellbeing of men and women alike. Since the turn of the 21st century, research on female sexual dysfunction (FSD) has gained momentum. While FSD is often assessed in people with ill health, sexual dysfunction is an illness of its own entity and is also prevalent in non-patient populations. A critical review of current literature on female sexual dysfunction in general populations will shed light on possible determinants as well as at-risk groups. Thus, the aim of this systematic review is to assess the prevalence and the predictors of female sexual dysfunction in general populations. Methods/Design A systematic review of current literature on FSD will be performed. Studies will be considered for review if they report quantitative data on the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction. Outcome measures will include the prevalence of FSD, the time period assessed, and significant predictors for each domain of FSD. The scientific databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science will be systematically searched in cooperation with a medical research librarian. Hand searches for further relevant publications will also be undertaken. Screening of search results and extraction of data from included studies will be conducted cooperatively by two authors. The quality of the studies will be appraised and documented. Results will be compiled and presented in evidence tables. Discussion In the past decade, population-based studies on female sexual dysfunction have increased in number and grown more varied in their cultural settings. This review aims to provide a current overview of the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in populations from various countries, cultures, and age groups in order to provide a better understanding of its effect on women's lives today. PMID:25015232
BRUBAKER, Linda; CHIANG, Seing; ZYCZYNSKI, Halina; NORTON, Peggy; KALINOSKI, D. Lynn; STODDARD, Anne; KUSEK, John W.; STEERS, William
Objective To describe change in sexual function 2 years after surgery to treat stress urinary incontinence. Methods This analysis included 655 women randomized to Burch colposuspension or sling surgery. Sexual activity was assessed by the PISQ-12 among those sexually active at baseline and two years after surgery. Results Mean PISQ-12 total score improved from baseline 32.23±6.85 to 36.85± 5.89. After surgery, fewer subjects reported incontinence (9% vs. 53%, p<0.0001), restriction of sexual activity due to fear of incontinence (10% vs. 52%, p<0.0001), avoidance of intercourse because of vaginal bulging (3% vs. 24%, p<0.0001) or negative emotional reactions during sex (9% vs. 35%, p<0.0001). Women with successful surgery had greater improvement PISQ-12 scores (5.77 vs. 3.79), p<0.006. Sexually active women were younger, thinner, and had lower MESA scores (total and urge subscale) than sexually inactive women. Conclusion Sexual function improves following successful surgery and did not differ between Burch or sling. PMID:19286143
Vagi, Kevin J; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gladden, R Matthew; Chiang, Laura F; Brooks, Andrew; Nyunt, Myo-Zin; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mercy, James A; Dahlberg, Linda L
During a household survey in Tanzania, a nationally representative sample of females and males aged 13-24 years reported any experiences of sexual violence that occurred before the age of 18 years. The authors explore the prevalence, circumstances, and health outcomes associated with childhood sexual violence. The results suggest that violence against children in Tanzania is pervasive, with roughly three in 10 females and one in eight males experiencing some form of childhood sexual violence, and its health consequences are severe. Results are being used by the Tanzanian government to implement a National Plan of Action.
Rudman, W J; Verdi, P
This study examines the way female and male models are portrayed in magazine advertisements. Specifically, we focus on differences in sex role stereotyping, sexual display of the body, and violent imagery. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of magazines displaying fashion and fitness advertisements (N = 254). Findings from the analysis show that females are more likely than males to be placed in submissive positions, sexually displayed, and subjects of violent imagery. Sexual display and violent imagery measures are the strongest predictors of subjective level of exploitation.
DeSouza, Eros R; Cerqueira, Elder
Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment than those residing in their own homes, when controlling for participants' age, race, and social class. Women residing in their employers' residences used more alcohol and drugs than their counterparts. Harassed women had significantly higher self-esteem impairment and anxiety and depression than nonharassed women. Nonharassed women residing in their own homes had the best physical well-being. Concerning participants' worst sexually harassing experiences, the perpetrators were likely to be men (75%), who also engaged in more severe types of sexual harassment than female perpetrators. The emotional reactions to such incidents were significantly more negative when perpetrated by men than by women. Implications for foreign in-home workers employed by Europeans and North Americans are discussed.
Low-dose exposure to alkylphenols adversely affects the sexual development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): acceleration of the onset of puberty and delayed seasonal gonad development in mature female cod.
Meier, Sonnich; Morton, H Craig; Andersson, Eva; Geffen, Audrey J; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Larsen, Marita; Petersen, Marianne; Djurhuus, Rune; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Svardal, Asbjørn
Produced water (PW), a by-product of the oil-production process, contains large amount of alkylphenols (APs) and other harmful oil compounds. In the last 20 years, there have been increasing concerns regarding the environmental impact of large increases in the amounts of PW released into the North Sea. We have previously shown that low levels of APs can induce disruption of the endocrine and reproductive systems of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The aims of this follow-up study were to: (i) identify the lowest observable effect concentration of APs; (ii) study the effects of exposure to real PW, obtained from a North Sea oil-production platform; and (iii) study the biological mechanism of endocrine disruption in female cod. Fish were fed with feed paste containing several concentrations of four different APs (4-tert-butylphenol, 4-n-pentylphenol, 4-n-hexylphenol and 4-n-heptylphenol) or real PW for 20 weeks throughout the normal period of vitellogenesis in Atlantic cod from October to January. Male and female cod, exposed to AP and PW, were compared to unexposed fish and to fish fed paste containing 17β-oestradiol (E(2)). Approximately 60% of the females and 96% of the males in the unexposed groups were mature at the end of the experiment. Our results show that exposure to APs and E(2) have different effects depending on the developmental stage of the fish. We observed that juvenile females are advanced into puberty and maturation, while gonad development was delayed in both maturing females and males. The AP-exposed groups contained increased numbers of mature females, and significant differences between the untreated group and the AP-treated groups were seen down to a dose of 4 μg AP/kg body weight. In the high-dose AP and the E(2) exposed groups, all females matured and no juveniles were seen. These results suggest that AP-exposure can affect the timing of the onset of puberty in fish even at extremely low concentrations. Importantly, similar effects were not
Fisher, William A; Gruenwald, Ilan; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam; Lowenstein, Lior; Pyke, Robert E; Reisman, Yakov; Revicki, Dennis A; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio
This series of articles outlines standards for clinical trials of treatments for male and female sexual dysfunctions, with a focus on research design and patient-reported outcome assessment. These articles consist of revision, updating, and integration of articles on standards for clinical trials in male and female sexual dysfunction from the 2010 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine developed by the authors as part of the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine. We are guided in this effort by several principles. In contrast to previous versions of these guidelines, we merge discussion of standards for clinical trials in male and female sexual dysfunction in an integrated approach that emphasizes the common foundational practices that underlie clinical trials in the two settings. We present a common expected standard for clinical trial design in male and female sexual dysfunction, a common rationale for the design of phase I to IV clinical trials, and common considerations for selection of study population and study duration in male and female sexual dysfunction. We present a focused discussion of fundamental principles in patient- (and partner-) reported outcome assessment and complete this series of articles with specific discussions of selected aspects of clinical trials that are unique to male and to female sexual dysfunction. Our consideration of standards for clinical trials in male and female sexual dysfunction attempts to embody sensitivity to existing and new regulatory guidance and to address implications of the evolution of the diagnosis of sexual dysfunction that have been brought forward in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. The first article in this series focuses on phase I to phase IV clinical trial design considerations. Subsequent articles in this series focus on the measurement of patient-reported outcomes, unique aspects of clinical trial design for men, and unique aspects of clinical
Phasha, Tlakale Nareadi; Nyokangi, Doris
Following qualitative research methodology, this article presents school-based sexual violence experiences of female learners with mild intellectual disability. A total of 16 learners aged 16 to 24 years participated in the study. The findings revealed that learners with intellectual disability are not immune to school-based sexual violence. Modes of behavior that occurred frequently included touching, threats, and intimidation. School practices that reinforced school-based sexual violence are identified. The findings contradict common misconceptions that people with intellectual disability do not understand what is happening to them. The study recommends that school policies for sexual violence be intensified and learners receive developmentally appropriate sex education.
Cnaani, A; Levavi-Sivan, B
Aquaculture is one of the fastest rising sectors of world food production. Hundreds of fish species are cultured, providing an affordable, high quality food source. Two aspects of sexual development are critically important for the continued improvement of cultured fish stocks: sexual dimorphism and control of reproduction. In this paper, we review the main methods used to control sex determination in fish and their application in some of the most widely cultured species. Specifically, we review the techniques available for the production of all-male, all-female, and sterile populations. Techniques for endocrinological control of reproduction are also discussed.
Suzin, Daphne; McIlvenna, Susanne
As more and more people are successfully treated for and live longer with cancer, greater attention is being directed toward the survivorship needs of this population. Women treated for cancer often experience issues related to sexual health and intimacy, which are frequently cited as areas of concern, even among long-term survivors. Unfortunately, data suggest that providers infrequently discuss these issues. We reviewed a contemporary understanding of sexual health of women and the impact of treatment on both sexual function and intimacy. We also provide a review of the diagnosis using the newest classification put forth by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, and potential treatments, including both endocrine and nonendocrine treatments that the general oncologist may be asked about when discussing sexual health with his or her patients. PMID:24396051
Timmins, Liam; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Cullen, Claire
Snowden, Wichter, and Gray (2008) demonstrated that an Implicit Association Test and a Priming Task both predicted the sexual orientation of gynephilic and androphilic men in terms of their attraction biases towards pictures of nude males and females. For both measures, relative bias scores were obtained, with no information on the separate response biases to each target gender. The present study sought to extend this research by assessing both relative and individual implicit biases using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). An explicit measure screened for men with androphilic (n = 16) or gynephilic (n = 16) orientations on the dimensions of "sexual attraction," "sexual behavior," "sexual fantasies," "hetero/gay lifestyle," and "self identification." The IRAP involved responding "True" or "False" to pictures of nude males and females as either attractive or unattractive. Participants were required to respond in a manner consistent with their reported sexual orientation for half of the IRAP's test blocks and inconsistent for the other half. Response latencies were recorded and analyzed. The IRAP revealed a non-orthogonal pattern of biases across the two groups and had an excellent ability to predict sexual orientation with areas under the curves of 1.0 for the relative bias score and .94 and .95 for the bias scores for the male and female pictures, respectively. Correlations between the IRAP and explicit measures of sexual orientation were consistently high. The findings support the IRAP as a potentially valuable tool in the study of sexual preferences.
Kamalak, Z; Köşüş, A; Hızlı, F; Köşüş, N; Hızlı, D; Kafalı, H
The aim of this study was to use a questionnaire to evaluate any changes in sexual satisfaction of women who underwent a transobturator tape (TOT) procedure for stress urinary incontinence. A total of 30 women agreed to participate in the study and were invited to fill out the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire prior to surgery and 3 months after surgery. As a result, after the TOT operation, there was a statistically significant improvement in libido (desire), arousal, lubrication, orgasm and satisfaction. The TOT procedure seems to have a positive effect on female sexual function by reducing the urinary leakage during sexual activity and by decreasing the pain during or after sexual activity.
Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W
Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. PMID:23919161
Tschann, J M; Adler, N E
A longitudinal study examined the emotional and interpersonal processes involved in contraceptive behavior among 201 sexually active female adolescents 14-19 years of age recruited from adolescent medicine clinics in San Francisco, California (US). At study entry, adolescents completed questionnaires regarding sociodemographics, sexual and reproductive history, sexual self-acceptance, sexual communication with partners, and current contraceptive use. At a 6-month follow-up interview, participants reported on all sexual activity and contraceptive use since study enrollment. Path analysis indicated greater sexual self-acceptance was significantly related to more sexual communication and more contraceptive communication. Contraceptive communication, in turn, was associated with more frequent and more effective contraceptive use. Higher levels of contraceptive communication predicted both more frequent and more effective contraceptive use at the 6-month follow-up even when the effects of baseline contraceptive use were controlled. When the association between sexual self-acceptance and subsequent contraceptive behavior was examined apart from communication about sexuality and contraception, sexual self-acceptance directly predicted contraceptive effectiveness but not frequency. These findings underscore the importance of interpersonal processes in sexual and contraceptive behavior and suggest the utility of interventions that provide adolescents with skills for discussing contraception.
Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Kilner, Rebecca M
Sexual conflict drives the coevolution of sexually antagonistic traits, such that an adaptation in one sex selects an opposing coevolutionary response from the other. Although many adaptations and counteradaptations have been identified in sexual conflict over mating interactions, few are known for sexual conflict over parental investment. Here we investigate a possible coevolutionary sequence triggered by mate desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, where males commonly leave before their offspring reach independence. Rather than suffer fitness costs as a consequence, our data suggest that females rely on the male's absence to recoup some of the costs of larval care, presumably because they are then free to feed themselves on the carcass employed for breeding. Consequently, forcing males to stay until the larvae disperse reduces components of female fitness to a greater extent than caring for young singlehandedly. Therefore we suggest that females may have co-evolved to anticipate desertion by their partners so that they now benefit from the male's absence.
Dixon, J K
Some of the changes in sexual behavior and relationships with spouses and other females following the commencement of bisexual activity by women after the age of 30 were studied by conducting in-depth personal interviews with 50 women. Each participant, at the time of her first sexual activity with another female: (a) was married; (b) was at least 30; (c) was, with her spouse, engaging in consensual swinging activities; (d) was enjoying sex with males; and (e) had no history, prior to age 30, of sexual attraction to females. Generally, the subjects revealed high levels of participation in, and enjoyment of, sexual activity with other females, in addition to high levels of enjoyable heterosexual activity. Their generally happy and stable marriages tended somewhat to improve, as did their overall sex lives, and they saw their relationships with other females as significantly improved. Significant changes in sexual fantasies occurred. In all cases, sexual orientation became bisexual, but overall preference for male sex partners did not change.
Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke
Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.
Paoli, T; Palagi, E; Tacconi, G; Tarli, S Borgognini
Many reports have claimed that the duration of the swelling cycle in female bonobos (Pan paniscus) is longer than that of chimpanzees, and that the bonobo maximum swelling phase is markedly prolonged. Field data on intermenstrual intervals (IMIs) in female bonobos are limited and restricted to interswelling intervals (ISIs), which are assumed to reflect the IMI, though a direct comparison between the duration of ISIs and IMIs is still lacking. Reports on bonobo sexual activity as a function of the swelling phase are often contradictory. Moreover, the function of female homosexual interactions (genito-genital (GG) rubbing) is still debated. This study examines the reliability of the ISI as an approximation of the IMI, and the attractivity of female sexual swellings for other individuals. An analysis of 51 ISI-IMI pairs showed that ISIs are a fair representation of the reproductive cycle. The cycle length was 35.6+/-1.1 SE days relying on the ISI, whereas it was 35.0+/-1.1 SE days considering the IMI. This result is similar to the cycle length reported for chimpanzees. Female homosexual interactions and copulatory rates were higher during maximum tumescence, suggesting that the sexual swelling may be attractive for both males and other females. Furthermore, the GG-rubbing was performed free of a hierarchical postural imposition, and was not correlated with affinitive interactions. We suggest that GG-rubbing, which is generally the most frequent female sexual interaction, is a tool for social assessments among females.
Groff Stephens, Sara; Wilke, Dina J.
Objective: To examine the relationships between sexual violence experiences, inaccurate body weight perceptions, and the presence of eating disorder (ED) indicators in a sample of female US college students. Participants: Participants were 6,090 college females 25 years of age and younger. Methods: A secondary analysis of National College Health…
Puri, Mahesh; Cleland, John
This article explores the extent of, and factors associated with, sexual harassment of young female migrant workers in the carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu Valley. Information is drawn from a survey of 550 female workers aged 14 to 19 and 12 in-depth case histories. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to identify the…
Pierce, Robert; Pierce, Lois Hauck
Twenty-five substantiated cases of sexual abuse involving male children were compared with 180 substantiated cases involving female children. Significant differences between female and male victims were observed in family composition, perpetrator of the abuse, variables contributing to continuation of the abusive situation, and type of services…
Jacob, Christine M. Anderson; Veach, Patricia McCarthy
Intrapersonal and familial effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were investigated by interviewing 10 female partners of male survivors. Consensual qualitative research analysis (C. Hill, B. Thompson, & E. Nutt Williams, 1997) yielded 13 domains describing male partner, female partner, couple, and family functioning. Findings concerning…
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Krupa, Julie; Winters, Ken C.
Little is known of sexual risk behaviors among truant youths across gender. This study utilized latent class analysis to examined heterogeneity of sexual risk behaviors across gender among a sample of 300 truant adolescents. Results revealed two latent subgroups within gender: low vs. high sexual risk behaviors. There were gender differences in baseline covariates of sexual risk behaviors, with male truants in higher risk group experiencing ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) problems, and female truants in higher risk group experienced marijuana use and depression symptoms. African-American race was a significant covariate for high sexual risk behaviors for both genders. Service and practice implications of sexual risk issues of truant youth are discussed. PMID:27066517
Gay, L; Brown, E; Tregenza, T; Pincheira-Donoso, D; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hunt, J; Hosken, D J
Males harm females during mating in a range of species. This harm is thought to evolve because it is directly or indirectly beneficial to the male, despite being costly to his mate. The resulting sexually antagonistic selection can cause sexual arms races. For sexually antagonistic co-evolution to occur, there must be genetic variation for traits involved in female harming and susceptibility to harm, but even then intersexual genetic correlations could facilitate or impede sexual co-evolution. Male Callosobruchus maculatus harm their mates during copulation by damaging the female's reproductive tract. However, there have been no investigations of the genetic variation in damage or in female susceptibility to damage, nor has the genetic covariance between these characters been assessed. Here, we use a full-sib/half-sib breeding design to show that male damage is heritable, whereas female susceptibility to damage is much less so. There is also a substantial positive genetic correlation between the two, suggesting that selection favouring damaging males will increase the prevalence of susceptible females. We also provide evidence consistent with intralocus sexual conflict in this species.
