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Sample records for female silver eels

  1. Swimming suppresses hepatic vitellogenesis in European female silver eels as shown by expression of the estrogen receptor 1, vitellogenin1 and vitellogenin2 in the liver

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background When European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla) venture into the Atlantic Ocean for their 6,000 km semelparous spawning run to the Sargasso Sea, they are still in a prepubertal stage. Further sexual development appears to be blocked by dopaminergic inhibition of hypothalamus and pituitary activity. Recently, we found that swimming for several weeks in freshwater stimulated the incorporation of fat droplets in the oocytes. So, it was hypothesized that long term swimming in seawater would release the inhibition further and would also stimulate the production of vitellogenin by the liver. Methods For this study a swim-flume was constructed to allow simulated migration of migratory female silver eels for 3 months (1,420 km) in natural seawater at 20 degrees C. Primers were designed for polymerase chain reactions to measure the mRNA expression of estrogen receptor 1 (esr1), vitellogenin1 (vtg1) and vitellogenin2 (vtg2) genes in the liver of European female silver eels. Results In comparison to resting eels, swimming eels showed a diminished expression of esr1, vtg1 and vtg2 in the liver. They also had lower plasma calcium (Ca; indicative of vitellogenin) levels in their blood. This showed that vitellogenesis is more strongly suppressed in swimming than in resting eels. However, when eels were subsequently stimulated by 3 weekly carp pituitary extract injections, the expression of the same genes and plasma levels of Ca strongly increased in both groups to similar levels, thus equalizing the initial differences between resting and swimming. Conclusions It is concluded that vitellogenesis remains suppressed during resting and even more during swimming. The fact that swimming stimulates fat deposition in the oocytes but suppresses vitellogenesis indicates that these events are separated in nature and occur sequentially. Swimming-suppressed vitellogenesis may imply that in nature eels undergo vitellogenesis and final maturation near or at the spawning grounds. PMID

  2. Cost of transport and optimal swimming speed in farmed and wild European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan; van Ginneken, Vincent; van den Thillart, Guido

    2008-09-01

    A swimming speed of 0.4 meters per second (m s(-1)) is the minimal speed for European female silver eels to reach the spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea in time. As silver eels cease feeding when they start their oceanic migration, the cost of transport (COT) should be minimised and the swimming speed optimised to attain the highest energetic efficiency. In this study, we have investigated the optimal swimming speed (U(opt)) of silver eels since U(opt) may be higher than the minimal swimming speed and is more likely to resemble the actual cruise speed. A variety of swimming tests were performed to compare endurance swimming between farmed eels and wild eels, both in freshwater and in seawater. The swimming tests were run with 101 silver female eels (60-96 cm, 400-1500 g) in 22 Blazka-type swim tunnels in a climatised room at 18 degrees C with running freshwater or seawater. Tests were run at 0.5-1.0 m s(-1) with increments of 0.1 m s(-1), and either 2 h or 12 h intervals. Remarkably, both tests revealed no changes in oxygen consumption (M O2) and COT over time. U(opt) values ranged between 0.61 and 0.68 m s(-1) (0.74-1.02 BL s(-1)) for the different groups and were thus 53-70% higher than the minimal speed. At U(opt), the COT was 37-50 mg O2 kg(-1) km(-1). These relatively very low values confirm our earlier observations. COT values in seawater were about 20% higher than in freshwater. Assuming that migrating female silver eels cruise at their U(opt), they will be able to cover the distance to the Sargasso Sea in 3-4 months, leaving ample time for final maturation and finding mates.

  3. Simulating the Oceanic Migration of Silver Japanese Eels

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    The oceanic migration of silver Japanese eels starts from their continental growth habitats in East Asia and ends at the spawning area near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain. However, the actual migration routes remain unknown. In this study, we examined the possible oceanic migration routes and strategies of silver Japanese eels using a particle tracking method in which virtual eels (v-eels) were programmed to move vertically and horizontally in an ocean circulation model (Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2, JCOPE2). Four horizontal swimming strategies were tested: random heading, true navigation (readjusted heading), orientation toward the spawning area (fixed heading), and swimming against the Kuroshio. We found that all strategies, except random swimming, allowed v-eels swimming at 0.65 m s−1 to reach the spawning area within eight months after their departure from the south coast of Japan (end of the spawning season). The estimated minimum swimming speed required to reach the area spawning within eight months was 0.1 m s−1 for true navigation, 0.12 m s−1 for constant compass heading, and 0.35 m s−1 for swimming against the Kuroshio. The lowest swimming speed estimated from tracked Japanese eels at sea was 0.03 m.s−1, which would not allow them to reach the spawning area within eight months, through any of the tested orientation strategies. Our numerical experiments also showed that ocean circulation significantly affected the migration of Japanese v-eels. A strong Kuroshio could advect v-eels further eastward. In addition, western Pacific ocean currents accelerated the migration of navigating v-eels. The migration duration was shortened in years with a stronger southward flow, contributed by a stronger recirculation south of Japan, an enhanced subtropical gyre, or a higher southward Kuroshio velocity. PMID:26982484

  4. Simulating the Oceanic Migration of Silver Japanese Eels.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    The oceanic migration of silver Japanese eels starts from their continental growth habitats in East Asia and ends at the spawning area near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain. However, the actual migration routes remain unknown. In this study, we examined the possible oceanic migration routes and strategies of silver Japanese eels using a particle tracking method in which virtual eels (v-eels) were programmed to move vertically and horizontally in an ocean circulation model (Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2, JCOPE2). Four horizontal swimming strategies were tested: random heading, true navigation (readjusted heading), orientation toward the spawning area (fixed heading), and swimming against the Kuroshio. We found that all strategies, except random swimming, allowed v-eels swimming at 0.65 m s-1 to reach the spawning area within eight months after their departure from the south coast of Japan (end of the spawning season). The estimated minimum swimming speed required to reach the area spawning within eight months was 0.1 m s-1 for true navigation, 0.12 m s-1 for constant compass heading, and 0.35 m s-1 for swimming against the Kuroshio. The lowest swimming speed estimated from tracked Japanese eels at sea was 0.03 m.s-1, which would not allow them to reach the spawning area within eight months, through any of the tested orientation strategies. Our numerical experiments also showed that ocean circulation significantly affected the migration of Japanese v-eels. A strong Kuroshio could advect v-eels further eastward. In addition, western Pacific ocean currents accelerated the migration of navigating v-eels. The migration duration was shortened in years with a stronger southward flow, contributed by a stronger recirculation south of Japan, an enhanced subtropical gyre, or a higher southward Kuroshio velocity.

  5. Influence of introduced vs. native parasites on the body condition of migrant silver eels

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Claudia; Trancart, Thomas; Amilhat, Elsa; Faliex, Elisabeth; Virag, Laure; Feunteun, Eric; Acou, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Because parasitism is among the reasons invoked to explain the collapse of Anguilla anguilla, we evaluated the parasitic constraint on body condition (BC) of migrant silver eels as a proxy of fitness with inter-site comparisons. Metazoan parasites were studied in 149 silver eels from five sites (northern Europe). In total, 89% were infected by 13 species including Myxozoa, Monogenea, Cestoda, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Anguillicoloides crassus was most common (56%), then Acanthocephalus clavula (30%), and Pseudodactylogyrus sp. (17%). BC, calculated for 58 females, was negatively correlated by abundance of the introduced Pseudodactylogyrus sp. but not by other parasite taxa. Nevertheless, the introduced A. crassus was considered as a severe pathogen based on previous data, whereas the native A. clavula was supposed to have limited impact. Parasite component communities and BC were different between sites. Silver eels from Stockholm Archipelago (Sweden) were the least parasitized (40% vs. 90–95% for other sites) with no parasites on the gills. Burrishoole (Ireland) differed by the absence of A. crassus and high prevalence of A. clavula (84%) but without consequences on BC. Gudenaa (Denmark), Corrib (Ireland), and Frémur (France) were close due to high prevalence of A. crassus (89–93%). Gudenaa and Corrib were the most similar because Pseudodactylogyrus sp. was also highly prevalent (respectively 71% and 60%) whereas absent in Frémur. Our results suggest that the fitness loss induced by the introduced parasites could affect the spawning success of migrant silver eels from Gudenaa and Corrib, and to a lesser extent from Frémur, but probably not those from Stockholm Archipelago and Burrishoole. PMID:24135272

  6. Migration behaviour of silver eels (Anguilla anguilla) in a large estuary of Western Europe inferred from acoustic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultel, Elise; Lasne, Emilien; Acou, Anthony; Guillaudeau, Julien; Bertier, Christine; Feunteun, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Despite intensive research on eels, the behaviour of silver eels in estuaries during their migration remains poorly documented which creates serious gaps in planning the restoration of the European eel population. Estuaries are complex environments that can be exposed to large human pressures which could impede, delay migration or impact fish reproductive potential. This study investigated the estuarine migration of female silver eels in the Loire River using an acoustic telemetry system. An array of 31 hydrophones was deployed in the Loire estuary and 51 female seaward migrants were tagged with acoustic transmitters and released 20 km upstream of the estuary, at 100 km from the river mouth. 94% of the silver eels could be followed down to the river mouth. Mean global estuarine speed was 4.5 km days-1, i.e., 0.05 m s-1 and residence times varied significantly between upstream and lower compartments. Mean directional migration speed was found to be 48.6 km days-1, i.e., 0.56 m s-1, and appeared correlated with total length and body weight. Also, daily escapement rate was highly influenced by river flow.

  7. Silvering and swimming effects on aerobic metabolism and reactive oxygen species in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Amérand, Aline; Mortelette, Hélène; Belhomme, Marc; Moisan, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Silvering, the last metamorphosis in the eel life cycle induces morphological and physiological modifications in yellow eels (sedentary stage). It pre-adapts them to cope with the extreme conditions they will encounter during their 6000-km spawning migration. A previous study showed that silver eels are able to cope with reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-production linked to an increase in aerobic metabolism during sustained swimming, but the question remains as to whether this mechanism is associated with silvering. A sustained swimming session decreased red muscle in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption (MO2) but increased ROS production in both eel stages. The swimming exercise used here was perhaps too intense to induce a stimulation of mitochondrial function or biogenesis even when antioxidant enzyme activities were unchanged. Pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalance by lipid peroxidation increased in yellow but significantly decreased in silver eels. The silvering process therefore appears to allow a pre-adaptation of red muscle radical metabolism to the demands of spawning migration.

  8. The silvering process of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) influences PAH metabolite concentrations in bile fluid: consequences for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Florian; Wagner, Carola; Hanel, Reinhold; Kammann, Ulrike

    2012-03-01

    The stock of the catadromous European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) continues to decline and there is growing evidence that poor health status due to contaminants might be a key element in this decrease. Organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to the major threats to yellow eel in their growth habitat and their metabolites are detectable in the bile. Starting the silvering process eels undergo physiological and morphological changes including cessation of feeding and downstream migration back to their spawning grounds. Reduced feed intake results in a diminishment of bile production and induces accumulation of e.g. PAH-metabolites in bile. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the impact of silvering on biliary PAH metabolite concentrations and to utilize normalization procedures to overcome silvering related accumulation effects of PAH-metabolites in eel bile. We investigated the hydroxyl-metabolites of pyrene (1-OH Pyr) and phenantrene (1-OH Phen) in the bile of different maturation stages of eels (silvering index I-V) from nine German rivers. We detected increasing absolute PAH metabolite levels in bile during the silvering process. The highest rise could be observed at the transition from pre migration stage III to the migrating stage IV, suggesting the onset of cessation of feeding at this stage. A cessation bias in PAH metabolite measurement could be diminished by normalization of absolute values against bile pigments (A(380), biliverdin). In conclusion, we demonstrated the impact of silvering on PAH metabolite concentrations in eel bile and present suitable normalization procedures to overcome silvering related accumulation effects. Thus, for a future eel monitoring we recommend (1) to regularly monitor PAH metabolites in bile, (2) to determine silvering index of eel and (3) to normalize PAH metabolite values in bile based on maturation/silvering stages. The knowledge of the silvering stage is mandatory

  9. Freshwater and coastal migration patterns in the silver-stage eel Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Barry, J; Newton, M; Dodd, J A; Lucas, M C; Boylan, P; Adams, C E

    2016-02-01

    The unimpeded downstream movement patterns and migration success of small female and male Anguilla anguilla through a catchment in north-west Europe were studied using an acoustic hydrophone array along the River Finn and into the Foyle Estuary in Ireland. Twenty silver-stage A. anguilla (total length, LT , range: 332-520 mm) were trapped 152 km upstream from a coastal marine sea-lough outlet and internally tagged with acoustic transmitters of which 19 initiated downstream migration. Migration speed was highly influenced by river flow within the freshwater (FW) compartment. Anguilla anguilla activity patterns were correlated with environmental influences; light, tidal direction and lunar phase all influenced the initiation of migration of tagged individuals. Migration speed varied significantly between upstream and lower river compartments. Individuals migrated at a slower speed in transitional water and sea-lough compartments compared with the FW compartment. While 88·5% survival was recorded during migration through the upper 121 km of the river and estuary, only 26% of A. anguilla which initiated downstream migration were detected at the outermost end of the acoustic array. Telemetry equipment functioned efficiently, including in the sea-lough, so this suggests high levels of mortality during sea-lough migration, or less likely, long-term sea-lough residence by silver A. anguilla emigrants. This has important implications for eel management plans.

  10. Anguillicola crassus infection affects mRNA expression levels in gas gland tissue of European yellow and silver eel

    PubMed Central

    Schneebauer, Gabriel; Dirks, Ron P.

    2017-01-01

    Using Illumina sequencing, we investigated transcriptional changes caused by the nematode Anguillicola crassus within yellow and silver eels by comparing swimbladder samples of uninfected yellow with infected yellow eels, and uninfected silver with infected silver eels, respectively. In yellow eel gas gland, the infection caused a modification of steady state mRNA levels of 1675 genes, most of them being upregulated. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms was used to categorize identified genes with regard to swimbladder metabolism or response to the infection. In yellow eels, the most prominent category was ‘immune response’, including various inflammatory components, complement proteins, and immunoglobulins. The elevated expression of several glucose and monocarboxylate transporters indicated an attempt to maintain the level of glucose metabolism, even in due to the infection thickened swimbladder tissue. In silver eel swimbladder tissue, on the contrary, the mRNA levels of only 291 genes were affected. Genes in the categories ‘glucose metabolism’ and ‘ROS metabolism’ barely responded to the infection and even the reaction of the immune system was much less pronounced compared to infected yellow eels. However, in the category ‘extracellular matrix’, the mRNA levels of several mucin genes were strongly elevated, suggesting increased mucus production as a defense reaction against the parasite. The present study revealed a strong reaction to an Anguillicola crassus infection on mRNA expression levels in swimbladder tissue of yellow eels, whereas in silver eels the changes ware almost negligible. A possible explanation for this difference is that the silvering process requires so much energy that there is not much scope to cope with the additional challenge of a nematode infection. Another possible explanation could be that gas-secreting activity of the silver eel swimbladder was largely reduced, which could coincide with a reduced

  11. Anguillicola crassus infection affects mRNA expression levels in gas gland tissue of European yellow and silver eel.

    PubMed

    Schneebauer, Gabriel; Dirks, Ron P; Pelster, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Using Illumina sequencing, we investigated transcriptional changes caused by the nematode Anguillicola crassus within yellow and silver eels by comparing swimbladder samples of uninfected yellow with infected yellow eels, and uninfected silver with infected silver eels, respectively. In yellow eel gas gland, the infection caused a modification of steady state mRNA levels of 1675 genes, most of them being upregulated. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms was used to categorize identified genes with regard to swimbladder metabolism or response to the infection. In yellow eels, the most prominent category was 'immune response', including various inflammatory components, complement proteins, and immunoglobulins. The elevated expression of several glucose and monocarboxylate transporters indicated an attempt to maintain the level of glucose metabolism, even in due to the infection thickened swimbladder tissue. In silver eel swimbladder tissue, on the contrary, the mRNA levels of only 291 genes were affected. Genes in the categories 'glucose metabolism' and 'ROS metabolism' barely responded to the infection and even the reaction of the immune system was much less pronounced compared to infected yellow eels. However, in the category 'extracellular matrix', the mRNA levels of several mucin genes were strongly elevated, suggesting increased mucus production as a defense reaction against the parasite. The present study revealed a strong reaction to an Anguillicola crassus infection on mRNA expression levels in swimbladder tissue of yellow eels, whereas in silver eels the changes ware almost negligible. A possible explanation for this difference is that the silvering process requires so much energy that there is not much scope to cope with the additional challenge of a nematode infection. Another possible explanation could be that gas-secreting activity of the silver eel swimbladder was largely reduced, which could coincide with a reduced responsiveness to other

  12. An evaluation of silver-stage American Eel conspecific chemical cueing during outmigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Galbraith, Heather S.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    American Eel Anguilla rostrata abundance has declined in recent decades, in part because sexually maturing, silver-stage adults, outmigrating from freshwater to oceanic spawning grounds, encounter migratory blockades or perish when passing through active hydroelectric turbines. To help improve downstream passage effectiveness and increase survival rates, the role of silver-stage American Eel conspecific chemical cueing during outmigration was investigated using a new type of bioassay. Inside a laboratory flume, downstream-swimming eels were exposed to both live (putative attractant) and dead (putative repellent) conspecific washings to determine whether their trajectory of downstream movement, level of activity, or time spent inside targeted areas of the arena changed after exposure. Silver eels were not attracted to or repulsed by either odor, as none of five scoring metrics indicated a behavioral response. Results did not support the hypothesis that conspecific chemical cueing is a mechanism for downstream migration coordination or danger avoidance; however responses may not have been readily apparent in this type of assay. Fisheries managers may opt to focus future research on more feasible restoration efforts using alternate experimental designs to remedy this ecological issue.

  13. Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2010-09-01

    The European eel migrates 5,000-6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10-12 mg fat/km which is 4-6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61-0.67 m s(-1), which is approximately 60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s(-1) and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols.

  14. Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    van den Thillart, Guido E. E. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The European eel migrates 5,000–6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10–12 mg fat/km which is 4–6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61–0.67 m s−1, which is ~60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s−1 and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols. PMID:20390348

  15. Profiles of mRNA expression for prolactin, growth hormone, and somatolactin in Japanese eels, Anguilla japonica: The effect of salinity, silvering and seasonal change.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Ryusuke; Suetake, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Aoyama, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    For understanding the functions of the growth hormone (GH)/prolactin (PRL)/somatolactin (SL) family of hormones, we examined pituitary mRNA expression of these hormones in anguillid eels in relation to salinity difference, silvering, and seasonal change. Female Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica) were collected in the brackish Hamana Lake and its freshwater rivers from July to December. To clarify the effect of salinity, the habitat use history of the eels were determined using otolith microchemistry. Expression levels of mRNA of each hormone were determined using real time PCR. Although GH and PRL have been known to be osmoregulatory hormones, there were no consistent differences in expression levels of these hormones between different salinity habitats. In contrast, SL mRNA expression was higher in eels from freshwater rivers than from the brackish lake. GH mRNA expression clearly decreased during silvering, whereas PRL and SL mRNA expression did not change. We also showed that PRL mRNA and SL mRNA decreased in the brackish lake and PRL mRNA increased in freshwater rivers from autumn to early winter. These findings provide basic knowledge for a further understanding of the role of these hormones.

  16. Timing and pattern of annual silver eel migration in two European watersheds are determined by similar cues.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, Odd Terje; Diserud, Ola H; Poole, Russell; Bergesen, Knut; Dillane, Mary; Rogan, Gerard; Durif, Caroline; Thorstad, Eva B; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2017-08-01

    Many animals perform long-distance migrations in order to maximize lifetime reproductive success. The European eel migrates several thousand kilometers between their feeding habitats in continental waters (fresh-, brackish, and sea water) and their spawning area in the Sargasso Sea. Eels residing in freshwaters usually initiate their spawning migration as silver eels during autumn, triggered by diverse environmental cues. We analyzed the time series of silver eel downstream migration in Burrishoole, Ireland (1971-2015), and Imsa, Norway (1975-2015), to examine factors regulating the silver eel migration from freshwater to the sea. The migration season (90% of the run) generally lasted from 1 August to 30 November. Environmental factors acting in the months before migration impacted timing and duration of migration, likely through influencing the internal processes preparing the fish for migration. Once the migration had started, environmental factors impacted the day-to-day variation in number of migrants, apparently stimulating migration among those eels ready for migration. Both the day-to-day variation in the number of migrants and the onset of migration were described by nearly identical models in the two rivers. Variables explaining day-to-day variation were all associated with conditions that may minimize predation risk; number of migrants was reduced under a strong moon and short nights and increased during high and increasing water levels. Presence of other migrants stimulated migration, which further indicates that silver eel migration has evolved to minimize predation risk. The onset of migration was explained mainly by water levels in August. The models for duration of the migration season were less similar between the sites. Thus, the overall migration season seems governed by the need to reach the spawning areas in a synchronized manner, while during the actual seaward migration, antipredator behavior seems of overriding importance.

  17. Accumulation of neurotoxic organochlorines and trace elements in brain of female European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Bonnineau, C; Scaion, D; Lemaire, B; Belpaire, C; Thomé, J-P; Thonon, M; Leermaker, M; Gao, Y; Debier, C; Silvestre, F; Kestemont, P; Rees, J-F

    2016-07-01

    Xenobiotics such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) and metals have been suggested to play a significant role in the collapse of European eel stocks in the last decades. Several of these pollutants could affect functioning of the nervous system. Still, no information is so far available on levels of potentially neurotoxic pollutants in eel brain. In present study, carried out on female eels caught in Belgian rivers and canals, we analyzed brain levels of potentially-neurotoxic trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, MeHg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Zn) and OCs (Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs; Hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs; Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites, DDTs). Data were compared to levels in liver and muscle tissues. Eel brain contained very high amounts of OCs, superior to those found in the two other tissues. Interestingly, the relative abundance of PCB congeners markedly differed between tissues. In brain, a predominance of low chlorinated PCBs was noted, whereas highly chlorinated congeners prevailed in muscle and liver. HCHs were particularly abundant in brain, which contains the highest amounts of β-HCH and ϒ-HCH. p,p'-DDTs concentration was similar between brain and muscle (i.e., about twice that of liver). A higher proportion of p,p'-DDT was noticed in brain. Except for Cr and inorganic Hg, all potentially neurotoxic metals accumulated in brain to levels equal to or lower than hepatic levels. Altogether, results indicate that eel brain is an important target for organic and, to a lesser extent, for inorganic neurotoxic pollutants.

  18. Anguillicola crassus impairs the silvering-related enhancements of the ROS defense capacity in swimbladder tissue of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Schneebauer, Gabriel; Hanel, Reinhold; Pelster, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    In a process called silvering, European eels prepare for their long-distance migration from European freshwater systems to the Sargasso Sea for reproduction. During this journey, eels perform extended diel vertical migrations, and the concomitant changes in hydrostatic pressure significantly affect the swimbladder, functioning as a buoyancy organ. As the swimbladder is primarily filled with oxygen, the tissue has to cope with extreme hyperoxic conditions, which typically are accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. In addition, since the introduction of the parasitic nematode Anguillicola crassus in the early 1980s, swimbladder function of most of the European eels is impaired by the infection with this parasite. However, the exact pathways to detoxify ROS and how these pathways are affected by silvering or the infection are still unknown. In swimbladder and muscle tissue from uninfected and infected yellow, and from uninfected and infected silver eels, we measured the level of lipid peroxidation, which increases with ROS stress. To assess the capacity of the ROS defense systems, we analyzed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), and determined the concentration of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH + GSSG). In swimbladder tissue, we found increased concentrations of GSH + GSSG as well as higher activities of SOD, GPx and GR, suggesting that SOD and the glutathione cycle are important for ROS detoxification. Comparing swimbladder tissue of uninfected yellow with uninfected silver eels, the concentration of GSH + GSSG and the activity of SOD were higher after silvering, corresponding with lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Whereas in yellow eels the infection with A. crassus had no effect, in silver eels the capacity to cope with ROS was significantly impaired. In muscle tissue, silvering or the infection only affected the activity of SOD

  19. Effects of dietary lipids on tissue fatty acids profile, growth and reproductive performance of female rice field eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiu-Bai; Wu, Hua-Dong; Zhu, Chang-Sheng; Yan, Xing-Hong

    2011-09-01

    The effects of different lipids on tissue fatty acid profile and reproductive performance in female rice field eel were investigated in this study. Virgin female eels were fed with six diets containing different lipids (diets FO, LO, SO, PO and PL with fish oil, linseed oil, soybean oil, peanut oil and pork lard, respectively; diet APO with arachidonic acid and peanut oil). The results showed that there were positive correlations between the contents of 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the tissues of eels and those of the corresponding fatty acids in their diets. The specific growth rate of eels fed with diet PO was the lowest and significantly lower than that of FO and SO. Gonad of eels fed with diets PO and PL showed hypogonadism. The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) can be synthesized by eels, but the quantity was not enough to meet their reproduction requirement completely. The fatty acid desaturation, rather than elongation probably was one of the limiting factors. Addition of proper amount of ARA in diet was favorable to the increase of the hatching rate of fertilized eggs, while EPA and DHA in diet were beneficial to the increase of the survival rate of larva. Both n-3PUFA and a suitable n-6/n-3PUFA ratio were necessary for growth and reproduction of eels.

  20. Pressure and temperature interactions on aerobic metabolism of migrating European silver eel.

    PubMed

    Scaion, D; Belhomme, M; Sébert, P

    2008-12-31

    During their migration for reproduction, European eels have to cope with many environmental factors changes. The main changes concern hydrostatic pressure and temperature that are important environmental and physiological factors when considering life in the deep sea. We focus on the consequences of pressure (from 0.1 to 12.1MPa by 1MPa steps) and temperature (9, 15, 22 degrees C) shifts on the oxygen consumption (MO(2)) at the whole animal level. Because of their morphological differences, we are also interested in males and females to evaluate the best conditions for migration. Firstly, whatever temperature, males present higher aerobic capacities than females at atmospheric pressure. Secondly, an increase in temperature increases the pressure effects in males (synergy) but decreases them in females (opposite effects). We raise the hypothesis that two different migration strategies could be used in the water column in order to reach the breeding area: males could tend to privilege pressure and cold waters (deep water) and females, on the other hand, could opt for warmer temperature surface waters.

  1. Anguillicola crassus Infection Significantly Affects the Silvering Related Modifications in Steady State mRNA Levels in Gas Gland Tissue of the European Eel.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Schneebauer, Gabriel; Dirks, Ron P

    2016-01-01

    Using Illumina sequencing, transcriptional changes occurring during silvering in swimbladder tissue of the European eel have been analyzed by comparison of yellow and silver eel tissue samples. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms revealed significant expression changes in a number of genes related to the extracellular matrix, important for the control of gas permeability of the swimbladder, and to reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense, important to cope with ROS generated under hyperbaric oxygen partial pressures. Focusing on swimbladder tissue metabolism, levels of several mRNA species encoding glucose transport proteins were several-fold higher in silver eels, while enzymes of the glycolytic pathway were not affected. The significantly higher steady state level of a transcript encoding for membrane bound carbonic anhydrase, however, suggested that CO2 production in the pentose phosphate shunt and diffusion of CO2 was of particular importance in silver eel swimbladder. In addition, the mRNA level of a large number of genes related to immune response and to sexual maturation was significantly modified in the silver eel swimbladder. The modification of several processes related to protein metabolism and transport, cell cycle, and apoptosis suggested that these changes in swimbladder metabolism and permeability were achieved by increasing cell turn-over. The impact of an infection of the swimbladder with the nematode Anguillicola crassus has been assessed by comparing these expression changes with expression changes observed between uninfected yellow eel swimbladder tissue and infected silver eel swimbladder tissue. In contrast to uninfected silver eel swimbladder tissue, in infected tissue the mRNA level of several glycolytic enzymes was significantly elevated, and with respect to extracellular matrix, several mucin genes were many-fold higher in their mRNA level. Modification of many immune related genes and of the functional categories "response to

  2. Anguillicola crassus Infection Significantly Affects the Silvering Related Modifications in Steady State mRNA Levels in Gas Gland Tissue of the European Eel

    PubMed Central

    Pelster, Bernd; Schneebauer, Gabriel; Dirks, Ron P.

    2016-01-01

    Using Illumina sequencing, transcriptional changes occurring during silvering in swimbladder tissue of the European eel have been analyzed by comparison of yellow and silver eel tissue samples. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms revealed significant expression changes in a number of genes related to the extracellular matrix, important for the control of gas permeability of the swimbladder, and to reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense, important to cope with ROS generated under hyperbaric oxygen partial pressures. Focusing on swimbladder tissue metabolism, levels of several mRNA species encoding glucose transport proteins were several-fold higher in silver eels, while enzymes of the glycolytic pathway were not affected. The significantly higher steady state level of a transcript encoding for membrane bound carbonic anhydrase, however, suggested that CO2 production in the pentose phosphate shunt and diffusion of CO2 was of particular importance in silver eel swimbladder. In addition, the mRNA level of a large number of genes related to immune response and to sexual maturation was significantly modified in the silver eel swimbladder. The modification of several processes related to protein metabolism and transport, cell cycle, and apoptosis suggested that these changes in swimbladder metabolism and permeability were achieved by increasing cell turn-over. The impact of an infection of the swimbladder with the nematode Anguillicola crassus has been assessed by comparing these expression changes with expression changes observed between uninfected yellow eel swimbladder tissue and infected silver eel swimbladder tissue. In contrast to uninfected silver eel swimbladder tissue, in infected tissue the mRNA level of several glycolytic enzymes was significantly elevated, and with respect to extracellular matrix, several mucin genes were many-fold higher in their mRNA level. Modification of many immune related genes and of the functional categories “response to

  3. Downstream passage and impact of turbine shutdowns on survival of silver American Eels at five hydroelectric dams on the Shenandoah River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyler, Sheila; Welsh, Stuart; Smith, David; Rockey, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Hydroelectric dams impact the downstream migrations of silver American Eels Anguilla rostrata via migratory delays and turbine mortality. A radiotelemetry study of American Eels was conducted to determine the impacts of five run-of-the-river hydroelectric dams located over a 195-km stretch of the Shenandoah River, Virginia–West Virginia, during fall 2007–summer 2010. Overall, 96 radio-tagged individuals (mean TL = 85.4 cm) migrated downstream past at least one dam during the study. Most American Eels passed dams relatively quickly; over half (57.9%) of the dam passage events occurred within 1 h of reaching a dam, and most (81.3%) occurred within 24 h of reaching the dam. Two-thirds of the dam passage events occurred via spill, and the remaining passage events were through turbines. Migratory delays at dams were shorter and American Eels were more likely to pass via spill over the dam during periods of high river discharge than during low river discharge. The extent of delay in migration did not differ between the passage routes (spill versus turbine). Twenty-eight American Eels suffered turbine-related mortality, which occurred at all five dams. Mortality rates for eels passing through turbines ranged from 15.8% to 40.7% at individual dams. Overall project-specific mortality rates (with all passage routes combined) ranged from 3.0% to 14.3%. To protect downstream-migrating American Eels, nighttime turbine shutdowns (1800–0600 hours) were implemented during September 15–December 15. Fifty percent of all downstream passage events in the study occurred during the turbine shutdown period. Implementation of the seasonal turbine shutdown period reduced cumulative mortality from 63.3% to 37.3% for American Eels passing all five dams. Modifying the turbine shutdown period to encompass more dates in the spring and linking the shutdowns to environmental conditions could provide greater protection to downstream-migrating American Eels.

  4. Prevalence of Anguillicoloides crassus and growth variation in migrant yellow-phase American eels of the upper Potomac River drainage.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Jennifer L; Welsh, Stuart A

    2012-11-08

    Prevalence of the non-native swim bladder nematode Anguillicoloides crassus has recently increased in American eels from estuaries of the North American Atlantic coast, but little is known about parasite prevalence or conditions of previous infection in upstream migrant eels within upper watersheds. This study is the first to confirm presence of A. crassus in the upper Potomac River watershed. We estimated A. crassus prevalence during 3 time periods: September to October 2006 (5/143 eels, 3.5%), August to October 2007 (0/49 eels), and June 2008 (0/50 eels). All eels were sampled from the Millville Dam eel ladder on the lower Shenandoah River, a Potomac River tributary located approximately 285 km upstream of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Of the 5 infected eels, parasite intensity was 1 for each eel, and mean intensity was also 1.0. A swim bladder degenerative index (SDI) was calculated for the 50 eels from the final sampling period, and 38% of those eels (19 of 50) showed signs of previous infection by A. crassus. We also aged 42 of the 50 eels (mean ± SE = 6.7 ± 0.29 yr, range 4 to 11 yr) from the final sampling period. Based on the range of possible SDI scores (0 to 6), severity of previously infected swim bladders was moderate (SDI = 1 or 2). Previously infected eels, however, had a lower length-at-age than that of uninfected eels. Female yellow-phase eels in upper watersheds develop into large highly fecund silver-phase adults; hence, a parasite-induced effect on growth of yellow-phase eels could ultimately reduce reproductive potential.

  5. Are dioxin-like contaminants responsible for the eel (Anguilla anguilla) drama?

    PubMed

    Palstra, A P; van Ginneken, V J T; Murk, A J; van den Thillart, G E E J M

    2006-03-01

    Eel populations worldwide are dangerously close to collapsing. Our study is the first to show that current levels of dioxin-like contaminants are strong candidates because of their devastating effects on development and survival of eel embryos. Female and male silver eels were artificially stimulated to maturation and reproduction by treatment with carp pituitary extracts and hCG, respectively. During maturation of female European silver eels, about 60 g fat per kg eel is incorporated in the oocytes. Together with the fat, however, persistent organic pollutants such as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are incorporated too. The total dioxin-like toxic potency of the individual gonad batches was determined as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxine equivalents (TEQs), using an in vitro reporter gene assay. The observed differences in development and survival showed a significant negative correlation with the TEQ levels in the gonads, already at levels far below the maximal allowable level for fish consumption, i.e., 4 ng TEQ/kg fish. The clear inverse relationship between the TEQ level and the survival period of the fertilised eggs strongly suggests that the current levels of dioxin-like compounds seriously impair the reproduction of the European eel. The peak of the environmental levels of dioxin-like PCBs and the decline of eel coincide worldwide, further suggesting that, in addition to other threats, these contaminants contributed significantly to the current collapse in eel populations.

  6. Are dioxin-like contaminants responsible for the eel ( Anguilla anguilla) drama?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palstra, A. P.; van Ginneken, V. J. T.; Murk, A. J.; van den Thillart, G. E. E. J. M.

    2006-03-01

    Eel populations worldwide are dangerously close to collapsing. Our study is the first to show that current levels of dioxin-like contaminants are strong candidates because of their devastating effects on development and survival of eel embryos. Female and male silver eels were artificially stimulated to maturation and reproduction by treatment with carp pituitary extracts and hCG, respectively. During maturation of female European silver eels, about 60 g fat per kg eel is incorporated in the oocytes. Together with the fat, however, persistent organic pollutants such as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are incorporated too. The total dioxin-like toxic potency of the individual gonad batches was determined as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxine equivalents (TEQs), using an in vitro reporter gene assay. The observed differences in development and survival showed a significant negative correlation with the TEQ levels in the gonads, already at levels far below the maximal allowable level for fish consumption, i.e., 4 ng TEQ/kg fish. The clear inverse relationship between the TEQ level and the survival period of the fertilised eggs strongly suggests that the current levels of dioxin-like compounds seriously impair the reproduction of the European eel. The peak of the environmental levels of dioxin-like PCBs and the decline of eel coincide worldwide, further suggesting that, in addition to other threats, these contaminants contributed significantly to the current collapse in eel populations.

  7. First evidence of European eels exiting the Mediterranean Sea during their spawning migration

    PubMed Central

    Amilhat, Elsa; Aarestrup, Kim; Faliex, Elisabeth; Simon, Gaël; Westerberg, Håkan; Righton, David

    2016-01-01

    The migration route and the spawning site of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are still uncertain. It has been suggested that the Mediterranean eel stock does not contribute to spawning because there is no evidence of eels leaving the Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, we equipped eight female silver eels from the south of France with pop-up satellite tags during escapement from coastal waters. Once in deeper water, the eels quickly established diel vertical migration (DVM) between the upper and lower mesopelagic zone. Five tagged eels were taken by predators within the Mediterranean, but two eels reached the Atlantic Ocean after six months and at distances greater than 2000 km from release. These eels ceased their DVM while they negotiated the Gibraltar Strait, and remained in deep water until they reached the Atlantic Ocean, when they recommenced DVM. Our results are the first to show that eels from Mediterranean can cross the Strait of Gibraltar and continue their migration into the Atlantic Ocean. This finding suggests that Mediterranean countries, as for other EU states, have an important role to play in contributing to conservation efforts for the recovery of the European eel stock. PMID:26906289

  8. Behavior and passage of silver-phase American eels, Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur), at a small hydroelectric facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Ted; Boubée, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Downstream migrant eels were monitored near a small (51 MW) hydroelectric facility on the Connecticut River (Massachusetts, USA) for two seasons using acoustic and radio telemetry. Eels frequently made several attempts over periods of one to several days to pass the station. Did activity of eels was variable, although most movements occurred at night. Eels occupied a variety of depths in the forebay area, but spent the greater proportion of time at or near the bottom (10 m), occasionally venturing to the surface. Horizontal movements usually spanned across the entire width of the forebay. There was no significant relationship between duration of forebay presence and either flow or light intensity. Although all telemetered eels passed via the turbines, some migrant eels did use a surface bypass.

  9. Are Biometric Parameters Helpful to Assess the Health Risk of Consuming Organochlorine Compounds Contaminated Silver European Eel (Anguilla anguilla)?

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria C; Fusco, Giovanna; Naccari, Clara; Meli, Rosaria; Clausi, Maria T

    2016-04-01

    Several organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in European eels from the Tevere river (Italy). It followed that some of them are still important chemical contaminants. Concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) are hazardous for the consumer health; those of the 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are often close to the current European maximum residue limit and always higher than the former limit. The relationship between OC concentrations, biometric parameters and the lipid content was then investigated. A strong positive correlation with eel size emerged for the indicator PCBs and DDTs concentrations expressed on wet weight basis. This is explained by the corresponding higher lipid percentage that characterizes bigger eels and the absence of a dilution effect for compounds of main concerns. On the basis of the PCB-TDI threshold for a 70 kg person, we suggest that 1 should consume no more than 2 eels per week each weighing about 100 g. Thus, we conclude that eel consumption should be limited and restricted to eels relatively shorter and lighter.

  10. The pituitary gland of the European eel reveals massive expression of genes involved in the melanocortin system.

    PubMed

    Ager-Wick, Eirill; Dirks, Ron P; Burgerhout, Erik; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; de Wijze, Daniëlle L; Spaink, Herman P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Dufour, Sylvie; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Henkel, Christiaan V

    2013-01-01

    Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate important processes such as development, growth and metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and body pigmentation. Synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones are regulated by different factors from the hypothalamus, but also through feedback mechanisms from peripheral organs, and from the pituitary itself. In the European eel extensive attention has been directed towards understanding the different components of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis, but little is known about the regulation of upstream processes in the pituitary gland. In order to gain a broader mechanistic understanding of the eel pituitary gland, we have performed RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of the pituitary of prepubertal female silver eels. RNA-seq reads generated on the Illumina platform were mapped to the recently assembled European eel genome. The most abundant transcript in the eel pituitary codes for pro-opiomelanocortin, the precursor for hormones of the melanocortin system. Several genes putatively involved in downstream processing of pro-opiomelanocortin were manually annotated, and were found to be highly expressed, both by RNA-seq and by qPCR. The melanocortin system, which affects skin color, energy homeostasis and in other teleosts interacts with the reproductive system, has so far received limited attention in eels. However, since up to one third of the silver eel pituitary's mRNA pool encodes pro-opiomelanocortin, our results indicate that control of the melanocortin system is a major function of the eel pituitary.

  11. Changes in ovarian gene expression profiles and plasma hormone levels in maturing European eel (Anguilla anguilla); Biomarkers for broodstock selection.

    PubMed

    Burgerhout, Erik; Minegishi, Yuki; Brittijn, Sebastiaan A; de Wijze, Danielle L; Henkel, Christiaan V; Jansen, Hans J; Spaink, Herman P; Dirks, Ron P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2016-01-01

    Complete sexual maturation of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) in captivity can only be achieved via injections with gonadotropins. For female eels this procedure takes 4-6months and the response ranges from "unresponsive" to final maturation and ovulation. Reproductive success could be significantly increased via early selection of responders based on predictive markers and minimally invasive sampling methods. To get a better understanding of the genetic background of ovarian maturation of the European eel we performed a pilot deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of ovarian tissue derived from a yellow eel, a prepubertal silver eel and a post-spawning matured eel. Two key players in steroidogenesis were strongly correlated with advanced sexual maturation, namely P450c17 and liver receptor homolog-1, suggesting that blood plasma steroids might qualify as minimally invasive markers for early detection of responders. Since the predictive value of plasma sex steroid levels for final maturation of the European eel had not yet been carefully examined, we performed an extensive artificial maturation trial. Farmed silver eels were treated with pituitary extracts and sampled at multiple time intervals. Expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in ovarian tissue of responding and non-responding eels after four weekly injections with pituitary extract was compared using a custom-built microarray and RNAseq. Increased expression of 17β-hsd1 was strongly linked to sexual maturation. Blood plasma levels of sex steroids were measured using ELISAs. We show that a 2.5-fold increase in blood-plasma estradiol level after 4 weekly pituitary extract injections is a strong predictor of final sexual maturation of female European eel.

  12. An Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Outer Plexiform Layer of the Retina of the European Silver Eel (Anguilla anguilla L)

    PubMed Central

    Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Here we studied the ultrastructural organization of the outer retina of the European silver eel, a highly valued commercial fish species. The retina of the European eel has an organization very similar to most vertebrates. It contains both rod and cone photoreceptors. Rods are abundantly present and immunoreactive for rhodopsin. Cones are sparsely present and only show immunoreactivity for M-opsin and not for L-, S- or UV-cone opsins. As in all other vertebrate retinas, Müller cells span the width of the retina. OFF-bipolar cells express the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR4 and ON-bipolar cells, as identified by their PKCα immunoreactivity, express the metabotropic receptor mGluR6. Both the ON- and the OFF-bipolar cell dendrites innervate the cone pedicle and rod spherule. Horizontal cells are surrounded by punctate Cx53.8 immunoreactivity indicating that the horizontal cells are strongly electrically coupled by gap-junctions. Connexin-hemichannels were found at the tips of the horizontal cell dendrites invaginating the photoreceptor synapse. Such hemichannels are implicated in the feedback pathway from horizontal cells to cones. Finally, horizontal cells are surrounded by tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, illustrating a strong dopaminergic input from interplexiform cells. PMID:27032102

  13. Male European eels are highly efficient long distance swimmers: effects of endurance swimming on maturation.

    PubMed

    Burgerhout, Erik; Brittijn, Sebastiaan A; Tudorache, Christian; de Wijze, Daniëlle L; Dirks, Ron P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2013-11-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) migrate ~6000km towards their spawning area in the Sargasso Sea. Based on the recent discovery that males swim even more efficiently than females, it was predicted that males also would be able to swim ~6000km within six months. Additionally, eels do not mature naturally in captivity due to strong neural inhibition. Earlier, it was hypothesized that swimming exercise is a natural trigger to induce sexual maturation and may even result in full maturation. In the present study two groups of farmed male silver eels were subjected to either endurance swimming or resting for up to 6months. It was found that male eels were able to swim continuously for a total distance of 6670km within 6months. The body weight decrease in swimming and resting males after 6months was similar (<30g) underlining the extreme low energy cost of swimming. In contrast to our expectation long-term swimming did not induce sexual maturation in farmed silver eels, suggesting that swimming alone is not sufficient as a trigger for sexual maturation. In conclusion, male eels are efficient long distance swimmers and likely able to cover the distance to the Sargasso Sea within the expected time span of 6months.

  14. Plasma levels, metabolic clearance rates, and rates of secretion of testosterone and estradiol-l7 beta in the silver eel (Anguilla anguilla L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Querat, B.; Hardy, A.; Leloup-Hatey, J.

    1985-09-01

    Testosterone (T) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) plasma levels and metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were measured to investigate their ovarian production in immature silver eel. The dynamics of T and E2 metabolism were studied in catheterized eels using single injections of 0.2 to 0.5 microCi /sup 3/H-labeled steroid. The distribution volumes, biological half-life and MCR of nonconjugated tracers were calculated on the basis of a two-compartment model. At the end of the experiments, radioactivity was measured in different organs and tissues to localize the site of T and E2 catabolism. The volume of the inner compartment was 3.4% for T and E2. The outer compartment was larger for T (6.4%) than that for E2 (4.3%). The biological half-life was three to four times shorter for T (14.5 hr) than that for E2 (48.5 hr). The MCR for T (1.71 ml/kg body wt/hr) was higher than for E2 (0.51 ml/kg body wt/hr). Plasma levels were determined, using radioimmunoassay, on samples taken before injections of radiolabeled steroid. Free or protein-bound hormone levels were 0.12 and 0.31 ng/ml for T and E2, respectively. Conjugated T and E2 levels were, respectively, 0.13 and 0.23 ng/ml. Production rates were determined as the product of the MCR and the plasma concentration of the nonconjugated hormone. No significant differences were observed between the production rates of T and E2 (0.24 ng/kg body wt/hr). The liver was the principal site of metabolism for both hormones, which were excreted via the enterohepatic route. E2 injection gave rise to no metabolite in the plasma whereas after T injection a metabolite was produced, the concentration of which increased as a function of time. Its chromatographic properties were different from that of E2 or androstenedione, suggesting that no significant peripheral aromatization or 17-oxidoreduction occurs in the immature silver eel.

  15. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels.

  16. Reproductive ability of an adult female with Silver-Russell syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Abramowicz, H K; Nitowsky, H M

    1977-01-01

    An adult female with typical features of Silver-Russell dwarfism gave birth to a viable infant. Despite the abnormalities in sexual development that may be associated with the Silver-Russell syndrome, fertility is not necessarily impaired, at least in females. The growth and development of children with the Silver-Russell syndrome have been studied (Silver, 1964; Tanner et al., 1975). There is, however, virtually no information available about adult patients with this syndrome. It is known that both male and female Silver-Russell dwarfs develop secondary sexual characteristics (Rimoin, 1969; McDowell and Sproles, 1973) but fertility of these patients has not been described previously. Images PMID:856957

  17. Variation in organotin accumulation in relation to the life history in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2009-08-01

    In order to examine the ecological risks caused by organotin compounds (OTs) in diadromous fish migrating between sea and freshwaters, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds and their breakdown products were determined in the catadromous eel Anguilla japonica, which has sea, estuarine and river life histories, collected in Japanese sea, brackish and freshwaters within the same region. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along the life history transect to discriminate the migration type. There were generally three different patterns, which were categorized as 'sea eels', 'estuarine eels' and 'river eels' according to the otolith Sr:Ca ratio. The concentrations of TBT in silver eels (mature eels) were significantly higher than that in yellow eels (immature eels), and the percentages of TBT were also higher in silver eels than in yellow eels. A positive correlation was found between TBT concentration and the gonad-somatic index (GSI). It is thus considered that silver eels have a higher risk of contamination by TBT than yellow eels. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels, while no significant differences were observed in TBT and TPT concentrations in estuarine eels compared to sea and river eels. These results suggest that sea eels have a higher ecological risk of OT contamination than river eels during their life history, and the risk of OTs in estuarine eels is considered to be intermediate between that of sea and river eels. Positive linear relationships were found between Sr:Ca ratios and the concentrations of TBT and TPT. Therefore, these results suggest that the ecological risk of OTs increase as the sea residence period in the eel becomes longer. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels even at the same growth stage. Thus, it is clear that migratory type is the most important factor for OT

  18. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L.

    2014-11-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period.

  19. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock.

    PubMed

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L

    2014-11-26

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period.

  20. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock

    PubMed Central

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L.

    2014-01-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period. PMID:25424371

  1. Differences in organotin accumulation among ecological migratory types of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2006-08-01

    In order to examine the ecological risks caused by organotin compounds (OTs) in diadromous fish migrating between sea and freshwater, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds, and their breakdown products, were determined in the catadromous eel Anguilla japonica having sea, estuarine and river life histories, collected in Japanese sea, brackish and fresh waters. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate the migration type. There were generally three different patterns, which were categorized 'sea eels' (spent most of their life in the sea and did not enter freshwater), 'estuarine eels' (inhabited estuaries or switched between different habitats), and 'river eels' (entered and remained in freshwater river habitats after arrival in the estuary) according to the otolith Sr:Ca ratio. There were generally no significant correlations between TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as total length (TL), body weight (BW), age and sex in A. japonica. The concentrations of TBT and TPT in silver eels (mature eels) were significantly higher than those in yellow eels (immature eels), and the percentages of TBT and TPT were also higher in silver eels than in yellow eels. A positive correlation was found between TBT concentration and the gonad-somatic index (GSI). It is thus considered that silver eels have a higher risk of contamination by TBT than yellow eels. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in TBT and TPT concentrations in estuarine eels compared to sea and river eels. These results suggest that sea eels have a higher ecological risk of OT contamination than river eels during their life history, and the risk of OTs in estuarine eels is considered to be intermediate between that of sea and river eels. Positive linear relationships were

  2. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.

    2012-01-01

    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  3. Growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) was localized in the female as well as male germ cells in a protogynous hermaphroditic teleost fish, ricefield eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi; Wu, Yangsheng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Taixin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) superfamily. As an oocyte-derived growth factor, GDF9 plays key roles in regulating follicle development. In the present study, we identified a gdf9 homologue from the ovary of ricefield eel, and analyzed its expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. Ricefield eel Gdf9 showed high homologies with those of other teleosts, especially perciformes fish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that ricefield eel gdf9 was expressed exclusively in the ovary and testis. The mRNA levels of gdf9 in the ovary were increased significantly at the pre-vitellogenic (PV) stage and then decreased significantly along with vitellogenesis. During the natural sex change, expression of ricefield eel gdf9 was peaked at the intersexual stages. The immunoreactivity for Gdf9 was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm of the oocytes in the ovary, particularly the oocytes at early stages, but not in the oogonia. Interestingly, strong immunoreactive signals were also detected in the degenerating oocytes in the intersexual gonad. Furthermore, the Gdf9 immunoreactivity was demonstrated for the first time to be localized in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes of ricefield eel, a teleost fish. Taken together, the results of present study suggested that Gdf9 may play important roles in the folliculogenesis as well as spermatogenesis in ricefield eels.

  4. [Gonadal endocrine function in female silver foxes selected for domesticated behavior].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V; Trut, L N

    1989-01-01

    Selection for domesticated behavior in female silver fox is accompanied by a number of changes in endocrine function of ovaries. Significant changes in peripheral blood estradiol and progesterone levels and their production by gonads during anestrous may be an endocrine basis for out-of-season activation of reproductive system and earlier beginning of seasonal reproduction in domesticated females. The increase in the hormone level during preimplantation period of pregnancy and before parturition in tame foxes may influence their productivity.

  5. Expendable Electric Landrover (EEL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    DAHLGREN DIVISION NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER Panama City, Florida 32407-7001 NSWC PC/MP-04/07 EXPENDABLE ELECTRIC LANDROVER (EEL) MITCH GAVRILASH...COVERED JULY 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS EXPENDABLE ELECTRIC LANDROVER (EEL) 6. AUTHOR(S) MITCH GAVRILASH 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...generations of Expendable Electric Landrover (EEL) robots were developed during fiscal year 2003 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City (NSWC-PC

  6. The effects of contaminants in European eel: a review.

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, Caroline; Belpaire, Claude

    2010-02-01

    European eel (Anguilla anguilla (L.)) stocks are in decline in most of their geographical distribution and their status is considered below safe biological limits. Recently, there is an increasing awareness that spawner quality might be an essential element in the decline of the species since pollution by bioaccumulating chemical substances may have a large impact on the reproduction success of the eel. This review gives an overview of the literature on the effects of contaminants on the European eel and on the consequences on the biology and fitness of the eel in order to document the role of pollution in its decline. A variety of contaminants have been found to affect the eel. These contaminants may cause disturbance of the immune system, the reproduction system, the nervous system and the endocrine system and effects were reported on several levels of biological organization, from subcellular, organ, individual up to even population level. More extensive research is needed in order to evaluate how pollutants are detrimental to eel populations. Getting a comprehensive overview of the quality (including contamination levels, biomarker responses, lipid content and condition) of the silver eel population all over Europe seems to be an essential and urgent objective for the European eel management.

  7. Variation in organochlorine accumulation in relation to the life history of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-03-15

    Members of the catadromous eel live in various fresh, brackish and marine habitats. Therefore, these eels can accumulate organic pollutants and are a suitable bioindicator species for determining the levels of organic contaminants within different water bodies. The ecological risk for organochlorine compounds (OCs) in Anguilla japonica with various migration patterns, such as freshwater, estuarine and marine residences, was examined to understand the specific accumulation patterns. The concentrations of HCB, ∑HCHs, ∑CHLs and ∑DDTs in the silver stage (maturing) eel were significantly higher than those in the yellow stage (immature) eel, in accordance with the higher lipid contents in the former versus the latter. The OC accumulations were clearly different among migratory types in the eel. The ecological risk of OCs increased as the freshwater residence period in the eel lengthened. The migratory histories and the lipid contents directly affected the OC accumulation in the catadromous eel species.

  8. Light-Sensitive Vertical Migration of the Japanese Eel Anguilla japonica Revealed by Real-Time Tracking and Its Utilization for Geolocation

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seinen; Okazaki, Makoto; Watanabe, Tomowo; Segawa, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hideki; Ai, Ken-ichiro; Kawai, Miho; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi; Mochioka, Noritaka; Manabe, Ryotaro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Short-time tracking (one to eight days) of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) using ultrasonic transmitter was performed in the tropical-subtropical area adjacent to the spawning area and temperate area off the Japanese Archipelago. Of 16 eels (11 wild and five farmed) used, 10 wild eels displayed clear diel vertical migration (DVM) from the beginning, while the other five farmed eels tracked for 19 to 66 hours did not. During daytime, a significantly positive correlation between migration depth and light intensity recorded on the vessel was observed in the 10 wild eels, indicating that the eels were sensitive to sunlight even at the middle to lower mesopelagic zone (500 to 800 m). During nighttime, the eel migration depth was observed to be associated with the phase, rising and setting of the moon, indicating that the eels were sensitive to moonlight at the upper mesopelagic zone (<300 m). Two of 10 wild eels were in the yellow stage but shared similar DVM with the silver stage eels. Swimbladders of three silver stage eels were punctured before releasing, but very little effect on DVM was observed. The eels very punctually initiated descent upon nautical dawn and ascent upon sunset, enabling us to determine local times for sunrise and sunset, and hence this behavior may be used for geolocating eels. In fact, estimated positions of eels based on the depth trajectory data were comparable or even better than those obtained by light-based archival tag in other fish species. PMID:25875179

  9. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, J M; Jacobsen, M W; Bekkevold, D; Lobón-Cervià, J; Jónsson, B; Bernatchez, L; Hansen, M M

    2015-08-13

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. We used two sets of markers to test for selection: first, we genotyped individuals using a panel of 80 coding-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed in American eel; second, we investigated selection at the genome level using a total of 153,423 RAD-sequencing generated SNPs widely distributed across the genome. Using the RAD approach, outlier tests identified a total of 2413 (1.57%) potentially selected SNPs. Functional annotation analysis identified signal transduction pathways as the most over-represented group of genes, including MAPK/Erk signalling, calcium signalling and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) signalling. Many of the over-represented pathways were related to growth, while others could result from the different conditions that eels inhabit during their life cycle. The observation of different genes and gene pathways under selection when comparing glass eels vs. silver eels supports the adaptive decoupling hypothesis for the benefits of metamorphosis. Partitioning the life cycle into discrete morphological phases may be overall beneficial since it allows the different life stages to respond independently to their unique selection pressures. This might translate into a more effective use of food and niche resources and/or performance of phase-specific tasks (e.g. feeding in the case of glass eels, migrating and reproducing in the case of silver eels).

  10. Electricity, eels and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasnow, Brian

    2014-07-01

    William Turkel's Spark from the Deep is a fascinating book that explores a little-known aspect of how we came to understand and control electricity: the role played by electrogenic animals such as electric eels and rays.

  11. Pilot-testing the effects of a newly-developed silver yoga exercise program for female seniors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Tseng, Wei-Shyuan

    2008-03-01

    This study aimed to pilot-test the health promotion effects of a silver yoga exercise program for female seniors. Using a one-group, pre-post test design, a convenience sample of 16 community-dwelling female seniors was recruited. The silver yoga exercise intervention was administered three times a week, 70 minutes per session, for four weeks. Data were collected at baseline and after completion of the four-week intervention. Results indicated that participants' body fat percentage and systolic blood pressure decreased, balance and range of motion on shoulder flexion and abduction improved, and sleep disturbance was minimized (all p < .05). Preliminary evidence supports that the silver yoga exercise program provides positive effects on the promotion of good health in female seniors living in the communities.

  12. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic): American Eel,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    differentiated metamorphosis males and females at age 1112 in the / , SILVE EEL Altamaha River, Georgia, and co cluded.-’.-.- that females there...migration northern eels. Hansen and Eversole , metamorphosis (in press) and Harrell and Loyacano GLAS EEL/ELVER (1980) collected differentiated males and...maturity (Wenner and ML ,ck with spermatogonia present), but none 1974). The difference in the extent of these stages are capable of repro- of metamorphosis

  13. Thyroid endocrine status of wild European eels (Anguilla anguilla) in the Loire (France). Relationships with organic contaminant body burdens.

    PubMed

    Couderc, M; Marchand, J; Zalouk-Vergnoux, A; Kamari, A; Moreau, B; Blanchet-Letrouvé, I; Le Bizec, B; Mouneyrac, C; Poirier, L

    2016-04-15

    In teleost fish, thyroid function is involved in various critical physiological processes. Given the complexity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, a large number of genes and proteins can be the potential target of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, in yellow and silver European eels (Anguilla anguilla), potential effects of EDCs on thyroid status by analyzing the associations between EDC body burdens and thyroid hormones (THs). In yellow individuals, greater free T3/T4 ratios (FT3/FT4) and lower plasma FT4 levels were associated with greater concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as highlighted by significant correlations with many congeners. Few positive relationships with alkylphenols were noticed. In contrast, silver eels usually exhibited less significant correlations between THs and contaminant loads. Expression of a series of genes involved in the HPT axis was also investigated in the silver individuals. Concerning mRNA expression in silver females, some main correlations were noticed: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHβ) gene expression was significantly correlated to numerous PCBs, and hepatic mRNA levels of deiodinase 2 (Deio 2) were negatively correlated to 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHF) and 2-naphtol (2-OHNa). Thyroid receptor (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels exhibited weak negative correlations with some PBDEs in silver females and males. Hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA levels were detected in all silver males but at lower levels than in silver females. In males, Vtg mRNA levels were positively associated to FT4/TT4. In silver females, strong positive correlations were found between congeners of PCBs, PBDEs and PFAS suggesting potential estrogenic effects. Overall, the observed results indicate that several organic contaminants, mainly dl-, ndl-PCBs and PBDEs, could be associated with changes in thyroid homeostasis in these fish, via direct or indirect

  14. Dioxin-like, non-dioxin like PCB and PCDD/F contamination in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from the Loire estuarine continuum: spatial and biological variabilities.

    PubMed

    Blanchet-Letrouvé, I; Zalouk-Vergnoux, A; Vénisseau, A; Couderc, M; Le Bizec, B; Elie, P; Herrenknecht, C; Mouneyrac, C; Poirier, L

    2014-02-15

    To characterize the eel contamination by dioxin-like (dl) and non dioxin-like (ndl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), sixty-two eels from the Loire estuary (France) were analyzed. PCB contamination significantly increased from glass eel stage (3.71 ± 1.85 and 15.2 ± 4.2 ng g(-1) dw) to other life stages (for yellow eels: 62.8 ± 34.4 and 382 ± 182 ng g(-1) dw; for silver eels: 93.7 ± 56.3 and 463 ± 245 ng g(-1) dw respectively for dl and ndl-PCBs). An inter-site variability based on PCB levels and profiles was observed among the three studied sites. For glass eels, the profile was mainly characterized by less chlorinated PCBs contrary to the other eels, displaying a different bioaccumulation pathway. Overall, the contamination level in the eels from this estuary was shown to be low for PCDD/Fs and intermediate for dl and ndl-PCBs, compared to other international/national areas. However, more than 60% of the studied silver eels displayed higher values for PCDD/F and dl-PCB WHO2005 TEQ than the EU permissible level of 10 pg g(-1) ww. This statement suggests a potential exposure to PCBs through eel consumption, especially with silver eels, and also points out apparent contamination that could eventually affect the reproductive success of the species.

  15. A female infant with Silver Russell Syndrome, mesocardia and enlargement of the clitoris.

    PubMed

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Emmanouilidou, Eleftheria; Karagianni, Paraskevi; Grigoriadou, Maria; Kirkos, John; Varlamis, George S

    2008-01-01

    Silver Russell Syndrome (SRS) is a rare condition (1/3000 - 1/100,000 newborns). We present a female infant with SRS, cardiac malposition and asymmetric enlargement of the clitoris. She is the first child of Greek nonconsanguinous parents, born at 38 weeks gestation, following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The patient had intrauterine growth retardation, body asymmetry, enlarged clitoris, hemihypertrophy of external genitalia and features characteristic of SRS. Electrocardiography and chest X-rays revealed a median position of the heart. The infant fulfilled the criteria proposed by Price et al for SRS. Genetic analysis did not reveal mUPD of chromosome 7. This is the first report of a patient with SRS presenting ìmesocardiaî and asymmetric enlargement of the clitoris. Our case constitutes another paradigm of SRS following IVF, which possibly supports the hypothesis that IVF may be associated with higher prevalence of SRS than natural fertilisation.

  16. Shark Predation on Migrating Adult American Eels (Anguilla rostrata) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence

    PubMed Central

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Benchetrit, José; Castonguay, Martin; Aarestrup, Kim; Campana, Steven E.; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Dodson, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to document the migratory pathways and the environmental conditions encountered by American eels during their oceanic migration to the Sargasso Sea, we tagged eight silver eels with miniature satellite pop-up tags during their migration from the St. Lawrence River in Québec, Canada. Surprisingly, of the seven tags that successfully transmitted archived data, six were ingested by warm-gutted predators, as observed by a sudden increase in water temperature. Gut temperatures were in the range of 20 to 25°C—too cold for marine mammals but within the range of endothermic fish. In order to identify the eel predators, we compared their vertical migratory behavior with those of satellite-tagged porbeagle shark and bluefin tuna, the only endothermic fishes occurring non-marginally in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. We accurately distinguished between tuna and shark by using the behavioral criteria generated by comparing the diving behavior of these two species with those of our unknown predators. Depth profile characteristics of most eel predators more closely resembled those of sharks than those of tuna. During the first days following tagging, all eels remained in surface waters and did not exhibit diel vertical migrations. Three eels were eaten at this time. Two eels exhibited inverse diel vertical migrations (at surface during the day) during several days prior to predation. Four eels were eaten during daytime, whereas the two night-predation events occurred at full moon. Although tagging itself may contribute to increasing the eel's susceptibility to predation, we discuss evidence suggesting that predation of silver-stage American eels by porbeagle sharks may represent a significant source of mortality inside the Gulf of St. Lawrence and raises the possibility that eels may represent a reliable, predictable food resource for porbeagle sharks. PMID:23082131

  17. Silver

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Silver ; CASRN 7440 - 22 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  18. The lady and the eel: how Aphra Behn introduced Europeans to the "numb eel".

