Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada
The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…
Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael
Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…
Flint, April Susanne
Intramural activities are conducted on virtually every college campus throughout the United States, but there is a debate as to the role of intramurals in the overall development of the student (Rothwell & Theodore, 2006). Specifically for females, not every sport is offered for participation at youth or higher levels, but intramural sports is…
We investigated whether doing sports has any effect on the androgynous characteristics of women. In 15 universities from different regions of Turkey, a questionnare was administered to 341 students (170 elite sportlers from nine sport categories and 171 sedantary controls) during the 2012-2013 study period. The Bem sex role inventory was used to…
Kindig, Louise E.
Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…
Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa
The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes.
Richman, Erin L.; Shaffer, David R.
Investigated links between female precollege sport participation and college self-esteem. Students surveys indicated that participation in sports positively correlated with body image, perceived physical competencies, gender identity, global self-esteem, and other psychosocial variables, thus predicting college self-esteem. In the absence of such…
Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia
The termination of a collegiate athletic career is inevitable for all student athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore student athletes' perceptions of the athletic career transition process. One-hundred-and-forty-three (n = 143) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II student athletes were administered the Life After…
Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.
This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…
Nelson, Toben F; LaBrie, Richard A; LaPlante, Debi A; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J; Wechsler, Henry
Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to other students, with no differences between athletes and fans. Male students were more likely to gamble than female students, but gender did not moderate the relationship between athletic participation and sports gambling. Students attending schools with a greater "sports interest" were more likely to gamble on college sports after adjusting for individual characteristics. Athletes, sports fans, and students attending schools with high "sports interest" are appropriate targets for prevention efforts.
The aim of this research is to evaluate the burnout levels of sports sciences faculty students in terms of some other variables. 46 Female (Age, M: 20.88 ± 1.86) and 107 male (Age, M: 22.15 ± 2.15) in total 153 students participated in this research. Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Form (MBI-SF) was used for data collection. Descriptive…
This study investigates factors influencing participation of Afro-American female adolescents in sports. Following a review of the literature, two topics are addressed. The first of these, "Behavior in Sport," discusses benefits of sports to youth; stereotypes of Afro-American female sports participants; behaviors of female athletes; and…
This study aimed at investigating the reasons lying behind the reluctance of participation in sport activities among Alia Princess College female students, using descriptive approach. The population of the study consisted of (2000) female students, whereas the sample was of (200) students. They were randomly selected and a questionnaire of 31…
Given the findings that females and males of all ages approach sport from markedly different perspectives, sport sociologists have acknowledged sex differences in sport socialization factors and processes. (Sport is defined in its broadest sense to encompass a range of formal and informal sport, fitness, play, and leisure activities.) It has been…
Wasfi, A S; El-Sherbiny, A A M; Gurashi, E; Al Sayegh, F U
A study was made of sport practice and of knowledge, attitude and practice towards sport among 1475 private secondary-school students in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2004. UAE students practised sport more than non-UAE students (33.9% versus 18.7% had good levels of activity) but there was no significant difference in positive attitudes towards sport practice (87.1% and 86.2% respectively). A good level of sport (vigorous exercise > or = 3 times per week for 20 min) was higher among males (26.0%) than females (14.7%). There was a significant association between overweight and obesity as well as tobacco smoking and low levels of sport practice. Health education intervention is needed to improve sport practice among young people.
Andrews, Ashley; Boyd, Joni M.; Bowers, Charles J.
Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes' sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males) from baseball, softball, men's soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%). The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%). Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes' inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors. PMID:27872757
Briere, Donald E., III; Siegle, Del
Unified Sports is Special Olympics' response to the inclusion movement. The program includes both students with disabilities and students without disabilities working together in athletic competitions. We describe 4 students who participated in the program: 3 females and 1 male. The students' disabilities varied and included mobile impairment,…
The aim of this research is to examine the problem solving abilities of School of Physical Education and Sports students. To achieve this aim, in the academic year 2013-2014, a research group did a study of 433 students of the School of Physical Education and Sports, Kafkas University. This sample consisted of 184 female and 249 male students.…
Sagar, Sam S; Boardley, Ian D; Kavussanu, Maria
BACKGROUND. The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex differences have not been considered in fear of failure research. AIMS. To examine whether (a) fear of failure and sport experience predict antisocial behaviour in the university and sport contexts in student athletes, and whether this prediction is the same in males and females; and (b) sex differences exist in antisocial behaviour and fear of failure. SAMPLE. British university student athletes (n= 176 male; n= 155 female; M(age) = 20.11 years). METHOD. Participants completed questionnaires assessing fear of failure, sport experience, and antisocial behaviour in both contexts. RESULTS. (a) Fear of failure and sport experience positively predicted antisocial behaviour in university and sport and the strength of these predictions did not differ between males and females; (b) females reported higher levels of fear of devaluing one's self-estimate than males whereas males reported higher levels of fear of important others losing interest than females. Males engaged more frequently than females in antisocial behaviour in both contexts. CONCLUSIONS. Fear of failure and sport experience may be important considerations when trying to understand antisocial behaviour in student athletes in education and sport; moreover, the potential effect of overall fear of failure and of sport experience on this frequency does not differ by sex. The findings make an important contribution to the fear of failure and morality literatures.
Nagami, Soichiro; Tsuji, Keita
To demonstrate the effectiveness of university libraries, we investigated the relationship between university students' sports performances and their libraries collections of sports. By examining approximately 20 university libraries' collections and their sports ranks, as indicated by Waseda Sports 2008, we demonstrated their positive…
The aim of this study was to compare the aggression scores of Sports Sciences Faculty and Education Faculty students and also to examine the effects of some demographic variables on aggression. Two hundred Sports Sciences Faculty students (who engage in sporting activities four days a week for two hours) and 200 Education Faculty students (who do…
Drag racing is just one of the exciting sporting activities that students enrolled in the Parkland College's Engineering Science and Technologies program get an opportunity in which to participate. The college, located in Champaign, Illinois, has provided affordable career-tech and academic education to area residents since 1966. This article…
Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel
The continuity hypothesis in its general form states that dreams reflect waking life: concerns, thoughts, and experiences (G. W. Domhoff, 1996; M. Schredl, 1999; I. Strauch & B. Meier, 1996). For example, athletes and sport students dream about sports more often than do psychology students, presumably reflecting their engagement in sport activities and sport theory (D. Erlacher & M. Schredl, 2004). In the present study, the authors tested the previously unexamined hypothesis that differences in dream content would directly reflect individuals' differing amounts of waking sport activities. As expected, the amount of time that individuals spent engaged in an activity (sports or reading) was directly related to their percentage of corresponding dreams. Also, individuals reported reading dreams less frequently than they did sport dreams, although reading was more prominent in their waking lives than were sport activities. The findings also indicated that other factors such as emotional involvement and associated worries might be of importance in explaining the relation between waking activities and dream events. Future studies using longitudinal designs would shed more light on this relation and would help derive a more precise formulation of the continuity hypothesis.