Yip, Eric C.; Berner-Aharon, Na’ama; Smith, Deborah R.; Lubin, Yael
The abundance of sperm relative to eggs selects for males that maximize their number of mates and for females that choose high quality males. However, in many species, males exercise mate choice, even when they invest little in their offspring. Sexual cannibalism may promote male choosiness by limiting the number of females a male can inseminate and by biasing the sex ratio toward females because, while females can reenter the mating pool, cannibalized males cannot. These effects may be insufficient for male choosiness to evolve, however, if males face low sequential encounter rates with females. We hypothesized that sexual cannibalism should facilitate the evolution of male choosiness in group living species because a male is likely to encounter multiple receptive females simultaneously. We tested this hypothesis in a colonial orb-weaving spider, Cyrtophora citricola, with a high rate of sexual cannibalism. We tested whether mated females would mate with multiple males, and thereby shift the operational sex ratio toward females. We also investigated whether either sex chooses mates based on nutritional state and age, and whether males choose females based on reproductive state. We found that females are readily polyandrous and exhibit no mate choice related to male feeding or age. Males courted more often when the male was older and the female was younger, and males copulated more often with well-fed females. The data show that males are choosier than females for the traits we measured, supporting our hypothesis that group living and sexual cannibalism may together promote the evolution of male mate choice. PMID:27249787
Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren; Midgren, Bengt
Introduction Results from a previous study showed that sexuality was negatively affected in females with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Data are sparse on the long-term effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on sexual difficulties and sexual distress in female patients with OSA. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects after 1 year of CPAP treatment on sexual difficulties, sexual distress, and manifest sexual dysfunction in female patients with OSA. The effect of CPAP on life satisfaction was also investigated. Methods Fifty-four therapy-compliant, female patients (age 22–71) received a survey before and after 1 year of nocturnal CPAP treatment. The questions on this survey were drawn from three self-administered questionnaires: two on sexuality and one on life satisfaction. The results were compared with a population sample. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used for assessment of daytime sleepiness. Main Outcome Measures The Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, Manifest Female Sexual Dysfunction, four questions from Life Satisfaction 11, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were all used to measure outcome. Results In total, 44 patients responded to the survey (81% response rate). The results were a significant, positive change in manifest female sexual dysfunction, but no significant changes in isolated sexual difficulties or sexual distress. Daytime sleepiness significantly decreased after 1 year. The results from the Life Satisfaction 11 questionnaire remained unchanged after 1 year. Conclusions After 1 year of CPAP treatment, female patients with OSA reported reduced manifest sexual dysfunction. However, it cannot be concluded if this result is due to CPAP treatment alone. Furthermore, reduced daytime tiredness was found in the surveyed population. CPAP treatment, per se, does not seem to affect partner relationships. Petersen M, Kristensen E, Berg S, and Midgren B. Long
Sánchez, S C; Chedraui, P; Pérez-López, F R; Ortiz-Benegas, M E; Palacios-De Franco, Y
Background There are scant data related to sexuality assessed among mid-aged women from Paraguay. Objective To assess sexual function in a sample of mid-aged Paraguayan women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 265 urban-living women from Asunción (Paraguay) aged 40-65 years were surveyed with the six-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-6) and a questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Results The median age of the sample was 48 years, 48.2% were postmenopausal (median/interquartile range age at menopause 46/13 years), 11.3% used hormone therapy, 37.0% used psychotropic drugs, 44.5% had hypertension, 7.2% diabetes, 46.1% abdominal obesity and 89.4% had a partner (n = 237). Overall, 84.1% (223/265) of surveyed women were sexually active, presenting a median total FSFI-6 score of 23.0, and 25.6% obtained a total score of 19 or less, suggestive of sexual dysfunction (lower sexual function). Upon bivariate analysis, several factors were associated with lower total FSFI-6 scores; however, multiple linear regression analysis found that lower total FSFI-6 scores (worse sexual function) were significantly correlated to the postmenopausal status and having an older partner, whereas coital frequency was positively correlated to higher scores (better sexual function). Conclusion In this pilot sample of urban-living, mid-aged Paraguayan women, as determined with the FSFI-6, lower sexual function was related to menopausal status, coital frequency and partner age. There is a need for more research in this regard in this population.
Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg; Joa, Debbie
The goal of the present study was to determine whether or not there were sex differences in legal outcomes for children who were sexually abused. Using the methodology of Joa and Edelson (2004), the results indicated that males who were sexually abused had poorer legal outcomes than females. Specifically, it was found that cases involving male victims were less likely to be filed with the District Attorney (DA) than cases involving female victims and had fewer criminal counts charged. For those children seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center, cases involving female victims were significantly more likely to be filed by the DA's office than were cases involving male victims. Finally, there were differences in whether guilty defendants pled guilty or were found guilty at trial depending on whether the defendant sexually abused a male or female. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Popova, N K; Amstislavskaia, T G; Kucheriavyĭ, S A
Receptive female mouse placed in a cage behind a partition which prevented physical contacts but allowed the female to be smelt and seen produced in CBA and A/He males an elevation of plasma testosterone level and increase in time spent near the partition (TSNP) in attempts to reach the female. Both in CBA and A/He males the TSNP was much higher than in controls with empty adjacent compartment or with a male in it. The number of approaches to the partition was also increased but not sex-depended reflecting the general motor excitement of animals. A 3-4-fold increase in the TSNP preceding blood testosterone elevation was found within the first 10 min of female exposure. It was suggested that sexual motivation in males induced by female exposure was not caused by testosterone increase. The TSNP in male mice produced by female exposure can be used as an adequate index of sexual motivation.
Faass, Oliver; Schlumpf, Margret; Reolon, Sasha; Henseler, Manuel; Maerkel, Kirsten; Durrer, Stefan; Lichtensteiger, Walter
The developing female brain represents a potential target for estrogenic environmental chemicals because it depends on estrogen but is exposed to low endogenous estrogen levels, thus facilitating competition by exogenous estrogen receptor (ER) agonists. We investigated effects of two estrogenic UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC). 4-MBC has been detected in human milk, indicating potential exposure of fetus and infant. The two chemicals were administered in chow to rats of the parent generation before mating, during pregnancy and lactation, and to their offspring until adulthood. Female sexual behavior was recorded on videotape in adult female offspring on proestrus evening at the beginning of the dark phase. 4-MBC (7 and 24mg/kg bw/day) and 3-BC (2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day) reduced proceptive behavior (jump and ear wiggling) and receptive behavior (lordosis quotient), and increased rejection behavior towards the male. Estrous cycles were not affected by 4-MBC but disturbed by 3-BC. mRNAs encoding for genes involved in female sexual behavior, ERalpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor (PR) and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), were measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area of adult male and female offspring (studied in diestrus) after pre- and postnatal exposure to 3-BC (0.24, 0.7, 2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day). Gene expression was affected in a sex- and region-specific manner. PR mRNA in female VMH was reduced to male levels at dose levels of 2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day 3-BC. Our data demonstrate that female sexual behavior represents a sensitive target of endocrine disrupters and point to an involvement of PR in VMH.
By examining competing discourses about women who are maechii (or 'lay nuns') in Buddhist Thai society, this paper demonstrates that, although maechii vow to be celibate, social constructions of their role are grounded in sexuality. The discourses examined are those of the Buddhist canon and Sangha (Order of Monkhood), the Thai Maechii Institute, the mass media, and the government. The analysis is supplemented with field observations and interviews with monks, maechii, and lay persons. Findings suggest that maechii comprise an ambiguous category linguistically, Buddhistically, and in terms of their sexuality. Case studies of the founders of nunneries conducted in ChiangMai indicate that maechii leaders have been resisting the prevalent views that most maechii are social misfits, yet also are capable of undermining monks' celibacy and, by extension, the larger social order. The analysis contributes to the understanding of the interconnectedness of gender and sexuality in contemporary Thai society.
Bekele, Alemayehu Belachew; van Aken, Marcel A G; Dubas, Judith Semon
Behavioral, lifestyle, and relationship factors have all been identified as risk factors that increase a woman's vulnerability to sexual violence victimization. However, it remains unclear which risk factors most strongly increase young women's vulnerability to sexual violence victimization because most studies only examine a few factors simultaneously. Using a cross-sectional sample of 764 female secondary school students from eastern Ethiopia, multivariate analyses revealed that high-rejection sensitivity, having multiple sexual partners, the frequent watching of pornography, and use of alcohol or other soft drugs (Khat or shisha) are factors associated with higher levels of sexual violence victimization. The overall rates of victimization is high in this group, with 68% of the young women studied having experienced at least one instance of sexual violence victimization. Based on type of sexual perpetration, 52% of the young women were victimized by at least one instance of sexual offence, 56% by sexual assault, 25% by sexual coercion, and 15% by sexual aggression. Qualitative data gathered from interviews of extracurricular club members and school officials and focus group discussion with students were used to further augment and illustrate results from the quantitative data. Several suggestions for intervention are presented in light of these results.
Mayanja, Yunia; Mukose, Aggrey David; Nakubulwa, Susan; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria
Background The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Providing treatment to the affected FSWs is a challenge, and more so to their stable sexual partners. There is scanty research information on acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs. We conducted a study to assess acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs, and to identify factors associated with acceptance. Methods We enrolled 241 FSWs in a cross sectional study; they were aged ≥ 18 years, had a stable sexual partner and a diagnosis of STI. Factors associated with acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners were analysed in STATA (12) using Poisson regression. Mantel-Haenszel tests for interaction were performed. Results Acceptance of partner treatment was 50.6%. Majority (83.8%) of partners at the last sexual act were stable partners, and 32.4% of participants had asymptomatic STIs. Factors independently associated with acceptance were: earning ≤ $4 USD per sexual act (aPR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.94) and a clinical STI diagnosis (aPR 1.95; 95% CI: 1.30–2.92). The effect of low income on acceptance of partner treatment was seen in those with less education. Conclusion Acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners was lower than that seen in other studies. Interventions to improve economic empowerment among FSWs may increase acceptance of partner treatment. PMID:27171270
Yan, Hong; Li, Li; Bi, Yongyi; Xu, Xunyu; Li, Shiyue; Maddock, Jay E
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in China has increased dramatically over the last 20 years, and heterosexual transmission is rapidly becoming the primary route of HIV transmission. Despite this growing epidemic, little is known about the correlates of sexual behavior in young Chinese women. The objective of this study was to assess family and peer factors related to sexual behavior in Chinese female college students. Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female college students, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured socio-demographic, family, and peer factors. To examine factors associated with sexual behavior, multiple logistic regression was used, yielding odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Over 18% of female students participating reported ever having sexual intercourse, of whom 31.52% had their first sexual intercourse at the age of 18 or younger with more than 50% at an age less than 20 years. Several socio-demographic, family, and peer factors were associated with ever having intercourse. Those more likely to engage in premarital sex were older; majored in art; were from one-child, richer and/or divorced families; had a mother with university or above education; had parents with a strict disciplinary style; had middle-school close friends falling in love; and had current close friends living with boyfriends. Interventions to protect young women from sexually transmitted diseases need to target early sex education and address peer and parents influences.
Teimourpour, Negar; Moshtagh Bidokhti, Nahaleh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Bahrami Ehsan, Hadi
Objective: To determine association between sexual desire and marital satisfaction and sex guilt among a sample of Iranian female university students. Methods: The data presented here were obtained from a total of 192 married Iranian female university students who were selected via a multi-cluster sampling method from universities of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tarbiat Modarres, and Islamic Azad. The subjects' sociodemographic data, marital satisfaction (using ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire), sex guilt (using Mosher Revised Sex-Guilt Inventory), and sexual desire (using Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire) were gathered. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis methods were used to analyse the data. Results: Findings showed there are significant relationships between sexual desire and marital satisfaction (r = 0.51, p < 0.01) and also between sexual desire and sex guilt (r = -0.44, p < 0.01). Also marital satisfaction and sex guilt were able to predict 31 percent of the variance of sexual desire. Conclusion: Marital satisfaction and sex guilt are two factors that significantly affect fluctuations in sexual desire of Iranian female university students. PMID:25798176
Derogatis, Leonard R; Clayton, Anita H; Goldstein, Andrew; Lewis-D'Agostino, Diane; Wunderlich, Glen; Cotton, Daniel
Sex-related distress is integral to the diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). This article describes the results of three prospective, non-treatment validation studies (two North American and one European), each testing over 200 participants with HSDD, other types of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), or no FSD in which the 12-item Female Sexual Distress Scale(©) (FSDS(©)), the 13-item FSDS-Revised(©)(FSDS-R(©)), and a single question asked using a daily electronic diary (the eDiary For HSDD Trials(©); eDiary) were used to measure sex-related distress. FSDS results with 30- and seven-day recall were equivalent. The results observed with FSDS-R Item 13 (a single question assessing concern due to low sexual desire) were comparable to the FSDS. Mean eDiary monthly distress scores were closer to the minimum possible score (equivalent to "a little bit" of distress) and were about twice as variable as FSDS or FSDS-R Item 13 scores in participants with HSDD. All three measures confirmed that there is more distress in women with HSDD compared to women with no sexual dysfunction at all time points, demonstrating discriminant validity.
Castillo, Dean M; Delph, Lynda F
Prezygotic reproductive isolation can evolve quickly when sexual selection drives divergence in traits important for sexual interactions between populations. It has been hypothesized that standing variation for male/female traits and preferences facilitates this rapid evolution and that variation in these traits is maintained by male-female genotype interactions in which specific female genotypes prefer specific male traits. This hypothesis can also explain patterns of speciation when ecological divergence is lacking, but this remains untested because it requires information about sexual interactions in ancestral lineages. Using a set of ancestral genotypes that previously had been identified as evolving reproductive isolation, we specifically asked whether there is segregating variation in female preference and whether segregating variation in sexual interactions is a product of male-female genotype interactions. Our results provide evidence for segregating variation in female preference and further that male-female genotype interactions are important for maintaining variation that selection can act on and that can lead to reproductive isolation.
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Labadie, Chloé; Runtz, Marsha; Lussier, Yvan; Sabourin, Stéphane
The main objectives of this study were to test a theory-based mediation model in which the relation between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and dyadic adjustment is mediated through adult sexual avoidance and sexual compulsivity and to examine the gender-invariance of this model. A sample of 686 adults currently involved in a close relationship completed online self-report computerized questionnaires. Prevalence of CSA was 20% in women and 19% in men. In line with our hypotheses, path analyses and structural equation analyses showed that, for both women and men, CSA was associated with more sexual avoidance and sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted lower couple adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that both avoidant and compulsive sexuality are relevant intervention targets with couples in which one or both partners are CSA survivors.
Bielert, C; van der Walt, L A
(1) The changes in masturbatory behavior for nine adult males exposed to, but not allowed to contact, naturally cycling stimulus females were quite similar to the changes in perineal swelling shown by these females. (2) Serum testosterone concentrations of seven adult males exposed to a cycling stimulus female were related to their masturbatory behavior, with high levels occurring during the females follicular phase, (3) Graded estradiol benzoate treatments of ovariectomized stimulus females revealed individual dosage levels below which there was no positive effect on the occurrence of visually stimulated male masturbation, (4) The present series of experiments documents the importance which visual cues have in the sexual interactions of this particular species.
Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T
This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed.
Watkins, Deborah J.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Lee, Joyce M.; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Peterson, Karen E.; Meeker, John D.
The age of pubertal onset for girls has declined over past decades. Research suggests that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may play a role but exposure at multiple stages of development has not been considered. We examined in utero and peripubertal exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates in relation to serum hormones and sexual maturation among females in a Mexico City birth cohort. We measured phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations in urine collected from mothers during their third trimester (n=116) and from their female children at ages 8–13 years (n=129). Among girls, we measured concurrent serum hormone concentrations, Tanner stages for breast and pubic hair development, and collected information on menarche onset. We used linear and logistic regression to model associations between in utero and peripubertal measures of exposure with hormones and sexual maturation, respectively, controlling for covariates. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in in utero urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was positively associated with 29% (95% CI:9.2–52.6%) higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), an early indicator of adrenarche, and 5.3 (95% CI:1.13–24.9) times higher odds of a Tanner stage >1 for pubic hair development. Similar relationships were observed with other in utero but not peripubertal di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. IQR increases in in utero monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) were associated with 29% and 25% higher serum testosterone concentrations (95% CIs:4.3–59.3; 2.1–54.1), respectively. In addition, we observed suggestive associations between in utero and peripubertal MEP concentrations and increased odds of having undergone menarche, and between peripubertal MnBP concentrations and increased odds of having a Tanner stage >1 for both breast and pubic hair development. BPA was not associated with in utero or peripubertal serum hormones or sexual maturation. Our findings suggest in
Peters, Anny JTP; van Driel, Francien TM; Jansen, Willy HM
Introduction The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequality is seen as a driving force of the AIDS epidemic. In this study, we analyze how major actors in the AIDS prevention field frame the AIDS problem, in particular the female condom in comparison to other prevention technologies, in their discourse and policy formulations. Our aim is to gain insight into the discursive power mechanisms that underlie the thinking about AIDS prevention and women’s sexual agency. Methods We analyze the AIDS policies of 16 agencies that constitute the most influential actors in the global response to AIDS. Our study unravels the discursive power of these global AIDS policy actors, when promoting and making choices between AIDS prevention technologies. We conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how the global AIDS epidemic is being addressed by them, in framing the AIDS problem, labelling of different categories of people for targeting AIDS prevention programmes and in gender marking of AIDS prevention technologies. Results We found that global AIDS policy actors frame the AIDS problem predominantly in the context of gender and reproductive health, rather than that of sexuality and sexual rights. Men’s sexual agency is treated differently from women’s sexual agency. An example of such differentiation and of gender marking is shown by contrasting the framing and labelling of male circumcision as an intervention aimed at the prevention of HIV with that of the female condom. Conclusions The gender-stereotyped global AIDS policy discourse negates women’s agency in sexuality and their sexual rights. This could be an important factor in limiting the scale-up of female condom programmes and hampering universal access to
Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…
Litz, Brett T.; And Others
Presents case study which highlights attendant cognitive changes that occur in Alzheimer's patient, presenting caregiver with challenges to couple's sexual functioning. Describes man who reported erectile dysfunction directly stemming from stressful changes that had occurred in his relationship to his wife who had Alzheimer's disease. General…
Nemetz, Georgia H.; And Others
Clients (N=16) were randomly assigned to two groups receiving either individual or group treatment. Treatment consisted of relaxation training followed by viewing 45 videotaped vignettes depicting graduated sexual behaviors. Improvement remained stable through a one-year follow-up. Control clients showed no improvement and trends toward…
Deng, Hansong; Jasper, Heinrich
Sexual dimorphisms are established by sex determination pathways and are maintained during regeneration of adult tissues. Two recent studies in Drosophila elucidate the contribution of cell-autonomous and endocrine mechanisms to the establishment and maintenance of growth dimorphism in larvae and the adult intestine.
Beling, Joel; Hudson, Stephen M.; Ward, Tony
Examines gender differences in undergraduates' attributions for child sex offending. Results showed that undergraduates' reasons for child sexual abuse strongly parallel contemporary scientific theories of abuse, and that there were significant gender differences in the frequency with which participants cited various types of reasons given for…
Paull, G C; Lange, A; Henshaw, A C; Tyler, C R
The roach (Rutilus rutilus) has become a sentinel species for the study of sexual disruption in wild fish populations as a consequence of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Little is known, however, about the normal ontogeny of sexual development in this species. Here, we analyzed the ontogeny of sexual development in captive-bred roach and assessed how growth rate and fish size affected the timing of both sexual differentiation and sexual development over a 2-year period. Ovarian differentiation was first recorded at 68 days post-fertilization (dpf) and this preceded testicular differentiation (first recorded at 98 dpf). In contrast, sexual maturation occurred at an earlier age in males (300 dpf) compared with females (728 dpf). No differences in body size (length or weight) were recorded between male and female roach until the fish were 415 dpf. Studies on three populations of roach which grew at different rates showed that the timing of sexual differentiation was highly variable and more related to fish size than to fish age. Time to sexual maturation was also variable among populations but, subsequent to their first year of life, gonadal status was less well associated with fish size. Interestingly, the sex ratio of the population was biased towards females in populations that grew more rapidly during early life. The findings presented here provide a valuable foundation of work to support both field- and laboratory-based assessments on the effects of EDCs, and other stressors, on sexual differentiation and development in the roach.
Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Javadnoori, Mojgan; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali
Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, authorities in health and education organizations, health care providers and clergies were collected in two large cities of Iran including Mashhad and Ahvaz through focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis with MAXqda software. Results: Our results revealed that the main socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for adolescents in Iran are affected by taboos surrounding sexuality. The emergent categories were: denial of premarital sex, social concern about negative impacts of sexual education, perceived stigma and embarrassment, reluctance to discuss sexual issues in public, sexual discussion as a socio-cultural taboo, lack of advocacy and legal support, intergenerational gap, religious uncertainties, and imitating non-Islamic patterns of education. Conclusion: It seems that cultural resistances are more important than religious prohibitions, and affect more the nature and content of sexual health education. However, despite existence of salient socio-cultural doubtful issues about sexual health education for adolescents, the emerging challenges are manageable to some extent. It is hoped that the acceptability of sexual health education for adolescents could be promoted through overcoming the cultural taboos and barriers as major obstacles. PMID:24639734
Morimoto, Juliano; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart
The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes–high (low) densities for small (large) adults–and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities. Overall, large adult females (those reared at low larval density) had more matings, more mates and produced more offspring than small females (those reared at high larval density). The number of offspring produced by females was positively associated with their number of mates (i.e. there was a positive female Bateman gradient) in social groups where female size was experimentally varied, likely due to the covariance between female productivity and mating rate. For males, we found evidence that the larval environment affected the relative importance of sexual selection via mate number (Bateman gradients), mate productivity, paternity share, and their covariances. Mate number and mate productivity were significantly reduced for small males in social environments where males were of mixed sizes, versus social environments where all males were small, suggesting that social heterogeneity altered selection on this subset of males. Males are commonly assumed to benefit from mating with large females, but in contrast to expectations we found that in groups where both the male and female size varied, males did not gain more offspring per mating with large females. Collectively, our results indicate sex-specific effects of the developmental environment on the operation of sexual selection, via both the phenotype of individuals, and the phenotype of their competitors and mates. PMID:27167120
The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...
Castro Madariaga, Francisca Alejandra; Gómez Garcés, Belén Estefanía; Carrasco Parra, Alicia; Foster, Jennifer
We explore what it means to promote healthy sexuality for incarcerated women. We report upon the experiences of ten inmates in the Female Central Penitentiary of Santiago, Chile, regarding their sexuality within prison. We used a qualitative, descriptive research approach. Individual and semistructured interviews were conducted with women from different sections of the prison over a 2-month period. Participants highlighted the site for conjugal visits, the Venusterio, as a place of privacy and sexual expression between couples from outside prison. Motivated by loneliness, need of protection, and desire for affection, participants enacted alternate gender and sexual identities and sexual orientation. Some previously heterosexual women became 'machos', women taking on dominant masculine identities. Women found a paradoxical freedom to express a malleable and fluid sexual identity, an identity that might not go outside the prison. Informed by Judith Butler's idea of performativity, we argue that women could enact both different gender and sexual identities in search of satisfying their affective and erotic desires while under the duress of incarceration. The findings suggest a need for a more fluid understanding of gender and sexuality, especially for those midwives and nurses who strive to promote sexual health, not only reproductive health.
Keith, J B; McCreary, C; Collins, K; Smith, C P; Bernstein, I
A modified form of Nathanson and Becker's (1983) Health Belief Model Questionnaire and other measures designed to assess cognitive processing were administered to low-income black adolescent female clients of an inner-city comprehensive health care clinic. The purpose of the study was to explore determinants of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Subjects were classified as not sexually active (n = 50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n = 20), or sexually active/contracepting (n = 72). Not sexually active subjects tended to be younger, more career motivated, to have a father at home, to be more influenced by family values, and to have more conservative attitudes regarding adolescent sexuality than did sexually active subjects. Sexually active/noncontracepting subjects tended to report fewer benefits and more barriers to the use of contraception. Level of cognitive processing did not differ among the three groups, but was at a lower-than-expected level for age. Finally, inconsistent contraceptive use was common to both sexually active groups.
Paredes, R G; Alonso, A
The possibility that female-paced coital behavior induces a reward state of sufficient intensity and duration to induce conditioning was evaluated by the conditioned-place-preference paradigm. Ovariectomized female rats, treated with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, regulated (paced) their coital interactions with a stud male through a 2-compartment chamber in which only the female could freely move from one compartment to the other. The females that paced their coital interactions showed a clear place preference. In contrast, no change in preference was observed in the females that could not pace their coital contacts. The change in preference in the females that paced their coital interactions was similar to that produced by an injection of morphine (1 mg/kg). These results suggest that coital interactions in females can induce a reward state when the females can control the pace of the sexual interaction.
Hosken, D J; Martin, O Y; Born, J; Huber, F
Sexual conflict can elevate mating costs via male inflicted damage to females. Possible selective advantages to males include decreasing the likelihood that females remate and/or increasing females' current reproductive investment in a manner analogous to terminal reproductive investment. We investigated female mating behaviour relative to their number of previous copulations in the fly Sepsis cynipsea, and whether males accepted as first mates were more likely to be accepted again. Females were more likely to remate with new rather than original males, although there was no associated fitness benefit, and in contrast to theoretical predictions, females became less reluctant to remate as the number of previous copulations increased. Additionally, females did not increase reproductive investment as would be expected if they were ensuring their final reproductive efforts were maximized by remating. This suggests that damaging females is a pleiotropic effect which inadvertently leads to increased, not decreased, polyandry.
Chivers, M L; Bailey, J M
Homosexual and nonhomosexual (relative to genetic sex) female-to-male transsexuals (FTMs) were compared on a number of theoretically or empirically derived variables. Compared to nonhomosexual FTMs, homosexual FTMs reported greater childhood gender nonconformity, preferred more feminine partners, experienced greater sexual rather than emotional jealousy, were more sexually assertive, had more sexual partners, had a greater desire for phalloplasty, and had more interest in visual sexual stimuli. Homosexual and nonhomosexual FTMs did not differ in their overall desire for masculinizing body modifications, adult gender identity, or importance of partner social status, attractiveness, or youth. These findings indicate that FTMs are not a homogeneous group and vary in ways that may be useful in understanding the relation between sexual orientation and gender identity.
Many men are discovering that they are involved with women who were sexually abused as children. However, male partners of female sexual abuse survivors have thus far received little attention in the literature. As these men increasingly seek treatment with concerns of their own, social workers must become familiar with their emotional experiences and treatment needs. This article outlines the major concerns expressed by 20 male partners of sexual abuse survivors. These concerns included conflicts about expressing needs, frustration with various aspects of their relationships, guilt and shame at having feelings, questions about how to deal with relatives, and sexual issues. The author recommends a treatment approach that combines attention to both the individual's and the couple's concerns and uses insight and the safety of the therapeutic relationship to promote growth. The importance of further outreach to partners of women who were sexually abused as children and the need for increased attention to other partner populations are highlighted.
Newton-Taylor, B; DeWit, D; Gliksman, L
The authors examined the prevalence of physical and sexual assault of female university students and associated factors. In a survey of a random sample of 3,642 female students from 6 universities across Ontario, 24% of female students reported being physically assaulted and 15% reported being sexually assaulted during the previous year. When the assault measures were combined, 32% of university women reported being either physically or sexually assaulted during the previous year. Of those experiencing assault, 40% had been the victim of 2 or more types of assaults. Logistic regression analysis revealed that assault was associated with year of study, marital status, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, prescription drug use, unhealthy eating and stress behaviors, less time spent on academics, and more time involved in social activities. University programs and activities directed toward the reduction of assault should incorporate the factors identified in this study to increase awareness of the situational factors surrounding likelihood of assault.
McCormick, Cheryl M; Cameron, Nicole M; Thompson, Madison A; Cumming, Mark J; Hodges, Travis E; Langett, Marissa
Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS. The main prediction was that females would spend more time with CTL males than SS males, and that this bias would be greater for submissive than for dominant rats. Among dominant pairs (n=16), females preferred SS males, spending more time with and visiting more often SS than CTL males (each pair tested 5×), and SS males had shorter latencies to ejaculation, shorter inter-ejaculation intervals, and made more ejaculations compared with CTL males. Among submissive pairs (n=16), females spent more time with, visited more often, and displayed more paracopulatory behaviour with CTL than with SS males, and differences in sexual performance between SS and CTL males were modest and in the opposite direction from that in dominant pairs. The heightened motivation of SS males relative to CTL males for natural rewards may have attenuated differences in sexual performance in a paced mating context. In sum, the experience of stress in adolescence leads to long-lasting changes in males that are perceptible to females, are moderated by social status, and influence sexual behaviour.
Lordello, Maria CO; Ambrogini, Carolina C; Fanganiello, Ana L; Embiruçu, Teresa R; Zaneti, Marina M; Veloso, Laise; Piccirillo, Livia B; Crude, Bianca L; Haidar, Mauro; Silva, Ivaldo
INTRODUCTION Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. AIMS To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. METHODS A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to test concurrent validity of the SESIFS against Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale and the FSQ. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. RESULT The new questionnaire had a good overall reliability (Cronbach’s alpha r = 0.862, p < 0.001), but the sexual domain scored lower than expected (r = 0.65). The validity was good: overall score r = 0.38, p < 0.001, self-esteem domain r = 0.32, p < 0.001, self-image domain r = 0.31, p < 0.001, sexual domain r = 0.29, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS The SESIFS questionnaire has limitations in measuring the correlation among self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality domains. A new, revised version is being tested and will be presented in an upcoming publication. PMID:25574149
Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe
The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.
Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Sahly, Nora; Sawan, Dana; Kafy, Souzan; Alzaban, Faten
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for the Saudi and non-Saudi women were calculated and compared. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics. No statistically significant differences were found between Saudi and non-Saudi women in desire (P = .22) and arousal scores (P = .47). However, non-Saudi women had significantly higher lubrication (P < .001), orgasm (P = .015), satisfaction (P = .004), and pain scores (P = .015). The overall scores in Saudi and non-Saudi women were low (23.40 ± 4.50 compared with 26.18 ± 5.97), but non-Saudi women had a significantly higher overall score (P = .005). Taken together, sexual dysfunction is prevalent among Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers, with Saudi women demonstrating lower scores in four sexual function domains and the overall score.
Bear, Ashley; Monteiro, Antónia
The differentiation of male and female characteristics in vertebrates and insects has long been thought to proceed via different mechanisms. Traditionally, vertebrate sexual development was thought to occur in two phases: a primary and a secondary phase, the primary phase involving the differentiation of the gonads, and the secondary phase involving the differentiation of other sexual traits via the influence of sex hormones secreted by the gonads. In contrast, insect sexual development was thought to depend exclusively on cell-autonomous expression of sex-specific genes. Recently, however, new evidence indicates that both vertebrates and insects rely on sex hormones as well as cell-autonomous mechanisms to develop sexual traits. Collectively, these new data challenge the traditional vertebrate definitions of primary and secondary sexual development, call for a redefinition of these terms, and indicate the need for research aimed at explaining the relative dependence on cell-autonomous versus hormonally guided sexual development in animals.
Kant, L; Yilmaz, O; Taskiran, D; Kulali, B; Furedy, J J; Demirgören, S; Pögün, S
Recent studies using the water maze (WM) found marked sex differences in behavioral strategy employed in place learning tasks in adult rats. When a change in the platform position is introduced following learning the place of a platform (visible or hidden) in a different position, female rats escape to the newly positioned visible platform faster than males. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in place learning, and there are regional sex differences in its stable metabolites, NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-), in rat brain. Furthermore, NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels are sensitive to ovariectomy in female rats. The effect of sex hormones on brain development and function is well documented. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of ovariectomy and hormonal manipulations on cognitive performance in a WM task designed to test differences in behavioral strategy in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=48) of both sexes. Some of the females rats were ovariectomised and received either hormone replacement (estrogen or progesterone alone or in combination) or the vehicle. Cortical and hippocampal NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels were determined after behavioral testing. There were no group differences in cognitive ability or non-cognitive factors such as motivation or swim speed. Males and intact females differed in their cognitive style, but hormonal manipulations in female rats did not affect this relative use of behavioral strategy. There was a correlation between performance on the trial where sex differences were most prominent and NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels in the cortex. Our results suggest that the activational effects of circulating gonadal hormones do not play a major role in sexually dimorphic cognitive styles.
Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde
High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p < .05). Out-of-school female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs.
Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José
Many studies have shown the importance of colorful ornamentation in mate choosiness or intrasexual conflict. However, research on color ornaments has focused mainly on birds, lizards or fish, but remains practically unknown in other animal groups such as turtles. In addition, female ornaments and their relation with sexual selection also remain almost unknown. Here, we measured the coloration of the shell and the limb stripes of male and female Spanish terrapins Mauremys leprosa and explored the existence of sexual dichromatism and the relation of color characteristics with body size and health state estimated from the immune response to the injection of an antigen (phytohaemagglutinin test). Our results showed that shell coloration, which could be constrained by natural selection to be cryptic, changed with body size, but did not differ between sexes. In contrast, females had brighter and less ultraviolet-saturated and more orange-saturated limb stripes than males. In females, interindividual variation in limb stripe coloration was related with body size and immune response suggesting that this coloration may inform honestly about multiple traits that could be important in sexual selection. In contrast, coloration of limb stripes of males was duller than in females, and was not related with any trait suggesting that coloration is not important in sexual selection for males.
Hemborg, C.; Meril, J.
A sexual conflict over levels of parental care occurs in most animals with biparental care, and studies of sexual differences in levels of parental care have usually focused on its intra-annual fitness consequences. We investigated inter-annual fitness consequences of a sexual difference in timing of feather replacement (moult) in collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In this study, males overlapped reproduction and moult more often than females, they also initiated their moult at an earlier stage of breeding than females. Females mated to males with a moult-breeding overlap had significantly lowered survival chances than females mated with males initiating moult after breeding. Furthermore, females mated with moulting males risked a lowered future fecundity in terms of a delayed start to breeding in the following season. However, early moulting males achieved a similar reproductive success as males initiating moult after breeding. Likewise, male survival probability to the following breeding season did not differ between early and late moulting individuals, nor was there any evidence that males gained or lost in future mating advantages by moulting early. These results show not only that a sexual conflict over timing of moult may operate, but also that it can impose severe fitness consequences, in terms of reduced future fecundity and survival probability, upon the 'losing' sex.
Tobias, Joseph A.; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E.
Ornaments, weapons and aggressive behaviours may evolve in female animals by mate choice and intrasexual competition for mating opportunities—the standard forms of sexual selection in males. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that selection tends to operate in different ways in males and females, with female traits more often mediating competition for ecological resources, rather than mate acquisition. Two main solutions have been proposed to accommodate this disparity. One is to expand the concept of sexual selection to include all mechanisms related to fecundity; another is to adopt an alternative conceptual framework—the theory of social selection—in which sexual selection is one component of a more general form of selection resulting from all social interactions. In this study, we summarize the history of the debate about female ornaments and weapons, and discuss potential resolutions. We review the components of fitness driving ornamentation in a wide range of systems, and show that selection often falls outside the limits of traditional sexual selection theory, particularly in females. We conclude that the evolution of these traits in both sexes is best understood within the unifying framework of social selection. PMID:22777016
Michels, Jan; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Reinhardt, Klaus
Intergenomic evolutionary conflicts increase biological diversity. In sexual conflict, female defence against males is generally assumed to be resistance, which, however, often leads to trait exaggeration but not diversification. Here, we address whether tolerance, a female defence mechanism known from interspecific conflicts, exists in sexual conflict. We examined the traumatic insemination of female bed bugs via cuticle penetration by males, a textbook example of sexual conflict. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed large proportions of the soft and elastic protein resilin in the cuticle of the spermalege, the female defence organ. Reduced tissue damage and haemolymph loss were identified as adaptive female benefits from resilin. These did not arise from resistance because microindentation showed that the penetration force necessary to breach the cuticle was significantly lower at the resilin-rich spermalege than at other cuticle sites. Furthermore, a male survival analysis indicated that the spermalege did not impose antagonistic selection on males. Our findings suggest that the specific spermalege material composition evolved to tolerate the traumatic cuticle penetration. They demonstrate the importance of tolerance in sexual conflict and genitalia evolution, extend fundamental coevolution and speciation models and contribute to explaining the evolution of complexity. We propose that tolerance can drive trait diversity. PMID:25673297
Schuster, Isabell; Krahé, Barbara; Ilabaca Baeza, Paola; Muñoz-Reyes, José A.
Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1135), to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S), which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure), three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers), and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts, such as oral sex). Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization, only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, particularly
Ribeiro, Meireluci Costa; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Torloni, Maria Regina; Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Scomparini, Flávia Burin; Mattar, Rosiane
Obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are increasing worldwide and may compromise female sexual function. We hypothesize that among GDM patients in the third trimester of pregnancy, those with excess body fat would have worse female sexual function scores than normal weight women. Our aim was to assess the sexual function of overweight compared to normal weight women with GDM. This was a cross-sectional survey involving 143 Brazilian women with GDM in the third trimester of pregnancy: 76 were overweight (pre-pregnancy body mass index-BMI≥25.0 Kg/m2) and 67 were normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 Kg/m2). Participants were recruited from March 2010 to April 2013 at the antenatal clinic of a single public tertiary teaching institution. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used to assess sexual function. Overall, 51.7% of the 143 participants were at risk for sexual dysfunction symptoms (FSFI scores ≤26); this rate was significantly higher among overweight compared to normal weight women (60.5% versus 41.8%, p = 0.038). Mean total FSFI scores were significantly lower in overweight compared to normal weight women (21.7±9.2 versus 24.9±8.0, p = 0.029). Compared to normal weight women, overweight participants had lower mean scores in desire (3.4±1.2 versus 4.0±1.4, p = 0.007) and lubrication (3.8±2.0 versus 4.5±1.6, p = 0.023). According to these results, overweight women with GDM in the third trimester of pregnancy have lower female sexual function scores than normal weight women with the same disorder. PMID:24736490
Palmer, Rebekka S; McMahon, Thomas J; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A
Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female college students. We surveyed 370 college students regarding their past year experiences and found that 34% of women and 31% of men reported unwanted sexual contact, 6% of women and 13% of men reported engaging in sexually coercive behavior, and 4% of women and 9% of men reported experiencing both unwanted contact and engaging in sexually coercive behavior. Findings indicated students who experienced unwanted sexual contact reported significant differences in alcohol expectancies. More specifically, those who engaged in sexually coercive behaviors had significantly higher sex-related alcohol expectancies. In addition, recipients of unwanted contact reported higher alcohol consumption, used fewer protective strategies when drinking, and experienced more negative consequences due to their alcohol use. Results suggest that campus alcohol and sexual assault prevention efforts should include information on alcohol expectancies and use of protective strategies.