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Aphra Behn (1640-1689) has been called the first professional British female writer. Behn probably visited Surinam in the 1660s, but it was not until 1688 that she wrote Oroonoko: or, The Royal Slave, the novel for which she is best remembered. Although overlooked by historians of science, Oroonoko provided a description of the "numb eel," effectively introducing many Europeans to the exotic and frightening creature that would become known as the "electric eel" during the second half of the 1700s, when it would play a central role in showing the reality of animal electricity, effectively putting neuromuscular physiology on its more modern course. This article examines Behn's early life, including why she might have gone to Surinam, the sources that might have helped her write her colorful description of the eel, and how what she had written circulated widely and continued to contribute to the changing scientific landscape after her death.

  19. [Morphofunctional status of the adrenal cortex in female silver foxes and the effect of domestication and photoperiodic conditions].

    PubMed

    Lutsenko, N D; Trut, L N

    1987-01-01

    Studies on 7-day-old and 8-month-old female silver foxes indicate that additional photostimulation affects to a various extent morphological and functional condition of the adrenal cortex in animals selected and unselected for the domestication type of behaviour. In relatively wild foxes, additional illumination stimulated the activity of the reticular zone, whereas in domesticated animals the same photoperiod increased the activity in the fascicular zone. It is suggested that selection of silver foxes for the domestication type of behaviour affects the sensitivity of the adrenals to external illumination.

  20. Too short to spawn? Implications of small body size and swimming distance on successful migration and maturation of the European eel Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Clevestam, P D; Ogonowski, M; Sjöberg, N B; Wickström, H

    2011-04-01

    Individual net fat reserves after migration and reproductive investments were calculated for migrating female silver eels Anguilla anguilla (n = 387) collected in the outlet region of the Baltic Sea during the autumn run. It is estimated that 20·4% of the A. anguilla had completely exhausted all initial fat reserves and that 45·0% of A. anguilla were within 90% of complete energy depletion after migration and reproduction. This study concludes that a combination of body size and distance (6900 km) to the spawning area in the Sargasso Sea explains the results. An increase in the costs of migration due to heavy infection with Anguillicoloides crassus was also evaluated in an additional scenario with results showing that 26·4% of the A. anguilla had completely depleted all fat reserves. It is hypothesized that a large proportion of female silver A. anguilla from the Baltic Sea catchment area will have inadequate or suboptimal reserves for successful migration and reproduction.

  1. Monozygotic female twins discordant for Silver-Russell syndrome and hypomethylation of the H19-DMR.

    PubMed

    Yamazawa, Kazuki; Kagami, Masayo; Fukami, Maki; Matsubara, Keiko; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by growth failure and dysmorphic features, and is frequently caused by hypomethylation of the paternally derived H19-DMR (epimutation). We observed 5 8/12-year-old female twins discordant for SRS. One twin exhibited SRS-compatible features, such as pre- and postnatal growth failure, relative macrocephaly, triangular face, left hemihypotrophy, and bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly, whereas the other twin showed apparently normal phenotype. Microsatellite analysis for 26 loci on multiple chromosomes showed monozygosity. Methylation analysis for the H19-DMR indicated epimutation in roughly half of cells in the affected twin and normal patterns in the unaffected twin and the parents. X-inactivation analysis revealed random X-inactivation with a nearly identical pattern between the twins. The discordant methylation pattern of the H19-DMR may primarily be due to a failure to maintain the DNA methyltransferase-1-dependent methylation imprint around the pre-implantation S phase, because such failure would result in the production of two different cell clones, one with normally methylated DMR and the other with demethylated DMR, leading to the separation of cells with different characters and resultant twinning.

  2. Viral diseases of wild and farmed European eel Anguilla anguilla with particular reference to the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Beurden, Steven J; Engelsma, Marc Y; Roozenburg, Ineke; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal A; van Tulden, Peter W; Kerkhoff, Sonja; van Nieuwstadt, Anton P; Davidse, Aart; Haenen, Olga L M

    2012-10-10

    Diseases are an important cause of losses and decreased production rates in freshwater eel farming, and have been suggested to play a contributory role in the worldwide decline in wild freshwater eel stocks. Three commonly detected pathogenic viruses of European eel Anguilla anguilla are the aquabirnavirus eel virus European (EVE), the rhabdovirus eel virus European X (EVEX), and the alloherpesvirus anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV1). In general, all 3 viruses cause a nonspecific haemorrhagic disease with increased mortality rates. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the aetiology, prevalence, clinical signs and gross pathology of these 3 viruses. Reported experimental infections showed the temperature dependency and potential pathogenicity of these viruses for eels and other fish species. In addition to the published literature, an overview of the isolation of pathogenic viruses from wild and farmed A. anguilla in the Netherlands during the past 2 decades is given. A total of 249 wild A. anguilla, 39 batches of glass eels intended for farming purposes, and 239 batches of farmed European eels were necropsied and examined virologically. AngHV1 was isolated from wild yellow and silver A. anguilla from the Netherlands from 1998 until the present, while EVEX was only found sporadically, and EVE was never isolated. In farmed A. anguilla AngHV1 was also the most commonly isolated virus, followed by EVE and EVEX.

  3. Low larval abundance in the Sargasso Sea: new evidence about reduced recruitment of the Atlantic eels.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Reinhold; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Castonguay, Martin; Schaber, Matthias; Wysujack, Klaus; Vobach, Michael; Miller, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla has shown decreased recruitment in recent decades. Despite increasing efforts to establish species recovery measures, it is unclear if the decline was caused by reduced numbers of reproductive-stage silver eels reaching the spawning area, low early larval survival, or increased larval mortality during migration to recruitment areas. To determine if larval abundances in the spawning area significantly changed over the past three decades, a plankton trawl sampling survey for anguillid leptocephali was conducted in March and April 2011 in the spawning area of the European eel that was designed to directly compare to collections made in the same way in 1983 and 1985. The catch rates of most anguilliform leptocephali were lower in 2011, possibly because of the slightly smaller plankton trawl used, but the relative abundances of European eel and American eel, Anguilla rostrata, leptocephali were much lower in 2011 than in 1983 and 1985 when compared to catches of other common leptocephali. The leptocephali assemblage was the same in 2011 as in previous years, but small larvae of mesopelagic snipe eels, Nemichthys scolopaceus, which spawn sympatrically with anguillid eels, were less abundant. Temperature fronts in the spawning area were also poorly defined compared to previous years. Although the causes for low anguillid larval abundances in 2011 are unclear, the fact that there are presently fewer European and American eel larvae in the spawning area than during previous time periods indicates that decreased larval abundance and lower eventual recruitment begin within the spawning area.

  4. Low larval abundance in the Sargasso Sea: new evidence about reduced recruitment of the Atlantic eels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, Reinhold; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Castonguay, Martin; Schaber, Matthias; Wysujack, Klaus; Vobach, Michael; Miller, Michael J.

    2014-12-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla has shown decreased recruitment in recent decades. Despite increasing efforts to establish species recovery measures, it is unclear if the decline was caused by reduced numbers of reproductive-stage silver eels reaching the spawning area, low early larval survival, or increased larval mortality during migration to recruitment areas. To determine if larval abundances in the spawning area significantly changed over the past three decades, a plankton trawl sampling survey for anguillid leptocephali was conducted in March and April 2011 in the spawning area of the European eel that was designed to directly compare to collections made in the same way in 1983 and 1985. The catch rates of most anguilliform leptocephali were lower in 2011, possibly because of the slightly smaller plankton trawl used, but the relative abundances of European eel and American eel, Anguilla rostrata, leptocephali were much lower in 2011 than in 1983 and 1985 when compared to catches of other common leptocephali. The leptocephali assemblage was the same in 2011 as in previous years, but small larvae of mesopelagic snipe eels, Nemichthys scolopaceus, which spawn sympatrically with anguillid eels, were less abundant. Temperature fronts in the spawning area were also poorly defined compared to previous years. Although the causes for low anguillid larval abundances in 2011 are unclear, the fact that there are presently fewer European and American eel larvae in the spawning area than during previous time periods indicates that decreased larval abundance and lower eventual recruitment begin within the spawning area.

  5. Karyological and gonadal sex of eels (Anguilla anguilla) from the German Bight and the lower River Elbe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passakas, T.; Tesch, F.-W.

    1980-06-01

    Yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) taken during summer from random commercial trapnet samples in the littoral area of Helgoland (n=116) and from a freshwater area of the River Elbe near Hamburg (n=109) were examined with regard to their karyological (i.e. existence of female sex chromosomes) and gonadal sex. In 47 % and 21 % of the two samples, respectively, chromosomes were unidentifiable because of insufficient numbers of mitotic plates. All eels from Helgoland, except one phenotypically undetermined fish, exhibited female gonads: 48 had female sex chromosomes and 13 were karyologically males. As found previously in the River Elbe, eels with male gonads predominated (n=55); 25 were undifferentiated. Of the gonadal males 26 were karyological males and 16 karyological females; the rest could not be identified by chromosome patterns. In contrast, all but one of the Elbe eels with female gonads (n=28) had female sex chromosomes. Some aspects of the sex reversal documented in the eel are considered.

  6. Severe hemihypotrophy in a female infant with mosaic Turner syndrome: a variant of Russell-Silver syndrome?

    PubMed

    Li, Chumei C; Chodirker, Bernard N; Dawson, Angelika J; Chudley, Albert E

    2004-04-01

    Russell-Silver syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous condition. For most affected individuals, it represents a phenotype rather than a specific disorder. Although chromosomal anomalies, imprinting disorder, maternal uniparental disomy 7 as well as familial autosomal dominant and X-linked forms have been reported, the diagnosis remains determined on clinical grounds. Russell-Silver syndrome is characterized by asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation, postnatal failure to thrive, distinct facial features, limb asymmetry, excessive sweating and minor skin lesions. We report here a female infant who had a karyotype of 45,X on prenatal amniocytes. After delivery she was noted to have features not explainable on the basis of Turner syndrome. Her phenotype actually was quite consistent with Russell-Silver syndrome. She had a triangular face with prominent forehead, large eyes, a thin nose, malar hypoplasia, thin upper lip with down-turned corner of the mouth and a pointed chin. Marked body asymmetry was evident at birth, with the left side significantly smaller than the right side. She has a diphalangeal left fifth finger. Skin fibroblast culture and analysis showed a karyotype of 45,X on the right side and 45,X/46,XX on the left side. The case is another illustration of the genetic heterogeneity of Russell-Silver phenotype.

  7. Assessing patterns of hybridization between North Atlantic eels using diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, J M; Jacobsen, M W; Als, T D; Frydenberg, J; Magnussen, E; Jónsson, B; Jiang, X; Cheng, L; Bekkevold, D; Maes, G E; Bernatchez, L; Hansen, M M

    2014-06-01

    The two North Atlantic eel species, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the American eel (Anguilla rostrata), spawn in partial sympatry in the Sargasso Sea, providing ample opportunity to interbreed. In this study, we used a RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) sequencing approach to identify species-specific diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and design a low-density array that combined with screening of a diagnostic mitochondrial DNA marker. Eels from Iceland (N=159) and from the neighboring Faroe Islands (N=29) were genotyped, along with 94 larvae (49 European and 45 American eel) collected in the Sargasso Sea. Our SNP survey showed that the majority of Icelandic eels are pure European eels but there is also an important contribution of individuals of admixed ancestry (10.7%). Although most of the hybrids were identified as F1 hybrids from European eel female × American eel male crosses, backcrosses were also detected, including a first-generation backcross (F1 hybrid × pure European eel) and three individuals identified as second-generation backcrosses originating from American eel × F1 hybrid backcrosses interbreeding with pure European eels. In comparison, no hybrids were observed in the Faroe Islands, the closest bodies of land to Iceland. It is possible that hybrids show an intermediate migratory behaviour between the two parental species that ultimately brings hybrid larvae to the shores of Iceland, situated roughly halfway between the Sargasso Sea and Europe. Only two hybrids were observed among Sargasso Sea larvae, both backcrosses, but no F1 hybrids, that points to temporal variation in the occurrence of hybridization.

  8. Assessing patterns of hybridization between North Atlantic eels using diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Pujolar, J M; Jacobsen, M W; Als, T D; Frydenberg, J; Magnussen, E; Jónsson, B; Jiang, X; Cheng, L; Bekkevold, D; Maes, G E; Bernatchez, L; Hansen, M M

    2014-01-01

    The two North Atlantic eel species, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the American eel (Anguilla rostrata), spawn in partial sympatry in the Sargasso Sea, providing ample opportunity to interbreed. In this study, we used a RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) sequencing approach to identify species-specific diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and design a low-density array that combined with screening of a diagnostic mitochondrial DNA marker. Eels from Iceland (N=159) and from the neighboring Faroe Islands (N=29) were genotyped, along with 94 larvae (49 European and 45 American eel) collected in the Sargasso Sea. Our SNP survey showed that the majority of Icelandic eels are pure European eels but there is also an important contribution of individuals of admixed ancestry (10.7%). Although most of the hybrids were identified as F1 hybrids from European eel female × American eel male crosses, backcrosses were also detected, including a first-generation backcross (F1 hybrid × pure European eel) and three individuals identified as second-generation backcrosses originating from American eel × F1 hybrid backcrosses interbreeding with pure European eels. In comparison, no hybrids were observed in the Faroe Islands, the closest bodies of land to Iceland. It is possible that hybrids show an intermediate migratory behaviour between the two parental species that ultimately brings hybrid larvae to the shores of Iceland, situated roughly halfway between the Sargasso Sea and Europe. Only two hybrids were observed among Sargasso Sea larvae, both backcrosses, but no F1 hybrids, that points to temporal variation in the occurrence of hybridization. PMID:24424165

  9. Demographic characteristics of American eel in the Potomac River drainage, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, K.R.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the demographic characteristics of the American eel Anguilla rostrata over broad spatial scales are scarce. Eels in the Shenandoah River drainage and lower Potomac River tributaries of Virginia were sampled over 2 years in both inland and near-coastal areas to describe the demographic characteristics in each area and document drainagewide patterns. Eels from the inland Shenandoah River drainage were significantly longer (median = 767 mm total length) and older (median = 11.5 years) than those found in the near-coastal Potomac River tributaries (median total length = 142 mm; median age = 2.0 years). In addition, the sex ratio varied in Potomac River tributaries, but only female were found in the Shenandoah River drainage. Catch per unit effort decreased with increasing distance inland and was further depressed upstream of some dams. Eel demographics in the Shenandoah drainage were similar to those observed in other studies done at distances exceeding 300 river kilometers (rkm) inland, whereas the demographics of Potomac River tributary eels were similar to those observed in other coastal and near-coastal areas. Large female eels found 300-500 rkm inland in this study may be especially important to the population's reproductive potential because of their greater fecundity. Investigations aimed at describing the demographics of eels in a region should sample throughout drainages to ensure accurate characterization. Effective management of eels will require innovative approaches that recognize the large-scale, complex structure of the population.

  10. Metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile as biomarkers of pollution in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from German rivers.

    PubMed

    Nagel, F; Kammann, U; Wagner, C; Hanel, R

    2012-02-01

    In the light of the alarming decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) population, there is an urgent need to define ecological indicators for eel habitat quality. Due to an increasing shortage of glass eels available for local stock enhancement, the decision of whether restocking is a valuable management tool to increase high-quality silver eel escapement to the sea needs to be evaluated. Organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are among the major threats to fish in their habitat. Therefore, the aim of the investigation presented here was to examine metabolites of PAHs in eel bile as one possible marker for habitat quality. In total, 170 yellow eels were collected in the rivers Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Havel, Schlei, Eider, Trave, Warnow, Peene, Uecker, and Oder in 2009. PAH metabolites in eel bile were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Metabolites of pyrene and phenanthrene were investigated. Concentrations of PAH metabolites in eel bile varied significantly between several rivers, with the highest mean concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene in eel bile from the river Trave (2421 and 632 ng/ml). Moreover, huge differences in the ratio of 1-hydroxypyrene to 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, with the highest mean value in eel bile from the river Ems (7.43) and the lowest mean value in eel bile from the river Uecker (0.70), indicate different sources of PAH contamination. A comparative analysis of PAH-metabolite contamination of eels in different river systems is seen as a first step toward a classification of freshwater habitats for restocking purposes.

  11. Dietary copper supplementation improves pelt characteristics of female silver fox (Vulpes fulva) during the winter fur-growing season.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei; Liu, Hanlu; Luo, Guoliang; Chang, Zhongjuan; Liu, Fenghua; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Danli; Yue, Zhigang; Zhang, Haihua; Li, Guangyu

    2014-07-01

    Copper has an essential role in normal fur pigmentation and fur quality. This study evaluated the effects of cupric citrate (CuCit) supplementation on growth, nutrients metabolism and pelt characteristics of the female silver fox (Vulpes fulva). Fifty age-matched female silver foxes with similar body weights were randomly divided into five dietary groups for 58 days during the winter fur-growing season. The basal diet contained 4.92 mg/kg copper. Groups I-V were supplemented with 6, 30, 60, 90 or 150 mg Cu from CuCit per 1 kg dry matter basal diet. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher (P<0.05) in those fed 90 mg/kg Cu than those fed 150 mg/kg Cu. Pelt total thickness was significantly higher (P<0.05) in those fed 30 mg/kg Cu than foxes fed 6 mg/kg Cu supplemented diet, but were similar to the other groups. Length of guard hair was significantly lower (P<0.05) in those fed 90 mg/kg Cu than fed 6 mg/kg Cu and 30 mg/kg Cu, but were similar to the other groups. Length of underhair was significantly higher (P<0.05) in those fed 6 mg/kg Cu than those fed 90 mg/kg Cu, but was similar to the other groups. Considering decreasing environmental contamination and improving pelt performance, supplementing 30 mg/kg Cu from CuCit (actual copper 35 mg/kg dry matter) is appropriate for female silver fox.

  12. The occurrence of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Irish waters.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Brendan; Poole, Russell; Corcoran, John; Anninou, Pinelopi; Boyle, Brian; Joyce, Eileen; Barry Foley, M; McGovern, Evin

    2010-04-01

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a relatively high lipid, long lived species capable of living in a variety of brackish, fresh and marine habitats. As such, eels can accumulate organic pollutants and have been incorporated into environmental monitoring programs as a suitable "bioindicator" species for the determination of the levels of organic contaminants within different water bodies. The global eel stock is now in decline and while the cause of the collapse remains unidentified, it is likely to include a combination of anthropogenic mortality in addition to environmental degradation. This study provides valuable data on a range of contaminants (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, HBCD, TBBPA and PBBs) and extractable lipid levels in eel muscle tissue collected from five Irish catchments. Extractable lipid levels were lower in the yellow eels compared to those in the silver eels. These levels were similar to those reported elsewhere and it has been posited that a decline in the lipid content in yellow eels may have consequences for the future viability of the stock. With the exception of higher substituted dioxins (especially OCDD), in three samples collected from one catchment (Burrishoole) in the West of Ireland, POP levels in general were determined to be low in eels from Irish waters compared to those in other countries.

  13. Fecundity of the American eel Anguilla rostrata at 45°N in Maine, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbin, G.P.; McCleave, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The northern portion of the geographic range of the American eel Anguilla rostrata may contribute a great proportion of the reproductive potential to this panmictic species because of apparent increases in average female size and female percentage with latitude. The regressions of fecundity on body length and on body weight of 63 female eels captured at about 45° N latitude on their spawning migration to the sea were log F= 1·2601 + 2·9642 log L and log F= 4·1646+0·9153 log W, where F is fecundity, L is total length (cm), and W is total weight (g). Length and weight each explained about 90% of the variation in fecundity. Estimates of fecundity from counts of aliquots of eggs ranged from 1·84 million to 19·92 million eggs for eels ranging in length from 45 to 113 cm, nearly the range of sizes of migrating females reported in the literature. Fecundities of the American eel were greater than reported in one study at about 37° N and greater than reported for the European eel, A. anguilla, shortfin eel, A. australis, and longfin eel, A. dieffenbachii. If a geographic cline in fecundity does exist in American eels, it is established anew each generation because the species forms a single panmictic population.

  14. [The effect of the photoperiod on steroid hormone secretion, on seasonal reproductive rhythms and on fertility in female silver foxes].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V

    1999-01-01

    The silver fox is a strictly seasonal breeder and photoperiod is a main factor that regulates reproduction in this species. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of different skeleton photoperiods on the induction of early estrus, hormonal activity of gonads and fertility in anestrous silver foxes. Adult females (n = 48) were exposed to short days (9.5L:14.5D) from September until March. Females (n = 12) kept under the natural daylight conditions served as the control. The experimental groups received illumination in two fractions: 7- and 2.5-hour long. The 7-hour period comprised natural daylight from 10:00 to 17:00 and an additional light pulse at night (00-02:30, group 1), in the morning (06:00-08:30, group 2) and in the evening (17:30-20:00, group 3). There are three types of response in group 1. A half of animals showed signs of estrus in November-December, 2.5-3.0 months before the natural reproductive season. The second part displayed no changes until the end of the experiment indicating photorefractoriness. The third part had estrus during the natural reproductive season. Photoperiod 2 and 3 did not affect the temporal pattern of reproductive rhythm. All artificial photoperiods increased the estradiol level and decreased the progesterone, cortisol and testosterone levels during the anestrous phase and suppressed the ovarian hormonal activity during the follicular and luteal phases but photoperiod 1 had the most pronounced effects. Fertility was decreased in all experimental groups. Our results suggest that the photoperiod with a light pulse at night can induce early estrus and ovarian hormonal activity in anestrous females. The data obtained suggest that decreased fertility under these conditions could be due to altered ovarian hormonal secretion.

  15. The first success of glass eel production in the world: basic biology on fish reproduction advances new applied technology in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Hirohiko; Tanaka, Hideki; Ohta, Hiromi; Unuma, Tatsuya; Nomura, Kazuharu

    2005-04-01

    The eel has long been esteemed as an important food fish in the world, especially in Japan, and has been used as an experimental fish for many fields of fish physiology. However, the decreases in eel resources have been a serious concern in recent years. The catches of glass eels as seedlings for aquaculture have shown a long-term decrease in both Europe and East Asia. To increase eel resources, the development of techniques for artificial induction of maturation and spawning and rearing their larvae have been eagerly desired. Recent progress of reproductive physiology of fish, especially mechanisms of oocyte maturation and ovulation in female and of spermatozoa maturation in male, facilitate to establish techniques for hormonal induction of maturation and spawning in sexually immature eels. With persistent effort to development of rearing techniques of larvae, we have first succeeded to produce glass eel. These applied techniques are may contribute to understand the basic reproductive physiology of the eel.

  16. [Effect of adrenocorticotropin on the progesterone level in the peripheral blood and on adrenal progesterone production in vitro in female silver foxes].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V

    1988-07-01

    The plasma progesterone increased following a single injection of ACTH (3 ME/kg). The progesterone production was also increased by ACTH after incubation of adrenals in vitro. The data suggest that the adrenal glands of female silver foxes are capable not only of secreting progesterone, but also of responding to ACTH with a further increase in the progesterone secretion.

  17. Glass-eel-stage American Eels respond to conspecific odor as a function of concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Galbraith, Heather S.; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    The American Eel Anguilla rostrata has experienced staggering population declines in recent decades and is now the focus of restoration efforts. Studies have demonstrated that olfaction is critical to anguillid behavior and that glass eels (the life stage which migrates inland from saltwater to freshwater) are attracted to conspecific washings. We evaluated conspecific cueing as a potential mechanism for American Eel inland migration coordination by assessing (1) the affinity of glass eels to conspecific washings, (2) the concentration–response relationships, and (3) changes in responsiveness to washings during the glass eel-to-elver transition. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to glass eel washings over a wide range of concentrations (0.20–0.40 g of glass eels·L−1·h−1), and a logarithmic function provided the best fit to the concentration–response relationship. When given a choice between two conspecific washings of higher and lower concentrations, the glass eels generally preferred the higher concentration. Responses to undiluted glass eel washings did not significantly differ among stage-3–7 glass eels, although stage-7 eels were not attracted to the washings, whereas the other stages were. Washing affinity remained similar over the course of several weeks. These results support aspects of the conspecific cueing hypothesis at the glass eel life stage under laboratory conditions, suggesting that conspecific cueing is an important component of migration coordination among juvenile American Eels and warrants additional study.

  18. Evolution of the freshwater eels.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, J; Tsukamoto, K

    1997-01-01

    The freshwater anguillid eels have an unusual life history and world-wide distribution. Questions about the phylogenetic relationships of this group and how their long spawning migrations and larval phase may contribute to their global distribution have not been addressed. This paper is first presentation of molecular phylogeny of Anguilla species, and based on this phylogenetic tree we suggest new aspect of the evolution of this group. Namely, ancestral eels originated during the Eocene or earlier, in the western Pacific Ocean near present-day Indonesia. A group derived from this ancestor dispersed westward, probably by larval transport in the global circum-equatorial current through the northern edge of the Tethys Sea. This group split into the ancestor of the European and American eels, which entered into the Atlantic Ocean, and a second group, which dispersed southward and split into the east African species and Australian species. Thus the world-wide distribution of the eel family can be understood from knowledge of continental drift, ocean currents, a specialized larva and evolutionary forces favoring dispersal and speciation of segregated gene pool.

  19. Pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH are oppositely regulated by the activin/follistatin system in a basal teleost, the eel.

    PubMed

    Aroua, Salima; Maugars, Gersende; Jeng, Shan-Ru; Chang, Ching-Fong; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Rousseau, Karine; Dufour, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    European eels are blocked at a prepubertal silver stage due to a deficient production of pituitary gonadotropins. We investigated the potential role of activin/follistatin system in the control of eel gonadotropins. Through the development of qPCR assays for European eel activin β(B) and follistatin, we first analyzed the tissue distribution of the expression of these two genes. Both activin β(B) and follistatin are expressed in the brain, pituitary and gonads. In addition, a striking expression of both transcripts was also found in the retina and in adipose tissue. The effects of recombinant human activins and follistatin on eel gonadotropin gene expression were studied using primary cultures of eel pituitary cells. Activins A and B strongly stimulated FSHβ subunit expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, activin reduced LHβ expression, an inhibitory effect which was highlighted in the presence of testosterone, a known activator of eel LHβ expression. No effect of activin was observed on other pituitary hormones. Follistatin antagonized both the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of activin on FSHβ and LHβ expression, respectively. Activin is the first major stimulator of FSH expression evidenced in the eel. These results in a basal teleost further support the ancient origin and strong conservation of the activin/follistatin system in the control of FSH in vertebrates. In contrast, the opposite regulation of FSH and LH may have emerged in the teleost lineage.

  20. Chemically Contaminated Eel Fed to Pregnant and Lactating Mouse Dams Causes Hyperactivity in Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Imen; Soualeh, Nidhal; Bohn, Torsten; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouyaed, Jaouad

    2017-08-15

    This study examined whether perinatal exposure to polluted eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) induces changes in the locomotor activity of offspring mice across lifespan (post-natal days (PNDs) 47 - 329), using the open field and the home cage activity tests. Dams were exposed during gestation and lactation, through diets enriched in eels naturally contaminated with pollutants including PCBs. Analysis of the eel muscle focused on the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) indicator PCBs (Σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180). Four groups of dams (n = 10 per group) received either a standard diet without eels or eels (0.8 mg/kg/day) containing 85, 216, or 400 ng/kg/day of ϵ6 NDL-PCBs. The open field test showed that early-life exposure to polluted eels increased locomotion in female offspring of exposed dams but not in males, compared to controls. This hyperlocomotion appeared later in life, at PNDs 195 and 329 (up to 32 % increase, p < 0.05). In addition, overactivity was observed in the home cage test at PND 305: exposed offspring females showed a faster overall locomotion speed (3.6 - 4.2 cm/s) than controls (2.9 cm/s, p <0.05); again, males remained unaffected. Covered distances in the home cage test were only elevated significantly in offspring females exposed to highest PCB concentrations (3411 ± 590 cm vs. 1377 ± 114 cm, p < 0.001). These results suggest that early-life exposure to polluted eels containing dietary contaminants including PCBs caused late, persistent and gender-dependent neurobehavioral hyperactive effects in offspring mice. Furthermore, female hyperactivity was associated with a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex.

  1. Passage of downstream migrant American eels through an airlift-assisted deep bypass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Noreika, John

    2016-01-01

    Traditional downstream guidance and bypass facilities for anadromous fishes (i.e., surface bypasses, surface guidance structures, and behavioral barriers) have frequently been ineffective for anguillid eels. Because eels typically spend the majority of their time near the bottom in the vicinity of intake structures, deep bypass structures with entrances near the bottom hold promise for increased effectiveness, thereby aiding in the recovery of this important species. A new design of a deep bypass system that uses airlift technology (the Conte Airlift Bypass) to induce flow in a bypass pipe was tested in a simulated intake entrance environment under controlled laboratory conditions. Water velocities of 0.9–1.5 m s−1 could be generated at the bypass entrance (opening with 0.073 m2 area), with corresponding flows through the bypass pipe of 0.07–0.11 m3 s−1. Gas saturation and hydrostatic pressure within the bypass pipe did not vary appreciably from a control (no air) condition under tested airflows. Migratory silver-phase American eels (Anguilla rostrata) tested during dark conditions readily located, entered, and passed through the bypass; initial avoidance rates (eels approaching but not entering the bypass entrance) were lower at higher entrance velocities. Eels that investigated the bypass pipe entrance tended to enter headfirst, but those that then exited the pipe upstream did so more frequently at lower entrance velocities. Eels appeared to swim against the flow while being transported downstream through the pipe; median transit times through the bypass for each test velocity ranged from 5.8 to 12.2 s, with transit time decreasing with increasing entrance velocity. Eels did not show strong avoidance of the vertical section of the pipe which contained injected air. No mortality or injury of bypassed eels was observed, and individual eels repeatedly passed through the bypass at rates of up to 40 passes per hour, suggesting that individuals do not

  2. EELS from organic crystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydson, R.; Eddleston, M. D.; Jones, W.; Seabourne, C. R.; Hondow, N.

    2014-06-01

    We report the use of the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for providing light element chemical composition information from organic, crystalline pharmaceutical materials including theophylline and paracetamol and discuss how this type of data can complement transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and electron diffraction when investigating polymorphism. We also discuss the potential for the extraction of bonding information using electron loss near-edge structure (ELNES).

  3. Expression and ontogeny of growth hormone (Gh) in the protogynous hermaphroditic ricefield eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiang; Chen, Wanping; Shi, Shuxia; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Lihong

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a single-chain polypeptide hormone mainly secreted by somatotropes of the anterior pituitary gland and is an important regulator of somatic growth in vertebrates including teleosts. In this study, a polyclonal antiserum against ricefield eel Gh was generated and the expression of Gh at the mRNA and protein levels was analyzed. Both RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that Gh was predominantly expressed in the pituitary glands of ricefield eels. The immunoreactive Gh signals were localized to the multicellular layers of the adenohypophysis adjacent to the neurohypophysis in ricefield eels. Ontogenetic analysis showed that immunoreactive Gh signals could be detected in the pituitary glands of ricefield eel embryos as early as 3 days post-fertilization. During the sex change from female to male, the levels of the immunoreactive Gh signals in the pituitary glands of the ricefield eels peaked at the intersexual stage. These results suggest that Gh in the pituitary glands may be associated with embryonic development before hatching, as well as with the sex change in the adult ricefield eels, possibly via the classical endocrine manner.

  4. [Circadian changes in the levels of sex and glucocorticoid hormones in the peripheral blood plasma of female silver foxes].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V

    1995-10-01

    Domesticated and wild silver fox vixens were shown to differ in their diurnal contents of cortisol and progesterone in the blood plasma. The data obtained reveal that domestication of silver fox vixens modifies their diurnal rhythms of the adrenocortical steroid activity.

  5. A question of origin: dioxin-like PCBs and their relevance in stock management of European eels.

    PubMed

    Freese, Marko; Sühring, Roxana; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Wolschke, Hendrik; Magath, Victoria; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hanel, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The stock of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) has reached an all-time low in 2011. Spawner quality of mature eels in terms of health status and fitness is considered one of the key elements for successful migration and reproduction. Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are known persistent organic pollutants potentially affecting the reproductive capability and health status of eels throughout their entire lifetime. In this study, muscle tissue samples of 192 European eels of all continental life stages from 6 different water bodies and 13 sampling sites were analyzed for contamination with lipophilic dl-PCBs to investigate the potential relevance of the respective habitat in light of eel stock management. Results of this study reveal habitat-dependent and life history stage-related accumulation of targeted PCBs. Sum concentrations of targeted PCBs differed significantly between life stages and inter-habitat variability in dl-PCB levels and -profiles was observed. Among all investigated life stages, migrant silver eels were found to be the most suitable life history stage to represent their particular water system due to habitat dwell-time and their terminal contamination status. With reference to a possible negative impact of dl-PCBs on health and the reproductive capability of eels, it was hypothesized that those growing up in less polluted habitats have a better chance to produce healthy offspring than those growing up in highly polluted habitats. We suggest that the contamination status of water systems is fundamental for the life cycle of eels and needs to be considered in stock management and restocking programs.

  6. Geothermal eel farm in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Thomka, J.; Sarlinova, K.

    1998-12-01

    Turcianske Teplice, a small town in west-central Slovakia, has written records of using thermal waters since 1281. In 1992, an eel raising farm was started on the outskirts of the town and since 1994, it has been operated by the firm of Janex Slovensko. The farm, using a specialized water recirculation system, raises a species of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla). A 220-meter deep well at 42 C provides 48 gpm to the facility for heating through a plate heat exchanger. This is the maximum flow permitted, so as not to influence the springs and wells at the spa about 1 km away. For this reason, the flow is monitored carefully by the state. A second geothermal well at 52 C and 1,500 meters deep is used only as an observation well. Cold water, which is heated by the geothermal water, is pumped from wells near the Turiec River 1.8 km away at 8 to 12 C, depending upon the season, for use in the various holding or raising tanks. The operation of the farm is described.

  7. Magnetic compass orientation in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Durif, Caroline M F; Browman, Howard I; Phillips, John B; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn; Stockhausen, Hans H

    2013-01-01

    European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at geographic North, South, East, or West. Eels oriented in a manner that was related to the tank in which they were housed before the test. At lower temperature (under 12°C), their orientation relative to magnetic North corresponded to the direction of their displacement from the holding tank. At higher temperatures (12-17°C), eels showed bimodal orientation along an axis perpendicular to the axis of their displacement. These temperature-related shifts in orientation may be linked to the changes in behavior that occur between the warm season (during which eels are foraging) and the colder fall and winter (during which eels undertake their migrations). These observations support the conclusion that 1. eels have a magnetic compass, and 2. they use this sense to orient in a direction that they have registered moments before they are displaced. The adaptive advantage of having a magnetic compass and learning the direction in which they have been displaced becomes clear when set in the context of the eel's seaward migration. For example, if their migration is halted or blocked, as it is the case when environmental conditions become unfavorable or when they encounter a barrier, eels would be able to resume their movements along their old bearing when conditions become favorable again or when they pass by the barrier.

  8. Histological and hormonal changes in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) after exposure to environmental cocaine concentration.

    PubMed

    Gay, F; Ferrandino, I; Monaco, A; Cerulo, M; Capasso, G; Capaldo, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of histological and hormonal changes induced in the European eel from environmental concentrations of cocaine. Silver eels were exposed to 20 ng L(-1) of cocaine during 50 days; at the same time, control, vehicle control and two post-exposure recovery groups (3 and 10 days) were made. The general morphology of the skin and the intestine, and the plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol and dopamine were evaluated. In the skin, cocaine decreased the number and size of mucous cells, increased the thickness of the epidermis and altered the club cells and the basal lamina. In the intestine, cocaine increased the thickness of the epithelium and the number of mucous cells and reactivated the structure of the intestine and of the intestinal musculature. Moreover, cocaine increased plasma prolactin, cortisol and dopamine levels. These results suggest that cocaine induced histological changes, directly and/or through the hormonal changes observed. Considering the complex life cycle of the eel, the changes induced by cocaine in the skin, the intestine and the endocrine system could threaten the ability of the eel to successfully migrate and reproduce.

  9. [Effect of lighting schedules on the ontogeny of gonad and adrenal endocrine function in female silver-black foxes Vulpes vulpes with two genetically determined types of behavior].

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, N S; Krass, P M; Trut, L N; Ivanova, L N; Beliaev, D K

    1980-01-01

    Additional illumination of animals nonselected for domesticative behaviour, results in the earlier increase of estradiol level in the blood and in higher production of this hormone by the gonads during pubertal period. Artificial illumination regimes do not significantly affect estradiol-producing activity of the ovaries in animals selected for domesticated behaviour. At the same time, additional illumination of the females with this type of behaviour increased progesteron-producing function of the adrenals during sexual maturation. Thus, selection of silver foxes for the domesticated type of behaviour affects the sensitivity of hormonal function of the ovaries and adrenals to photoperiodic factor of the environment.

  10. Opportunistic spawning of tropical anguillid eels Anguilla bicolor bicolor and A. bengalensis bengalensis

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Takaomi; Abdul Kadir, Siti Raudah

    2017-01-01

    Information on the spawning migration, spawning ecology and life history of tropical eels in the Indo-Pacific region is very limited. The physiological and morphological characteristics of tropical freshwater eels, Anguilla bicolor bicolor and A. bengalensis bengalensis collected in Malaysia were examined in relation to their downstream migration patterns. A total of 455 eels were collected over monthly intervals between February 2014 and January 2016 and we examined both gonadosomatic index and gonad histology features. In both species, close positive relationships between advanced maturation stages and eye, fin, gonadosomatic indexes were found in males and females. A. bengalensis bengalensis was found to be larger and heavier than A. bicolor bicolor at the time of seaward migration. The final stage of maturation for seaward spawning migration occurred throughout the year in A. bicolor bicolor, although that of A. bengalensis bengalensis was estimated to six months due to the limited number of samples. These results suggest that year-round spawning in the open ocean occurs in the tropical eel. This non-seasonal spawning ecology is notably different from that of temperate eels, which are known to follow a well-defined spawning season, with spawning migrations generally taking place during autumn months. PMID:28134305

  11. Magnetic Compass Orientation in the European Eel

    PubMed Central

    Durif, Caroline M. F.; Browman, Howard I.; Phillips, John B.; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Vøllestad, L. Asbjørn; Stockhausen, Hans H.

    2013-01-01

    European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (∼ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at geographic North, South, East, or West. Eels oriented in a manner that was related to the tank in which they were housed before the test. At lower temperature (under 12°C), their orientation relative to magnetic North corresponded to the direction of their displacement from the holding tank. At higher temperatures (12–17°C), eels showed bimodal orientation along an axis perpendicular to the axis of their displacement. These temperature-related shifts in orientation may be linked to the changes in behavior that occur between the warm season (during which eels are foraging) and the colder fall and winter (during which eels undertake their migrations). These observations support the conclusion that 1. eels have a magnetic compass, and 2. they use this sense to orient in a direction that they have registered moments before they are displaced. The adaptive advantage of having a magnetic compass and learning the direction in which they have been displaced becomes clear when set in the context of the eel’s seaward migration. For example, if their migration is halted or blocked, as it is the case when environmental conditions become unfavorable or when they encounter a barrier, eels would be able to resume their movements along their old bearing when conditions become favorable again or when they pass by the barrier. PMID:23554997

  12. Application of EELS in Materials Science

    SciTech Connect

    Keast, V.J.

    2012-11-15

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) has become widely used for the analysis of the composition and electronic structure of materials at the nanoscale. This tutorial review provides an overview of the theory and applications of the technique and a few examples are provided to illustrate the type of information available. Some of the recent developments and future prospects of EELS are discussed.

  13. Application of STEM/EELS to Plasmon-Related Effects in Optical Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Camden, Jon P.

    2015-01-29

    The last decade has seen an explosion in the study of plasmonic materials, with current applications including surface-enhanced spectroscopy, imaging beyond the diffraction limit, solar energy harvesting, and ultrasensitive detection. This proposal utilizes electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to explore the near-field enhancements encountered upon excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance. In particular we have studied Fano interferences using optical and electron energy-loss spectroscopies (EELS). Single silver nanocubes were utilized in this study due to the substrate-mediated hybridization of the primitive dipolar and quadrupolar plasmon modes that give rise to the Fano phenomenon. The cube at substrate system provides a unique opportunity to study the plasmonic energy transfer from metallic nanoparticles to neighboring materials, which is an essential component of plasmon-enhanced solar harvesting devices.

  14. The European eel quality database: towards a pan-European monitoring of eel quality.

    PubMed

    Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Evans, Derek; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Poole, Russell

    2011-12-01

    The stocks of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are in decline and there is an increasing awareness that poor health status due to contaminants and/or diseases might be a key element in this decline and might be a hindrance to recovery. Many countries have started compiling data on the health status of eels in their water bodies. Objectives for these monitoring actions are diverse and there is a large amount of information collected by EU member countries. However, this information is widely scattered over Europe in agencies, institutes or universities. As there is a growing need to collect and report on data on the health status of the eel on international level, the Joint EIFAC/ICES Working Group on Eels initiated in September 2007 the set up of an European Eel Quality Database to collect recent data of contaminants and diseases over the distribution area of the eel. This paper describes the aim, the set up and future development of the database in order to give it greater publicity and to call on scientists or managers to submit data on eel health status. The database represents now the first comprehensive pan-European compilation of eel health data, including data from over 10,000 eels from approximately 1,200 sites over 14 countries. Preliminary work has indicated a number of shortcomings and future developments will be needed. Guaranteeing further development of the database, harmonisation of methods, quality assurance, and setting up harmonised eel monitoring strategies over Europe will be a great challenge and will need pan-European cooperative work.

  15. Animal Behavior: Electric Eels Amp Up for an Easy Meal.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2015-11-16

    The high voltage discharge generated by electric eels is a powerful predatory weapon. A new study shows that eels exploit basic physics to increase the voltage delivered to prey, inducing muscle fatigue that turns challenging prey items into easy targets.

  16. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  17. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  18. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  19. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  20. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  1. Metagenomics of the Mucosal Microbiota of European Eels

    PubMed Central

    Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    European eels are an economically important and threatened species that are prone to rapid collapse in farm conditions. Using metagenomics, we show that the eel mucosal microbiota has specific features distinguishing it from the surrounding aquatic community. This is a first step in dissecting the resident microbiota of this critical barrier that may have implications for maintenance of healthy eel populations. PMID:25377710

  2. Duplicated leptin receptors in two species of eel bring new insights into the evolution of the leptin system in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Morini, Marina; Pasquier, Jérémy; Dirks, Ron; van den Thillart, Guido; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Rousseau, Karine; Dufour, Sylvie; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    Since its discovery in mammals as a key-hormone in reproduction and metabolism, leptin has been identified in an increasing number of tetrapods and teleosts. Tetrapods possess only one leptin gene, while most teleosts possess two leptin genes, as a result of the teleost third whole genome duplication event (3R). Leptin acts through a specific receptor (LEPR). In the European and Japanese eels, we identified two leptin genes, and for the first time in vertebrates, two LEPR genes. Synteny analyses indicated that eel LEPRa and LEPRb result from teleost 3R. LEPRb seems to have been lost in the teleost lineage shortly after the elopomorph divergence. Quantitative PCRs revealed a wide distribution of leptins and LEPRs in the European eel, including tissues involved in metabolism and reproduction. Noticeably, leptin1 was expressed in fat tissue, while leptin2 in the liver, reflecting subfunctionalization. Four-month fasting had no impact on the expression of leptins and LEPRs in control European eels. This might be related to the remarkable adaptation of silver eel metabolism to long-term fasting throughout the reproductive oceanic migration. In contrast, sexual maturation induced differential increases in the expression of leptins and LEPRs in the BPG-liver axis. Leptin2 was strikingly upregulated in the liver, the central organ of the reproductive metabolic challenge in teleosts. LEPRs were differentially regulated during sexual maturation, which may have contributed to the conservation of the duplicated LEPRs in this species. This suggests an ancient and positive role of the leptin system in the vertebrate reproductive function. This study brings new insights on the evolutionary history of the leptin system in vertebrates. Among extant vertebrates, the eel represents a unique case of duplicated leptins and leptin receptors as a result of 3R.

  3. Duplicated Leptin Receptors in Two Species of Eel Bring New Insights into the Evolution of the Leptin System in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Morini, Marina; Pasquier, Jérémy; Dirks, Ron; van den Thillart, Guido; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Rousseau, Karine; Dufour, Sylvie; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    Since its discovery in mammals as a key-hormone in reproduction and metabolism, leptin has been identified in an increasing number of tetrapods and teleosts. Tetrapods possess only one leptin gene, while most teleosts possess two leptin genes, as a result of the teleost third whole genome duplication event (3R). Leptin acts through a specific receptor (LEPR). In the European and Japanese eels, we identified two leptin genes, and for the first time in vertebrates, two LEPR genes. Synteny analyses indicated that eel LEPRa and LEPRb result from teleost 3R. LEPRb seems to have been lost in the teleost lineage shortly after the elopomorph divergence. Quantitative PCRs revealed a wide distribution of leptins and LEPRs in the European eel, including tissues involved in metabolism and reproduction. Noticeably, leptin1 was expressed in fat tissue, while leptin2 in the liver, reflecting subfunctionalization. Four-month fasting had no impact on the expression of leptins and LEPRs in control European eels. This might be related to the remarkable adaptation of silver eel metabolism to long-term fasting throughout the reproductive oceanic migration. In contrast, sexual maturation induced differential increases in the expression of leptins and LEPRs in the BPG-liver axis. Leptin2 was strikingly upregulated in the liver, the central organ of the reproductive metabolic challenge in teleosts. LEPRs were differentially regulated during sexual maturation, which may have contributed to the conservation of the duplicated LEPRs in this species. This suggests an ancient and positive role of the leptin system in the vertebrate reproductive function. This study brings new insights on the evolutionary history of the leptin system in vertebrates. Among extant vertebrates, the eel represents a unique case of duplicated leptins and leptin receptors as a result of 3R. PMID:25946034

  4. Pop up satellite tags impair swimming performance and energetics of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Methling, Caroline; Tudorache, Christian; Skov, Peter V; Steffensen, John F

    2011-01-01

    Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) have recently been applied in attempts to follow the oceanic spawning migration of the European eel. PSATs are quite large, and in all likelihood their hydraulic drag constitutes an additional cost during swimming, which remains to be quantified, as does the potential implication for successful migration. Silver eels (L(T) = 598.6±29 mm SD, N = 9) were subjected to swimming trials in a Steffensen-type swim tunnel at increasing speeds of 0.3-0.9 body lengths s(-1), first without and subsequently with, a scaled down PSAT dummy attached. The tag significantly increased oxygen consumption (MO(2)) during swimming and elevated minimum cost of transport (COT(min)) by 26%. Standard (SMR) and active metabolic rate (AMR) as well as metabolic scope remained unaffected, suggesting that the observed effects were caused by increased drag. Optimal swimming speed (U(opt)) was unchanged, whereas critical swimming speed (U(crit)) decreased significantly. Swimming with a PSAT altered swimming kinematics as verified by significant changes to tail beat frequency (f), body wave speed (v) and Strouhal number (St). The results demonstrate that energy expenditure, swimming performance and efficiency all are significantly affected in migrating eels with external tags.

  5. Pop Up Satellite Tags Impair Swimming Performance and Energetics of the European Eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    PubMed Central

    Methling, Caroline; Tudorache, Christian; Skov, Peter V.; Steffensen, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) have recently been applied in attempts to follow the oceanic spawning migration of the European eel. PSATs are quite large, and in all likelihood their hydraulic drag constitutes an additional cost during swimming, which remains to be quantified, as does the potential implication for successful migration. Silver eels (LT = 598.6±29 mm SD, N = 9) were subjected to swimming trials in a Steffensen-type swim tunnel at increasing speeds of 0.3–0.9 body lengths s−1, first without and subsequently with, a scaled down PSAT dummy attached. The tag significantly increased oxygen consumption (MO2) during swimming and elevated minimum cost of transport (COTmin) by 26%. Standard (SMR) and active metabolic rate (AMR) as well as metabolic scope remained unaffected, suggesting that the observed effects were caused by increased drag. Optimal swimming speed (Uopt) was unchanged, whereas critical swimming speed (Ucrit) decreased significantly. Swimming with a PSAT altered swimming kinematics as verified by significant changes to tail beat frequency (f), body wave speed (v) and Strouhal number (St). The results demonstrate that energy expenditure, swimming performance and efficiency all are significantly affected in migrating eels with external tags. PMID:21687674

  6. Recruitment collapse and population structure of the European eel shaped by local ocean current dynamics.

    PubMed

    Baltazar-Soares, Miguel; Biastoch, Arne; Harrod, Chris; Hanel, Reinhold; Marohn, Lasse; Prigge, Enno; Evans, Derek; Bodles, Kenneth; Behrens, Erik; Böning, Claus W; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2014-01-06

    Worldwide, exploited marine fish stocks are under threat of collapse [1]. Although the drivers behind such collapses are diverse, it is becoming evident that failure to consider evolutionary processes in fisheries management can have drastic consequences on a species' long-term viability [2]. The European eel (Anguilla anguilla; Linnaeus, 1758) is no exception: not only does the steep decline in recruitment observed in the 1980s [3, 4] remain largely unexplained, the punctual detection of genetic structure also raises questions regarding the existence of a single panmictic population [5-7]. With its extended Transatlantic dispersal, pinpointing the role of ocean dynamics is crucial to understand both the population structure and the widespread decline of this species. Hence, we combined dispersal simulations using a half century of high-resolution ocean model data with population genetics tools. We show that regional atmospherically driven ocean current variations in the Sargasso Sea were the major driver of the onset of the sharp decline in eel recruitment in the beginning of the 1980s. The simulations combined with genotyping of natural coastal eel populations furthermore suggest that unexpected evidence of coastal genetic differentiation is consistent with cryptic female philopatric behavior within the Sargasso Sea. Such results demonstrate the key constraint of the variable oceanic environment on the European eel population.

  7. Occurrence of POPs and other persistent organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from the Loire estuary, France.

    PubMed

    Couderc, M; Poirier, L; Zalouk-Vergnoux, A; Kamari, A; Blanchet-Letrouvé, I; Marchand, P; Vénisseau, A; Veyrand, B; Mouneyrac, C; Le Bizec, B

    2015-02-01

    The chemical contamination of the Loire estuary by three classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the perfluorinated and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), and three families of organic contaminants, the alkylphenols (APs), the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (OH-PAHs) and the bisphenol A (BPA) were investigated in the muscles and bile of European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Yellow eels (n=30) were caught in three different points along the estuary to highlight variations between sites and sources of contaminations. Silver eels (n=15) were also studied to compare contaminant impregnation between different life stages of the species. Average concentrations in the muscles of the eel ranged between: 857 and 4358 ng/gLW for the PCBs, 26 and 46 ng/gLW for the PBDEs, 130 and 1293 ng/gLW for the PFAS; and in bile: 31 and 286 μg/g protein for the APs, 9 and 26 μg/g protein for the OH-PAHs and ND-1213 μg/g protein for the BPA. Among PCBs, PCB 153 (40% contribution to the sum of PCBs) was predominant in all eel muscles. PBDE 47 (60%) was the most predominant PBDE congeners, while perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (85%) was the most widely detected PFAS. For APs, 4p-nonylphenol (91%) was the most abundant and for the OH-PAHs, it was 1OH-Pyrene (63%). All the eels exceeded the environmental quality standards (EQS) for biota for the PBDEs and about 75% were higher than the EQS specific to PFOS. Finally, 20% of the analyzed eels presented TEQ concentrations above the maximum limits for lipid-rich species. These results supplied new data on the occurrence, levels, and patterns of 53 organic chemicals in the eels from the Loire estuary and they highlighted the need of further investigations focused notably on the potential effects of these chemicals on this species and their analysis in the water and sediments of the estuary.

  8. Conclusive evidence for panmixia in the American eel.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Eels are unique species in the biological world. The two North Atlantic eel species, the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and the European eel (A. anguilla), occupy a broad range of habitats from the Caribbean to Greenland in the western Atlantic and from Morocco to Iceland in the eastern Atlantic, respectively. North Atlantic eels have a catadromous life cycle, spawning only in the Sargasso Sea and spending the majority of their lives in continental (fresh, brackish and coastal) waters. Despite such a wide distribution range, North Atlantic eels have been regarded as a textbook example of panmictic species. In contrast with the large amount of population genetic studies testing the panmixia hypothesis in the European eel, a relatively modest effort has been given to study the population structure of the American eel. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, C^ote et al. (2013) present the most comprehensive American eel data set to date, which includes samples of different life stages obtained throughout all its distribution range in North America. Results show a total lack of genetic differentiation among samples and provide decisive evidence for panmixia in the American eel.

  9. Head shape dimorphism in European glass eels (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    De Meyer, J; Ide, C; Belpaire, C; Goemans, G; Adriaens, D

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) remained a mystery until the 20th century, when Schmidt discovered that the Sargasso Sea was its spawning area. However, many aspects of the eel's life cycle remain poorly understood. Among these is the bimodal distribution in head shape, with broad- and narrowheaded phenotypes reported in the yellow eel stage. Although this has been linked to dietary preferences of the yellow eels, very little is known about why, how and when this dimorphism arises during their ontogeny. To determine whether this dimorphism indeed appears in relation to trophic niche segregation, we examined head shape variation at an earlier ontogenetic stage, the glass eel stage, as at this stage eels are considered to be non-feeding. Head shape was studied in a large dataset, containing glass eels captured from the Yser river mouth, the Leopold Canal (Belgium) and from the rivers Severn, Trent and Parret (UK), by both taking measurements (head width/head length) and using an outline analysis. Our results show that there is already considerable variation in broadness and bluntness of the head at the glass eel stage. In most cases, equal support for a unimodal and bimodal head shape distribution is found, whereas some cases support head shape bimodality in glass eels, suggesting that glass eel head shape might be shifting from a unimodal to a bimodal distribution. This, in combination with the observation that variation in head width/head length ratios in non-feeding glass eels shows a similar range as in feeding yellow eels, indicates that head shape in European eel might be at least partially determined through other mechanisms than trophic segregation.

  10. Silver Sulfadiazine

    MedlinePlus

    Silver sulfadiazine, a sulfa drug, is used to prevent and treat infections of second- and third-degree ... Silver sulfadiazine comes in a cream. Silver sulfadiazine usually is applied once or twice a day. Follow ...

  11. Identification of gonadal soma-derived factor involvement in Monopterus albus (protogynous rice field eel) sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yefei; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaowu; Guan, Guijun

    2016-07-01

    We studied molecular events and potential mechanisms underlying the process of female-to-male sex transformation in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish in which the gonad is initially a female ovary and transforms into male testes. We cloned and identified a novel gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF), which encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. gsdf expression was measured in gonads of female, intersex and male with reverse transcription-PCR and gsdf's role in sex transformation was studied with qPCR, histological analysis and dual-color in situ hybridization assays and compared to other sex-related genes. gsdf was correlated to Sertoli cell differentiation, indicating involvement in testicular differentiation and sex transformation from female to male in this species. A unique expression pattern reveals a potential role of gsdf essential for the sex transformation of rice field eels.

  12. Toxicity of 5% rotenone to nonindigenous Asian swamp eels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, P.J.; Nico, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    Our primary goal was to determine whether rotenone would be a useful control against introduced populations of Asian swamp eels (family Synbranchidae, genus Monopterus). We report the results of a laboratory experiment comparing the efficacy of various rotenone concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg of 5% liquid rotenone/L of water) in killing nonindigenous swamp eels of various sizes (1-350 g) from the three known Florida populations. Although most small swamp eels were killed at concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L. 100% mortality of adult swamp eels was achieved only at 8 mg/L. We conclude that the effective use of rotenone to control established Florida swamp eel populations would be difficult, based on the relatively high concentration of rotenone needed to kill swamp eels; the complexity of the swamp eel's habitat; and our observations of the species' habitat use and behavior, including its widespread distribution and life history characteristics (e.g., burrowing and overland movement) that enhance its invasion and survival in multiple environments. Nevertheless, control of swamp eels may be achieved in certain situations. A combination of rotenone and electroshocking may be an effective way to eradicate swamp eels from small water bodies and to control populations in larger habitats. However, we are cautious in this recommendation and provide details related to the technical aspects of this type of strategy and caveats related to the toxicity of the chemical.

  13. Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes

  14. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in consumers of eel from polluted rivers compared to marketable eel.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Polder, Anuschka; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Steegenga, Wilma T; Kampman, Ellen; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-12-01

    Globally, many river sediments are seriously contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) known to accumulate in aquatic food. In the Netherlands, toxicological risks of human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds led to a ban on eel fishing in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in serum POP levels in consumers of eel from high-polluted areas and consumers of eel from low-polluted areas or aquaculture. In total 80 Dutch men were included, aged 40-70 years, with a habitual eel consumption of at least one portion (150 g) per month. Total levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds were measured in serum of all participants with the DR CALUX bioassay, validated with GC-MS. For a subgroup of 38 participants extensive POP measurements were performed. We revealed that consumption of eel from polluted rivers resulted in 2.5 and up to 10 times increased levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) respectively compared to controls. The highest PCB levels were detected for PCB 153, with a median level of 896 ng/g lipid and a maximum level of 5000 ng/g lipid in the high-exposed group. Furthermore, hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs: sum of 4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146, 4'-OH-CB172, and 4-OH-CB187) were 8 times higher in men who consumed eel from polluted areas, and detected at levels (median 4.5 ng/g ww) reported to cause adverse health effects. Also, the majority of the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were significantly higher in consumers of eel from pullulated areas. In conclusion, this study is the first to reveal that (past) consumption of eel from polluted rivers resulted in high body burdens of dioxins, PCBs, OH-PCBs and PFASs. We confirmed the predictions made in a former risk assessment, and the high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds as well as the OH-PCBs are of health concern.

  15. Application of talcum powder, trichloroacetic acid and silver nitrate in female rats for non-surgical sterilization: evaluation of the apoptotic pathway mRNA and miRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Yumrutas, Onder; Kara, Murat; Atilgan, Remzi; Kavak, Salih Burcin; Bozgeyik, Ibrahim; Sapmaz, Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    There are several methods used for non-surgical sterilization in birth control including quinacrine, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), erythromycin, tetracycline, silver nitrate and talcum powder. Among these, talcum powder, TCA and silver nitrate are the most commonly used. However, the toxic and carcinogenic activities of these chemicals in ovarian tissue have been poorly elucidated. This study demonstrates the expression levels of antioxidant, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes after administration of talc powder, TCA and silver nitrate for non-surgical sterilization in female rat models. The expression changes of some microRNAs (miR-15b, miR-21, miR-34a and miR-98) that play key roles in the apoptosis pathway were also included. All expression analyses were evaluated with real-time PCR. The expression levels of all genes appeared to be upregulated in the talcum powder group, but the results were not statistically significant. Increased expression of Gsr and Sod1 genes was statistically significant in the talcum powder group. In TCA and silver nitrate group, expression of all genes was appeared to be elevated but only the Gsr expression was statistically significant in the TCA-administrated group; there were no statistically significant changes in the silver nitrate group. miRNA expression levels were increased in talcum powder and TCA-administrated groups, but these results were not significant. Expression levels of miR-15b, miR-21 and miR-98 in the silver nitrate group were significantly increased. Consequently, these chemicals appear to be non-carcinogenic agents for rat ovarian tissue which do not induce apoptosis. However, talcum powder and TCA can be considered as agents that are toxic to ovarian tissue. PMID:25885949

  16. Application of talcum powder, trichloroacetic acid and silver nitrate in female rats for non-surgical sterilization: evaluation of the apoptotic pathway mRNA and miRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Yumrutas, Onder; Kara, Murat; Atilgan, Remzi; Kavak, Salih Burcin; Bozgeyik, Ibrahim; Sapmaz, Ekrem

    2015-04-01

    There are several methods used for non-surgical sterilization in birth control including quinacrine, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), erythromycin, tetracycline, silver nitrate and talcum powder. Among these, talcum powder, TCA and silver nitrate are the most commonly used. However, the toxic and carcinogenic activities of these chemicals in ovarian tissue have been poorly elucidated. This study demonstrates the expression levels of antioxidant, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes after administration of talc powder, TCA and silver nitrate for non-surgical sterilization in female rat models. The expression changes of some microRNAs (miR-15b, miR-21, miR-34a and miR-98) that play key roles in the apoptosis pathway were also included. All expression analyses were evaluated with real-time PCR. The expression levels of all genes appeared to be upregulated in the talcum powder group, but the results were not statistically significant. Increased expression of Gsr and Sod1 genes was statistically significant in the talcum powder group. In TCA and silver nitrate group, expression of all genes was appeared to be elevated but only the Gsr expression was statistically significant in the TCA-administrated group; there were no statistically significant changes in the silver nitrate group. miRNA expression levels were increased in talcum powder and TCA-administrated groups, but these results were not significant. Expression levels of miR-15b, miR-21 and miR-98 in the silver nitrate group were significantly increased. Consequently, these chemicals appear to be non-carcinogenic agents for rat ovarian tissue which do not induce apoptosis. However, talcum powder and TCA can be considered as agents that are toxic to ovarian tissue.

  17. 76 FR 60431 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... ``yellow eels,'' occupying marine, estuarine, and freshwater habitats. American eels begin sexual... density, become male or female ``silver eels.'' Upon nearing sexual maturity, these silver eels begin migration toward the Sargasso Sea, completing sexual maturation en route. Spawning occurs in the...

  18. Decline of North Atlantic eels: a fatal synergy?

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Thierry; Bernatchez, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Panmictic species pose particular problems for conservation because their welfare can be addressed effectively only on a global scale. We recently documented by means of microsatellite analysis that the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is not panmictic but instead shows genetic isolation by distance. In this study, we extended the analysis to the American eel (A. rostrata) by applying identical analytical procedures and statistical power. Results obtained for the American eel were in sharp contrast with those obtained for the European eel: the null hypothesis of panmixia could not be rejected, and no isolation by distance was detected. This implies that the species must be managed as a single population. Using Bayesian statistics, we also found that the effective population sizes for both species were surprisingly low and that the populations had undergone severe contractions, most probably during the Wisconsinan glaciation. The apparent sensitivity of eels to climatic changes affecting the strength and position of the Gulf Stream 20,000 years ago is particularly worrying, given the effects of the ongoing global warming on the North Atlantic climate. Moreover, additional short-term stresses such as surging glass eel prizes, overfishing and lethal parasitic infections negatively affect eel population size. The fascinating transatlantic migration and life cycle of Atlantic eels is also their Achilles' heel as these negative short- and long-term effects will probably culminate in a fatal synergy if drastic conservation measures are not implemented to protect these international biological resources. PMID:12713741

  19. Deep-ocean origin of the freshwater eels

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Jun G.; Miya, Masaki; Miller, Michael J.; Sado, Tetsuya; Hanel, Reinhold; Hatooka, Kiyotaka; Aoyama, Jun; Minegishi, Yuki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Of more than 800 species of eels of the order Anguilliformes, only freshwater eels (genus Anguilla with 16 species plus three subspecies) spend most of their lives in freshwater during their catadromous life cycle. Nevertheless, because their spawning areas are located offshore in the open ocean, they migrate back to their specific breeding places in the ocean, often located thousands of kilometres away. The evolutionary origin of such enigmatic behaviour, however, remains elusive because of the uncertain phylogenetic position of freshwater eels within the principally marine anguilliforms. Here, we show strong evidence for a deep oceanic origin of the freshwater eels, based on the phylogenetic analysis of whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 56 species representing all of the 19 anguilliform families. The freshwater eels occupy an apical position within the anguilliforms, forming a highly supported monophyletic group with various oceanic midwater eel species. Moreover, reconstruction of the growth habitats on the resulting tree unequivocally indicates an origination of the freshwater eels from the midwater of the deep ocean. This shows significant concordance with the recent collection of mature adults of the Japanese eel in the upper midwater of the Pacific, suggesting that they have retained their evolutionary origin as a behavioural trait in their spawning areas. PMID:20053660

  20. Decline of North Atlantic eels: a fatal synergy?

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thierry; Bernatchez, Louis

    2003-04-07

    Panmictic species pose particular problems for conservation because their welfare can be addressed effectively only on a global scale. We recently documented by means of microsatellite analysis that the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is not panmictic but instead shows genetic isolation by distance. In this study, we extended the analysis to the American eel (A. rostrata) by applying identical analytical procedures and statistical power. Results obtained for the American eel were in sharp contrast with those obtained for the European eel: the null hypothesis of panmixia could not be rejected, and no isolation by distance was detected. This implies that the species must be managed as a single population. Using Bayesian statistics, we also found that the effective population sizes for both species were surprisingly low and that the populations had undergone severe contractions, most probably during the Wisconsinan glaciation. The apparent sensitivity of eels to climatic changes affecting the strength and position of the Gulf Stream 20,000 years ago is particularly worrying, given the effects of the ongoing global warming on the North Atlantic climate. Moreover, additional short-term stresses such as surging glass eel prizes, overfishing and lethal parasitic infections negatively affect eel population size. The fascinating transatlantic migration and life cycle of Atlantic eels is also their Achilles' heel as these negative short- and long-term effects will probably culminate in a fatal synergy if drastic conservation measures are not implemented to protect these international biological resources.