Gropper, Sareen S; Blessing, Daniel; Dunham, Kim; Barksdale, Jeffrey M
Iron status was assessed in 70 female athletes aged 18-25 yr participating in collegiate cross-country track, tennis, softball, swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. No significant differences in mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and ferritin were found among teams. The mean concentrations of each parameter for each of the teams were within the normal ranges. However, several athletes from different sports had suboptimal iron status indexes. Of 17 athletes with a serum ferritin concentration < or = 15 microg/L, 8 (4 freshmen, 2 sophomores, 2 unknown) also exhibited low serum iron concentrations (< 60 microg/dL) and low transferrin saturation (< 16%). Thirteen (6 freshmen, 3 sophomores, 2 juniors, 2 seniors) of 51 (25%) athletes failed to consume two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for iron and exhibited suboptimal serum concentrations of ferritin, iron, and/or transferrin saturation. Of nine athletes taking iron supplements, one exhibited suboptimal iron status. In summary, nonanemic iron depletion was present among female collegiate athletes involved in many different sports and in all years of participation (freshmen, sophomore, junior, and senior athletes). Female athletes should continue to be individually and routinely evaluated for nutritional deficiencies throughout their collegiate athletic careers.
Baydar, Hacer Özge; Hazar, Muhsin; Yildiz, Ozer; Yildiz, Mehtap; Tingaz, Emre Ozan; Gökyürek, Belgin
The objective of this research is to examine and analyze the class management profiles of 3rd and 4th grade students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Departments of universities in Turkey based on gender, grade level and university. The research population comprised 375 students (170 females and 205 males) of Physical Education and Sports…
Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.
This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…
Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M
Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.
Uglesić, Boran; Lasić, Davor; Zuljan-Cvitanović, Marija; Buković, Damir; Karelović, Deni; Delić-Brkljacić, Diana; Buković, Nevia; Radan, Mirjana
The present study asses the prevalence of depressive symptoms among college students in Split, Croatia, and positive influence of sport activity on decreasing the depression symptoms. Authors screened all 664 college students of the first year of study. All of them were over the 18 years and the mean age was 19.4 +/- 1.2 years. There were 466 females (70.2%) and 178 (26.8%) males. They answered The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and questionnaire about their sport activity (no sport activity, recreational and active in sports). For the purpose of the analysis depressive symptoms were defined as a score of > 11. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney test were used for data analysis. 9.4% of the students had significant depression symptoms (score > 11). No one student had score > 26 (symptoms of major depression). Statistically significant lower score on BDI have students who are active in sports (score median = 3) compared to group of recreational (score median = 4) and in correlation to group who are not active in sports (score median = 5) (Kruskal-Wallis: p < 0.001). In the group of active in sports (N = 254) there are only 5.5% with depressions symptoms, while in the group of non active in sports (N = 60) are 18 depressive (chi2-test: p = 0,005). Females are statistically more depressed than males (chi2-test: p = 0.01). In the female group 49 (10.5%) are depressed, and in the male group are 9 (5%). Compared to gender in separate analysis we did not find correlation of decreasing depression symptoms and sport activity among males (chi2-test: p = 0.47), while in females we find that sport activity has significant effect (chi2-test: p = 0.026). Our results shoved moderate values of depression symptoms among college population in Split, Croatia. More females than males experienced depressive symptoms. While sport activity did not have significant influence on the depression in male population, it has significant influence in reducing the depression symptoms among females.
Robinson, Carol L.
This article describes how technology has been used to motivate the learning of mathematics for students of Sports Technology at Loughborough University. Sports applications are introduced whenever appropriate and Matlab is taught to enable the students to solve realistic problems. The mathematical background of the students is varied and the…
Graham, Jessica; Georgakis, Steve
This paper traces the development of sport in the two female residential colleges (Women's and Sancta Sophia) at the University of Sydney. While the University of Sydney male residential colleges established an intercollegiate sporting competition in 1907 (Rawson Cup), it was not until 1958 that the female residential colleges established an…
Nelson, Toben F; Lenk, Kathleen M; Xuan, Ziming; Wechsler, Henry
Alcohol consumption control policies at U.S. intercollegiate sports events, and their association with student drinking, were assessed using data from a 2001 nationally representative survey of students and administrators (n = 7,261 students, N = 117 colleges). Alcohol was available to sports event attendees through in-stadium sales, tailgating parties, and allowing spectators to bring in alcohol. Policies varied by college, with fewer restrictions at large public schools with NCAA Division I athletics. Permitting alcohol at tailgate parties was associated with more students drinking at sports events. Future research should evaluate whether enacting policy restrictions can reduce drinking and related problems at intercollegiate sports events.
Fair, Helena J.
The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is for a course designed for students investigating the activities within the sports medicine department or considering any of the areas of kinesiology as a career. The material is designed for individualized study and is competency based with educational outcomes stated for…
In an effort to potentially increase low enrollment of females, particularly minorities, in Engineering programs, this study used a survey to determine motivations, interests and retention of current female Engineering students. A total of 82 participants from varied ethnic (non-Hispanic white, Euro-American, African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, South Asian, Arab American, and Native American participants) and education (high school senior, undergraduate, graduate, and in-service Engineers) backgrounds filled out the survey. With approximately half of the participants being non-minorities (non-Hispanic white or Euro-American), they served as the `control' group for the data, and the comparison group was the minority participants. Notable differences between the two groups were: student participation in female community groups, and extra-curricular activities like sports and arts (writing, drama and band) clubs. Increasing female-minority participation in these clubs and other extra-curricular activities may potentially increase their enrollment numbers in Engineering programs.
Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Gray, James J
Sports magazines portrayal of female athletes over the past ten years, in terms of body size, age, and race was examined. Using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), estimated body size was obtained for cover models on a set of judged and non-judged sport magazines. The frequency with which the full bodies of models were depicted on the covers of these magazines was also investigated. Cover models on judged sport magazines were rated as significantly thinner than cover models on non-judged sport magazines. Judged sport magazines also displayed a higher number of full-body images than non-judged sport magazines. These findings suggest that individuals who read judged sport magazines are more likely to be exposed to thin media images than those reading non-judged sport magazines.
Wallhead, Tristan L.; Garn, Alex C.; Vidoni, Carla; Youngberg, Charli
Sport Education has embedded pedagogical strategies proposed to reduce the prevalence of amotivation in physical education. The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the game play participation rates of amotivated students within a Sport Education season. A sample of 395 high school students participated in a season of team…
Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech
Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training.
Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech
Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ2 =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ2 =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ2 =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183
Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J
The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.