Buković, D; Lakusić, N; Kopjar, M; Maricić, I; Fures, R; Mahović, D; Marjan, D; Juresa, V; Zadro, M; Grah, J J; Simić, M
The aim of this study was to estimate the level of knowledge about sexuality, attitudes and sexual behaviour of female adolescents. The study included 194 female students, 117 from Medical High School (MHS) and 77 from General High School (GHS) in Zagreb. Data was collected using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. In addition to items on personal data (age, parental education etc.), the participants were asked to define terms about sexuality (e.g. menstruation, puberty) the definitions of which are found in biology textbooks for the fifth and eighth grade of primary school. The aim of the third part of the survey was to collect information about attitudes and behaviour of female adolescents. The results showed a low level of knowledge in students of both schools. General High School students showed a higher level of knowledge than their Medical High School peers. One fifth of General High School students and 1/3 of Medical High School students were unable to define the term "menstruation". The majority of adolescents talk about sexuality with their friends, 92.1% of General High School and 81.2% of Medical High School students. Almost 50% of students of both schools would like to talk about sexuality with their school doctor. 6.9% of Medical High School students had at least one sexual intercourse while none of the General High School students had been sexually active at the time of the survey. As the majority of students were not sexually active and results showed a rather low level of knowledge, this seems to be the ideal period for the implementation of educational programs aimed at increasing the level of knowledge, and thus preventing unwanted consequences (STD, pregnancy, abortion, infertility).
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102
Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie
Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk.
Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Hong, Yan; Chen, Yiyun; Shan, Qiao; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao
The global literature suggests that female sex workers (FSWs) experience high rates of sexual violence perpetrated by their clients, especially when FSWs are under the influence of alcohol. However, such data are limited in China. The current study is aimed to fill in the literature gap by examining the association between alcohol use by FSWs and client-perpetrated sexual violence against FSWs in China. A total of 1022 FSWs were recruited through community outreach in Guangxi, China. Female sex workers completed a self-administered survey on their demographic information, alcohol use, and sexual violence perpetrated by clients. Multivariable regression was employed to assess the relationship between alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence among FSWs while controlling for possible confounders. Results indicated that alcohol use was positively associated with the experience of sexual violence in both bivariate and multivariable analyses. Women who were at a higher risk level of alcohol use were more likely to experience sexual violence perpetrated by clients even after controlling confounders (e.g., demographics and alcohol-serving practice). Given the association between alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence, preventing or reducing alcohol use among FSWs could be an effective strategy to protect these women from sexual violence perpetrated by their clients. Alternatively, psychological counseling and other support should be available to these women so they can reduce their alcohol use as a maladaptive coping strategy. We call for culturally appropriate alcohol use reduction components, incorporated with sexual violence reduction strategies including adaptive coping skills training as well as empowerment, and targeting both FSWs and their clients.
Ratner, Elena S.; Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Minkin, Mary Jane; Foran-Tuller, Kelly A.
Sexual function in aging women Sexuality is an integral part of human expressions. Mental health plays a major role in sexuality. Several psychological interventions are proposed to increase the sexual quality of life in older women with diverse gynecologic pathology. A biopsychosocial approach utilizing brief strategies can be easily implemented in clinics to help women of all ages increase their sexual quality of life. The impact of female pelvic floor disorders on sexual function in older women Female pelvic floor disorders include urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. These disorders increase dramatically with increasing age. Urinary incontinence has been demonstrated to have a negative impact on a woman’s sexual function. Among sexually active older women with urinary incontinence, 22% report being moderately or extremely worried that sexual activity would cause urine loss. An increased prevalence of sexual distress [9% (6/76) vs. 1.3% (2/216), p=0.005] has been reported in sexually active women over 40 years old with urinary incontinence. Treatment of urinary incontinence can improve sexual function in older women. Among sexually active women (N=53) who underwent midurethral slings procedures for the correction of urinary incontinence, increased coital frequency, decrease fear of incontinence with coitus, decreased embarrassment due to incontinence was reported six months after surgery. Pelvic organ prolapse, a hernia of the vagina resulting in a visible vaginal bulge, has also been associated with a negative impact on sexual function. Women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP-Q stage III or IV) have been demonstrated to have decreased body image reporting that they are more self-conscious about their appearance [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9, 51], feel less feminine (AOR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2, 15) and less sexually attractive (AOR 4.6; 95% CI 1.4, 17) compared with women who have normal pelvic
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C
Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered.
Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri
African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…
Campbell, Rebecca; Raja, Sheela
A sample of predominantly low-income, African American female veterans and reservists seeking health care in a Veterans' Administration medical clinic was screened for a history of sexual assault since age 18. Overall, 39% had been sexually assaulted in adulthood. Those who had been sexually victimized were asked to describe one assault incident…
Sánchez, Víctor; Cordero, Carlos
Signa are sclerotized structures located on the inner wall of the corpus bursa of female Lepidoptera whose main function is tearing open spermatophores. The sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) hypothesis proposes that the thickness of spermatophore envelopes has driven the evolution of the females signa; this idea is based in the fact that in many lepidopterans female sexual receptivity is at least partially controlled by the volume of ejaculate remaining in the corpus bursa. According to the SAC hypothesis, males evolved thick spermatophore envelopes to delay the post-mating recovery of female sexual receptivity thus reducing sperm competition; in response, females evolved signa for breaking spermatophore envelopes faster, gaining access to the resources contained in them and reducing their intermating intervals; the evolution of signa, in turn, favored the evolution of even thicker spermatophore envelopes, and so on. We tested two predictions of the SAC hypothesis with comparative data on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes of eleven species of Heliconiinae butterflies. The first prediction is that the spermatophore envelopes of polyandrous species with signa will be thicker than those of monandrous species without signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that the spermatophore envelopes of a polyandrous Heliconius species with signa are thicker than those of two monandrous Heliconius species without signa. The second prediction is that in some species with signa males could enforce monandry in females by evolving "very thick" spermatophore envelopes, in these species we predict that their spermatophore envelopes will be thicker than those of their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that in two out of three comparisons, spermatophore envelopes of monandrous species with signa have thicker spermatophore envelopes than their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. Thus, our results support the
Signa are sclerotized structures located on the inner wall of the corpus bursa of female Lepidoptera whose main function is tearing open spermatophores. The sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) hypothesis proposes that the thickness of spermatophore envelopes has driven the evolution of the females signa; this idea is based in the fact that in many lepidopterans female sexual receptivity is at least partially controlled by the volume of ejaculate remaining in the corpus bursa. According to the SAC hypothesis, males evolved thick spermatophore envelopes to delay the post-mating recovery of female sexual receptivity thus reducing sperm competition; in response, females evolved signa for breaking spermatophore envelopes faster, gaining access to the resources contained in them and reducing their intermating intervals; the evolution of signa, in turn, favored the evolution of even thicker spermatophore envelopes, and so on. We tested two predictions of the SAC hypothesis with comparative data on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes of eleven species of Heliconiinae butterflies. The first prediction is that the spermatophore envelopes of polyandrous species with signa will be thicker than those of monandrous species without signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that the spermatophore envelopes of a polyandrous Heliconius species with signa are thicker than those of two monandrous Heliconius species without signa. The second prediction is that in some species with signa males could enforce monandry in females by evolving “very thick” spermatophore envelopes, in these species we predict that their spermatophore envelopes will be thicker than those of their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. In agreement with this prediction, we found that in two out of three comparisons, spermatophore envelopes of monandrous species with signa have thicker spermatophore envelopes than their closer polyandrous relatives with signa. Thus, our results support
Cecconello, Ana Lúcia; Raineki, Charlis; Sebben, Vanise; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; Sanvitto, Gilberto Luiz
Stress might influence the reproductive behavior in females, and central angiotensin II (Ang II) is a peptide that plays a role in stress response and in the modulation of sexual behavior. The medial amygdala (MeA), an important structure that regulates this behavior, is strongly involved in stress response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of acute restraint stress on the night of proestrus on sexual receptivity in female rats and the participation of Ang II and MeA in this effect. Adult female Wistar rats with regular estrous cycles were utilized. The acute stress protocol utilized was the restraint stress for 15 min on the night of proestrus. The participation of Ang II was evaluated by injecting Ang II and Ang II receptor antagonists (losartan and PD12319) into the MeA. The lordosis quotient was recorded. The stress or the microinjection of Ang II into the MeA significantly reduced sexual behavior. The blockade of AT(1) or AT(2) receptors in the MeA prevented the effect of stress and the effect of Ang II microinjection into this nucleus on sexual receptivity. We concluded that acute restraint stress on the night of proestrus reduces sexual behavior in rats, and this effect is mediated by both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the MeA.
Cayetano, Luis; Maklakov, Alexei A; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell
Despite the key functions of the genitalia in sexual interactions and fertilization, the role of sexual selection and conflict in shaping genital traits remains poorly understood. Seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) males possess spines on the intromittent organ, and females possess a thickened reproductive tract wall that also bears spines. We investigated the role of sexual selection and conflict by imposing monogamous mating on eight replicate populations of this naturally polygamous insect, while maintaining eight other populations under polygamy. To establish whether responses to mating system manipulation were robust to ecological context, we simultaneously manipulated life-history selection (early/late reproduction). Over 18-21 generations, male genital spines evolved relatively reduced length in large males (i.e., shallower static allometry) in monogamous populations. Two nonintromittent male genital appendages also evolved in response to the interaction of mating system and ecology. In contrast, no detectable evolution occurred in female genitalia, consistent with the expectation of a delayed response in defensive traits. Our results support a sexually antagonistic role for the male genital spines, and demonstrate the evolution of static allometry in response to variation in sexual selection opportunity. We argue that further advances in the study of genital coevolution will require a much more detailed understanding of the functions of male and female genital traits.
Pettifor, Audrey; Cummings, Stirling; MacPhail, Catherine; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rees, Helen V.
Objectives. We studied whether female youths from communities with higher sexual violence were at greater risk of negative reproductive health outcomes. Methods. We used data from a 2003 nationally representative household survey of youths aged 15–24 years in South Africa. The key independent variable was whether a woman had ever been threatened or forced to have sex. We aggregated this variable to the community level to determine, with control for individual-level experience with violence, whether the community-level prevalence of violence was associated with HIV status and adolescent pregnancy among female, sexually experienced, never-married youths. Results. Youths from communities with greater sexual violence were significantly more likely to have experienced an adolescent pregnancy or to be HIV-positive than were youths from communities experiencing lower sexual violence. Youths from communities with greater community-level violence were also less likely to have used a condom at their last sexual encounter. Individual-level violence was only associated with condom nonuse. Conclusions. Programs to reduce adolescent pregnancies and HIV risk in South Africa and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa must address sexual violence as part of effective prevention strategies. PMID:19372525
Shetageri, Veda N.; Bhogale, Govind S.; Patil, N. M.; Nayak, R. B.; Chate, S. S.
Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a known adverse effect of psychotropic medications. Even though sexual difficulties are common among women; very few studies have been carried out in India. Objective: To study the prevalence and nature of SD among females receiving psychotropic medications and to compare the SD among female patients receiving antipsychotics and antidepressants. Materials and Methods: Female investigator conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on female patients visiting the psychiatry outpatient department. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for SD disorder as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Text Revision. SD severity was measured using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scale. Results: The prevalence of SD in this study was 68.32%. There was more than one SD in 48 (47.52%). FSFI score was significantly low in patients with SD as compared to patients not having SD (P = 0.001). SD was more common in patients who were on combination of antidepressants and benzodiazepines than antidepressant alone or antipsychotic alone. Conclusion: SD was prevalent in more than 50% of female patients on psychotropic drugs. Number of patients on individual psychotropic drugs was so small that a definite conclusion could not be drawn. Study emphasizes the need to carry out similar study on larger number of patients to get better insight into this problem. PMID:27833229
Oyefara, John Lekan
This article examines the sexual behaviour and the HIV/AIDS knowledge and vulnerability of female street hawkers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 126 female street hawkers under 18 were sampled in a cross-sectional survey and six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted to generate data from respondents. Data on sexual behaviour…
Bober, Sharon L.; Reese, Jennifer B.; Barbera, Lisa; Bradford, Andrea; Carpenter, Kristen M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Carter, Jeanne
Purpose of review As the number of female cancer survivors continues to grow, there is a growing need to bridge the gap between the high rate of women's cancer-related sexual dysfunction and the lack of attention and intervention available to the majority of survivors who suffer from sexual problems. Previously identified barriers that hinder communication for providers include limited time, lack of preparation, and a lack of patient resources and access to appropriate referral sources. Recent findings This paper brings together a recently developed model for approaching clinical inquiry about sexual health with a brief problem checklist that has been adapted for use for female cancer survivors, as well as practical evidence-based strategies on how to address concerns identified on the checklist. Examples of patient education sheets are provided, as well as strategies for building a referral network. Summary By providing access to a concise and efficient tool for clinical inquiry, as well as targeted material resources and practical health-promoting strategies based on recent evidence-based findings, we hope to begin eliminating the barriers that hamper oncology providers from addressing the topic of sexual/vaginal health after cancer. PMID:26716390
Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.
When examining the experiences of adolescent girls, a study into the presumptions teachers have regarding female adolescent sexuality is a very important aspect to explore. This article presents the findings from a study we conducted with eleven middle- and high school teachers in a southeastern state from both rural and urban districts. In-depth…
Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene
This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are commonly reared as diploids (2N, two sets of chromosomes) or triploids (3N, three sets of chromosomes). Sexual maturation in 2N has negative effects on production efficiency, nutrient retention, and fillet quality. On the other hand, 3N female rainbow trout ...
The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female…
As D'Augelli and Grossman point out, there is an underrepresentation in LGB research of "youth who have had sexual experiences with both males and females." Most of the information on bisexuality has been obtained from studies with adult samples, and it is "unclear to what extent a separate bisexual cultural identity is consolidated…
Pothast, Henry L.; Allen, Craig M.
This study examined masculinity and femininity in adult male (n=75) and female (n=38) perpetrators of child sexual abuse. Results did not support the hypothesis that perpetrators of either sex would be more masculine and less feminine than nonclinical adult groups. Findings suggested a trend opposite the predicted direction. (DB)
Examines whether feminine media stars idolized by adolescent girls provide a safe target of romantic love before girls start dating and become sexually active. Surveys of seventh and ninth grade Israeli girls indicate that idolizing feminine stars may be an intermediate step in a sequence that starts with idolizing females and continues to the…
Li, Jiantao; Li, Shiyue; Yan, Hong; Xu, Delong; Xiao, Han; Cao, Yue; Mao, Zongfu
This study aims to explore the association between early sex initiation and subsequent unsafe sexual behaviors and risks among Chinese female undergraduates. Of 4769 participants, 863 (18.1%) reported ever having sexual intercourse. The mean age of sexual debut was 19.3 (±1.7) years. Females initiating sex earlier were more likely to have first sex with men who were not their "boyfriends" and less likely to take contraception, to use a condom at first encounter, to use contraception consistently in past year, and/or to use condom consistently during the course of a sexual intercourse. They were more likely to have multiple lifetime and concurrent sexual partners, to report pregnancy, and be diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases. Comprehensive early sex education should be advocated for young people, not only teaching knowledge of physical health but also providing practical skills training for making them consciously delay start of sexual activity or protecting themselves during sexual intercourse.
Carey, Kate B.; Senn, Theresa E.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.
This study tested the hypothesis that greater alcohol involvement will predict number of sexual partners to a greater extent for women than for men, and that the hypothesized sex-specific, alcohol—sexual partner associations will hold when controlling for alternative sex-linked explanations (i.e., depression and drug use). We recruited 508 patients (46% female, 67% African American) from a public STI clinic. Participants reported number of sexual partners, drinks per week, maximum drinks per day, frequency of heavy drinking; they also completed the AUDIT-C and a measure of alcohol problems. As expected, men reported more drinking and sexual partners. Also as expected, the association between alcohol use and number of partners was significant for women but not for men, and these associations were not explained by drug use or depression. A comprehensive prevention strategy for women attending STI clinics might include alcohol use reduction. PMID:26310596
Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela
Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.
Armeni, Anastasia K; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Dimitra; Koika, Vassiliki; Michaelidou, Euthychia; Mourtzi, Niki; Iconomou, Gregoris; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A
Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20-25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28-35 days), were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype) of rs2234693 (PvuII) polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic) of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII) and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphisms (T + A group) was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences.
Unlu, Gulsen; Cakaloz, Burcu
Purpose Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in these cases. Patients and methods Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330) and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086). Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741). In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574) and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794). Conclusion Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating violence and revictimization histories, in particular. PMID:27382291
Deveer, Ruya; Akin, Melike Nur; Gurbuz, Ali Sami; Kasap, Burcu; Guvey, Huri
Introduction Intrauterine Device (IUD) is the most preferred modern contraceptive method in Turkey. Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) is defined as lack of one or more of the components in the sexual response cycle which includes sexual desire, impaired arousal and inability achieving an orgasm or pain with intercourse. FSD has multi-factorial aetiology. Advanced age and menopause, fatigue and stress, psychiatric and neurologic disease, childbirth, pelvic floor or bladder dysfunction, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, hypertension obesity, medication and substances, hormonal contraceptives, relationship factors are known risk factors for FSD. Aim To investigate if IUD has any impact on female sexual functioning. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study subjects were divided into two groups. Study group consisted of 92 IUD-users (mean 5.1±1.2 years) and the control group consisted of 83 women with no contraception. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was performed to both two groups. Women with a total score lower than 26.5 were considered as having sexual dysfunction. Results The prevalence of FSD was 57.1% among participants. IUD users had a lower total FSFI score comparing to control group but the difference was not statistically different (p=0.983). A positive correlation was found between total FSFI score and duration of IUD (p=0.003). Conclusion No difference was found in terms of sexual dysfunction between IUD users and women with no contraception. The prevalence of FSD was very high in both groups which may be attributed to the socio-cultural factors such as embarrassment of women due to conservatism. PMID:27891404
Armeni, Anastasia K; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Dimitra; Koika, Vassiliki; Michaelidou, Euthychia; Mourtzi, Niki; Iconomou, Gregoris
Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20–25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28–35 days), were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype) of rs2234693 (PvuII) polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic) of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII) and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphisms (T + A group) was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences. PMID:28069897
Michalczyk, Łukasz; Millard, Anna L; Martin, Oliver Y; Lumley, Alyson J; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G
Between-individual variance in potential reproductive rate theoretically creates a load in reproducing populations by driving sexual selection of male traits for winning competitions, and female traits for resisting the costs of multiple mating. Here, using replicated experimental evolution under divergent operational sex ratios (OSR, 9:1 or 1:6 ♀:♂) we empirically identified the parallel reproductive fitness consequences for females and males in the promiscuous flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Our results revealed clear evidence that sexual conflict resides within the T. castaneum mating system. After 20 generations of selection, females from female-biased OSRs became vulnerable to multiple mating, and showed a steep decrease in reproductive fitness with an increasing number of control males. In contrast, females from male-biased OSRs showed no change in reproductive fitness, irrespective of male numbers. The divergence in reproductive output was not explained by variation in female mortality. Parallel assays revealed that males also responded to experimental evolution: individuals from male-biased OSRs obtained 27% greater reproductive success across 7-day competition for females with a control male rival, compared to males from the female-biased lines. Subsequent assays suggest that these differences were not due to postcopulatory sperm competitiveness, but to precopulatory/copulatory competitive male mating behavior.
Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J
Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context.
Purpose of review To provide an overview of conceptualizations of female sexual problems, and ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’ in particular, throughout the 20th century, especially in relation to psychiatry and mental illness. Recent findings In the past 15 years, there has been an increase in both medical and public discourse about ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’. I discuss a variety of literature sources dealing with female sexual problems, where these are understood variously as problems of developmental psychopathology, as technical phenomena to be resolved through education, or as medical problems to be addressed pharmaceutically. Summary The stigma of mental illness shapes much recent discussion of female sexual problems, as does the legacy of the postwar critique of psychodynamic psychiatry. PMID:20802336
Sakai, Takaomi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Ohashi, Hirono; Sato, Shoma; Inami, Show; Shimada, Naoto; Kitamoto, Toshihiro
In a variety of animal species, females hold a leading position in evaluating potential mating partners. The decision of virgin females to accept or reject a courting male is one of the most critical steps for mating success. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, however, the molecular and neuronal mechanisms underlying female receptivity are still poorly understood, particularly for virgin females. The Drosophila painless (pain) gene encodes a transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel. We previously demonstrated that mutations in pain significantly enhance the sexual receptivity of virgin females and that pain expression in pain(GAL4) -positive neurons is necessary and sufficient for pain-mediated regulation of the virgin receptivity. Among the pain(GAL4) -positive neurons in the adult female brain, here we have found that insulin-producing cells (IPCs), a neuronal subset in the pars intercerebralis, are essential in virgin females for the regulation of sexual receptivity through Pain TRP channels. IPC-specific knockdown of pain expression or IPC ablation strongly enhanced female sexual receptivity as was observed in pain mutant females. When pain expression or neuronal activity was conditionally suppressed in adult IPCs, female sexual receptivity was similarly enhanced. Furthermore, both pain mutations and the conditional knockdown of pain expression in IPCs depressed female rejection behaviors toward courting males. Taken together, our results indicate that the Pain TRP channel in IPCs plays an important role in controlling the sexual receptivity of Drosophila virgin females by positively regulating female rejection behaviors during courtship.
Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H
Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.
Jiménez Ambriz, Georgina; Mota, Diana; Cordero, Carlos
Understanding the patterns of genetic variation of traits subject to sexual selection is fundamental for explaining its evolutionary dynamics and potential for sexual coevolution. The signa of female Lepidoptera are sclerotized structures located on the inner surface of the genital receptacle that receives the spermatophore during copulation (the corpus bursae), whose main function is tearing the spermatophore envelope. Comparative data indicate that the evolution of signa has been influenced by sexually antagonistic coevolution with spermatophore envelopes. We looked for additive genetic variation in the size and shape of signa in females of the butterfly Callophrys xami (Lycaenidae) from two localities (BG and FC) in Mexico City. We also looked for genetic variation in female body size and in the size of corpus bursae. There were significant between-population differences in female body size, signa width and three signa shape traits. We found significant extranuclear maternal effects in one component of signa shape in the BG population, and in body weight, signa length and in one uniform component of signa shape in the FC population. Extranuclear maternal contributions could permit the evolution of female adaptations even if these reduce male fitness. We found additive genetic variation in signa length and width only in one population (BG); heritability estimates were high: 0.96 and 0.8, respectively. The existence of additive genetic variation in signa size could be, at least in part, a result of relaxed sexually antagonistic selection pressures due to the low level of polyandry exhibited by this species. Our results imply that there is currently potential for further sexual coevolution in this trait.
Giannini, A J; Colapietro, G; Slaby, A E; Melemis, S M; Bowman, R K
The authors reviewed historical literature and hypothesized a relationship between epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases and foot fetishism. They tested this hypothesis by quantifying foot-fetish depictions in the mass-circulation pornographic literature during a 30-yr. interval. An exponential increase was noted during the period of the current AIDS epidemic. The authors offer reasons for this possible relationship.
Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J
Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population.
Rew, Lynn; Thurman, Whitney; McDonald, Kari
Sexual health and sexual rights are integral to nursing science but ignored in nursing publications. We searched Advances in Nursing Science for prevalence of these topics. Fifteen articles (1.3%) met our criteria. No nursing theories were used as frameworks, and few concrete suggestions were made for further theory development. Discussion of sociopolitical influences on sexual health and/or sexual rights was limited, mostly unrelated to health care. Information to influence nursing practice, theory development, further research, or policy across the life span, for both males and females, and for variant-gender individuals, was limited. We urge authors to contribute further to this field of discourse in nursing.
Slaughter, L; Brown, C R; Crowley, S; Peck, R
New colposcopic protocols for US forensic examiners enable documentation of genital trauma in 87-92% of rape victims--a significant improvement over protocols based on gross visualization or toluidine blue dye enhancement. It remains unresearched, however, whether colposcopic genital findings in sexual assault victims differ substantially from those in women who have had consensual intercourse. Thus, the type, extent, and distribution of genital injuries observed through colposcopy in 311 rape victims seen by the San Luis Obispo (California) County's Suspected Abuse Response Team in 1985-93 were compared to genital changes in 75 healthy women who had engaged in consensual intercourse in the past 24 hours. 213 assault victims (68%) had evidence of anogenital trauma. Among the 178 women (57%) with nongenital trauma, 132 (74%) also had genital injury (tears, ecchymoses, abrasions, redness, and swelling). The most common trauma site was the posterior fourchette (70%). Examination findings were significantly greater at 24 hours after rape than at 72 hours or more, but almost half the women seen at 72 hours or more after assault had positive genital findings. The injury pattern was not affected by age. In the consensual sex group, trauma was noted in eight women (11%). The proportion with genital injury was significantly higher for women reporting nonconsensual sex than those reporting consensual sex.
Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P.
Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most ‘model’ species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions. PMID:25411448
Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P
Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most 'model' species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions.
White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Philipp; Wagner, Richard H.
Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (ARISA) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem. PMID:20961376
White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.
Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.
de Catanzaro, D; Lee, P C; Kerr, T H
Ovariectomized mice were given replacement estrogen and progesterone, and tested for sexual receptivity in the presence of mounting males after various pharmacological manipulations of adrenocortical hormone activity. In Experiment I, females received a chronic regimen of varied dosages of metyrapone, which blocks adrenal conversion of desoxycorticosterone to corticosterone. In each of three repeated measures, females given an intermediate dosage (800 micrograms/animal/injection) showed substantially higher levels of receptivity than those given vehicle injections or other dosages. In Experiment 2, corticosterone administration reversed the facilitatory action of metyrapone on receptivity. In Experiment 3, chronic administration of either desoxycorticosterone or progesterone failed to elevate receptivity. These findings suggest that corticosterone titer may play a role in modulating female receptivity in sexually inexperienced mice.
Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.
Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…
Kim, Joshua; Tolson, Kristen P; Dhamija, Sangeeta; Kauffman, Alexander S
Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, stimulates reproduction. In rodents, one Kiss1 population resides in the hypothalamic anterior ventral periventricular nucleus and neighboring rostral periventricular nucleus (AVPV/PeN). AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are sexually dimorphic (greater in females), yet the mechanisms regulating their development and sexual differentiation remain poorly understood. Neonatal estradiol (E₂) normally defeminizes AVPV/PeN kisspeptin neurons, but emerging evidence suggests that developmental E₂ may also influence feminization of kisspeptin, although exactly when in development this process occurs is unknown. In addition, the obligatory role of GnRH signaling in governing sexual differentiation of Kiss1 or other sexually dimorphic traits remains untested. Here, we assessed whether AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression is permanently impaired in adult hpg (no GnRH or E₂) or C57BL6 mice under different E₂ removal or replacement paradigms. We determined that 1) despite lacking GnRH signaling in development, marked sexual differentiation of Kiss1 still occurs in hpg mice; 2) adult hpg females, who lack lifetime GnRH and E₂ exposure, have reduced AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression compared to wild-type females, even after chronic adulthood E₂ treatment; 3) E₂ exposure to hpg females during the pubertal period does not rescue their submaximal adult Kiss1 levels; and 4) in C57BL6 females, removal of ovarian E2 before the pubertal or juvenile periods does not impair feminization and maximal adult AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression nor the ability to generate LH surges, indicating that puberty is not a critical period for Kiss1 development. Thus, sexual differentiation still occurs without GnRH, but GnRH or downstream E₂ signaling is needed sometime before juvenile development for complete feminization and maximal Kiss1 expression in adult females.
Hu, Kevin; Lawry, S. Terese; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F.
Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle. PMID:27642754
Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others
This teacher's manual is one volume in a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: sexuality and social relationships, drug (substance) use and abuse, work, juvenile law, and people and government. An introductory section…
Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Hong, Yan; Chen, Yiyun; Shan, Qiao; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao
Background The global literature suggests that female sex workers (FSWs) experience high rates of sexual violence perpetrated by their clients, especially when FSWs are under the influence of alcohol. However, such data are limited in China. The current study is aimed to fill in the literature gap by examining the association between alcohol use by FSWs and client-perpetrated sexual violence against FSWs in China. Methods A total of 1,022 FSWs were recruited through community outreach in Guangxi, China. FSWs completed a self-administered survey on their demographic information, alcohol use, and sexual violence perpetrated by clients. Multivariable regression was employed to assess the relationship between alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence among FSWs while controlling for possible confounders. Results Alcohol use was positively associated with the experience of sexual violence in both bivariate and multivariable analyses. Women who were at a higher risk level of alcohol use were more likely to experience sexual violence perpetrated by clients even after controlling confounders (e.g., demographics and alcohol-serving practice). Conclusion Given the association between alcohol use and client-perpetrated sexual violence, preventing or reducing alcohol use among FSWs could be an effective strategy to protect these women from sexual violence perpetrated by their clients. Alternatively, psychological counseling and other support should be available to these women so they can reduce their alcohol use as a maladaptive coping strategy. We call for culturally appropriate alcohol use reduction components, incorporated with sexual violence reduction strategies including adaptive coping skills training as well as empowerment, and targeting both FSWs and their clients. PMID:22882121
Munro, Brenna M
Tracing a series of intertextually linked short stories from the 1990s to the present by women writers from Nigeria and its diaspora-Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Unoma Azuah, Chinelo Okparanta, and Lola Shoneyin-I suggest that although the figure of the African lesbian appears "new" in the context of heightened contemporary attention to the issue of homosexuality, this figure has a literary history. Ghanaian Ama Ata Aidoo's novel Our Sister Killjoy: Or, Reflections From A Black-Eyed Squint (1977) inaugurates this formation, in which the imagining of female same-sex desire is entangled with articulating the experience of migration under the shadow of imperial histories. In these short stories, the emphasis on the difficulties of love in puritanical times and transnational places produces the figure of the African lesbian as a symbol of appealingly human vulnerability, resilience, and complexity.
Klingerman, Candice M; Patel, Anand; Hedges, Valerie L; Meisel, Robert L; Schneider, Jill E
Animals can switch their behavioral priorities from ingestive to sex behaviors to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. We hypothesized that energy availability differentially affects the appetitive (motivation), consummatory (performance), and learned (rewarding) components of behavior. In Experiment 1, appetitive and consummatory aspects of sex behavior were dissociated in the majority of female Syrian hamsters restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake for between 8 and 11 days. Food restriction significantly inhibited vaginal scent marking, decreased the preference for spending time with male hamsters vs. spending time with food, and increased food hoarding with no significant effect on consummatory behaviors such as the incidence of lordosis or food intake. In Experiments 2 and 3, we attempted to use a similar level of food restriction to dissociate sexual appetite from sexual reward. In hamsters, formation of a conditioned place preference (CPP) for copulatory reward is reflected in increased nucleus accumbens (NAc) neural activation, measured as immunocytochemical staining for c-Fos, the protein product of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. In Experiment 2, neural activation increased 1h after copulation in the NAc, and did not differ significantly between 10-day food-restricted and ad libitum-fed females in any brain area examined. In Experiment 3, females were either food-restricted or fed ad libitum over 8-30 days of conditioning with copulatory stimuli. Food-restricted females showed significantly fewer appetitive behaviors, but no difference in formation of a CPP compared to females fed ad libitum. Together these data are consistent with the idea that mild levels of food restriction that inhibit appetitive behaviors fail to attenuate consummatory behaviors and the rewarding consequences of copulation. Thus, appetitive sex behaviors are, at least partially, neuroanatomically and behaviorally distinct from both
Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha
We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships.
de Araujo, Maíta Poli; Kleine, Henrique Truffa; Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Gomes, Natalia Tavares; Caparroz, Graziela Pascom; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira
ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted including 50 female athletes with mean age of 20±3 years. Colposcopy, pap smear, and polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed. Blood samples were collected to test for the human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C. The athletes presenting clinical diseases or conditions identifiable by laboratory tests were treated and followed up in the unit. Results: Forty-six percent of the participants were unaware of sexually transmitted diseases. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among athletes was 48% (24 cases). Human papillomavirus was the most frequent agent (44%). Considering the human papillomavirus genotypes, subtype 16 was the most prevalent (53%), followed by 11-6 (22%) and 18 (13%). Two athletes tested positive for C. trachomatis. There were no cases diagnosed of infection by N. gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. However, only 26 athletes had been vaccinated for hepatitis B. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes was high. Primary prevention measures (hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccination) and secondary (serology, pap smears) must be offered to this specific group of women. The matter should be further approached in sports. PMID:24728243
Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Kilner, Rebecca M.
Sexual conflict drives the coevolution of sexually antagonistic traits, such that an adaptation in one sex selects an opposing coevolutionary response from the other. Although many adaptations and counteradaptations have been identified in sexual conflict over mating interactions, few are known for sexual conflict over parental investment. Here we investigate a possible coevolutionary sequence triggered by mate desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, where males commonly leave before their offspring reach independence. Rather than suffer fitness costs as a consequence, our data suggest that females rely on the male's absence to recoup some of the costs of larval care, presumably because they are then free to feed themselves on the carcass employed for breeding. Consequently, forcing males to stay until the larvae disperse reduces components of female fitness to a greater extent than caring for young singlehandedly. Therefore we suggest that females may have co-evolved to anticipate desertion by their partners so that they now benefit from the male's absence. PMID:22355390
Mazzucco, Christine A; Walker, Hope A; Pawluski, Jodi L; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M
Estrogen has well known effects on sexual behavior, however the role of the estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta on sexual behavior remains to be fully determined. This study investigated the individual and co-operative involvement of ERalpha and beta on sexual behaviors in the adult female rat. Subtype selective ER agonists, propyl-pyrazole triol (PPT; ERalpha agonist) and diarylpropionitrile (DPN; ERbeta agonist) were utilized to examine each receptor subtype's contribution, individual and co-operative, for both receptive (lordosis) and proceptive (hopping/darting, 'ear wiggling') female sexual behaviors. Ovariectomized female rats received subcutaneous injections of either: sesame oil (OIL), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), estradiol benzoate (EB; 10 microg/0.1 ml OIL), one of three doses of the ERalpha agonist PPT (1.25mg, 2.5mg or 5.0mg/0.1 ml DMSO), one of three doses of the ERbeta agonist DPN (1.25mg, 2.5mg or 5.0mg/0.1 ml DMSO) or a combination dose of PPT and DPN (2.5mg PPT+2.5mg DPN/0.1 ml DMSO) for two consecutive days, 48 and 24h prior to testing followed by a progesterone injection (500 microg/0.1 ml OIL) 4h prior to testing in order to elicit sexual behavior. The ERalpha agonist PPT, but not the ERbeta agonist DPN, elicited both proceptive and receptive behavior. PPT at doses of 2.5 and 5.0mg significantly elicited lordosis and proceptive behavior ('ear wiggling', hopping and darting). Intriguingly, the administration of both agonists together at the 2.5mg dose resulted in reduced levels of proceptivity and receptivity, suggesting that ERbeta modulates ERalpha's ability to elicit receptive and proceptive sexual behavior.
Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina; Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kerrick, R.; Grube, Joel W.
In order to expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents’ exposure to four socializing agents—mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content—and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: Social Benefit, Pleasure, Social Risk, and Health Risk. Data are from Waves 2–3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were non-sexually active (N=914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and Social Benefit, Pleasure and Social Risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and Social Benefit expectancies and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and Health Risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted Pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted Social Risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision-making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710
Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Isac, Shajy; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, B M; Gowda, Chandrashekhar; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel
Despite their large numbers, and important role in the HIV epidemic in India, male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a difficult to reach population and little is known about their sexual behaviors. Using data from an integrated behavioral and biological assessment of 684 clients in Bangalore in 2012, we examined factors associated with their reports of having sex with three or more different female sex workers in the last month, and anal sex with sex workers. We included sociodemographic and sexual behavior factors and, for the first time in client studies in India, included data on the use of pornography and sexual enhancement products (SEPs) such as pills, oils, and sprays, in our multivariable analyses of client risk. Seventy-eight percent of clients had seen pornographic material and 8% reported ever having used SEPs. The profiles of men practicing the two risk behaviors examined were quite different. Travel in the past year, drunkenness in the past month, young age at first commercial sex, non-use of condoms at last sex, and finding sex workers in public places (but not use of pornography and SEPs) were independently associated with multiple partnering. Sex with a man or transsexual, being a white collar worker, seeking out FSWs at home, pornography and SEP use, and condom use at last FSW sex, were all independently associated with anal sex with an FSW. More research is needed to better understand the links between pornography and SEPs, and HIV risk behaviors, and HIV prevention programs need to be cognizant of the importance of ensuring that condom use is adequately promoted and supported in the context of anal sex in female sex worker-client interactions.
Fabre-Nys, Claude; Chesneau, Didier; de la Riva, Carlos; Hinton, Michael R; Locatelli, Alain; Ohkura, Satoshi; Kendrick, Keith M
Dopamine has been implicated in the control of sexual behaviour, but its role seems quite complex and controversial. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the effects of dopamine (DA) acting on D2 receptors in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) on sexual behaviour in female sheep. To achieve this, the D2 agonist, quinpirole, was administered bilaterally via microdialysis probes into the MBH of ovariectomized ewes either before or after oestradiol (E2) administration. Quinpirole (100 ng/ml) infused for 6 h just before E2 hastened the onset of oestrus behaviour and the luteinizing hormone surge, whereas the same treatment given 6-12 h or 18-21 h after E2 decreased the intensity of sexual receptivity without affecting LH or prolactin secretion. We then tested the hypothesis that E2 stimulates the onset of oestrus partly by decreasing DA activation of D2 receptors. In this case the D2 antagonists pimozide or spiperone (100 ng/ml) were infused into the MBH via microdialysis probes for 11 h in the absence of E2 administration. A significant number of ewes showed induction of receptivity with both antagonists, although its intensity was significantly lower than that induced by E2. These treatments generally did not significantly alter extracellular concentrations of monoamines or aminoacids although quinpirole modulated the ability of sexual interactions to increase noradrenaline release. These experiments show that DA acts via D2 receptors in the MBH to control female sexual behaviour in a biphasic manner: the onset of sexual motivation and receptivity requiring an initial increase in activation followed by a decrease. This dual action could explain some of the controversies concerning DA action on sexual behaviour.