  1. Spatial habitat for eel larva at Cimandiri estuary, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarina, N. D.; Supriatna

    2017-07-01

    The estuarine ecosystem is known as suitable breeding sites for fishes because this particular habitat is receiving continuous organic matters from river ways and constant sunlight due to its depth that allows sunlight penetration. Cimandiri estuary is one of the estuaries located in the south of Java Island close to the Indian Ocean and known as a suitable habitat for eel larva that routinely collected by local people. Eel habitat has a relationship with the dynamic of space. This dynamic influenced by season, water flow, tide, bathymetry, salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO). The geographic information system is an approach in studying habitat dynamic, through modeling. Furthermore, the spatial model for eel larva habitat is required for land use planning that aimed to achieve sustainable eels larva rearing and conserve estuarine habitat as well. The aim of this research was to investigate dynamics on spatial habitat of eel larva at Cimandiri estuary, West Java.

  2. Enteric neuroplasticity in seawater-adapted European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Sorteni, C; Clavenzani, P; De Giorgio, R; Portnoy, O; Sirri, R; Mordenti, O; Di Biase, A; Parmeggiani, A; Menconi, V; Chiocchetti, R

    2014-02-01

    European eels live most of their lives in freshwater until spawning migration to the Sargasso Sea. During seawater adaptation, eels modify their physiology, and their digestive system adapts to the new environment, drinking salt water to compensate for the continuous water loss. In that period, eels stop feeding until spawning. Thus, the eel represents a unique model to understand the adaptive changes of the enteric nervous system (ENS) to modified salinity and starvation. To this purpose, we assessed and compared the enteric neuronal density in the cranial portion of the intestine of freshwater eels (control), lagoon eels captured in brackish water before their migration to the Sargasso Sea (T0), and starved seawater eels hormonally induced to sexual maturity (T18; 18 weeks of starvation and treatment with standardized carp pituitary extract). Furthermore, we analyzed the modification of intestinal neuronal density of hormonally untreated eels during prolonged starvation (10 weeks) in seawater and freshwater. The density of myenteric (MP) and submucosal plexus (SMP) HuC/D-immunoreactive (Hu-IR) neurons was assessed in wholemount preparations and cryosections. The number of MP and SMP HuC/D-IR neurons progressively increased from the freshwater to the salty water habitat (control > T0 > T18; P < 0.05). Compared with freshwater eels, the number of MP and SMP HuC/D-IR neurons significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of starved untreated salt water eels. In conclusion, high salinity evokes enteric neuroplasticity as indicated by the increasing number of HuC/D-IR MP and SMP neurons, a mechanism likely contributing to maintaining the body homeostasis of this fish in extreme conditions.

  3. Is feeding behaviour related to glass eel propensity to migrate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau du Colombier, Sarah; Lambert, Patrick; Bardonnet, Agnès

    2008-11-01

    Several studies have shown that eel diadromy is facultative and that migratory divergences may appear during glass eel estuarine migration. The origin of the differences in migratory behaviour among glass eels remains unclear but initial evidence supports the role of individual energetic and thyroidal status. Even if starvation is usually associated with glass eel migration, feeding does seem to occur in some glass eels. The aim of the present study was to investigate feeding behaviour and glass eel growth in relation to the propensity to migrate. Feeding rate and weight gain were higher in fish having a high propensity to migrate (M + fish) than in fish having a low propensity to migrate (M - fish) in fed glass eels, whereas no clear difference in the variation in body weight was observed among unfed fish (controls). M - fish initially had lower percent dry weight than M + fish, which suggests a link between appetite, propensity to migrate, and energy content. We discuss the role played by endocrine signals on these processes. In fish, thyroid hormones contribute to the control of growth and development. In addition, they play a role in flatfish and leptocephalus metamorphosis and appear to be involved in smolt and glass eel migratory behaviour. As such, they represent a good candidate which would promote the propensity to migrate as well as digestive system development. Their role in the hormonal control of food intake however remains vague. The large and sharp decline in glass eel abundances observed since the 1980s could partly be explained by changes in ocean productivity. If so, it could be accompanied by a decrease in glass eel energy stores. The ability to resume feeding in the course of the estuarine crossing would then represent a serious advantage to maintain energy levels compatible with migration.

  4. PAH metabolites, GST and EROD in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) as possible indicators for eel habitat quality in German rivers.

    PubMed

    Kammann, Ulrike; Brinkmann, Markus; Freese, Marko; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Stoffels, Sandra; Hollert, Henner; Hanel, Reinhold

    2014-02-01

    The stock of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) continues to decline and has reached a new minimum in 2011. Poor health status of the spawners due to organic contaminants is one of the possible causes for this dramatic situation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants, which are rapidly metabolized in vertebrates. EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) and GST (glutathione-S-transferase) are two enzymes involved in PAH detoxification in fish. In this study, PAH metabolites as well as EROD and GST activity in a large, comprising dataset of more than 260 migratory and pre-migratory eels from five large German river basin districts were used to describe PAH exposure and its metabolism as possible indicators for the habitat quality for eels. Eel from the river Elbe appear to be moderately contaminated with PAH. Highest mean values of PAH metabolites were analysed in fish from the river Rhine. However, the results suggest that contaminants such as PAH are metabolized in the fish and may have contributed to EROD activity in eels caught from the Elbe estuary to 600 km upstream. Since the eel's onset of cessation of feeding is closely linked to maturation and migration, we propose bile pigments as new indicators contributing to identify the proportion of migratory eel, which is crucial information for eel management plans. We showed that PAH metabolites normalized to bile pigments as well as EROD could be used to describe the habitat quality and might be suitable parameters in search for suitable stocking habitats.

  5. Do we protect freshwater eels or do we drive them to extinction?

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater eels are important animals because they have a unique catadromous life history and are used as food resources. European, American and Japanese eel populations now are considered to be outside the safe biological limits and are seriously threatened with extinction. Therefore, the European eel was recently categorised as critically endangered by the European Union and the United Nations. One of the reasons for the drastic decline in eel populations is overfishing, which has caused a high demand for eel aquaculture; eel aquaculture completely depends on wild juveniles, and in contrast to animals, artificial propagation has not yet succeeded for the eels. Therefore, commercial eel industries are now considering tropical eels as possible replacement for European and Japanese eels to compensate for declining stocks. In this study, I attempt to examine the present status of the biology and stock of tropical eels. However, useful scientific research and information on the biology and stock assessments of tropical eels are lacking, a situation quite different from that for other temperate freshwater eels, which have been well studied for several decades with trends and recruitment patterns being on record. Nevertheless, the present tropical eel catch has been reported as being less than half that of 20 years ago. The present trends in eel stocks and utilization for human consumption suggest that all eel populations will decline to numbers that fall outside safe biological limits and will be seriously threatened with extinction without protection and conservation from strict enforcement of local and international laws.

  6. Metallothionein and heavy metals in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Linde, A R; Sánchez-Galán, S; Klein, D; García-Vázquez, E; Summer, K H

    1999-10-01

    The levels and the cellular distribution of heavy metals, and the extent by which the metals binds to metallothionein (MT) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla), were analyzed in order to assess the natural conditions of MT and heavy metals in these two fish species. There were no differences in heavy metals and MT concentrations between males and females of brown trout in a nonreproductive status and between adult brown trout individuals. Brown trout presented higher Cu content than European eel. The cellular distribution of Cu was also different between the two fish species; while in brown trout most of the Cu was in the noncytosolic fraction, Cu was mainly located in the cytosol in European eel. However, the cellular distribution of Zn, Cd, and Pb was similar in the two fish species. There was also an important difference in the metal content of MT between both species. Whereas, in brown trout, Cu-binding MT represented 75% of total metal-binding MT, this value was 25% in European eel. The between-species differences found in this study are intrinsic characteristics not associated with environmental factors. These results establish the basis to use MT as a bioindicator.

  7. Evidence of local short-distance spawning migration of tropical freshwater eels, and implications for the evolution of freshwater eel migration.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-10-01

    Freshwater eels have fascinated biologists for centuries due to the spectacular long-distance migrations between the eels' freshwater habitats and their spawning areas far out in the ocean and the mysteries of their ecology. The spawning areas of Atlantic eels and Japanese eel were located far offshore in the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, respectively, and their reproduction took place thousands of kilometers away from their growth habitats. Phylogenetic studies have revealed that freshwater eels originated in the Indonesian region. However, remarkably little is known about the life histories of tropical freshwater eels despite the fact that tropical eels are key to understanding the nature of primitive forms of catadromous migration. This study found spawning-condition tropical freshwater eels in Lake Poso, central Sulawesi, Indonesia, with considerably high gonadosomatic index values and with histologically fully developed gonads. This study provides the first evidence that under certain conditions, freshwater eels have conditions that are immediately able to spawn even in river downstream. The results suggest that, in contrast to the migrations made by the Atlantic and Japanese eels, freshwater eels originally migrated only short distances of <100 kilometers to local spawning areas adjacent to their freshwater growth habitats. Ancestral eels most likely underwent a catadromous migration from local short-distance movements in tropical coastal waters to the long-distance migrations characteristic of present-day temperate eels, which has been well established as occurring in subtropical gyres in both hemispheres.

  8. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)Calculation in Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) Package: EELS-FDTD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Large, Nicolas; Cao, Yang; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Nordlander, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a unique tool that is extensively used to investigate the plasmonic response of metallic nanostructures since the early works in the '50s. To be able to interpret and theoretically investigate EELS results, a myriad of different numerical techniques have been developed for EELS simulations (BEM, DDA, FEM, GDTD, Green dyadic functions). Although these techniques are able to predict and reproduce experimental results, they possess significant drawbacks and are often limited to highly symmetrical geometries, non-penetrating trajectories, small nanostructures, and free standing nanostructures. We present here a novel approach for EELS calculations using the Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method: EELS-FDTD. We benchmark our approach by direct comparison with results from the well-established boundary element method (BEM) and published experimental results. In particular, we compute EELS spectra for spherical nanoparticles, nanoparticle dimers, nanodisks supported by various substrates, and gold bowtie antennas on a silicon nitride substrate. Our EELS-FDTD implementation can be easily extended to more complex geometries and configurations and can be directly implemented within other numerical methods. Work funded by the Welch Foundation (C-1222, L-C-004), and the NSF (CNS-0821727, OCI-0959097).

  9. Temperature modulates testis steroidogenesis in European eel.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, David S; Morini, Marina; Tveiten, Helge; Vílchez, M Carmen; Gallego, Victor; Dirks, Ron P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates the effects of temperature on hCG-induced spermatogenesis in European eel (Anguilla anguilla), subjected to three thermal regimes: T10: 10°C (first 4weeks), 15°C (next 3weeks) and 20°C (last 6weeks); T15: 15°C (first 4weeks) and 20°C (last 9weeks); and T20: constant 20°C for the duration of the experiment. At 10°C, maturation stopped in the A spermatogonial stage (SPG1), and no further maturation was observed until the temperature was ≥15°C. With the aim of explaining these results, the influence of temperature on steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroid synthesis was tested. The initial synthesis of androgens (T and 11-KT) increased at SPG1, and was not influenced by temperature. Likewise, the gene expression of the steroidogenic enzymes linked to androgen synthesis (aacyp11a1, aacyp17-I and aa11βHSD) also increased at SPG1. In contrast, no correlation was seen between the increase in E2 and the aacyp19a1 gene expression peak in the testes, with E2 increasing as a consequence of the seawater acclimation carried out before hormonal treatment, and peaking the aacyp19a1 gene expression at B spermatogonial stage (SPG2). Aacyp21 gene expression was also higher at SPG2, and this stage was only reached when the rearing temperature was ≥15°C. In conclusion, androgen synthesis is not dependent on temperature, but further maturation requires higher temperatures in order to induce a change in the steroidogenic pathway towards estrogen and progestin synthesis. This study demonstrates that temperature plays a crucial role in European eel maturation, even perhaps controlling gonad development during the reproductive migration.

  10. 9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING W. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  11. 8. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING N. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  12. Oceanic spawning migration of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Kim; Okland, Finn; Hansen, Michael M; Righton, David; Gargan, Patrik; Castonguay, Martin; Bernatchez, Louis; Howey, Paul; Sparholt, Henrik; Pedersen, Michael I; McKinley, Robert S

    2009-09-25

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake a approximately 5000-kilometer (km) spawning migration from Europe to the Sargasso Sea. The larvae are transported back to European waters by the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift. However, details of the spawning migration remain unknown because tracking eels in the Atlantic Ocean has, so far, eluded study. Recent advances in satellite tracking enable investigation of migratory behavior of large ocean-dwelling animals. However, sizes of available tags have precluded tracking smaller animals like European eels. Here, we present information about the swimming direction, depth, and migratory behavior of European eels during spawning migration, based on a miniaturized pop-up satellite archival transmitter. Although the tagging experiment fell short of revealing the full migration to the Sargasso Sea, the data covered the first 1300 km and provided unique insights.

  13. Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    De Meyer, Jens; Christiaens, Joachim; Adriaens, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Two phenotypes are present within the European eel population: broad-heads and narrow-heads. The expression of these phenotypes has been linked to several factors, such as diet and differential growth. The exact factors causing this dimorphism, however, are still unknown. In this study, we performed a feeding experiment on glass eels from the moment they start to feed. Eels were either fed a hard diet, which required biting and spinning behavior, or a soft diet, which required suction feeding. We found that the hard feeders develop a broader head and a larger adductor mandibulae region than eels that were fed a soft diet, implying that the hard feeders are capable of larger bite forces. Next to this, soft feeders develop a sharper and narrower head, which could reduce hydrodynamic drag, allowing more rapid strikes towards their prey. Both phenotypes were found in a control group, which were given a combination of both diets. These phenotypes were, however, not as extreme as the hard or the soft feeding group, indicating that some specimens are more likely to consume hard prey and others soft prey, but that they do not selectively eat one of both diets. In conclusion, we found that diet is a major factor influencing head shape in European eel and this ability to specialize in feeding on hard or soft prey could decrease intra-specific competition in European eel populations.

  14. Eel River margin source-to-sink sediment budgets: revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Eel River coastal margin has been used as a representative source-to-sink sediment dispersal system owing to its steep, high-sediment yield river and the formation of sedimentary strata on its continental shelf. One finding of previous studies is that the adjacent continental shelf retains only ~25% of the Eel River fine-grained sediment (less than 63 μm) discharged over time scales of both individual floods and the 20th century, thus suggesting that the Eel shelf trapping-efficiency is uniquely lower than other similar systems. Here I provide data and analyses showing that sediment discharge relationships in the Eel River have varied strongly with time and include substantial decreases in suspended-sediment concentrations during the latter 20th century. Including these trends in margin-wide sediment budgets, I show that previous Eel River sediment discharge rates were overestimated by a factor of two. Thus, revised sediment budgets shown here reveal that the Eel shelf retained ~50% of the discharged river fine-grained suspended sediment during intensively sampled events of 1995–97 and over the 20th century. In light of this, hypotheses about high rates of sediment export away from the primary shelf depocenter should be reevaluated.

  15. Molecular markers of oocyte differentiation in European eel during hormonally induced oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Martínez-Miguel, Leticia; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Vílchez, M Carmen; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz; Cancio, Ibon

    2017-09-01

    Reproduction in captivity is a key study issue in Anguilla anguilla as a possible solution for its dwindling population. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the production of ribosomal building blocks during artificially induced oocyte maturation could be particularly interesting. Transcription levels of ribosomal biogenesis associated genes could be used as markers to monitor oogenesis. Eels from the Albufera Lagoon were injected with carp pituitary extract for 15weeks and ovaries in previtellogenic (PV) stage (non-injected), in early-, mid-, late-vitellogenesis (EV, MV, LV), as well as in migratory nucleus stage (MN) were analysed. 5S rRNA and related genes were highly transcribed in ovaries with PV oocytes. As oocytes developed, transcriptional levels of genes related to 5S rRNA production (gtf3a), accumulation (gtf3a, 42sp43) and nucleocytoplasmic transport (rpl5, rpl11) and the 5S/18S rRNA index decreased (PV>EV>MV>LV>MN). On the contrary, 18S rRNA was at its highest at MN stage while ubtf1 in charge of activating RNA-polymerase I and synthesising 18S rRNA behaved as 5S related genes. Individuals that did not respond (NR) to the treatment showed 5S/18S index values similar to PV females, while studied genes showed EV/LV-like transcription levels. Therefore, NR females fail to express the largest rRNAs, which could thus be taken as markers of successful vitellogenesis progression. In conclusion, we have proved that the transcriptional dynamics of ribosomal genes provides useful tools to characterize induced ovarian development in European eels. In the future, such markers should be studied as putative indicators of response to hormonal treatments and of the quality of obtained eel oocytes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Seasonal variation in sonic muscles in the fawn cusk-eel Lepophidium profundorum.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Kim; Lin, Hsung; Parmentier, Eric; Fine, Michael L

    2008-12-23

    The fawn cusk-eel Lepophidium profundorum (Ophidiidae) has an unusual sound-producing system with sexually dimorphic sets of antagonistic muscles. Outside the mating season, the dorsal and ventral muscles are well developed and larger in males than in females, but the tiny intermediate muscles are smaller, suggesting a minor role, if any, in male advertisement call production. We examined summer individuals with more developed gonads and find a fourfold hypertrophy of the intermediate but not the other muscles. This result suggests androgen dependence and an important role in sound production for the intermediate muscle. Even though both sexes gain weight in the summer, the ventral and dorsal muscles in females lose weight, suggesting that sound production is less important in females and that muscle mass may be used to support egg growth.

  17. A comparison of metal concentrations in the tissues of yellow American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Pannetier, Pauline; Caron, Antoine; Campbell, Peter G C; Pierron, Fabien; Baudrimont, Magalie; Couture, Patrice

    2016-11-01

    Historically abundant and widespread, populations of Atlantic eels have suffered a sharp decline in recent decades, in the ranges 40-80% and 90-99% for American and European eels, respectively. As a result, American eels are now classified as threatened, whereas European eels are considered to be in critical danger of extinction. Several causes have been identified as likely contributors of this decline, including overfishing, obstacles to migration (hydroelectric dams), climate change and habitat contamination. In the context of a larger project investigating the role of organic and inorganic contaminants in this decline, in this study, we measured the liver, kidney and muscle concentrations of essential (Cu, Se and Zn) and non-essential (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb) metals in eels sampled at four sites in the South-West of France and four sites in Eastern Canada varying in contamination. Tissue concentrations of Cd, Hg and Se increased with fish size and age. Tissue metal concentrations generally reflected the contamination of their sampling sites. This was the case for Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Se. Comparison of tissue concentrations of these metals with the toxicological literature suggests that all of them except As could pose a risk to the health of eels from the most contaminated sites. In particular, European eels may be particularly at risk of Cd and Pb toxicity. Globally, our study suggests that a substantial accumulation of inorganic contaminants in the tissues of both eel species at sites contaminated by historical anthropogenic inputs may play a role in their decline.

  18. Electrophoretic analysis of heterogeneous lipopolysaccharides from various strains of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2 by silver staining and immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Amaro, C; Biosca, E G; Fouz, B; Garay, E

    1992-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of 11 strains of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2, isolated from an eel farm, and of 10 reference strains, were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with silver staining and immunoblotting. LPS samples were obtained from whole-cell lysates, outer membrane fragments, and extracellular products. By silver staining, only a diffuse band of low-molecular weight could be visualized in all cases except for a biotype 1 strain isolated from water. However, immunoblotting with antisera obtained against strains of biotypes 1 and 2 from eels allowed visualization of multiple O-polysaccharide chains. All biotype 2 strains, independently of their origins, belonged to the same serotype and presented the same LPS profile, whereas eel isolates of biotype 1 were serologically identical and different from the rest of tested strains of biotype 1. This is the first report of LPSs with a ladder-like structure in Vibrio vulnificus.

  19. Potent cardiovascular actions of homologous adrenomedullins in eels.

    PubMed

    Nobata, Shigenori; Ogoshi, Maho; Takei, Yoshio

    2008-05-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM), known as a multifunctional hormone in mammals, forms a unique family of five paralogous peptides in teleost fish. To examine their cardiovascular effects using homologous AMs in eels, we isolated cDNAs encoding four eel AMs, and named AM1 (ortholog of mammalian AM), AM2, AM3 (paralog of AM2 generated only in teleost lineage), and AM5 according to the known teleost AM sequences. Unlike pufferfish, not only AM1 but AM2/3 and AM5 were expressed ubiquitously in various eel tissues. Synthetic mature AM1, AM2, and AM5 exhibited vasodepressor effects after intra-arterial injections, and the effects were more potent at dorsal aorta than at ventral aorta. This indicates that AMs preferentially act on peripheral resistance vessels rather than on branchial arterioles. The potency was in the order of AM2 = AM5 > AM1 in both freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) eels, which is different from the result of mammals in which AM1 is as potent as, or more potent than, AM2 when injected peripherally. The minimum effective dose of AM2 and AM5 in eels was 1/10 that of AM1 in mammals. The hypotension reached 50% at 1.0 nmol/kg of AM2 and AM5, which is much greater than atrial natriuretic peptide (20%), another potent vasodepressor hormone. Even with such hypotension, AMs did not change heart rate in eels. In addition, AM1 increased blood pressure at ventral aorta and dorsal aorta immediately after an initial hypotension at 5.0 nmol/kg, but not with AM2 and AM5. These data strongly suggest that specific receptors for AM2 and AM5 exist in eels, which differ from the AM1 receptors identified in mammals.

  20. Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaydarov, R. R.; Khaydarov, R. A.; Estrin, Y.; Evgrafova, S.; Scheper, T.; Endres, C.; Cho, S. Y.

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles obtained by a novel electrochemical method on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium phoeniceum cultures has been studied. The tests conducted have demonstrated that synthesized silver nanoparticles — when added to water paints or cotton fabrics — show a pronounced antibacterial/antifungal effect. It was shown that smaller silver nanoparticles have a greater antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. The paper also provides a review of scientific literature with regard to recent developments in the field of toxicity of silver nanoparticles and its effect on environment and human health.

  1. Sexually mature European eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) stimulate gonadal development of neighbouring males: possible involvement of chemical communication.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Mar; Scott, Alexander P; Hubbard, Peter C; Canário, Adelino V M; Cerdà, Joan

    2006-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate whether sexual maturation of immature male eels could be stimulated indirectly by placing them in contact with either male (Minj) or female (Finj) eels in which sexual maturation had been stimulated directly by weekly injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or salmon pituitary extract (SPE), respectively. Untreated males were placed either in the same tank or in a separate tank that was linked to the injected fish via a recirculation system. The hormonal treatments stimulated spermatogenesis and spermiation in Minj, and ovulation in Finj as well as an increase of the ocular (Io) and gonadosomatic (GSI) indices in both sexes. Plasma levels of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) increased in Minj and T and 17beta-estradiol (E2) in Finj. A small peak of plasma 17,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20betaP) occurred during ovulation, while the plasma levels of 17alpha-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (17P) were undetectable in both males and females. The water conditioned by Minj and Finj induced significant, though relatively minor, increases in Io and GSI in uninjected males. In addition, uninjected fish showed small changes in plasma T and 11-KT levels, apparently related to the timing of spermiation and ovulation of Minj and Finj, respectively, as well as an activation of spermatogenesis (but not spermiation). Injected fish released free and conjugated T, 11-KT and E2 into the water, although immature eels were unable to smell (by electro-olfactogram) any of these steroids or prostaglandin F2alpha. However, immature males were highly sensitive to water extracts conditioned by spermiating Minj and pre-ovulatory and ovulated Finj. These preliminary results suggest the existence of chemical communication between maturing eels and immature males that stimulates gonad development, although the putative pheromone(s) involved has/have not yet been identified.

  2. Microsatellite variation between Japanese eel ( Anguilla japonica) and European eel ( Anguilla anguilla)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Li, Daoji; Lu, Liqiong

    2005-12-01

    Allelic variation in a total of 7 microsatellites was examined between elvers of freshwater eels ( Anguilla japonica and Anguilla anguilla). The number of alleles at these loci ranged from 8 to 26. A single test of each locus revealed significant deficits of heterozygotes ( P<0.01). Significant departure from expectations of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was found for all loci within four subpopulations of A. japonica, which opposes the panmixia hypothesis of Schmidt. Also exact tests of population differentiation based on allelic frequency distribution disagree the hypothesis of random distribution of individuals among populations. Population structure among four populations of A. japonica was revealed with F ST value of 0.009 8 ( P=0.00048; 10 000 iteration). Pairwise matrixes of F ST and R ST showed a significant difference between two distantly related species— A. japonica and A. anguilla. Divergent time of the two species calculated by Goldstein method is over 2 million years. The results may challenge the Schmidt's theory about the distribution of freshwater eels.

  3. Draft genome of the American Eel (Anguilla rostrata).

    PubMed

    Pavey, Scott A; Laporte, Martin; Normandeau, Eric; Gaudin, Jérémy; Letourneau, Louis; Boisvert, Sébastien; Corbeil, Jacques; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-10-18

    Freshwater eels (Anguilla sp.) have large economic, cultural, ecological and aesthetic importance worldwide, but they suffered more than 90% decline in global stocks over the past few decades. Proper genetic resources, such as sequenced, assembled and annotated genomes, are essential to help plan sustainable recoveries by identifying physiological, biochemical and genetic mechanisms that caused the declines or that may lead to recoveries. Here, we present the first sequenced genome of the American eel. This genome contained 305 043 contigs (N50 = 7397) and 79 209 scaffolds (N50 = 86 641) for a total size of 1.41 Gb, which is in the middle of the range of previous estimations for this species. In addition, protein-coding regions, including introns and flanking regions, are very well represented in the genome, as 95.2% of the 458 core eukaryotic genes and 98.8% of the 248 ultra-conserved subset were represented in the assembly and a total of 26 564 genes were annotated for future functional genomics studies. We performed a candidate gene analysis to compare three genes among all three freshwater eel species and, congruent with the phylogenetic relationships, Japanese eel (A. japanica) exhibited the most divergence. Overall, the sequenced genome presented in this study is a crucial addition to the presently available genetic tools to help guide future conservation efforts of freshwater eels.

  4. Gnathostome infection in swamp eels, Fluta alba, in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuamtanong, S; Waikagul, J; Anantaphruti, M T

    1998-03-01

    To investigate the distribution of gnathostome worms in central Thailand, the infective larvae of Gnathostoma spp were examined from the flesh and liver of swamp eels, Fluta alba. Seven hundred and eighty-eight eels were purchased from markets in 11 provinces; Ang Thong (30), Ayutthaya (36), Chachoengsao (30), Lop Buri (30), Nakhon Nayok (437), Pathum Thani (30), Prachin Buri (48), Ratchaburi (53), Saraburi (30), Samut Prakan (30) and Suphan Buri (34). The highest rate of gnathostome infection was observed in swamp eels from Nakhon Nayok (68.7%). The infection rates in Ayutthaya, Ang Thong, Prachin Buri, Ratchaburi, Saraburi and Lop Buri were 33.3%, 26.7%, 25.0%, 18.9%, 13.3% and 10.0% respectively. Gnathostome larvae were not found in swamp eels from Chachoengsao, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan and Suphan Buri. Among the 9,573 larvae recovered, almost all were the advanced third stage larvae of G. spinigerum, except one larva from Nakhon Nayok and two larvae from Ratchaburi which were identified as the advanced third stage larvae of G. vietnamicum and G. hispidum respectively. This study is the first report of swamp eels as natural intermediate hosts of G. vietnamicum and G. hispidum.

  5. Introgressive hybridization and latitudinal admixture clines in North Atlantic eels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hybridization, the interbreeding of diagnosably divergent species, is a major focus in evolutionary studies. Eels, both from North America and Europe migrate through the Atlantic to mate in a vast, overlapping area in the Sargasso Sea. Due to the lack of direct observation, it is unknown how these species remain reproductively isolated. The detection of inter-species hybrids in Iceland suggests on-going gene flow, but few studies to date have addressed the influence of introgression on genetic differentiation in North Atlantic eels. Results Here, we show that while mitochondrial lineages remain completely distinct on both sides of the Atlantic, limited hybridization is detectable with nuclear DNA markers. The nuclear hybridization signal peaks in the northern areas and decreases towards the southern range limits on both continents according to Bayesian assignment analyses. By simulating increasing proportions of both F1 hybrids and admixed individuals from the southern to the northern-most locations, we were able to generate highly significant isolation-by-distance patterns in both cases, reminiscent of previously published data for the European eel. Finally, fitting an isolation-with-migration model to our data supports the hypothesis of recent asymmetric introgression and refutes the alternative hypothesis of ancient polymorphism. Conclusions Fluctuating degrees of introgressive hybridization between Atlantic eel species are sufficient to explain temporally varying correlations of geographic and genetic distances reported for populations of the European eel. PMID:24674242

  6. Genome Sequence of a Marbled Eel Polyoma-Like Virus in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chiu-Ming; Liu, Ping-Chung; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2017-02-09

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a virus isolated from a diseased marbled eel (Anguilla marmorata) in Taiwan. The virus has been characterized as being related to Japanese eel endothelial cell-infecting virus (JEECV), with a large T-antigen-like protein. The sequence of the marbled eel virus displays low homology to the JEECV.

  7. Genome Sequence of a Marbled Eel Polyoma-Like Virus in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping-Chung

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequence of a virus isolated from a diseased marbled eel (Anguilla marmorata) in Taiwan. The virus has been characterized as being related to Japanese eel endothelial cell-infecting virus (JEECV), with a large T-antigen-like protein. The sequence of the marbled eel virus displays low homology to the JEECV. PMID:28183770

  8. Hepatic receptors for homologous growth hormone in the eel

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, T. )

    1991-03-01

    The specific binding of 125I-labeled eel growth hormone (eGH) to liver membranes of the eel was examined. The specific binding to the 10,000g pellet was greater than that to the 600g pellet. The specific binding was linear up to about 100 mg fresh tissue, and was saturable with increasing amounts of membrane. The specific binding was pH-, temperature-, and time-dependent, with the optimum pH at 7.4, and greater specific binding was obtained at 15 and 25 degrees than at 35 degrees. Scatchard analysis of liver binding gave an association constant of 1.1 x 10(9) M-1 and a capacity of 105 fmol/mg protein. The receptor preparation was highly specific for GHs. Natural and recombinant eel GHs as well as recombinant salmon GH competed equally with 125I-eGH for the receptor sites of the 10,000g liver membrane. Ovine GH was more potent in displacing the labeled eGH than the homologous eel hormone. Tilapia GH and ovine prolactin (PRL) were needed in greater amounts (40 times) than eGH to displace the labeled eGH. Salmon and tilapia PRLs were still less potent (500 times) than eGH. There was no displacement with eel PRL. No significant change in the specific binding was seen 1 week after hypophysectomy, whereas injection of eGH into the hypophysectomized eel caused a significant reduction after 24 hr. The binding to the membrane fractions from gills, kidney, muscle, intestine, and brain was low and exclusively nonspecific, indicating the presence of specific GH receptors predominantly in the liver.

  9. Evolution of the locomotory system in eels (Teleostei: Elopomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Zorzin, Roberto; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2016-08-11

    Living anguilliform eels represent a distinct clade of elongated teleostean fishes inhabiting a wide range of habitats. Locomotion of these fishes is highly influenced by the elongated body shape, the anatomy of the vertebral column, and the corresponding soft tissues represented by the musculotendinous system. Up to now, the evolution of axial elongation in eels has been inferred from living taxa only, whereas the reconstruction of evolutionary patterns and functional ecology in extinct eels still is scarce. Rare but excellently preserved fossil eels from the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic were investigated here to gain a better understanding of locomotory system evolution in anguilliforms and, consequently, their habitat occupations in deep time. The number of vertebrae in correlation with the body length separates extinct and extant anguilliforms. Even if the phylogenetic signal cannot entirely be excluded, the analyses performed here reveal a continuous shortening of the vertebral column with a simultaneous increase in vertebral numbers in conjunction with short lateral tendons throughout the order. These anatomical changes contradict previous hypotheses based on extant eels solely. The body curvatures of extant anguilliforms are highly flexible and can be clearly distinguished from extinct species. Anatomical changes of the vertebral column and musculotendinous system through time and between extinct and extant anguilliforms correlate with changes of the body plan and swimming performance and reveal significant shifts in habitat adaptation and thus behaviour. Evolutionary changes in the skeletal system of eels established here also imply that environmental shifts were triggered by abiotic rather than biotic factors (e.g., K/P boundary mass extinction event).

  10. The hydrodynamics of eel swimming: I. Wake structure.

    PubMed

    Tytell, Eric D; Lauder, George V

    2004-05-01

    Eels undulate a larger portion of their bodies while swimming than many other fishes, but the hydrodynamic consequences of this swimming mode are poorly understood. In this study, we examine in detail the hydrodynamics of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) swimming steadily at 1.4 L s(-1) and compare them with previous results from other fishes. We performed high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) to quantify the wake structure, measure the swimming efficiency, and force and power output. The wake consists of jets of fluid that point almost directly laterally, separated by an unstable shear layer that rolls up into two or more vortices over time. Previously, the wake of swimming eels was hypothesized to consist of unlinked vortex rings, resulting from a phase offset between vorticity distributed along the body and vorticity shed at the tail. Our high-resolution flow data suggest that the body anterior to the tail tip produces relatively low vorticity, and instead the wake structure results from the instability of the shear layers separating the lateral jets, reflecting pulses of high vorticity shed at the tail tip. We compare the wake structure to large-amplitude elongated body theory and to a previous computational fluid dynamic model and note several discrepancies between the models and the measured values. The wake of steadily swimming eels differs substantially in structure from the wake of previously studied carangiform fishes in that it lacks any significant downstream flow, previously interpreted as signifying thrust. We infer that the lack of downstream flow results from a spatial and temporal balance of momentum removal (drag) and thrust generated along the body, due to the relatively uniform shape of eels. Carangiform swimmers typically have a narrow caudal peduncle, which probably allows them to separate thrust from drag both spatially and temporally. Eels seem to lack this separation, which may explain why they produce a wake with little

  11. Excitation dependent Fano-like interference effects in plasmonic silver nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Sean M.; Nicoletti, Olivia; Rossouw, David; Ostasevicius, Tomas; Midgley, Paul A.

    2014-10-01

    Surface plasmon resonances in metal nanoparticles are an emerging technology platform for nano-optics applications from sensing to solar energy conversion. The electromagnetic near field associated with these resonances arises from modes determined by the shape, size, and composition of the metal nanoparticle. When coupled in the near field, multiple resonant modes can interact to give rise to interference effects offering fine control of both the spectral response and spatial distribution of fields near the particle. Here, we present an examination of experimental electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of silver nanorod monomer surface plasmon modes and present an explanation of observed spatial amplitude modulation of the Fabry-Pérot resonance modes of these silver nanorods using electrodynamics simulations. For these simulations, we identify differences in spectral peak symmetry in light scattering and electron spectroscopies (EELS and cathodoluminescence) and analyze the distinct near-field responses of silver nanorods to plane-wave light and electron beam excitation in terms of a coupled oscillator model. Effects of properties of the material and the incident field are evaluated, and the spatially resolved EELS signals are shown to provide a signature for assessing Fano-like interference effects in silver nanorods. These findings outline key considerations and challenges for interpreting electron microscopy data on plasmonic nanoparticles for understanding nanoscale optics and for characterization and design of photonic devices.

  12. Reclaiming silver from silver zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Silver zeolite is used to capture radioiodines from air cleaning systems in some nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It may become radioactively contaminated and/or poisoned by hydrocarbon vapors, which diminishes its capacity for iodine. Silver zeolite contains up to 38 wt% silver. A pyrometallurgical process was developed to reclaim the silver before disposing of the unserviceable zeolite as a radioactive waste. A flux was formulated to convert the refractory aluminosilicate zeolite structure into a low-melting fluid slag, with Na{sub 2}O added as NAOH instead of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to avoid severe foaming due to CO{sub 2} evolution. A propane-fired furnace was built to smelt 45 kg charges at 1300C in a carbon-bonded silicon carbide crucible. A total of 218 kg (7000 tr oz) of silver was reclaimed from 1050 kg of unserviceable zeolite. Silver recoveries of 97% were achieved, and the radioisotopes were fixed as stable silicates in a vitreous slag that was disposed of as a low level waste. Recovered silver was refined using oxygen and cast into 100 tr oz bars assaying 99.8+% silver and showing no radioactive contamination.

  13. Reclaiming silver from silver zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Silver zeolite is used to capture radioiodines from air cleaning systems in some nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It may become radioactively contaminated and/or poisoned by hydrocarbon vapors, which diminishes its capacity for iodine. Silver zeolite contains up to 38 wt% silver. A pyrometallurgical process was developed to reclaim the silver before disposing of the unserviceable zeolite as a radioactive waste. A flux was formulated to convert the refractory aluminosilicate zeolite structure into a low-melting fluid slag, with Na[sub 2]O added as NAOH instead of Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3] to avoid severe foaming due to CO[sub 2] evolution. A propane-fired furnace was built to smelt 45 kg charges at 1300C in a carbon-bonded silicon carbide crucible. A total of 218 kg (7000 tr oz) of silver was reclaimed from 1050 kg of unserviceable zeolite. Silver recoveries of 97% were achieved, and the radioisotopes were fixed as stable silicates in a vitreous slag that was disposed of as a low level waste. Recovered silver was refined using oxygen and cast into 100 tr oz bars assaying 99.8+% silver and showing no radioactive contamination.

  14. First Production of Larvae Using Cryopreserved Sperm: Effects of Preservation Temperature and Cryopreservation on European Eel Sperm Fertilization Capacity.

    PubMed

    Asturiano, J F; Sørensen, S R; Pérez, L; Lauesen, P; Tomkiewicz, J

    2016-08-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is a useful tool in captive fish reproduction management, that is to synchronize gamete production, especially in the case of species as the European eel, where the time of female spawning readiness is unpredictable. Several protocols to cryopreserve sperm of this species have been described, but until recently fertilization trials were not feasible. This study evaluated the effect of cold storage of diluted sperm prior to fertilizations and tested whether a previously defined protocol for European eel sperm cryopreservation can be successfully applied in fertilization trials to produce viable offspring. In our experiment, the sperm motility was evaluated after the extraction and the best samples were selected and pooled. Until stripping of eggs and fertilization, diluted sperm samples were maintained at either 4 or 20°C, or cryopreserved, following existing protocols. Fertilization of two egg batches was attempted. Diluted sperm caused a similar percentage of fertilized eggs and a similar number of embryos and larvae, independently of storage temperature (4 or 20°C). The cryopreserved sperm resulted in a lower percentage of fertilized eggs, but embryos developed and a few larvae ('cryolarvae') were obtained 55 h after fertilization in one of the two egg batches. This result evidences that the tested cryopreservation protocol is applicable for eel reproduction management, although improvements will be required to enhance fertilization success. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels

    PubMed Central

    Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael M.; Maes, Gregory E.; Nielsen, Torkel G.; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Sparholt, Henrik; Als, Thomas D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Andersen, Nikolaj G.; Bachler, Mirjam

    2010-01-01

    Anguillid freshwater eels show remarkable life histories. In the Atlantic, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) undertake extensive migrations to spawn in the oceanic Sargasso Sea, and subsequently the offspring drift to foraging areas in Europe and North America, first as leaf-like leptocephali larvae that later metamorphose into glass eels. Since recruitment of European and American glass eels has declined drastically during past decades, there is a strong demand for further understanding of the early, oceanic phase of their life cycle. Consequently, during a field expedition to the eel spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea, we carried out a wide range of dedicated bio-physical studies across areas of eel larval distribution. Our findings suggest a key role of oceanic frontal processes, retaining eel larvae within a zone of enhanced feeding conditions and steering their drift. The majority of the more westerly distributed American eel larvae are likely to follow a westerly/northerly drift route entrained in the Antilles/Florida Currents. European eel larvae are generally believed to initially follow the same route, but their more easterly distribution close to the eastward flowing Subtropical Counter Current indicates that these larvae could follow a shorter, eastward route towards the Azores and Europe. The findings emphasize the significance of oceanic physical–biological linkages in the life-cycle completion of Atlantic eels. PMID:20573625

  16. Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels.

    PubMed

    Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael M; Maes, Gregory E; Nielsen, Torkel G; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Sparholt, Henrik; Als, Thomas D; Aarestrup, Kim; Andersen, Nikolaj G; Bachler, Mirjam

    2010-12-07

    Anguillid freshwater eels show remarkable life histories. In the Atlantic, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) undertake extensive migrations to spawn in the oceanic Sargasso Sea, and subsequently the offspring drift to foraging areas in Europe and North America, first as leaf-like leptocephali larvae that later metamorphose into glass eels. Since recruitment of European and American glass eels has declined drastically during past decades, there is a strong demand for further understanding of the early, oceanic phase of their life cycle. Consequently, during a field expedition to the eel spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea, we carried out a wide range of dedicated bio-physical studies across areas of eel larval distribution. Our findings suggest a key role of oceanic frontal processes, retaining eel larvae within a zone of enhanced feeding conditions and steering their drift. The majority of the more westerly distributed American eel larvae are likely to follow a westerly/northerly drift route entrained in the Antilles/Florida Currents. European eel larvae are generally believed to initially follow the same route, but their more easterly distribution close to the eastward flowing Subtropical Counter Current indicates that these larvae could follow a shorter, eastward route towards the Azores and Europe. The findings emphasize the significance of oceanic physical-biological linkages in the life-cycle completion of Atlantic eels.

  17. Induction of spermatogenesis and spermiation by a single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin in intact and hypophysectomized immature European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.).

    PubMed

    Khan, I A; Lopez, E; Leloup-Hâtey, J

    1987-10-01

    Intact and hypophysectomized male silver eels (Anguilla anguilla) in fresh water received a single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (250 C) or solvent (0.15 M NaCl). No effect of solvent was observed. Spermatogonia proliferated in testis of hCG-treated intact or hypophysectomized eels. One month after the injection, primary and secondary spermatocytes were found. After 3 months, numerous spermatozoa were present. In hypophysectomized eels, hCG was also effective even though maturing germ cells were less numerous and spermiation was less frequent than in intact animals. Within 1 week after hCG injection, plasma levels of free and glucuroconjugated androgens (testosterone and 11-oxotestosterone) rose significantly in intact and hypophysectomized fish. The highest values were observed within 1 month, and then plasma levels decreased to pretreatment values. The most important changes were observed in the case of free 11-oxotestosterone. The long-term effects of hCG can be explained partly by the long half-life of this hormone. The effects of hypophysectomy on the response of testis to hCG caused us to think that some endogenous pituitary secretions must interfere in the intact fish so that maximal effects of hCG, especially on the induction of spermiation, are obtained.

  18. Donor life stage influences juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata attraction to conspecific chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, H S; Blakeslee, C J; Schmucker, A K; Johnson, N S; Hansen, M J; Li, W

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential role of conspecific chemical cues in inland juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata migrations by assessing glass eel and 1 year old elver affinities to elver washings, and elver affinity to adult yellow eel washings. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to elver washings, but elvers were neither attracted to nor repulsed by multiple concentrations of elver washings or to yellow eel washings. These results suggest that A. rostrata responses to chemical cues may be life-stage dependent and that glass eels moving inland may use the odour of the previous year class as information to guide migration. The role of chemical cues and olfaction in eel migrations warrants further investigation as a potential restoration tool.

  19. Donor life stage influences juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata attraction to conspecific chemical cues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hansen, Michael J.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential role of conspecific chemical cues in inland juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata migrations by assessing glass eel and 1 year old elver affinities to elver washings, and elver affinity to adult yellow eel washings. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to elver washings, but elvers were neither attracted to nor repulsed by multiple concentrations of elver washings or to yellow eel washings. These results suggest that A. rostrata responses to chemical cues may be life-stage dependent and that glass eels moving inland may use the odour of the previous year class as information to guide migration. The role of chemical cues and olfaction in eel migrations warrants further investigation as a potential restoration tool.

  20. Russell-Silver syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... Organization for Rare Disorders -- rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/russell-silver-syndrome NIH/NLM Genetics Home Reference -- ghr. ...

  1. The eel heart: multilevel insights into functional organ plasticity.

    PubMed

    Imbrogno, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The remarkable functional homogeneity of the heart as an organ requires a well-coordinated myocardial heterogeneity. An example is represented by the selective sensitivity of the different cardiac cells to physical (i.e. shear stress and/or stretch) or chemical stimuli (e.g. catecholamines, angiotensin II, natriuretic peptides, etc.), and the cell-specific synthesis and release of these substances. The biological significance of the cardiac heterogeneity has recently received great attention in attempts to dissect the complexity of the mechanisms that control the cardiac form and function. A useful approach in this regard is to identify natural models of cardiac plasticity. Among fishes, eels (genus Anguilla), for their adaptive and acclimatory abilities, represent a group of animals so far largely used to explore the structural and ultrastructural myoarchitecture organization, as well as the complex molecular networks involved in the modulation of the heart function, such as those converting environmental signals into physiological responses. However, an overview on the existing current knowledge of eel cardiac form and function is not yet available. In this context, this review will illustrate major features of eel cardiac organization and pumping performance. Aspects of autocrine-paracrine modulation and the influence of factors such as body growth, exercise, hypoxia and temperature will highlight the power of the eel heart as an experimental model useful to decipher how the cardiac morpho-functional heterogeneities may support the uniformity of the whole-organ mechanics.

  2. Toxic textile dyes accumulate in wild European eel Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Belpaire, Claude; Reyns, Tim; Geeraerts, Caroline; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-11-01

    Dyes are used to stain inks, paints, textile, paper, leather and household products. They are omnipresent, some are toxic and may threaten our environment, especially aquatic ecosystems. The presence of residues of sixteen dyes (triarylmethanes, xanthenes, phenothiazines and phenoxazines) and their metabolites was analyzed in muscle tissue samples of individual yellow-phased European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from 91 locations in Belgian rivers, canals and lakes sampled between 2000 and 2009 using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eel was contaminated by dyes in 77% of the sites. Malachite Green, Crystal Violet and Brilliant Green were present in 25-58% of the samples. Dye occurrence was related to the distribution of textile and dye production industries. This field study is the first large-scale survey to document the occurrence of artificial dyes in wildlife. Considering the annual amounts of dyes produced worldwide and the unintentional spillage during their use, our observations warrant additional research in other parts of the world. The presence of these highly toxic dyes in the European eel may form an additional threat to this critically endangered species. The contaminated eels should be considered as not suitable for consumption.

  3. A global viability assessment of the European eel.

    PubMed

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Melià, Paco; Gatto, Marino; De Leo, Giulio A

    2015-09-01

    The global European eel (Anguilla anguilla) stock is critically endangered according to the IUCN, and the European Commission has urged the development of conservation plans aimed to ensure its viability. However, the complex life cycle of this panmictic species, which reproduces in the open ocean but spends most of its prereproductive life in continental waters (thus embracing a huge geographic range and a variety of habitat types), makes it difficult to assess the long-term effectiveness of conservation measures. The interplay between local and global stressors raises intriguing cross-scale conservation challenges that require a comprehensive modelling approach to be addressed. We developed a full life cycle model of the global European eel stock, encompassing both the oceanic and the continental phases of eel's life, and explicitly allowing for spatial heterogeneity in vital rates, availability of suitable habitat and settlement potential via a metapopulation approach. We calibrated the model against a long-term time series of global European eel catches and used it to hindcast the dynamics of the stock in the past and project it over the 21st century under different management scenarios. Although our analysis relies on a number of inevitable simplifying assumptions and on data that may not embrace the whole range of variation in population dynamics at the small spatiotemporal scale, our hindcast is consistent with the general pattern of decline of the stock over recent decades. The results of our projections suggest that (i) habitat loss played a major role in the European eel decline; (ii) the viability of the global stock is at risk if appropriate protection measures are not implemented; (iii) the recovery of spawner escapement requires that fishing mortality is significantly reduced; and (iv) the recovery of recruitment might not be feasible if reproductive output is not enhanced.

  4. Hippocampal-dependent memory deficit induced by perinatal exposure to polutted eels in middle-aged offspring mice: Sex differential effects.

    PubMed

    Soualeh, Nidhal; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouayed, Jaouad

    2017-10-05

    The effects of perinatal exposure to low, intermediate, or highly polluted eels on neonatal, postnatal, adult and middle-aged brain inflammation, and on cognitive performances of middle-aged offspring mice were compared to those of offspring controls. Inflammatory markers in microglia were assessed in offspring on the postnatal days-PNDs 1, 21, 100 and 330. Activated p38MAPK, ERK-1/2 and p65, and acetylcholine levels were assessed in the middle-aged hippocampus. Plasma myeloperoxidase and corticosterone levels were evaluated at PND 330. Learning and its retention, and working memory in middle-aged offspring were assessed using the Morris water maze, and Y-maze. Our results showed enhanced microglia production of inflammatory markers across the lifespan of male as well as female exposed offspring. Inflammation and increased p38 MAPK activation were detected in the exposed middle-aged hippocampus of both exposed sexes. Significant levels of MPO, but not corticosterone, were found in middle-aged males and females perinatally exposed to eels. However, decreases in ERK1/2 and p65 activation, and acetylcholine levels were only detected in female hippocampus exposed to either intermediately or highly polluted eels. Sex selective effects were also detected with regard to memory, the only altered cognitive function. Thus, middle-aged females, but not males, perinatally exposed to either intermediately or highly polluted eels take longer to locate the escape platform, spend considerably less time in the platform and perform less visit to the platform in the retention test. Our results suggest perinatal programming of hippocampal-dependent memory deficit by inflammation in middle-aged offspring, in sex and dose dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthropogenic impacts on American eel demographics in Hudson River tributaries, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machut, L.S.; Limburg, K.E.; Schmidt, R.E.; Dittman, D.

    2007-01-01

    Populations of American eel Anguilla rostrata along the eastern coast of North America have declined drastically for largely unknown reasons. We examined the population dynamics of American eels in six tributaries of the Hudson River, New York, to quantify their distribution and the impacts of anthropogenic stressors. With up to 155 American eels per 100 m2, tributary densities are greater than those within the main stem of the Hudson River and are among the highest reported anywhere. The predominance of small American eels (<200 mm) and wide range of ages (from young-of-year glass eels to 24-year-old yellow eels) suggest that tributaries are an important nursery area for immature American eels. However, upstream of natural and artificial barriers, American eel densities were reduced by at least a factor of 10 and condition, as measured by mass, was significantly lower. Significantly lower American eel condition was also found with increasing riparian urbanization. Density-dependent growth limitations below barriers are suggested by increased growth rates above the first tributary barrier. We suggest that (1) tributaries are important habitat for the conservation of American eels and (2) mitigation of anthropogenic stressors is vital for complete utilization of available habitat and conservation of the species. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  6. An Optimized Biological Taser: Electric Eels Remotely Induce or Arrest Movement in Nearby Prey.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2015-09-01

    Despite centuries of interest in electric eels, few studies have investigated the mechanism of the eel's attack. Here, I review and extend recent findings that show eel electric high-voltage discharges activate prey motor neuron efferents. This mechanism allows electric eels to remotely control their targets using two different strategies. When nearby prey have been detected, eels emit a high-voltage volley that causes whole-body tetanus in the target, freezing all voluntary movement and allowing the eel to capture the prey with a suction feeding strike. When hunting for cryptic prey, eels emit doublets and triplets, inducing whole-body twitch in prey, which in turn elicits an immediate eel attack with a full volley and suction feeding strike. Thus, by using their modified muscles (electrocytes) as amplifiers of their own motor efferents, eel's motor neurons remotely activate prey motor neurons to cause movement (twitch and escape) or immobilization (tetanus) facilitating prey detection and capture, respectively. These results explain reports that human movement is 'frozen' by eel discharges and shows the mechanism to resemble a law-enforcement Taser.

  7. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  8. Spatial trends of dioxin-like compounds in Atlantic anguillid eels.

    PubMed

    Byer, Jonathan D; Alaee, Mehran; Brown, R Stephen; Lebeuf, Michel; Backus, Sean; Keir, Michael; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Casselman, John; Belpaire, Claude; Oliveira, Kenneth; Verreault, Guy; Hodson, Peter V

    2013-06-01

    Several temperate freshwater eel stocks have experienced unsustainable declines, yet to be explained. The decline of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Ontario has been linked to aryl-hydrocarbon receptor agonists such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and the question remains whether eels are affected similarly by these compounds. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs were determined in eels collected at seven locations in eastern Canada including L. Ontario, one location in New York, USA, and one location in Flanders, Belgium. Concentrations varied greatly among origins, indicating dissimilar historic loadings to local areas. The risk to eel reproduction was evaluated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents, and increased by 10-fold from the least to most contaminated site. The risk to eel recruitment from dioxin-like compounds in American eel using available guidelines is low. The development of a more comprehensive model for eel recruitment risk assessment due to dioxin-like compounds, using eel-specific guidelines, is recommended. Toxic equivalents were 5-fold higher when based on mammalian toxic equivalency factors compared to fish values. About half of the eels captured in L. Ontario exceeded the Canadian guideline for fish consumption (20pg TEQ g(-1) ww), but there were no other exceedances in Canada. The current risk to eel consumers in Canada is low overall, except for highly urbanized and industrialized areas.

  9. Habitat use of American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in a tributary of the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    American eel Anguilla rostrata populations are declining over much of their native range. Since American eels spend extended periods in freshwater, understanding their habitat requirements while freshwater residents is important for the management and conservation of this species. As there is little information on American eel habitat use in streams, the ontogenetic, diel, and seasonal habitat use as well as habitat selectivity of three size groups (i.e. ≤199 mm total length, 200–399 mm, ≥400 mm) of eel were examined in a tributary of the Hudson River. American eels in Hannacroix Creek exhibited ontogenetic, diel, and seasonal variation in habitat use as well as habitat selection. During both summer and autumn all sizes of American eels used larger substrate and more cover during the day. American eels ≤199 mm exhibited the strongest habitat selection, whereas eels 200–399 mm exhibited the least. During the autumn all sizes of American eels occupied slower depositional areas where deciduous leaf litter accumulated and provided cover. This may have important implications for in-stream and riparian habitat management of lotic systems used by American eel.

  10. Antibacterial Silver

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Julia L.; Jarrett, Penelope S.

    1994-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of silver has long been known and has found a variety of applications because its toxicity to human cells is considerably lower than to bacteria. The most widely documented uses are prophylactic treatment of burns and water disinfection. However, the mechanisms by which silver kills cells are not known. Information on resistance mechanisms is apparently contradictory and even the chemistry of Ag+ in such systems is poorly understood. Silver binds to many cellular components, with membrane components probably being more important than nucleic acids. It is difficult to know whether strong binding reflects toxicity or detoxification: some sensitive bacterial strains have been reported as accumulating more silver than the corresponding resistant strain, in others the reverse apparently occurs. In several cases resistance has been shown to be plasmid mediated. The plasmids are reported as difficult to transfer, and can also be difficult to maintain, as we too have found. Attempts to find biochemical differences between resistant and sensitive strains have met with limited success: differences are subtle, such as increased cell surface hydrophobicity in a resistant Escherichia coli. Some of the problems are due to defining conditions in which resistance can be observed. Silver(I) has been shown to bind to components of cell culture media, and the presence of chloride is necessary to demonstrate resistance. The form of silver used must also be considered. This is usually water soluble AgNO3, which readily precipitates as AgCl. The clinically preferred compound is the highly insoluble silver sulfadiazine, which does not cause hypochloraemia in burns. It has been suggested that resistant bacteria are those unable to bind Ag+ more tightly than does chloride. It may be that certain forms of insoluble silver are taken up by cells, as has been found for nickel. Under our experimental conditions, silver complexed by certain ligands is more cytotoxic

  11. Antibacterial silver.

    PubMed

    Clement, J L; Jarrett, P S

    1994-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of silver has long been known and has found a variety of applications because its toxicity to human cells is considerably lower than to bacteria. The most widely documented uses are prophylactic treatment of burns and water disinfection. However, the mechanisms by which silver kills cells are not known. Information on resistance mechanisms is apparently contradictory and even the chemistry of Ag(+) in such systems is poorly understood.Silver binds to many cellular components, with membrane components probably being more important than nucleic acids. It is difficult to know whether strong binding reflects toxicity or detoxification: some sensitive bacterial strains have been reported as accumulating more silver than the corresponding resistant strain, in others the reverse apparently occurs. In several cases resistance has been shown to be plasmid mediated. The plasmids are reported as difficult to transfer, and can also be difficult to maintain, as we too have found. Attempts to find biochemical differences between resistant and sensitive strains have met with limited success: differences are subtle, such as increased cell surface hydrophobicity in a resistant Escherichia coli.Some of the problems are due to defining conditions in which resistance can be observed. Silver(I) has been shown to bind to components of cell culture media, and the presence of chloride is necessary to demonstrate resistance. The form of silver used must also be considered. This is usually water soluble AgNO(3), which readily precipitates as AgCl. The clinically preferred compound is the highly insoluble silver sulfadiazine, which does not cause hypochloraemia in burns. It has been suggested that resistant bacteria are those unable to bind Ag(+) more tightly than does chloride. It may be that certain forms of insoluble silver are taken up by cells, as has been found for nickel. Under our experimental conditions, silver complexed by certain ligands is more

  12. Isolation of a novel polyomavirus, related to Japanese eel endothelial cell-infecting virus, from marbled eels, Anguilla marmorata (Quoy & Gaimard).

    PubMed

    Wen, C M; Chen, M M; Wang, C S; Liu, P C; Nan, F H

    2016-07-01

    Marbled eels, Anguilla marmorata (Quoy & Gaimard), cultured in Taiwan exhibited haemorrhage and mortality in January 2012. The severely diseased eels bled from the gills and showed congestion of the central venous sinus of the gill filaments and haemorrhage throughout the body similar to viral endothelial cell necrosis of eel. In this study, a novel polyomavirus (AmPyV) was isolated from the diseased eels using the AMPF cell line established from the pectoral fin of healthy marbled eels. AmPyV was found to encode a long T-antigen orthologous gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AmPyV was closely related to Japanese eel endothelial cell-infecting virus. PCR assays revealed AmPyV infection throughout the systemic organs. AmPyV proliferated in the AMPF, EK-1 and EO-2 cells at temperatures 25-30 °C, and the progeny virus yields were 10(7.0) , 10(7.4) and 10(7.7) TCID50  mL(-1) , respectively. The purified virions were icosahedral particles, 70-80 nm in diameter. No clinical signs or mortality was observed among the eels injected with the virus; however, the virus was reisolated from the brain, eyes, kidneys, fins and gills of infected eels 2 month after injection. Our results suggest that AmPyV exhibits a latent infection. Pathogen of the disease needs to study further.

  13. Tracking the migratory success of stocked European eels Anguilla anguilla in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Prigge, E; Marohn, L; Hanel, R

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the extent to which European silver eels Anguilla anguilla, originating from stocking programmes in the Baltic Sea tributaries, effectively contribute to the spawning stock, two hundred and seventy-four formerly stocked A. anguilla. emigrating from the Schwentine River near Kiel, Germany, were tagged with T-Bar anchor tags. A total of 29 Anguilla spp. were recaptured (c. 11%) up to 14 months after release. Stocking history of recaptured A. anguilla. was confirmed by otolith microchemistry. Recapture locations were concentrated around the outlet of the Baltic Sea (Danish Belt Sea) with 62% of all recaptures reported here or in the Kattegat. Recaptured Anguilla spp. showed a reduction in both L(T) and mass (mean ± s.d. = -1.5 ± 0.9 cm and -125.3 ± 50.1 g) while average total fat content remained in the order of values previously reported as high enough to provide energy resources to allow successful completion of the spawning migration (mean ± s.d. = 28.4 ± 4.4%). The documented mean rate of travel (0.8 km day(-1)), however, indicated a delay in the target-oriented migration that might be interpreted as a delayed initial migration phase of orientation towards the exit of the Baltic Sea.

  14. Molecular nutritional characteristics of vinasse pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus) during pickling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daian; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhan, Pingping; Lou, Yongjiang

    2017-06-01

    Vinasse pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus) is a traditional Chinese food with a characteristic flavour, taste, and nutritional composition. Its flavour is closely related to the molecular nutritional composition of this food pickled product. In this study, we characterised the changes in the nutritional composition of pike eel during vinasse pickling. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed 33 components in eel, e.g. a range of organic acids, amino acids, alcohols, and sugars. Multivariate data analysis further revealed that the nutritional composition of eel undergoes major changes during pickling, which were highlighted by the consumption of sucrose and creatine, the accumulation of a range of organic acids, alcohols, glucose, and creatinine, as well as in the fluctuation of some amino acids. The abundant sucrose, glutamate, creatine, and lactate could take an active part in the flavour formation of vinasse eel. This work provides insight into the nutritional characteristics of vinasse eel during pickling.

  15. Reproduction of European eel jeopardised by high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs?

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, C; Focant, J-F; Eppe, G; De Pauw, E; Belpaire, C

    2011-09-01

    Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in muscle tissue from yellow phased European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from 38 sites in Belgium. Dioxin concentrations in eel vary considerably between sampling locations, indicating that yellow eel is a good indicator of local pollution levels. Measured levels of dioxin-like PCBs are much higher than those of the dioxins and furans. In the majority of the sites, eel has levels considered to be detrimental for their reproduction. Field levels of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs are therefore suggested as an additional causal factor contributing to the decline of the European eel. 42% of the sampling sites show especially dioxin-like PCB levels exceeding the European consumption level (with a factor 3 on average). Human consumption of eel, especially in these highly contaminated sites, seems unjustified.

  16. Iron-rich particles in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.).

    PubMed

    Hanson, M; Wirmark, G; Oblad, M; Strid, L

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic material in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) was investigated by a combination of magnetic susceptibility measurements, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the magnetic material is associated with iron. The main part of the iron is present in the form of iron-rich particles with irregular shapes about 100-3000 A large. The structures of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) and alpha-iron (bcc structure) were identified. The particles are composed of more than one of these phases with magnetite being a minority phase when present. The iron-rich particles found in the eel are different from the materials reported for bacteria or bees.