Bengston, Barbara; Baldwin, Cynthia
Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…
Sinelnikov, Oleg; Hastie, Peter
Given Russian students' general lack of group work and opportunities to develop student responsibility in their prior schooling experiences, the purpose of this study was to examine how a group of Russian high school students responds to novel demands of participation in a sport education season. Forty-two students from two ninth-grade physical…
Costello, Joseph T; Bieuzen, Francois; Bleakley, Chris M
The aim of this study is to estimate the ratio of male and female participants in Sports and Exercise Medicine research. Original research articles published in three major Sports and Exercise Medicine journals (Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, British Journal of Sports Medicine and American Journal of Sports Medicine) over a three-year period were examined. Each article was screened to determine the following: total number of participants, the number of female participants and the number of male participants. The percentage of females and males per article in each of the journals was also calculated. Cross tabulations and Chi-square analysis were used to compare the gender representation of participants within each of the journals. Data were extracted from 1382 articles involving a total of 6,076,580 participants. A total of 2,366,968 (39%) participants were female and 3,709,612 (61%) were male. The average percentage of female participants per article across the journals ranged from 35% to 37%. Females were significantly under-represented across all of the journals (χ(2) = 23,566, df = 2, p < 0.00001). In conclusion, Sports and Exercise Medicine practitioners should be cognisant of sexual dimorphism and gender disparity in the current literature.
Blumenthal, Kent J.
This article presents an overview of the rise of modern-day collegiate recreational sports and their relevance to student learning and quality of life. The author discusses planning considerations for collegiate recreational sports facilities and the importance of these facilities as a recruitment and retention tool. (Contains 4 figures.)
Tindall, Daniel; Foley, John
The main goals of the sport education model (SEM) are to help students become competent, literate, and enthusiastic sportspersons by offering learning opportunities through contextualized sport experiences within the physical education setting. While various resources recommend suitable and easy-to-use assessment tools for physical education…
Guillet, Emma; Sarrazin, Philippe; Fontayne, Paul; Brustad, Robert J.
An empirical research study based upon the expectancy-value model of Eccles and colleagues (1983) investigated the effect of gender-role orientations on psychological dimensions of female athletes' sport participation and the likelihood of their continued participation in a stereotypical masculine activity. The model (Eccles et al., 1983) posits…
Traub, Stuart H.
Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)
Leffler, Brandy Sue
This study focused on the problem of college student-athletes retiring from their sports unprepared for life outside of sanctioned athletics. The purpose was to identify if a current student-athlete believes he/she is prepared for a career life after competitive college athletics and who the student-athlete feels should provide guidance into the…
Otrebski, Wojciech; Rutkowska, Katarzyna
Study aim: To determine the need of female junior volleyball players to collaborate with a psychologist, considering previous sport career of those players. Material and methods: A group of 78 female volleyball players aged 14-17 years from 7 top Polish junior teams participated in the study. They were requested to fill questionnaires on their…
Gayles, Joy Gaston; Hu, Shouping
Most of the internal and public scrutiny of college sports involves high profile athletes in sports such as football and men's basketball; yet, recent research on the impact of sport participation on student learning and development has largely focused on comparing all athletes to their non-athlete peers across institutional types. There is a need…
Townsend, Michael; Hassall, John
Background: Schools in New Zealand do not normally include students with intellectual disability in their sports programmes. This study examined regular students' attitudes towards the possible inclusion of students with an intellectual disability in an integrated sports programme within their school. Materials and Methods: A total of 170 school…
Goossens, L; Verrelst, R; Cardon, G; De Clercq, D
Sports injuries could be highly detrimental to the career of a physical education teacher education (PETE) student. To enable the development of future sports injury prevention programs, sports injuries in 128 first-year academic bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Common risk factors for sports injuries, taken from the literature, were also evaluated by means of logistic regression analysis. We found an incidence rate of 1.91 and an injury risk of 0.85, which is higher than generally found in a sports-active population. Most injuries involved the lower extremities, were acute, newly occurring injuries, and took place in non-contact situations. More than half of all injuries lead to an inactivity period of 1 week or more and over 80% of all injuries required medical attention. A major part of these injuries happened during the intracurricular sports classes. Few differences were seen between women and men. A history of injury was a significant risk factor (P = 0.018) for the occurrence of injuries, and performance of cooling-down exercises was significantly related to a lower occurrence of ankle injuries (P = 0.031). These data can inform future programs for the prevention of sports injuries in PETE students.
Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo
Osteoporosis most commonly affects postmenopausal women, placing them at a significant risk for fractures. The strategies for preventing osteoporotic fractures are maximizing peak bone mass, counteracting age- and menopause-related bone loss, minimizing the increase in spinal kyphosis, and preventing falls. Thus, the aim of sport and exercise appears to differ among ages in the maintenance of bone health in females. Given that maximizing peak bone mass is the most important strategy for preventing fractures in later life, interventions may therefore be needed before the menarche (during the growth spurt) in children. The efficacy of sport activity and exercise in all strategies has been established, although there is no evidence that sport and exercise are able to prevent hip fractures. However, sport activity and exercise across the life span of the average female should be encouraged in the maintenance of bone health.
Downward, Paul; Rasciute, Simona
Increasing sport participation has been identified as a key vehicle for achieving World Health Organisation guidelines for health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA). A policy challenge is to promote this changed behaviour. Making use of the Active People Survey, a zero-inflated ordered probit model is used to identify the covariates of sport participation for males and females with respect to the related decisions to either participate in sport or not, and to participate at either lower or higher than desired intensity. To inform current policy emphases, the Active Places Survey is also used to examine the causal impact of facility provision on these behaviours. Results indicate that females are more likely to adopt less intensive activity even with time available. Families could place most constraints on females, but also reduce the intensity of male participation. Education has a greater association with higher intensity female activity. The largest effects are identified for sport club membership and facility satisfaction. Both of these affect male intensity of activity most. The main policy challenges facing sport in contributing to HEPA are shown to involve retaining male intensity of participation when ageing and encouraging greater female intensity of participation, with more appropriate matching of facilities.
Sudibyo, Elok; Jatmiko, Budi; Widodo, Wahono
Sport science undergraduate education, one of which purposes is to produce an analyst in sport. However, generally analytical thinking skills of sport science's students is still relatively very low in the context of sport. This study aimed to describe the effectiveness of Physics Learning Model in Sport Context, Context Based Learning (CBL)…
Weiss, Windee M.; Weiss, Maureen R.
The purpose of this study was to examine age and competitive level differences in the relationship between determinants and level of sport commitment. Gymnasts (N = 304) comprised three age groups (8-11, 11-14.5, and 14.5-18 years) and two competitive levels (Levels 5-6 and 8-10). Multiple regression analyses revealed: (a) perceived costs and…
The purpose of this research is to analyze the multiple intelligence levels of academies of physical education and sports students according to some demographic factors. To obtain data about multiple intelligence levels in the research, the multiple intelligence inventory, developed by Ozden (2003), was applied to a total of 1.199 students, of…
Dalbudak, Ibrahim; Gürkan, Alper C.; Yigit, Sih Mehmet; Kargun, Mehmet; Hazar, Gürkan; Dorak, Feridun
This study aims to investigate visually disabled students', who study in the level of primary education, high school, university, attitudes about physical education and sport in terms of different variables. Totally 100 visually disabled students who are individual and team athletes and study in Izmir, (8 visually disabled athletes study in…
Although schools have made great strides educating students with disabilities in mainstreamed academic classrooms, some advocates and physical educators say sports programs and physical education classes are the final frontier for full inclusion in public schools. In the past few years, advocates for such students have been demanding greater…
Bowen, Daniel H.; Hitt, Collin
Student participation in school sports has surged over the past half century. The greatest contributor to this increase has been Title IX, which required schools to expand opportunities for girls. Despite the perceived benefits and high levels of support from students and parents, interscholastic athletics constantly come under attack. The fervor…
Phillips, Anna C.