Sales, Jessica McDermott; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Carolyn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve; Samp, Jennifer A.
Background To examine differences between lower and higher frequency alcohol users in sexual behaviors and psychosocial correlates of risk for HIV among young African-American females. Methods Data were collected from sexually active African-American females aged 15–20 years, seeking services at a STD clinic in Atlanta, GA, to assess sexual behavior, correlates of risk, and a non-disease biological marker of unprotected vaginal sex. Results Number of drinking occasions was significantly related to three of four psychosocial correlates and with all self-reporting sexual behavior measures. Also, heavier drinking per occasion was associated with the presence of semen in vaginal fluid. Conclusion Non-abuse levels of drinking were related to increased sexual risk-taking in this sample of young African-American females. Incorporating messages about the intersection of alcohol use and sexual decision making into HIV/STD prevention programs would strengthen STD prevention messaging in this vulnerable population. PMID:25053364
Heule, Corina; Salzburger, Walter; Böhne, Astrid
Teleost fishes are the most species-rich clade of vertebrates and feature an overwhelming diversity of sex-determining mechanisms, classically grouped into environmental and genetic systems. Here, we review the recent findings in the field of sex determination in fish. In the past few years, several new master regulators of sex determination and other factors involved in sexual development have been discovered in teleosts. These data point toward a greater genetic plasticity in generating the male and female sex than previously appreciated and implicate novel gene pathways in the initial regulation of the sexual fate. Overall, it seems that sex determination in fish does not resort to a single genetic cascade but is rather regulated along a continuum of environmental and heritable factors. PMID:24653206
Jiang, Hongxia; Li, Xilian; Sun, Yuhang; Hou, Fujun; Zhang, Yufei; Li, Fei; Gu, Zhimin; Liu, Xiaolin
Background The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is the most prevalent aquaculture species in China. The sexual precocity in this species has received considerable attention in recent years because more and more individuals matured at a small size, which devalues the commercial production. In this study, we developed deep-coverage transcriptomic sequencing data for the ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using next-generation RNA sequencing technology and attempted to provide the first insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of sexual precocity in this species. Results A total of 63,336 unigenes were produced from the ovarian cDNA libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Through BLASTX searches against the NR, STRING, Pfam, Swissprot and KEGG databases, 15,134 unigenes were annotated, accounting for 23.89% of the total unigenes. 5,195 and 3,227 matched unigenes were categorized by GO and COG analysis respectively. 15,908 unigenes were consequently mapped into 332 KEGG pathways, and many reproduction-related pathways and genes were identified. Moreover, 26,008 SSRs were identified from 18,133 unigenes. 80,529 and 80,516 SNPs were yielded from ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, respectively, and 29,851 potential SNPs between these two groups were also predicted. After comparing the ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, 549 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 9 key DEGs that may be related to sexual precocity of M. nipponense were identified. 20 DEGs were selected for validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) and 19 DEGs show consistent expression between QPCR and RNAseq-based differential expression analysis datasets. Conclusion This is the first report on the large-scale RNA sequencing of ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M
Peasant, Courtney; Foster, Rebecca H; Russell, Kathryn M; Favaro, Brianne E; Klosky, James L
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all female survivors of childhood cancer; yet, it is underused. Parent-child sexual communication and health care provider recommendation for HPV vaccination influence familial vaccination decisions. However, caregivers may be less likely to discuss sexual health issues with survivors as compared to healthy peers. Therefore, this study compared mothers of daughters with/without history of childhood cancer on measures of sexual communication, HPV-specific communication, and health care provider recommendation for HPV vaccination, and examined the effects of sociodemographic and medical factors on these measures. There were no differences between mothers of survivors/noncancer survivors on the outcomes (Ps > .05). Among all mothers, daughter's age was associated with sexual communication (Ps < .05). Household income and daughter's age were associated with health care provider recommendation for vaccination (Ps < .05). Among mothers of survivors, daughter's age at diagnosis was associated with sexual communication, HPV-specific communication, and health care provider recommendation for vaccination (Ps < .05). Findings have implications for the role of health care providers as advocates for mother-daughter sexual communication and HPV vaccination, especially among survivors of childhood cancer.
Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla; Uzunlar, Ozlem; Kahyaoglu, Inci; Ozyer, Sebnem; Besli, Mustafa; Karaca, Mujdegul
Objective: To discuss the medical, social and legal characteristics of the child sexual abuse and to provide a perspective for gynecologists on this topic. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out of the medicolegal records of female children below the age of 18 referred to a tertiary teaching hospital and diagnosed as being exposed to sexual abuse within the family between the years of 2004 to 2012. Results: One hundred and thirty-nine cases were diagnosed as being exposed to sexual abuse during the 8 year period, 23 of them (16.5%) had been involved in sexual abuse within the family. Eleven out of 23 had been admitted as part of a legal process while the rest were reported by a third person. Conclusion: Since sexual abuse within the family is a taboo in Islamic societies, the diagnosis can take a long time. Recognition of sexually abused children, providing early performance of medicolegal examinations, and applying standardized medical guidelines are essential to protect these children. PMID:25225535
Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D; Mao, R; Liu, H; Chen, X; Severson, R
Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in 'stalls' or 'domestic service' tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors.
van der Put, Claudia E
To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Guarraci, Fay A
Preclinical and clinical research investigating female sexual motivation has lagged behind research on male sexual function. The present review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the specific roles of various brain areas, as well as our understanding of the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission in sexual motivation of the female rat. A number of behavioral paradigms that can be used to thoroughly evaluate sexual behavior in the female rat are first discussed. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture has been useful in understanding the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms described in this review have helped us expand our understanding of appetitive and consumatory behavioral patterns that better assess sexual motivation - the equivalent of "desire" in humans. A summary of numerous lesion studies indicates that different areas of the brain, including forebrain and midbrain structures, work together to produce the complex repertoire of female sexual behavior. In addition, by investigating the effects of commonly addictive drugs, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission in female sexual motivation. Consequently, research in this area may contribute to meaningful advances in the treatment of human female sexual dysfunction.
Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey
Male and female homosexuality have substantial prevalence in humans. Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins is low and molecular studies have failed to find associated DNA makers. This paradoxical pattern calls for an explanation. We use published data on fetal androgen signaling and gene regulation via nongenetic changes in DNA packaging (epigenetics) to develop a new model for homosexuality. It is well established that fetal androgen signaling strongly influences sexual development. We show that an unappreciated feature of this process is reduced androgen sensitivity in XX fetuses and enhanced sensitivity in XY fetuses, and that this difference is most feasibly mused by numerous sex-specific epigenetic modifications ("epi-marks") originating in embryonic stem cells. These epi-marks buffer XX fetuses from masculinization due to excess fetal androgen exposure and similarly buffer XY fetuses from androgen underexposure. Extant data indicates that individual epi-marks influence some but not other sexually dimorphic traits, vary in strength across individuals, and are produced during ontogeny and erased between generations. Those that escape erasure will steer development of the sexual phenotypes they influence in a gonad-discordant direction in opposite sex offspring, mosaically feminizing XY offspring and masculinizing XX offspring. Such sex-specific epi-marks are sexually antagonistic (SA-epi-marks) because they canalize sexual development in the parent that produced them, but contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex offspring when unerased. In this model, homosexuality occurs when stronger-than-average SA-epi-marks (influencing sexual preference) from an opposite-sex parent escape erasure and are then paired with a weaker-than-average de novo sex-specific epi-marks produced in opposite-sex offspring. Our model predicts that homosexuality is part of a
Posobiec, Lorraine M; Vidal, Justin D; Hughes-Earle, Angela; Laffan, Susan B; Hart, Timothy
Dabrafenib (DAB), an inhibitor of BRAF kinase activity, is approved for metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600E mutation. In support of pediatric cancer development, a nonclinical juvenile rat toxicity study was conducted in which females had early vaginal opening (VO). It was hypothesized that the early VO was not indicative of sexual maturation, but a result of a local effect on the vagina. An investigative study was conducted that mimicked the definitive study design, with rats given DAB or vehicle orally from Postnatal Day (PND) 7 to 35 and with necropsy subsets just before VO, at the first and second estrus, along with age-matched controls. Histopathology was performed on reproductive tissues, including immunohistochemistry for BRAF expression. VO occurred earlier in DAB females than in controls (PND 27.2 vs. 31.5); however, the timing of the first estrus was unaffected (PND 34.0 vs. 33.0). DAB-treated females evaluated just before VO (PND 22.0) had mostly immature reproductive tracts with no evidence of ovulation, similar to age-matched controls; however, DAB-treated females had keratinized and histologically open vaginas. Also, there was raised skin around the urogenital area, which correlated with hyperplasia/keratosis of the vulvar skin and keratinization of the distal vagina. BRAF expression (evaluated in controls) was localized to these tissues. Thus, early VO in rats given DAB likely represents a local effect accelerating vaginal keratinization to become open and not accelerated sexual maturation.
Torices, R; Méndez, M
Sex allocation theory forecasts that larger plant size may modify the balance in fitness gain in both genders, leading to uneven optimal male and female allocation. This reasoning can be applied to flowers and inflorescences, because the increase in flower or inflorescence size can differentially benefit different gender functions, and thus favour preferential allocation to specific floral structures. We investigated how inflorescence size influenced sexual expression and female reproductive success in the monoecious Tussilago farfara, by measuring patterns of biomass, and N and P allocation. Inflorescences of T. farfara showed broad variation in sex expression and, according to expectations, allocation to different sexual structures showed an allometric pattern. Unexpectedly, two studied populations had a contrasting pattern of sex allocation with an increase in inflorescence size. In a shaded site, larger inflorescences were female-biased and had disproportionately more allocation to attraction structures; while in an open site, larger inflorescences were male-biased. Female reproductive success was higher in larger, showier inflorescences. Surprisingly, male flowers positively influenced female reproductive success. These allometric patterns were not easily interpretable as a result of pollen limitation when naïvely assuming an unequivocal relationship between structure and function for the inflorescence structures. In this and other Asteraceae, where inflorescences are the pollination unit, both male and female flowers can play a role in pollinator attraction.
Hayden, Kelly; Graham, Melissa; Lamaro, Greer
Issue addressed: Unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships have the potential to have serious negative health consequences. To date, there has been scant focus on these issues among university students in Australia. The aim of the current study was to describe the extent of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships experienced in their lifetime by female university students aged 18-25 years.Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 465 female students aged 18-25 years. Students were recruited through one faculty within a Victorian university and invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire.Results: Sixty-seven per cent (n = 312) of female students reported experiencing unwanted sexual attention in their lifetime. The most common form of unwanted sexual attention was kissing or touching over clothes (98%; n = 306). Over 43% (n = 124) of the female students reported that the experience of unwanted sexual experience occurred after their protests were ignored. Thirty per cent (n = 135) of the female students reported experiencing at least one element of an unhealthy intimate relationship.Conclusions: The high rates of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships among female university students is of concern given the negative impact such events can have on individual's physical, emotional and social well being.So what?: Public health and health promotion action is required to prevent female students from experiencing unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships, and to address the negative health and well being consequences.
This article briefly summarizes central components of theories of sexual development and outlines that these components depend largely on socio-cultural factors. A cultural change of human sexuality is reflected by several phenomena such as the public debate about sexual violence and its consequences, a diminuation of gender differences and a turn away from monosexuality, tremendous changes within the world of partner relationships and a mediatization of sexuality. This mediatization is paralleled by a public sexualization as well as a de-sexualization of the private sphere together with an increase of a loss of sexual desire reflecting well-known problems of human sexuality. Finally, it has to be stated that sexuality has experienced a demystification as a consequence of socio-cultural changes following the sexual liberalization.
Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Ahmet; Koca, Irfan; Celen, Esra; Korkmaz, Nurdan
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the quality of life and psychological condition of female patients with fibromyalgia and their spouses on sexual function. A total of 32 female patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and their spouses were analyzed. Thirty married couples were included in the study as the control group. The demographic data of the fibromyalgia patients were recorded, a visual analog scale was used to evaluate the level of pain, and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was used to evaluate the impact of the symptoms on the quality of life of the patients. The quality of life of both the patients and the control group were evaluated using the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and psychological variables were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Sexual function was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index for female participants and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for male participants. The IIEF erectile dysfunction scores were significantly lower in the spouses of female patients with fibromyalgia than in the control group (p < 0.05), and the BDI scores were significantly higher in the spouses of the female patients with fibromyalgia (p < 0.05). Among the SF-36 scores, the emotional and physical roles were significantly lower in the spouses of the female patients with fibromyalgia (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively). In all spouses of FMS patients and controls, there was a significantly negative correlation between erectile function, the BDI score, and to be married with FMS patient and positive correlations between erectile function and emotional role, social function, mental health, SF-36 pain score, and general health (p < 0.05 for all). In a linear regression model, BDI, to be married with FMS patient and general health were found to affect erectile function (beta regression coefficient = -0.572, SE = 0.082, p = 0.001; beta regression coefficient = -0.332, SE = 1
Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
This paper compares the prevalence of sexual harassment and abuse among 660 Norwegian elite female athletes and an age-matched control sample of nonathletes. It also explores differences in the prevalence of harassment and abuse in sport and work or school settings and compares harassment and abuse perpetrated by male authority figures and peers in these different contexts. No differences were found between the athletes and controls in overall prevalence of sexual harassment or abuse. However, the athletes experienced significantly more harassment from male authority figures than did the controls. Based on these results, the article considers whether or not sport offers women any particular immunity from sexual harassment and abuse. The implications of the findings for structural and cultural change in sport are discussed.
Alam, Anadil; Sultana, Salima; Alam, Nazmul; Somrongthong, Ratana
Objectives The objective of this study was to document sexual and reproductive health (SRH) practices among female sex workers (FSWs) including abortion, pregnancy, use of maternal healthcare services and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with the aim of developing recommendations for action. Methods A total of 731 FSWs aged between 15 and 49 years were surveyed using a stratified sampling in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A workshop with 23 participants consisted of policy makers, researchers, program implementers was conducted to formulate recommendations. Results About 61.3% of 731 FSWs reported SRH-related experiences in the past one year, including abortion (15.5%), ongoing pregnancy (9.0%), childbirth (8.3%) or any symptoms of STIs (41.6%). Among FSWs who had an abortion (n = 113), the most common methods included menstrual regulation through manual vacuum aspiration (47.8%), followed by Dilation and Curettage procedure (31%) and oral medicine from pharmacies (35.4%). About 57.5% of 113 cases reported post abortion complications. Among FSWs with delivery in the past year (n = 61), 27.7% attended the recommended four or more antenatal care visits and more than half did not have any postnatal visit. Adopting sustainable and effective strategies to provide accessible and adequate SRH services for FSWs was prioritized by workshop participants. Conclusion There was substantial unmet need for SRH care among FSWs in urban areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Therefore, it is important to integrate SRH services for FSWs in the formal healthcare system or integration of abortion and maternal healthcare services within existing HIV prevention services. PMID:28369093
Den Oudsten, Brenda; Greimel, Elfriede
Background The aim of the study is to describe the development of a comprehensive European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire to assess sexual health of female and male cancer patients and for cancer survivors. Methods According to the EORTC guidelines, the development of an EORTC sexual health questionnaire is typically organised in four phases. The first phases comprise a literature search following interviews with patient and health care professionals (HCPs) (phase 1) and the operationalization into items (phase 2). The translation process is formally conducted according to the EORTC QLG Translation guidelines with a rigorous forward-backward procedure supported by native speakers. Results Studies on sexuality in oncology patients which were identified by a literature search predominantly focused on issues of activity, experiences of sexual dysfunction, and satisfaction with sexual functioning. The literature review identified themes beyond these aspects. In total 53 potentially relevant issues were presented to 107 patients and 83 HCPs, different evaluations were found. Conclusions A questionnaire that includes physical, psychological, and social aspects of sexuality of cancer survivors will be needed. Pre-testing and validation of the questionnaire will be done in future (phases 3 and 4). Divergent ratings of patients and professionals should be further investigated. PMID:26816816
Young, Stephen M; Pruett, Jana A; Colvin, Marianna L
This content analysis examines written documentation of telephone calls to a regional sexual assault hotline over a 5-year period. All male callers identified as primary victims were selected for analysis (n = 58) and a corresponding sample of female primary victims (n = 58) were randomly selected for comparison to better understand the help-seeking behavior of sexual assault survivors and inform services accordingly. A summative content analysis revealed significant contrasting themes between male and female victims, including females significantly receiving more referrals and males accessing the hotline to tell their experience of being sexually assaulted due to perceived limited support. Implications for training, practice, and future research are discussed.
Schover, Leslie R.; Yuan, Ying; Fellman, Bryan M.; Odensky, Evan; Lewis, Pamela E.; Martinetti, Paul
The recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network Survivorship Guideline recommends systematic evaluation and multidisciplinary treatment of cancer-related sexual dysfunctions. Yet, most oncology professionals fail to routinely assess sexual problems and lack expertise to treat them. An internet-based intervention was designed to educate female patients and their partners about cancer-related sexual problems, to describe medical treatment options and how to find expert care, and to provide self-help strategies. A randomized trial assessed efficacy of the intervention when used as self-help versus the same web access plus three supplemental counseling sessions. Survivors of localized breast or gynecological cancer completed online questionnaires at baseline, post-treatment, and 3- and 6-month follow-up, including the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI); the Menopausal Sexual Interest Questionnaire (MSIQ), the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) to assess emotional distress, and the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors Scale (QLACS). Program evaluation ratings were completed post-treatment. Fifty-eight women completed baseline questionnaires (mean age 53 ± 9). Drop-out rates were 22% during treatment and 34% at 6-month follow-up. Linear mixed models for each outcome across time showed improvement in total scores on the FSFI, MSIQ, and QLACS (P<0.001) and BSI-18 (P=0.001). The counseled group improved significantly more on sexuality measures, but changes in emotional distress and quality of life did not differ between groups. Program content and ease of use were rated positively. Research is needed on how best to integrate this intervention into routine clinical practice, particularly how to improve uptake and adherence. PMID:24225972
Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is the inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement. The potentiation of vascular responses leading to increased blood flow in clitoris and vagina has represented the main focus in the pharmacological treatment of FSAD, including the evaluation of the type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitors. However, due to a lack of clear efficacy, there is no approved pharmacotherapy for FSAD to date. In the present issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Wayman et al. show that the administration by intravenous or intravaginal routes of a novel neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, UK-414,445, results in enhanced genital blood flow responses to pelvic nerve stimulation in female rabbits, without significantly affecting blood pressure. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition, by preserving vasoactive peptides such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, raises the possibility of a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of FSAD.