  17. Expression and functional characterization of four aquaporin water channels from the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    MacIver, Bryce; Cutler, Christopher P; Yin, Jia; Hill, Myles G; Zeidel, Mark L; Hill, Warren G

    2009-09-01

    The European eel is a euryhaline teleost which has been shown to differentially up- and downregulate aquaporin (AQP) water channels in response to changes in environmental salinity. We have characterized the transport properties of four aquaporins localized to osmoregulatory organs - gill, esophagus, intestine and kidney. By sequence comparison these four AQP orthologs resemble human AQP1 (eel AQP1), AQP3 (eel AQP3) and AQP10 (AQPe). The fourth member is a duplicate form of AQP1 (AQP1dup) thought to arise from a duplication of the teleost genome. Using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes we demonstrate that all four eel orthologs transport water and are mercury inhibitable. Eel AQP3 and AQPe also transport urea and glycerol, making them aquaglyceroporins. Eel AQP3 is dramatically inhibited by extracellular acidity (91% and 69% inhibition of water and glycerol transport respectively at pH 6.5) consistent with channel gating by protons. Maximal water flux of eel AQP3 occurred around pH 8.2 - close to the physiological pH of plasma in the eel. Exposure of AQP-expressing oocytes to heavy metals revealed that eel AQP3 is highly sensitive to extracellular nickel and zinc (88.3% and 86.3% inhibition, respectively) but less sensitive to copper (56.4% inhibition). Surprisingly, copper had a stimulatory effect on eel AQP1 (153.7% activity of control). Copper, nickel and zinc did not affect AQP1dup or AQPe. We establish that all four eel AQP orthologs have similar transport profiles to their human counterparts, with eel AQP3 exhibiting some differences in its sensitivity to metals. This is the first investigation of the transport properties and inhibitor sensitivity of salinity-regulated aquaporins from a euryhaline species. Our results indicate a need to further investigate the deleterious effects of metal pollutants on AQP-containing epithelial cells of the gill and gastrointestinal tract at environmentally appropriate concentrations.

  18. Characterization of a Novel Picornavirus Isolate from a Diseased European Eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    PubMed Central

    Fichtner, Dieter; Philipps, Anja; Groth, Marco; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Granzow, Harald; Dauber, Malte; Platzer, Matthias; Bergmann, Sven M.; Schrudde, Daniela; Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A novel picornavirus was isolated from specimens of a diseased European eel (Anguilla anguilla). This virus induced a cytopathic effect in eel embryonic kidney cells and high mortality in a controlled transmission study using elvers. Eel picornavirus has a genome of 7,496 nucleotides that encodes a polyprotein of 2,259 amino acids. It has a typical picornavirus genome layout, but its low similarity to known viral proteins suggests a novel species in the family Picornaviridae. PMID:23885066

  19. Do North Atlantic eels show parallel patterns of spatially varying selection?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The two North Atlantic eel species, the European and the American eel, represent an ideal system in which to study parallel selection patterns due to their sister species status and the presence of ongoing gene flow. A panel of 80 coding-gene SNPs previously analyzed in American eel was used to genotype European eel individuals (glass eels) from 8 sampling locations across the species distribution. We tested for single-generation signatures of spatially varying selection in European eel by searching for elevated genetic differentiation using FST-based outlier tests and by testing for significant associations between allele frequencies and environmental variables. Results We found signatures of possible selection at a total of 11 coding-gene SNPs. Candidate genes for local selection constituted mainly genes with a major role in metabolism as well as defense genes. Contrary to what has been found for American eel, only 2 SNPs in our study correlated with differences in temperature, which suggests that other explanatory variables may play a role. None of the genes found to be associated with explanatory variables in European eel showed any correlations with environmental factors in the previous study in American eel. Conclusions The different signatures of selection between species could be due to distinct selective pressures associated with the much longer larval migration for European eel relative to American eel. The lack of parallel selection in North Atlantic eels could also be due to most phenotypic traits being polygenic, thus reducing the likelihood of selection acting on the same genes in both species. PMID:24947556

  20. Interpretation of O K-edge EELS in zircon using a structural variation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, John C.H; Jiang, Nan

    2009-12-01

    This work describes an approach to interpret the near-edge fine structure of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) of O K-edge in zircon using a structural variation method. The positions and intensities of several peaks in the O K-edge EELS spectrum are assigned to specific structural parameters. It suggests that the near-edge structures in EELS can be used to measure atomic structure changes.

  1. Interpretation of O K-edge EELS in zircon using a structural variation approach.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Spence, John C H

    2009-12-01

    This work describes an approach to interpret the near-edge fine structure of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) of O K-edge in zircon using a structural variation method. The positions and intensities of several peaks in the O K-edge EELS spectrum are assigned to specific structural parameters. It suggests that the near-edge structures in EELS can be used to measure atomic structure changes.

  2. Characterization of a novel picornavirus isolate from a diseased European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Fichtner, Dieter; Philipps, Anja; Groth, Marco; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Granzow, Harald; Dauber, Malte; Platzer, Matthias; Bergmann, Sven M; Schrudde, Daniela; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Zell, Roland

    2013-10-01

    A novel picornavirus was isolated from specimens of a diseased European eel (Anguilla anguilla). This virus induced a cytopathic effect in eel embryonic kidney cells and high mortality in a controlled transmission study using elvers. Eel picornavirus has a genome of 7,496 nucleotides that encodes a polyprotein of 2,259 amino acids. It has a typical picornavirus genome layout, but its low similarity to known viral proteins suggests a novel species in the family Picornaviridae.

  3. Expression and functional characterization of four aquaporin water channels from the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    PubMed Central

    MacIver, Bryce; Cutler, Christopher P.; Yin, Jia; Hill, Myles G.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Hill, Warren G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The European eel is a euryhaline teleost which has been shown to differentially up- and downregulate aquaporin (AQP) water channels in response to changes in environmental salinity. We have characterized the transport properties of four aquaporins localized to osmoregulatory organs – gill, esophagus, intestine and kidney. By sequence comparison these four AQP orthologs resemble human AQP1 (eel AQP1), AQP3 (eel AQP3) and AQP10 (AQPe). The fourth member is a duplicate form of AQP1 (AQP1dup) thought to arise from a duplication of the teleost genome. Using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes we demonstrate that all four eel orthologs transport water and are mercury inhibitable. Eel AQP3 and AQPe also transport urea and glycerol, making them aquaglyceroporins. Eel AQP3 is dramatically inhibited by extracellular acidity (91% and 69% inhibition of water and glycerol transport respectively at pH 6.5) consistent with channel gating by protons. Maximal water flux of eel AQP3 occurred around pH 8.2 – close to the physiological pH of plasma in the eel. Exposure of AQP-expressing oocytes to heavy metals revealed that eel AQP3 is highly sensitive to extracellular nickel and zinc (88.3% and 86.3% inhibition, respectively) but less sensitive to copper (56.4% inhibition). Surprisingly, copper had a stimulatory effect on eel AQP1 (153.7% activity of control). Copper, nickel and zinc did not affect AQP1dup or AQPe. We establish that all four eel AQP orthologs have similar transport profiles to their human counterparts, with eel AQP3 exhibiting some differences in its sensitivity to metals. This is the first investigation of the transport properties and inhibitor sensitivity of salinity-regulated aquaporins from a euryhaline species. Our results indicate a need to further investigate the deleterious effects of metal pollutants on AQP-containing epithelial cells of the gill and gastrointestinal tract at environmentally appropriate concentrations. PMID:19684221

  4. Silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Silver cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  5. A semi-automated method of monitoring dam passage of American Eels Anguilla rostrata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Aldinger, Joni L.

    2014-01-01

    Fish passage facilities at dams have become an important focus of fishery management in riverine systems. Given the personnel and travel costs associated with physical monitoring programs, automated or semi-automated systems are an attractive alternative for monitoring fish passage facilities. We designed and tested a semi-automated system for eel ladder monitoring at Millville Dam on the lower Shenandoah River, West Virginia. A motion-activated eel ladder camera (ELC) photographed each yellow-phase American Eel Anguilla rostrata that passed through the ladder. Digital images (with date and time stamps) of American Eels allowed for total daily counts and measurements of eel TL using photogrammetric methods with digital imaging software. We compared physical counts of American Eels with camera-based counts; TLs obtained with a measuring board were compared with TLs derived from photogrammetric methods. Data from the ELC were consistent with data obtained by physical methods, thus supporting the semi-automated camera system as a viable option for monitoring American Eel passage. Time stamps on digital images allowed for the documentation of eel passage time—data that were not obtainable from physical monitoring efforts. The ELC has application to eel ladder facilities but can also be used to monitor dam passage of other taxa, such as crayfishes, lampreys, and water snakes.

  6. Individual movements and population density estimates for moray eels on a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, R. W.; Schein, M. W.

    1986-12-01

    Observations of moray eel (Muraenidae) distribution made on a Caribbean coral reef are discussed in the context of long term population trends. Observations of eel distribution made using SCUBA during 1978, 1979 1980, and 1984 are compared and related to the occurrence of a hurricane in 1979. An estimate of the mean standing stock of moray eels is presented. The degree of site attachment is discussed for spotted morays ( Gymnothorax moringa) and goldentail morays ( Muraena miliaris). The repeated non-aggressive association of moray eels with large aggregations of potential prey fishes is detailed.

  7. Spatial trends of organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Atlantic Anguillid eels.

    PubMed

    Byer, Jonathan D; Lebeuf, Michel; Alaee, Mehran; Stephen, Brown R; Trottier, Steve; Backus, Sean; Keir, Michael; Couillard, Catherine M; Casselman, John; Hodson, Peter V

    2013-02-01

    The bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can result in a reduction in fitness and spawner quality in eels and may be a factor in Anguillid sp. population declines. Contaminant concentrations in eels have been studied extensively in Europe, but data for American eels are severely lacking. Concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs were determined in American eel from eastern Canada and New York, USA, along with European eel from Belgium. Principal component analysis revealed that eels captured in the St. Lawrence estuary were a mixture of upstream migrants from the St. Lawrence River watershed, and fish captured in local tributaries. Contaminant concentrations were dependent on origin, related to the local environment, and were lower than historic values. In Canada, concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in eel tissues were below the Canadian human consumption guidelines for contaminants in fish, indicating that the current risk to consumers is low. However, concentrations of PCBs, total DDT, and mirex in eels from L. Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence R. were above Great Lakes guidelines for the protection of piscivorous predators. Concentrations of penta-BDE homologs exceeded the Canadian guideline for environmental quality in over half of the eels in this study, but concentrations of the other homolog groups were below the guideline.

  8. The role of olfaction in homing and estuarine migratory behavior of yellow-phase American eels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbin, G.P.

    1998-01-01

    The role of olfaction in homing migrations of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) was examined in the Penobscot Estuary, Maine, U.S.A. Ultrasonic telemetry was used to track continuously (65 ?? 12 h) 16 yellow eels displaced from a capture site. Four eels were not treated, eight rendered anosmic, and four rendered partially anosmic. All normal, only three anosmic, and two partially anosmic eels homed. Normal eels expressed a singular behavioral pattern, selective tidal stream transport (STST). STST was also displayed by three anosmic eels and one partially anosmic eel. Three alternative behavioral patterns ('sporadic vertical excursions,' 'sloshing,' and 'directed swimming') were displayed by the remainder of the anosmic and partially anosmic eels. Eels that displayed STST used the water column differently (moving at depths shallower than the thermocline, halocline, and pycnocline) from those that displayed other behaviors. Olfaction seems to be important for discrimination of the appropriate tide for transport and location of a home site but is not the only orientational mechanism used in estuaries. Mechanisms used to detect rates of change of water mass characteristics are probably important for guidance of estuarine migrations.

  9. EEL spectroscopic tomography: towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis.

    PubMed

    Yedra, Lluís; Eljarrat, Alberto; Arenal, Raúl; Pellicer, Eva; Cabo, Moisés; López-Ortega, Alberto; Estrader, Marta; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Estradé, Sònia; Peiró, Francesca

    2012-11-01

    Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe(x)Co((3-x))O(4)@Co(3)O(4) mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D.

  10. Nicolas and Eel submarine fans, California continental borderland

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.; Gorsline, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Nicolas and Eel Submarine Fans occur in the San Nicolas basin - an outer basin of the California continental borderland that has a low sedimentation rate. Nicolas Fan lies southeast of San Nicolas Island and the broad San Nicolas Bank. The upper fan is characterized by numerous channels. The midfan region may be divided into three distinct areas: a central midfan and two subfans. The central midfan deposition system is typical of Normark's suprafan. The subfans are essentially flat, sandy lobes. Eel Fan lies west of San Clemente Island and is fed by an erosional valley. Its midfan region may also be characterized as a flat, sandy lobe. Box-core data show that holocene turbidity currents have occurred on the central Nicolas Fan, whereas the subfans and Eel Fan are nearly inactive. The local tectonic regime influences these fans by determining slope trends, creating bathymetric obstacles, controlling canyon location, and triggering mass movements. Sea level changes affect sedimentation patterns of the fans by increasing the mean grain size and the amount of sediment delivered to the fan during lowstands. These changes may, in turn, affect the morphology of the fan. The characteristics of these fans represent variations of the generalized fan models described in the literature. 12 figures, 1 table.

  11. Kinematics and hydrodynamics of linear acceleration in eels, Anguilla rostrata.

    PubMed

    Tytell, Eric D

    2004-12-22

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of routine linear accelerations were studied in American eels, Anguilla rostrata, using high-speed video and particle image velocimetry. Eels were examined both during steady swimming at speeds from 0.6 to 1.9 body lengths (L) per second and during accelerations from -1.4 to 1.3 L s(-2). Multiple regression of the acceleration and steady swimming speed on the body kinematics suggests that eels primarily change their tail-tip velocity during acceleration. By contrast, the best predictor of steady swimming speed is body wave speed, keeping tail-tip velocity an approximately constant fraction of the swimming velocity. Thus, during steady swimming, Strouhal number does not vary with speed, remaining close to 0.32, but during acceleration, it deviates from the steady value. The kinematic changes during acceleration are indicated hydrodynamically by axial fluid momentum in the wake. During steady swimming, the wake consists of lateral jets of fluid and has minimal net axial momentum, which reflects a balance between thrust and drag. During acceleration, those jets rotate to point downstream, adding axial momentum to the fluid. The amount of added momentum correlates with the acceleration, but is greater than the necessary inertial force by 2.8+/-0.6 times, indicating a substantial acceleration reaction.

  12. Kinematics and hydrodynamics of linear acceleration in eels, Anguilla rostrata.

    PubMed Central

    Tytell, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of routine linear accelerations were studied in American eels, Anguilla rostrata, using high-speed video and particle image velocimetry. Eels were examined both during steady swimming at speeds from 0.6 to 1.9 body lengths (L) per second and during accelerations from -1.4 to 1.3 L s(-2). Multiple regression of the acceleration and steady swimming speed on the body kinematics suggests that eels primarily change their tail-tip velocity during acceleration. By contrast, the best predictor of steady swimming speed is body wave speed, keeping tail-tip velocity an approximately constant fraction of the swimming velocity. Thus, during steady swimming, Strouhal number does not vary with speed, remaining close to 0.32, but during acceleration, it deviates from the steady value. The kinematic changes during acceleration are indicated hydrodynamically by axial fluid momentum in the wake. During steady swimming, the wake consists of lateral jets of fluid and has minimal net axial momentum, which reflects a balance between thrust and drag. During acceleration, those jets rotate to point downstream, adding axial momentum to the fluid. The amount of added momentum correlates with the acceleration, but is greater than the necessary inertial force by 2.8+/-0.6 times, indicating a substantial acceleration reaction. PMID:15615678

  13. Spectral mixture analysis of EELS spectrum-images.

    PubMed

    Dobigeon, Nicolas; Brun, Nathalie

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in detectors and computer science have enabled the acquisition and the processing of multidimensional datasets, in particular in the field of spectral imaging. Benefiting from these new developments, Earth scientists try to recover the reflectance spectra of macroscopic materials (e.g., water, grass, mineral types…) present in an observed scene and to estimate their respective proportions in each mixed pixel of the acquired image. This task is usually referred to as spectral mixture analysis or spectral unmixing (SU). SU aims at decomposing the measured pixel spectrum into a collection of constituent spectra, called endmembers, and a set of corresponding fractions (abundances) that indicate the proportion of each endmember present in the pixel. Similarly, when processing spectrum-images, microscopists usually try to map elemental, physical and chemical state information of a given material. This paper reports how a SU algorithm dedicated to remote sensing hyperspectral images can be successfully applied to analyze spectrum-image resulting from electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). SU generally overcomes standard limitations inherent to other multivariate statistical analysis methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) or independent component analysis (ICA), that have been previously used to analyze EELS maps. Indeed, ICA and PCA may perform poorly for linear spectral mixture analysis due to the strong dependence between the abundances of the different materials. One example is presented here to demonstrate the potential of this technique for EELS analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Flood Deposition Analysis of Northern California's Eel River (Flood- DANCER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlgren, S.; Bauman, P. D.; Dillon, R. J.; Gallagher, N.; Jamison, M. E.; King, A.; Lee, J.; Siwicke, K. A.; Harris, C. K.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Borgeld, J. C.; Goldthwait, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Characterizing and quantifying the fate of river born sediment is critical to our understanding of sediment supply and erosion in impacted coastal areas. Strata deposited in coastal zones provide an invaluable record of recent and historical environmental events. The Eel River in northern California has one of the highest sediment yields of any North American river and has preserved evidence of the impact of recent flood events. Previous research has documented sediment deposits associated with Eel River flood events in January 1995, March 1995, and January 1997. These deposits were found north of the river mouth on the mid shelf in water depths from 50-100 m. Sediment strata were up to 5-10 cm thick and were composed of fine to very fine grained silts and clays. Until recently, no model had been able to correctly reproduce the sediment deposits associated with these floods. In 2005, Harris et al. developed a model that accurately represents the volume and location of the flood deposit associated with the January 1997 event. However, rigorous assessment of the predictive capability of this model requires that a new flood of the Eel River be used as a test case. During the winter of 2005-06 the Eel River rose above flood stage reaching discharge similar to the flood of January 1995 which resulted in flood sedimentation on the Eel River shelf. A flood-related deposit 1-5 cm thick was found in water depths of 60-90 m approximately 20-35 km north of the river mouth. Flood deposits were recognized in box cores collected in the months following the flood. As in previously studied events, flood- related strata near the sediment surface were recognized in core x-radiographs, resistivity and porosity profiles, and were composed of fine to very fine grained silts and clays. In addition, surface flood sediments were associated with lower concentrations of benthic foraminifera compared with deeper sediments. The January 2006 flood deposit was similar in thickness to the

  15. Characterization and differential expression patterns of conserved microRNAs and mRNAs in three genders of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Guo, Wei; Hu, Qing; Zou, Ming; Tang, Rong; Chi, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that can regulate target mRNAs by binding to their sequences in the 3' untranslated region. The expression of miRNAs and their biogenetic pathway are involved in sexual differentiation and in the regulation of the development of germ cells and gonadal somatic cells. The rice field eel (Monopterus albus) undergoes a natural sexual transformation from female to male via an intersex stage during its life cycle. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of this sexual transformation, miRNAs present in the different sexual stages of the rice field eel were identified by high-throughput sequencing technology. A significantly differential expression among the 3 genders (p < 0.001) was observed for 48 unique miRNAs and 3 miRNAs*. Only 9 unique miRNAs showed a more than 8-fold change in their expression among the 3 genders, including mal-miR-430a and mal-miR-430c which were higher in females than in males. However, mal-miR-430b was only detected in males. Several potential miRNA target genes (cyp19a, cyp19b, nr5a1b, foxl2 amh, and vasa) were also investigated. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated highly specific expression patterns of these genes in the 3 genders of the rice field eel. Many of these genes are targets of mal-miR-430b according to the TargetScan and miRTarBase. These results suggest that the miR-430 family may be involved in the sexual transformation of the rice field eel.

  16. Adoption of radio-frequency identification to establish traceability in Taiwanese eel exported to the Japanese market.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Shu-Ching; Wu, Chun-Lung; Yang, I-Da

    2013-01-01

    Eel culture and export to the Japanese market is an important industry in Taiwan; however, the average amount produced by each farm is small. Eels from different farms might be mixed before export, making it difficult to determine which farm is responsible for eels containing drug residues. Therefore, the Taiwanese government uses a two-stage procedure of inspection and accreditation for validating the use of good practice in aquaculture farming. Nevertheless, it is still difficult to trace any farm that has produced eels containing drug residues. Radio-frequency identification has the potential to establish traceability in eel products. Here we suggest that Japanese eel importers should insist on the use of radio-frequency identification by Taiwanese eel exporters to enable verification of the safety of eel products being exported to the Japanese market.

  17. Fall diel diet composition of American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in a tributary of the Hudson River, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldt, Emily M.; Abbett, Ross; Johnson, James H.; Dittman, Dawn E.; McKenna, James E.

    2013-01-01

    American eel (Anguilla rostrata), a once common species, is now in decline throughout much of its native range in North America. There is little information on the role of American eel in river food webs. A better understanding of the diet and ecological role of American eel will help in the conservation of this important species. During autumn 2009, eel and aquatic invertebrate samples were collected from Hannacroix Creek, a tributary of the Hudson River, in Albany and Greene counties, New York, USA. Eel diet was analyzed by the eel size and time period (day or night). A high proportion of eel stomachs were empty (73%). Eel diets varied among size classes and day and night feeding periods (p = 0.001). Diet overlap was significant between small and medium eels caught both during the day (α = 0.71) and at night (α = 0.84). Nocturnal diet and nocturnal invertebrate samples were similar (α = 0.65), indicating a preference for bottom feeding during the night. Mayfly nymphs were the major prey consumed in each period by all size classes. Among eels that fed, night-feeding eels had the greatest stomach weight (as a percent of total body weight). The swim-bladder parasite, Anguillicoloides crassus, was also observed in eels of all size classes with nearly 50% afflicted.

  18. First artificial hybrid of the eel species Anguilla australis and Anguilla anguilla

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on artificial hybridization of different Anguilla species were conducted recently, i.e. female A. australis with male A. dieffenbachii, and female A. japonica with male A. anguilla. The existence of these artificial hybrids was however not demonstrated by independent genetic methods. Two species - A. anguilla and A. australis - that are phylogenetically close but have different sexual maturation times (12-25 weeks and 6-8 weeks, respectively), were expected to produce favourable hybrids for reproduction studies. Results A modification of the protocol for the reproduction of Anguilla japonica was used to produce eight-day Anguilla australis larvae, with a success rate of 71.4%. Thus ten out of 14 females produced eggs that could be fertilized, and three batches resulted in mass hatching. Hybrid larvae from female A. australis x male A. Anguilla survived for up to seven days post fertilization (dpf). The early development of the hybrid showed typical characteristics of A. anguilla tail pigmentation at 50 hours post fertilization (hpf), indicating expression of genes derived from the father. Conclusions In this paper we describe the first production of hybrid larvae from male A. anguilla and female A. australis and their survival for up to 7 dpf. A species-specific nucleotide difference in the 18 S rDNA gene confirmed that genes from both A. australis and A. anguilla were present in the hybrids. The developmental stages of the hybrid eel embryos and larvae are described using high resolution images. Video footage also indicated a heart beat in 5-dpf larva. PMID:21396126

  19. The synthesis and role of taurine in the Japanese eel testis.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Masato; Celino, Fritzie T; Tamai, Ayako; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    In teleost fish, the progestin 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) is an essential component of the spermatogenesis pathway. In a series of investigations on the mechanisms underlying progestin-stimulated spermatogenesis, we have found that DHP up-regulates the expression of cysteine dioxygenase1 (CDO1) in the Japanese eel testis. CDO1 is one of the enzymes involved in the taurine biosynthesis pathway. To evaluate whether taurine is synthesized in the eel testis, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), another enzyme involved in taurine synthesis, was isolated from this species. RT-PCR and in vitro eel testicular culture revealed that although CSD was also expressed in eel testis, neither DHP nor other sex steroids affect CSD mRNA expression in a similar manner to CDO1. Using an in vitro eel testicular culture system, we further investigated the effects of DHP on taurine synthesis in the eel testis. HPLC analysis showed that DHP treatment significantly increases the taurine levels in the eel testis. These results suggest that DHP promotes taurine synthesis via the up-regulation of CDO1 mRNA expression during eel spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we observed from our analysis that although taurine does not induce complete spermatogenesis, it promotes spermatogonial DNA synthesis and the expression of Spo11, a meiosis-specific marker. These data thus suggest that taurine augments the effects of sex steroids in the promotion of spermatogonial proliferation and/or meiosis and hence that taurine plays important roles in spermatogenesis.

  20. Glass eels (Anguilla anguilla) have a magnetic compass linked to the tidal cycle.

    PubMed

    Cresci, Alessandro; Paris, Claire B; Durif, Caroline M F; Shema, Steven; Bjelland, Reidun M; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Browman, Howard I

    2017-06-01

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) has one of the longest migrations in the animal kingdom. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean twice during its life history, migrating between the spawning area in the Sargasso Sea and Europe, where it is widely distributed. The leptocephalus larvae drift with the Gulf Stream and other currents for more than a year and metamorphose into glass eels when they arrive on the continental shelf and move toward coastal areas. The mechanisms underlying glass eel orientation toward the coast and into freshwater systems are poorly known. However, anguillid eels, including the glass eel life stage, have a geomagnetic sense, suggesting the possibility that they use Earth's magnetic field to orient toward the coast. To test this hypothesis, we used a unique combination of laboratory tests and in situ behavioral observations conducted in a drifting circular arena. Most (98%) of the glass eels tested in the sea exhibited a preferred orientation that was related to the tidal cycle. Seventy-one percent of the same eels showed the same orientation during ebb tide when tested in the laboratory under a manipulated simulated magnetic field in the absence of any other cue. These results demonstrate that glass eels use a magnetic compass for orientation and suggest that this magnetic orientation system is linked to a circatidal rhythm.

  1. Glass eels (Anguilla anguilla) have a magnetic compass linked to the tidal cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cresci, Alessandro; Paris, Claire B.; Durif, Caroline M. F.; Shema, Steven; Bjelland, Reidun M.; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Browman, Howard I.

    2017-01-01

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) has one of the longest migrations in the animal kingdom. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean twice during its life history, migrating between the spawning area in the Sargasso Sea and Europe, where it is widely distributed. The leptocephalus larvae drift with the Gulf Stream and other currents for more than a year and metamorphose into glass eels when they arrive on the continental shelf and move toward coastal areas. The mechanisms underlying glass eel orientation toward the coast and into freshwater systems are poorly known. However, anguillid eels, including the glass eel life stage, have a geomagnetic sense, suggesting the possibility that they use Earth’s magnetic field to orient toward the coast. To test this hypothesis, we used a unique combination of laboratory tests and in situ behavioral observations conducted in a drifting circular arena. Most (98%) of the glass eels tested in the sea exhibited a preferred orientation that was related to the tidal cycle. Seventy-one percent of the same eels showed the same orientation during ebb tide when tested in the laboratory under a manipulated simulated magnetic field in the absence of any other cue. These results demonstrate that glass eels use a magnetic compass for orientation and suggest that this magnetic orientation system is linked to a circatidal rhythm. PMID:28630895

  2. Leaping eels electrify threats, supporting Humboldt’s account of a battle with horses

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    In March 1800, Alexander von Humboldt observed the extraordinary spectacle of native fisherman collecting electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) by “fishing with horses” [von Humboldt A (1807) Ann Phys 25:34–43]. The strategy was to herd horses into a pool containing electric eels, provoking the eels to attack by pressing themselves against the horses while discharging. Once the eels were exhausted, they could be safely collected. This legendary tale of South American adventures helped propel Humboldt to fame and has been recounted and illustrated in many publications, but subsequent investigators have been skeptical, and no similar eel behavior has been reported in more than 200 years. Here I report a defensive eel behavior that supports Humboldt’s account. The behavior consists of an approach and leap out of the water during which the eel presses its chin against a threatening conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. The effect is to short-circuit the electric organ through the threat, with increasing power diverted to the threat as the eel attains greater height during the leap. Measurement of voltages and current during the behavior, and assessment of the equivalent circuit, reveal the effectiveness of the behavior and the basis for its natural selection. PMID:27274074

  3. Leaping eels electrify threats, supporting Humboldt's account of a battle with horses.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2016-06-21

    In March 1800, Alexander von Humboldt observed the extraordinary spectacle of native fisherman collecting electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) by "fishing with horses" [von Humboldt A (1807) Ann Phys 25:34-43]. The strategy was to herd horses into a pool containing electric eels, provoking the eels to attack by pressing themselves against the horses while discharging. Once the eels were exhausted, they could be safely collected. This legendary tale of South American adventures helped propel Humboldt to fame and has been recounted and illustrated in many publications, but subsequent investigators have been skeptical, and no similar eel behavior has been reported in more than 200 years. Here I report a defensive eel behavior that supports Humboldt's account. The behavior consists of an approach and leap out of the water during which the eel presses its chin against a threatening conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. The effect is to short-circuit the electric organ through the threat, with increasing power diverted to the threat as the eel attains greater height during the leap. Measurement of voltages and current during the behavior, and assessment of the equivalent circuit, reveal the effectiveness of the behavior and the basis for its natural selection.

  4. Duplicated CFTR isoforms in eels diverged in regulatory structures and osmoregulatory functions.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marty Kwok-Shing; Pipil, Supriya; Kato, Akira; Takei, Yoshio

    2016-09-01

    Two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) isoforms, CFTRa and CFTRb, were cloned in Japanese eel and their structures and functions were studied in different osmoregulatory tissues in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) eels. Molecular phylogenetic results suggested that the CFTR duplication in eels occurred independently of the duplication event in salmonid. CFTRa was expressed in the intestine and kidney and downregulated in both tissues in SW eels, while CFTRb was specifically expressed in the gill and greatly upregulated in SW eels. Structurally, the CFTR isoforms are similar in most functional domains except the regulatory R domain, where the R domain of CFTRa is similar to that of human CFTR but the R domain of CFTRb is unique in having high intrinsic negative charges and fewer phosphorylation sites, suggesting divergence of isoforms in terms of gating properties and hormonal regulation. Immunohistochemical results showed that CFTR was localized on the apical regions of SW ionocytes, suggesting a Cl(-) secretory role as in other teleosts. In intestine and kidney, however, immunoreactive CFTR was mostly found in the cytosolic vesicles in FW eels, indicating that Cl(-) channel activity could be low at basal conditions, but could be rapidly increased by membrane insertion of the stored channels. Guanylin (GN), a known hormone that increases CFTR activity in mammalian intestine, failed to redistribute CFTR and to affect its expression in eel intestine. The results suggested that GN-independent CFTR regulation is present in eel intestine and kidney.

  5. Homing and movement of yellow-phase American eels in freshwater ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamothe, P.J.; Gallagher, M.; Chivers, D.P.; Moring, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Ten yellow-phase American eels, Anguilla rostrata, were captured from Hammond Pond, a small freshwater pond located in central Maine, U.S.A. The eels were implanted with radio transmitters and released into nearby Hermon Pond. At the same time, 10 eels were captured from Hermon Pond, implanted with radio transmitters and returned to Hermon Pond to serve as a control group. The two ponds are connected by a 1.6km section of Souadabscook Stream. We tracked the 20 eels over the 90-day duration of the experiment. Four of the ten displaced eels returned to their home pond. None of the control fish were located outside of their home pond during the study. Three of the four eels that successfully returned to their home pond did so under the darkness of the new moon and the fourth made the journey during the first quarter moon phase. Location data showed that translocated and native eels tended to occupy different areas of Hermon Pond. This study provides evidence of homing behavior in American eels living in small freshwater ponds and indications that homing activity may be linked to lunar cycle.

  6. Morphological and histochemical study of intestine in wild and reared European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.).

    PubMed

    Kužir, S; Gjurčević, E; Nejedli, S; Baždarić, B; Kozarić, Z

    2012-06-01

    Diet-related differences between the ratio of intestine length to body size and the enzymatic activity in the intestinal tract of wild and reared European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) were studied. Compared with reared eel, wild eel showed significantly shorter relative intestine length. For the purpose of histochemical examination, different parts (anterior, middle and posterior) of intestine proper were used. Activities of non-specific esterase, alkaline and acid phosphatase, and aminopeptidase were examined in each segment. All enzymes were present in the intestines of both wild and reared European eel. Fish from both groups showed similar enzyme distribution within the enterocytes, but distribution and intensity of enzyme activity along the intestine vary depending on the group. Generally, reared European eel showed highest enzymatic activity and wider distribution of enzymes throughout all parts of the intestine. These results suggest that different diets could be one of the reasons for observed changes.

  7. Mapping Chemical Bonds in Semiconductor Devices by Monitoring the Shifts of EELS Edges.

    PubMed

    Potapov, Pavel; Svistunova, Elena L; Gulyaev, Alexander A

    2017-08-29

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can deliver information about variations of bonding at the nm scale. This is typically performed by analyzing the electron-loss near edge structure (ELNES) of given EELS edges. The present paper demonstrates an alternative way of a bonding examination through monitoring the EELS onset positions. Two conditions are essential for their accurate measurement. One (hardware) is using the dual EELS instrumentation that provides near simultaneous acquisition of low-loss and core-loss spectra. Another (software) is the least-square fitting of observed spectra to a reference spectrum. The combination of these hardware and software techniques reveals the positions of EELS onsets with the precision sufficient for mapping tiny variations of bonding. The paper shows that the method is capable of helping to solve practical tasks of nanoscale engineering like the analysis of modern CMOS devices.

  8. Studies on the reproductive biology of spiny eel, Macrognathus aral from upper Assam.

    PubMed

    Abujam, Santoshkumar Singh; Biswas, S P

    2011-09-01

    The one-stripe spiny eel, Macrognathus aral (Bloch and Schneider), has been gaining importance not only as a food fish but also as an aquarium fish for its body shape and behaviour. The overall M:F ratio recorded 1:0.27, both the males and females were mostly mature in May-August. The peak values of gonado somatic ratio (GSR) attained during May for males (1.3) and August forfemales (12.4) indicating that the fish have only one breeding season during summer. The range of ova diameter was found to vary from 0.3 to 1.4 mm, the absolute fecundity ranged from 250 (21.6 cm/27.4 g) to 5220.1 (27.2 cm/66.3 g) while relative fecundity ranged from 9.1 to 128.9. The 50% maturity is attained in length group of 10.1-14 cm for males and 14.1-18 cm for females. The species is a moderately fecund, isochronal spawner and having a restricted breeding season. The relationship between fecundity and body weight and length has also been discussed.

  9. Eel green fluorescent protein is associated with resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Aki; Komatsu, Masaharu; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Yoshizono, Yuki; Yoshizono, Hikari; Orikawa, Yasuhiro; Takumi, Shota; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Seiichi; Kaminishi, Yoshio; Itakura, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from eel (Anguilla japonica) muscle (eelGFP) is unique in the vertebrates and requires bilirubin as a ligand to emit fluorescence. This study was performed to clarify the physiological function of the unique GFP. Investigation of susceptibility to oxidative stress was carried out using three types of cell lines including jellyfish (Aequorea coerulescens) GFP (jfGFP)-, or eel GFP (eelGFP)-expressing HEK293 cells, and control vector-transfected HEK293 cells. Binding of eelGFP to bilirubin was confirmed by the observation of green fluorescence in HEK293-eelGFP cells. The growth rate was compared with the three types of cells in the presence or absence of phenol red which possessed antioxidant activity. The growth rates of HEK293-CV and HEK293-jfGFP under phenol red-free conditions were reduced to 52 and 31% of those under phenol red. Under the phenol red-free condition, HEK293-eelGFP had a growth rate of approximately 70% of the phenol red-containing condition. The eelGFP-expressing cells were approximately 2-fold resistant to oxidative stress such as H2O2 exposure. The fluorescence intensity partially decreased or disappeared after exposure to H2O2, and heterogeneous intensity of fluorescence was also observed in isolated eel skeletal muscle cells. These results suggested eelGFP, but not jfGFP, coupled with bilirubin provided the antioxidant activity to the cells as compared to non-bound free bilirubin.

  10. Temporal variations in embryotoxicity of Lake Ontario American eel (Anguilla rostrata) extracts to developing Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Cyril; Couillard, Catherine M; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Légaré, Benoît; Byer, Jonathan D; Alaee, Mehran; Lebeuf, Michel; Casselman, John M; Hodson, Peter V

    2016-01-15

    The recruitment of American eel (Anguilla rostrata) juveniles to Lake Ontario (LO), Canada has declined significantly since the 1980s. To investigate the possible contribution of maternally-transferred persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to this decline, this study measured temporal variations in the toxicity of complex organic mixtures extracted from LO American eels captured in 1988, 1998 and 2008 to developing Fundulus heteroclitus exposed by intravitelline (IVi) injection. The 1988 and 1998 eel extracts were most toxic, causing a pattern of sublethal embryotoxic responses similar to those previously reported in F. heteroclitus embryos exposed to single dioxin-like compounds (DLCs): stunted growth, craniofacial deformities, EROD activity induction, and reduced predatory capacities. The potency of extracts declined over time; the only significant effect of the 2008 eel extracts was EROD induction. The chemically-derived TCDD-TEQs of eel extracts, calculated using measured concentrations of some DLCs and their relative potencies for F. heteroclitus, overestimated their potency to induce EROD activity possibly due to interactions among POPs. Other POPs measured in eel extracts (non-dioxin-like PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorinated pesticides) did not appear to be important agonistic contributors to the observed toxicity. The toxicity of the complex mixtures of POPs measured in LO eels may have been underestimated as a result of several factors, including the loss of POPs during extracts preparation and a focus only on short-term effects. Based on the model species examined, our results support the hypothesis that contamination of LO with DLCs may have represented a threat to the American eel population through ecologically-relevant effects such as altered larval prey capture ability. These results prioritize the need to assess early life stage (ELS) toxicity of DLCs in Anguilla species, to investigate long-term effects of complex eel extracts to ELS of fish, and to

  11. Relativistic real-space multiple scattering calculations of EELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, K.; Rehr, J. J.; Sorini, A.; Levine, Z. H.

    2006-03-01

    We present an extension of the real space multiple scattering code FEFF8 for ab initio, relativistic calculations of electron energy loss spectra (EELS), which is applicable both to periodic and non-periodic systems. The approach explains the observed relativistic shifts in the magic angle. In addition, the method can account for experimental parameters such as collection and convergence angles of the microscope and sample orientation. We also discuss relativistic effects on inelastic electron scattering including the density correction to the stopping power. Our results are compared with other approaches and with experiment. B. Jouffrey, P. Schattschneider and C. Hebert, Ultramicroscopy 102, 61 (2004).

  12. Effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg activation, fertilization, buoyancy and early embryology of European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Munk, Peter; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Improper activation and swelling of in vitro produced eggs of European eel, Anguilla anguilla, has been shown to negatively affect embryonic development and hatching. We investigated this phenomenon by examining the effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg dimensions, cell cleavage patterns and egg buoyancy. Egg diameter after activation, using natural seawater adjusted to different salinities, varied among female eels, but no consistent pattern emerged. Activation salinities between 30-40 practical salinity unit (psu) produced higher quality eggs and generally larger egg diameters. Chorion diameters reached maximal values of 1642 ± 8 μm at 35 psu. A positive relationship was found between egg neutral buoyancy and activation salinity. Nine salt types were investigated as activation and incubation media. Five of these types induced a substantial perivitelline space (PVS), leading to large egg sizes, while the remaining four salt types resulted in smaller eggs. All salt types except NaCl treatments led to high fertilization rates and had no effect on fertilization success as well as egg neutral buoyancies at 7 h post-fertilization. The study points to the importance of considering ionic composition of the media when rearing fish eggs and further studies are encouraged.

  13. Morphometric relations in the grey eel catfish Plotosus canius in the coastal waters of Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Usman, B I; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A; Kamarudin, M S

    2016-07-01

    Samples of grey eel catfish Plotosus canius were collected from the coastal waters of Port Dickson, Malaysia from January to December, 2012. A total of 341 specimens (172 males and 169 females) were used to estimate the length-weight relationship parameters. Mean population size of females were 0.72 cm taller than the males, however difference was not significant (t-test, P > 0.05). The overall relationship equations between total length (TL) and body weight (BW) were established for males as Log TW = 2.71 Log TL - 1.85 (R2 = 0.95) and for females as Log TW = 2.88 Log TL-2.10 (R2 = 0.95). The estimated relative growth co-efficient (b) values were 2.71 for males and 2.88 for females. It is revealed that growth pattern of the species showed negative allometry. In both males and females, relationship between TL and SL gave highest regression coefficient (0.99). While relationship between TL and EL gave lowest regression coefficient in both males and females (0.87 and 0.81 respectively). The findings from this study contributed first information on morphometric relations of the fish from Malaysian coastal waters and could be useful for sustainable management options of P. canius in Malaysia.

  14. Sodium affects the sperm motility in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Gallego, Víctor; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz

    2016-08-01

    The role of seminal plasma sodium and activation media sodium on sperm motility was examined by selectively removing the element from these two media, in European eel sperm. Sperm size (sperm head area) was also measured using an ASMA (Automated Sperm Morphometry Analyses) system, in the different conditions. Intracellular sodium [Na(+)]i was quantitatively analyzed by first time in the spermatozoa from a marine fish species. Measurement of [Na(+)]i was done before and after motility activation, by Flow Cytometry, using CoroNa Green AM as a dye. Sperm motility activation induced an increase in [Na(+)]i, from 96.72mM in quiescent stage to 152.21mM post-activation in seawater. A significant decrease in sperm head area was observed post-activation in seawater. There was a notable reduction in sperm motility when sodium was removed from the seminal plasma, but not when it was removed from the activation media. Sodium removal was also linked to a significant reduction in sperm head area in comparison to the controls. Our results indicate that the presence of the ion Na(+) in the seminal plasma (or in the extender medium) is necessary for the preservation of sperm motility in European eel, probably because it plays a role in maintaining an appropriate sperm cell volume in the quiescent stage of the spermatozoa.

  15. Progress and opportunities in EELS and EDS tomography.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sean M; Midgley, Paul A

    2017-09-01

    Electron tomography using energy loss and X-ray spectroscopy in the electron microscope continues to develop in rapidly evolving and diverse directions, enabling new insight into the three-dimensional chemistry and physics of nanoscale volumes. Progress has been made recently in improving reconstructions from EELS and EDS signals in electron tomography by applying compressed sensing methods, characterizing new detector technologies in detail, deriving improved models of signal generation, and exploring machine learning approaches to signal processing. These disparate threads can be brought together in a cohesive framework in terms of a model-based approach to analytical electron tomography. Models incorporate information on signal generation and detection as well as prior knowledge of structures in the spectrum image data. Many recent examples illustrate the flexibility of this approach and its feasibility for addressing challenges in non-linear or limited signals in EELS and EDS tomography. Further work in combining multiple imaging and spectroscopy modalities, developing synergistic data acquisition, processing, and reconstruction approaches, and improving the precision of quantitative spectroscopic tomography will expand the frontiers of spatial resolution, dose limits, and maximal information recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternally transferred dioxin-like compounds can affect the reproductive success of European eel.

    PubMed

    Foekema, Edwin M; Kotterman, Michiel; de Vries, Pepijn; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-01-01

    Reported concentrations of dioxin-like compounds accumulated in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) were used to perform a risk assessment for eel larval survival, taking into account a modeled amplification of tissue concentrations with a factor of 1.33 during spawning migration. The calculated concentrations of dioxin-like compounds finally deposited in the eggs were compared with the internal effect concentrations for survival of early life stages of the European eel; these concentrations, by lack of experimental data, were estimated from a sensitivity distribution based on literature data by assuming that eel larvae are among the 10% most sensitive teleost fish species. Given concentrations of dioxin-like contaminants and assuming a relatively high sensitivity, it can be expected that larvae from eggs produced by eel from highly contaminated locations in Europe will experience increased mortality as a result of maternally transferred dioxin-like contaminants. As historical persistent organic pollutant concentrations in eel tissue were higher, this impact must have been stronger in the past. Potential effects of other compounds or effects on the migration, condition, and fertility of the parental animals were not taken into account. It is important to further study the overall impact of contaminants on the reproductive success of the European eel as this may have been underestimated until now.

  17. All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Als, Thomas D; Hansen, Michael M; Maes, Gregory E; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Aarestrup, Kim; Munk, Peter; Sparholt, Henrik; Hanel, Reinhold; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-04-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5000 km back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between samples. Moreover, European and American eels can hybridize, but hybrids have been observed almost exclusively in Iceland, suggesting hybridization in a specific region of the Sargasso Sea and subsequent nonrandom dispersal of larvae. Here, we report the first molecular population genetics study based on analysis of 21 microsatellite loci in larvae of both Atlantic eel species sampled directly in the spawning area, supplemented by analysis of European glass eel samples. Despite a clear East-West gradient in the overlapping distribution of the two species in the Sargasso Sea, we only observed a single putative hybrid, providing evidence against the hypothesis of a wide marine hybrid zone. Analyses of genetic differentiation, isolation by distance, isolation by time and assignment tests provided strong evidence for panmixia in both the Sargasso Sea and across all continental samples of European eel after accounting for the presence of sibs among newly hatched larvae. European eel has declined catastrophically, and our findings call for management of the species as a single unit, necessitating coordinated international conservation efforts.

  18. Eel migration to the Sargasso: remarkably high swimming efficiency and low energy costs.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, Vincent; Antonissen, Erik; Müller, Ulrike K; Booms, Ronald; Eding, Ep; Verreth, Johan; van den Thillart, Guido

    2005-04-01

    One of the mysteries of the animal kingdom is the long-distance migration (5000-6000 km) of the European eel Anguilla anguilla L. from the coasts of Europe to its spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. The only evidence for the location of the spawning site of the European eel in the Sargasso Sea is the discovery by Johannes Schmidt at the beginning of the previous century of the smallest eel larvae (leptocephali) near the Sargasso Sea. For years it has been questioned whether the fasting eels have sufficient energy reserves to cover this enormous distance. We have tested Schmidt's theory by placing eels in swim tunnels in the laboratory and allowing them to make a simulated migration of 5500 km. We find that eels swim 4-6 times more efficiently than non-eel-like fish. Our findings are an important advance in this field because they remove a central objection to Schmidt's theory by showing that their energy reserves are, in principle, sufficient for the migration. Conclusive proof of the Sargasso Sea theory is likely to come from satellite tracking technology.

  19. Impact of long-term habitat loss on the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Ze; Huang, Shiang-Lin; Han, Yu-San

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the loss of temperate-zone anguillid eels, particularly Anguilla anguilla, Anguilla rostrata, and Anguilla japonica, has exceeded 90% based on estimates of glass eel recruitment. The cause of this decline has not been conclusively determined, although many factors have been proposed. In East Asia, the consequences of long-term habitat loss and deterioration of habitat quality on the sustainability of Japanese eel resources are important. Impacts have already occurred and are expected to increase because hundreds of millions of people live near estuaries and rivers that have undergone, and further, are expected to continue to undergo, substantial changes in land use. Driven by economic growth, these landscape changes have resulted in, and may continue to produce, the large-scale destruction of eel habitats. We used chronological Landsat imagery to measure Japanese eel habitat reduction from human activities in 16 rivers in East Asia, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. On average, 76.8% of the effective habitat area (Ae) was lost in these 16 rivers from the 1970s-2010s. Taiwan and China had the highest percentages of Ae loss, with declines of 49.3% and 81.5%, respectively. Extensive habitat loss may play an important role, together with regional climate phenomena such as the ENSO and overfishing, in the decline of the Japanese eel in East Asia. Measures targeting habitat restoration and protection may need to be integrated into management planning for Japanese eel resources in an international rather than regional context.

  20. Downstream movement of mature eels in a hydroelectric reservoir in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watene, E.M.; Boubee, J.A.T.; Haro, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the behavior of migrant eels as they approached the Patea hydroelectric dam on the West Coast of the North Island, New Zealand. Seventeen mature migrant eels (870-1,240 mm; 2,000-6,380 g) were implanted with coded acoustic transmitters and released. Their movements in the reservoir were monitored for 14 months with stationary data logging and manual tracking receivers. The downstream migration of sexually maturing eels was found to occur mainly at night, usually during, or immediately after, rainfall events. Eels tended to travel at the surface, within the upper 4 m of the water column, at speeds ranging from 16 to 89 cm/s. Upon reaching the headrace, eels typically spent time searching, presumably for an unobstructed downstream route. In order to aid downstream passage of eels at the Patea Dam, power station operators began spillway opening trials during peak migration periods. Although this allowed some migrant eels to safely pass over the dam, information on the relative effectiveness and cost of this method over other possible mitigation methods is still required. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2003.

  1. Changes in the role of the thyroid axis during metamorphosis of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Ryusuke; Okamura, Akihiro; Kuroki, Mari; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the role of thyroid function during metamorphosis from leptocephalus to glass eel in the Japanese eel, we examined the histology of the thyroid gland and measured whole-body concentrations of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid stimulating hormone β-subunit TSH (TSHβ) mRNA expression levels in five stages of artificially hatched eels (leptocephalus, early-metamorphosis, late-metamorphosis, glass eel, and elver). During metamorphosis, the inner colloid of thyroid follicles showed positive immunoreactivity for T4, and both T4 and T3 levels were significantly increased, whereas a small peak of TSHβ mRNA level was observed at the early-metamorphosis stage. Similarly, TSHβ mRNA levels were highest in the glass eel stage, and then decreased markedly in the elver stage. In contrast to TSHβ mRNA expression, thyroid hormones (both T4 and T3) increased further from the glass eel to elver stages. These results indicated that thyroid function in the Japanese eel was active both during and after metamorphosis. Therefore, the thyrotropic axis may play important roles not only in metamorphosis but also in subsequent inshore or upstream migrations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Influence of adult Anguillicoloides crassus load in European eels swimbladder on macrophage response.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, P; Peñalver, J; Ruiz de Ybañez, R; Garcia, J

    2015-02-01

    Anguillicoloides crassus has become one of the most important threats to the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Adult parasites colonize the swimbladder leading to an impaired functioning of this organ. The infection is also responsible for an increased in the stress level of infected eels, that could produce an altered immune response as well. Differences in parasite loads and effects in the European and Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) have been described. We have studied the influence of the number of adult parasites present in the swimbladder of wild eels on the macrophage response (phagocytosis and respiratory burst) as part of the first immune response to pathogens. Our results show an increased phagocytozed bacterial survival 24 h post-infection in macrophages of eels infected with more than ten adult parasites compared to macrophages from eels infected with less than those ten adult parasites. Respiratory burst results also showed a less efficient response in macrophages from eels infected with more than ten adult parasites, although in this case results were not found to be significant.

  3. Environmental correlates of upstream migration of yellow-phase American eels in the Potomac River drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Heather L. Liller,

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the relationships between upstream migration and environmental variables is important to understanding the ecology of yellow-phase American Eels Anguilla rostrata. During an American Eel migration study within the lower Shenandoah River (Potomac River drainage), we counted and measured American Eels at the Millville Dam eel ladder for three periods: 14 May–23 July 2004, 7–30 September 2004, and 1 June–31 July 2005. Using generalized estimating equations, we modeled each time series of daily American Eel counts by fitting time-varying environmental covariates of lunar illumination (LI), river discharge (RD), and water temperature (WT), including 1-d and 2-d lags of each covariate. Information-theoretic approaches were used for model selection and inference. A total of 4,847 American Eels (19–74 cm total length) used the ladder during the three periods, including 2,622 individuals during a 2-d span following a hurricane-induced peak in river discharge. Additive-effects models of RD + WT, a 2-d lag of LI + RD, and LI + RD were supported for the three periods, respectively. Parameter estimates were positive for river discharge for each time period, negative for lunar illumination for two periods and positive for water temperature during one period. Additive-effects models supported synergistic influences of environmental variables on the upstream migration of yellow-phase American Eels, although river discharge was consistently supported as an influential correlate of upstream migration.

  4. Vibrio vulnificus outbreaks in Dutch eel farms since 1996: strain diversity and impact.

    PubMed

    Haenen, O L M; van Zanten, E; Jansen, R; Roozenburg, I; Engelsma, M Y; Dijkstra, A; Boers, S A; Voorbergen-Laarman, M; Möller, A V M

    2014-04-03

    Vibrio vulnificus is a potentially zoonotic bacterial pathogen of fish, which can infect humans (causing necrotic fasciitis). We analysed 24 V. vulnificus isolates (from 23 severe eel disease outbreaks in 8 Dutch eel farms during 1996 to 2009, and 1 clinical strain from an eel farmer) for genetic correlation and zoonotic potential. Strains were typed using biotyping and molecular typing by high-throughput multilocus sequence typing (hiMLST) and REP-PCR (Diversilab®). We identified 19 strains of biotype 1 and 5 of biotype 2 (4 from eels, 1 from the eel farmer), that were subdivided into 8 MLST types (ST) according to the international standard method. This is the first report of V. vulnificus biotype 1 outbreaks in Dutch eel farms. Seven of the 8 STs, of unknown zoonotic potential, were newly identified and were deposited in the MLST database. The REP-PCR and the MLST were highly concordant, indicating that the REP-PCR is a useful alternative for MLST. The strains isolated from the farmer and his eels were ST 112, a known potential zoonotic strain. Antimicrobial resistance to cefoxitin was found in most of the V. vulnificus strains, and an increasing resistance to quinolones, trimethoprim + sulphonamide and tetracycline was found over time in strain ST 140. Virulence testing of isolates from diseased eels is recommended, and medical practitioners should be informed about the potential risk of zoonotic infections by V. vulnificus from eels for the prevention of infection especially among high-risk individuals. Additional use of molecular typing methods such as hiMLST and Diversilab® is recommended for epidemiological purposes during V. vulnificus outbreaks.

  5. Quantitative bioassays for measuring biologically functional gonadotropins based on eel gonadotropic receptors.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Y; Dirks, R P; de Wijze, D L; Brittijn, S A; Burgerhout, E; Spaink, H P; van den Thillart, G E E J M

    2012-08-01

    Significant declines in eel stocks have been noted in many parts of the world. Because eel aquaculture is dependent on wild-caught juveniles, there is a need to achieve artificial reproduction. Adult eel maturation is currently induced by repeated injections of purified gonadotropin (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG]) or pituitary extract. Thus the determination of the biological efficacy and quantification of internal levels of gonadotropic hormones is important for optimizing artificial reproduction protocols. To quantify the plasma levels of biologically functional gonadotropic hormones, we developed a bioassay for luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) based on the stable expression of receptors in HEK293 cells of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica LH (ajLHR) and the European eel Anguilla anguilla FSH (aaFSHR), respectively. Such cells also contain a firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by a cAMP-responsive element (CRE-Luc). We found that the obtained stable cells, with ajLHR, responded linearly to a more than 100,000-fold concentration range of hCG diluted in saline. The cells with aaFSHR showed a linear response to a 1000-fold concentration range of salmon pituitary extract mixed with saline. The biological functionality of the LH and FSH bioassays was validated using hCG, human FSH, and pituitary extracts from salmon, carp and eel. Since the toxins in eel plasma damaged the HEK293 cells, the protocol was adapted to selectively inactivate the toxins by heating at 37°C for 24h. This process successfully enabled the monitoring of hormone levels in blood plasma sampled from hCG-injected eels. In this paper, we describe the development of gonadotropin bioassays that will be useful for improving reproduction protocols in eel aquaculture.

  6. Mercury toxicity and the protective role of selenium in eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Robak, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact trace metals, mainly toxic ones, on the condition of eel (Anguilla anguilla) inhabiting four regions of Poland. Metal concentrations in eel muscle tissues were studied as functions of size, region, and season 2011-2012. The levels of metals were also used for risk assessment on consumer health. Copper and zinc occurred at concentrations that could only have positive impacts on eel condition. Low levels of cadmium and lead did not impair the condition of the fish. However, mercury occurred at high levels and increased with fish length and season. The mercury levels in eels were compared with the threshold of toxicity (500-1,200 μg kg(-1)), which can cause changes in biochemical processes and impair fish reproduction. The concentration of mercury was 1,010 μg kg(-1) in one specimen of the 120 samples examined, and in 16 specimens, it exceeded 500 μg kg(-1). The toxic effects of the mercury could have been attenuated by the selenium in the muscles of the eel, especially in the muscles of smaller specimens in which the Se/Hg molar ratio was higher than 1 with a positive correlation between these two elements. In larger specimens measuring in excess of 70 cm, this coefficient was below 1, and the mercury to selenium correlation was negative, which meant that the protective effects of selenium were weaker. The mercury in the muscles of large specimens at levels exceeding 500 μg kg(-1) could have weakened eel condition and also posed a threat to consumer health. The cadmium and lead in the muscles of the eel did not affect the condition of the fish. Mercury weakened the condition of large eel, A. anguilla. Selenium protected small- and medium-sized eel against the toxic effects of mercury.

  7. Helminth communities in eels Anguilla anguilla from Adriatic coastal lagoons in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cave, D; Berrilli, F; De Liberato, C; Orecchia, P; Kennedy, C R

    2001-03-01

    The composition and diversity of the total and intestinal component and infra-communities were determined in eels Anguilla anguilla from three shallow lagoons on the Adriatic coast of Italy to determine whether the helminth communities would differ in composition and structure from those in eels from lagoons on the Tyrrhenian coast. The lagoons differed in respect of their management regimes and the extent of freshwater influx. Both freshwater and marine species of helminths were found in the eels in all three lagoons, but the freshwater component was richer in Valle Figheri. A suite of three digenean eel specialist species occurred in all three lagoons, of which any two members dominated each community. This conferred a high degree of similarity between the communities of the three lagoons. The same three species also dominated helminth communities in eels in lagoons along the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy, and compositional similarity levels were similar within and between western and eastern groups. Species richness was higher in the component communities of the eels of the Adriatic lagoons when compared to the Tyrrhenian ones, but diversity and dominance indices were of a similar order of magnitude and range. Intestinal helminth communities were richer and more diverse in two of the Adriatic lagoons because the proportion of eels with zero or one helminth species was, unusually, in the minority. It was nevertheless concluded that infracommunity structure was similar in eels from both western and eastern lagoons and that the hypothesis that it would differ in Adriatic lagoons could not be supported. The findings provide further evidence of the similarity in composition and structure of helminth communities in eels from coastal lagoons throughout Europe.

  8. Stage-specific distribution models can predict eel (Anguilla anguilla) occurrence during settlement in coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, C.; Zucchetta, M.; Capoccioni, F.; Gravina, M. F.; Franzoi, P.; Ciccotti, E.

    2016-03-01

    Eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish species typical of Mediterranean coastal lagoons, that currently suffers from several anthropogenic and natural impacts. These are thought to be the cause of a stock-wide decline that this panmictic species is facing, in inland and coastal waters of Europe and North Africa. The decline affects both adult phases and recruitment, i.e. glass eel arrival to coastal waters and their ascent to inland waters. Quantitative features of eel recruitment reflect a transoceanic global scale, but also depend on local environmental conditions, the latter also affecting settlement dynamics in transitional waters. There is only little information on the dynamics of these two processes in coastal lagoons, notwithstanding the paramount importance of both in sustaining local stocks abundance and their demographic structure for this typical but also economically important inhabitant of Mediterranean lagoons, habitats that constitute an important share of the eel distribution area. The present study aims, therefore, to clarify space and time dynamics of local scale recruitment and of settlement in a coastal lagoon in the Mediterranean area, also by setting up a specific methodological approach. For this purpose, data from field surveys in combination with Species Distribution Models (SDMs) have been used in order to relate distribution of eel juvenile stages to the environmental conditions within the lagoon. Specifically, models were calibrated to quantify the relationship between presence of juvenile eel and the main environmental drivers, with the aim of identifying potential habitats for eel settlement within the lagoon. Results gained by modelling suggest certain spatial and temporal colonization patterns for the juvenile eel in the Fogliano lagoon, a typical Mediterranean coastal lake. The modelling approach has therefore proved to be a useful tool for predicting habitats for eel recruitment at the local scale and settlement, because

  9. Methylmercury effects on migratory behaviour in glass eels (Anguilla anguilla): an experimental study using isotopic tracers.

    PubMed

    Claveau, Julie; Monperrus, Mathilde; Jarry, Marc; Baudrimont, Magalie; Gonzalez, Patrice; Cavalheiro, Joana; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Bolliet, Valérie

    2015-05-01

    The effect of methylmercury (MeHg) on glass eels' propensity to migrate, mitochondrial activity and antioxidative defence systems was investigated. Marine glass eels were first sorted in an experimental flume according to their response to dusk. Fish responding to the decrease in light intensity by ascending in the water column and moving with or against the flow were considered as having a high propensity to migrate (migrant). Glass eels still sheltering at the end of the 24 h catching period were considered as having a low propensity to migrate and were called non-migrant. Migrant and non-migrant glass eels were then individually tagged and exposed to isotopically enriched (201)MeHg (50 ng L(-1)) for 11 days. The effect of contamination was studied on muscle fibre structure, and the expression level of genes involved in mitochondrial activity and antioxidative defence systems. To investigate the effect of MeHg on glass eel behaviour, migrant and non-migrant glass eels were sorted again and the bioaccumulation of (201)MeHg and its demethylation product ((201)Hg(II)) were determined for each individual. MeHg exposure increased activity in non-migrant glass eels but not migratory behaviour. Contamination affected mitochondrial structure and metabolism and suggests a higher oxidative stress and activation of antioxidative defence systems in non-migrant glass eels. Overall, our results suggest that exposure to MeHg might induce an increase in energy expenditure and a higher vulnerability to predation in non-migrant glass eels in the wild. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal variation and estradiol-dependent elevation of Thames estuary eel Anguilla anguilla plasma vitellogenin levels and comparisons with other United Kingdom estuaries.

    PubMed

    Peters, L D; Doyotte, A; Mitchelmore, C L; McEvoy, J; Livingstone, D R

    2001-11-12

    Eel Anguilla anguilla plasma vitellogenin was investigated as a biomarker of exposure to environmental compounds with estrogenic activity, along the tidal course of the Thames Estuary, UK. A. anguilla was chosen as a sentinel species because of their wide distribution, robustness in field and laboratory studies and also because they have a characterised normal intersex' condition where the gonad contains both developing male and female gonadal cells termed a Syrski organ. Following laboratory exposure to 17beta-estradiol (intraperitoneal injection), a plasma protein (approx. 211 kDa apparent molecular weight) was detected by monoclonal antibodies to vitellogenin of striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Western and dot blot analyses were developed and vitellogenin was isolated from 17beta-estradiol-treated fish to calibrate the quantification of the blots by image analysis. The limits of sensitivity for the Western and dot blots were 100 and 10 ng vitellogenin/ml, respectively. Levels of vitellogenin in Thames estuary samples were below the detection limits of the Western but not the dot blot, and showed no statistically significant site-specific (10 sites) and seasonal-specific (May, August, November) differences. Values were observed to be low, between 11 and 165 ng/ml, compared with 17-50 mg/ml for 17beta-estradiol-treated eels. Similar low levels of plasma vitellogenin were determined in fish sampled along the Tyne, Wear, Tees or Humber estuaries, or the Weston canal Liverpool, with mean plasma vitellogenin levels varying between 44 and 82 ng/ml. These levels of vitellogenin in A. anguilla plasma were observed to be consistent with the known biology of the eel. Immature females, or fish with syrski organs, reported both lower levels and smaller variation of plasma vitellogenin concentrations whereas the highest plasma vitellogenin concentrations were determined in fish above 45 cm consistent with female fish. These results indicate inter-species variation between the

  11. Dramatic effect of pop-up satellite tags on eel swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgerhout, Erik; Manabe, Ryotaro; Brittijn, Sebastiaan A.; Aoyama, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; van den Thillart, Guido E. E. J. M.