Seminars were implemented to develop undergraduates' critical appraisal skills and their effectiveness was evaluated. Participants were 140 undergraduate students consisting of 103 students from Sport and Exercise Sciences and 37 from Biosciences. Four seminars were employed to develop and reinforce critical thinking and provide an opportunity for…
Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.
This study examines the recollections of the Sport Education experiences of a cohort of students (15 boys and 19 girls) who had participated in seasons of basketball, soccer and badminton across grades six through eight (average age at data collection = 15.6 years). Using autobiographic memory theory techniques, the students completed surveys and…
Study aim: To assess the engagement of students of Warsaw university schools in sports and in recreational motor activities. Material and methods: A cohort (n = 1100) of students attending B.S. or M.S. courses at 6 university schools in Warsaw were studied by applying questionnaire techniques. The questions pertained to participation in…
Brock, Sheri J.; Rovegno, Inez; Oliver, Kimberly L.
Background: Curriculum models that include group work and allow student decision-making and responsibility within physical education classes have become increasingly popular. Models such as Sport Education are likely to facilitate different and potentially better quality experiences for students. One of the underlying premises of Sport Education…
Carrier, Bryan L.
Although there is a great quantity of research on student engagement and its impact on learning and retention, limited research exists on the impact of sport participation on student athlete engagement; an even smaller amount of research exists on the impact of sport participation among different athletic divisions (NCAA Division I, NCAA Division…
Garcia, Raul Sanchez; Herraiz, Antonio Rivero
The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to contribute to the analysis of the origins of modern European female PE and sports from a power perspective, inspired by Foucault's work; and (2) to present a detailed analysis of female PE and sport in Spain (1883-1936) as a specific European case study. It is argued that these physical activities could…
Aim The objective of the study was to examine self-esteem, anxiety level and coping strategies among secondary school students in relation to their involvement in organized sports. Methods The sample included 280 Slovenian male and female secondary school students aged between 15 and 19 years. The participants completed The Adolescent Coping Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the PSDQ Selfesteem Scale. Results Participants engaged in organized sports exhibited higher self-esteem scores and lower anxiety scores in comparison to non-sport participants. Differences between the two groups have also been identified with respect to the use of certain coping strategies. Sport participants reported more productive coping than non-sport participants, which represents an active and problem-focused approach to dealing with everyday problems. Gender differences in the referred variables have also been studied, with female athletes exhibiting higher levels of anxiety than male athletes. Female participants were also found to use more non-productive coping than males, focused mainly on reducing emotional effects of stress. Conclusions Organized youth sports have an important role in improving and maintaining a favorable sense of self-worth, reducing anxiety, and promoting productive coping strategies in adolescents when dealing with everyday problems. PMID:27646730
Cortes, Nelson; Porter, Larissa D; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Caswell, Shane V
Dancers have a lower incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared to athletes in sports that involve cutting and landing motions. Balance can impact ACL injury risk and is related to neuromuscular control during movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether balance differences exist among female dancers and female soccer and basketball athletes. Fifty-eight female dancers, soccer, and basketball athletes (16.5 ± 1.6 yrs, 1.6 ± 0.2 m, 60.2 ± 14.1 kg) completed the Stability Evaluation Test (SET) on the NeuroCom VSR Sport (NeuroCom International, Clackamas, OR) to measure sway velocity. Video records of the SET test were used for Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) test scoring. A oneway ANCOVA compared composite sway velocity and BESS scores among sports. There was no statistically significant difference for sway velocity or BESS among sports (sway velocity soccer 2.3 ± 0.4, dance 2.2 ± 0.4, and basketball 2.4 ± 0.4; BESS soccer 13.6 ± 5.0, dance 11.9 ± 5.5, and basketball 14.9 ± 5.1, p>0.05). Balance was similar among athletes participating in different sports (dance, basketball, and soccer). Quasi-static balance may not play a significant role in neuromuscular control during movement and not be a significant risk factor to explain the disparity in ACL injury incidence among sports. Future research should examine the effects of dynamic balance and limb asymmetries among sports to elucidate on the existing differences on ACL injury incidence rates.
Triki, Moez; Koubaa, Abdessalem; Masmoudi, Liwa; Fellmann, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair
Introduction : For obvious reasons, athletes are at greater risk of sustaining a lumber (lower) spine injury due to physical activity. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in a Tunisian sports and physical education institute. Aim : To assess the prevalence of LBP in different sports among students studying in a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia, to determine the causes of the injuries, and to propose solutions. Methods : A total of 3,379 boys and 2,579 girls were studied. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a group of students aged 18.5-24.5 years at the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax to estimate the prevalence of LBP and its relation to the type of sports. Data on age, weight, height, smoking, and the sport in which the student was injured in the low back were collected from the institute health service records from 2005 until 2013. Results : LBP was reported by 879 of the 5,958 study participants (14.8%). The prevalence of LBP was significantly higher (p<0.001) in females (17.6%) than in males (12.5%). LBP prevalence did not differ by body mass index or smoking habit (p>0.05). The sports associated with the higher rates of LBP were gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball, followed by basketball and athletics. Conclusion : LBP is frequent among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia. It is strongly associated with fatigue after the long periods of training in different sports. Gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball were identified as high-risk sports for causing LBP.
Weiss, Windee M; Weiss, Maureen R
The purpose of this study was to examine age and competitive level differences in the relationship between determinants and level of sport commitment. Gymnasts (N = 304) comprised three age groups (8-11, 11-14.5, and 14.5-18 years) and two competitive levels (Levels 5-6 and 8-10). Multiple regression analyses revealed: (a) perceived costs and social constraints from parents and best friends were the strongest predictors of commitment for the youngest gymnasts, (b) perceived costs, personal investments, and parent social constraints predicted commitment for 11-14.5-year-old gymnasts, and (c) perceived competence and costs predicted commitment for the oldest gymnasts. Competitive level differences also emerged; for Level 5-6 gymnasts, personal investments, perceived costs, coach social support, and social constraints by coach, best friend, and teammates were predictors of commitment. Personal investments and teammate social constraints were significant predictors for Level 8-10 gymnasts. Developmental factors and additional determinants are important to consider in further studies of the sport commitment model.
Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.
Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…
In this research, problem solving skills of university students are examined in the factors of sex and class. In this research problem solving inventory that is improved by Heppner and Petersen (1982) is applied to the students that are training 1. and 4. class 58 female 86 male at Selcuk University Konya, Turkey Physical Education and Sport Collage. In statistical analysis of research for the factors sex and class, variance analysis and t test are used. In the research while meaningful difference is found in the above dimension of the factors sex and there is not found meaningful difference in the factors of class. In conclusion, female students have more positive problem solving skills than male students.