Javadnoori, Mojgan; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali
Background: Despite so many unmet sexual health education (SHE) needs of adolescents, socio-cultural challenges have caused this issue to be ignored in different scoieties. This study investigated Iranian female adolescents’ experiences and perceptions with respect to SHE that they received at schools, and what they really needed, expected, and preferred. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, seven focus group discussions (44 adolescents) and 13 individual in-depth interviews were conducted among female adolescents aged 14-18 in Mashhad and Ahvaz, Iran, to explore adolescents’ experiences and perceptions towards SHE in Iranian schools. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analyzing adolescents’ perspectives and experiences revealed their great dissatisfaction with SHE in schools. Emerged categories included: lack of obligation and priority for SHE, sexual reticence and evading, making adolescents frightened of sexual issues, inconsistency of SHE with adolescents’ needs, unqualified educators, and lack of appropriate educational materials. Conclusion: This study found some similarities between expectations of Iranian adolescents and those of adolescents from other cultures about an SHE program. Adolescents showed great abilities to appraise health services delivered for them, and so any program for sexual health promotion in adolescents ought to address adolescents’ needs, demands, and aspirations. Their contribution can provide insights for tailoring SHE programs for adolescents. PMID:23922603
Essien, E. James; Monjok, Emmanuel; Chen, Hua; Abughosh, Susan; Ekong, Ernest; Peters, Ronald J.; Holmes, Laurens; Holstad, Marcia M.; Mgbere, Osaro
Objective Uniformed services personnel are at an increased risk of HIV infection. We examined the HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors among female military personnel to determine the correlates of HIV risk behaviors in this population. Method The study used a cross-sectional design to examine HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 346 females drawn from two military cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected between 2006 and 2008. Using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression, HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behaviors were described in relation to socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that level of education and knowing someone with HIV/AIDS were significant (p<0.05) predictors of HIV knowledge in this sample. HIV prevention self-efficacy was significantly (P<0.05) predicted by annual income and race/ethnicity. Condom use attitudes were also significantly (P<0.05) associated with number of children, annual income, and number of sexual partners. Conclusion Data indicates the importance of incorporating these predictor variables into intervention designs. PMID:20387111
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Zohar, Gali
The study aimed to examine the role of dissociation (persistent versus peritraumatic) in self-injurious behavior among at-risk Israeli female adolescents. In addition, the relationship between childhood sexual abuse, depression, dissociation, and potency was investigated. A convenience sample of 93 female adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were recruited from institutions for at-risk adolescent girls in Israel. Participants were administered an anonymous self-report questionnaire that included six measures: Demographics, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire, the Traumatic Events Questionnaire, and the Potency Scale. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse increases the risk for self-injurious behavior more than threefold. Higher levels of persistent dissociation were found among girls who reported child sexual abuse compared to those who did not. Self-injurious behavior was predicted by persistent dissociation. Girls who engaged in self-injurious behavior had lower potency and higher depression levels, regardless of childhood sexual abuse history.
Jones, Juli E; Pick, Rebecca R; Davenport, Matthew D; Keene, Alex C; Corp, Eric S; Wade, George N
Several conditions that inhibit female sexual behavior are thought to be associated with altered corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) activity in the brain. The present experiments examined the hypothesis that endogenous CRH receptor signaling mediates the inhibition of estrous behavior by undernutrition and in other instances of sexual dysfunction. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of CRH or urocortin inhibited estrous behavior in ovariectomized steroid-primed hamsters. Conversely, ICV infusion of the CRH receptor antagonist astressin prevented the suppression of estrous behavior by food deprivation or by ICV administration of neuropeptide Y. Astressin treatment also induced sexual receptivity in nonresponders, animals that do not normally come into heat when treated with hormones, and this effect persisted in subsequent weekly tests in the absence of any further astressin treatment. Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis was neither necessary nor sufficient to inhibit estrous behavior, indicating that this phenomenon is due to other central actions of CRH receptor agonists. This is the first direct evidence that CRH receptor signaling may be a final common pathway by which undernutrition and other conditions inhibit female sexual behavior.
Kim, Im-Ryung; Kim, Soo Hyun; Ok, Oh Nam; Kim, So Hee; Lee, Suyeon; Choi, Eunju; Kim, Seok Jin; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Moon Hee
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sexual problems and their relationship to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in male and female non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) survivors. In this cross-sectional study, 738 NHL survivors (425 men and 313 women; mean time since diagnosis, 6.2 years) in South Korea completed the six-item instrument of adult sexual behavior used by the National Health and Social Life Survey in the United States. HRQOL was measured by two subscales of the EORTC QLQ-C30. Sexual problems were reported by a greater proportion of women (range, 31.9 to 64.4%) than men (range, 23.3 to 49.1%). Among four items common to both sexes, three (lacking interest in sex, unable to achieve orgasm, sex not pleasurable) were significantly more prevalent in women. Significant factors associated with multiple sexual problems in men were older age and being unemployed; in women, they were marital status and comorbidity. Lastly, more significant associations between sexual problems and HRQOL were observed in men than in women. Male and female NHL survivors differ in the prevalence of sexual problems and the factors associated with them as well as their associations with HRQOL. These findings can be used to develop sex-specific interventions to improve sexual function in this population.
Koukidou, M; Alphey, L
Elucidation of the sex differentiation pathway in insects offers an opportunity to understand key aspects of evolutionary developmental biology. In addition, it provides the understanding necessary to manipulate insects in order to develop new synthetic genetics-based tools for the control of pest insects. Considerable progress has been made in this, especially in improvements to the sterile insect technique (SIT). Large scale sex separation is considered highly desirable or essential for most SIT targets. This separation can be provided by genetic methods based on sex-specific gene expression. Investigation of sex determination by many groups has provided molecular components and methods for this. Though the primary sex determination signal varies considerably, key regulatory genes and mechanisms remain surprisingly similar. In most cases studied so far, a primary signal is transmitted to a basal gene at the bottom of the hierarchy (dsx) through an alternative splicing cascade; dsx is itself differentially spliced in males and females. A sex-specific alternative splicing system therefore offers an attractive route to achieve female-specific expression. Experience has shown that alternative splicing modules can be developed with cross-species function; modularity and standardisation and re-use of parts are key principles of synthetic biology. Both female-killing and sex reversal (XX females to phenotypic males) can in principle also be used as efficient alternatives to sterilisation in SIT-like methods. Sexual maturity is yet another area where understanding of sexual development may be applied to insect control programmes. Further detailed understanding of this crucial aspect of insect biology will undoubtedly continue to underpin innovative practical applications.
White, I D; Faithfull, S; Allan, H
Pelvic radiotherapy creates physical effects and psychological responses that negatively affect the sexual health of women and couples, yet these sexual consequences are not frequently researched or clinically assessed. This focused ethnographic study explored factors that influence the clinical assessment of treatment-induced female sexual difficulties after pelvic radiotherapy within routine medical follow-up. Participant observation of follow-up clinics (n = 69) and in-depth interviews with 24 women, 5 partners and 20 health professionals were undertaken at two cancer centres in the South East of England from 2005 to 2006. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts resulted in five emergent themes, two of which are explored in detail within this paper. A social constructionist approach to human sexuality was used to explore representations of female sexuality in oncology follow-up constructed by clinicians, women and their partners. Yet neither social constructionist nor biomedical (the predominant model in medical follow-up) perspectives on human sexuality provided an adequate interpretation of these study findings. This paper argues that the comprehensive study and practice of sexual rehabilitation in oncology requires a synthesis of both biomedical and social constructionist perspectives in order to capture the complex, subjective and embodied nature of the female sexual response in both health and illness.
Maezawa, Takanobu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Haruka; Ono, Mizuki; Aoki, Manabu; Matsumoto, Midori; Ishida, Tetsuo; Horiike, Kihachiro; Kobayashi, Kazuya
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying switching from asexual to sexual reproduction, namely sexual induction, we developed an assay system for sexual induction in the hermaphroditic planarian species Dugesia ryukyuensis. Ovarian development is the initial and essential step in sexual induction, and it is followed by the formation of other reproductive organs, including the testes. Here, we report a function of a planarian D-amino acid oxidase, Dr-DAO, in the control of ovarian development in planarians. Asexual worms showed significantly more widespread expression of Dr-DAO in the parenchymal space than did sexual worms. Inhibition of Dr-DAO by RNAi caused the formation of immature ovaries. In addition, we found that feeding asexual worms 5 specific D-amino acids could induce the formation of immature ovaries that are similar to those observed in Dr-DAO knockdown worms, suggesting that Dr-DAO inhibits the formation of immature ovaries by degrading these D-amino acids. Following sexual induction, Dr-DAO expression was observed in the ovaries. The knockdown of Dr-DAO during sexual induction delayed the maturation of the other reproductive organs, as well as ovary. These findings suggest that Dr-DAO acts to promote ovarian maturation and that complete sexual induction depends on the production of mature ovaries. We propose that Dr-DAO produced in somatic cells prevents the onset of sexual induction in the asexual state, and then after sexual induction, the female germ cells specifically produce Dr-DAO to induce full maturation. Therefore, Dr-DAO produced in somatic and female germline cells may play different roles in sexual induction.
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a role in anticipation of rewards and goal orientation, properties that are influenced by cocaine administration. Single-unit firing was measured in the mPFC of seven male rats during the expression of approach responses toward a sexually receptive female. Nose-poking in male rats was used as a measure of approach behavior during the following periods: a baseline, first exposure to a female, a second baseline 2 h later and a second exposure to female 10 min after cocaine (15 mg kg⁻¹ i.p.). Two types of excitatory responses were identified. First, a subset of cells (23%) showed increased firing activity during nose-poke behavior upon presentation of the female, but not before. Another subset of cells (12%) showed increased firing in the presence of the female only after cocaine was administered. The present results provide preliminary evidence for neurons in the mPFC that are involved in sexually motivated approach behavior and that are modulated by cocaine.
MacMaster, Frank P.; Keshavan, Matcheri; Mirza, Yousha; Carrey, Normand; Upadhyaya, Ameet R.; El-Sheikh, Rhonda; Buhagiar, Christian J; Taormina, S. Preeya; Boyd, Courtney; Lynch, Michelle; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Moore, Gregory J.; Rosenberg, David R.
The pituitary gland plays a central role in sexual development and brain function. Therefore, we examined the effect of age and gender on pituitary volume in a large sample of healthy children and adults. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in one hundred and fifty four (77 males and 77 females) healthy participants. Males were between the ages of 7 to 35 years (16.91 ± 5.89 years) and females were 7 to 35 years of age (16.75 ± 5.75 years). Subjects were divided into subgroups of age (7 to 9, 10 to 13, 14 to 17, 18 to 21, 22 and older) and sex (male/female). Pituitary gland volume differed between sexes when comparing the age groups (F = 3.55, df = 2, 143, p = 0.03). Females demonstrated larger pituitary glands than males in the age 14 to 17 year old groups (p = 0.04). Young (19 years and under) and old (20 years and older) females demonstrated a correlation between pituitary volume and age. Males did not show this relationship. These findings provide additional evidence for gender differences in the normative anatomy of the pituitary and may have relevance for the study of various childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in which pituitary dysfunction has been implicated. PMID:17174342
Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul
Little is known about the association between the sexual functioning of each partner in a heterosexual married couple. By using a community-based survey of Hong Kong Chinese couples in 2012, this study attempted to examine the relation between female sexual dysfunction and their husbands' erectile dysfunction. Among the 1,518 female and 1,059 male respondents, 944 sexually active couples were eligible for the analysis, with mean age of 39.3 ± 6.8 years (range = 21-50) for the wives and 43.6 ± 8.6 years (range = 18-80) for the husbands. Of the wives, 27.0% reported at least one form of female sexual dysfunction and 5.0% of the husbands reported erectile dysfunction. After adjusting for the female's age and other risk factors, the total and domain scores of female sexual dysfunction were not associated with her husband's erectile dysfunction except for physical pain during sexual intercourse. Therefore, whether to screen the partner's sexual function depends on the age of the female clients.
Cento, R M; Ciampelli, M; Proto, C; Le Donne, M; Romano, C; Lanzone, A
In order to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary effects of mental retardation during pubertal development, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration were evaluated at various pubertal stages in a female population with mental retardation (MR) compared to a healthy control group of adolescents. Fifty-six girls aged 8-16 years with MR and 146 normal females of the same age participated in the study. The analyzed subjects were divided into different pubertal stages, ranging from P2 to P5, in line with their degree of sexual maturation. Each patient underwent a GnRH test (100 micrograms); blood samples were collected basally and 15, 30, 60, 90 minutes after the GnRH injection. FSH and LH were assayed in each sample; the gonadotropin response to GnRH administration was evaluated as incremental area. No differences were found at any pubertal stage between the two studied groups with regard to the age, body mass index, or age at menarche. Patients with mental retardation during stages P2 and P3 showed lower FSH secretion in response to GnRH bolus compared with control subjects (P2, p < 0.05; P3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, our data show that MR is related to an impaired response of the FSH-secreting pituitary cells to their appropriate stimulus; this feature is present only in the initial pubertal stages, whereas it disappears during sexual development.
Gordon, Liahna E; Silva, Tony J
Building on Paula Rust's (1996) concept of a sexual landscape, we propose an interpretive theory of the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. We seek to reconcile human agency with active and shifting influences in social context and to recognize the inherent complexity of environmental factors while acknowledging the role that biological potential plays. We ground our model in the insights of three compatible and related theoretical perspectives: social constructionism, symbolic interactionism, and scripting theory. Within this framework, we explain how sexual orientation and sexual identities develop and potentially change.
Bailey, Althea; Figueroa, J Peter
The Jamaican government has provided targeted HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment, and other services for female sex workers (FSW) since 1989. HIV prevalence among FSW declined from 20 to 12% between 1989 and 1994, then to 9% in 2005, 5% in 2008, and 4.1% in 2011. This article distills the literature and two decades of experience working with FSW in Jamaica. Drawing on the constant comparative method, we put forward an innovative conceptual framework for explaining sexual decision-making and risk behaviors within both transactional and relational sexual situations. This framework helps fill the gaps in existing models that focus on individual behaviors. The model identifies interactions between environmental and structural elements of sex work, and three individual-level factors: risk perception, perceived relationship intimacy, and perceived control, as the four primary mediating factors influencing sexual decision-making among FSW. We propose that other factors such as violence, socioeconomic vulnerability, and policy/legal frameworks influence sexual decision-making through these primary mediating factors. This conceptual model may offer a useful framework for planning and evaluating prevention interventions among sex workers. However, it remains to be tested in order to establish its value.
Gama, Carlos RB; Lasmar, Ricardo; Gama, Gustavo F; Abreu, Camila S; Nunes, Carlos P; Geller, Mauro; Oliveira, Lisa; Santos, Alessandra
This is a qualitative–quantitative study based on hospital records of female patients of reproductive age, presenting sexual dysfunction, and treated with 250 mg Tribulus terrestris extract (1 tablet thrice daily for 90 days). Safety monitoring included vital signs, physical examination, laboratory tests, and occurrence of adverse events. Efficacy analysis included results of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels together with total and free testosterone, and the patient and physician assessments. There was a statistically significant improvement in total FSFI scores (P < 0.0001) post-treatment, with improvement among 106 (88.33%) subjects. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) increase in the level of DHEA, while the levels of both serum testosterone (P = 0.284) and free testosterone decreased (P < 0.0001). Most adverse events recorded were related to the gastrointestinal tract. Physical examination showed no significant changes post-treatment. Based on the results, it is concluded that the T. terrestris extract is safe and effective in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. PMID:25574150
Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola
Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences.
Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Carpenter, Colleen; Fiedler, Tina; Kalyoussef, Sabah; McAndrew, Thomas C.; Viswanathan, Shankar; Kim, Mimi; Keller, Marla J.; Fredricks, David N.; Herold, Betsy C.
Background Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15–18 years). Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs. Conclusions/Significance Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females. PMID:22808157
Pelé, Marie; Bonnefoy, Alexandre; Shimada, Masaki; Sueur, Cédric
Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal. This is the first article to report mating behaviour between a male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) and female sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Although Japanese macaques are known to ride deer, this individual showed clearly sexual behaviour towards several female deer, some of which tried to escape whilst others accepted the mount. This male seems to belong to a group of peripheral males. Although this phenomenon may be explained as copulation learning, this is highly unlikely. The most realistic hypothesis would be that of mate deprivation, which states that males with limited access to females are more likely to display this behaviour. Whatever the cause for this event may be, the observation of highly unusual animal behaviour may be a key to understanding the evolution of heterospecific mating behaviour in the animal kingdom.
Gama, Carlos Rb; Lasmar, Ricardo; Gama, Gustavo F; Abreu, Camila S; Nunes, Carlos P; Geller, Mauro; Oliveira, Lisa; Santos, Alessandra
This is a qualitative-quantitative study based on hospital records of female patients of reproductive age, presenting sexual dysfunction, and treated with 250 mg Tribulus terrestris extract (1 tablet thrice daily for 90 days). Safety monitoring included vital signs, physical examination, laboratory tests, and occurrence of adverse events. Efficacy analysis included results of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels together with total and free testosterone, and the patient and physician assessments. There was a statistically significant improvement in total FSFI scores (P < 0.0001) post-treatment, with improvement among 106 (88.33%) subjects. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) increase in the level of DHEA, while the levels of both serum testosterone (P = 0.284) and free testosterone decreased (P < 0.0001). Most adverse events recorded were related to the gastrointestinal tract. Physical examination showed no significant changes post-treatment. Based on the results, it is concluded that the T. terrestris extract is safe and effective in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction.
Mbonye, Martin; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Weiss, Helen; Seeley, Janet
Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of Kampala city. We conducted 3 in-depth interviews with 40 female sex workers between 2010 and 2011. Data were analysed thematically, focusing on alcohol use within the context of sex work. Alcohol consumption was very high with only seven women reporting that they did not drink. Alcohol consumption was driven by the emotional and economic needs of the participants, but also promoted by clients who encouraged consumption. Many sex workers only started drinking alcohol when they joined sex work on the advice of more experienced peers, as a way to cope with the job. Alcohol was blamed for unsafe sex, acts of violence and poor decision making which increased sexual and physical violence. Alcohol was reported to affect medication adherence for HIV-positive women who forgot to take medicine. The findings suggest that the drivers of alcohol consumption are multifaceted in this group and require both individual and structural interventions. Alcohol reduction counselling can be supportive at the individual level and should be an integral part of HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers and others such as patrons in bars. The counselling should be addressed in a sensitive manner to bar owners and managers.
Ingleby, Fiona C.; Flis, Ilona; Morrow, Edward H.