    2011-07-01

    The journey of the European eel to the spawning area in the Sargasso Sea is still a mystery. Several trials have been carried out to follow migrating eels with pop-up satellite tags (PSATs), without much success. As eels are very efficient swimmers, tags likely interfere with their high swimming efficiency. Here we report a more than twofold increase in swimming cost caused by a regular small satellite tag. The impact was determined at a range of swimming speeds with and without tag in a 2-m swimming tunnel. These results help to explain why the previous use of PSATs to identify spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea was thus far unsuccessful.

  12. Dramatic effect of pop-up satellite tags on eel swimming.

    PubMed

    Burgerhout, Erik; Manabe, Ryotaro; Brittijn, Sebastiaan A; Aoyama, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2011-07-01

    The journey of the European eel to the spawning area in the Sargasso Sea is still a mystery. Several trials have been carried out to follow migrating eels with pop-up satellite tags (PSATs), without much success. As eels are very efficient swimmers, tags likely interfere with their high swimming efficiency. Here we report a more than twofold increase in swimming cost caused by a regular small satellite tag. The impact was determined at a range of swimming speeds with and without tag in a 2-m swimming tunnel. These results help to explain why the previous use of PSATs to identify spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea was thus far unsuccessful.

  13. The truth about silver.

    PubMed

    Ovington, Liza G

    2004-09-01

    Interest in silver as a topical agent in wound healing is undergoing a renaissance. Having basic information regarding silver's chemical properties and potential actions in the wound bed is important to its appropriate clinical use. Such information is also relevant to the interpretation of silver's in vitro antimicrobial (antiseptic) effects, which in turn relate to issues involved in the evaluation of the clinical effects of silver in vivo. Gaining an understanding of the basic science of silver products and the different challenges inherent to in vitro versus in vivo antimicrobial evaluations will allow clinicians to address several key questions inherent when considering the use of silver as a topical antimicrobial: 1) Are there different forms of silver? 2) How does the amount of silver released into the wound environment correlate with clinical benefit? 3) How does the rate of silver release correlate with clinical benefit?

  14. Effects of recombinant eel growth hormone on the uptake of ( sup 35 S)sulfate by ceratobranchial cartilages of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, C.M.; Inui, Y. )

    1990-08-01

    Effects of growth hormone (GH) on the synthesis of mucopolysaccharide by ceratobranchial cartilages of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, were examined by monitoring the in vitro uptake of ({sup 35}S)sulfate. The ({sup 35}S)sulfate uptake decreased rapidly to one-third of the initial level during the first 3 days after hypophysectomy, and decreased gradually thereafter. When hypophysectomized eels were injected intramuscularly with recombinant eel GH (2 micrograms/g), the plasma GH concentrations increased maximally after 6 hr, and declined rapidly thereafter. On the other hand, the sulfate uptake increased significantly after 12 hr, and high levels were maintained until 48 hr. The stimulating effect of GH was dose dependent (0.02-2 micrograms/g). However, the addition of eel GH (0.05-5 micrograms/ml) to the culture medium did not affect the sulfate uptake by hypophysectomized eel cartilages, suggesting that the stimulative action of GH on the sulfate uptake by the cartilages is indirect.

  15. The 'electric stroke' and the 'electric spark': anatomists and eroticism at George Baker's electric eel exhibition in 1776 and 1777.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    In 1776 and 1777 five living electric eels exhibited in London became a sensational spectacle that appealed to anatomists, electricians and connoisseurs of erotica. George Baker's exhibition made visible the 'electric spark' of the electrical eel and a series of experiments were both witnessed by and participated in by members of the Royal Society and the metropolitan elite. Some participants even grasped the eels firmly in their hands and felt the 'electric stroke' of the eel in addition to observing the spark. In their observation of the electric eel some of these spectators transposed the vivid electric spark from the sphere of electricians and anatomists into that of satirical and erotic literature. Here the erotic electric eel proliferated in the literature and the eel took on quite different connotations that nonetheless were reliant on readers knowledge and experience of the exhibition, experiments and the preoccupations of anatomists. George Baker's electric eel exhibition of 1776 and 1777 is then instructive in exploring the production and circulation of knowledge in Georgian Britain. The story of the electric eel in Georgian culture charts the creation of the electric spark and stroke as objects of observation and encounter, their exhibitionary context, and finally their divergent meanings as the electric eel became erotically charged for a metropolitan masculine elite.

  16. Positivity and intensity of Gnathostoma spinigerum infective larvae in farmed and wild-caught swamp eels in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Thanomsub, Benjamas Wongsatayanon

    2012-06-01

    From July 2008 to June 2009, livers of the swamp eels (Monopterus alba) were investigated for advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Results revealed that 10.2% (106/1,037) and 20.4% (78/383) of farmed eels from Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo Province and those of wild-caught eels obtained from a market in Min Buri District of Bangkok, Thailand were infected, respectively. The prevalence was high during the rainy and winter seasons. The infection rate abruptly decreased in the beginning of summer. The highest infection rate (13.7%) was observed in September and absence of infection (0%) in March-April in the farmed eels. Whereas, in the wild-caught eels, the highest rate (30.7%) was observed in November, and the rate decreased to the lowest at 6.3% in March. The average no. (mean±SE) of AL3 per investigated liver in farmed eels (1.1±0.2) was significantly lower (P=0.040) than those in the caught eels (0.2±0.03). In addition, the intensity of AL3 recovered from each infected liver varied from 1 to 18 (2.3±0.3) in the farmed eels and from 1 to 47 (6.3±1.2) in the caught eels, respectively. The AL3 intensity showed significant difference (P=0.011) between these 2 different sources of eels. This is the first observation that farmed eels showed positive findings of G. spinigerum infective larvae. This may affect the standard farming of the culture farm and also present a risk of consuming undercooked eels from the wild-caught and farmed eels.

  17. Positivity and Intensity of Gnathostoma spinigerum Infective Larvae in Farmed and Wild-Caught Swamp Eels in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Saksirisampant, Wilai

    2012-01-01

    From July 2008 to June 2009, livers of the swamp eels (Monopterus alba) were investigated for advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Results revealed that 10.2% (106/1,037) and 20.4% (78/383) of farmed eels from Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo Province and those of wild-caught eels obtained from a market in Min Buri District of Bangkok, Thailand were infected, respectively. The prevalence was high during the rainy and winter seasons. The infection rate abruptly decreased in the beginning of summer. The highest infection rate (13.7%) was observed in September and absence of infection (0%) in March-April in the farmed eels. Whereas, in the wild-caught eels, the highest rate (30.7%) was observed in November, and the rate decreased to the lowest at 6.3% in March. The average no. (mean±SE) of AL3 per investigated liver in farmed eels (1.1±0.2) was significantly lower (P=0.040) than those in the caught eels (0.2±0.03). In addition, the intensity of AL3 recovered from each infected liver varied from 1 to 18 (2.3±0.3) in the farmed eels and from 1 to 47 (6.3±1.2) in the caught eels, respectively. The AL3 intensity showed significant difference (P=0.011) between these 2 different sources of eels. This is the first observation that farmed eels showed positive findings of G. spinigerum infective larvae. This may affect the standard farming of the culture farm and also present a risk of consuming undercooked eels from the wild-caught and farmed eels. PMID:22711921

  18. Examination of subaerially altered basaltic glass with TEM and EELS

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.-S.

    1998-06-17

    We have examined the weathered surfaces of 720 year old Hawaiian basalt glasses that were recovered from a subaerial environment with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy filtered imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques. Whereas the alteration products (palagonite) were physically detached from the underlying glass in most samples, a gel-like amorphous layer was observed adjacent to the glass in a few samples. To our knowledge, this is the first time a gel layer has been observed on weathered basalt. This is significant because analogous gel layers have been observed on nuclear waste glasses reacted in laboratory tests, and this demonstrates an important similarity in the mechanisms of the weathering of basalt and the corrosion of waste glasses.

  19. Thickness measurement of hydrated and dehydrated cryosections by EELS.

    PubMed

    Shi, S; Sun, S; Andrews, S B; Leapman, R D

    1996-02-15

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) provides a useful method for determining the thickness of frozen-hydrated and dehydrated cryosections in terms of the inelastic mean free path. Cryosection thickness is an important parameter because plural inelastic scattering limits the sensitivity of elemental microanalysis based on core-loss EELS, and because overlapping structures can affect interpretation of microanalytical data as well as the quality of electron images. The purpose of this work was to establish the minimum practical thickness for cutting cryosections and to explain the measured values for hydrated and dehydrated specimens. Hydrated sections were typically found to be between 1.5-2.5 times thicker than expected from the nominal microtome setting; this difference can be largely explained by compression during cutting. Comparison of micrographs from hydrated and dehydrated cryosections of rapidly-frozen, vitrified liver revealed a lateral shrinkage of approximately 20% on drying. The measured compression and shrinkage factors are consistent with dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) mass measurements on freeze-dried sections. Freeze-dried cryosections, cut to a nominal thickness of 90 nm and supported on thin Formvar/carbon films, had a relative thickness t/lambda i in the range of 0.5 for cytoplasm to 0.9 for mitochondria when analyzed at 100 keV beam energy. Mass loss of approximately 30% occurring at high electron dose enabled useful core-loss spectra to be recorded even from high-mass compartments such as mitochondria without excessive plural scattering.

  20. European eel sperm diluent for short-term storage.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, D S; Pérez, L; Gallego, V; Barrera, R; Jover, M; Asturiano, J F

    2010-06-01

    The sperm of European eel shows a high density and the time of spermatozoa motility is very short after activation with sea water. These characteristics make difficult the sperm handling and its quality assessment. Several diluents were previously described for the Japanese eel obtaining over 3 weeks' conservation times under refrigeration, but they rendered bad results in the European species. In the present study, several diluents were developed taking as basis the P1 medium, and using different dilution ratios (1 : 50, 1 : 100) and two pH (6.5, 8.5). The effect of the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA, 2% w/v) was also evaluated. At 24 h, undiluted samples already showed significant lower motility and viability than sperm samples diluted in the different media. The results for diluents with pH 6.5 and 8.5 were different. Spermatozoa diluted in media at pH 6.5 cannot be activated at 24 h, while samples diluted in the diluents with pH 8.5 and added with BSA did not show significant differences with respect to the fresh sperm motility until 48 h. The viability (percentage of alive cells) did not show differences until 1 week, independent of the dilution ratio. After 1 week, the motility was approximately 30% in the media containing BSA, which presented no differences for head size of the spermatozoa (perimeter and area) until 72 h and 1 week, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of one medium having similar physico-chemical characteristics to the seminal plasma, including pH 8.5, and supplemented with BSA can be used in different dilution ratios for the sperm's short-term storage, preserving its motility capacity.

  1. Detection of Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus in Anguilla japonica elvers.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sachiko; Yasumoto, Shinya; Koyama, Satoshi; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Naoi, Yuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ono, Shin-Ichi; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2016-05-03

    Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus (JEECV) has spread in eel farms and caused serious economic loss. In this study, we examined the prevalence of JEECV infection in 100 wild Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) elvers caught from Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, using quantitative PCR and conventional PCR. Total genomic DNA was obtained from the cranial quarter of the body in 70 of 100 eels and from the gill in the remaining. Of 30 gill samples, 20 were analyzed after pooling with other samples, and the remaining 10 were analyzed separately. A single positive result for JEECV was detected following analysis of the 10 separately analyzed samples. This result constitutes the first report of JEECV infection in wild A. japonica elvers.

  2. Electric eels use high-voltage to track fast-moving prey

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) are legendary for their ability to incapacitate fish, humans, and horses with hundreds of volts of electricity. The function of this output as a weapon has been obvious for centuries but its potential role for electroreception has been overlooked. Here it is shown that electric eels use high-voltage simultaneously as a weapon and for precise and rapid electrolocation of fast-moving prey and conductors. Their speed, accuracy, and high-frequency pulse rate are reminiscent of bats using a ‘terminal feeding buzz' to track insects. Eel's exhibit ‘sensory conflict' when mechanosensory and electrosensory cues are separated, striking first toward mechanosensory cues and later toward conductors. Strikes initiated in the absence of conductors are aborted. In addition to providing new insights into the evolution of strongly electric fish and showing electric eels to be far more sophisticated than previously described, these findings reveal a trait with markedly dichotomous functions. PMID:26485580

  3. The occurrence of organic contaminants in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Poland: an environmental quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Ruczynska, Wiesława; Nermer, Tomasz; Usydus, Zygmunt; Robak, Stanisław

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide information on the levels of pollutants in the tissues of eels caught in Polish waters. The contaminants included in the study are those which have not yet been widely studied in eel stocks, but which arouse concern in relation to the environment. An overview of the pollutant levels in eels caught in other European waters was also conducted. The results are evaluated in terms of environmental quality and consumer health. The mean concentrations of ΣPBDEs and ΣHBCDs in muscles of eels sampled in Polish waters were between 1 and 2 ng g(-1) ww. The mean TBT concentrations were between 2 and 4 ng g(-1)ww with the exception of samples from the Szczecin Lagoon, in which the mean TBT concentration was about tenfold higher.

  4. Electric eels use high-voltage to track fast-moving prey.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2015-10-20

    Electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) are legendary for their ability to incapacitate fish, humans, and horses with hundreds of volts of electricity. The function of this output as a weapon has been obvious for centuries but its potential role for electroreception has been overlooked. Here it is shown that electric eels use high-voltage simultaneously as a weapon and for precise and rapid electrolocation of fast-moving prey and conductors. Their speed, accuracy, and high-frequency pulse rate are reminiscent of bats using a 'terminal feeding buzz' to track insects. Eel's exhibit 'sensory conflict' when mechanosensory and electrosensory cues are separated, striking first toward mechanosensory cues and later toward conductors. Strikes initiated in the absence of conductors are aborted. In addition to providing new insights into the evolution of strongly electric fish and showing electric eels to be far more sophisticated than previously described, these findings reveal a trait with markedly dichotomous functions.

  5. Microbiological status of live eel and processed fish products for export to Japan.

    PubMed

    Rohaya, M A; Chuink, B H; Aniran, K

    1997-01-01

    Live eels and processed fish products from Malaysia are routinely checked for microbial pathogens before export to Japan. The eels and water from the ponds are screened for Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella spp, whereas the processed fish products are tested for microbial contamination (aerobic plate count), coliforms, E. coil and Vibrio cholerae. Results showed that live eels and water samples were negative for Vibrio cholerae but Salmonella spp were isolated occasionally. Various types of processed fish products had counts below 1.0 x 10(5) whilst coliforms, E. coli and Vibrio cholerae were absent. Records available showed that procedures involved in the production and transportation of live eel, preparation and processing of fish products have resulted in relatively safe food products.

  6. Genetic positioning of aquabirnavirus isolates from cultured Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2014-04-23

    Aquabirnavirus is an epizootic virus in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica farms in Korea, although its origin is unclear. In the present study, nucleotide sequences of the VP2/NS junction region of 9 Korean aquabirnaviruses from cultured eel in various areas of Korea during 2000-2009 were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. The nucleotide sequences showed more than 94.2% identity among the 9 Korean eel isolates, 71.2% identity among 16 Korean isolates from freshwater and marine fish, and 71.1% identity among 25 worldwide isolates. All 9 isolates in this study were phylogenetically classified into genogroup II, including isolates from Denmark, Spain, Taiwan and Japan, and were discrete from salmonid and marine fish isolates (genogroup I and VII) in Korea. These results suggest that the Korean eel isolates have most likely been introduced from outside the country and not from coastal areas of Korea.

  7. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li; Yan, Hong Young; Wang, Tzi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2) revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292) and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290) tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  8. Electric Eels Concentrate Their Electric Field to Induce Involuntary Fatigue in Struggling Prey.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2015-11-16

    Nature is replete with predator venoms that immobilize prey by targeting ion channels. Electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) take a different tactic to accomplish the same end. Striking eels emit electricity in volleys of 1 ms, high-voltage pulses. Each pulse is capable of activating prey motor neuron efferents, and hence muscles. In a typical attack, eel discharges cause brief, immobilizing tetanus, allowing eels to swallow small prey almost immediately. Here I show that when eels struggle with large prey or fish held precariously, they commonly curl to bring their own tail to the opposite side of prey, sandwiching it between the two poles of their powerful electric organ. They then deliver volleys of high-voltage pulses. Shortly thereafter, eels juggle prey into a favorable position for swallowing. Recordings from electrodes placed within prey items show that this curling behavior at least doubles the field strength within shocked prey, most likely ensuring reliable activation of the majority of prey motor neurons. Simulated pulse trains, or pulses from an eel-triggered stimulator, applied to a prey muscle preparations result in profound muscle fatigue and loss of contractile force. Consistent with this result, video recordings show that formerly struggling prey are temporarily immobile after this form of attack, allowing the manipulation of prey that might otherwise escape. These results reveal a unique use of electric organs to a unique end; eels superimpose electric fields from two poles, ensuring maximal remote activation of prey efferents that blocks subsequent prey movement by inducing involuntary muscle fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Giant Mottled Eel, Anguilla marmorata, Uses Blue-Shifted Rod Photoreceptors during Upstream Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2) revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292) and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290) tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice. PMID:25101636

  10. The Silver Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahyun, M. R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrates the type of fractional bonding for solid silver halides. Treats the silver halides as electron excess compounds, and develops a model of a localized bonding unit that may be iterated in three dimensions to describe the bulk phase. (MLH)

  11. Colloidal Silver Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be dangerous to your health. What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of ... homemade and commercial colloidal silver products. What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Colloidal Silver Scientific ...

  12. Hox genes of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and Hox cluster evolution in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2010-03-15

    Compared with other diploid teleosts (2n=48), anguilloid fish have a specialized karyotype (2n=38) and remarkable morphological variation, and represent one basal group species of teleosts. To investigate the Hox gene/cluster inventory in basal teleosts, a PCR-based survey of Hox genes in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) was conducted with both gene-specific and homeobox-targeted degenerate primers. Our data provide evidence that at least 34 distinct Hox genes exist in the Japanese eel genome and that they represent eight Hox clusters. Duplication of Hox genes in the Japanese eel appears to be the result of the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) event. The Japanese eel shared the FSGD event with other teleosts such as zebrafish and pufferfish. A member of Hox paralog group one (HoxA1b) was preserved in the Japanese eel but was lost in other teleosts. Available Hox data revealed that the Hox cluster evolved distinctly in different teleost lineages. All duplicated Hox clusters were retained after the FSGD event in basal teleosts like in the Japanese eel, whereas crown teleosts lost one cluster (HoxCb or HoxDb). Based on current teleostean phylogeny, the HoxDb cluster was lost independently in the teleost lineages Otocephala and Euteleostei.

  13. Characterization of thyroid hormone receptors during early development of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yutaka; Nomura, Kazuharu; Ohta, Hiromi; Tanaka, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    We studied the profiles of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica) during development from hatched larvae to juveniles. Two TRαs (TRαA and TRαB) and one TRβ (TRβA) cDNA clones were generated by RACE. The TRαA, TRαB and TRβA cDNAs encoded 416, 407 and 397 amino acid proteins with much higher homologies to the Japanese conger eel (Conger myriaster) TRs than to other fish TRs. In a transiently transfected Japanese eel cell line, Hepa-E1, the TRs showed thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent activation of transcription from the TH-responsive promoter. Four TR cDNA clones, including TRβB reported in a previous study, were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The TR mRNA levels in hatched larvae were determined. The two TRβ mRNAs were present at low levels but there was a peak in the TRαs during the larval stage before metamorphosis. During metamorphosis, the two TRαs both exhibited peaks and expression of the two TRβs was higher than during the early growth stage. This expression pattern is similar to that of the Japanese conger eel. It is possible that thyroid hormones control the early development of Japanese eels and Japanese conger eels through TRs. This is the first analysis of the expression sequence of TRs during early larval stages of Anguilliformes.

  14. Expression and localization of aquaporin 1b during oocyte development in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Hirohiko; Kishi, Takafumi; Gen, Koichiro; Kazeto, Yukinori; Tosaka, Ryota; Matsubara, Hajime; Matsubara, Takahiro; Sawaguchi, Sayumi

    2011-05-27

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underling hydration during oocyte maturation, we characterized the structure of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) novel-water selective aquaporin 1 (AQP1b) that thought to be involved in oocyte hydration. The aqp1b cDNA encodes a 263 amino acid protein that includes the six potential transmembrane domains and two Asn-Pro-Ala motifs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed transcription of Japanese eel aqp1b in ovary and testis but not in the other tissues. In situ hybridization studies with the eel aqp1b cRNA probe revealed intense eel aqp1b signal in the oocytes at the perinucleolus stage and the signals became faint during the process of oocyte development. Light microscopic immunocytochemical analysis of ovary revealed that the Japanese eel AQP1b was expressed in the cytoplasm around the yolk globules which were located in the peripheral region of oocytes during the primary yolk globule stage; thereafter, the immunoreactivity was observed throughout the cytoplasm of oocyte as vitellogenesis progressed. The immunoreactivity became localized around the large membrane-limited yolk masses which were formed by the fusion of yolk globules during the oocyte maturation phase. These results together indicate that AQP1b, which is synthesized in the oocyte during the process of oocyte growth, is essential for mediating water uptake into eel oocytes.

  15. Sexually dimorphic gene expressions in eels: useful markers for early sex assessment in a conservation context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geffroy, Benjamin; Guilbaud, Florian; Amilhat, Elsa; Beaulaton, Laurent; Vignon, Matthias; Huchet, Emmanuel; Rives, Jacques; Bobe, Julien; Fostier, Alexis; Guiguen, Yann; Bardonnet, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Environmental sex determination (ESD) has been detected in a range of vertebrate reptile and fish species. Eels are characterized by an ESD that occurs relatively late, since sex cannot be histologically determined before individuals reach 28 cm. Because several eel species are at risk of extinction, assessing sex at the earliest stage is a crucial management issue. Based on preliminary results of RNA sequencing, we targeted genes susceptible to be differentially expressed between ovaries and testis at different stages of development. Using qPCR, we detected testis-specific expressions of dmrt1, amh, gsdf and pre-miR202 and ovary-specific expressions were obtained for zar1, zp3 and foxn5. We showed that gene expressions in the gonad of intersexual eels were quite similar to those of males, supporting the idea that intersexual eels represent a transitional stage towards testicular differentiation. To assess whether these genes would be effective early molecular markers, we sampled juvenile eels in two locations with highly skewed sex ratios. The combined expression of six of these genes allowed the discrimination of groups according to their potential future sex and thus this appears to be a useful tool to estimate sex ratios of undifferentiated juvenile eels.

  16. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  17. Sexually dimorphic gene expressions in eels: useful markers for early sex assessment in a conservation context

    PubMed Central

    Geffroy, Benjamin; Guilbaud, Florian; Amilhat, Elsa; Beaulaton, Laurent; Vignon, Matthias; Huchet, Emmanuel; Rives, Jacques; Bobe, Julien; Fostier, Alexis; Guiguen, Yann; Bardonnet, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Environmental sex determination (ESD) has been detected in a range of vertebrate reptile and fish species. Eels are characterized by an ESD that occurs relatively late, since sex cannot be histologically determined before individuals reach 28 cm. Because several eel species are at risk of extinction, assessing sex at the earliest stage is a crucial management issue. Based on preliminary results of RNA sequencing, we targeted genes susceptible to be differentially expressed between ovaries and testis at different stages of development. Using qPCR, we detected testis-specific expressions of dmrt1, amh, gsdf and pre-miR202 and ovary-specific expressions were obtained for zar1, zp3 and foxn5. We showed that gene expressions in the gonad of intersexual eels were quite similar to those of males, supporting the idea that intersexual eels represent a transitional stage towards testicular differentiation. To assess whether these genes would be effective early molecular markers, we sampled juvenile eels in two locations with highly skewed sex ratios. The combined expression of six of these genes allowed the discrimination of groups according to their potential future sex and thus this appears to be a useful tool to estimate sex ratios of undifferentiated juvenile eels. PMID:27658729

  18. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic). American eel

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1984-07-01

    The American eel, Anguilla rostrata, is an ecologically and economically important catadromous species that occupies freshwater streams, rivers, brackish estuaries, and the open ocean during various phases of its life cycle. Adult eels apparently spawn in the Sargasso Sea, and ocean currents transport the developing larvae northward until the young metamorphose into juveniles capable of swimming shoreward and moving upstream into coastal areas, estuaries, and rivers. Developing eels commonly remain in freshwater or brackish area for 10 to 12 years before migrating to spawn. American eels tend to be bottom-dwellers and feed on a variety of fauna that occupy the same habitats. Eels occupy areas having wide ranges of temperature, salinity, and other environmental factors, suggesting broad tolerance limits, but few studies of requirements have been reported. Salinity patterns and water currents created by river discharges into coastal areas apparently provide the gradient that cues shoreward migration of juvenile eels. Alteration of patterns of freshwater inflows to estuaries and bays could affect upstream migrations. 73 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. Distribution and abundance of American eels in the White Oak River estuary, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hightower, J.E.; Nesnow, C.

    2006-01-01

    Apparent widespread declines in abundance of Anguilla rostrata (American eel) have reinforced the need for information regarding its life history and status. We used commercial eel pots and crab (peeler) pots to examine the distribution, condition, and abundance of American eels within the White Oak River estuary, NC, during summers of 2002-2003. Catch of American eels per overnight set was 0.35 (SE = 0.045) in 2002 and 0.49 (SE = 0.044) in 2003. There was not a significant linear relationship between catch per set and depth in 2002 (P = 0.31, depth range 0.9-3.4 m) or 2003 (P = 0.18, depth range 0.6-3.4 m). American eels from the White Oak River were in good condition, based on the slope of a length-weight relationship (3.41) compared to the median slope (3.15) from other systems. Estimates of population density from grid sampling in 2003 (300 mm and larger: 4.0-13.8 per ha) were similar to estimates for the Hudson River estuary, but substantially less than estimates from other (smaller) systems including tidal creeks within estuaries. Density estimates from coastal waters can be used with harvest records to examine whether overfishing has contributed to the recent apparent declines in American eel abundance.

  20. Expression and localization of aquaporin 1b during oocyte development in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underling hydration during oocyte maturation, we characterized the structure of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) novel-water selective aquaporin 1 (AQP1b) that thought to be involved in oocyte hydration. The aqp1b cDNA encodes a 263 amino acid protein that includes the six potential transmembrane domains and two Asn-Pro-Ala motifs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed transcription of Japanese eel aqp1b in ovary and testis but not in the other tissues. In situ hybridization studies with the eel aqp1b cRNA probe revealed intense eel aqp1b signal in the oocytes at the perinucleolus stage and the signals became faint during the process of oocyte development. Light microscopic immunocytochemical analysis of ovary revealed that the Japanese eel AQP1b was expressed in the cytoplasm around the yolk globules which were located in the peripheral region of oocytes during the primary yolk globule stage; thereafter, the immunoreactivity was observed throughout the cytoplasm of oocyte as vitellogenesis progressed. The immunoreactivity became localized around the large membrane-limited yolk masses which were formed by the fusion of yolk globules during the oocyte maturation phase. These results together indicate that AQP1b, which is synthesized in the oocyte during the process of oocyte growth, is essential for mediating water uptake into eel oocytes. PMID:21615964

  1. Recruitment of Anguilla spp. glass eels in the Waikato River, New Zealand. Evidence of declining migrations?

    PubMed

    Jellyman, D J; Booker, D J; Watene, E

    2009-06-01

    The timing of Anguilla spp. glass eel recruitment into the Waikato River, North Island, New Zealand, was studied over a 2 year period (2004-2005). While glass eels of both the shortfin eel Anguilla australis and the endemic longfin eel Anguilla dieffenbachii were caught, the former comprised >97% of the species composition. There was a positive correlation of glass eel migrations with spring tides, with peak migration periods typically occurring within a few hours of the peak of high tide, and between 2 and 4 days after the day of spring tide. Both water temperature and discharge had significant inverse relationships with glass eel catches, with temperature explaining >30% of the variance in catch periodicity. Comparison of catch data 30 years apart showed that main migration periods appear to occur several weeks earlier today than previously. Reduced catch per unit effort and duration of runs from recent years' sampling (compared with the 1970s) indicate that a reduction in recruitment may also have occurred during this period, something recorded in other temperate species of Anguilla.

  2. Low PCB concentrations observed in American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in six Hudson River tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Limburg, K.E.; Machut, L.S.; Jeffers, P.; Schmidt, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed 73 eels, collected in 2004 and 2005 above the head of tide in six Hudson River tributaries, for total PCBs, length, weight, age, and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (??15N). Mean total PCB concentration (wet weight basis) was 0.23 ppm ?? 0.08 (standard error), with a range of 0.008 to 5.4 ppm. A majority of eels (84) had concentrations below 0.25 ppm, and only seven eels (10%) had concentrations exceeding 0.5 ppm. Those eels with higher PCB concentrations were ???12 yr; there was a weak correlation of PCB concentration with ??15N and also with weight. Compared to recent (2003) data from the mainstem of the Hudson River estuary, these results indicate that tributaries are generally much less contaminated with PCBs. We hypothesize that those tributary eels with high PCB concentrations were relatively recent immigrants from the mainstem. Given concern over the possible adverse effects of PCBs on eel reproduction, these tributaries may serve as refugia. Therefore, providing improved access to upland tributaries may be critically important to this species. ?? 2008 Northeastern Naturalist.

  3. Polyimides Containing Silver Trifluoroacetylacetonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.; Rancourt, James D.; Taylor, Larry T.; Caplan, Maggie L.

    1994-01-01

    Mechanically strong, flexible, thermally stable, electrically conductive films and coatings suitable for use in electronics industry made by incorporating silver trifluoroacetylacetonate into linear aromatic condensation polyimides. In experimental films, most successful combinations of flexibility and conductivity obtained by use of 1:1, 1:1.74, and 1:2 mole ratios of silver trifluoroacetylacetonate per polyimide repeat unit. Other concentrations of silver trifluoroacetylacetonate used with different heat-treatment schedules to obtain conductive silver-impregnated films.

  4. Empirical observations of the spawning migration of European eels: The long and dangerous road to the Sargasso Sea

    PubMed Central

    Righton, David; Westerberg, Håkan; Feunteun, Eric; Økland, Finn; Gargan, Patrick; Amilhat, Elsa; Metcalfe, Julian; Lobon-Cervia, Javier; Sjöberg, Niklas; Simon, Janek; Acou, Anthony; Vedor, Marisa; Walker, Alan; Trancart, Thomas; Brämick, Uwe; Aarestrup, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The spawning migration of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) to the Sargasso Sea is one of the greatest animal migrations. However, the duration and route of the migration remain uncertain. Using fishery data from 20 rivers across Europe, we show that most eels begin their oceanic migration between August and December. We used electronic tagging techniques to map the oceanic migration from eels released from four regions in Europe. Of 707 eels tagged, we received 206 data sets. Many migrations ended soon after release because of predation events, but we were able to reconstruct in detail the migration routes of >80 eels. The route extended from western mainland Europe to the Azores region, more than 5000 km toward the Sargasso Sea. All eels exhibited diel vertical migrations, moving from deeper water during the day into shallower water at night. The range of migration speeds was 3 to 47 km day−1. Using data from larval surveys in the Sargasso Sea, we show that spawning likely begins in December and peaks in February. Synthesizing these results, we show that the timing of autumn escapement and the rate of migration are inconsistent with the century-long held assumption that eels spawn as a single reproductive cohort in the springtime following their escapement. Instead, we suggest that European eels adopt a mixed migratory strategy, with some individuals able to achieve a rapid migration, whereas others arrive only in time for the following spawning season. Our results have consequences for eel management. PMID:27713924

  5. Empirical observations of the spawning migration of European eels: The long and dangerous road to the Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Righton, David; Westerberg, Håkan; Feunteun, Eric; Økland, Finn; Gargan, Patrick; Amilhat, Elsa; Metcalfe, Julian; Lobon-Cervia, Javier; Sjöberg, Niklas; Simon, Janek; Acou, Anthony; Vedor, Marisa; Walker, Alan; Trancart, Thomas; Brämick, Uwe; Aarestrup, Kim

    2016-10-01

    The spawning migration of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) to the Sargasso Sea is one of the greatest animal migrations. However, the duration and route of the migration remain uncertain. Using fishery data from 20 rivers across Europe, we show that most eels begin their oceanic migration between August and December. We used electronic tagging techniques to map the oceanic migration from eels released from four regions in Europe. Of 707 eels tagged, we received 206 data sets. Many migrations ended soon after release because of predation events, but we were able to reconstruct in detail the migration routes of >80 eels. The route extended from western mainland Europe to the Azores region, more than 5000 km toward the Sargasso Sea. All eels exhibited diel vertical migrations, moving from deeper water during the day into shallower water at night. The range of migration speeds was 3 to 47 km day(-1). Using data from larval surveys in the Sargasso Sea, we show that spawning likely begins in December and peaks in February. Synthesizing these results, we show that the timing of autumn escapement and the rate of migration are inconsistent with the century-long held assumption that eels spawn as a single reproductive cohort in the springtime following their escapement. Instead, we suggest that European eels adopt a mixed migratory strategy, with some individuals able to achieve a rapid migration, whereas others arrive only in time for the following spawning season. Our results have consequences for eel management.

  6. Migratory behavior, metabolism, oxidative stress and mercury concentrations in marine and estuarine European glass eels (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Bolliet, Valérie; Claveau, Julie; Jarry, Marc; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Monperrus, Mathilde

    2017-02-01

    The relationships between the migratory behavior, methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations, oxidative stress response and detoxification processes were investigated in glass eels collected in marine (Molliets) and estuarine (Urt) waters (Adour estuary, South West France) at the end of the fishing season (April). Glass eel migratory behavior was investigated in an experimental flume according to their response to dusk. Fish responding to the decrease in light intensity by ascending in the water column and moving with or against the flow were considered as having a high propensity to migrate (migrant). Glass eels still sheltering at the end of the 24h catching period were considered as having a low propensity to migrate and were called non-migrant. Our results provide some evidence that estuarine glass eels were bigger, presented a higher propensity to migrate and a lower oxidative stress response than marine glass eels. This might reflect a selection process, some marine glass eels progressively settling or dying before reaching Urt and/or a change in feeding behavior. In April, glass eels restart feeding in the Adour estuary which might decrease the oxidative stress possibly related to starvation, and enhance migration. MeHg concentrations was significantly higher in non-migrant than in migrant glass eels and it is suggested that non-migrant glass eels might present a higher vulnerability to stress (at least contamination and/or starvation), although the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  7. Optimization of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell for sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, resonance light scattering (RLS) properties of a silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell, based on quasi-static approach and plasmon hybridization theory, are investigated. Scattering spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell has two intense and clearly separated RLS peaks and provides a potential for biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The two RLS peaks in silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell are optimized by tuning the geometrical dimensions. In addition, the optimal geometry is discussed to obtain the high sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness increases the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell.

  8. Optimization of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, resonance light scattering (RLS) properties of a silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell, based on quasi-static approach and plasmon hybridization theory, are investigated. Scattering spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell has two intense and clearly separated RLS peaks and provides a potential for biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The two RLS peaks in silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell are optimized by tuning the geometrical dimensions. In addition, the optimal geometry is discussed to obtain the high sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness increases the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell.

  9. Structural and functional characterization of neuropeptide Y in a primitive teleost, the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Li, Shuisheng; Zhao, Liping; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Qiongyu; Zhou, Wenyi; Qi, Xin; Chen, Huapu; Yang, Huirong; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2012-10-01

    In the present study, the first full-length cDNA encoding Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was cloned from the brain of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). The open reading frame of Japanese eel NPY gene is 294 bp in length, encoding a precursor protein of 97 amino acids, which contains a 36-amino-acid mature peptide. Sequence analysis showed that the Japanese eel NPY peptide is similar to that of other species. Real-time PCR revealed that NPY in Japanese eel is mainly expressed in the brain, especially in the hypothalamus and the optic tectum thalamus. The effect of a negative energy balance on NPY gene expression was examined subsequently. The mRNA level of NPY in the hypothalamus and the optic tectum thalamus showed a pronounced increase after 4 days of food deprivation. The biological activities of Japanese eel NPY were further investigated in vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal injection of the NPY peptide into Japanese eel could potently elevate the expression of the mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH) in hypothalamus and the follicle-stimulating hormone beta (FSHβ), the luteinizing hormone beta (LHβ) and growth hormone (GH) in pituitary. In static incubation studies, the stimulatory effects of NPY on mGnRH expression in hypothalamic fragments and on FSHβ, LHβ and GH expression in pituitary cells were also observed. However, in vivo and in vitro studies showed that NPY exhibits an inhibitory action on the expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone beta (TSHβ) in pituitary. The results indicate that NPY is involved in the regulation of multiple physiological processes in Japanese eel.

  10. Power Transfer to a Human during an Electric Eel's Shocking Leap.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2017-09-25

    Electric eels have been the subject of investigation and curiosity for centuries [1]. They use high voltage to track [2] and control [3] prey, as well as to exhaust prey by causing involuntary fatigue through remote activation of prey muscles [4]. But their most astonishing behavior is the leaping attack, during which eels emerge from the water to directly electrify a threat [5, 6]. This unique defense has reportedly been used against both horses [7] and humans [8]. Yet the dynamics of the circuit that develops when a living animal is contacted and the electrical power transmitted to the target have not been directly investigated. In this study, the electromotive force and circuit resistances that develop during an eel's leaping behavior were determined. Next, the current that passed through a human subject during the attack was measured. The results allowed each variable in the equivalent circuit to be estimated. Findings can be extrapolated to a range of different eel sizes that might be encountered in the wild. Despite the comparatively small size of the eel used in this study, electrical currents in the target peaked at 40-50 mA, greatly exceeding thresholds for nociceptor activation reported for both humans [9] and horses [10, 11]. No subjective sensation of involuntary tetanus was reported, and aversive sensations were restricted to the affected limb. Results suggest that the main purpose of the leaping attack is to strongly deter potential eel predators by briefly causing intense pain. Apparently a strong offense is the eel's best defense. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. An Enriched European Eel Transcriptome Sheds Light upon Host-Pathogen Interactions with Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Callol, Agnès; Reyes-López, Felipe E.; Roig, Francisco J.; Goetz, Giles; Goetz, Frederick W.; Amaro, Carmen; MacKenzie, Simon A.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the principal bottlenecks for the European eel recovery. The aim of this study was to develop a new molecular tool to be used in host-pathogen interaction experiments in the eel. To this end, we first stimulated adult eels with different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), extracted RNA from the immune-related tissues and sequenced the transcriptome. We obtained more than 2x106 reads that were assembled and annotated into 45,067 new descriptions with a notable representation of novel transcripts related with pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the immune response. Then, we designed a DNA-microarray that was used to analyze the early immune response against Vibrio vulnificus, a septicemic pathogen that uses the gills as the portal of entry into the blood, as well as the role of the main toxin of this species (RtxA13) on this early interaction. The gill transcriptomic profiles obtained after bath infecting eels with the wild type strain or with a mutant deficient in rtxA13 were analyzed and compared. Results demonstrate that eels react rapidly and locally against the pathogen and that this immune-response is rtxA13-dependent as transcripts related with cell destruction were highly up-regulated only in the gills from eels infected with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, significant differences in the immune response against the wild type and the mutant strain also suggest that host survival after V. vulnificus infection could depend on an efficient local phagocytic activity. Finally, we also found evidence of the presence of an interbranchial lymphoid tissue in European eel gills although further experiments will be necessary to identify such tissue. PMID:26207370

  12. Comparison of swimming capacity and energetics of migratory European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and New Zealand short-finned eel (A. australis)

    PubMed Central

    Tudorache, Christian; Burgerhout, Erik; Brittijn, Sebastiaan; van den Thillart, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The spawning migration of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) can cover more than 6000 km, while that of the New Zealand short-finned eel (A. australis) is assumed to be approximately 3000 km. Since these species are expected to show adaptive traits to such an important lifetime event, we hypothesized differences in swimming capacity and energetics as a response to this adaptation. In an experimental swimming respirometer set-up, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), optimal swimming speed (Uopt), mass specific oxygen consumption rate (ṀO2), standard metabolic rate (SMR), active metabolic rate at Ucrit (AMRcrit) and at Uopt (AMRopt), the minimum cost of transport at Uopt (COTmin), and the scope for activity, were assessed and compared between the species. With a similar body length and mass, European eels showed ca. 25% higher values for both Ucrit and Uopt, and 23% lower values for COTmin, compared to New Zealand short-finned eels. However, SMR, AMRcrit, AMRopt, and scope for activity did not differ between the species, indicating very similar swimming physiology traits. This study discusses physiological aspects of long distance migration and provides recommendations for (a) swimming respirometry in anguilliform fish, and (b) telemetry research using externally attached pop-up tags. PMID:26441675

  13. Effect of multipole excitations in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of surface plasmon modes in silver nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiuli; Norris, Theodore B.; Hörl, Anton; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Herzing, Andrew A.

    2014-12-14

    We have characterized the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in silver nanowires using spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Non-symmetric EELS spectra due to high-k SPR propagation along the nanowire and spectral shifts due to higher-order mode excitation are observed when the beam is positioned near the tip of the nanowire. When the beam is far from the tip region and on the side of nanowire, no spectral shifts are observed as the beam is scanned in the radial direction of the nanowire. The experimental spectra are compared with three different theoretical approaches: direct numerical calculation of the energy loss, analytical models for energy loss, and numerical simulations using an optical model. All three models reproduce the spectral shifts as the electron beam approaches the cap of the nanowire. The analytical model reveals the origin of the shifts in high-order plasmon mode excitation.

  14. Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Insight into dynamically evolving electrochemical reactions and mechanisms encountered in electrical energy storage (EES) and conversion technologies (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), materials science (corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (electrodeposition) remains limited due to the present lack of in situ high-resolution characterization methodologies. Electrochemical fluid cell microscopy is an emerging in-situ method that allows for the direct, real-time imaging of electrochemical processes within a fluid environment. This technique is facilitated by the use of MEMS-based biasing microchip platforms that serve the purpose of sealing the highly volatile electrolyte between two electron transparent SiNx membranes and interfacing electrodes to an external potentiostat for controlled nanoscale electrochemislly experiments [!]. In order to elucidate both stmctural and chemical changes during such in situ electrochemical experiments, it is impmtant to first improve upon the spatial resolution by utilizing energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) (to minimize chromatic aben ation), then to detennine the chemical changes via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This presents a formidable challenge since the overall thickness through which electrons are scattered through the multiple layers of the cell can be on the order of hundreds of nanometers to microns, scattering through which has the deleterious effect of degrading image resolution and decreasing signal-to noise for spectroscopy [2].

  15. Epigenetic modifications during sex change repress gonadotropin stimulation of cyp19a1a in a teleost ricefield eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Zhixin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2013-08-01

    In vertebrates, cytochrome P450 aromatase, encoded by cyp19a1, converts androgens to estrogens and plays important roles in gonadal differentiation and development. The present study examines whether epigenetic mechanisms are involved in cyp19a1a expression and subsequent gonadal development in the hermaphroditic ricefield eel. The expression of the ricefield eel cyp19a1a was stimulated by gonadotropin via the cAMP pathway in the ovary but not the ovotestis or testis. The CpG within the cAMP response element (CRE) of the cyp19a1a promoter was hypermethylated in the ovotestis and testis compared with the ovary. The methylation levels of CpG sites around CRE in the distal region (region II) and around steroidogenic factor 1/adrenal 4 binding protein sites and TATA box in the proximal region (region I) were inversely correlated with cyp19a1a expression during the natural sex change from female to male. In vitro DNA methylation decreased the basal and forskolin-induced activities of cyp19a1a promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that histone 3 (Lys9) in both regions I and II of the cyp19a1a promoter were deacetylated and trimethylated in the testis, and in contrast to the ovary, phosphorylated CRE-binding protein failed to bind to these regions. Lastly, the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed the natural sex change of ricefield eels. These results suggested that epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation and histone deacetylation and methylation may abrogate the stimulation of cyp19a1a by gonadotropins in a male-specific fashion. This may be a mechanism widely used to drive natural sex change in teleosts as well as gonadal differentiation in other vertebrates.

  16. How the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) loses its skeletal framework across lifetime.

    PubMed

    Rolvien, Tim; Nagel, Florian; Milovanovic, Petar; Wuertz, Sven; Marshall, Robert Percy; Jeschke, Anke; Schmidt, Felix N; Hahn, Michael; Witten, P Eckhard; Amling, Michael; Busse, Björn

    2016-10-26

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake an impressive 5 000 km long migration from European fresh waters through the North Atlantic Ocean to the Sargasso Sea. Along with sexual maturation, the eel skeleton undergoes a remarkable morphological transformation during migration, where a hitherto completely obscure bone loss phenomenon occurs. To unravel mechanisms of the maturation-related decay of the skeleton, we performed a multiscale assessment of eels' bones at different life-cycle stages. Accordingly, the skeleton reflects extensive bone loss that is mediated via multinucleated bone-resorbing osteoclasts, while other resorption mechanisms such as osteocytic osteolysis or matrix demineralization were not observed. Preserving mechanical stability and releasing minerals for energy metabolism are two mutually exclusive functions of the skeleton that are orchestrated in eels through the presence of two spatially segregated hard tissues: cellular bone and acellular notochord. The cellular bone serves as a source of mineral release following osteoclastic resorption, whereas the mineralized notochord sheath, which is inaccessible for resorption processes due to an unmineralized cover layer, ensures sufficient mechanical stability as a part of the notochord sheath. Clearly, an eel's skeleton is structurally optimized to meet the metabolic challenge of fasting and simultaneous sexual development during an exhausting journey to spawning areas, while the function of the vertebral column is maintained to achieve this goal.

  17. Presence of viruses in wild eels Anguilla anguilla L, from the Albufera Lake (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bandín, I; Souto, S; Cutrín, J M; López-Vázquez, C; Olveira, J G; Esteve, C; Alcaide, E; Dopazo, C P

    2014-07-01

    A virological analysis was conducted on wild eels from the Albufera Lake (Spain). A total of 179 individuals at different growth stages were collected in two different surveys (2004 and 2008). Presence of anguillid herpesvirus (AngHV-1), aquabirnavirus and betanodavirus was confirmed by PCR procedures in both surveys, although the number of detections was clearly higher in 2008 (83% of the eels analysed resulted positive for virus presence). AngHV-1 was the viral agent most frequently detected, followed by aquabirnaviruses. Betanodaviruses were detected by the first time in wild eels, and although the detections were only made by nested PCR, high percentage of positives were achieved. In addition, in 2008, seven aquabirnaviruses were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis performed using partial sequences of both genomic segments of aquabirnaviruses indicated that the seven isolates could be typed as WB (genogroup I) on the basis of segment A sequences, but when segment B was used six of them clustered with C1 strain (genogroup V) and one was typed as Ab (genogroup II). These results indicate natural reassortment between different strains of aquabirnaviruses in the eels. Although betanodaviruses were not isolated in cell culture, the analysis of the sequence of the nested PCR product indicated that they clustered with SJNNV genotype. The diversity of viral agents and the high level of viral detections suggest that viral infections may play a more prominent role in the decline of the European eel than initially thought.

  18. Phthalate metabolites in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Fourgous, C; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Amilhat, E; Faliex, E; Paris-Palacios, S; Teil, M J; Goutte, A

    2016-11-01

    The levels and fate of phthalate metabolites have been poorly evaluated in fish, despite their potential ecotoxicological impacts. The present study aims to characterize the levels of phthalate metabolites in muscle tissue of yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two coastal Mediterranean lagoons, during three sampling periods. Nine phthalate metabolites were detected in >70% of the samples. Slightly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were detected in March and June compared to October, suggesting possible seasonal variations in environmental release and/or phthalate metabolization process by eels. The large sample size (N=117) made it possible to explore correlations between phthalate metabolites' levels and individual parameters, such as body length, age, body condition and hepatic histo-pathologies. Body length and estimated age poorly correlated with phthalate metabolites, suggesting that eels did not accumulate phthalates during growth, contrary to persistent compounds. Eels presented different grades of hepatic fibrosis and lipidosis. A negative correlation was found between the severity of these pathologies in the liver and the sum of phthalate metabolites levels, supporting the hypothesis that eels with damaged liver are less able to metabolize xenobiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiology and pathology of Anguillicoloides crassus in European eel Anguilla anguilla from the Tagus estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Neto, Ana Filipa; Costa, José Lino; Costa, Maria José; Domingos, Isabel

    2010-02-17

    Infection of the European eel Anguilla anguilla by the swimbladder nematode Anguillicoloides crassus was investigated for the first time at 5 sampling sites in the Tagus estuary (Portugal). A total of 332 yellow eels were examined, revealing a prevalence of 56% and a mean intensity of 3.2 lumen worms per swimbladder. The effect of the host's sex and size on parasitism descriptors was studied. Only total length (TL) was considered a significant determinant, with larger eels harbouring a higher number of nematodes. Eels were parasitized in 4 of the 5 sampling sites, with prevalence values following the salinity gradient along the Tagus estuary. No signs of the nematode were observed in the most saline site. Variations in the intensity of infection were only apparent when a large geographic scale including a wide temperature range was considered. Although 68% of the analysed eels showed pathological damage to the swimbladder caused by the parasite, injuries were relatively reduced in comparison with other studies. No effect of the infection on the condition of the body and on liver condition was detected. However, considerable spleen enlargement was observed with increasing parasite load, which could be related to the bloodsucking activity of this nematode.

  20. Enhancement and management of eel fisheries affected by hydroelectric dams in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boubee, J.; Chisnall, B.; Watene, E.; Williams, E.; Roper, D.; Haro, A.

    2003-01-01

    Two freshwater anguillid eel species, Anguilla australis and A. dieffenbachia, form the basis of important traditional, recreational, and commercial fisheries in New Zealand. These fisheries have been affected by the damming of many of the major waterways for hydroelectric generation. To create fisheries in reservoirs that would be otherwise inaccessible, elvers have been transferred from the base of dams into habitats upstream. Operations in three catchments: the Patea River (Lake Rotorangi), Waikato River (eight reservoirs notably the two lowermost, lakes Karapiro and Arapuni), and Rangitaiki River (lakes Matahina and Aniwhenua) are discussed. In all reservoirs, the transfers have successfully established fishable populations within six years of the first transfers and, in Lake Arapuni eels have reached the marketable size of 220 g in less than four years. In comparison, it typically takes from 13 to 17 years before eel populations are fishable in the lower Waikato River where direct access to the sea is available. Telemetry and monitoring at the screens and tailraces of several power stations have been used to determine migration timing, triggers, and pathways of mature eels. Successful downstream transfer of mature migrating adults has been achieved by spillway opening and netting in headraces during rain events in autumn, but means of preventing eels from impinging and entraining at the intakes are still required. An integrated, catchment-wide management system will be required to ensure sustainability of the fisheries. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2003.

  1. Metabolic effects of kraft mill effluents on the eel Anguilla anguilla L

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, M.A.; Pires, F.; Hall, A. )

    1990-08-01

    Yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) with an average weight of 60 g were used in this experiment. The fish were caught in June/July at the Aveiro Lagoon on the Portuguese West Coast, transported to the Department of Biology, Aveiro University, and kept in aerated aquaria for 1 week before the experiment started. The eels were then exposed for 1 and 3 weeks to 75 and 50% of the kraft pulp mill effluent. The eels exposed to the kraft pulp mill effluent developed an increase in red blood cell number per cubic millimeter and several biochemical changes, such as an increase in plasma lactate and sodium and a decrease in plasma pyruvate and potassium. Histological examination of the experimental eels exposed to the 50% kraft pulp mill effluent revealed deep alteration of the tissue structure, such as disruption of the skin and edematous hypertrophy of covering epithelial cells in secondary gill lamellae. The kidney had damage of the renal tubules. The liver developed necrosis supported by a significant decrease in GOT and GPT activity. The spleen had an increase in blood content as well as in pigment centers. Previous results indicated the kraft pulp mill effluent causes tissue damage and consequent metabolic changes in the eel Anguilla anguilla L.

  2. RAD sequencing highlights polygenic discrimination of habitat ecotypes in the panmictic American eel.

    PubMed

    Pavey, Scott A; Gaudin, Jérémy; Normandeau, Eric; Dionne, Mélanie; Castonguay, Martin; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-06-15

    The two primary ways that species respond to heterogeneous environments is through local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. The American eel (Anguilla rostrata) presents a paradox; despite inhabiting drastically different environments [1], the species is panmictic [2, 3]. Spawning takes place only in the southern Sargasso Sea in the Atlantic Ocean [1]. Then, the planktonic larvae (leptocephali) disperse to rearing locations from Cuba to Greenland, and juveniles colonize either freshwater or brackish/saltwater habitats, where they spend 3-25 years before returning to the Sargasso Sea to spawn as a panmictic species. Depending on rearing habitat, individuals exhibit drastically different ecotypes [4-6]. In particular, individuals rearing in freshwater tend to grow slowly and mature older and are more likely to be female in comparison to individuals that rear in brackish/saltwater [4, 6]. The hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity alone can account for all of the differences was not supported by three independent controlled experiments [7-10]. Here, we present a genome-wide association study that demonstrates a polygenic basis that discriminates these habitat-specific ecotypes belonging to the same panmictic population. We found that 331 co-varying loci out of 42,424 initially considered were associated with the divergent ecotypes, allowing a reclassification of 89.6%. These 331 SNPs are associated with 101 genes that represent vascular and morphological development, calcium ion regulation, growth and transcription factors, and olfactory receptors. Our results are consistent with divergent natural selection of phenotypes and/or genotype-dependent habitat choice by individuals that results in these genetic differences between habitats, occurring every generation anew in this panmictic species.

  3. Superconducting silver brazing alloy (silver solder).

    PubMed

    Thompson, J R; Thomson, J O

    1978-10-01

    A superconducting transition has been observed in a type BAg-3 silver brazing alloy (silver solder) with T(c)=96.(6) mK and H(c)=4.7 Oe. The associated diamagnetism indicates that approximately 1/3 of the sample volume displays the Meissner effect. This property dictates caution in its use at very low temperatures, particularly near sensitive magnetic devices such as ac and SQUID magnetometers.

  4. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.

    2003-06-24

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  5. Regional variation in energy storage strategies in American glass eels from Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Mélanie; Bernatchez, Louis; Tremblay, Réjean; Audet, Céline

    2015-10-01

    Energy status was analyzed in glass eels captured during two early waves of arrival at the mouths of the Mersey River, Nova Scotia, Canada (MR), and Grande-Rivière-Blanche, Québec, Canada (GRB), and according to their salinity preference (freshwater, brackish, or saltwater). Glass eels captured in the GRB estuary were larger, more pigmented, and exhibited higher whole-body glycogen, phospholipid, and sterol and wax ester contents. Those from MR had a higher condition index and a higher whole-body triacylglycerol content, suggesting different patterns of storage and/or use of energy reserves. Within a river, a delay of two weeks in estuarine arrival was characterized by significantly lower energy reserves. No differences in energy storage were observed according to salinity preference. Thus, the results revealed the occurrence of different energy storage strategies according to glass eel migration distance and duration, but not according to salinity preference.

  6. [Electrical activity of the brain of the eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) subjected to hypoxia and hypercapnia].

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, L; Mabin, D; Belaud, A; Peyraud, C

    1977-01-01

    The effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on the electric activity of cerebral vesicles have been studied in 48 unrestrained eels placed in water in a soundproof location. 1. Hypoxia (PwO2 less than 5 torr) was well endured for 8 hours after which sharp bursts appeared, rapidly followed by cerebral death. 2. Hypercapnia (PwCO2 congruent to 14 torr) gave an amplitude decrease in cerebral activity beginning with the first hour, and after 8 hours there was an appearance of slow waves which progressively invaded the recording while the latency of average VER increased. 3. The large resistance of eels to hypoxia, is discussed in relation to the importance of anaerobic glycolysis in fish. The effects of hypercapnia on cerebral electric activity in eels are comparable to those observed in mammals and may be due to metabolic and electrolytic modification in CRL and in nervous cells.

  7. Direct observations of American eels migrating across the continental shelf to the Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Castonguay, Martin; Shan, Shiliang; Benchetrit, José; Dodson, Julian J

    2015-10-27

    Since inferring spawning areas from larval distributions in the Sargasso Sea a century ago, the oceanic migration of adult American eels has remained a mystery. No adult eel has ever been observed migrating in the open ocean or in the spawning area. Here, we track movements of maturing eels equipped with pop-up satellite archival tags from the Scotian Shelf (Canada) into the open ocean, with one individual migrating 2,400 km to the northern limit of the spawning site in the Sargasso Sea. The reconstructed routes suggest a migration in two phases: one over the continental shelf and along its edge in shallow waters; the second in deeper waters straight south towards the spawning area. This study is the first direct evidence of adult Anguilla migrating to the Sargasso Sea and represents an important step forward in the understanding of routes and migratory cues.

  8. Direct observations of American eels migrating across the continental shelf to the Sargasso Sea

    PubMed Central

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Castonguay, Martin; Shan, Shiliang; Benchetrit, José; Dodson, Julian J.

    2015-01-01

    Since inferring spawning areas from larval distributions in the Sargasso Sea a century ago, the oceanic migration of adult American eels has remained a mystery. No adult eel has ever been observed migrating in the open ocean or in the spawning area. Here, we track movements of maturing eels equipped with pop-up satellite archival tags from the Scotian Shelf (Canada) into the open ocean, with one individual migrating 2,400 km to the northern limit of the spawning site in the Sargasso Sea. The reconstructed routes suggest a migration in two phases: one over the continental shelf and along its edge in shallow waters; the second in deeper waters straight south towards the spawning area. This study is the first direct evidence of adult Anguilla migrating to the Sargasso Sea and represents an important step forward in the understanding of routes and migratory cues. PMID:26505325

  9. PAH Metabolites in Bile of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Wariaghli, Fatima; Kammann, Ulrike; Hanel, Reinhold; Yahyaoui, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Environmental pollution of fish with organic contaminants is a topic of rising attention in Morocco. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are prominent organic contaminants which are rapidly metabolized in fish. Their metabolites are accumulated in the bile fluid and can be used to assess PAH exposure. The two PAH metabolites 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were quantified in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two Moroccan river systems by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Mean values ranged from 52 to 210 ng/mL 1-hydroxypyrene and from 61 to 73 ng/mL 1-hydroxyphenanthrene. The overall concentrations of PAH metabolites in eel from Morocco appeared moderate compared to eel from European rivers and coastal sites. The present study provides first information on concentrations of PAH metabolites in fish from Morocco.

  10. Data on the characterization of follicle-stimulating hormone monoclonal antibodies and localization in Japanese eel pituitary.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Jung; Park, Chae-Won; Byambaragchaa, Munkhzaya; Kim, Shin-Kwon; Lee, Bae-Ik; Hwang, Hyung-Kyu; Myeong, Jeong-In; Hong, Sun-Mee; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Min, Kwan-Sik

    2016-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rec-FSH) from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica; rec-FSH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-NTA Sepharose column chromatography. In support of our recent publication, "Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica" [1], it was important to characterize the specificity of eel follicle-stimulating hormone antibodies. Here, the production and ELISA system of these monoclonal antibodies are presented. The affinity-purified monoclonal antibodies specifically detected eel rec-FSH in ELISA and on western blots of rec-FSH produced from CHO cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that FSH staining was specifically localized in the eel pituitary.

  11. Spawning Sites of the Japanese Eel in Relation to Oceanographic Structure and the West Mariana Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Jun; Watanabe, Shun; Miller, Michael J.; Mochioka, Noritaka; Otake, Tsuguo; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150–180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front), longitude (seamount ridge), and depth (top of the thermocline) to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning. PMID:24551155

  12. Structural composition and anticoagulant activity of dermatan sulfate from the skin of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus (L.).

    PubMed

    Souza, Maisa L S; Dellias, João M M; Melo, Fábio R; Silva, Luiz-Claudio F

    2007-07-01

    We determined the disaccharide composition of dermatan sulfate (DS) purified from the skin of the electric eel Electrophorus electricus. DS obtained from the electric eel was composed of non-sulfated, mono-sulfated disaccharides bearing esterified sulfate groups at positions C-4 or C-6 of N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc), and disulfated disaccharides bearing esterified sulfate groups at positions C-2 of the uronic acid and at position C-4 or C-6 of GalNAc. The anticoagulant, antithrombotic and bleeding effects of electric eel skin DS were compared to those of porcine DS and also to those described previously for DS purified from skin of eel, Anguilla japonica. DS from electric eel is a potent anticoagulant due to a high heparin co-factor II (HC II) activity. The electric eel DS has a higher potency to prevent thrombus formation on an experimental model and a lower bleeding effect in rats than the porcine DS. Interestingly, it was recently demonstrated that DS obtained from skin of the eel Anguilla japonica, which possesses a disaccharide composition very similar to that of electric eel skin DS described here, did not show anticoagulant activity. Thus, the anticoagulant activity of electric eel skin DS is not merely a consequence of its charge density. We speculate that the differences among the anticoagulant activities of these three DS may be related to different arrangements of the disulfated disaccharide domain for binding to HC II within their polysaccharide chains and that it may be more efficiently arranged along the carbohydrate chain in electric eel skin DS than in the two other types of DS.

  13. Impacts of Interannual Ocean Circulation Variability on Japanese Eel Larval Migration in the Western North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Sheng, Jinyu; Ohashi, Kyoko; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines-Taiwan Oscillation (PTO). This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2). Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels ("v-eels") can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years.

  14. Metallothionein as bioindicator of freshwater metal pollution: European eel and brown trout.

    PubMed

    Linde, A R; Sánchez-Galán, S; Vallés-Mota, P; García-Vázquez, E

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of metallothionein (MT) as a bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in brown trout and European eel in the field situation. River Ferrerias (North Spain) provided a good gradient of metal contamination: concentrations of heavy metals were elevated both in water and in sediments at the downstream (polluted) site and were low at the upstream (unpolluted) site. MT levels of brown trout exhibited statistically significant differences between sites. Although European eel at the polluted site had a higher MT content, differences were not significant. It is concluded that MT is a good bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in brown trout.

  15. Helminths from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard in Japan, with a description of Acanthocephalus longiacanthus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae).

    PubMed

    Katahira, Hirotaka; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2014-05-01

    Five helminths, including a new echinorhynchid acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus longiacanthus n. sp., are described based on specimens from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard caught in a small river, western Japan. The new acanthocephalan is distinguished from the other congeners in terms of hook arrangement (8-9 longitudinal rows with 5-6 hooks per row) on proboscis, maximum length of hook blade (81-95 μm in male, 150-190 μm in female), lemnisci being longer than proboscis receptacle, and small-sized eggs (80-83 μm). Two monogeneans, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae (Yin & Sproston, 1948) and P. bini (Kikuchi, 1929), and two acanthocephalans, Acanthocephalus gotoi Van Cleave, 1925 and Southwellina hispida (Van Cleave, 1925), were also found; this new material is described. The monogeneans are notorious as invasive parasites spreading worldwide via anthropogenic transportations of anguillid eels, but in Japanese waters A. marmorata appears to be an indigenous host for these parasites. Anguilla marmorata is a new host record for the acanthocephalans A. gotoi and S. hispida.

  16. The silver ions contribution into the cytotoxic activity of silver and silver halides nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, A. I.; Zherebin, P. M.; Gusev, A. A.; Kudrinskiy, A. A.; Krutyakov, Y. A.

    2015-11-01

    The biocidal action of silver nanoparticles capped with sodium citrate and silver halides nanoparticles capped with non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene(20)sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80®) against yeast cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae was compared to the effect produced by silver nitrate and studied through the measurement of cell loss and kinetics of K+ efflux from the cells. The cytotoxicity of the obtained colloids was strongly correlated with silver ion content in the dispersions. The results clearly indicated that silver and silver halides nanoparticles destroyed yeast cells through the intermediate producing of silver ions either by dissolving of salts or by oxidation of silver.