Bozlar, Volkan; Arslanoglu, Cansel
The aim of this study is to determine Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of students in the Schools of Physical Education and Sport (SPES) utilizing Body Mass Index (BMI) and other various variables. The study is composed of 1,695 students studying in SPES, in 14 different universities across Turkey. It is made up of 1,067 male and 624 female students.…
Practica, internships, and mentorships are vital for the development of capable and productive graduates of preprofessional academic programs, including sports management and sports administration programs. College students with disabilities, including those in sports management and sports administration programs, who are preparing to enter their…
Nelson, Toben F.; LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J.; Wechsler, Henry
Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to…
Purdy, Dean; And Others
Changes in attitude, motivation, and values take place in the academic, athletic, and social areas of student-athletes' lives during their freshman year of college. Twenty incoming college freshman athletes involved in "revenue" sports (football, basketball, and ice hockey) participated in this study and were interviewed in the fall and again in…
Brown, David R.; Blanton, Curtis J.
Used data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to evaluate the relationship between physical activity, sports participation, and suicide among college students. Overall, selected physical activity patterns were associated in a non-systematic manner with decreased or increased odds of suicidal behavior among male and female…
Kasser, Susan L.; And Others
Provides justification for a cross-disciplinary approach to program delivery in physical education for students with physical and cognitive disabilities. Details the positive outcomes possible through a bidirectional relationship between physical education and physical therapy and presents guidelines for collaboration and for sport skill…
Lewis, Benjamin A.; Quarterman, Jerome
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of choice factors that were most important to students who decided to matriculate in the field of sport management for a master's degree. A survey questionnaire was mailed to the program or department chairs of 12 randomly selected universities listed on the NASSM web site during…
Dougherty, Neil J., Ed.
This collection of papers offers a comprehensive text about contemporary physical activities and sports forms. It provides students with an overview of the various physical activities, skill technique required, safety, scoring, rules and etiquette, strategies, equipment, and related terminology. The 26 papers are: (1) "Physical Fitness"…
Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.
The materials in this packet are for a course designed to provide individualized classroom study for a specific area of clinical rotation--sports medicine. The instructor's manual describes the learning objectives together with a list of reference materials that should be provided for completion of the student worksheets, and lists suggested…
Chan, K. M.; Fu, F.; Leung, L.
A sports injuries survey was conducted among 1714 students of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The common sports involved in injuries were Soccer (26%), Basketball (18%), Cycling (11%), Track and field athletics (11%) and Swimming (10%). The lower limb usually took the brunt of the injuries (67%) followed by the upper limb (28%) and spinal injuries were relatively uncommon (3%). The majority of the injuries were mild to moderate and the commonest ones were abrasion (37%), contusion (21%), cramp (20%), sprains (9%), and strains (7%). Of the injuries 80% recovered in less than 10 days and 50% of them were self-treated. However, a significant group of more severe injuries was recorded: fracture, concussion and heat stroke which demanded special medical attention and longer period for recovery. The pattern of treatment was also unique in that traditional Chinese methods of treatment were sought more frequently than special orthopaedic advice. The preventive aspects of sports injuries was not well recognised with only 40% of the students regularly practising warm-up exercises, 18% stretching exercises and 4% using protective aids. More educational programmes and studies were indicated. The set up of a sports injury clinic is recommended with the utilisation of a sports injury reporting system. Images p195-a p195-b p195-c PMID:6487946
Popadiuk, Natalee E.
Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…
Blumberg, Phyllis; And Others
Self-perceptions of male and female medical students on various psychosocial characteristics were compared in 1980. The questionnaire consisted of: the Social Support Networks questions, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967), the General Well Being Scale (Gurin, Veroff, and Felds, 1960), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale…
Beese, Mark E.; Joy, Elizabeth; Switzler, Craig L.; Hicks-Little, Charlie A.
Context Single-sport specialization (SSS) is becoming more prevalent in youth athletes. Deficits in functional movement have been shown to predispose athletes to injury. It is unclear whether a link exists between SSS and the development of functional movement deficits that predispose SSS athletes to an increased risk of knee injury. Objective To determine whether functional movement deficits exist in SSS athletes compared with multi-sport (M-S) athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Soccer practice fields. Patients or Other Participants A total of 40 (21 SSS [age = 15.05 ± 1.2 years], 19 M-S [age = 15.32 ± 1.2 years]) female high school athlete volunteers were recruited through local soccer clubs. All SSS athletes played soccer. Intervention(s) Participants were grouped into 2 categories: SSS and M-S. All participants completed 3 trials of the standard Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) jump-landing task. They performed a double-legged jump from a 30-cm platform, landing on a rubber mat at a distance of half their body height. Upon landing, participants immediately performed a maximal vertical jump. Main Outcome Measure(s) Values were assigned to each trial using the LESS scoring criteria. We averaged the 3 scored trials and then used a Mann-Whitney U test to test for differences between groups. Participant scores from the jump-landing assessment for each group were also placed into the 4 defined LESS categories for group comparison using a Pearson χ2 test. The α level was set a priori at .05. Results Mean scores were 6.84 ± 1.81 for the SSS group and 6.07 ± 1.93 for the M-S group. We observed no differences between groups (z = −1.44, P = .15). A Pearson χ2 analysis revealed that the proportions of athletes classified as having excellent, good, moderate, or poor LESS scores were not different between the SSS and M-S groups ( = 1.999, P = .57). Conclusions Participation in soccer alone compared with multiple sports did not affect LESS scores in
Mutlu, T. Osman
The aim of this study is to determine organisational culture of the students studying in School of Physical Education and Sports (SPES) in Turkey. The study group of the research is composed of 216 students studying in the third and fourth year of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Sports Administration, Coaching Education and Recreation…
Schroeder, Debra S.; Mynatt, Clifford R.
Performed content analysis of interviews of female students with male and female professors and male students with male and female professors for differences related to student/professor gender combination. Quantitative and qualitative analyses for 40 students showed no differences in professional relationships, but it did reveal some…
Schroeder, Debra S.; Mynatt, Clifford R.
Female graduate students with female major professors gave significantly higher ratings to the quality of the interactions with professors, and to professors' concern for their welfare, than did female students with male major professors. No differences emerged on other aspects of student-major professor interactions. (Author/MSE)
Brown, Paula R.
The protocol of this study was designed to investigate the factors three gifted, young women perceived as influencing their successful transition from an accelerated science high school program to three accelerated university science programs. The research design was a mixed methods study involving three gifted women as they maneuvered through a high school magnet program for science and matriculated into separate university honors programs for science majors. As high school graduates, these women also achieved honors and citations for academic excellence. During their initial years of college, these students maintained outstanding grades in rigorous programs for science majors. These criteria yielded three, gifted female students who proved to be resilient and committed to meeting the demands of an academic program of science. In an attempt to understand the influential factors in the academic lives of these students, a narrative inquiry as well as a quantitative component comprised of three inventories for descriptive data were selected. The impetus for this research resided in the need to better understand the factors contributing to the shaping of the self-identity of the gifted female student as she achieved academic success in the typically, male dominated science classrooms; subsequently, the guidance by parents and educators may prove influential in developing the achievement orientation within the self-identity of the young woman.