Sex-biased gene expression is likely to account for most sexually dimorphic traits because males and females share much of their genome. When fitness optima differ between sexes for a shared trait, sexual dimorphism can allow each sex to express their optimum trait phenotype, and in this way, the evolution of sex-biased gene expression is one mechanism that could help to resolve intralocus sexual conflict. Genome-wide patterns of sex-biased gene expression have been identified in a number of studies, which we review here. However, very little is known about how sex-biased gene expression relates to sex-specific fitness and about how sex-biased gene expression and conflict vary throughout development or across different genotypes, populations, and environments. We discuss the importance of these neglected areas of research and use data from a small-scale experiment on sex-specific expression of genes throughout development to highlight potentially interesting avenues for future research. PMID:25376837
This article argues that early Chinese physicians had already related female ailments to their sexual frustration. Moreover, many physicians paid more attention to non-reproductive women – nuns, widows, and unmarried women – as if they were more prone to suffer from unfulfilled desires and sexual frustration and, as a result, produce the sexual dreams and monstrous births that were described in the medical literature of medieval China as physical ailments. The earlier body-oriented etiology of these female illnesses gradually shifted to emotion-oriented perspectives in late imperial China. In particular, the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century doctors began to categorize women's sexual frustration as "yu disorders" or "love madness." In this article I will show not only the changing medical views of female sexual madness throughout the ages, but how these views were shaped by the societies in which both the doctors and patients were situated.
Young, Andrew J.; Bennett, Nigel C.
In cooperatively breeding mammals and birds, intra-sexual reproductive competition among females may often render variance in reproductive success higher among females than males, leading to the prediction that intra-sexual selection in such species may have yielded the differential exaggeration of competitive traits among females. However, evidence to date suggests that female-biased reproductive variance in such species is rarely accompanied by female-biased sexual dimorphisms. We illustrate the problem with data from wild Damaraland mole-rat, Fukomys damarensis, societies: the variance in lifetime reproductive success among females appears to be higher than that among males, yet males grow faster, are much heavier as adults and sport larger skulls and incisors (the weapons used for fighting) for their body lengths than females, suggesting that intra-sexual selection has nevertheless acted more strongly on the competitive traits of males. We then consider potentially general mechanisms that could explain these disparities by tempering the relative intensity of selection for competitive trait exaggeration among females in cooperative breeders. Key among these may be interactions with kin selection that could nevertheless render the variance in inclusive fitness lower among females than males, and fundamental aspects of the reproductive biology of females that may leave reproductive conflict among females more readily resolved without overt physical contests. PMID:24167305
McGlothlin, Joel W; Neudorf, Diane L H; Casto, Joseph M; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D
Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males.
Andersson, J; Borg-Karlson, A K; Wiklund, C
Sexual selection theory predicts that the different selection pressures on males and females result in sexual conflict. However, in some instances males and females share a common interest which could lead to sexual cooperation. In the pierid butterfly Pieris napi the male and the recently mated female share a common interest in reducing female harassment by other males soon after mating. Here we show that P. napi males transfer an anti-aphrodisiac to the female at mating, methyl-salicylate (MeS), which is a volatile substance which mated females emit when courted and which makes males quickly abandon them. A 13C-labelling experiment demonstrated that only males synthesize MeS. The effect of this antiaphrodisiac is so strong that most males will refrain from mating with virgin females to whom MeS has been artificially applied. In P. napi, males also transfer nutrients to females at mating. This increases female fecundity and longevity and so females benefit from remating. Hence, sexual cooperation gradually turns to conflict. Future research is required to reveal which sex controls the gradual decrease in the MeS titre which is necessary for allowing mated females to regain attractiveness and remate.
McGlothlin, Joel W.; Neudorf, Diane L. H.; Casto, Joseph M.; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D.
Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males. PMID:15306336
Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry
This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…
Hamann, Stephan; Stevens, Jennifer; Vick, Janice Hassett; Bryk, Kristina; Quigley, Charmian A; Berenbaum, Sheri A; Wallen, Kim
Androgens, estrogens, and sex chromosomes are the major influences guiding sex differences in brain development, yet their relative roles and importance remain unclear. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) offer a unique opportunity to address these issues. Although women with CAIS have a Y chromosome, testes, and produce male-typical levels of androgens, they lack functional androgen receptors preventing responding to their androgens. Thus, they develop a female physical phenotype, are reared as girls, and develop into women. Because sexually differentiated brain development in primates is determined primarily by androgens, but may be affected by sex chromosome complement, it is currently unknown whether brain structure and function in women with CAIS is more like that of women or men. In the first functional neuroimaging study of (46,XY) women with CAIS, typical (46,XX) women, and typical (46, XY) men, we found that men showed greater amygdala activation to sexual images than did either typical women or women with CAIS. Typical women and women with CAIS had highly similar patterns of brain activation, indicating that a Y chromosome is insufficient for male-typical human brain responses. Because women with CAIS produce male-typical or elevated levels of testosterone which is aromatized to estradiol these results rule out aromatization of testosterone to estradiol as a determinate of sex differences in patterns of brain activation to sexual images. We cannot, however, rule out an effect of social experience on the brain responses of women with CAIS as all were raised as girls.
Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario
The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors.
Rosenfeld, R G; Luzzatti, L; Hintz, R L; Miller, O J; Koo, G C; Wachtel, S S
A case of a 46,XYp- phenotypic female provided an opportunity to evaluate both sexual and somatic determinants for the Y chromosome. The patient had multiple stigmata of Turner syndrome, but normal stature. Laparotomy revealed a normal uterus and tubes, with 1.5 cm undifferentiated gonads. Serological tests for H-Y antigen (ostensibly the product of Y-chromosomal testis-determining genes) indicated absence of the H-Y+ phenotype normally associated with the intact Y chromosome. We conclude that genes exist on the short arm of the human Y chromosome which both suppress some of the somatic stigmata of Turner syndrome and determine normal expression of H-Y antigen and testicular differentiation of the primitive gonad. Our data are consistent with the view that H-Y genes comprise a family of testis-determinants, and that loss of a critical moiety is inconsistent with normal development of the male gonad. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:573550
Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M
Explaining the evolution and maintenance of polyandry remains a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. One appealing explanation is the sexually selected sperm (SSS) hypothesis, which proposes that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male fertilization efficiency, and hence with a male's success in postcopulatory competition for paternity. However, the SSS hypothesis relies on verbal analogy with “sexy-son” models explaining coevolution of female preferences for male displays, and explicit models that validate the basic SSS principle are surprisingly lacking. We developed analogous genetically explicit individual-based models describing the SSS and “sexy-son” processes. We show that the analogy between the two is only partly valid, such that the genetic correlation arising between polyandry and fertilization efficiency is generally smaller than that arising between preference and display, resulting in less reliable coevolution. Importantly, indirect selection was too weak to cause polyandry to evolve in the presence of negative direct selection. Negatively biased mutations on fertilization efficiency did not generally rescue runaway evolution of polyandry unless realized fertilization was highly skewed toward a single male, and coevolution was even weaker given random mating order effects on fertilization. Our models suggest that the SSS process is, on its own, unlikely to generally explain the evolution of polyandry. PMID:25330405
Simpson, Richard K; Johnson, Michele A; Murphy, Troy G
The mechanisms underlying evolutionary changes in sexual dimorphism have long been of interest to biologists. A striking gradient in sexual dichromatism exists among songbirds in North America, including the wood-warblers (Parulidae): males are generally more colourful than females at northern latitudes, while the sexes are similarly ornamented at lower latitudes. We use phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis to test three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the evolution of sexual dichromatism among wood-warblers. The first two hypotheses focus on the loss of female coloration with the evolution of migration, either owing to the costs imposed by visual predators during migration, or owing to the relaxation of selection for female social signalling at higher latitudes. The third hypothesis focuses on whether sexual dichromatism evolved owing to changes in male ornamentation as the strength of sexual selection increases with breeding latitude. To test these hypotheses, we compared sexual dichromatism to three variables: the presence of migration, migration distance, and breeding latitude. We found that the presence of migration and migration distance were both positively correlated with sexual dichromatism, but models including breeding latitude alone were not strongly supported. Ancestral state reconstruction supports the hypothesis that the ancestral wood-warblers were monochromatic, with both colourful males and females. Combined, these results are consistent with the hypotheses that the evolution of migration is associated with the relaxation of selection for social signalling among females and that there are increased predatory costs along longer migratory routes for colourful females. These results suggest that loss of female ornamentation can be a driver of sexual dichromatism and that social or natural selection may be a stronger contributor to variation in dichromatism than sexual selection.
Simpson, Richard K.; Johnson, Michele A.; Murphy, Troy G.
The mechanisms underlying evolutionary changes in sexual dimorphism have long been of interest to biologists. A striking gradient in sexual dichromatism exists among songbirds in North America, including the wood-warblers (Parulidae): males are generally more colourful than females at northern latitudes, while the sexes are similarly ornamented at lower latitudes. We use phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis to test three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the evolution of sexual dichromatism among wood-warblers. The first two hypotheses focus on the loss of female coloration with the evolution of migration, either owing to the costs imposed by visual predators during migration, or owing to the relaxation of selection for female social signalling at higher latitudes. The third hypothesis focuses on whether sexual dichromatism evolved owing to changes in male ornamentation as the strength of sexual selection increases with breeding latitude. To test these hypotheses, we compared sexual dichromatism to three variables: the presence of migration, migration distance, and breeding latitude. We found that the presence of migration and migration distance were both positively correlated with sexual dichromatism, but models including breeding latitude alone were not strongly supported. Ancestral state reconstruction supports the hypothesis that the ancestral wood-warblers were monochromatic, with both colourful males and females. Combined, these results are consistent with the hypotheses that the evolution of migration is associated with the relaxation of selection for social signalling among females and that there are increased predatory costs along longer migratory routes for colourful females. These results suggest that loss of female ornamentation can be a driver of sexual dichromatism and that social or natural selection may be a stronger contributor to variation in dichromatism than sexual selection. PMID:26019159
Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom
Reviews of the pertinent literature reveal a lack of consensus as to whether there is an association between sexual abuse history and eating disorders. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between sexual abuse and a bulimic behavior (purging) in a large sample of female adolescents was undertaken. Answers taken from a sample of 8,680…
Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve
Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…
Pflugradt, Dawn M.; Allen, Bradley P.
This study examined the association between female sexual offending behavioral patterns, as delineated by Sandler and Freeman's (2007) typologies, and executive functioning. The sample included all referrals for sexual offender assessments within a women's maximum/medium security prison between January 2009 and October 2009. Each subject was…
Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David
The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…
Gerald, Melissa S.; Ayala, James; Ruíz-Lambides, Angelina; Waitt, Corri; Weiss, Alexander
Several primate species show sexual dichromatism with males displaying conspicuous coloration of the pelage or skin. Studies of scrotal coloration in male vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus aethiops) suggest that it is an important intrasexual signal, with relatively dark, colourful males dominating paler males. To date, no studies have examined the influence of male colour on intersexual social interactions in vervet monkeys. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate whether female vervet monkeys attend to male coloration. We experimentally introduced females, housed with either “pale” or “dark” males, to stimulus males whose scrota were pale, dark, or pale but painted to look dark. Overall, during introductions, females did not differ in time spent directing affiliative behaviour toward pale, dark, and painted males; however, females, permanently housed with dark males, spent significantly more time directing affiliative behaviour toward pale than painted males. When the stimulus male was pale, affiliative exchanges between males and females were longer than when the stimulus male was painted. Home male colour was not related to female-initiated aggression. Home male colour was also not related to male-initiated aggression, although painted stimulus males were more likely to initiate aggression than pale stimulus males. These findings lead us to conclude that females pay attention to male coloration, but do not bias their interactions toward males solely on the basis of natural male coloration.
Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming
Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.
Heravian, Anisa; Solomon, Raja; Krishnan, Gopal; Vasudevan, CK; Krishnan, AK; Osmand, Thomas; Ekstrand, Maria L.
Background HIV transmission in India is primarily heterosexual and there is a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs). Earlier reports demonstrate that many FSWs consume alcohol regularly before sexual encounters. This qualitative study is part of a larger quantitative study designed to assess alcohol consumption patterns among female sex workers and their association with sexual risk taking. Here we investigate the environmental influence, reasons for and consequences of consuming alcohol in the FSW population. Methods Trained staff from two Non-Governmental Organizations in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala conducted semi-structured interviews with 63 FSWs in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh (n=35) and Calicut, Kerala (n=28) following extensive formative research, including social mapping and key informant interviews, to assess drinking patterns and sexual risk behaviors. Results FSWs reported consuming alcohol in multiple contexts: sexual, social, mental health and self-medication. Alcohol consumption during sexual encounters with clients was usually forced, but some women drank voluntarily. Social drinking took place in public locations such as bars and in private locations including deserted buildings, roads and inside autorickshaws (motorcycle taxis). Consequences of alcohol consumption included failure to use condoms and to collect payments from clients, violence, legal problems, gastrointestinal side effects, economic loss and interference with family responsibilities. Conclusion FSWs consume alcohol in multilevel contexts. Alcohol consumption during transactional sex is often forced and can lead to failure to use condoms. Social drinkers consume alcohol with other trusted FSWs for entertainment and to help cope with psychosocial stressors. There are multiple reasons for and consequences of alcohol consumption in this population and future interventions should target each specific aspect of alcohol use. PMID:22608567
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; French, Jessica
Sexual subjectivity refers to multiple aspects of sexual self-perceptions, including sexual body-esteem, perceptions of efficacy and entitlement to sexual desire and pleasure, and sexual self-reflection (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2006). Previous research on sexual subjectivity has shown that it is elevated in young women who report better global well-being and have more sexual experience. However, research has not focused on young men. Thus, two studies were conducted to develop a new measure to assess young men's sexual subjectivity (Study 1, N = 304 men) and to examine associations of sexual subjectivity with general and sexual well-being among young men and women (Study 2, N = 208 men and 214 women). In Study 1, five elements of men's sexual subjectivity were found, which paralleled the elements found in previous research with young women. In Study 2, sexual subjectivity, especially two elements of sexual body-esteem and self-efficacy in achieving pleasure, was significantly associated with enhanced global and sexual well-being in both men and women. Gender did not moderate these associations, supporting sexual subjectivity as an aspect of sexual health in all young adults. As anticipated, men reported greater entitlement to self-pleasure and self-efficacy in achieving pleasure, but women reported greater entitlement to pleasure with partners. Women's feelings of less efficacy but more entitlement to pleasure with partners suggest that feelings of entitlement may not be consistent with their experiences. Future research with young men and women will be important for understanding sexual health and development during late adolescence and early adulthood.
Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J
The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli.
pez, S. L
Is resistance to parasites related to the expression of male secondary sex characters? Handicap models predict a positive relationship, proposing that males displaying extravagant sex characters may be honestly signalling their resistance to females. However, no current evidence addresses whether individual changes in immunity (acquired resistance) are reflected in sexual traits. In this experiment I use guppies to compare male orange colour, sigmoid display and female preferences for individual males, before and after a primary challenge infection of males. Challenge infections were terminated chemically and fish were given ten days' recovery time before proceeding with the second measurements. The degree of acquired resistance was quantified a posteriori, by exposing males to a secondary infection. Sigmoid display rates and female preference for males differed for males of different resistance groups after challenge infection only. This difference was due to resistant males displaying more than non-resistant ones. No differences were detected in male orange colour, but this may be because colour needs a longer time than ten days to be recovered and adjusted. The results show that the level of acquired resistance affects sexual display and attractiveness in guppies. They suggest that once an effective immunity is built up by a male, he can afford to incur higher costs for sexual characteristics, whereas a male that lacks the ability to build up effective resistance cannot. These costs probably consist of higher energy expenditure and/or higher circulating levels of testosterone, which may be needed to increase display. Priming and effective establishment of an individual's resistance to parasitic infection could eventually result in a higher availability of resources for sexual functions.
van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth
This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.
This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse.
Background A female preference for intense sexual visual signals is widespread in animals. Although the preferences for a signal per se and for the intensity of the signal were often regarded to have the identical origin, no study has demonstrated if this is true. It was suggested that the female fiddler crabs prefer males with courtship structures because of direct benefit to escape predation. Here we tested if female preference for both components (i.e. presence and size) of the courtship structure in Uca lactea is from the sensory bias to escape predation. If both components have the identical origin, females should show the same response to different-sized courtship structures regardless of predation risk. Results First, we observed responses of mate-searching female U. lactea to courting males with full-sized, half-sized and no semidomes which were experimentally manipulated. Females had a directional preference for males with bigger semidomes within normal variation. Thereafter, we tested the effect of predation risk on the female bias in the non-courtship context. When threatened by an avian mock predator, females preferentially approached burrows with full-sized semidomes regardless of reproductive cycles (i.e. reproductive periods and non-reproductive periods). When the predator cue was absent, however, females preferred burrows with semidomes without discriminating structure size during reproductive periods but did not show any bias during non-reproductive periods. Conclusions Results indicate that selection for the size of courtship structures in U. lactea may have an origin in the function to reduce predation risk, but that the preference for males with structures may have evolved by female choice, independent of predation pressure. PMID:22413838
The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women
Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman
Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…
Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not
Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K
The androgenic glands (AG) of crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characters. The process of gonadal differentiation in females was studied morphologically in Armadillidium vulgare given a masculinizing AG implant. Gonadal masculinization was induced by implantation of an AG into females at various stages of postembryonic development. Functional sex reversal always occurred when an AG was implanted into females that were in stages 5 and 6 of development. Partial formation of testes was induced after implantation of an AG into stage 7 and 8 females. When an AG was implanted into a stage 9 female, development of a functional testis was not observed, but the ovaries were partially masculinized. These results show that after the onset of sex differentiation female gonads retain sexual bipotentiality through several stages of postembryonic development. Implantation of one AG into a female is enough to induce gonadal masculinization and sex reversal in this species. The AG implant up to stage 6 (3.4 mm in body length) is an experimental procedure certain to transform a genetic female into a functional male. The process of gonadal development in female A. vulgare is discussed.
Forsberg, G; Bednar, I; Eneroth, P; Södersten, P
Sexual receptivity was inhibited in ovariectomized rats treated with oestradiol benzoate (OB: two injections of 2 micrograms) and progesterone (0.5 mg) immediately after ejaculation by the male and restored after the end of the post-ejaculatory refractory period in the male. The post-ejaculatory inhibition of sexual receptivity was reversed by i.p. (5 mg), intracerebroventricular (50 micrograms) or intrathecal (50 micrograms) injection of the opioid peptide receptor antagonist naloxone. The concentration of serum beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in ovariectomized rats treated with OB plus progesterone was unaltered by sexual interactions with males (18.3 +/- 6.0 (S.E.M.), 26.4 +/- 2.1 and 21.8 +/- 6.1 pmol/l before sexual activity, after ejaculation and after the end of the post-ejaculatory interval) but reduced to non-detectable by hypophysectomy. Subcutaneous injection of 10 micrograms beta-endorphin raised serum concentrations of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity but did not affect the display of sexual behaviour. The behaviour was also unaffected by intracerebroventricular injection of 0.1, 0.2 or 1.0 microgram beta-endorphin or by injections of 0.25 microgram beta-endorphin in the periaqueductal central grey of the mesencephalon. The results show that ejaculation by male rats causes a transient inhibition of sexual receptivity in the female which may be dependent upon opioid peptide receptor mechanisms in the brain and spinal cord. It is unlikely that the peptide is beta-endorphin.
Wormington, Jillian D.; Juliano, Steven A.
Background Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). Goal To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Organisms Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Results Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD. PMID:25663826