  17. Cucullanus egyptae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cucullanidae) infecting the European eel Anguilla anguilla in Egypt. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Morsy, Kareem; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mohammed, Sanna

    2014-09-01

    A total of 80 specimens of the European eel Anguilla anguilla were collected during the period from February 2013 to March 2014 at the coast of the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea, Egypt). A new species of parasitic nematodes was recovered and described as Cucullanus egyptae. It was found in the eel's intestine with a prevalence of 68.7%. The morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worms had a wide cephalic extremity with a slit-like oral aperture being surrounded by a cuticular ring and delimited internally by a row of small teeth in addition to four sub-median cephalic papillae and one pair of lateral amphids. Body measurements showed that the male worms were smaller than females measuring 7.5-8.9 mm (8.3 ± 0.2) in length and 1.6-1.9 mm (1.8 ± 0.1) in width. Females measured 12.9-13.5 mm (13.1 ± 0.2) in length and 2.9-3.2 mm (3.1 ± 0.1) in width. The posterior end of the males is provided with ten pairs of caudal papillae and two long spicules which are slightly sclerotized, equal in size measuring 0.59-0.65 mm (0.62 ± 0.01) in length. Comparing the present worms with other species of the genus Cucullanus, several similarities were observed. However, peculiar new characteristics such as the precloacal sucker (especially the spicula length), the arrangement and the distribution of the post-cloacal papillae, and the position of the excretory pore make it reasonable to describe a new species. The sequence data of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) obtained from the present nematode supported its taxonomic position within the genus Cucullanus. The new species is closely related to the first clade of Spirurina and even more closely related to Cucullanus dodsworthi as a sister taxon with a high percentage of identity. The sequence of the recorded SSU rDNA of this parasite is deposited in the GenBank with the accession no. KF681520. It is proposed to name the new species C. egyptae as

  18. The Silver Bullet Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehne, George C.

    1995-01-01

    Many colleges address complex problems with a single "silver bullet" strategy. Because value shifts according to the consumer's situation or goal, private colleges should become more aware of their "situational value" and exploit it. This requires an understanding of how students choose colleges. In contrast, popular silver bullets target…

  19. Silver alloy compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Berhard, M.; Sivertsen, J.T.

    1990-11-27

    This patent describes a silver alloy composition. It comprises essentially all of the following parts by weight: about 89-93.5% silver, about 0.01-2% silicon, about 0.001-2% boron, about 0.5-5% zinc, about 0.5-6% copper, about 0.25-2% tin, and about 0.01-1.25% indium.

  20. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, George A.

    1986-01-01

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  1. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, G.A.

    1985-03-05

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  2. Silver(II) Oxide or Silver(I,III) Oxide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudela, David

    2008-01-01

    The often called silver peroxide and silver(II) oxide, AgO or Ag[subscript 2]O[subscript 2], is actually a mixed oxidation state silver(I,III) oxide. A thermochemical cycle, with lattice energies calculated within the "volume-based" thermodynamic approach, explain why the silver(I,III) oxide is more stable than the hypothetical silver(II) oxide.…

  3. Silver(II) Oxide or Silver(I,III) Oxide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudela, David

    2008-01-01

    The often called silver peroxide and silver(II) oxide, AgO or Ag[subscript 2]O[subscript 2], is actually a mixed oxidation state silver(I,III) oxide. A thermochemical cycle, with lattice energies calculated within the "volume-based" thermodynamic approach, explain why the silver(I,III) oxide is more stable than the hypothetical silver(II) oxide.…

  4. EELS study of Fe- or Co-doped titania nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Ohwada, Megumi; Kimoto, Koji; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Ti0.6Fe0.4O2 and Ti0.8Co0.2O2 nanosheets are Fe- and Co-doped titanium oxides, respectively, and they are synthesized by the exfoliation of lepidocrocite-type layered titanates. We have investigated these nanosheets by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) using a monochromated transmission electron microscope. The energy-loss near-edge structures (ELNESs) of Fe-L and Co-L indicate that Fe(3+) and Co(2+) ions are substituted in the octahedral sites in each nanosheet. The Ti-L edges of Ti0.6Fe0.4O2 and Ti0.8Co0.2O2 nanosheets correspond to the octahedral coordination of Ti(4+) and oxygen atoms as well as an undoped titania nanosheet (Ti0.87O2). On the other hand, the electron transitions from 2p3/2 to 3d eg in Ti-L3 regions are different in each nanosheet. We have also investigated the electron-beam-induced damage of Ti0.6Fe0.4O2 and Ti0.8Co0.2O2 nanosheets. The results indicated that Fe(3+) ions in the Ti0.6Fe0.4O2 nanosheets were selectively reduced to Fe(2+) ions in the reduction process by electron irradiation. In contrast, the chemical shift of the Ti-L edge of the Ti0.8Co0.2O2 nanosheets indicated that Ti(4+) ions were reduced. These results suggest that the substitution of 3d metals in titania nanosheets affects their crystal and electronic structures and material properties such as their long-range atomic configuration and reduction mechanism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    Overview -- Silver is one of the eight precious, or noble, metals; the others are gold and the six platinum-group metals (PGM). World mine production in 2001 was 18,700 metric tons (t) and came from mines in 60 countries; the 10 leading producing countries accounted for 86 percent of the total. The largest producer was Mexico, followed by Peru, Australia, and the United States. About 25 percent of the silver mined in the world in 2001 came from silver ores; 15 percent, from gold ores and the remaining 60 percent, from copper, lead, and zinc ores. In the United States, 14 percent of the silver mined in 2001 came from silver ores; 39 percent, from gold ores; 10 percent, from copper and copper-molybdenum ores; and 37 percent, from lead, zinc, and lead-zinc ores. The precious metal ores (gold and silver) came from 30 lode mines and 10 placer mines; the base-metal ores (copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc) came from 24 lode mines. Placer mines yielded less than 1 percent of the national silver production. Silver was mined in 12 States, of which Nevada was by far the largest producer; it accounted for nearly one-third of the national total. The production of silver at domestic mines generated employment for about 1,100 mine and mill workers. The value of mined domestic silver was estimated to be $290 million. Of the nearly 27,000 t of world silver that was fabricated in 2001, about one-third went into jewelry and silverware, one-fourth into the light-sensitive compounds used in photography, and nearly all the remainder went for industrial uses, of which there were 7 substantial uses and many other small-volume uses. By comparison, 85 percent of the silver used in the United States went to photography and industrial uses, 8 percent to jewelry and silverware, and 7 percent to coins and medals. The United States was the largest consumer of silver followed by India, Japan, and Italy; the 13 largest consuming countries accounted for nearly 90 percent of the world total. In the

  6. Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Lasse; Alfredsson, Hanna; Hansen, Michael M; Als, Thomas D; Nielsen, Torkel G; Munk, Peter; Aarestrup, Kim; Maes, Gregory E; Sparholt, Henrik; Petersen, Michael I; Bachler, Mirjam; Castonguay, Martin

    2010-12-23

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However, the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed that even the smallest larvae feed on a striking variety of plankton organisms, and that gelatinous zooplankton is of fundamental dietary importance. Hence, the specific plankton composition seems essential for eel larval feeding and growth, suggesting a linkage between eel survival and regional plankton productivity. These novel insights into the prey of Atlantic eels may furthermore facilitate eel larval rearing in aquaculture, which ultimately may replace the unsustainable use of wild-caught glass eels.

  7. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States.

    PubMed

    Cole, Rebecca A; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G; Griffin, Kathryn M

    2014-04-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer-2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  8. A combination mode of climate variability responsible for extremely poor recruitment of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Fu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Han, Yu-San

    2017-03-16

    Satellite data and assimilation products are used to investigate fluctuations in the catch of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in eastern Asian countries. It has been reported that the salinity front has extended farther south, which has shifted the eel's spawning grounds to a lower latitude, resulting in smaller eel catches in 1983, 1992, and 1998. This study demonstrates that interannual variability in the eel catch is strongly correlated with the combination mode (C-mode), but not with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. These eels continue to spawn within the North Equatorial Current (NEC), but the salinity front shifts south during a canonical El Niño. On the other hand, the spawning grounds accompanied by the salinity front extend farther south during the C-mode of climate variability, and eel larvae fail to join the nursery in the NEC, resulting in extremely poor recruitment in East Asia. We propose an appropriate sea surface temperature index to project Japanese eel larval catch.

  9. Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Riemann, Lasse; Alfredsson, Hanna; Hansen, Michael M.; Als, Thomas D.; Nielsen, Torkel G.; Munk, Peter; Aarestrup, Kim; Maes, Gregory E.; Sparholt, Henrik; Petersen, Michael I.; Bachler, Mirjam; Castonguay, Martin

    2010-01-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However, the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed that even the smallest larvae feed on a striking variety of plankton organisms, and that gelatinous zooplankton is of fundamental dietary importance. Hence, the specific plankton composition seems essential for eel larval feeding and growth, suggesting a linkage between eel survival and regional plankton productivity. These novel insights into the prey of Atlantic eels may furthermore facilitate eel larval rearing in aquaculture, which ultimately may replace the unsustainable use of wild-caught glass eels. PMID:20573615

  10. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  11. The dynamical impact of mesoscale eddies on migration of Japanese eel larvae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explore the dynamical role of mesoscale eddies on fish larvae migration using the example of Subtropical Counter Current eddies and the migration of Japanese eel larvae in the western North Pacific Ocean. An idealized experiment is conducted to isolate the effects of eddies, and use a three-dimensional particle-tracking method to simulate virtual eel larvae (v-larvae) migration, including both horizontal and vertical swimming behaviors. The impact of eddies strongly depends on the swimming speed of v-larvae relative to the eddy speed. Eddies accelerate the movement of v-larvae that swim slower than the propagation speed of the eddy, whereas faster-swimming v-larvae are dragged by eddies. A modified stream function that incorporates biological swimming ability explains the non-uniform trapping of v-larvae in mesoscale eddies. A high swimming speed and/or a small eddy rotation speed results in a weak trapping capacity. Simulations of v-larvae migration in realistic cases of eddy fields indicate that the abundance of eddies significantly affects the duration of larval migration, with the effects being largely dependent on the larvae swimming speed. We noted a negative relationship between the observed annual eel recruitment index in Taiwan and the eddy index subtropical countercurrent (STCC) region, which suggests a potentially important role of mesoscale eddies in eel larvae migration.

  12. Replicating phages in the epidermal mucosa of the eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    PubMed Central

    Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Amaro, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we used the eel (Anguilla anguilla) as an animal model to test the hypothesis of Barr et al. (2013a,b) about the putative role of the epidermal mucosa as a phage enrichment layer. To this end, we analyzed the microbial content of the skin mucus of wild and farmed eels by using a metagenomic approach. We found a great abundance of replicating phage genomes (concatemers) in all the samples. They were assembled in four complete genomes of three Myovirus and one Podovirus. We also found evidences that ΦKZ and Podovirus phages could be part of the resident microbiota associated to the eel mucosal surface and persist on them over the time. Moreover, the viral abundance estimated by epiflorescent counts and by metagenomic recruitment from eel mucosa was higher than that of the surrounding water. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that claims a possible role of phages in the animal mucus as agents controlling bacterial populations, including pathogenic species, providing a kind of innate immunity. PMID:25688234

  13. Replicating phages in the epidermal mucosa of the eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Amaro, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we used the eel (Anguilla anguilla) as an animal model to test the hypothesis of Barr et al. (2013a,b) about the putative role of the epidermal mucosa as a phage enrichment layer. To this end, we analyzed the microbial content of the skin mucus of wild and farmed eels by using a metagenomic approach. We found a great abundance of replicating phage genomes (concatemers) in all the samples. They were assembled in four complete genomes of three Myovirus and one Podovirus. We also found evidences that ΦKZ and Podovirus phages could be part of the resident microbiota associated to the eel mucosal surface and persist on them over the time. Moreover, the viral abundance estimated by epiflorescent counts and by metagenomic recruitment from eel mucosa was higher than that of the surrounding water. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that claims a possible role of phages in the animal mucus as agents controlling bacterial populations, including pathogenic species, providing a kind of innate immunity.

  14. PAH metabolites in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) as indicators of PAH exposure: different methodological approaches.

    PubMed

    Szlinder-Richert, J; Nermer, T; Szatkowska, U

    2014-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants of aquatic environments derived from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. In fish, as in other vertebrates, PAHs are rapidly metabolized. However, the metabolites have been proven to induce multiple deleterious effects in fish. The concentrations of biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in eels (Anguilla anguilla) caught in Polish waters were measured. The main objectives of the study were to provide information on the levels of PAH metabolites in eels inhabiting Polish waters and to discuss which methodological approach is appropriate for assessing PAH exposure in aquatic ecosystems. The non-normalized median concentration of 1-OH Pyr and 1-OH Phe measured in eels from Polish waters ranged from 11 to 1642 ng ml(-1) bile and from 83 to 929 ng ml(-1) bile, respectively, depending on the sampling site. Data normalization in relation to bile pigment content reduced inter-site variation, and the normalized median concentrations of 1-OH Pyr and 1-OH Phe ranged from 0.44 to 20.24 ng A(-1)380 and from 1.58 to 11.11 ng A(-1)380, respectively. Our study indicated that results were more consistent for the two species sampled in the same area (eel examined in the current study and flounder examined in our previous study) when the fluorescence response of diluted bile samples was compared than when concentrations of 1-OH Pyr determined with the mean of HPLC were compared.

  15. Diel and seasonal movements by adult Sacramento pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus grandis) in the Eel River, northwestern California

    Treesearch

    Bret C. Harvey; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    1999-01-01

    Abstract - In late summer and fall, radio-tagged adult Sacramento pike-minnow (Ptychocheilus grandis) at three sites in the Eel River of northwestern California moved more at night than during the day. Fish moved up to 535 m at night and returned to their original positions the following morning. Adult Sacramento pikeminnow at all sites occupied only pools during the...

  16. The dynamical impact of mesoscale eddies on migration of Japanese eel larvae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explore the dynamical role of mesoscale eddies on fish larvae migration using the example of Subtropical Counter Current eddies and the migration of Japanese eel larvae in the western North Pacific Ocean. An idealized experiment is conducted to isolate the effects of eddies, and use a three-dimensional particle-tracking method to simulate virtual eel larvae (v-larvae) migration, including both horizontal and vertical swimming behaviors. The impact of eddies strongly depends on the swimming speed of v-larvae relative to the eddy speed. Eddies accelerate the movement of v-larvae that swim slower than the propagation speed of the eddy, whereas faster-swimming v-larvae are dragged by eddies. A modified stream function that incorporates biological swimming ability explains the non-uniform trapping of v-larvae in mesoscale eddies. A high swimming speed and/or a small eddy rotation speed results in a weak trapping capacity. Simulations of v-larvae migration in realistic cases of eddy fields indicate that the abundance of eddies significantly affects the duration of larval migration, with the effects being largely dependent on the larvae swimming speed. We noted a negative relationship between the observed annual eel recruitment index in Taiwan and the eddy index subtropical countercurrent (STCC) region, which suggests a potentially important role of mesoscale eddies in eel larvae migration. PMID:28253293

  17. Effects of salinity change on two superoxide dismutases (SODs) in juvenile marbled eel Anguilla marmorata

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most important factors that affect the fish growth and survival. Superoxide dismutases (SODs), as the primary antioxidant enzymes, play a first role in the process of preventing oxidative stress caused by excessive superoxide anion (O\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${}_{2}^{-}$\\end{document}2−) in living organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of salinity on the gene expressions as well as enzymatic activities of MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD in gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle tissues of the marbled eel Anguilla marmorata. We found that the liver might possess stronger redox capacity compared with other tissues. Furthermore, the gene expressions and enzymatic activities of SODs in juvenile marbled eels could be effectively enhanced by low salinity but inhibited when the salinity was higher than the body tolerance. Our findings indicated that MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD played vital roles in the adaptation of marbled eels to salinity variation, which contributed to the elucidation of physiological adaptation and regulatory mechanism of SODs in eels. PMID:27547518

  18. Detection of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2 in eels and oysters by PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S S; Melanson, D M; Biosca, E G; Oliver, J D

    1996-04-01

    DNA extraction procedures and PCR conditions to detect Vibrio vulnificus cells naturally occurring in oysters were developed. In addition, PCR amplification of V. vulnificus from oysters seeded with biotype 1 cells was demonstrated. By the methods described, V. vulnificus cells on a medium (colistin-polymyxin B-cellobiose agar) selective for this pathogen were detectable in oysters harvested in January and March, containing no culturable cells (< 67 CFU/g), as well as in oysters harvested in May and June, containing culturable cells. It was possible to complete DNA extraction, PCR, and gel electrophoresis within 10 h by using the protocol described for oysters. V. vulnificus biotype 2 cells were also detected in eel tissues that had been infected with this strain and subsequently preserved in formalin. The protocol used for detection of V. vulnificus cells in eels required less than 5 h to complete. Optimum MgCl2 concentrations for the PCR of V. vulnificus from oysters and eels were different, although the same primer pair was used for both. This is the first report on the detection of cells of V. vulnificus naturally present in shellfish and represents a potentially powerful method for monitoring this important human and eel pathogen.

  19. Sub-decadal turbidite frequency during the early Holocene: Eel Fan, offshore northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary L.; Sumner, Esther J; Barnes, Philip M; Lundsten, Eve M.; Anderson, Krystle; Gwiazda, Roberto; Edwards, Brian D.; Caress, David W

    2014-01-01

    Remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicle technologies were used to image and sample exceptional deep sea outcrops where an ∼100-m-thick section of turbidite beds is exposed on the headwalls of two giant submarine scours on Eel submarine fan, offshore northern California (USA). These outcrops provide a rare opportunity to connect young deep-sea turbidites with their feeder system. 14C measurements reveal that from 12.8 ka to 7.9 ka, one turbidite was being emplaced on average every 7 yr. This emplacement rate is two to three orders of magnitude higher than observed for turbidites elsewhere along the Pacific margin of North America. The turbidites contain abundant wood and shallow-dwelling foraminifera, demonstrating an efficient connection between the Eel River source and the Eel Fan sink. Turbidite recurrence intervals diminish fivefold to ∼36 yr from 7.9 ka onward, reflecting sea-level rise and re-routing of Eel River sediments.

  20. Silicone passive equilibrium samplers as 'chemometers' in eels and sediments of a Swedish lake.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; McLachlan, Michael S; Wickström, Håkan; Gilbert, Dorothea; MacLeod, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Passive equilibrium samplers deployed in two or more media of a system and allowed to come to equilibrium can be viewed as 'chemometers' that reflect the difference in chemical activities of contaminants between the media. We applied silicone-based equilibrium samplers to measure relative chemical activities of seven 'indicator' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene in eels and sediments from a Swedish lake. Chemical concentrations in eels and sediments were also measured using exhaustive extraction methods. Lipid-normalized concentrations in eels were higher than organic carbon-normalized concentrations in sediments, with biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) of five PCBs ranging from 2.7 to 12.7. In contrast, chemical activities of the same pollutants inferred by passive sampling were 3.5 to 31.3 times lower in eels than in sediments. The apparent contradiction between BSAFs and activity ratios is consistent with the sorptive capacity of lipids exceeding that of sediment organic carbon from this ecosystem by up to 50-fold. Factors that may contribute to the elevated activity in sediments are discussed, including slower response of sediments than water to reduced emissions, sediment diagenesis and sorption to phytoplankton. The 'chemometer' approach has the potential to become a powerful tool to study the thermodynamic controls on persistent organic chemicals in the environment and should be extended to other environmental compartments.

  1. The Eel River, northwestern California; high sediment yields from a dynamic landscape

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle

    1990-01-01

    The Eel River draining the Coast Range of northwestern California has the highest recorded average suspended sediment yield per drainage area of any river of its size or larger unaffected by volcanic eruptions or active glaciers in the conterminous United States (1,720 t/km 2 yr from 9,390 km 2 ; Brown and Ritter, 1971).

  2. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens G1: A Potential Antagonistic Bacterium against Eel-Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Wei, Ruopeng; Diong, Marek; Lu, Liqun

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the use of probiotics is an alternative to control marine aeromonas. However, few probiotics are available against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in eels. In the present study, a potential antagonistic strain G1 against the eel-pathogenic A. hydrophila was isolated from sediment underlying brackish water. Its extracellular products with antibacterial activities were shown to be stable under wide range of pH, temperature, and proteinase K. It was initially identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens using API identification kits and confirmed to be B. amyloliquefaciens strain (GenBank accession number DQ422953) by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, it was shown to be safe for mammalians, had a wide anti-A. hydrophila spectrum, and exhibited significant effects on inhibiting the growth of the eel-pathogenic A. hydrophila both in vitro and in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a promising antagonistic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain from brackish water sediment against eel-pathogenic A. hydrophila. PMID:21754944

  3. Teaching Population Growth Using Cultures of Vinegar Eels, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is presented that follows the population growth of the common vinegar eel, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda), in a microcosm using a simple culture medium. It lends itself to an exercise in a single semester course. (Contains 4 figures.)

  4. Response of seaward-migrating European eel (Anguilla anguilla) to manipulated flow fields.

    PubMed

    Piper, Adam T; Manes, Costantino; Siniscalchi, Fabio; Marion, Andrea; Wright, Rosalind M; Kemp, Paul S

    2015-07-22

    Anthropogenic structures (e.g. weirs and dams) fragment river networks and restrict the movement of migratory fish. Poor understanding of behavioural response to hydrodynamic cues at structures currently limits the development of effective barrier mitigation measures. This study aimed to assess the effect of flow constriction and associated flow patterns on eel behaviour during downstream migration. In a field experiment, we tracked the movements of 40 tagged adult European eels (Anguilla anguilla) through the forebay of a redundant hydropower intake under two manipulated hydrodynamic treatments. Interrogation of fish trajectories in relation to measured and modeled water velocities provided new insights into behaviour, fundamental for developing passage technologies for this endangered species. Eels rarely followed direct routes through the site. Initially, fish aligned with streamlines near the channel banks and approached the intake semi-passively. A switch to more energetically costly avoidance behaviours occurred on encountering constricted flow, prior to physical contact with structures. Under high water velocity gradients, fish then tended to escape rapidly back upstream, whereas exploratory 'search' behaviour was common when acceleration was low. This study highlights the importance of hydrodynamics in informing eel behaviour. This offers potential to develop behavioural guidance, improve fish passage solutions and enhance traditional physical screening.

  5. To boldly climb: behavioural and cognitive differences in migrating European glass eels.

    PubMed

    Podgorniak, T; Blanchet, S; De Oliveira, E; Daverat, F; Pierron, F

    2016-01-01

    European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish species that received substantial attention as its population has markedly declined in the last three decades. The possible causes of this decline include habitat fragmentation factors such as dams and weirs. In some cases, these obstacles are equipped with fish friendly passage devices that may select young eels according to their climbing behaviour. We tested how individual climbing tendency was related to the event of fishway passage experienced in the field and classified fish climbing profiles as climbing 'leaders', 'followers', 'finishers' and 'no climbers'. Moreover, we analysed the brain transcription level of genes related to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and compared it to climbing profiles. We found that fish from the upstream segments of an impounded river had a higher climbing propensity. Their behaviour was also more repeatable throughout the whole test than the obstacle-naive fish from the downstream segment. Moreover, we found that boldly climbing 'leaders' had lower levels of transcription of synapse-related genes than the climbing 'followers'. These differences could be related to coping styles of fish, where proactive 'leaders' express a routine and risky behaviour, whereas reactive fish need an environmental assessment before exploratory behaviour. Our study showed that differences in climbing propensity exist in glass eels separated by water obstacles. Moreover, eels could adopt climbing different strategies according to the way they deal with environmental stress and to the cognitive abilities they possess.

  6. To boldly climb: behavioural and cognitive differences in migrating European glass eels

    PubMed Central

    Podgorniak, T.; Blanchet, S.; De Oliveira, E.; Daverat, F.; Pierron, F.

    2016-01-01

    European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish species that received substantial attention as its population has markedly declined in the last three decades. The possible causes of this decline include habitat fragmentation factors such as dams and weirs. In some cases, these obstacles are equipped with fish friendly passage devices that may select young eels according to their climbing behaviour. We tested how individual climbing tendency was related to the event of fishway passage experienced in the field and classified fish climbing profiles as climbing ‘leaders’, ‘followers’, ‘finishers’ and ‘no climbers’. Moreover, we analysed the brain transcription level of genes related to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and compared it to climbing profiles. We found that fish from the upstream segments of an impounded river had a higher climbing propensity. Their behaviour was also more repeatable throughout the whole test than the obstacle-naive fish from the downstream segment. Moreover, we found that boldly climbing ‘leaders’ had lower levels of transcription of synapse-related genes than the climbing ‘followers’. These differences could be related to coping styles of fish, where proactive ‘leaders’ express a routine and risky behaviour, whereas reactive fish need an environmental assessment before exploratory behaviour. Our study showed that differences in climbing propensity exist in glass eels separated by water obstacles. Moreover, eels could adopt climbing different strategies according to the way they deal with environmental stress and to the cognitive abilities they possess. PMID:26909192

  7. Response of seaward-migrating European eel (Anguilla anguilla) to manipulated flow fields

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Adam T.; Manes, Costantino; Siniscalchi, Fabio; Marion, Andrea; Wright, Rosalind M.; Kemp, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic structures (e.g. weirs and dams) fragment river networks and restrict the movement of migratory fish. Poor understanding of behavioural response to hydrodynamic cues at structures currently limits the development of effective barrier mitigation measures. This study aimed to assess the effect of flow constriction and associated flow patterns on eel behaviour during downstream migration. In a field experiment, we tracked the movements of 40 tagged adult European eels (Anguilla anguilla) through the forebay of a redundant hydropower intake under two manipulated hydrodynamic treatments. Interrogation of fish trajectories in relation to measured and modelled water velocities provided new insights into behaviour, fundamental for developing passage technologies for this endangered species. Eels rarely followed direct routes through the site. Initially, fish aligned with streamlines near the channel banks and approached the intake semi-passively. A switch to more energetically costly avoidance behaviours occurred on encountering constricted flow, prior to physical contact with structures. Under high water velocity gradients, fish then tended to escape rapidly back upstream, whereas exploratory ‘search’ behaviour was common when acceleration was low. This study highlights the importance of hydrodynamics in informing eel behaviour. This offers potential to develop behavioural guidance, improve fish passage solutions and enhance traditional physical screening. PMID:26136454

  8. Climbing experience in glass eels: A cognitive task or a matter of physical capacities?

    PubMed

    Podgorniak, T; Angelini, A; Blanchet, S; de Oliveira, E; Pierron, F; Daverat, F

    2015-11-01

    The European eel is a panmictic species, whose decline has been recorded since the last 30 years. Among human-induced environmental factors of decline, the impact of water dams during species migration is questioned. Indeed, water impoundments can be a severe obstacle for young eels trying to reach the upstream freshwater zones, even if they are equipped with fish-friendly passes. The passage by such devices could be an important event shaping the outcome of the future life and life history traits of eels. We studied what phenotypic traits were associated with the event of experience of passage by water obstacles. We analyzed specific enzyme activities and/or gene transcription levels in the muscle and brain to test whether the obstacle passage is rather a physical or cognitive task. We found that after a long period of maintenance under homogenous conditions, transcription levels of several genes linked to synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and thyroid activity differed among the field-experience groups. In contrast, muscle gene transcription levels or enzymatic activities did not show any differences among fish groups. We suggest that cognitive processes such as learning and memory acquisition rather than swimming-related metabolic capacities are involved in passage of water obstacles by young eels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impacts of Interannual Ocean Circulation Variability on Japanese Eel Larval Migration in the Western North Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Sheng, Jinyu; Ohashi, Kyoko; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines–Taiwan Oscillation (PTO). This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2). Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels (“v-eels”) can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years. PMID:26642318

  10. Silver as a disinfectant.

    PubMed

    Silvestry-Rodriguez, Nadia; Sicairos-Ruelas, Enue E; Gerba, Charles P; Bright, Kelly R

    2007-01-01

    Silver has been used as an antimicrobial for thousands of years. Over the past several decades, it has been introduced into numerous new venues such as in the treatment of water, in dietary supplements, in medical applications, and to produce antimicrobial coatings and products. Silver is often used as an alternative disinfectant in applications in which the use of traditional disinfectants such as chlorine may result in the formation of toxic by-products or cause corrosion of surfaces. Silver has also been demonstrated to produce a synergistic effect in combination with several other disinfectants. Many mechanisms of the antibacterial effect of silver have been described, but its antiviral and antiprotozoal mechanisms are not well understood. Both microbial tolerance and resistance to silver have been reported; however, the effect of silver has been observed against a wide variety of microorganisms over a period of years. Further research is needed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of silver in these new applications and the effects of its long-term usage.

  11. Characterization of four Mx isoforms in the European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bei; Huang, Wen Shu; Nie, P

    2013-09-01

    Mx protein is known to play an important role in vertebrate immune response to viral infection. In this study, cDNA sequences of four Mx isoforms, designated as MxA, B, C and D were characterized in the European eel, Anguilla anguilla. These sequences contained an open reading frame of 1899, 1896, 1866, 1779 bp, flanked by 95, 53, 138, 69 bp of 5' untranslated region and 389, 241, 136, 124 bp of 3' untranslated region, respectively. A phylogenetic tree constructed with Mx peptide sequences from vertebrates revealed that MxA, C and D in the European eel formed into a clade containing zebrafish MxA and MxB and Mx proteins in other teleosts, whereas MxB in the eel was clustered together with zebrafish MxD, MxG and MxF. The transcription level of all Mx isoforms increased in a poly I:C dose-dependent manner in peripheral blood leukocytes of eels, as revealed by real-time PCR. A further experiment was conducted to reveal the temporal change in expression of these isoforms in various organs/tissues following poly I:C stimulation, and significant increase in expression was observed at various degrees in different organs or in different sampling occasions within the 12 h experimental period. In particular, MxA had the highest level of increase, while MxB had the lowest; and three isoforms, MxA, MxB and MxD had the highest increase in intestine, while the highest increase of MxC expression was observed in liver. These four isoforms of eel Mx are thus expressed differentially, and further work is certainly required to clarify the activity of promoter elements and antiviral activity of these Mx isoforms.

  12. The EEL-1 ubiquitin ligase promotes DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Ross, A J; Li, M; Yu, B; Gao, M X; Derry, W B

    2011-07-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases target a growing number of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, including tumour suppressor p53, caspases, and the Bcl-2 family. The core apoptosis pathway is well conserved between mammals and Caenorhabditis elegans, but the extent to which ubiquitin ligases regulate apoptotic cell death is not known. To investigate the role of E3 ligases in apoptosis, we inhibited 108 of the 165 predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase genes by RNA interference and quantified apoptosis in the C. elegans germline after genotoxic stress. From this screen, we identified the homologous to E6-associated protein C terminus-domain E3 ligase EEL-1 as a positive regulator of apoptosis. Intriguingly, the human homologue of EEL-1, Huwe1/ARF-BP1/Mule/HectH9, has been reported to possess both pro- and anti-apoptotic functions through its ability to stimulate Mcl-1 and p53 degradation, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that eel-1 is required to promote DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis, but does not have a role in physiological germ cell apoptosis or developmental apoptosis in somatic tissue. Furthermore, eel-1 acts in parallel to the p53-like gene cep-1 and intersects the core apoptosis pathway upstream of the Bcl-2/Mcl-1 orthologue ced-9. Although ee1-1 mutants exhibit hypersensitivity to genotoxic stress they do not appear to be defective in DNA repair, suggesting a distinct role for EEL-1 in promoting damage-induced apoptosis in the germline.

  13. Nuclear and membrane progestin receptors in the European eel: Characterization and expression in vivo through spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Vílchez, María C; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Dufour, Sylvie; Asturiano, Juan F; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Pérez, Luz

    2017-05-01

    Characterization of all the progestin receptor genes (PRs) found in the European eel has been performed. There were five membrane PRs (mPRs): mPRα (alpha), mPRAL1 (alpha-like1), mPRAL2 (alpha-like2), mPRγ (gamma), mPRδ (delta) and two nuclear PRs (nPRs or PGRs): pgr1 and pgr2. In silico studies showed that the C and E(F) domains of Pgr are well conserved among vertebrates whereas the A/B domain is not. Phylogeny and synteny analyses suggest that eel duplicated pgr (pgr1 and pgr2) originated from the teleost-specific third whole genome duplication (3R). mPR phylogeny placed three eel mPRs together with the mPRα clade, being termed mPRα, mPRAL1 and mPRAL2, while the other two eel mPRs clustered with mPRγ and mPRδ clades, respectively. The in vivo study showed differential expression patterns along the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. An increase in nPR transcripts was observed in brain (in pgr1) and pituitary (in pgr1 and pgr2) through the spermatogenesis, from the spermatogonia B/spermatocyte stage to the spermiation stage. In the testis, mPRγ, mPRδ and pgr2 transcripts showed the highest levels in testis with A spermatogonia as dominant germ cell, while the highest mPRα, mPRAL1 and mPRAL2 transcripts were observed in testis from spermiating males, where the dominant germ cell were spermatozoa. Further studies should elucidate the role of both nuclear and membrane progestin receptors on eel spermatogenesis.

  14. Solvent and extraction methods effects on the quality of eel (Anguilla bicolor) oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasongko, H.; Efendi, N. R.; Budihardjo, A.; Farida, Y.; Amartiwi, T.; Rahmawati, A. A.; Wicaksono, A.; Sugiyarto

    2017-01-01

    Eel (Anguilla bicolor) is a general fish consumption in many countries, especially Japan, China, Germany, and France. Besides its vitamin rich, eel oil is also known to contain fatty acids that are necessary for pharmaceutical purposes and as food a supplement. This research was aimed to evaluate the quality of eel oil by different solvent and extraction methods. In this study, fresh eels were extracted using maceration and reflux methods.Chloroform was used as the solvent in the maceration while water used in the reflux method. The oil quality was examined based on the Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC).The result showed that the yield of eel oil using maceration method was 5.44% ± 0.64 with a specific gravity of 0.915 g/mL, while reflux method obtained the yield of 5.33 % ± 0.84 and specific gravity of 0.8575 g/mL. The physicochemical parameters of oil quality used in this study were acid, peroxide, saponification, and iodine value. The maceration method obtained the acid value of 17.389 mgKOH/g, the peroxide value of 7.021meqO2/kg, the saponification value of 111.16mgKOH/g, and the iodine value of 65.14 WIJS. While the reflux method produced the acid value of 9.116 mgKOH/g, the peroxide value of 6.088 meqO2/kg, the saponification value of 70 mgKOH/g, and the iodine value of 87.74 WIJS.

  15. The EEL-1 ubiquitin ligase promotes DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ross, A J; Li, M; Yu, B; Gao, M X; Derry, W B

    2011-01-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases target a growing number of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, including tumour suppressor p53, caspases, and the Bcl-2 family. The core apoptosis pathway is well conserved between mammals and Caenorhabditis elegans, but the extent to which ubiquitin ligases regulate apoptotic cell death is not known. To investigate the role of E3 ligases in apoptosis, we inhibited 108 of the 165 predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase genes by RNA interference and quantified apoptosis in the C. elegans germline after genotoxic stress. From this screen, we identified the homologous to E6-associated protein C terminus-domain E3 ligase EEL-1 as a positive regulator of apoptosis. Intriguingly, the human homologue of EEL-1, Huwe1/ARF-BP1/Mule/HectH9, has been reported to possess both pro- and anti-apoptotic functions through its ability to stimulate Mcl-1 and p53 degradation, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that eel-1 is required to promote DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis, but does not have a role in physiological germ cell apoptosis or developmental apoptosis in somatic tissue. Furthermore, eel-1 acts in parallel to the p53-like gene cep-1 and intersects the core apoptosis pathway upstream of the Bcl-2/Mcl-1 orthologue ced-9. Although ee1-1 mutants exhibit hypersensitivity to genotoxic stress they do not appear to be defective in DNA repair, suggesting a distinct role for EEL-1 in promoting damage-induced apoptosis in the germline. PMID:21233842

  16. Organophosphorus flame retardants in the European eel in Flanders, Belgium: Occurrence, fate and human health risk.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Eulaers, Igor; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the levels, profiles and human health risk of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) in wild European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from freshwater bodies in the highly populated and industrial Flanders region (Belgium). Yellow eels (n=170) were collected at 26 locations between 2000 and 2009 and for each site, muscle samples of 3-10 eels were pooled and analyzed (n=26). Muscle lipid percentages varied widely between 2.4% and 21%, with a median value of 10%. PFRs were detected in all pooled samples in the order of tris-2-chloroisopropyl phosphate (TCIPP)>triphenyl phosphate (TPHP)>2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP)>tris-2-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBOEP)>tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP)>tris-1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate (TDCIPP). The median sum PFR concentration for all 26 sites was 44 ng/g lw (8.4 ng/g ww), and levels ranged between 7.0 and 330 ng/g lw (3.5 and 45 ng/g ww). Levels and profiles of PFRs in eels showed that sampling locations and river basin catchments are possible drivers of spatial variation in the aquatic environment. Median PFR concentrations were lower than those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). No correlation was observed between the PFR concentrations and lipid contents, suggesting that the accumulation of PFRs is not primarily associated with lipids. Human exposure to PFRs, due to consumption of wild eels, seems to be of minor importance compared to other potential sources, such as inhalation and ingestion of indoor dust. Nevertheless, considering the very limited data available on PFRs in human dietary items and their expected increasing use after the phase out of PBDEs and HBCDs, further investigations on PFRs in biota and human food items are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Raptorial jaws in the throat help moray eels swallow large prey.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rita S; Wainwright, Peter C

    2007-09-06

    Most bony fishes rely on suction mechanisms to capture and transport prey. Once captured, prey are carried by water movement inside the oral cavity to a second set of jaws in the throat, the pharyngeal jaws, which manipulate the prey and assist in swallowing. Moray eels display much less effective suction-feeding abilities. Given this reduction in a feeding mechanism that is widespread and highly conserved in aquatic vertebrates, it is not known how moray eels swallow large fish and cephalopods. Here we show that the moray eel (Muraena retifera) overcomes reduced suction capacity by launching raptorial pharyngeal jaws out of its throat and into its oral cavity, where the jaws grasp the struggling prey animal and transport it back to the throat and into the oesophagus. This is the first described case of a vertebrate using a second set of jaws to both restrain and transport prey, and is the only alternative to the hydraulic prey transport reported in teleost fishes. The extreme mobility of the moray pharyngeal jaws is made possible by elongation of the muscles that control the jaws, coupled with reduction of adjacent gill-arch structures. The discovery that pharyngeal jaws can reach up from behind the skull to grasp prey in the oral jaws reveals a major innovation that may have contributed to the success of moray eels as apex predators hunting within the complex matrix of coral reefs. This alternative prey transport mode is mechanically similar to the ratcheting mechanisms used in snakes--a group of terrestrial vertebrates that share striking morphological, behavioural and ecological convergence with moray eels.

  18. Molecular cloning and gene expression of Spo11 during spermatogenesis in the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Yuichi; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2006-03-01

    Spo11 is a protein involved specifically in the meiotic recombination in several species, however, it is little characterized in lower vertebrates. We identified a cDNA encoding Spo11 from the testis of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. The deduced amino acid sequence of eel Spo11 was more than 60% identical with human and mouse Spo11s. In order to examine changes in the expression and localization of Spo11 during spermatogenesis induced by the injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and to compare with those of Dmc1, we generated specific antibodies against the eel Spo11 and Dmc1. In general, it is believed that Dmc1 is a meiosis-specific protein, and the localization of Dmc1 in spermatocytes was confirmed also in Japanese eel. Spo11 transcripts were slightly detected in the testis after 1 day post-hCG injection by Northern blot analysis. Western blot analysis also indicated that Spo11 production began at day 1 after hCG injection. However, immunohistochemical observations showed that Spo11 was localized only in spermatocytes. In contrast, Dmc1 transcripts and the protein production were first detected at day 6 after hCG injection and increased along with the increment of spermatocytes. These results suggested that Spo11 was expressed in spermatogonia proliferated toward meiosis at quite low level that could not induce meiotic recombination, thereafter Spo11 expression increased and Dmc1 expression was initiated in early meiotic prophase. Hence, the antibodies against eel Spo11 and Dmc1 generated in the present study can be use to detect germ cells in early meiotic prophase immunohistochemically. Importantly, it is suggested that germ cells, which are in quite earlier stage during meiotic prophase, can be detected by Spo11.

  19. Modelling the growth of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in the lower reach of the Kao-Ping River, southern Taiwan: an information theory approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y J; Tzeng, W N

    2009-07-01

    Information theory was applied to select the best model fitting total length (L(T))-at-age data and calculate the averaged model for Japanese eel Anguilla japonica compiled from published literature and the differences in growth between sexes were examined. Five candidate growth models were the von Bertalanffy, generalized von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and power models. The von Bertalanffy growth model with sex-specific coefficients was best supported by the data and nearly overlapped the averaged growth model based on Akaike weights, indicating a similar fit to the data. The Gompertz, generalized von Bertalanffy and power growth models were also substantially supported by the data. The L(T) at age of A. japonica were larger in females than in males according to the averaged growth mode, suggesting a sexual dimorphism in growth. Model inferences based on information theory, which deal with uncertainty in model selection and robust parameter estimates, are recommended for modelling the growth of A. japonica.

  20. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... women; Contraception - female condom; Family planning - female condom; Birth control - female condom ... care provider or pharmacy for information about emergency contraception (Plan B) if the condom tears or the ...

  1. Give silver a shine.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Katharina M

    2011-02-01

    Katharina M. Fromm explains how, as well as catalysis and jewellery, silver serves a myriad of medicinal applications--some of which are even behind poetic traditions such as throwing coins in wishing wells.

  2. Give silver a shine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, Katharina M.

    2011-02-01

    Katharina M. Fromm explains how, as well as catalysis and jewellery, silver serves a myriad of medicinal applications - some of which are even behind poetic traditions such as throwing coins in wishing wells.

  3. Silver recovery system data

    SciTech Connect

    Boulineau, B.

    1991-08-26

    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  4. Relationships between locomotor behavior, morphometric characters and thyroid hormone levels give evidence of stage-dependent mechanisms in European eel upstream migration.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Hélène; Arrowsmith, Rory; Dufour, Sylvie; Elie, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In order to decipher movements during freshwater eel colonization, we experimentally characterized individual locomotor behavior of two eel life history stages: elvers and yellow eels. A ramp located at the flume tank upstream side required a specific locomotor behavior to be ascended. Placing individually tagged eels in the middle of the tank three times successively tested behavioral consistency. Eels climbing the ramp on each trial were classified as "upstream climbers" whereas eels settling in the tank middle were classified as "inactive". Both stages exhibited these two opposite consistent behaviors. However, elvers were predominantly "upstream climbers" (58.1%) whereas yellow eels were predominantly "inactive" (79.6%). We measured morphometric characters and thyroid hormones to determine if upstream activity was related to body condition and thyroid status. Elver upstream climbers had higher body condition as well as higher thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) levels compared with inactive elvers. Yellow eel upstream climbers had lower body length as well as higher T(3) and (T(3):T(4)) ratio compared with inactive yellow eels. This indicated that the physiological release factors for eel upstream migration may be stage dependent. For elvers, high thyroid gland activity, together with high body condition, may be the physiological release factors for migration. In contrast, for yellow eels, physiological stress may be the release factor with an increase in T(4) deiodination activity in the smallest eels. Our study revealed inter-stage and intra-stage locomotor behavior plasticity and suggested stage-dependent opposite impacts of physiological condition on eel upstream migration.

  5. Electrochemical behavior of silver sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Drouven, B.U.E.

    1982-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of silver sulfide in sulfuric acid as well as in nitric acid was studied using electrodes made from synthetic silver sulfide. The primary techniques used were potentiostatic, potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and corrosion cell experiments. The cathodic reaction of silver sulfide produces silver and hydrogen sulfide. This reaction mechanism is a sequential two step charge transfer involving a single electron in each step. Silver ions are produced from silver sulfide upon applying an anodic potential. The dissolution rate of silver sulfide can be so high that the formation of silver sulfate occurs which partially covers the silver sulfide surface and inhibits a further rate increase. The sulfur from the silver sulfide will be oxidized at low overpotentials to elemental sulfur; at high overpotentials, the oxidation to sulfate or bisulfate is observed. The results suggest that the catalysis of chalcopyrite by the addition of silver ions is caused by the formation and subsequent dissolution of silver sulfide leaving a porous layer behind. The understanding of the reaction mechanism of silver sulfide dissolution and its optimization will significantly improve the economic evaluation of industrial processes using the catalyzed leaching of chalcopyrite. The present knowledge of the catalysis indicates that other ions may be substituted for silver ions which would increase the feasibility of hydrometallurgical processes.

  6. Effectiveness of an eel curriculum on student achievement for the California earth science standard on ocean currents A comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenberg, David A.

    With the intent oftransitioning a traditional secondary physical science course into a more Earth science focused course, the CalEP A Education and the Environment (EEl) Curriculum was substituted in place of an existing curriculum on ocean currents. For one week students were presented a complete unit covering California State Earth Science Standard 5.d regarding ocean currents. Student sections were separated into two groups, one using previous instructional materials and one using the EEl curriculum to determine if there was a significant difference in student achievement between the two curriculums. The independent t-test between the two groups did not show a significant difference in student posttest scores when the EEl curriculum was used in substitution of the predecessor curriculum. An analysis of student work revealed some advantages to the substituted EEl curriculum in the quality of student responses and increased student engagement.

  7. Quality attributes of farmed eel (Anguilla anguilla) stored under air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging at 0 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Arkoudelos, John; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Samaras, Fotis

    2007-01-01

    The shelf life of fresh eel in various packaging conditions of atmospheric air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (40% CO(2), 30% N(2) and 30% O(2)) at 0 degrees C was investigated. All raw eel samples received acceptable sensory scores during the first 11+/-1 days of storage in atmospheric air, 11+/-1 days of storage in vacuum and finally 18+/-1 days of storage in MAP conditions. Using the microbial quality indicators the shelf life of eel packed in air, vacuum and MAP was estimated to be more than 18, 28 and 34 days, respectively. The main spoilage microorganisms under MAP conditions were lactic acid producing bacteria followed by Shewanella spp., pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts. Chemical data revealed that pH, ammonia, glucose and lactate examinations might not be useful for monitoring eel quality differences.

  8. First evidence for a direct inhibitory effect of kisspeptins on LH expression in the eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, J; Lafont, A-G; Leprince, J; Vaudry, H; Rousseau, K; Dufour, S

    2011-08-01

    The kisspeptin system has emerged as one of the main puberty gatekeepers among vertebrates. The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a remarkable model due to its phylogenetical position at the basis of teleosts, and its unique life cycle with a blockade of puberty before reproductive migration. We cloned the full-length coding sequence of a kisspeptin receptor (Kissr) in the eel. Comparison of Kissr sequences assigned the eel Kissr to a basal position in a clade including most of the known teleost Kissr, in agreement with the eel phylogenetical position. Eel Kissr tissue distribution was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Eel Kissr was highly expressed in the brain, especially in the telencephalon and di-/mes-encephalon, while a very low or undetectable expression was observed in various peripheral organs. A high expression of Kissr was also found in the pituitary indicating a possible direct pituitary role of kisspeptin. Primary cultures of eel pituitary cells were performed to investigate the direct effects of kisspeptin on pituitary hormone expression. Human/lamprey kisspeptin exerted a time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on LHβ expression. All other tested kisspeptins had a similar inhibitory effect on LHβ expression. The inhibitory effect of kisspeptins was exerted specifically on LHβ as no change was induced on the expression of other glycoprotein hormone subunits (GPα, FSHβ and TSHβ) nor of growth hormone. These data provide the first evidence for the existence, in the European eel, of a kisspeptin system, which may play a direct inhibitory role on pituitary LHβ expression.

  9. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Jung; Park, Chae-Won; Kim, Dong-Wan; Park, Hong-Kyu; Byambaragchaa, Munkhzaya; Lee, Nam-Sil; Hong, Sun-Mee; Seo, Mi-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Min, Kwan-Sik

    2016-07-01

    We prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone (rec-FSH) from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica that was produced in Escherichia coli. Positive hybridomas (clones eFA-C5, eFA-C10, eFA-C11, eFA-C12, eFA-C13, and eFB-C14) were selected by using the eel FSH antigen in ELISA, and anti-eel FSH mAbs were purified from culture supernatants by performing affinity chromatography. Three of the 6mAbs were characterized and their isotypes were identified as IgG2b (eFA-C5 and eFA-C11) and IgG1 (eFB-C14). In western blotting assays, the mAbs recognized the antigen as a 24.3-kDa band, and further detected bands of 34 and 32kDa in the supernatants of CHO cells transfected with cDNA encoding tethered eel FSHβ/α and LHβ/α, respectively. PNase F-mediated deglycosylation of the recombinant proteins resulted in a drastic reduction in their molecular weight, to 7-9kDa. The mAbs eFA-C5 and eFA-C11 recognized the eel FSHα-subunit that is commonly encoded among glycoprotein hormones, whereas eFB-C14 recognized the eel FSHβ-subunit, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining by these mAbs was specifically localized in the eel pituitary. We also established an ELISA system for detecting rec-tethered FSHβ/α and LHβ/α produced from CHO cell lines. Measurement of biological activities in vitro revealed that only weak activity of rec-FSHβ/α was detected. The activity of rec-LHβ/α was found to be increased in a dose-dependent manner for eel oocyte maturation.

  10. Abdominal ascites in electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) associated with hepatic hemosiderosis and elevated water pH.

    PubMed

    Marselas, G A; Stoskopf, M K; Brown, M J; Kane, A S; Reimschuessel, R

    1998-12-01

    Six electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) from various centers that house aquatic organisms presented clinically with abdominal distension following prolonged exposure to elevated environmental pH. Postmortem examination revealed marked ascites. Culture of the abdominal fluid from three of the eels yielded either Aeromonas hydrophila or Citrobacter freundii, which were most likely secondary invaders. Histopathology showed marked iron accumulation in both hepatocytes and hepatic macrophage aggregates.

  11. How the body contributes to the wake in undulatory fish swimming: flow fields of a swimming eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Müller, U K; Smit, J; Stamhuis, E J; Videler, J J

    2001-08-01

    Undulatory swimmers generate thrust by passing a transverse wave down their body. Thrust is generated not just at the tail, but also to a varying degree by the body, depending on the fish's morphology and swimming movements. To examine the mechanisms by which the body in particular contributes to thrust production, we chose eels, which have no pronounced tail fin and hence are thought to generate all their thrust with their body. We investigated the interaction between body movements and the flow around swimming eels using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry. Maximum flow velocities adjacent to the eel's body increase almost linearly from head to tail, suggesting that eels generate thrust continuously along their body. The wake behind eels swimming at 1.5 Ls(-1), where L is body length, consisted of a double row of double vortices with little backward momentum. The eel sheds two vortices per half tail-beat, which can be identified by their shedding dynamics as a start-stop vortex of the tail and a vortex shed when the body-generated flows reach the 'trailing edge' and cause separation. Two consecutively shed ipsilateral body and tail vortices combine to form a vortex pair that moves away from the mean path of motion. This wake shape resembles flow patterns described previously for a propulsive mode in which neither swimming efficiency nor thrust is maximised but sideways forces are high. This swimming mode is suited to high manoeuvrability. Earlier recordings show that eels also generate a wake reflective of maximum swimming efficiency. The combined findings suggest that eels can modify their body wave to generate wakes that reflect their propulsive mode.

  12. Fe and O EELS Studies of Ion Irradiated Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Christofferson, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The physical and chemical response of hydrated carbonaceous chondrite materials to space weathering processes is poorly understood. Improving this understanding is a key part of establishing how regoliths on primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes, knowledge that supports future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRISREx) that are targeting objects of this type. We previously reported on He+ irradiation of Murchison matrix and showed that the irradiation resulted in amorphization of the matrix phyllosilicates, loss of OH, and surface vesiculation. Here, we report electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements of the irradiated material with emphasis on the Fe and O speciation. Sample and Methods: A polished thin section of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite was irradiated with 4 kilovolts He(+) (normal incidence) to a total dose of 1 x 10(exp 18) He(+) per square centimeter. We extracted thin sections from both irradiated and unirradiated regions in matrix using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques with electron beam deposition for the protective carbon strap to minimize surface damage artifacts from the FIB milling. The FIB sections were analyzed using a JEOL 2500SE scanning and transmission electron microscope (STEM) equipped with a Gatan Tridiem imaging filter. EELS spectra were collected from 50 nanometer diameter regions with an energy resolution of 0.7 electronvolts FWHM at the zero loss. EELS spectra were collected at low electron doses to minimize possible artifacts from electron-beam irradiation damage. Results and Discussion: Fe L (sub 2,3) EELS spectra from matrix phyllosilicates in CM chondrites show mixed Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) oxidation states with Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe approximately 0.5. Fe L(sub 2,3) spectra from the irradiated/ amorphized matrix phyllosilicates show higher Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ratios compared to spectra obtained from pristine material at depths beyond the implantation/amorphization layer. We

  13. Water metabolism in the eel acclimated to sea water: from mouth to intestine.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masaaki; Mukuda, Takao; Kozaka, Tomohiro

    2003-12-01

    Eels seem to be a suitable model system for analysing regulatory mechanisms of drinking behavior in vertebrates, since most dipsogens and antidipsogens in mammals influence the drinking rate in the seawater eels similarly. The drinking behavior in fishes consists of swallowing alone, since they live in water and water is constantly held in the mouth for respiration. Therefore, contraction of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) muscle limits the drinking rate in fishes. The UES of the eel was innervated by the glossopharyngeal-vagal motor complex (GVC) in the medulla oblongata (MO). The GVC neurons were immunoreactive to an antibody raised against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), an acetylcholine (ACh) synthesizing enzyme, indicating that the eel UES muscle is controlled cholinergically by the GVC. The neuronal activity of the GVC was inhibited by adrenaline or dopamine, suggesting catecholaminergic innervation to the GVC. The AP and the commissural nucleus of Cajal (NCC) in the MO projected to the GVC and were immunoreactive to an antibody raised against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), rate limiting enzyme to produce catecholamines from tyrosine. Therefore, it is likely that activation in the AP or the NCC may inhibit the GVC and thus relaxes the UES muscle, which allows for water to enter into the esophagus. During passing through the esophagus, the imbibed sea water (SW) was desalted to approximately 1/2 SW, which was further diluted in the stomach and arrived at the intestine as approximately 1/3 SW, almost isotonic to the plasma. Finally, from the diluted SW, the eel intestine absorbed water following the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport (NKCC2) system. The NaCl and water absorption across the intestine was regulated by various factors, especially by peptides such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and somatostatin (SS-25 II). During desalination in the esophagus, however, excess salt enters into the blood circulation, which is liable to raise the plasma osmolarity

  14. Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and DNA binding of PAHs in feral eel (Anguilla anguilla) exposed to polluted sediments: A field survey

    SciTech Connect

    Oost, R. Van Der; Heida, H.; Satumalay, K. ); Schooten, F.J. Van . Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology); Ariese, F.; Vermeulen, N.P.E. )

    1994-06-01

    Samples of sediment and eel taken from six sites in Amsterdam with different levels of water pollution were analyzed for 16 parental PAHs. In addition, biliary PAH metabolites and hepatic PAH-DNA adducts were determined in the eel to evaluate biomonitoring techniques for PAH exposure. There was a clear difference between PAH profiles in sediments and eel. Mainly two- and three-ring PAHs were detected in eel, whereas four-ring PAHs predominated in the sediments. Because PAH bioaccumulation was highest in eel from the reference sites, tissue levels of the parental PAH are probably not the most accurate monitor of PAH exposure in fish. An elevated excretion of 1-OH pyrene (determined by synchronous scan fluorescence) was observed in the bile of fish from three of the four polluted sites, indicating that this parameter may be used as a biomarker for PAH exposure. A significant increase in PAH-DNA adduct levels was observed in the liver of eel from all polluted sites. Therefore, this parameter seems to be a sensitive biomarker for exposure to mutagenic and carcinogenic PAHs.

  15. Infection of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.), with the nematode Anguillicoloides crassus (Kuwahara, Niimi et Itagaki, 1974) in Polish waters.

    PubMed

    Popielarczyk, R; Robak, S; Siwicki, K A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degree of Anguillicoloides crassus infection in European eel inhabiting Polish waters based on selected parasitic descriptors and on anatomical pathology of the swimbladder using macroscopic methods. In all, 154 European eel specimens were sampled from eleven sites in Poland and A. crassus was present in the swimbladder of 114 fish. The intensity of A. crassus infection in all the eel specimens ranged from 1 to 62 parasites at a mean value of 7.5. High values of mean infection intensity were noted in samples from Pomeranian lakes Bukowo, Łebsko, and Jamno. The health of the swimbladder was evaluated using the swimbladder degenerative index (SDI). The mean value of the SDI for all of the eel examined was 3.3, and extensively degenerated swimbladders were observed mainly in samples in the Szczecin Lagoon and from lakes. According to the individual SDI ratings, 9.1% of the eel specimens did not exhibit pathological symptoms of the swimbladder (SDI-0) and an extremely damaged (SDI-6) swimbladder was noted in 11.7% of the fish examined. In the case of eel infected with A. crassus, higher SDI values were reflected in initially increasing shares in subsequent categories. In fish that were not infected with the nematode, only 20% (8 individuals) of the swimbladders showed no symptoms of pathology (SDI-0).

  16. Intestinal expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) at different life stages of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyojin; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Akihiro; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Watanabe, Soichi

    2013-10-01

    The expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) was investigated at the different life stages of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. The cDNA encoding Japanese eel PEPT1 was cloned and sequenced. The hydrophilicity plot analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarities with topological features of known PEPT1 molecules in other species. Tissue distribution analysis confirmed that PEPT1 mRNA was detected specifically in the anterior and posterior intestines of adult eel. In eel larvae at 13days post hatching (dph), PEPT1 mRNA expression was mainly detected in the intestinal tract regions. The trypsinogen mRNA was only detected in the gastric region including the pancreas. Intense immunoreaction for PEPT1 was observed in the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells of both larval and adult eel. These results indicated that PEPT1 was an intestine-specific transporter, which was localized at the luminal side of the epithelial cells, suggesting that di/tri-peptide absorption via PEPT1 takes place in the eel intestine. According to the ontogenetic analyses by quantitative PCR, PEPT1 and trypsinogen mRNA expressions were simultaneously increased at 5-7 dph. It is thus assumed that nutrient absorption systems in the intestinal tracts of larvae become functional at this age.

  17. Distribution of Glass Eel by the Water Surface Salinity Using Landsat TM at Pelabuhan Ratu Bay, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irianto, D. S.; Supriatna; Pin, TjiongGiok

    2016-11-01

    Eel (Anguilla spp.) is consumed fish that has an important economic value, either for local or international market. Pelabuhanratu Bay is an area with big potential for supplying eel seed. One of important factor, which affect an eel existence, is salinity, because eel migrate from fresh water, brackish, and sea naturally although the otherwise so that need ways to describe the distribution of glass eel by the salinity. To find out the percentage of salinity, it obtained from Landsat 8 Imagery in year 2015 using salinity prediction of Algorithm Cimandiri. The research has been conducted at Cimandiri Estuary, Citepus Estuary, and Cimaja Estuary based on wet and dry months. The existence of glass eel which is obtained from the catch was occurs on dry month when the most catch was occurs at the edge of estuary. The catch is reduced if it's farther from the edge of estuary, at the beach towards the sea and the inside of the river mouth with the percentage of salinity towards the sea is increase while the percentage of salinity towards the river is decrease.

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (north Atlantic): American eel. [Anguilla rostrata

    SciTech Connect

    Facey, D.E.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1987-08-01

    The American eel is an ecologically and economically important catadromous species that occupies freshwater streams, rivers, brackish estuaries, and the open ocean during various phases of its life cycle. Adult eels apparently spawn in the Sargasso Sea, and ocean currents transport the developing larvae northward until the young metamorphose into juveniles capable of swimming shoreward and moving upstream into coastal areas, estuaries, and rivers. Developing eels commonly remain in freshwater or brackish areas for 10-12 years before migrating to spawn. American eels tend to be bottom-dwellers and feed on a variety of fauna that occupy the same habitats. Eels occupy areas having wide ranges of temperature, salinity, and other environmental factors, suggesting broad tolerance limits, but few studies of requirements have been reported. Salinity patterns and water currents created by river discharges into coastal areas apparently provide the gradient that cues shoreward migration of juvenile eels. Alteration of patterns of freshwater inflows to estuaries and bays could affect upstream migrations.

  19. A combination mode of climate variability responsible for extremely poor recruitment of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Fu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Han, Yu-San

    2017-01-01

    Satellite data and assimilation products are used to investigate fluctuations in the catch of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in eastern Asian countries. It has been reported that the salinity front has extended farther south, which has shifted the eel’s spawning grounds to a lower latitude, resulting in smaller eel catches in 1983, 1992, and 1998. This study demonstrates that interannual variability in the eel catch is strongly correlated with the combination mode (C-mode), but not with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. These eels continue to spawn within the North Equatorial Current (NEC), but the salinity front shifts south during a canonical El Niño. On the other hand, the spawning grounds accompanied by the salinity front extend farther south during the C-mode of climate variability, and eel larvae fail to join the nursery in the NEC, resulting in extremely poor recruitment in East Asia. We propose an appropriate sea surface temperature index to project Japanese eel larval catch. PMID:28300135

  20. Electroneutral cation-Cl- cotransporters NKCC2β and NCCβ expressed in the intestinal tract of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Soichi; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Ideuchi, Hiroki; Kim, Yi Kyung; Kaneko, Toyoji

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of intestinal Na(+) and Cl(-) absorption in Japanese eel, focusing on electroneutral cation-Cl(-) cotransporters, NKCC2β and NCCβ, expressed in the intestinal tract. First, we cloned cDNAs encoding NKCC2β and NCCβ from the intestinal tract of Japanese eel. In both freshwater- and seawater-acclimated eels, quantitative PCR analysis showed that NKCC2β was predominantly expressed in the anterior and posterior intestines, and that NCCβ expression was specifically high in the rectum. According to immunohistochemistry with anti-eel NKCC2β (reacting with NKCC2β but not with NCCβ) and T4 antibody (reacting with both NKCC2β and NCCβ), NKCC2β was localized in the apical surface of the epithelial cells in the anterior and posterior intestines, whereas NCCβ was likely to be distributed to that in the rectum. Furthermore, a specific NCC inhibitor, hydrochlorothiazide, inhibited of Na(+) and Cl(-) absorption, as well as water absorption, in the rectal sac preparations from seawater eel, indicating the involvement of NCCβ in ion absorption in the rectum. Our findings indicate that NKCC2β expressed in the anterior and posterior intestines and NCCβ in the rectum are importantly involved in ion absorption to reduce osmolality of ingested seawater prior to water absorption in seawater-acclimated eel.

  1. Richness and diversity of helminth species in eels from a hypersaline coastal lagoon, Mar Menor, south-east Spain.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Hernández, E; Peñalver, J; García-Ayala, A; Serrano, E; Muñoz, P; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R

    2015-05-01

    The composition and diversity of parasite communities and intestinal components, as well as infra-community structure, were assessed in eels Anguilla anguilla, from Mar Menor, a permanent Mediterranean hypersaline coastal lagoon. Data were used to determine whether this helminth community differs in composition and structure from that of eels in lagoons with lower salinity regimes and higher freshwater inputs. A total prevalence of 93% was detected. Specifically, parasites were identified as Deropristis inflata, Bucephalus anguillae, Contracaecum sp., Anguillicoloides crassus and two plerocercoid larvae belonging to the order Proteocephalidae, the marine species representing 91% of the isolated helminths. In the total community, digenetic trematodes were the dominant group of helminths, and D. inflata, an eel specialist, dominated both the component community and the infra-community. Richness and diversity were low but similar to those reported in other saline lagoons, and maximum species per eel did not exceed four. At the infra-community level, higher abundance than in other brackish or marine Mediterranean environments was detected. The findings provide further evidence of the similarity in composition and structure of helminth communities in eels from various Mediterranean coastal lagoons. Moreover, salinity-dependent specificities are well supported and reflect the life history of individual eels.