Koca, Canan; Demirhan, Giyasettin
This study assessed attitudes of high school students toward physical education with regard to sex and sport participation. A total of 440 sport participants (175 girls and 265 boys) and of 427 nonsport participants (227 girls and 200 boys), all of whom were 15 yr. old, voluntarily participated. The Attitudes Toward Physical Education Scale was administered to assess participants' attitudes toward physical education. The results of 2 x 2 (Sex x Sports Participation) analysis of variance indicated a significant difference in attitudes toward physical education between sport participants and nonsport participants, with the former scoring higher, and a difference between boys and girls, with boys scoring higher. However, there was no significant interaction between sex and sports participation on attitudes toward physical education. In general, sport participants had more favorable Attitudes Toward Physical Education scores than nonsport participants, and high school boys scored significantly higher than girls. There was a significant difference in Attitudes Toward Physical Education scores between female and male high school students, with boys having more favorable attitude scores.
Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training.
Brown, Nicola; White, Jennifer; Brasher, Amanda; Scurr, Joanna
Although it is acknowledged that appropriate breast support during exercise is important, no published literature has assessed breast support usage in a cohort of female marathon runners. This study aimed to identify sport bra use and perceived importance of sports bra use in female marathon runners. Bra satisfaction, incidence of bra related issues and factors that influence the appropriateness of sports bras were also investigated. A 4-part, 30-question survey was administered to 1397 female runners at the 2012 London marathon registration and via an online survey. In total 1285 surveys were completed. Sports bra use and its perceived importance was high, however was lower in moderate compared to vigorous activity, and lower in participants with smaller breasts. Seventy-five per cent of participants reported bra fit issues. The most common issues were chaffing and shoulder straps digging in, with a higher incidence of issues reported by participants with larger breasts. Use of professional bra fitting was low, and perceived knowledge of breast health was poor. Engagement with sports bra use is high although sports bra design could be improved to alleviate bra fit issues experienced by female runners. Educational initiatives are needed to ensure females are informed regarding the importance of breast support and appropriate bra fit during activity.
Weiss, Windee M; Weiss, Maureen R; Amorose, Anthony J
In the present study, we examined an expanded model of sport commitment by adding two determinants (perceived costs and perceived competence) and behavioural commitment as a consequence of psychological commitment, as well as identifying psychological commitment as a mediator of relationships between determinants and behavioural commitment. Competitive female gymnasts (N = 304, age 8-18 years) completed relevant measures while coaches rated each gymnast's training behaviours as an indicator of behavioural commitment. Path analysis revealed that the best fitting model was one in which original determinants (enjoyment, involvement opportunities, investments, attractive alternatives) and an added determinant (perceived costs) predicted psychological commitment, in addition to investments and perceived costs directly predicting behavioural commitment. These results provide further, but partial, support for the sport commitment model and also suggest that additional determinants and behavioural consequences be considered in future research.
Mowling, Claire M.; Brock, Sheri J.; Hastie, Peter A.
This study examined fourth grade students' representations of sport education through drawings in order to determine what students perceived as most important throughout their soccer season. The first objective was to determine whether student representations would follow the components of sport education (e.g., season, team affiliation, formal…
While the gender gap in physics participation is a known problem, practical strategies that may improve the situation are not well understood. As physics education researchers, we draw on evidence to help inform us of what may or may not be working. To this end, physics identity has proven to be a useful framework for understanding and predicting participation in physics. Drawing on data from national surveys of college students, case studies in physics classes, and surveys of undergraduate women in physics, we identify strategies that are predictive of female students' physics identity development from their high school and undergraduate physics experiences. These findings will be discussed as well as future directions for using this research to increase the recruitment of women to physics-related careers. NSF Grant # 1431846.
Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…
Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan
In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…
Hensel, Desiree; Engs, Ruth C; Middleton, Mary Jean
This study compared the drinking patterns of 123 female nursing students with those of 185 female students of other majors enrolled beyond the freshman year at a large public university. High-risk drinking patterns did not vary significantly between the 2 groups, suggesting that students' drinking patterns reflected the norms of their institution. Prevention strategies geared at campus culture and that target students still enrolled in prerequisites may be needed to reduce alcohol abuse in nursing students.
Beets, Michael W; Pitetti, Kenneth H
This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Run (number of completed laps, 20OMST). Secondary analysis compared upper body strength (90 degrees push-ups), flexibility (sit and reach), and body mass index (BMI kg/m2). Comparisons were made between students participating in 1-2 SSS and > or = 3 SSS for males and 1 SSS and > or = 2 for females to students participating solely in PE. Males participating in 1-2 SSS (mean (+/- SD) 20MST 63.80 +/- 25.61) and > or = 3 SSS (81.13 28.26) completed significantly (p < .001) more laps than males participating solely in PE (44.18 +/- 19.09). Females participating in 1 SSS (37.33 +/- 15.53) and > or = 2 SSS (49.48 +/- 19.83) completed significantly (p = .02) more laps than females participating solely in PE (23.50 +/- 7.96). Significant differences in number of 90 degrees push-ups was observed between males participating in > or = 3 SSS (49.41 +/- 12.90) and males participating solely in PE (37.63 +/- 11.79, p = .006). No significant differences existed for males on BMI (p = .223) or the sit and reach (p = .145), and for females on 90 degrees push-ups (p = .79), sit and reach (p = .579), and BMI (p = . 122). As the number of SSS increase, significant increases are observed in cardiovascular fitness, with youth participating solely in PE exhibiting the lowest levels of cardiovascular fitness in comparison to youth participating in PE and SSS.
Voracek, M; Reimer, B; Dressler, S G
Research particularly focusing on male athletes and popular sports (running and soccer) suggests associations of lower (masculinized) second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action, with better sports performance. Studies focusing on women, non-mainstream sports, or controlling for covariates relevant for sporting success are still sparse. This study examined associations between 2D:4D and performance of both male and female athletes active in fencing (a non-mainstream sport dominated by male participants), while controlling for covariates. National fencing rankings and 2D:4D of 58 male and 41 female Austrian tournament fencers (mean age 24 years) were correlated. Among female, but not male, fencers, lower 2D:4D was related to better national fencing rankings. 2D:4D still accounted for incremental variance (12%) in fencing success, when the effects of salient performance factors (age, body mass index, years of fencing, training intensity, and the personality variables achievement, control, harm avoidance, and social potency) were controlled for (totaling 35% attributable variance). Athletes active in the most aggressive form (the sabre) had lower 2D:4D than those active in the other forms (épée and foil fencing). Sporting success in adult life might be partly prenatally programmed via long-lasting extragenital effects of testosterone.
Wahl-Alexander, Zachary; Sinelnikov, Oleg; Curtner-Smith, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to examine middle school students' recollections of their participation in a significant number of Sport Education seasons over a period of five years. Thirty-one (18 boys and 13 girls) eighth-grade students (average age at data collection = 13 years) who had all participated in at least 17 Sport Education seasons…
Aydin, Ali Dursun
This study assessed the communication skills of the students studying in physical education and sports schools in various universities in Turkey. A total of 1,854 Physical Education and Sports students in five Turkish universities participated in the study. The instrument used to gather information for this study comprised the demographic…
Dixon, Sharon J.