  2. A combination mode of climate variability responsible for extremely poor recruitment of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Fu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Han, Yu-San

    2017-03-01

    Satellite data and assimilation products are used to investigate fluctuations in the catch of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in eastern Asian countries. It has been reported that the salinity front has extended farther south, which has shifted the eel’s spawning grounds to a lower latitude, resulting in smaller eel catches in 1983, 1992, and 1998. This study demonstrates that interannual variability in the eel catch is strongly correlated with the combination mode (C-mode), but not with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. These eels continue to spawn within the North Equatorial Current (NEC), but the salinity front shifts south during a canonical El Niño. On the other hand, the spawning grounds accompanied by the salinity front extend farther south during the C-mode of climate variability, and eel larvae fail to join the nursery in the NEC, resulting in extremely poor recruitment in East Asia. We propose an appropriate sea surface temperature index to project Japanese eel larval catch.

  3. Attenuation of allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma by silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Keun Hwa; Jang, Sunhyae; Park, Ji Won; Cha, Hye Rim; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Ju Ock; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Choong Sik; Kim, Joo Pyung; Jung, Sung Soo

    2010-01-01

    The use of silver in the past demonstrated the certain antimicrobial activity, though this has been replaced by other treatments. However, nanotechnology has provided a way of producing pure silver nanoparticles, and it shows cytoprotective activities and possible pro-healing properties. But, the mechanism of silver nanoparticles remains unknown. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles on bronchial inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled female C57BL/6 mice to evaluate the roles of silver nanoparticles and the related molecular mechanisms in allergic airway disease. In this study with an OVA-induced murine model of allergic airway disease, we found that the increased inflammatory cells, airway hyperresponsiveness, increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and the increased NF-κB levels in lungs after OVA inhalation were significantly reduced by the administration of silver nanoparticles. In addition, we have also found that the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after OVA inhalation were decreased by the administration of silver nanoparticles. These results indicate that silver nanoparticles may attenuate antigen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. And antioxidant effect of silver nanoparticles could be one of the molecular bases in the murine model of asthma. These findings may provide a potential molecular mechanism of silver nanoparticles in preventing or treating asthma. PMID:20957173

  4. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  5. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  6. The surface characterization of a series of hydroxybenzenes on Ag(111): An EELS and TDS study

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, B.S.

    1993-01-27

    Interaction of a series of hydroxybenzenes with Ag(111) is investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Studied were the mono-hydroxybenzene, phenol, the o-, m- and p-dihydroxybenzenes, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, respectively, and the 1,2.3-trihydroxybenzene, pyrogallol. Dehydrogenation of the hydroxyl groups upon adsorption is not directly observed in the TDS studies: however, the EELS results suggest possible dehydrogenation. The apparent O-H bond scission is attributed to hydrogen bonding between the surface molecules or to the orientation of the O-H bond aids with respect to the metal surface. Orientations of the mono- and dihydroxybenzene molecules are temperature dependent, whereas that of the trihydroxybenzene may be attributed to the number and position of the hydroxyl substitutents. Phenol and catechol both undergo an inclined-to-perpendicular orientational change. Resorcinol and hydroquinone undergo a perpendicular-to-inclined transformation. Finally, pyrogallol remains inclined at all temperatures until decomposition.

  7. Uranium-series age of the Eel Point terrace, San Clemente Island, California

    SciTech Connect

    Muhs, D.R.; Szabo, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium-series analysis of the coral Allopora californica Verrill from the 2nd, 32-m Eel Point terrace on San Clemente Island, California, has yielded an age of 127,000 +/- 7,000 yr. The Eel Point terrace is thus correlative with numerous terrace localities on the southern California mainland, with coral reefs on Barbados and New Guinea dated about 120,000 yr, and with substage 5e of the marine oxygen-isotope record. A tectonic uplift rate of about 0.20 m/1,000 yr has been calculated assuming a sea level slightly higher than the present one at the time of terrace formation. Extrapolation of this uplift rate allows age estimates to be made for other terraces on the island.

  8. Toxicological effect of herbicides (diuron and bentazon) on snake venom and electric eel acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mushtaq; Latif, Nadia; Khan, Rehmat Ali; Ahmad, Akhlaq

    2012-08-01

    The toxicological effects of the active ingredients of the herbicides diuron and bentazon on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of krait (Bungarus sindanus) venom and electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) were studied. The diuron and entazon caused non-competitive inhibition of AChE from both species. For the venom AChE, the calculated IC50 for diuron and bentazon were found to be 3.25 and 0.14 μM, while for eel AChE, the respective IC50 values were 3.6 and 0.135 μM. In comparison, bentazon was a more potent inhibitor than diuron of AChE from both species. The insecticide lindane did not have any inhibitory effect on AChE activity in either species, even when tested at high concentrations (200-800 μM).

  9. Spectrum image analysis tool - A flexible MATLAB solution to analyze EEL and CL spectrum images.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Hofer, Ferdinand; Krenn, Joachim R

    2017-02-01

    Spectrum imaging techniques, gaining simultaneously structural (image) and spectroscopic data, require appropriate and careful processing to extract information of the dataset. In this article we introduce a MATLAB based software that uses three dimensional data (EEL/CL spectrum image in dm3 format (Gatan Inc.'s DigitalMicrograph(®))) as input. A graphical user interface enables a fast and easy mapping of spectral dependent images and position dependent spectra. First, data processing such as background subtraction, deconvolution and denoising, second, multiple display options including an EEL/CL moviemaker and, third, the applicability on a large amount of data sets with a small work load makes this program an interesting tool to visualize otherwise hidden details. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the eel (Anguilla anguilla) at the Camargue Nature Reserve - France.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Ribeiro, C A; Vollaire, Y; Coulet, E; Roche, H

    2008-05-01

    Fish consumption is a potential source of human exposure to pollutants. Here, we study residue levels of PCBs in the eel, Anguilla anguilla, from the Nature Camargue Reserve in southern France. Chromatographic analysis (GC-ECD) found seventy identifiable congeners, among which, 10 are considered as dioxin-like PCBs, such as the non-ortho PCB 81 and the mono-ortho chlorobiphenyls PCB105, 114, 118, 123, 156, 157, 167, 170, 180. Toxic Equivalents (TEQ, WHO 2005 TEF-Toxic Equivalent Factors) varied among sites with a maximum in eels from Mornès (29.6pgg(-1) dry weight). Indicator PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) were 22% and 29% of the total PCBs in livers and muscles respectively. Greater homogeneous bioaccumulation in muscle than that in liver suggests an increase risk for humans due to fish consumption.

  11. Angiotensin II dependent cardiac remodeling in the eel Anguilla anguilla involves the NOS/NO system.

    PubMed

    Filice, Mariacristina; Amelio, Daniela; Garofalo, Filippo; David, Sabrina; Fucarino, Alberto; Jensen, Frank Bo; Imbrogno, Sandra; Cerra, Maria Carmela

    2017-05-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII), the principal effector of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), plays an important role in controlling mammalian cardiac morpho-functional remodelling. In the eel Anguilla anguilla, one month administration of AngII improves cardiac performance and influences the expression and localization of molecules which regulate cell growth. To deeper investigate the morpho-functional chronic influences of AngII on the eel heart and the molecular mechanisms involved, freshwater eels (A. anguilla) were intraperitoneally injected for 2 months with AngII (1 nmol g BW(-1)). Then the isolated hearts were subjected to morphological and western blotting analyses, and nitrite measurements. If compared to control animals, the ventricle of AngII-treated hearts showed an increase in compacta thickness, vascularization, muscle mass and fibrosis. Structural changes were paralleled by a higher expression of AT2 receptor and a negative modulation of the ERK1-2 pathway, together with a decrease in nitrite concentration, indicative of a reduced Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS)-dependent NO production. Moreover, immunolocalization revealed, particularly on the endocardial endothelium (EE) of AngII-treated hearts, a significant reduction of phosphorylated NOS detected by peNOS antibody accompanied by an increased expression of the eNOS disabling protein NOSTRIN, and a decreased expression of the positive regulators of NOS activity, pAkt and Hsp90. On the whole, results suggest that, in the eel, AngII modulates cardiac morpho-functional plasticity by influencing the molecular mechanisms that control NOS activity and the ERK1-2 pathway.

  12. Role of calcium on the initiation of sperm motility in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Luz; Vílchez, M Carmen; Gallego, Víctor; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Asturiano, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    Sperm from European eel males treated with hCGrec was washed in a calcium free extender, and sperm motility was activated both in the presence (seawater, SW) and in the absence of calcium (NaCl+EDTA), and treated with calcium inhibitors or modulators. The sperm motility parameters were evaluated by a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system, and changes in the [Ca(2+)]i fluorescence (and in [Na(+)]i in some cases) were evaluated by flow cytometry. After sperm motility was activated in a medium containing Ca(2+) (seawater, SW) the intracellular fluorescence emitted by Ca(2+) increased 4-6-fold compared to the levels in quiescent sperm. However, while sperm activation in a Ca-free media (NaCl+EDTA) resulted in a percentage of motility similar to seawater, the [Ca(2+)]i levels did not increase at all. This result strongly suggests that increasing [Ca(2+)]i is not a pre-requisite for the induction of sperm motility in European eel sperm. Several sperm velocities (VCL, VSL, VAP) decreased when sperm was activated in the Ca-free activator, thus supporting the theory that Ca(2+) has a modulatory effect on sperm motility. The results indicate that a calcium/sodium exchanger (NCX) which is inhibited by bepridil and a calcium calmodulin kinase (inhibited by W-7), are involved in the sperm motility of the European eel. Our results indicate that the increase in [Ca(2+)]i concentrations during sperm activation is due to an influx from the external medium, but, unlike in most other species, it does not appear to be necessary for the activation of motility in European eel sperm.

  13. Phylogeography of Two Moray Eels Indicates High Dispersal Throughout the Indo-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Brian W.; Joshi, Kavita; Goz, Vadim; Larson, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Reef fishes disperse primarily as oceanic “pelagic” larvae, and debate continues over the extent of this dispersal, with recent evidence for geographically restricted (closed) populations in some species. In contrast, moray eels have the longest pelagic larval stages among reef fishes, possibly providing opportunities to disperse over great distances. We test this prediction by measuring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA variation in 2 species of moray eels, Gymnothorax undulatus (N = 165) and G. flavimarginatus (N = 124), sampled at 14–15 locations across the Indo-Pacific. The mtDNA data comprise 632 bp of cytochrome b and 596 bp of cytochrome oxidase I. Nuclear markers include 2 recombination-activating loci (421 bp of RAG-1 and 754 bp of RAG-2). Analyses of molecular variance and Mantel tests indicate little or no genetic differentiation, and no isolation by distance, across 22 000 km of the Indo-Pacific. We estimate that mitochondrial genetic variation coalesces within the past about 2.3 million years (My) for G. flavimarginatus and within the past about 5.9 My for G. undulatus. Permutation tests of geographic distance on the mitochondrial haplotype networks indicate recent range expansions for some younger haplotypes (estimated within ∼600 000 years) and episodic fragmentation of populations at times of low sea level. Our results support the predictions that the extended larval durations of moray eels enable ocean-wide genetic continuity of populations. This is the first phylogeographic survey of the moray eels, and morays are the first reef fishes known to be genetically homogeneous across the entire Indo-Pacific. PMID:20375076

  14. Geographic and Oceanographic Information within Trace Metals in Moray Eel Otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savidge, W.; Windom, H.; Buck, C.

    2016-02-01

    Adult moray eels exhibit high site fidelity to particular reefs. We hypothesized that the trace metal composition of otoliths of eels could potentially provide insight into gradients in oceanographic processes on the South Atlantic Bight continental shelf where eels are resident on patchy hardbottom reefs throughout the entire region. Otoliths of moray eels collected from the mid-shelf of South Carolina were examined for their trace metal composition (Ba, Sr, Pb, Cu, Li, Mg, V, Mn, Zn). Samples were broadly lumped into four regions: "North," "North Cape Romain," "South Cape Romain," and "South". Trace metal composition within otoliths showed no latitudinal trends. However, factor analysis of the trace metals revealed that otoliths from the South Cape Romain region appeared as a compositionally distinct subgroup, based primarily on their Li and Mg content. Recent work on corals (Montagna et al. 2014) has shown the Li/Mg ratio within coral skeletons is sensitive to calcification temperature and can be used as a paleothermometer. If analogous processes influence Li/Mg ratios within otoliths, the data suggest that the bottom water at the South Cape Romain site is colder than other locations along the South Carolina shelf, perhaps as a result of locally enhanced upwelling. Additional samples from NC, SC, GA, and FL are being examined to see if other sites within the South Atlantic Bight show similar patterns. Montagna, P., McCulloch, M., Douville, E., et al. 2014. Li/Mg systematics in scleratinian corals: Calibration of the thermometer. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 132: 288-310.

  15. Chemical elements in the muscle tissues of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from selected lakes in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Rudovica, Vita; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-10-01

    Fish is a significant source of essential nutrients, as well as toxic elements in the human diet. Concentration of 17 elements was determined in muscles of eels (Anguilla anguilla) collected from five fishing lakes in the territory of Latvia. The concentration of main elements determined in muscle tissues varied within the following ranges: for Pb, 0.019-0.047; Cd, 0.0051-0.011; Hg, 0.13-0.36; Cu, 0.76-0.92; Zn, 28-42; and As, 0.13-0.23 mg kg(-1) wet weight. A positive correlation was revealed between the concentration of Hg in muscles and fish length in inland lakes. Concentration of metals in muscle tissues of eels from brackish coastal and inland lakes was without statistically significant difference. This research demonstrated that the elemental content of Cd and Pb in muscles of the examined fish was lower than the maximum allowed threshold set by the European Union legislation. Mercury content was over the threshold limit for all the analyzed eels if to compare with the Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards. On other side, only 7% of analyzed fish have indicated values that are over threshold limits for mercury established by the European Union food legislation. The current study contributes to the implementation of Water Framework Directive in Latvia by collection of information necessary for the further protection measures of waters. To our knowledge, this study provides the first data on multielemental bioaccumulation in muscle tissues of European eels collected from fishing lakes of Latvia.

  16. Mastacembelid eels support Lake Tanganyika as an evolutionary hotspot of diversification.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine J; Rüber, Lukas; Bills, Roger; Day, Julia J

    2010-06-19

    Lake Tanganyika (LT) is the oldest of the African Rift Lakes and is one of the richest freshwater ecosystems on Earth, with high levels of faunal diversity and endemism. The endemic species flocks that occur in this lake, such as cichlid fishes, gastropods, catfish and crabs, provide unique comparative systems for the study of patterns and processes of speciation. Mastacembelid eels (Teleostei: Mastacembelidae) are a predominately riverine family of freshwater fish, occurring across Africa and Asia, but which also form a small species flock in LT. Including 25 species across Africa, plus Asian representatives as outgroups, we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis for the group, focusing particularly on the evolutionary history and biodiversity of LT mastacembelid eels. A combined matrix of nuclear and mitochondrial genes based on 3118 bp are analysed implementing different phylogenetic methods, including Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood. LT Mastacembelus are recovered as monophyletic, and analyses reveal the rapid diversification of five main LT lineages. Relaxed molecular clock dates provide age estimates for the LT flock at approximately 7-8 Myr, indicating intralacustrine diversification, with further speciation events coinciding with periods of lower lake level. Our analyses also reveal as yet undescribed diversity of lacustrine and riverine species. A Southern-Eastern African clade, that is younger than the LT flock, is also recovered, while West African taxa are basal members of the African mastacembelid clade. That the LT species flock of mastacembelid eels appears to have colonised and immediately diversified soon after the formation of the lake, supports the view of LT as an evolutionary hotspot of diversification. We find evidence for biogeographic clades mirroring a similar pattern to other ichthyological faunas. In addition, our analyses also highlight a split of African and Asian mastacembelid eels at approximately 19 Myr that is

  17. Yellow eel (Anguilla anguilla) development in NW Portuguese estuaries with different contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Laura; Gravato, Carlos; Santos, Joana; Monteiro, Luís S; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2009-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare the health status of yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) developing in three estuaries of the NW Portuguese coast with different levels of pollution and their physiological responses to combined effects of environmental variation and pollution. For this, a field study was performed using a multi-parameter approach, including eels condition indexes and biomarkers, water quality variables and other environmental factors. Sixteen biological parameters were assessed, namely: hepatosomatic index (LSI), Fulton's condition index (K), lipid peroxidation (LPO), total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG, and the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferases (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Ten environmental factors were also measured in water: temperature, salinity, pH, phosphates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonium, silica, phenol and hardness. Globally, the biomarkers indicate exposure and toxic effects of pollutants on eels living in contaminated estuaries. The relationships between biological and environmental variables were assessed through redundancy analysis. K and LSI indexes, AChE and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, total glutathione levels and the antioxidant enzymes CAT, GR, and SOD where the factors most discriminating reference (Minho River estuary) from contaminated estuaries (Lima and Douro Rivers estuaries). Moreover, the most striking outcomes of pollutants exposure on biological responses were observed during winter, probably due to a joint effect of cold weather and pollution stress. Altogether, the results indicate that the development of eels in the polluted estuaries of Lima and Douro rivers is interfering with physiological functions determinant for their survival

  18. Mastacembelid eels support Lake Tanganyika as an evolutionary hotspot of diversification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lake Tanganyika (LT) is the oldest of the African Rift Lakes and is one of the richest freshwater ecosystems on Earth, with high levels of faunal diversity and endemism. The endemic species flocks that occur in this lake, such as cichlid fishes, gastropods, catfish and crabs, provide unique comparative systems for the study of patterns and processes of speciation. Mastacembelid eels (Teleostei: Mastacembelidae) are a predominately riverine family of freshwater fish, occurring across Africa and Asia, but which also form a small species flock in LT. Methods Including 25 species across Africa, plus Asian representatives as outgroups, we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis for the group, focusing particularly on the evolutionary history and biodiversity of LT mastacembelid eels. A combined matrix of nuclear and mitochondrial genes based on 3118 bp are analysed implementing different phylogenetic methods, including Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood. Results LT Mastacembelus are recovered as monophyletic, and analyses reveal the rapid diversification of five main LT lineages. Relaxed molecular clock dates provide age estimates for the LT flock at ~7-8 Myr, indicating intralacustrine diversification, with further speciation events coinciding with periods of lower lake level. Our analyses also reveal as yet undescribed diversity of lacustrine and riverine species. A Southern-Eastern African clade, that is younger than the LT flock, is also recovered, while West African taxa are basal members of the African mastacembelid clade. Conclusions That the LT species flock of mastacembelid eels appears to have colonised and immediately diversified soon after the formation of the lake, supports the view of LT as an evolutionary hotspot of diversification. We find evidence for biogeographic clades mirroring a similar pattern to other ichthyological faunas. In addition, our analyses also highlight a split of African and Asian mastacembelid eels at ~19

  19. Linear chemically sensitive electron tomography using DualEELS and dictionary-based compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    AlAfeef, Ala; Bobynko, Joanna; Cockshott, W Paul; Craven, Alan J; Zuazo, Ian; Barges, Patrick; MacLaren, Ian

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated the use of DualEELS in elementally sensitive tilt series tomography in the scanning transmission electron microscope. A procedure is implemented using deconvolution to remove the effects of multiple scattering, followed by normalisation by the zero loss peak intensity. This is performed to produce a signal that is linearly dependent on the projected density of the element in each pixel. This method is compared with one that does not include deconvolution (although normalisation by the zero loss peak intensity is still performed). Additionally, we compare the 3D reconstruction using a new compressed sensing algorithm, DLET, with the well-established SIRT algorithm. VC precipitates, which are extracted from a steel on a carbon replica, are used in this study. It is found that the use of this linear signal results in a very even density throughout the precipitates. However, when deconvolution is omitted, a slight density reduction is observed in the cores of the precipitates (a so-called cupping artefact). Additionally, it is clearly demonstrated that the 3D morphology is much better reproduced using the DLET algorithm, with very little elongation in the missing wedge direction. It is therefore concluded that reliable elementally sensitive tilt tomography using EELS requires the appropriate use of DualEELS together with a suitable reconstruction algorithm, such as the compressed sensing based reconstruction algorithm used here, to make the best use of the limited data volume and signal to noise inherent in core-loss EELS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phylogeography of two moray eels indicates high dispersal throughout the indo-pacific.

    PubMed

    Reece, Joshua S; Bowen, Brian W; Joshi, Kavita; Goz, Vadim; Larson, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Reef fishes disperse primarily as oceanic "pelagic" larvae, and debate continues over the extent of this dispersal, with recent evidence for geographically restricted (closed) populations in some species. In contrast, moray eels have the longest pelagic larval stages among reef fishes, possibly providing opportunities to disperse over great distances. We test this prediction by measuring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA variation in 2 species of moray eels, Gymnothorax undulatus (N = 165) and G. flavimarginatus (N = 124), sampled at 14-15 locations across the Indo-Pacific. The mtDNA data comprise 632 bp of cytochrome b and 596 bp of cytochrome oxidase I. Nuclear markers include 2 recombination-activating loci (421 bp of RAG-1 and 754 bp of RAG-2). Analyses of molecular variance and Mantel tests indicate little or no genetic differentiation, and no isolation by distance, across 22 000 km of the Indo-Pacific. We estimate that mitochondrial genetic variation coalesces within the past about 2.3 million years (My) for G. flavimarginatus and within the past about 5.9 My for G. undulatus. Permutation tests of geographic distance on the mitochondrial haplotype networks indicate recent range expansions for some younger haplotypes (estimated within approximately 600 000 years) and episodic fragmentation of populations at times of low sea level. Our results support the predictions that the extended larval durations of moray eels enable ocean-wide genetic continuity of populations. This is the first phylogeographic survey of the moray eels, and morays are the first reef fishes known to be genetically homogeneous across the entire Indo-Pacific.

  1. Raman and Eels Studies on Nanocrystalline Diamond Prepared in a Low Pressure Inductively Coupled Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    plasma (ICP).6 The resultant deposits were found to be nanocrystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon ( DLC ) W 12.7.1 films as characterized by scanning...paper, we first review the previous Raman and HREELS results, then report the high resolution TEM ( HRTEM ) observations and the EELS measurements of the...elsewhere.6 The nanocrystalline diamond and DLC were grown in an ICP at 1 kW, 900 VC of the substrate (silicon wafer) temperature, 2 hours of the

  2. Uptake and elimination of cadmium by Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica, at various temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.N.; Chen, H.C.

    1996-04-01

    There is no evidence that cadmium is biologically essential, but its toxicity to organisms is well known. The so-called Itai-Itai disease in Japan, characterized by osteomalacia and renal tubular malfunction, has been attributed to cadmium poisoning in irrigation water. The degree of contamination in aquatic environments is frequently assessed by comparing contaminant concentrations in associated biota. Bioaccumulation, however, is influenced by environmental factors other than the degree of contamination, environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and pH. The use of cadmium in the electroplating industry in Taiwan is intensive, but the wastewater used in this industry is seldom treated and has been a serious problem. The Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) is an important freshwater aquacultural fish in Taiwan; thus, it is important to know the accumulation and elimination of cadmium in the Japanese eel due to cadmium-polluted water at various temperatures in order to protect eel resources as well as human health. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The European Eel NCCβ Gene Encodes a Thiazide-resistant Na-Cl Cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Erika; Plata, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Gama, Alejandro; Argaiz, Eduardo R; Vázquez, Norma; Leyva-Ríos, Karla; Islas, León; Cutler, Christopher; Pacheco-Alvarez, Diana; Mercado, Adriana; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Castañeda-Bueno, María; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-10-21

    The thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian distal convoluted tubule. NCC plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure. Its inhibition with thiazides constitutes the primary baseline therapy for arterial hypertension. However, the thiazide-binding site in NCC is unknown. Mammals have only one gene encoding for NCC. The eel, however, contains a duplicate gene. NCCα is an ortholog of mammalian NCC and is expressed in the kidney. NCCβ is present in the apical membrane of the rectum. Here we cloned and functionally characterized NCCβ from the European eel. The cRNA encodes a 1043-amino acid membrane protein that, when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, functions as an Na-Cl cotransporter with two major characteristics, making it different from other known NCCs. First, eel NCCβ is resistant to thiazides. Single-point mutagenesis supports that the absence of thiazide inhibition is, at least in part, due to the substitution of a conserved serine for a cysteine at position 379. Second, NCCβ is not activated by low-chloride hypotonic stress, although the unique Ste20-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) binding site in the amino-terminal domain is conserved. Thus, NCCβ exhibits significant functional differences from NCCs that could be helpful in defining several aspects of the structure-function relationship of this important cotransporter. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Transcriptomic profiling of male European eel (Anguilla anguilla) livers at sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Churcher, Allison M; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Milan, Massimo; Huertas, Mar; Hubbard, Peter C; Bargelloni, Luca; Patarnello, Tomaso; Marino, Ilaria A M; Zane, Lorenzo; Canário, Adelino V M

    2015-12-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla has a complex life cycle that includes freshwater, seawater and morphologically distinct stages as well as two extreme long distance migrations. Eels do not feed as they migrate across the Atlantic to the Sargasso Sea but nevertheless reach sexual maturity before spawning. It is not yet clear how existing energy stores are used to reach the appropriate developmental state for reproduction. Since the liver is involved in energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis and endocrine regulation it is expected to play a key role in the regulation of reproductive development. We therefore used microarrays to identify genes that may be involved in this process. Using this approach, we identified 231 genes that were expressed at higher and 111 genes that were expressed at lower levels in sexually mature compared with immature males. The up-regulated set includes genes involved in lipid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis and transport, mitochondrial function, steroid transport and bile acid metabolism. Several genes with putative enzyme functions were also expressed at higher levels at sexual maturity while genes involved in immune system processes and protein biosynthesis tended to be down-regulated at this stage. By using a high-throughput approach, we have identified a subset of genes that may be linked with the mobilization of energy stores for sexual maturation and migration. These results contribute to an improved understanding of eel reproductive biology and provide insight into the role of the liver in other teleosts with a long distance spawning migrations.

  5. Improving the measurement of dielectric function by TEM-EELS: avoiding the retardation effect.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Norihito; Tanda, Luka; Kunisada, Yuji

    2016-10-01

    We investigated an improved Kramers-Kronig analysis (KKA) routine for measuring the dielectric function of α-Al2O3, avoiding the retardation effect arising in electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The EELS data differed from the optical data in the energy range of 10-20 eV due to the retardation effect, even though Cerenkov loss was thoroughly suppressed. The calculated differential cross-section indicates that the influence of the retardation appears at scattering angles less than 0.2 mrad in the loss energy range of 10-15 eV. Using the improved KKA routine, we obtained the correct dielectric function that agreed with the optical data. The present technique is especially useful in measuring the dielectric function by EELS with a small collection semi-angle. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Electron spectroscopic study (ESI, EELS) of Nanoplast-embedded mammalian lung.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbach, H; Richter, J; Schnabel, P A

    1992-06-01

    The potential of Nanoplast melamine resin embedding for the study of mammalian lung parenchyma was examined by means of electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Samples were either fixed with glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde or glutaraldehyde-tannic acid, or were directly transferred to the embedding medium without prior fixation. Organic dehydrants, as well as fixatives containing heavy metals and stains, were omitted. A very high level of ultrastructural detail of chromatin, ribosomes, mitochondria and plasma membranes was achieved by ESI from the Nanoplast-embedded samples. The most prominent gain in ultrastructural detail was achieved when moving from an energy loss just below the L2,3 edge of phosphorus at 132 eV to an energy loss just beyond this edge. This reflects the prominent P L2,3 edge observed by EELS of Nanoplast-embedded samples in comparison with conventionally processed samples. Thus, taking into account possible sectioning artefacts, excellent heterochromatin images which rely on the phosphorus distribution can be obtained from Nanoplast-embedded samples by computer-assisted analysis of electron spectroscopic images. In this respect glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde fixation is preferable to glutaraldehyde-tannic acid fixation because the presence of silicon, revealed by EELS, in tannic-acid-fixed samples may introduce artefacts in phosphorus distribution images obtained by the three-window method because of the close proximity of the L2,3 edges of silicon and phosphorus.

  7. Direct calorimetry of free-moving eels with manipulated thyroid status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ginneken, Vincent; Ballieux, Bart; Antonissen, Erik; van der Linden, Rob; Gluvers, Ab; van den Thillart, Guido

    2007-02-01

    In birds and mammals, the thyroid gland secretes the iodothyronine hormones of which tetraiodothyronine (T4) is less active than triiodothyronine (T3). The action of T3 and T4 is calorigenic and is involved in the control of metabolic rate. Across all vertebrates, thyroid hormones also play a major role in differentiation, development and growth. Although the fish thyroidal system has been researched extensively, its role in thermogenesis is unclear. In this study, we measured overall heat production to an accuracy of 0.1 mW by direct calorimetry in a free-moving European eel ( Anguilla anguilla L.) with different thyroid status. Hyperthyroidism was induced by injection of T3 and T4, and hypothyroidism was induced with phenylthiourea. The results show for the first time at the organismal level, using direct calorimetry, that neither overall heat production nor overall oxygen consumption in eels is affected by hyperthyroidism. Therefore, we conclude that the thermogenic metabolism-stimulating effect of thyroid hormones (TH) is not present with a cold-blooded fish species like the European eel. This supports the concept that TH does not stimulate thermogenesis in poikilothermic species.

  8. Granulomatous Skin Lesions in Moray Eels Caused by a Novel Mycobacterium Species Related to Mycobacterium triplex

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Lawrence H.; Costa, Sylvia F.; Weiss, Louis M.; Johnson, Linda K.; Bartell, John; Davis, Raymond; Walsh, Michael; Levi, Michael

    2001-01-01

    An outbreak of granulomatous dermatitis was investigated in a captive population of moray eels. The affected eels had florid skin nodules concentrated around the head and trunk. Histopathological examination revealed extensive granulomatous inflammation within the dermis and subcutaneous fascial plane between the fat and axial musculature. Acid-fast rods were detected within the smallest lesions, which were presumably the ones that had developed earliest. Eventually, after several months of incubation at room temperature, a very slowly growing acid-fast organism was isolated. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified it as a Mycobacterium species closely related (0.59% divergence) to M. triplex, an SAV mycobacterium. Intradermal inoculation of healthy green moray eels with this organism reliably reproduced the lesion. Experimentally induced granulomatous dermatitis appeared within 2 weeks of inoculation and slowly but progressively expanded during the 2 months of the experiment. Live organisms were recovered from these lesions at all time points, fulfilling Koch's postulates for this bacterium. In a retrospective study of tissues collected between 1993 and 1999 from five spontaneous disease cases, acid-fast rods were consistently found within lesions, and a nested PCR for the rRNA gene also demonstrated the presence of mycobacteria within affected tissues. PMID:11402008

  9. A STEM/EELS method for mapping iron valence ratios in oxide minerals.

    PubMed

    Cavé, Lisa; Al, Tom; Loomer, Diana; Cogswell, Steven; Weaver, Louise

    2006-01-01

    The valence state of iron in minerals has useful applications in the geosciences for estimating redox conditions during mineral formation or re-equilibration. STEM/EELS techniques offer the advantage over other methods of being able to measure Fe valence with very high spatial resolution across mineral grains and grain boundaries. We have modified an EELS method for point analyses of iron valence ratios (Fe(3+)/SigmaFe) making it possible to generate line scans and maps of Fe valence. We demonstrate this method with measurements at an interface between iron-bearing oxides in a finely intergrown sample of magnetite and ilmenite. The STEM/EELS method is based on a calibrated relationship between Fe(3+)/SigmaFe and the relative intensities of the Fe L(3) and L(2) white lines in core energy-loss spectra for oxide and silicate minerals. Our method overcomes problems of energy drift in spectrum images by aligning energy-loss edges at a fixed energy position prior to background removal. An automated routine for batch processing of core loss spectra, including additional background removal and calculation of Fe L(3)/L(2) intensity ratios, allows for rapid Fe(3+)/SigmaFe determinations of multiple point analyses or spectrum images and the preparation of Fe valence maps, with an analytical error of +/-0.05 to +/-0.09 in the Fe(3+)/SigmaFe measurements.

  10. The genetic consequences of spatially varying selection in the panmictic American eel (Anguilla rostrata).

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Normandeau, Eric; Côté, Caroline; Møller Hansen, Michael; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-02-01

    Our understanding of the genetic basis of local adaptation has recently benefited from the increased power to identify functional variants associated with environmental variables at the genome scale. However, it often remains challenging to determine whether locally adaptive alleles are actively maintained at intermediate frequencies by spatially varying selection. Here, we evaluate the extent to which this particular type of balancing selection explains the retention of adaptive genetic variation in the extreme situation of perfect panmixia, using the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) as a model. We first conducted a genome scan between two samples from opposite ends of a latitudinal environmental gradient using 454 sequencing of individually tagged cDNA libraries. Candidate SNPs were then genotyped in 992 individuals from 16 sampling sites at different life stages of the same cohort (including larvae from the Sargasso Sea, glass eels, and 1-year-old individuals) as well as in glass eels of the following cohort. Evidence for spatially varying selection was found at 13 loci showing correlations between allele frequencies and environmental variables across the entire species range. Simulations under a multiple-niche Levene's model using estimated relative fitness values among genotypes rarely predicted a stable polymorphic equilibrium at these loci. Our results suggest that some genetic-by-environment interactions detected in our study arise during the progress toward fixation of a globally advantageous allele with spatially variable effects on fitness.

  11. EELS Analysis of Nylon 6 Nanofibers Reinforced with Nitroxide-Functionalized Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Porras, César; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C; Miki-Yoshida, M; Avila-Vega, Yazmín I; Macossay, Javier; Bonilla-Cruz, José

    2014-01-01

    A detailed analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of nitroxide-functionalized graphene oxide layers (GOFT) dispersed in Nylon 6 nanofibers is reported herein. The functionalization and exfoliation process of graphite oxide to GOFT was confirmed by TEM using electron diffraction patterns (EDP), wherein 1 to 4 graphene layers of GOFT were observed. The distribution and alignment of GOFT layers within a sample of Nylon 6 nanofiber reveals that GOFT platelets are mainly within the fiber, but some were partially protruding from it. Furthermore, Nylon 6 nanofibers exhibit an average diameter of 225 nm with several microns in length. GOFT platelets embedded into the fiber, the pristine fiber, and amorphous carbon were analyzed by EELS where each spectra [corresponding to the carbon edge (C-K)] exhibited changes in the fine structure, allowing a clear distinction between: i) GOFT single-layers, ii) Nylon-6 nanofibers, and iii) the carbon substrate. EELS analysis is presented here for the first time as a powerful tool to identify functionalized graphene single-layers (< 4 layers of GOFT) into a Nylon 6 nanofiber composite.

  12. EELS Analysis of Nylon 6 Nanofibers Reinforced with Nitroxide-Functionalized Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Porras, César; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Avila-Vega, Yazmín I.; Macossay, Javier; Bonilla-Cruz, José

    2014-01-01

    A detailed analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of nitroxide-functionalized graphene oxide layers (GOFT) dispersed in Nylon 6 nanofibers is reported herein. The functionalization and exfoliation process of graphite oxide to GOFT was confirmed by TEM using electron diffraction patterns (EDP), wherein 1 to 4 graphene layers of GOFT were observed. The distribution and alignment of GOFT layers within a sample of Nylon 6 nanofiber reveals that GOFT platelets are mainly within the fiber, but some were partially protruding from it. Furthermore, Nylon 6 nanofibers exhibit an average diameter of 225 nm with several microns in length. GOFT platelets embedded into the fiber, the pristine fiber, and amorphous carbon were analyzed by EELS where each spectra [corresponding to the carbon edge (C-K)] exhibited changes in the fine structure, allowing a clear distinction between: i) GOFT single-layers, ii) Nylon-6 nanofibers, and iii) the carbon substrate. EELS analysis is presented here for the first time as a powerful tool to identify functionalized graphene single-layers (< 4 layers of GOFT) into a Nylon 6 nanofiber composite. PMID:24634536

  13. Anisakis pegreffii Larvae in Sea Eels (Astroconger myriaster) from the South Sea, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jaeeun; Lim, Hyemi; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-01-01

    Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.), Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis berlandi (=A. simplex sp. C), and Anisakis typica are the 4 major species of Anisakis type I larvae. In the Republic of Korea (Korea), A. pegreffii, A. berlandi, and A. typica larvae in fish hosts has seldom been documented. In this study, molecular analysis was performed on Anisakis larvae from the sea eels (Astroconger myriaster), the major source of human anisakiasis in Korea, collected from Tongyeong City, a southern coastal area of Korea. All 20 sea eels examined were infected with Anisakis type I larvae (160 larvae; 8 per fish). Their species were analyzed using PCR-RFLP patterns and nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, 5.8 subunit gene, and ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2). Most (86.8%; 112/129) of the Anisakis type I larvae were A. pegreffii, and 7.8% (10/129) were A. typica. The remaining 5.4% (7/129) was not identified. Thus, A. pegreffii is the major species of anisakid larvae in sea eels of the southern coast of Korea. PMID:26174831

  14. Anisakis pegreffii Larvae in Sea Eels (Astroconger myriaster) from the South Sea, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaeeun; Lim, Hyemi; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-06-01

    Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.), Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis berlandi (=A. simplex sp. C), and Anisakis typica are the 4 major species of Anisakis type I larvae. In the Republic of Korea (Korea), A. pegreffii, A. berlandi, and A. typica larvae in fish hosts has seldom been documented. In this study, molecular analysis was performed on Anisakis larvae from the sea eels (Astroconger myriaster), the major source of human anisakiasis in Korea, collected from Tongyeong City, a southern coastal area of Korea. All 20 sea eels examined were infected with Anisakis type I larvae (160 larvae; 8 per fish). Their species were analyzed using PCR-RFLP patterns and nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, 5.8 subunit gene, and ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2). Most (86.8%; 112/129) of the Anisakis type I larvae were A. pegreffii, and 7.8% (10/129) were A. typica. The remaining 5.4% (7/129) was not identified. Thus, A. pegreffii is the major species of anisakid larvae in sea eels of the southern coast of Korea.

  15. Interspecific communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Bshary, Redouan; Hohner, Andrea; Ait-el-Djoudi, Karim; Fricke, Hans

    2006-12-01

    Intraspecific group hunting has received considerable attention because of the close links between cooperative behaviour and its cognitive demands. Accordingly, comparisons between species have focused on behaviours that can potentially distinguish between the different levels of cognitive complexity involved, such as "intentional" communication between partners in order to initiate a joint hunt, the adoption of different roles during a joint hunt (whether consistently or alternately), and the level of food sharing following a successful hunt. Here we report field observations from the Red Sea on the highly coordinated and communicative interspecific hunting between the grouper, Plectropomus pessuliferus, and the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus. We provide evidence of the following: (1) associations are nonrandom, (2) groupers signal to moray eels in order to initiate joint searching and recruit moray eels to prey hiding places, (3) signalling is dependent on grouper hunger level, and (4) both partners benefit from the association. The benefits of joint hunting appear to be due to complementary hunting skills, reflecting the evolved strategies of each species, rather than individual role specialisation during joint hunts. In addition, the partner species that catches a prey item swallows it whole immediately, making aggressive monopolisation of a carcass impossible. We propose that the potential for monopolisation of carcasses by one partner species represents the main constraint on the evolution of interspecific cooperative hunting for most potentially suitable predator combinations.

  16. Chemical Analysis of Individual Aerosols Particles by Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buseck, P. R.; Buseck, P. R.; Garvie, L. A.; Li, J.; Posfai, M.

    2001-12-01

    We use electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to obtain chemical and bonding information on individual aerosol particles. EELS is ideally suited to this task because of its high spatial resolution and sensitivity to light elements such as C, N, and O. In addition, the spectral shapes provide information regarding bonding, atomic coordination and, for polyvalent elements, oxidation states. Our current focus is on carbonaceous aerosols both in the ambient air and emissions from biomass burning, with emphasis on the heterogeneous chemistry, particle structure, and chemical composition of soot particles. From the EELS spectra we were able to record for the first time, differences in composition between individual spherules within the same soot aggregate. We also found evidence of chemical variations even within individual soot spheres as small as 50 nm across. In the case of biomass burning, the most striking chemical differences are in the quantity of K, minor O and, in places, N. The quantity of elements associated with C decreases with the degree of graphitization of the soot spheres, as shown by the shapes of the C spectra and was corroborated by high-resolution TEM images of the analyzed particles. Knowledge of the degree of graphitization and quantity of associated elements is important for understanding and modeling their optical properties and in some case in source attributions.

  17. Sequencing and de novo assembly of the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Aedo, J E; Maldonado, J; Estrada, J M; Fuentes, E N; Silva, H; Gallardo-Escarate, C; Molina, A; Valdés, J A

    2014-12-01

    The red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis) is an endemic fish species distributed along the coasts of the Eastern South Pacific. Biological studies on this fish are scarce, and genomic information for G. chilensis is practically non-existent. Thus, transcriptome information for this species is an essential resource that will greatly enrich molecular information and benefit future studies of red cusk-eel biology. In this work, we obtained transcriptome information of G. chilensis using the Illumina platform. The RNA sequencing generated 66,307,362 and 59,925,554 paired-end reads from skeletal muscle and liver tissues, respectively. De novo assembly using the CLC Genomic Workbench version 7.0.3 produced 48,480 contigs and created a reference transcriptome with a N50 of 846bp and average read coverage of 28.3×. By sequence similarity search for known proteins, a total of 21,272 (43.9%) contigs were annotated for their function. Out of these annotated contigs, 33.5% GO annotation results for biological processes, 32.6% GO annotation results for cellular components and 34.5% GO annotation results for molecular functions. This dataset represents the first transcriptomic resource for the red cusk-eel and for a member of the Ophidiimorpharia taxon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. HRTEM and EELS study of screw dislocation cores in SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zaoli; Sigle, Wilfried; Kurtz, Wolfgang

    2004-04-01

    A [100] twist low-angle grain boundary in SrTiO3 was systemically studied by means of conventional transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), lattice distortion analysis, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). A dislocation network is formed in the grain boundary by two sets of a<100> screw dislocations. HRTEM images show that the image contrast in the core region is different from that in the surrounding bulk. Image analysis reveals that compared with an ideal screw dislocation the dislocation core is expanded, probably due to both surface relaxation and a reconstruction of the core. The EELS spectra show a small increase of the Ti/O ratio but no significant change of the Sr/Ti ratio in the core region. From the increase of the Ti/O ratio it is concluded that the dislocation cores are oxygen deficient, which may be responsible for the expansion of the core. Ti L2,3 EELS spectra show a reduction of Ti in the screw dislocation cores as well as a reduced crystal field splitting, both of which are in accordance with a loss of oxygen.

  19. The European eel may tolerate multiple infections at a low biological cost.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Hernández, Elvira; Serrano, Emmanuel; Peñalver, Jose; García-Ayala, Alfonsa; Ruiz de Ybáñez, Rocío; Muñoz, Pilar

    2015-06-01

    Most animals are concurrently infected with multiple parasites, and interactions among them may influence both disease dynamics and host fitness. However, the sublethal costs of parasite infections are difficult to measure and the effects of concomitant infections with multiple parasite species on individual physiology and fitness are poorly described for wild hosts. To understand the costs of co-infection, we investigated the relationships among 189 European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mar Menor, parasites (richness and intensity) and eel's 'health status' (fluctuant asymmetry, splenic somatic index and the scaled mass index) by partial least squares regression. We found a positive relationship with 44% of the health status variance explained by parasites. Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) was the strongest predictor variable (44·72%) followed by Bucephalus anguillae (Platyhelminthes: Bucephalidae), (29·26%), considered the two most relevant parasites in the analysis. Subsequently, 15·67 and 12·01% of the response variables block were explained by parasite richness and Deropristis inflata (Platyhelminthes: Deropristiidae), respectively. Thus, the presence of multiple parasitic exposures with little effect on condition, strongly suggests that eels from Mar Menor tolerate multiparasitism.

  20. An EELS study of the oxidation of H 2CO on Ag(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuve, E. M.; Madix, R. J.; Sexton, B. A.

    1982-07-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to study the oxidation of H 2CO by preadsorbed oxygen atoms on Ag(110). H 2CO reacted with O (a) upon adsorption at 100 K to give a product with intense symmetric and asymmetric OCO stretching modes at 960 and 1100 cm -1, respectively. These frequencies differed from those expected for adsorbed formate. Upon heating H 2CO (g) was evolved at about 225 K. EELS data taken after annealing to 225 K suggested the presence of an η 2-methylenedioxy intermediate (H 2CO 2(a)) which dehydrogenated to give adsorbed, ordered formate (HCOO (a)) and H 2(g) above 225 K. The overall stoichiometry combined with the EELS data strongly suggested a polymeric form of H 2CO at 100 K, probably paraformaldehyde. The decomposition to HCOO (a) was complete at about 250 K leaving only formate intermediates on the surface. The formate produced in this fashion was identical to ordered formate produced upon adsorption of formic acid on oxygen precovered Ag(110).

  1. Printing Silver Nanogrids on Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Wesley C.; Valcarce, Ron; Iles, Peter; Smith, James S.; Glass, Gabe; Gomez, Jesus; Johnson, Glen; Johnston, Dan; Morham, Maclaine; Befus, Elliot; Oz, Aimee; Tomaraei, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript describes a laboratory experiment that provides students with an opportunity to create conductive silver nanogrids using polymeric templates. A microcontact-printed polyvinylpyrrolidone grid directs the citrate-induced reduction of silver ions for the fabrication of silver nanogrids on glass substrates. In addition to…

  2. Absorbent silver (I) antimicrobial fabrics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, silver in form of silver ions, has been gaining importance in the wound management as an effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Silver has a long history as an antimicrobial agent, especially in the treatment of wounds. Alginates and carboxymethyl (CM) cotton contain carboxyl...

  3. Intravesical nanocrystalline silver decreases experimental bladder inflammation.

    PubMed

    Boucher, W; Stern, J M; Kotsinyan, V; Kempuraj, D; Papaliodis, D; Cohen, M S; Theoharides, T C

    2008-04-01

    Interstitial cystitis is a sterile bladder inflammatory disease characterized by pelvic pain, urinary urgency and frequency. Nanocrystalline silver has anti-inflammatory properties, prompting us to investigate its effect in experimental bladder inflammation. Nanocrystalline silver (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5% or 1%) or phosphate buffered saline (Invitrogen) (0.5 ml) was introduced intravesically in Sprague-Dawley female rat (Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, Massachusetts) bladders for 20 minutes, followed by vehicle or protamine sulfate (10 mg/ml for 30 minutes) and lipopolysaccharide (Sigma) (2 mg/ml for 45 minutes). Urine was collected throughout for histamine assay. The catheter was removed, the rat was returned to its cage and 4 hours later it was sacrificed. The bladder was harvested, minced and cultured overnight. The medium was collected for tumor necrosis factor-alpha assay. Mean +/- SD total urine histamine increased from 270 +/- 190 ng in 4 controls to 842 +/- 239 ng after protamine sulfate/lipopolysaccharide and it decreased to 505 +/- 187 ng in 6 animals after pretreatment with 1% nanocrystalline silver (p = 0.036). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in explant medium increased from 0.02 +/- 0.03 pg/mg in 6 controls to 0.28 +/- 0.15 pg/mg in 14 animals after treatment with protamine sulfate/lipopolysaccharide and it decreased to 0.12 +/- 0.11 pg/mg in 10 animals pretreated with nanocrystalline silver (p = 0.009). Nanocrystalline silver was not effective at less than 1% and at 1% alone it released 0.05 +/- 0.07 pg/mg tumor necrosis factor-alpha in 7 rats (vs phosphate buffered saline in 6, p = 0.387). Nanocrystalline silver (1%) significantly decreased bladder inflammation and mast cell activation. These effects were apparent even 4 days later. Intravesical administration of nanocrystalline silver (1%) decreased urine histamine, bladder tumor necrosis factor-alpha and mast cell activation without any toxic effect. This action may be useful for

  4. Ternary Silver Halide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Abeyweera, Sasitha C; Rasamani, Kowsalya D; Sun, Yugang

    2017-07-18

    Nanocrystalline silver halides (AgX) such as AgCl, AgBr, and AgI, a class of semiconductor materials with characteristics of both direct and indirect band gaps, represent the most crucial components in traditional photographic processing. The nanocrystal surfaces provide sensitivity specks that can turn into metallic silver, forming an invisible latent image, upon exposure to light. The photographic processing implies that the AgX nanoparticles possess unique properties. First, pristine AgX nanoparticles absorb light only at low efficiency to convert surface AgX into tiny clusters of silver atoms. Second, AgX nanoparticles represent an excellent class of materials to capture electrons efficiently. Third, small metallic silver clusters can catalyze the reduction of AgX nanoparticles to Ag nanoparticles in the presence of mild reducing reagents, known as self-catalytic reduction. These properties indicate that AgX nanoparticles can be partially converted to metallic silver with high precision, leading to the formation of hybrid AgX/Ag nanoparticles. The nanosized metallic Ag usually exhibit intense absorption bands in the visible spectral region due to their strong surface plasmon resonances, which make the AgX/Ag nanoparticles a class of promising visible-light-driven photocatalysts for environmental remediation and CO2 reduction. Despite the less attention paid to their ability of capturing electrons, AgX nanoparticles might be a class of ideal electron shuttle materials to bridge light absorbers and catalysts on which electrons can drive chemical transformations. In this Account, we focus on ternary silver halide alloy (TSHA) nanoparticles, containing two types of halide ions, which increase the composition complexity of the silver halide nanoparticles. Interdiffusion of halide ions between two types of AgX at elevated temperatures has been developed for fabricating ternary silver halide alloy crystals, such as silver chlorobromide optical fibers for infrared

  5. Genital swellings in silvered langurs: what do they indicate?

    PubMed

    Shelmidine, Nichole; Borries, Carola; Koenig, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    The occurrence of genital swellings was examined in adult female silvered langurs (Trachypithecus cristatus). In contrast to the exaggerated swellings found in cercopithecines and apes, genital swellings in silvered langurs are confined to the vulva and the surrounding perineum, but they may nevertheless convey information similar to that of exaggerated swellings (i.e., correlate with the receptive period and fertility). If so, genital swellings would be expected to occur most frequently in cycling females, and sexual behavior and male interest should most frequently involve females with swellings. Swellings during gestation, if they occur at all, should be most pronounced at the beginning. Swelling sizes (in three size categories) in nine adult females were examined throughout different reproductive states (cycling, pregnant, and lactating), and in relation to proceptivity, receptivity, and attractivity. Data were collected from November 2002 through March 2004 (on 500 of the 502 calendar days) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Female sexual behavior (proceptivity and receptivity) and male inspection (attractivity) were recorded each day for 6 hr by video camera (2,948 hr total) and analyzed as present or absent for each female day. Swellings were assessed directly (not from videotapes). In contrast to the predictions, swellings occurred significantly less frequently in cycling females (compared to pregnant females) and no regular, cyclic pattern could be detected. Some females conceived without a swelling. Female attractivity was independent of swellings but coincided with proceptive behavior. Swellings occurred most frequently in pregnant females, especially toward the end of the gestation period. Therefore, genital swellings in silvered langurs are not similar to exaggerated swellings or the smaller genital swellings that have been described for some other primates. It is currently not clear what they signal to conspecifics. Male behavior needs

  6. Tunable optical properties of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam

    2014-05-01

    Tunable optical properties of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell including surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and resonance light scattering (RLS) based on quasi-static theory are investigated. When the silver core radius increases, the longer resonance wavelength red shifts and light scattering cross-section decreases whereas the shorter resonance wavelength blue shifts and the light scattering cross-section increases. The effect of middle dielectric thickness on the light scattering cross-section of nanoshell is different from those of the silver core radius changes. As middle dielectric radius increases, the longer resonance wavelength first blue shifts and then red shifts and the light scattering cross-section increases whereas the shorter resonance wavelength always red shifts and the light scattering cross-section decreases. The sensitivity of RLS to the refractive index of embedding medium is also reported. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness leads to increase the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. Tunable optical properties of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell verify the biosensing potential of this nanostructure.

  7. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  8. Natural hybrids in Atlantic eels (Anguilla anguilla, A. rostrata): evidence for successful reproduction and fluctuating abundance in space and time.

    PubMed

    Albert, Vicky; Jónsson, Bjarni; Bernatchez, Louis

    2006-06-01

    The outcome of natural hybridization is highly variable and depends on the nonexclusive effects of both pre- and post-mating reproductive barriers. The objective of this study was to address three specific questions regarding the dynamics of hybridization between the American and European eels (Anguilla rostrata and Anguilla anguilla). Using 373 AFLP loci, 1127 eels were genotyped, representing different life stages from both continents, as well as multiple Icelandic locations. We first evaluated the extent of hybridization and tested for the occurrence of hybrids beyond the first generation. Second, we tested whether hybrids were randomly distributed across continents and among Icelandic sampling sites. Third, we tested for a difference in the proportion of hybrids between glass eel and yellow eel stages in Iceland. Our results provided evidence for (i) an overall hybrid proportion of 15.5% in Iceland, with values ranging from 6.7% to 100% depending on life stages and locations; (ii) the existence of hybrids beyond the first generation; (iii) a nonrandom geographic distribution of hybrids in the North Atlantic; and (iv) a higher proportion of first and later generation hybrids in yellow eels compared to glass eels, as well as a significant latitudinal gradient in the proportion of hybrids in Icelandic freshwater. We propose that the combined effect of both differential survival of hybrids and variation in hybridization rate through time best explain these patterns. We discuss the possibility that climate change, which is impacting many environmental features in the North Atlantic, may have a determinant effect on the outcome of natural hybridization in Atlantic eels.

  9. Is the Atlantic surface temperature a good proxy for forecasting the recruitment of European eel in the Guadalquivir estuary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Estrada, Juan Carlos; Pulido-Calvo, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    This study analysed the possibility of using the sea surface temperature (SST) of the Atlantic Ocean to predict the recruitment of European eels in one of the most important estuaries of the south of Europe. For this purpose, two different time series concerning glass eel in the Guadalquivir estuary (the first obtained from a set of fishery-independent experimental samplings in this estuary and the second from an unofficial database on commercial catches provided by one of the main local marketer-buyers) were standardised to obtain a single time series on a monthly scale. This series was correlated with a total of 368 SST time series for 368 sectors of 1.95° × 1.95° of the Atlantic Ocean covering the possible migration routes of adult eels and leptocephalous larvae. The significant sectors were clustered and selected as inputs for artificial neural network models (ANNs) with the objective of obtaining a model to forecast glass eel recruitment. Globally, the best result was given by an ANN with only 12 clusters as input variables and 35 neurons in the hidden layer. For this configuration, the explained variance in the test phase was slightly higher than 79%. These results were significantly better than those obtained with classical methods. The strong correlation between predicted and observed glass eel abundance suggests that: (a) there is a marked non-linear relationship between SST and glass eel recruitment in the Guadalquivir estuary; (b) SST is a good proxy for predicting glass eel recruitment and; (c) one of the main factors responsible for the changes in abundance of this species is changes in the ocean conditions.

  10. Adhesives, silver amalgam.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    The most recent advancement in silver amalgam is use of resin formulations to bond metal to tooth both chemically &/or physically, Since, historically, amalgam has been used successfully without adhesion to tooth, obvious clinical question is: Why is bonding now desirable? Two major clinical reasons to bond are: (1) Adhesive can increase fracture resistance of amalgam restored teeth & decrease cusp fractures; & (2) Seal provided by adhesive can greatly decrease, & often eliminate post-operative sensitivity. Following report summarizes CRA laboratory study of shear bond strength & sealing capability of 23 commercial adhesives used to bond 2 types of silver amalgam to tooth structure.

  11. Swimbladder function and the spawning migration of the European eel Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The spawning migration of the European eel is an extensive journey over 5000 to 7000 km from the European coast to the Sargasso Sea. Eels do not feed during this journey and on-board fuels must be sufficient to support the journey of 3.5 to 6 month, as well as sexual maturation and the spawning activity. Swimming of eels appears to be quite energy efficient compared to other fish species, and elevated hydrostatic pressure has been shown to even reduce the costs of transport. Recent studies revealed, however, that during traveling eels perform extensive diurnal migrations and swim at a depth of about 100-300 m at night time, but go down to 600-1000 m at day time. At a depth of 200 m eels are exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 21 atmospheres (2.13 MPa), while at 800 m hydrostatic pressure increases to 81 atmospheres (8.21 MPa). Accordingly, without any compensation at a depth of 800 m swimbladder volume will be reduced to about 25% of the volume established with neutral buoyancy at 200 m. Consequently, these diurnal changes in depth must be taken into consideration for a calculation of the energy requirements of the spawning migration. Without compensation a compression of the swimbladder will result in a status of negative buoyancy, which makes swimming more costly. Trying to keep the status of neutral buoyancy during descent by gas secretion into the swimbladder in turn requires metabolic activity to enhance swimbladder perfusion and for acid production of the gas gland cells to stimulate gas secretion. During ascent gas is passively removed from the swimbladder in the resorbing section and in the blood transported to the gills, where it is lost into the water. Accordingly, the swimbladder appears to be a crucial organ for the spawning migration. It can be assumed that an impairment of swimbladder function for example due to an infection with the nematode Anguillicola crassus significantly threatens the success of the spawning migration.

  12. Interference of Steroidogenesis by Gold Nanorod Core/Silver Shell Nanostructures: Implications for Reproductive Toxicity of Silver Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiumei; Wang, Liming; Ji, Yinglu; Tang, Jinglong; Tian, Xin; Cao, Mingjing; Li, Jingxuan; Bi, Shuying; Wu, Xiaochun; Chen, Chunying; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2017-03-01

    As a widely used nanomaterial in daily life, silver nanomaterials may cause great concern to female reproductive system as they are found to penetrate the blood-placental barrier and gain access to the ovary. However, it is largely unknown about how silver nanomaterials influence ovarian physiology and functions such as hormone production. This study performs in vitro toxicology study of silver nanomaterials, focusing especially on cytotoxicity and steroidogenesis and explores their underlying mechanisms. This study exposes primary rat granulosa cells to gold nanorod core/silver shell nanostructures (Au@Ag NRs), and compares outcomes with cells exposed to gold nanorods. The Au@Ag NRs generate more reactive oxygen species and reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and less production of adenosine triphosphate. Au@Ag NRs promote steroidogenesis, including progesterone and estradiol, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Chemical reactivity and transformation of Au@Ag NRs are then studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure, which analyze the generation of free radical and intracellular silver species. Results suggest that both particle-specific activity and intracellular silver ion release of Au@Ag NR contribute to the toxic response of granulosa cells.

  13. Landslide Sediment Production in the Middle Fork Eel River: 1940-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Snavely, W. P.; Miller, A. R.; Elder, D.

    2003-12-01

    A sequential air photo analysis was conducted by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and North State Resources in the 753 square mile Middle Fork Eel River basin, under contract to US Environmental Protection Agency as part of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. All landslides visible on air photos which appeared to deliver sediment to the stream system were mapped, and the delivered volume estimated. Landslides on undisturbed hillslopes were classified as natural, those within recently burned areas as fire-related, those in harvest units as harvest-related, and those adjacent to roads as road-related. About 5% of the landslides were field verified. Data were then summed for three air photo intervals, spanning the period 1940-2002. A total of 4,122 landslides were inventoried, delivering a total of 24,969,836 cubic yards of sediment to the stream system, and occupying 13,526 acres. The photo interval 1940-1969 accounted for 79% of the delivered volume, 1970-1984 for 8%, and 1985-2002 for 13%. This pattern is similar to that observed in many NW California watersheds where the storms of 1955 and 1964 generated large volumes of landslide sediment. Landslide volume per unit area delivered to streams from 1940-2002 averaged 0.84 cubic yards/acre/year for the Middle Fork Eel, and was highest in the Black Butte River, and Williams-Thatcher subwatersheds which exhibited rates of 1.55 and 1.31 cubic yards/acre/year respectively. The lowest delivery rates were in Upper Middle Fork (0.29), and Round Valley (0.44). Natural landslides accounted for 89.9% of the total, fire-related for 1.9%, harvest-related for 0.4%, road-related for 3.4%, and undetermined 4.4%. A large proportion of the total delivered sediment originated from the toes of large deep seated landslides adjacent to streams. Many of these landslides exhibited multiple years of activity, shedding debris slides of varying sizes at different times. The mapped active landslides are concentrated near streams, but

  14. Synergistic and singular effects of river discharge and lunar illumination on dam passage of upstream migrant yellow-phase American eels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Aldinger, Joni L.; Braham, Melissa; Zimmerman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of dam passage can be useful for management and conservation assessments of American eel, particularly if passage counts can be examined over multiple years. During a 7-year study (2007–2013) of upstream migration of American eels within the lower Shenandoah River (Potomac River drainage), we counted and measured American eels at the Millville Dam eel pass, where annual study periods were determined by the timing of the eel pass installation during spring or summer and removal during fall. Daily American eel counts were analysed with negative binomial regression models, with and without a year (YR) effect, and with the following time-varying environmental covariates: river discharge of the Shenandoah River at Millville (RDM) and of the Potomac River at Point of Rocks, lunar illumination (LI), water temperature, and cloud cover. A total of 17 161 yellow-phase American eels used the pass during the seven annual periods, and length measurements were obtained from 9213 individuals (mean = 294 mm TL, s.e. = 0.49, range 183–594 mm). Data on passage counts of American eels supported an additive-effects model (YR + LI + RDM) where parameter estimates were positive for river discharge (β = 7.3, s.e. = 0.01) and negative for LI (β = −1.9, s.e. = 0.34). Interestingly, RDM and LI acted synergistically and singularly as correlates of upstream migration of American eels, but the highest daily counts and multiple-day passage events were associated with increased RDM. Annual installation of the eel pass during late spring or summer prevented an early spring assessment, a period with higher RDM relative to those values obtained during sampling periods. Because increases in river discharge are climatically controlled events, upstream migration events of American eels within the Potomac River drainage are likely linked to the influence of climate variability on flow regime.

  15. Spatial variations in the levels and isomeric patterns of PBDEs and HBCDs in the European eel in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Roosens, Laurence; Geeraerts, Caroline; Belpaire, Claude; Van Pelt, Ina; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    Pooled yellow eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) samples, consisting of 3-10 eels, from 50 locations collected in the period 2000-2006 were used to assess the pollution with PBDEs and HBCDs in Flemish waters (Belgium). Results from this monitoring network are presented and the spatial aspect throughout Flanders is included, linking POP levels to the industrial characteristics of the different sampling locations. The following PBDE congeners were measured using GC/MS: 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209. Concentrations of summation sigmaPBDE ranged between 10 and 5811 ng/g lipid weight (lw) with a median value of 81 ng/glw. BDE 47 dominated the PBDE profile in the majority of the eel samples, except for six samples, in which BDE 209 was the dominating congener. These latter samples are probably associated with recent exposure to the Deca-BDE mixture. Three HBCD diastereoisomers (alpha-, beta- and gamma-HBCD) were measured using LC/MS-MS. summation sigmaHBCDs ranged between 16 and 4397 ng/glw, with a median value of 73 ng/glw. alpha-HBCD was the dominant isomer in all eel samples. Sediment concentrations of PBDEs were available from four locations and were used to compare the PBDE profile with those in eel. An important shift in the profile was observed, especially for BDE 209. While BDE 209 was only found in 12 eel samples, it was the dominant congener in all sediment samples. This could be due to its metabolisation or degradation in biota combined with the poor uptake of BDE 209 from sediments and its very low water solubility. No HBCDs were detected in any of the sediment samples. No significant correlation could be found between concentrations of PBDEs in eel and sediment from the same location. Comparison with previous studies shows that PBDE and HBCD levels in Flemish eels have decreased rapidly between 2000 and 2006 at particular sites, but alarming concentrations can still be found at industrialized hot spots. This finding is reflected in the human

  16. Antibacterial activity and toxicity of silver - nanosilver versus ionic silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitek, L.; Panacek, A.; Prucek, R.; Soukupova, J.; Vanickova, M.; Kolar, M.; Zboril, R.