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the use of a diagnostic test to assess the preparedness of level one students for a sports biomechanics module. During their first week at university, a cohort of 108 students completed a diagnostic test at the end of their first lecture in sports biomechanics, with no prior notice. Upon…
The Sport Education Model (SEM) was designed by Siedentop to provide students with a holistic sport-based experience. As research on the SEM continues, an aspect that has gained interest is the influence on (a) students with low levels of motivation and (b) opportunities to engage in health-enhancing levels of physical activity. The purpose of…
In this study; the perceptions of the students studying at sport high schools about democratic school culture were analysed in accordance with different variables. Participants of the research consisted of 216 students studying at Sport High Schools in Sakarya and Batman Provinces of Turkey. The data were collected with the Democratic School…
This study was carried out to detect the differences in submissive behaviors and communication skills of high school students in terms of sports activities and relationship between communication skills and properties of submissive behavior of high school students who are actively involved in sports activities. In this respect at the study, 728…
Osborne, Allan G., Jr.; Russo, Charles J.
In most school systems in the United States, interscholastic sporting events and other extracurricular activities help bring people together while enhancing opportunities for students to become integral parts of their communities. Because of the important role that extracurricular activities, especially sports, play in the lives of students,…
Veri, Maria J.; Barton, Kenny; Burgee, David; Davis, James A., Jr.; Eaton, Pamela; Frazier, Cathy; Gray, Stevie; Halsey, Christine; Thurman, Richard
This article illustrates the pedagogical value of employing student narrative writing assignments in the graduate sport management classroom and advocates for cultural studies and critical pedagogy approaches to teaching sport management. The article considers students' autobiographical narratives within a theoretical framework of cultural…
Stratta, Terese M. Peretto
To date, no empirical studies have examined the sport management internship from students' perspectives. Due to this void in the literature, the purpose of this study was to examine the needs and concerns of students when accessing and completing internships. Rather than relying solely on sport management professionals to determine the parameters…
Beale, Andrew V.; Jacobs, Jennifer S.
Even though the odds are astronomically high against it ever happening, many middle school students harbor hopes of some day playing professional sports. What students frequently fail to realize is that there are numerous sports-related occupations in addition to that of the professional athlete. The classroom career awareness activities presented…
This study is aimed to determine the literacy levels of media and television and the level of addiction of sport consumers filtered out of the students of the School of Physical Education and Sports and to investigate the relationship between these two levels. Sport consumers studying in Mugla University, School of Physical Education and Sports…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...
Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y
In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Participants were 205 predominantly White, heterosexual female student athletes. A path analysis indicated that role models and working hours predicted coaching self-efficacy, which predicted coaching outcome expectations. Additionally, coaching self-efficacy, coaching outcome expectations, and contextual factors predicted coaching interest. Practical implications are discussed as well as suggestions for further research in this relatively unexplored area.
Mala, Lucia; Maly, Tomas; Zahalka, František; Bunc, Vaclav; Kaplan, Ales; Jebavy, Radim; Tuma, Martin
The goal of this study was to identify and compare body composition (BC) variables in elite female athletes (age ± years): volleyball (27.4 ± 4.1), softball (23.6 ± 4.9), basketball (25.9 ± 4.2), soccer (23.2 ± 4.2) and handball (24.0 ± 3.5) players. Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, percentage of fat mass (FMP), body cell mass (BCM), extracellular mass (ECM), their ratio, the percentage of BCM in FFM, the phase angle (α), and total body water, with a distinction between extracellular (ECW) and intracellular water, were measured using bioimpedance analysis. MANOVA showed significant differences in BC variables for athletes in different sports (F60.256 = 2.93, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.407). The results did not indicate any significant differences in FMP or α among the tested groups (p > 0.05). Significant changes in other BC variables were found in analyses when sport was used as an independent variable. Soccer players exhibited the most distinct BC, differing from players of other sports in 8 out of 10 variables. In contrast, the athletes with the most similar BC were volleyball and basketball players, who did not differ in any of the compared variables. Discriminant analysis revealed two significant functions (p < 0.01). The first discriminant function primarily represented differences based on the FFM proportion (volleyball, basketball vs. softball, soccer). The second discriminant function represented differences based on the ECW proportion (softball vs. soccer). Although all of the members of the studied groups competed at elite professional levels, significant differences in the selected BC variables were found. The results of the present study may serve as normative values for comparison or target values for training purposes. PMID:25964823
Montague, Orinthia T.
The purpose of this study was to examine the self-reported leadership styles of female Senior Student Affairs Officers at public and private 4-year institutions. This study sought to determine if (a) there is a dominant leadership frame usage among female SSAO's, (b) determine if leadership style varies significantly among females with less than 5…
Selkie, Ellen M.; Kota, Rajitha; Moreno, Megan
Problem: Cyberbullying is common among adolescents, and emerging studies also describe this phenomenon in college students. Less is known about specific cyberbullying behaviors and roles in cyberbullying incidents experienced by college females. Methods: 249 female students from 4 colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in 11…
Madara, Diana Starovoytova; Cherotich, Sharon
Gender-related challenges in learning technical courses are universal phenomenon. These challenges could restrain female students from achieving their fullest potential. The main focus of this study, therefore, is to examine self-recognized challenges faced by undergraduate female students in pursuing engineering at the School of Engineering…
Mitts, Charles R.; Haynie, W. J., III
Arguably a major issue facing technology education (TE) since its inception has been its failure to attract and keep female students. This article explains one primary reason female students may be avoiding TE courses, presents a research-tested set of tools that TE teachers can use to help fix the problem, and offers a new realizable pathway…
Woodson-Smith, Andrea; Dorwart, Catherine E.; Linder, Amy
The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of female high school students toward PE in selected North Carolina schools. The high schools were conveniently selected to include the Northeast Piedmont urban region of North Carolina. Participants consisted of 102 female students aged 14 to 18 years old who were enrolled in ninth to 12th…
Liu, Liu; Wang, Yong-Shun; Wu, Tung-Ju
Student satisfaction is a primary indicator for college and university organizational self-assessment in European and American countries. Professional sport universities are the major institution cultivating sports talents in China. Nevertheless, it appears the problem in past years that the talent cultivation and management is not suitable for…
Milone, Joseph P.
The phenomenon of interest in this exploratory case study was the self-reported leadership skills of first-generation college students who were actively participating in intramural sports. Specifically, the purpose was to describe participants' reports of engaging in behaviors or actions, during intramural sports, that are aligned with the…
Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria
Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…
The booklet reviews ways in which students with crutches may be helped to successfully participate in four specific sports. General guidelines for modifying programs for this group include the importance of thorough assessment, attention to details of the game play, and consideration of equipment and supply alterations. Each of the four sports is…
Sosa, Jason; Sagas, Michael
Latino individuals and women as a group have found it difficult to become established within the professorate. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine student preconceptions of Latino professors within sport management. The study was conducted within a sport management class (N = 102), utilizing self-categorization theory based on race…
Bignold, Wendy J.