    2011-07-01

    The in vitro study of antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (NPs), prepared via modified Tollens process, revealed high antibacterial activity even at very low concentrations around several units of mg/L. These concentrations are comparable with concentrations of ionic silver revealing same antibacterial effect. However, such low concentrations of silver NPs did not show acute cytotoxicity to mammalian cells - this occurs at concentrations higher than 60 mg/L of silver, while the cytotoxic level of ionic silver is much more lower (approx. 1 mg/L). Moreover, the silver NPs exhibit lower acute ecotoxicity against the eukaryotic organisms such as Paramecium caudatum, Monoraphidium sp. and D. melanogaster. The silver NPs are toxic to these organisms at the concentrations higher than 30 mg/L of silver. On contrary, ionic silver retains its cytoxicity and ecotoxicity even at the concentration equal to 1 mg/L. The performed experiments demonstrate significantly lower toxicity of silver NPs against the eukaryotic organisms than against the prokaryotic organisms.

  17. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are…

  18. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  19. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are…

  20. The Effect of Nano-Silver on Allergic Rhinitis Model in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Mi-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Silver has long been known as a strong antimicrobial and disinfectant. Several types of nano-silver coated products have been developed. However, the antimicrobial and disinfectant characteristics of nano-silver have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-silver on allergic inflammation in a mouse model. Methods Female BALB/C mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) and aluminium hydroxide on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Mice were challenged with intranasal instillation of OVA. Nano-silver was also administered nasally prior to intranasal instillation of OVA. Severity of allergic rhinitis was assessed according to nasal symptoms, serum OVA-specific IgE level, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and interferon (INF)-γ levels in nasal lavage fluid. Hematoxylin-eosin stain and periodic acid-Schiff stain were performed for evaluation of histological change. Results Nano-silver attenuated manifestation of nasal symptoms in sensitized mice and inhibited production of OVA-specific IgE, IL-4, and IL-10, however, it had no effect on INF-γ level. In addition, the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia was attenuated by nano-silver. Conclusion These results suggest that nano-silver may effectively reduce allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Through its properties as an anti-inflammatory agent, nano-silver may be a useful therapeutic strategy. PMID:23205228

  1. Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus

    SciTech Connect

    Jang Songhun; Zhou Fang; Xia Laixin; Zhao Wei; Cheng Hanhua . E-mail: hhcheng@whu.edu.cn; Zhou Rongjia . E-mail: rjzhou@whu.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600 Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8% of the genome of the rice field eel. This is first BAC library constructed from this species. To estimate the possibility of isolating a specific clone, high-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using Dmrt1 cDNA of the rice field eel as a probe. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed three positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig covering the Dmrt1 gene of 195 kb. By sequence comparisons with the Dmrt1 cDNA and sequencing of first four intron-exon junctions, Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel was predicted to contain four introns and five exons. The sizes of first and second intron are 1.5 and 2.6 kb, respectively, and the sizes of last two introns were predicted to be about 20 kb. The Dmrt1 gene structure was conserved in evolution. These results also indicate that the BAC library is a useful resource for BAC contig construction and molecular isolation of functional genes.

  2. Tyrosine hydroxylase in the european eel (Anguilla anguilla): cDNA cloning, brain distribution, and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Boularand, S; Biguet, N F; Vidal, B; Veron, M; Mallet, J; Vincent, J D; Dufour, S; Vernier, P

    1998-08-01

    We report the isolation of a full-length eel tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) cDNA that is characterized by a long 3' untranslated region and by a diversity restricted to the 3' end owing to the differential use of three polyadenylation signals. The longest eel TH mRNA was distinctive in the presence of four pentameric elements (AUUUA) in the AU-rich 3' noncoding region. Such a diversity could provide the basis of posttranscriptional or translational regulation of eel TH gene expression. Comparison of the eel TH sequence with those of other aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (TH, tryptophan hydroxylase, and phenylalanine hydroxylase) and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the N-terminal regulatory domain is highly divergent, contrasting with the conservation of the catalytic core of the enzyme. Molecular phylogenies including the available sequences of the three hydroxylase genes suggested that the duplication of their common ancestor occurred before the emergence of arthropods. The regional expression of the eel TH mRNA was studied by semiquantitative PCR, northern blots, and in situ hybridization and compared with the immunocytochemical localization of TH protein. The data showed that TH mRNA is mostly expressed in the olfactory and hypothalamic areas, whereas sparse TH-expressing cell bodies are present in the telencephalic region and brainstem. No labeling was detected in the mesencephalic area, in striking contrast with that found in amphibians and amniotes.

  3. An outbreak of Shewanella putrefaciens group in wild eels Anguilla anguilla L. favoured by hypoxic aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Esteve, C; Merchán, R; Alcaide, E

    2017-07-01

    Microbiological analyses were conducted on wild eels from the L'Albufera Lake (Spain). A total of 174 individuals were collected in two surveys (i.e. year 2008 and autumn-winter 2014) among those caught by local fishermen into the lagoon. The prevalence of Shewanella putrefaciens group was 1.7% in 2008 and rose above 32% in 2014. It was due to an outbreak of shewanellosis that presented a morbidity rate of 64%. S. putrefaciens group strains were isolated as pure cultures from the sick eels that showed white ulcers surrounded by a reddish inflammation, damage of the mouth, extensive skin discoloration, exophthalmia, ascites and bad odour. The S. putrefaciens group was recovered from freshwater samples taken at the L'Albufera system, along autumn-winter 2015. Its counts significantly increased in freshwater parallel to hypoxia and temperature rising. Shewanellae strains were identified as S. putrefaciens and S. xiamenensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These isolates recovered from sick eels or freshwater were virulent for European eel by IP challenge (LD50 10(6)  CFU g(-1) body weight). They also caused 30-38% cumulative mortality, in European eels challenged by a 2-h bath (10(7)  CFU mL(-1) ). These results suggest that shewanellosis could be transmitted through water highlighting the fact that hypoxic conditions increase this bacterium levels in water. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Characterization of Electrochemically Generated Silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Martinez, James; Carrier, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Silver biocide offers a potential advantage over iodine, the current state of the art in US spacecraft disinfection technology, in that silver can be safely consumed by the crew. Low concentrations of silver (<500 ppb) have been shown to kill bacteria in water systems and keep it safe for potability. Silver does not require hardware to remove it from a water system, and therefore can provide a simpler means for disinfecting water. The Russian segment of the International Space Station has utilized an electrochemically generated silver solution, which is colloidal in nature. To be able to reliably provide a silver biocide to drinking water by electrochemical means would reduce mass required for removing another biocide such as iodine from the water. This would also aid in crew time required to replace iodine removal cartridges. Future long term missions would benefit from electrochemically produced silver as the biocide could be produced on demand and requires only a small concentration to be effective. Since it can also be consumed safely, there is less mass in removal hardware and little consumables required for production. The goal of this project initially is to understand the nature of the electrochemically produced silver, the particle sizes produced by the electrochemical cell and the effect that voltage adjustment has on the particle size. In literature, it has been documented that dissolved oxygen and pH have an effect on the ionization of the electrochemical silver so those parameters would be measured and possibly adjusted to understand their effect on the silver.

  5. Expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and cation-chloride cotransporters in the kidney of Japanese eel acclimated to a wide range of salinities.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Keitaro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Kaneko, Toyoji

    2013-02-01

    Reabsorption of monovalent ions in the kidney is essential for adaptation to freshwater and seawater in teleosts. To assess a possible role of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) in renal osmoregulation, we first identified a partial sequence of cDNA encoding NHE3 from the Japanese eel kidney. For comparison, we also identified cDNAs encoding kidney specific Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (NKCC2α) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCCα). In eels acclimated to a wide range of salinities from deionized freshwater to full-strength seawater, the expression of NHE3 in the kidney was the highest in eel acclimated to full-strength seawater. Meanwhile, the NCCα expression exhibited a tendency to increase as the environmental salinity decreased, whereas the NKCC2α expression was not significantly different among the experimental groups. Immunohistochemical studies showed that NHE3 was localized to the apical membrane of epithelial cells composing the second segments of the proximal renal tubule in seawater-acclimated eel. Meanwhile, the apical membranes of epithelial cells in the distal renal tubule and collecting duct showed more intense immunoreactions of NKCC2α and NCCα, respectively, in freshwater eel than in seawater eel. These findings suggest that renal monovalent-ion reabsorption is mainly mediated by NKCC2α and NCCα in freshwater eel and by NHE3 in seawater eel.

  6. Tidal-Flat Macrobenthos as Diets of the Japanese Eel Anguilla japonica in Western Japan, with a Note on the Occurrence of a Parasitic Nematode Heliconema anguillae in Eel Stomachs.

    PubMed

    Kan, Kotaro; Sato, Masanori; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-02-01

    Dietary items of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica inhabiting estuaries were examined by analyses of the gut (stomach and intestine) contents in two areas in Kyushu, western Japan. In a small estuary in Kagoshima Bay, where seven eel guts were examined, almost all of the dietary organisms consisted of Hemigrapsus crabs and Hediste polychaetes, both of which commonly occurred on tidal flats of this site during our survey on the macrobenthic fauna. In another large estuary in the innermost part of the Ariake Sea, where 14 eel guts were examined, 11 macrobenthic species (nine crustaceans, a polychaete, and a gastropod) were found in the gut contents, mostly consisting of mudflat-specific species. The dietary items are almost completely different not only between the two estuaries, but also among three neighboring sites within the large estuary in the Ariake Sea. These results show that Japanese eels feed on various macrobenthic invertebrates inhabiting estuarine tidal flats at each site. The variety of the prey species occupying different habitats indicates that their foraging areas extend to a wide range of estuarine tidal flats from the upper to lower littoral zones. The physalopterid nematode Heliconema anguillae was found parasitic in eel stomachs in both estuaries. The prevalence of the nematode was higher in the estuary in Kagoshima Bay (100%) than that in the Ariake Sea (43%), although the intensity in the former (4-94 nematodes per infected stomach) was comparable to that of the latter (2-96). The relationship between the nematode infection and the dietary items of Japanese eels is discussed.

  7. Prenatal Exposure to Silver Nanoparticles Causes Depression Like Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, S. R. F.; Moshrefi, M.; Askaripour, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing studies on silver nanoparticles, their mechanism of action is not so clear, especially their probable toxicity on reproduction procedure, developmental process and offspring behavior. Therefore in the present study the effect of silver nanoparticles exposure during gestational period on offspring's depression behavior was assessed. Thirty virgin female mice were divided into three groups (n=10 for each group) including: one control and two experimental groups, which received an equal volume (0.2 ml) of suspension containing 0, 0.2 and 2 mg/kg of silver nanoparticles, respectively. After mating, the suspension was injected and repeated every 3 days till accouchement. Depression behaviors were assessed by tail suspension test and forced swimming test, in 45-day-old male and female progenies (6 groups, n=10). In males, both dose of silver nanoparticles (0.2 and 2 mg/kg) decreased mobility and increased immobility time in forced swimming test (P<0.05), but in female no effects were observed in mobility and immobility time. In tail suspension test, 2 mg/kg of silver nanoparticles lead to decrease of mobility time (P<0.05) and increase of immobility time (P<0.05) in female offspring but in males no significant effect was observed on mobility and immobility time. We may concluded that the prenatal exposure to silver nanoparticles probably cause gender-specific depression like behaviors in offspring, possibly through neurotoxic effect during neuronal development. PMID:26997695

  8. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  9. Prolongation of somitogenesis in two anguilliform species, the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and pike eel Muraenesox cinereus, with refined descriptions of their early development.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, T; Yamada, Y; Tanaka, S; Tsukamoto, K

    2017-01-18

    The embryonic development of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and pike eel Muraenesox cinereus was morphologically investigated with laboratory-reared specimens to clarify the characteristics of somitogenesis. In A. japonica, somites were first observed at 18 h post fertilization (hpf) when epiboly reached 90%. Somitogenesis progressed at a rate of 1·6 h(-1) at mean ± s.d. 22·6 ± 0·7° C and completed at 107 hpf (3 days post hatching; dph) when total number of somites (ST) reached 114, which corresponds to the species' number of vertebrae (112-119). In M. cinereus, somites were first observed at 14 hpf when epiboly completed. Somitogenesis progressed at a rate of 1·9 h(-1) at mean ± s.d. 24·4 ± 0·2° C and completed at 90 hpf (2 dph) with 149 ± 4 ST, which corresponds to the species' number of vertebrae (142-158). Both species hatched before somitogenesis was completed, at 37 hpf with 47 ST and 42 hpf with 82 ± 4 ST, respectively. The formation of other organs such as the heart, mouth and pectoral fin bud occurred during somitogenesis. Comparison with the development of zebrafish Danio rerio indicates a prolongation of somitogenesis in A. japonica and M. cinereus. Their somitogenesis rates, however, correspond well with that of D. rerio estimated at the same temperature and their developmental stages at hatching are almost equivalent to other fishes having similar yolk sizes. Therefore, the prolongation of somitogenesis in A. japonica and M. cinereus may be accounted for solely by the increased numbers of somites to be formed, not by a slow somitogenesis rate or an acceleration in organogenesis.

  10. Two-dimensional quantitative mapping of arsenic in nanometer-scale silicon devices using STEM EELS-EDX spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Servanton, G; Pantel, R; Juhel, M; Bertin, F

    2009-01-01

    Field emission gun (FEG) nanoprobe scanning electron transmission microscopy (STEM) techniques coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) are evaluated for the detection of the n-type dopant arsenic, in silicon semiconductor devices with nanometer-scale. Optimization of the experimental procedure, data extraction and the signal-to-noise ratio versus electron dose, show that arsenic detection below 0.1% should be possible. STEM EDX and EELS spectrum profiles have been quantified and compared with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses which show a good agreement. In addition, the arsenic doping level found inside large and small epitaxial devices have been compared using STEM EDX-EELS profiling. The average doping level is found to be similar but variable interface segregation has been observed. Finally, STEM EDX arsenic mapping acquired in a BiCMOS transistor cross-section shows strong heterogeneities and segregation in the epitaxially grown emitter part.

  11. Influence of nematode Anguillicoloides crassus infestation on the cellular and humoral innate immunity in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.)

    PubMed Central

    Terech-Majewska, Elżbieta; Siwicki, Andrzej K.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic invasions are recognized as one of the primary factors responsible for decreasing populations of European eel. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of infestation with the nematode Anguillicoloides crassus on the innate immunity in European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Anguillicoloides crassus parasitizes the swim bladder of this fish. Levels of the following immunological parameters were measured: spleen phagocyte respiratory burst activity, spleen phagocyte potential killing activity, pronephros lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavaline A or lipopolisaccharide, plasma lysozyme and ceruloplasmin activity, total protein and immunoglobulin (Ig) serum levels. The analyses of the results of humoral and cellular immunity indicate that all studied parameters were statistically significant higher (p < 0.05) in non-infested fish compared to the ones with anguillicolosis except for ceruloplasmin level. These data suggest that the A. crassus infestation in European eel is responsible for a decreased immune response what could result in higher susceptibility to other pathogenic conditions. PMID:26557024

  12. Hydrometallurgical recovery of silver from waste silver oxide button cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaiyan, N.; Nandakumar, V.; Ramachandran, P.

    In recent years, recycling of household batteries has attracted much attention mainly with respect to environmental aspects in addition to the savings. Small silver oxide primary cells used in electric watches become a waste after their life is over. Recycling procedures are needed to prevent any environmental impact from these wastes and to recover the value inherent in the scrap. Smelting and electrolytic methods are discussed for silver recovery from this battery waste. Acid leaching of waste batteries and precipitation of silver as silver chloride followed by smelting at 1000 °C yields a silver recovery of about 83%. An electrolytic route is studied as an alternative to the smelting operation and involves the electrodeposition of silver with higher purity from a silver thiosulfate complex prepared from silver chloride. The electrolysis is potentiostatically controlled at a potential of -0.400 to -0.600 V (SCE) for avoiding side-reactions such as the sulfiding of silver. Although recovery methods have been identified in principle, their suitability for mixed small battery waste and economic factors have yet to be demonstrated.

  13. Silver ion release from antimicrobial polyamide/silver composites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Radhesh; Münstedt, Helmut

    2005-05-01

    Silver ion (Ag(+)) the versatile antimicrobial species was released in a steady and prolonged manner from a silver-filled polyamide composite system. Metallic silver powder having varying specific surface area (SSA) has been used as a resource of biocide in polyamide. Strong evidences are found showing the release of the antimicrobial species from the resulting composite upon soaking it in water due to the interaction of the diffused water molecules with the dispersed silver powder within the matrix. The Ag(+) release was observed as increasing with time and concentration of the silver powder and is found to be influenced by the SSA of the silver powder, changes in the physical state of the composite specimen as a result of the water diffusion and the composite morphology. It is observed that the Ag(+) release increases initially which is followed by a marginal increase between day 4 and 6. Composites containing higher amounts of silver (4 and 8 wt%) exhibit a further rise in Ag(+) release from the sixth day of storage in water. Composite containing silver particles with the lowest specific surface area (0.78 m(2)/g) showed highest Ag(+) release. SEM shows a finer dispersion of the silver powder (4 wt%) having lowest SSA. However particles with higher (1.16 and 2.5 m(2)/g) SSA possess an agglomerated morphology leading to lower Ag(+) release. The composites are found to release Ag(+) at a concentration level capable of rendering an antimicrobial efficacy.

  14. Nucleic acid nanomaterials: Silver-wired DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffinger, Pascal; Ennifar, Eric

    2017-10-01

    DNA double helical structures are supramolecular assemblies that are typically held together by classical Watson-Crick pairing. Now, nucleotide chelation of silver ions supports an extended silver-DNA hybrid duplex featuring an uninterrupted silver array.

  15. Acoustic backscatter of the 1995 flood deposit on the Eel shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borgeld, J.C.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Goff, John A.; Mayer, Larry A.; Curtis, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic swath mapping and sediment box coring conducted on the continental shelf near the mouth of the Eel River revealed regional variations in acoustic backscatter that can be related to the shelf sedimentology. The acoustic-backscatter variations observed on the shelf were unusually narrow compared to the response of similar sediment types documented in other areas. However, the acoustic data revealed four principal bottom types on the shelf that can be related to sedimentologic differences observed in cores. The four areas are: (1) low acoustic backscatter associated with the nearshore-sand facies and the prodelta terraces of the Eel and Mad rivers, composed of fine sands and coarse silts with low porosity; (2) high acoustic backscatter associated with fine silts characterized by high porosity and deposited by the 1995 flood of the Eel River; (3) intermediate acoustic backscatter in the outer-shelf muds, where clayey silts are accumulating and the 1995 flood apparently had limited direct effect; and (4) intermediate acoustic backscatter near the fringes of the 1995 flood deposits and in areas where the flood sediments were more disrupted by post-depositional processes. The highest acoustic backscatter was identified in areas where the 1995 flood sediments remained relatively intact and near the shelf surface into the summer of 1995. Cores collected from these areas contained wavy or lenticular bedding. The rapid deposition of the high-porosity muddy layers results in better preservation of incorporated ripple forms than in areas less directly impacted by the flood deposit. The high-porosity muddy layers allow acoustic penetration into the sediments and result in greater acoustic backscatter from incorporated roughness elements.

  16. Assessing pre- and post-zygotic barriers between North Atlantic eels (Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, M W; Smedegaard, L; Sørensen, S R; Pujolar, J M; Munk, P; Jónsson, B; Magnussen, E; Hansen, M M

    2017-03-01

    Elucidating barriers to gene flow is important for understanding the dynamics of speciation. Here we investigate pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms acting between the two hybridizing species of Atlantic eels: Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata. Temporally varying hybridization was examined by analyzing 85 species-diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; FST ⩾0.95) in eel larvae sampled in the spawning region in the Sargasso Sea in 2007 (N=92) and 2014 (N=460). We further investigated whether genotypes at these SNPs were nonrandomly distributed in post-F1 hybrids, indicating selection. Finally, we sequenced the mitochondrial ATP6 and nuclear ATP5c1 genes in 19 hybrids, identified using SNP and restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing data, to test a previously proposed hypothesis of cytonuclear incompatibility leading to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase dysfunction and selection against hybrids. No F1 hybrids but only later backcrosses were observed in the Sargasso Sea in 2007 and 2014. This suggests that interbreeding between the two species only occurs in some years, possibly controlled by environmental conditions at the spawning grounds, or that interbreeding has diminished through time as a result of a declining number of spawners. Moreover, potential selection was found at the nuclear and the cytonuclear levels. Nonetheless, one glass eel individual showed a mismatch, involving an American ATP6 haplotype and European ATP5c1 alleles. This contradicted the presence of cytonuclear incompatibility but may be explained by that (1) cytonuclear incompatibility is incomplete, (2) selection acts at a later life stage or (3) other genes are important for protein function. In total, the study demonstrates the utility of genomic data when examining pre- and post-zyotic barriers in natural hybrids.

  17. Fipronil and two of its transformation products in water and European eel from the river Elbe.

    PubMed

    Michel, N; Freese, M; Brinkmann, M; Pohlmann, J-D; Hollert, H; Kammann, U; Haarich, M; Theobald, N; Gerwinski, W; Rotard, W; Hanel, R

    2016-10-15

    Fipronil is an insecticide which, based on its mode of action, is intended to be predominantly toxic towards insects. Fipronil bioaccumulates and some of its transformation products were reported to be similar or even more stable in the environment and to show an enhanced toxicity against non-target organisms compared to the parent compound. The current study investigated the occurrence of Fipronil and two of its transformation products, Fipronil-desulfinyl and Fipronil-sulfone, in water as well as muscle and liver samples of eels from the river Elbe (Germany). In water samples total concentrations of FIP, FIP-d and FIP-s ranged between 0.5-1.6ngL(-1) with FIP being the main component in all water samples followed by FIP-s and FIP-d. In contrast, FIP-s was the main component in muscle and liver tissues of eels with concentrations of 4.05±3.73ngg(-1) ww and 19.91±9.96ngg(-1) ww, respectively. Using a physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for moderately hydrophobic organic chemicals, the different distributions of FIP, FIP-d and FIP-s in water and related tissue samples could be attributed to metabolic processes of eels. The measured concentrations in water of all analytes and their fractional distribution did not reflect the assumed seasonal application of FIP and it seems that the water was constantly contaminated with FIP, FIP-d and FIP-s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sparse modeling of EELS and EDX spectral imaging data by nonnegative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Motoki; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Muto, Shunsuke; Tsuda, Koji; Yamamoto, Yuta; Mori, Toshiyuki; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2016-11-01

    Advances in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques have enabled us to automatically obtain electron energy-loss (EELS)/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectral datasets from a specified region of interest (ROI) at an arbitrary step width, called spectral imaging (SI). Instead of manually identifying the potential constituent chemical components from the ROI and determining the chemical state of each spectral component from the SI data stored in a huge three-dimensional matrix, it is more effective and efficient to use a statistical approach for the automatic resolution and extraction of the underlying chemical components. Among many different statistical approaches, we adopt a non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) technique, mainly because of the natural assumption of non-negative values in the spectra and cardinalities of chemical components, which are always positive in actual data. This paper proposes a new NMF model with two penalty terms: (i) an automatic relevance determination (ARD) prior, which optimizes the number of components, and (ii) a soft orthogonal constraint, which clearly resolves each spectrum component. For the factorization, we further propose a fast optimization algorithm based on hierarchical alternating least-squares. Numerical experiments using both phantom and real STEM-EDX/EELS SI datasets demonstrate that the ARD prior successfully identifies the correct number of physically meaningful components. The soft orthogonal constraint is also shown to be effective, particularly for STEM-EELS SI data, where neither the spatial nor spectral entries in the matrices are sparse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The expression of nuclear and membrane estrogen receptors in the European eel throughout spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Vílchez, M Carmen; Tveiten, Helge; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Dufour, Sylvie; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) can bind to nuclear estrogen receptors (ESR) or membrane estrogen receptors (GPER). While mammals possess two nuclear ESRs and one membrane GPER, the European eel, like most other teleosts, has three nuclear ESRs and two membrane GPERs, as the result of a teleost specific genome duplication. In the current study, the expression of the three nuclear ESRs (ESR1, ESR2a and ESR2b) and the two membrane GPERs (GPERa and GPERb) in the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis of the European eel was measured, throughout spermatogenesis. The eels were first transferred from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW), inducing parallel increases in E2 plasma levels and the expression of ESRs. This indicates that salinity has a stimulatory effect on the E2 signalling pathway along the BPG axis. Stimulation of sexual maturation by weekly injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induced a progressive decrease in E2 plasma levels, and different patterns of expression of ESRs and GPERs in the BPG axis. The expression of nuclear ESRs increased in some parts of the brain, suggesting a possible upregulation due to a local production of E2. In the testis, the highest expression levels of the nuclear ESRs were observed at the beginning of spermatogenesis, possibly mediating the role of E2 as spermatogonia renewal factor, followed by a sharply decrease in the expression of ESRs. Conversely, there was a marked increase observed in the expression of both membrane GPERs throughout spermatogenesis, suggesting they play a major role in the final stages of spermatogenesis.

  20. Energy reserves mobilization in the yellow eel as herbicide exposure effect.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Vega, C; Sancho, E; Ferrando, M D

    2015-09-01

    Thiobencarb and propanil are two of the most extensive used herbicides worldwide in rice cultivation. Especially scanty is the available information regarding the effect of herbicides on fish energy resources. In the present study, the effect of sublethal exposure to these herbicides on the energy reserves of juvenile eel Anguilla anguilla was compared. Eels were exposed to 72 h to the herbicide thiobencarb (0.22 mg L(-1)) or Propanil (0.63 mg L(-1)), and allowed to recover in clean water (144 h). Caloric content was determined in liver and skeletal muscle. Fish exposed to thiobencarb rapidly mobilized energy. Reserves from liver were depleted (21%) compared to control values (2.50 kcal g(-1)) at 2 h, whereas in muscle diminished between 12 and 72 h (35%) (control value 0.89 kcal g(-1)). Energy reserves from liver normalized after 144 h in water while in the skeletal muscle were still depleted (24%). Major harmful effects were induced by propanil. Caloric content in liver diminished from the first hours (depletion of 70% at 48h exposure) and in skeletal muscle a 60% (72 h). At the end of the recovery period, energy reserves in pre-exposed eels represented less than 50% compared to control animals. The study indicated that thiobencarb and propanil would constitute a great risk to animals inhabiting freshwater bodies nearby fields of application. Judging from the results, herbicides resulted toxic enough to mobilize fish energy stores. On the other hand, a period of six days in herbicide-free water was not enough time to allow fish to restore energy budgets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Larval Gnathostoma spinigerum Detected in Asian Swamp Eels, Monopterus albus, Purchased from a Local Market in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Park, Jong-Bok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of swamp eels with Gnathostoma sp. larvae in Myanmar. We purchased total 37 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from a local market in Yangon in June and December 2013 and 2014. All collected eels were transferred with ice to our laboratory and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion technique. A total of 401 larval gnathostomes (1-96 larvae/eel) were detected in 33 (89.2%) swamp eels. Most of the larvae (n=383; 95.5%) were found in the muscle. The remaining 18 larvae were detected in the viscera. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) were 2.3-4.4 mm long and 0.25-0.425 mm wide. The characteristic head bulb (0.093 × 0.221 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, muscular long esophagus (1.025 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.574 mm) were observed by light microscopy. The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. As scanning electron microscopic findings, the characteristic 4-5 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, a cervical papilla, tegumental spines regularly arranged in the transverse striations, and an anus were well observed. Based on these morphological characters, they were identified as the AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum. By the present study, it has been confirmed for the first time that Asian swamp eels, M. albus, from Yangon, Myanmar are heavily infected with G. spinigerum larvae.

  2. Ultralight Conductive Silver Nanowire Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Qian, Fang; Lan, Pui Ching; Freyman, Megan C; Chen, Wen; Kou, Tianyi; Olson, Tammy Y; Zhu, Cheng; Worsley, Marcus A; Duoss, Eric B; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Baumann, Ted; Han, T Yong-Jin

    2017-09-13

    Low-density metal foams have many potential applications in electronics, energy storage, catalytic supports, fuel cells, sensors, and medical devices. Here, we report a new method for fabricating ultralight, conductive silver aerogel monoliths with predictable densities using silver nanowires. Silver nanowire building blocks were prepared by polyol synthesis and purified by selective precipitation. Silver aerogels were produced by freeze-casting nanowire aqueous suspensions followed by thermal sintering to weld the nanowire junctions. As-prepared silver aerogels have unique anisotropic microporous structures, with density precisely controlled by the nanowire concentration, down to 4.8 mg/cm(3) and an electrical conductivity up to 51 000 S/m. Mechanical studies show that silver nanowire aerogels exhibit "elastic stiffening" behavior with a Young's modulus up to 16 800 Pa.

  3. Ultralight Conductive Silver Nanowire Aerogels

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Fang; Lan, Pui Ching; Freyman, Megan C.; ...

    2017-09-05

    Low-density metal foams have many potential applications in electronics, energy storage, catalytic supports, fuel cells, sensors, and medical devices. Here in this work, we report a new method for fabricating ultralight, conductive silver aerogel monoliths with predictable densities using silver nanowires. Silver nanowire building blocks were prepared by polyol synthesis and purified by selective precipitation. Silver aerogels were produced by freeze-casting nanowire aqueous suspensions followed by thermal sintering to weld the nanowire junctions. As-prepared silver aerogels have unique anisotropic microporous structures, with density precisely controlled by the nanowire concentration, down to 4.8 mg/cm3 and an electrical conductivity up to 51more » 000 S/m. Lastly, mechanical studies show that silver nanowire aerogels exhibit “elastic stiffening” behavior with a Young’s modulus up to 16 800 Pa.« less

  4. Assessment of persistent brominated and chlorinated organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders, Belgium: Levels, profiles and health risk.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Eulaers, Igor; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Pooled yellow European eel (Anguilla anguilla (L.)) samples, consisting of 3-10 eels, collected between 2000 and 2009 from 60 locations in Flanders (Belgium) were investigated for persistent contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). The current study expands the knowledge regarding these contaminant concentrations, their patterns and distribution profiles in aquatic ecosystems. PBDEs, HBCDs, PCBs, and DDTs were detected in all eel samples and some samples had high concentrations (up to 1400, 9500, 41,600 and 7000ng/g lw, respectively). PCB levels accounted for the majority of the contamination in most samples. The high variability in PBDE, HBCD, PCB and DDT concentrations reported here is likely due to the variety in sampling locations demonstrating variable local pollution pressures, from highly industrialised areas to small rural creeks. Among PBDEs, BDE-47 (57% contribution to the sum PBDEs), -100 (19%) and -99 (15%) were the predominant congeners, similar to the composition reported in the literature in eel samples. For HBCDs, α-HBCD (74%) was predominant followed by γ-(22%) and β-HBCD (4%) isomers in almost all eel samples. CB-153 (19%) was the most dominant PCB congener, closely followed by CB-138 (11%), CB-180 (9%), CB-187 (8%) and CB-149 (7%). The contribution to the total human exposure through local wild eel consumption was also highly variable. Intake of PBDEs and HBCDs, through consumption of wild eel, was below the RfD values for the average population (consuming on average 2.9g eel/day). At 16 out 60 sites, eels exceeded largely the new EU consumption threshold for PCBs (300ng/g ww for the sum of 6 indicator PCBs). The current data shows an on-going exposure of Flemish eels to PBDEs, HBCDs, PCBs and DDTs through indirect release from contaminated sediments or direct releases from various industries.

  5. Tantalum oxide nanoscale resistive switching devices: TEM/EELS study (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Kate J.; Zhang, Jiaming; Merced-Grafals, Emmanuelle; Musunuru, Srinitya; Zhang, Max; Samuels, Katy; Yang, Jianhua J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.

    2015-08-01

    The field of non-volatile memory devices has been boosted by resistive switching, a reversible change in electrical resistance of a dielectric layer through the application of a voltage potential. Tantalum oxide being one of the leading candidates for the dielectric component of resistance switching devices was investigated in this study. 55nm TaOx devices in all states were compared through cross sectional TEM techniques including HRTEM, EELS, and EFTEM and will be discussed in this presentation. Based on the chemical and physical features found in the cross sectioned nanodevices we will discuss the switching mechanism of these nanoscale devices.

  6. Retropharyngeal abscess in a young child due to ingestion of eel vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Chu, Winnie C; Sung, John K K

    2010-06-01

    Foreign body ingestion was immediately suspected at the emergency department when a 14-month-old boy presented with fever, refusal to eat, and history of choking after consumption of congee with minced fish meat the day before. Two eel vertebrae were subsequently retrieved from the piriform fossa. This case is reported to discuss the importance of obtaining the relevant history of foreign body ingestion and high index of suspicion in very young children. Parents must be educated about the risk of feeding infant and young children with bone-containing foods.

  7. Phenolic lipids affect the activity and conformation of acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel).

    PubMed

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-04-30

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein.

  8. Molecular phylogenetics reveals convergent evolution in lower Congo River spiny eels.

    PubMed

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Brown, Bianca; Stiassny, Melanie L J

    2015-10-15

    The lower Congo River (LCR) is a region of exceptional species diversity and endemism in the Congo basin, including numerous species of spiny eels (genus Mastacembelus). Four of these exhibit distinctive phenotypes characterized by greatly reduced optic globes deeply embedded into the head (cryptophthalmia) and reduced (or absent) melanin pigmentation, among other characteristics. A strikingly similar cryptophthalmic phenotype is also found in members of a number of unrelated fish families, strongly suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. However, little is known about the evolutionary processes that shaped diversification in LCR Mastacembelus, their biogeographic origins, or when colonization of the LCR occurred. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from Mastacembelus species collected in the lower Congo River, and compared them with other African species and Asian representatives as outgroups. We analyzed the sequence data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses, and Bayesian coalescent methods for species tree reconstruction, reveal that endemic LCR spiny eels derive from two independent origins, clearly demonstrating convergent evolution of the cryptophthalmic phenotype. Mastacembelus crassus, M. aviceps, and M. simbi form a clade, allied to species found in southern, eastern and central Africa. Unexpectedly, M. brichardi and brachyrhinus fall within a clade otherwise endemic to Lake Tanganikya (LT) ca. 1500 km east of the LCR. Divergence dating suggests the ages of these two clades of LCR endemics differ markedly. The age of the crassus group is estimated at ~4 Myr while colonization of the LCR by the brichardi-brachyrhinus progenitor was considerably more recent, dated at ~0.5 Myr. The phylogenetic framework of spiny eels presented here, the first to include LCR species, demonstrates that cryptophthalmia and associated traits evolved at least twice in Mastacembelus

  9. Parasite communities in eels of the Island of Reunion (Indian Ocean): a lesson in parasite introduction.

    PubMed

    Sasal, Pierre; Taraschewski, Horst; Valade, Pierre; Grondin, Henri; Wielgoss, Sébastien; Moravec, Frantisek

    2008-05-01

    Eel populations from the small rivers on the Island of Reunion (French Overseas Department in the Indian Ocean) were investigated with respect to the occurrence and abundance of helminths during the autumn of 2005. The native species Anguilla marmorata (n = 80), Anguilla bicolor (n = 23), and Anguilla mossambica (n = 15) were studied. Six species of helminths were identified, four of them having a definitely nonnative status. Furthermore, unidentified intra-intestinal juvenile cestodes and extra-intestinal encapsulated anisakid nematode larvae were present in a few eels. We found that the invasive swim bladder nematode Anguillicoloides (Anguillicola) crassus had been introduced into the island. Six specimens were collected, four from A. marmorata, one from A. bicolor and one from A. mossambica. The maximum intensity of infection was two worms. The other helminths also showed a low abundance. These species were the monogenean gill worms Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini and the intestinal parasites Bothriocephalus claviceps (Cestodes), Paraquimperia africana (Nematodes), and the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus reunionensis Warner, Sasal, and Taraschewski, 2007. The latter species, found as intra-intestinal immatures, is thought to utilize amphibians as required hosts; its status, introduced or native, could not be determined. P. africana was described from A. mossambica in South Africa and has not been recorded outside Africa. The other species are known from populations of European and American eels. However, A. crassus and the two Pseudodactylogyrus species originate from East Asia, where they are indigenous parasites of Anguilla japonica. Both an assignment test based on seven specific microsatellite loci and subsequent sequencing of mitochondrial haplotypes of a partial fragment of cytochrome c oxidase 1 strongly suggest that the A. crassus may originated around the Baltic Sea. According to the results presented here, populations of the

  10. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)

    PubMed Central

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269

  11. Silver Ink For Jet Printing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, R. W.; Singaram, Saraswathi

    1989-01-01

    Metallo-organic ink containing silver (with some bismuth as adhesion agent) applied to printed-circuit boards and pyrolized in air to form electrically conductive patterns. Ink contains no particles of silver, does not have to be mixed during use to maintain homogeneity, and applied to boards by ink-jet printing heads. Consists of silver neodecanoate and bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate dissolved in xylene and/or toluene.

  12. Silver Ink For Jet Printing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, R. W.; Singaram, Saraswathi

    1989-01-01

    Metallo-organic ink containing silver (with some bismuth as adhesion agent) applied to printed-circuit boards and pyrolized in air to form electrically conductive patterns. Ink contains no particles of silver, does not have to be mixed during use to maintain homogeneity, and applied to boards by ink-jet printing heads. Consists of silver neodecanoate and bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate dissolved in xylene and/or toluene.

  13. Investigation of stoichiometry of oxygen precipitates in Czochralski silicon wafers by means of EDX, EELS and FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kot, D.; Kissinger, G.; Schubert, M. A.; Klingsporn, M.; Huber, A.; Sattler, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we used EDX, EELS and FTIR spectroscopy to investigate the stoichiometry of oxygen precipitates in Czochralski silicon wafers. The EDX analysis of a plate-like precipitate demonstrated that the composition of the precipitate is SiO1.93. This result was confirmed by EELS where the characteristic plasmon peak of SiO2 was observed. Additionally, the absorption band of plate-like precipitates at 1223 cm-1 was found in the FTIR spectrum measured at liquid helium temperature. It was demonstrated that this band can only be simulated by the dielectric constants of amorphous SiO2.

  14. MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, G. M.; Vest, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flat plate solar arrays is reported. Photovoltaic cells require back side metallization and a collector grid system on the front surface. Metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) silver films can eliminate most of the present problems with silver conductors. The objectives are to: (1) identify and characterize suitable MO compounds; (2) develop generic synthesis procedures for the MO compounds; (3) develop generic fabrication procedures to screen printable MOD silver inks; (4) optimize processing conditions to produce grid patterns and photovoltaic cells; and (5) develop a model which describes the adhesion between the fired silver film and the silicon surface.

  15. Silver-halide gelatin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, B. J.; Winick, K.

    1980-05-01

    The use of a silver-halide gelatin for volume phase holograms having a wide spectral response and lower exposure requirements than alternatives and using commercially available silver salts, is proposed. The main difference between the dichromated gelatin and silver-halide processes is the creation of a hologram latent image, which is given in the form of a hardness differential between exposed and unexposed regions in the silver halide hologram; the differential is in turn created by the reaction products of either tanning development or tanning bleach, which harden the gelatin with link-bonds between molecules.

  16. Silver Nanoparticles in Dental Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Juliana Mattos; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Sanches, Heloísa Lajas; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Poiate, Isis Andréa Venturini Pola

    2015-01-01

    Silver has been used in medicine for centuries because of its antimicrobial properties. More recently, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized and incorporated into several biomaterials, since their small size provides great antimicrobial effect, at low filler level. Hence, these nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry, in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation over dental materials surfaces. This review aims to discuss the current progress in this field, highlighting aspects regarding silver nanoparticles incorporation, such as antimicrobial potential, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and long-term effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for more studies to determine the optimal concentration of silver nanoparticle and its release over time. PMID:25667594

  17. Orthodontic silver brazing alloys.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, P J; Pham, H L

    1989-10-01

    Orthodontic silver brazing alloys suffer from the presence of cadmium, excessive flow temperatures, and crevice corrosion on stainless steel. Seven alloys were examined. Two alloys contained cadmium. The lowest flow temperature observed was 629 degrees C for a cadmium alloy and 651 degrees C for two cadmium free alloys. Three alloys had corrosion resistance superior to the other solders. Addition of low melting temperature elements gallium and indium reduced flow temperature in some cases but produced brittleness in the brazing alloy.

  18. Seasonal population dynamics of Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) in the intestine of the rice-field eel Monopterus albus in China.

    PubMed

    Boping, Zeng; Wenbin, Wang

    2007-12-01

    Studies on the seasonal population dynamics of Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) in the intestine of the rice-field eel Monopterus albus from the paddies and ditches in the Dong-ting Lake basin of China, were carried out with samples taken from June 2002 to May 2003. Prevalences were above 21% in all seasons sampled and with a distinct seasonal trend, which was highest (45.81%) in the spring and decreased by degrees. The mean intensity of infection was above 4.0 worms per fish. The maximum intensity of worms recovered from a single fish was 86 in the autumn of 2002. No significant seasonal differences were found in mean intensities, and differences in the mean abundance between winter and spring, winter and autumn were significant. Over-dispersed distributions of P. (N.) celatus in the host population, due to heterogeneity and feeding habits, were observed in all seasons. The size composition of both sexes of P. (N.) celatus showed males between 2.0 mm and 14.0 mm and females between 2.2 mm and 22.2 mm, with the main recruitment phase in the worm populations occurring in the summer and autumn, especially in the autumn, with the lowest recruitment occurring in the winter. The maturation and copulation of worms were mainly focused in the spring season. The sex ratio of female to male was both high in summer (1.09:1) and autumn (1.08:1). The higher proportion of females and the change in the worm sex ratio in summer can be attributed to the reduced longevity of male worms. As immature male worms exhibit a higher proportion of the worm population than females in all seasons, further studies are needed to determine if such a situation compensates for the shorter life span of males.

  19. Identification of Silver and Palladium in Irradiated TRISO Coated Particles of the AGR-1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    van Rooyen, Y. J.; Lillo, T. M.; Wu, Y. Q.

    2014-03-01

    Evidence of the release of certain metallic fission product through intact tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles has been seen for decades around the world, as well as in the recent AGR-1 experiment at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). However, understanding the basic mechanism of transport is still lacking. This understanding is important because the TRISO coating is part of the high temperature gas reactor functional containment and critical for the safety strategy for licensing purposes. Our approach to identify fission products in irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM), has led to first-of-a-kind data at the nano-scale indicating the presence of silver at triple points and grain boundaries of the SiC layer in the TRISO particle. Cadmium was also found in the triple junctions. In this initial study, the silver was only identified in SiC grain boundaries and triple points on the edge of the SiC-IPyC interface up to a depth of approximately 0.5 um. Palladium was identified as the main constituent of micron-sized precipitates present at the SiC grain boundaries. Additionally spherical nano-sized palladium rich precipitates were found inside the SiC grains. These nano-sized Pd precipitates were distributed up to a depth of 5 um away from the SiC-IPyC interlayer. No silver was found in the center of the micron-sized fission product precipitates using these techniques, although silver was found on the outer edge of one of the Pd-U-Si containing precipitates which was facing the IPyC layer. Only Pd-U containing precipitates were identified in the IPyC layer and no silver was identified in the IPyC layer. The identification of silver alongside the grain boundaries and the findings of Pd alongside grain boundaries as well as inside the grains, provide significant knowledge for understanding silver and palladium transport in TIRSO fuel, which has been

  20. Host switch and infestation by Ligula intestinalis L. in a silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna L.) population.

    PubMed

    Vanacker, M; Masson, G; Beisel, J-N

    2012-03-01

    Sampling of the fish community was carried out for 20 years in the Mirgenbach reservoir, in North-Eastern France. The prevalence and the mean intensity of Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda) were analysed in roach (Rutilus rutilus) and silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) populations, the main two infected species. The aim of this study was to investigate the host switch from roach to silver bream and the consequences of L. intestinalis infestation in silver bream, which is an unusual host for this parasite as Ligula parasitism in silver bream appears to be rare. We analysed in detail the relationships between parasitism index (PI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), perivisceral fat abundance (PFA) and condition index (CI) in the silver bream population. In 1998, prevalence of L. intestinalis highlighted a clear host switch from roach to silver bream. In the silver bream population, young fish were the most severely infected and the impact of plerocercoids appeared to be different depending on the host sex. In male silver bream, plerocercoids drew energy from fat reserves even if GSI was also slightly impacted. On the contrary, in females energy was diverted from gonad maturation rather than from perivisceral fat reserves. No significant difference was observed in terms of CI in either sex.

  1. Invading species in the Eel River, California: Successes, failures, and relationships with resident species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Moyle, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined invasions of non-native fishes into the Eel River, California. At least 16 species of fish have been introduced into the drainage which originally supported 12-14 fish species. Our study was prompted by the unauthorized introduction in 1979 of Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis, a large predatory cyprinid. From 1986 to 1990, we conducted growth and diet studies of squaw fish, conducted intensive surveys of the distribution and habitat associations of both native and introduced species, and examined the nature of species-habitat and interspecies relationships. We found no evidence for increased growth or expanded feeding habits, compared to native populations, of Sacramento squawfish as they invaded the Eel River drainage. Ten of the introduced species were well established, with four species limited to a reservoir and six species established in streams. The success or failure of introductions of stream species appeared to be a function of the ability of a species to survive the fluctuating, highly seasonal, flow regime. The present mixture of native and exotic species has not formed stable fish assemblages but it seems likely that four habitat-associated assemblages will develop. The overall effect of the successful species introductions has been to assemble a group of species, with some exceptions, that are native to and occur together in many California streams. The assemblages now forming are similar to those found in other California streams. The assemblage characterized by squawfish and suckers is likely to be resistant to invasion, in the absence of human caused habitat modifications.

  2. Evidence of marine mammal predation of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) on its marine migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Westerberg, Håkan; Aarestrup, Kim; Feunteun, Eric; Gargan, Paddy; Righton, David

    2014-04-01

    Temperature and depth logging tags were implanted into adult eels released on Atlantic west coasts of France and Ireland to study their oceanic migration behavior. For three of the tags, 25 to 256 days after release there was a dramatic rise in temperature from 10 °C to 36 °C and the dive profile changed from depths of 300-1000 m to repeated ascents to the surface. This indicated that the eels carrying the tags had been eaten by a mammalian predator. Two of the tags had sufficient sampling rate to resolve the dives in detail. They recorded a total of 91 dives to maximum depths of 250-860 m lasting 11-12 min and with surface intervals of 5-7 min. More than two thirds of the dives included a rapid descent from approximately 500 m to 600-700 m. From this we infer that the predator was most likely a deep-diving toothed whale. The dives logged while the tags were inside the predator revealed that the temperature usually decreased during dives, and increased again during surface periods. The temperature drops during dives were probably caused by the ingestion of prey or water. These observations provide insights into the behavior of toothed whales foraging in the mesopelagic zone.

  3. Occurrence of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid and histopathology in eels from north Italian waters.

    PubMed

    Giari, Luisa; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido; Lanzoni, Mattia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    A perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) biomonitoring study was conducted in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Italy for the first time. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations were assessed in the organs of 35 wild eels from two locations, the highly impacted Po River and the Comacchio Lagoon along the north-western Adriatic coast. PFAS were extracted by ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. There were no significant differences in mean PFAS concentrations (p>0.05) between samples from the two sites. PFOS and PFOA were detectable (>0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, w.w) in 73% and 31% of the total samples, respectively. PFOS concentrations ranged from <0.4 to 6.28ngg(-1)w.w and PFOA from <0.4 to 92.77ngg(-1)w.w. The highest PFAS levels were observed in blood and the lowest in muscle. Histology showed macrophage aggregates and hepatocytic vacuolation in some liver samples. No tissue anomalies were seen in the gonads, suggesting no reproductive impairment. The PFAS contamination levels observed were comparable to, or lower than, those reported in fish in other European countries, seeming to indicate that PFAS pollution of the study area is not remarkable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the adaptive potential of the European eel: is the immunogenetic status recovering?

    PubMed Central

    Bracamonte, Seraina E.; Bayer, Till; Chain, Frédéric J.J.; Hanel, Reinhold; Harrod, Chris; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The recent increased integration of evolutionary theory into conservation programs has greatly improved our ability to protect endangered species. A common application of such theory links population dynamics and indices of genetic diversity, usually estimated from neutrally evolving markers. However, some studies have suggested that highly polymorphic adaptive genes, such as the immune genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), might be more sensitive to fluctuations in population dynamics. As such, the combination of neutrally- and adaptively-evolving genes may be informative in populations where reductions in abundance have been documented. The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) underwent a drastic and well-reported decline in abundance in the late 20th century and still displays low recruitment. Here we compared genetic diversity indices estimated from neutral (mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites) and adaptive markers (MHC) between two distinct generations of European eels. Our results revealed a clear discrepancy between signatures obtained for each class of markers. Although mtDNA and microsatellites showed no changes in diversity between the older and the younger generations, MHC diversity revealed a contemporary drop followed by a recent increase. Our results suggest ongoing gain of MHC genetic diversity resulting from the interplay between drift and selection and ultimately increasing the adaptive potential of the species. PMID:27077000

  5. Purified and unpurified sodium channels from eel electroplax in planar lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Highly purified sodium channel protein from the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, was reconstituted into liposomes and incorporated into planar bilayers made from neutral phospholipids dissolved in decane. The purest sodium channel preparations consisted of only the large, 260-kD tetrodotoxin (TTX)-binding polypeptide. For all preparations, batrachotoxin (BTX) induced long-lived single-channel currents (25 pS at 500 mM NaCl) that showed voltage-dependent activation and were blocked by TTX. This block was also voltage dependent, with negative potentials increasing block. The permeability ratios were 4.7 for Na+:K+ and 1.6 for Na+:Li+. The midpoint for steady state activation occurred around -70 mV and did not shift significantly when the NaCl concentration was increased from 50 to 1,000 mM. Veratridine-induced single-channel currents were about half the size of those activated by BTX. Unpurified, nonsolubilized sodium channels from E. electricus membrane fragments were also incorporated into planar bilayers. There were no detectable differences in the characteristics of unpurified and purified sodium channels, although membrane stability was considerably higher when purified material was used. Thus, in the eel, the large, 260-kD polypeptide alone is sufficient to demonstrate single-channel activity like that observed for mammalian sodium channel preparations in which smaller subunits have been found. PMID:2443607

  6. "Blood-contacting neurons" in the brain of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Mukuda, Takoa; Matsunaga, Yuzo; Kawamoto, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Ken-Ichi; Ando, Masaaki

    2005-05-01

    To discriminate "blood-contacting neurons" within the brain of the eel, Evans blue (EB) was injected intraperitoneally. After five days, six brain areas were externally stained blue with the dye; the saccus dorsalis (SD), the epiphysis (E), the area postrema (AP), the posterior part of the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (PM), the pituitary (Pit), and the saccus vasculosus (SV). Among the EB-positive area, some cells in the PM, the anterior tuberal nucleus (NAT) and the AP were discriminated as the "blood-contacting neurons" histologically, whereas EB-positive neurons were not detected in the SD, the E, the Pit and the SV regions. In the PM, most EB-positive neurons (90 %) were immunoreactive to vasotocin (AVT) antibody, indicating that these neurons are vasotocinergic. The remaining EB-positive neurons (10 %) were not immunoreactive to ANG II and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibodies. Although some neurons in the PM were immunoreactive to ANG II antibody, they were EB-negative. In contrast, almost all EB-positive neurons in the AP showed TH-like immunoreactivity (-lir), indicating that these neurons utilize catecholamine(s) as a neurotransmitter. The EB-positive neurons in the NAT were not immunoreactive to AVT, ANG II and TH antibodies, whereas some neurons without EB-staining showed ANG II-lir. Possible roles of these neurons in regulating drinking behavior in eels are discussed. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Transcriptome profile analysis reveals specific signatures of pollutants in Atlantic eels.

    PubMed

    Baillon, Lucie; Pierron, Fabien; Coudret, Raphaël; Normendeau, Eric; Caron, Antoine; Peluhet, Laurent; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Durrieu, Gilles; Sarraco, Jérôme; Elie, Pierre; Couture, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Identifying specific effects of contaminants in a multi-stress field context remain a challenge in ecotoxicology. In this context, "omics" technologies, by allowing the simultaneous measurement of numerous biological endpoints, could help unravel the in situ toxicity of contaminants. In this study, wild Atlantic eels were sampled in 8 sites presenting a broad contamination gradient in France and Canada. The global hepatic transcriptome of animals was determined by RNA-Seq. In parallel, the contamination level of fish to 8 metals and 25 organic pollutants was determined. Factor analysis for multiple testing was used to identify genes that are most likely to be related to a single factor. Among the variables analyzed, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lindane (γ-HCH) and the hepato-somatic index (HSI) were found to be the main factors affecting eel's transcriptome. Genes associated with As exposure were involved in the mechanisms that have been described during As vasculotoxicity in mammals. Genes correlated with Cd were involved in cell cycle and energy metabolism. For γ-HCH, genes were involved in lipolysis and cell growth. Genes associated with HSI were involved in protein, lipid and iron metabolisms. Our study proposes specific gene signatures of pollutants and their impacts in fish exposed to multi-stress conditions.

  8. Probing the size dependence on the optical modes of anatase nanoplatelets using STEM-EELS.

    PubMed

    Liberti, Emanuela; Menzel, Robert; Shaffer, Milo S P; McComb, David W

    2016-05-14

    Anatase titania nanoplatelets with predominantly exposed {001} facets have been reported to have enhanced catalytic properties in comparison with bulk anatase. To understand their unusual behaviour, it is essential to fully characterize their electronic and optical properties at the nanometer scale. One way of assessing these fundamental properties is to study the dielectric function. Valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) performed using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is the only analytical method that can probe the complex dielectric function with both high energy (<100 meV) and high spatial (<1 nm) resolution. By correlating experimental STEM-EELS data with simulations based on semi-classical dielectric theory, the dielectric response of thin (<5 nm) anatase nanoplatelets was found to be largely dominated by characteristic (optical) surface modes, which are linked to surface plasmon modes of anatase. For platelets less than 10 nm thick, the frequency of these optical modes varies according to their thickness. This unique optical behaviour prompts the enhancement of light absorption in the ultraviolet regime. Finally, the effect of finite size on the dielectric signal is gradually lost by stacking consistently two or more platelets in a specific crystal orientation, and eventually suppressed for large stacks of platelets.

  9. Experimental infection and detection of Aphanomyces invadans in European catfish, rainbow trout and European eel.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, Birgit; Steinbauer, Peter; Geiger, Sheila; Hoffmann, Rudolf W

    2008-12-22

    European catfish Silurus glanis, European eel Anguilla anguilla and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were challenged by intramuscular injection of zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans, the oomycete associated with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS). The tropical three-spot gourami Trichogaster trichopterus is known to be highly susceptible and was used as a positive control. European catfish were highly susceptible and rainbow trout had moderate to low susceptibility, whereas eels appeared largely unaffected. Inflammatory host response in European catfish deviated from the effects seen in most other susceptible fish species and was characterised by a more loosely arranged accumulation of macrophages, small numbers of lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells without occurrence of EUS-characteristic mycotic granulomas. Semi-nested and single round PCR assays were developed for this study to detect A. invadans DNA in clinical samples of experimentally infected fish. The detection limit of the assays equals 1 genomic unit. Specificity was examined by testing the DNA of various oomycetes, other relevant pathogens and commensals as well as host DNA. The single round assay used was fully specific, whereas cross-reaction with the closely related Aphanomyces frigidophilus was observed using the semi-nested assay. Analysis of samples by PCR allowed detection prior to detectable histopathological lesions. Two other published PCR protocols were compared to the PCR protocols presented here.

  10. A low trophic position of Japanese eel larvae indicates feeding on marine snow.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael J; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ogawa, Nanako O; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2013-02-23

    What eel larvae feed on in the surface layer of the ocean has remained mysterious. Gut contents and bulk nitrogen stable isotope studies suggested that these unusual larvae, called leptocephali, feed at a low level in the oceanic food web, whereas other types of evidence have suggested that small zooplankton are eaten. In this study, we determined the nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids of both natural larvae and laboratory-reared larvae of the Japanese eel to estimate the trophic position (TP) of leptocephali. We observed a mean TP of 2.4 for natural leptocephali, which is consistent with feeding on particulate organic matter (POM) such as marine snow and discarded appendicularian houses containing bacteria, protozoans and other biological materials. The nitrogen isotope enrichment values of the reared larvae confirm that the primary food source of natural larvae is consistent only with POM. This shows that leptocephali feed on readily available particulate material originating from various sources closely linked to ocean primary production and that leptocephali are a previously unrecognized part of oceanic POM cycling.

  11. Fitness consequences of individual specialisation in resource use and trophic morphology in European eels.

    PubMed

    Cucherousset, Julien; Acou, Anthony; Blanchet, Simon; Britton, J Robert; Beaumont, William R C; Gozlan, Rodolphe E

    2011-09-01

    Individual specialisation can lead to the exploitation of different trophic and habitat resources and the production of morphological variability within a population. Although the ecological causes of this phenomenon are relatively well known, its consequences on individual fitness are less recognised. We have investigated the extent of individual specialisation in resource use and trophic morphology and its fitness consequences through a combination of tagging-recapture, stable isotope analyses and telemetry. The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) was the model species as it displays significant variability in head shape. Independent to their body length, individuals with broader heads displayed a significantly higher trophic position (δ(15)N) than individuals with narrower heads. This corresponded with a significantly higher proportion of prey fish in their diet compared with invertebrates and was associated with the use of a habitat niche located further from the river bank. The European eel therefore provides a rare empirical example of individual specialisation in resource use and trophic morphology in a natural population occurring at a very small spatial scale. Individuals with intermediate head morphology displayed lower body condition (a proxy of fitness) than individuals with extreme head morphology (i.e. narrower and broader headed individuals), demonstrating the existence of disruptive selection associated with individual specialisation.

  12. Cutaneous myxidiosis in European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758): histopathology, histochemistry and laminin immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manera, M; Borreca, C; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-07-01

    Histopathology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the integument of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), infected by Myxidium sp. are reported. Skin samples from affected and unaffected eels were dissected, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, sectioned and stained with H&E, Periodic acid-Schiff's staining method, Alcian Blue 8 GX pH 2.5/Periodic acid-Schiff's and McCallum-Goodpasture's Gram stain. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed using a primary polyclonal laminin antibody. Histologically, cysts (diameter 2-3 mm) were observed mainly under the scale pockets, encircled by a thin collagen layer, lined by elongated, flattened fibroblasts and containing bipolar, PAS- and Gram-positive spores with opposite polar capsules. The epidermis stretched by the underlying cyst appeared dysplastic, thinned with a significant reduction in mucous cells number. Only inconsistent and aspecific inflammatory reaction was noted around the cysts at the dermis/epidermis interface. Intense laminin-like protein immunolabel was documented in the plasmodial ectoplasm and related to host anergia. This was the first report of laminin immunolabel in a member of the Myxozoa. Epidermal dysplasia represents likely an aspecific response against the underlying tensile force exerted by the developing parasite cyst, while fibroblast and collagen encapsulation denote a parasite-driven host response protecting, rather than harming, the encircled parasite. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Characteristic chemical shifts of quasicrystalline Zn-Mg-Zr alloys studied by EELS and SXES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshiya, S.; Terauchi, M.; Ohhashi, S.; Tsai, A. P.

    2013-06-01

    Chemical shifts of the constituent atoms of primitive icosahedral quasicrystal (P-QC), face-centred icosahedral quasicrystal (F-QC) and 1/1-approximant (1/1-AP) of F-QC Zn-Mg-Zr alloys were investigated for the first time using high energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES). Among Zn M-shell and Mg L-shell excitation EELS spectra of P-QC, F-QC and 1/1-AP alloys, only the quasicrystalline alloys showed a chemical shift towards the larger binding energy side. In Zn-L and Zr-L emission SXES spectra, the P-QC and F-QC alloys showed a chemical shift towards larger binding energy side. The magnitudes of the shifts in the Zn-L emission spectra of the quasicrystalline alloys were almost the same as for ZnO. These results strongly suggest a decrease in valence charge in quasicrystalline states. Therefore, it should be concluded that bonding in quasicrystalline states involves a characteristic increase in covalency compared with bonding in corresponding approximant and standard metal crystals.

  14. Regional variation in otolith Sr:Ca ratios of African longfinned eel Anguilla mossambica and mottled eel Anguilla marmorata: a challenge to the classic tool for reconstructing migratory histories of fishes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y-J; Jessop, B M; Weyl, O L F; Iizuka, Y; Lin, S-H; Tzeng, W-N; Sun, C-L

    2012-07-01

    Otolith Sr:Ca ratios of the African longfinned eel Anguilla mossambica and giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata from nine freshwater sites in four rivers of South Africa were analysed to reconstruct their migratory life histories between freshwater and saltwater habitats. For A. mossambica, the Sr:Ca ratios in the otolith edge differed significantly among rivers and had large effect sizes, but did not differ among sites within a river. Otolith Sr:Ca ratios did not differ among rivers for A. marmorata. When rivers were pooled, the edge Sr:Ca ratios of A. mossambica were not significantly different from those of A. marmorata. According to the river-specific critical Sr:Ca ratio distinguishing freshwater from saltwater residence, most A. mossambica and A. marmorata had saltwater habitat experience after settlement in fresh water. This was primarily during their elver stage or early in the yellow eel stage. During the middle and late yellow eel stage, freshwater residency was preferred and only sporadic visits were made to saltwater habitats. The data also suggest that regional variations in otolith Sr:Ca ratios affect the critical Sr:Ca value and are a challenge for the reconstruction of migratory life histories that should be explicitly considered to avoid bias and uncertainty.

  15. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles - nanoparticle or silver ion?

    PubMed

    Beer, Christiane; Foldbjerg, Rasmus; Hayashi, Yuya; Sutherland, Duncan S; Autrup, Herman

    2012-02-05

    The toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been shown in many publications. Here we investigated to which degree the silver ion fraction of AgNP suspensions, contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs in A549 lung cells. Cell viability assays revealed that AgNP suspensions were more toxic when the initial silver ion fraction was higher. At 1.5μg/ml total silver, A549 cells exposed to an AgNP suspension containing 39% silver ion fraction showed a cell viability of 92%, whereas cells exposed to an AgNP suspension containing 69% silver ion fraction had a cell viability of 54% as measured by the MTT assay. In addition, at initial silver ion fractions of 5.5% and above, AgNP-free supernatant had the same toxicity as AgNP suspensions. Flow-cytometric analyses of cell cycle and apoptosis confirmed that there is no significant difference between the treatment with AgNP suspension and AgNP supernatant. Only AgNP suspensions with silver ion fraction of 2.6% or less were significantly more toxic than their supernatant as measured by MTT assays. From our data we conclude that at high silver ion fractions (≥5.5%) the AgNPs did not add measurable additional toxicity to the AgNP suspension, whereas at low silver ion fractions (≤2.6%) AgNP suspensions are more toxic than their supernatant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...