This article emerges from a background of UK policy concerns about young people's participation in physical activity. It rehearses the arguments for lifestyle sports as a rich ground for enhancing students' engagement with physical education (PE). A review of the still limited literature suggests that lifestyle sports may have an under-exploited…
Roberts, Simon J.; Ryrie, Angus
Despite reported increases in higher education (HE) sports coach education provision there are very few studies which have investigated student self-learning curricula as a mechanism to prepare sports coaches with the complexities of learning how to coach. Using an action research methodology, this article examines how case-method teaching (CMT)…
Deaner, Robert O; Geary, David C; Puts, David A; Ham, Sandra A; Kruger, Judy; Fles, Elizabeth; Winegard, Bo; Grandis, Terry
Much evidence indicates that men experienced an evolutionary history of physical competition, both one-on-one and in coalitions. We thus hypothesized that, compared to girls and women, boys and men will possess a greater motivational predisposition to be interested in sports, especially team sports. According to most scholars, advocacy groups, and the United States courts, however, this hypothesis is challenged by modest sex differences in organized school sports participation in the contemporary U.S., where females comprise 42% of high school participants and 43% of intercollegiate participants. We conducted three studies to test whether organized school sports participation data underestimate the actual sex difference in sports participation. Study 1 analyzed the American Time Use Survey, which interviewed 112,000 individuals regarding their activities during one day. Females accounted for 51% of exercise (i.e., non-competitive) participations, 24% of total sports participations, and 20% of team sports participations. These sex differences were similar for older and younger age groups. Study 2 was based on systematic observations of sports and exercise at 41 public parks in four states. Females accounted for 37% of exercise participations, 19% of individual sports participations, and 10% of team sports participations. Study 3 involved surveying colleges and universities about intramural sports, which primarily consist of undergraduate participation in team sports. Across 34 institutions, females accounted for 26% of registrations. Nine institutions provided historical data, and these did not indicate that the sex difference is diminishing. Therefore, although efforts to ensure more equitable access to sports in the U.S. (i.e., Title IX) have produced many benefits, patterns of sports participation do not challenge the hypothesis of a large sex difference in interest and participation in physical competition.
Deaner, Robert O.; Geary, David C.; Puts, David A.; Ham, Sandra A.; Kruger, Judy; Fles, Elizabeth; Winegard, Bo; Grandis, Terry
Much evidence indicates that men experienced an evolutionary history of physical competition, both one-on-one and in coalitions. We thus hypothesized that, compared to girls and women, boys and men will possess a greater motivational predisposition to be interested in sports, especially team sports. According to most scholars, advocacy groups, and the United States courts, however, this hypothesis is challenged by modest sex differences in organized school sports participation in the contemporary U.S., where females comprise 42% of high school participants and 43% of intercollegiate participants. We conducted three studies to test whether organized school sports participation data underestimate the actual sex difference in sports participation. Study 1 analyzed the American Time Use Survey, which interviewed 112,000 individuals regarding their activities during one day. Females accounted for 51% of exercise (i.e., non-competitive) participations, 24% of total sports participations, and 20% of team sports participations. These sex differences were similar for older and younger age groups. Study 2 was based on systematic observations of sports and exercise at 41 public parks in four states. Females accounted for 37% of exercise participations, 19% of individual sports participations, and 10% of team sports participations. Study 3 involved surveying colleges and universities about intramural sports, which primarily consist of undergraduate participation in team sports. Across 34 institutions, females accounted for 26% of registrations. Nine institutions provided historical data, and these did not indicate that the sex difference is diminishing. Therefore, although efforts to ensure more equitable access to sports in the U.S. (i.e., Title IX) have produced many benefits, patterns of sports participation do not challenge the hypothesis of a large sex difference in interest and participation in physical competition. PMID:23155459
Khan, Zamirullah; Lanin, Abul Barkat; Ahmad, Naseem
This study aimed at the level of stress in male and female school students. For the purpose of the study the researcher randomly selected 64 school students aged between 14-18 years. To collect the data researcher used students stress scale (SSS) developed by Dr. Zaki Akhtar (2011). During collection of data researcher used means and method fit…
Yermahanova, Amina; Nurmakhambetova, Dinara; Bozhig, Zhanbolat; Imanbetov, Amanbek
Bachelor educational program "Physical culture and sport" must master special, substantive and core competencies, not only in the chosen specialization, but also in the basic sports, including "Swimming." It is a necessity due to the fact that the graduate program in order to protect their health and life should own at least…
Ahmadi, A; Enayatizadeh, N; Akbarzadeh, M; Asadi, S; Tabatabaee, S H R
Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world, affecting 20-50% of the world's population. It is estimated that 10 and 20% of male and female athletes are iron deficient, respectively. Iron deficiency has deleterious effects on the physical performance of athletes. It decreases aerobic capacity, increases heart rate and elongates the recovery time after exercise. In this cross-sectional study, 42 semi-professional female athletes who had been playing in basketball, volleyball and handball super league teams served as subjects. Data on socioeconomic and fertility status as well as the type of sport were obtained through a questionnaire. Nutritional data were gathered with a 3 day dietary recall. Total intake of calorie, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin C and B12 were also analyzed. In addition, ferritin and TIBC were measured and a CBC test was done for each subject. The results showed that the mean total calorie intake of women was 2049.79 +/- 735.12 kcal, where their iron intake was 22.33 +/- 9.24 mg day(-1). There was a significant difference between the iron intake of basketball and volleyball players (p = 0.036). Of our subjects, 33.33% had low ferritin levels (< 30 ng mL(-1)) and it was lowest in handball players. Higher than normal ferritin levels were seen in 12.5% of the subjects. We saw a significant difference in ferritin levels of basketball and handball players (p = 0.047). We conclude that the intake of calorie and iron is low in female athletes and therefore, their hematological indices such as ferritin level are below standard values.
Décamps, Greg; Boujut, Emilie; Brisset, Camille
College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students' sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular, or intensive) would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strategies, and their academic success/failure. Three self-completion questionnaires were administered to 1071 French freshmen during their compulsory medical visit at the preventive medicine service of the university. Results indicated that students with intensive sport practice reported lower scores of general stress, academic stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies, and higher scores of self-efficacy than those with rare practice. However, the proportion of successful students did not differ significantly between the three groups of sports practice.
Ulus, Tümer; Yurtseven, Eray; Donuk, Bilge
The purpose of this study was to evaluate smoking prevalence and factors associated with smoking among students at the Physical Education and Sports School of Istanbul University. A cross-sectional study was performed on total of 373 students who have been continuing their education at the school from February to March 2011. A total of 166 responders were male (44.5%) and 207 responders were female (55.5%) out of 373 participants. Of the 373 students, 94 (25.2%) were current smokers and the average age for beginning smoking was 18.03 ± 2.6 (min: 12–max: 30). In this study, we found that the smoking prevalence associated with some variables such as age place of residence, mother’s education, father’s education, cigarette or tobacco use in the living place, knowledge status of students about their teacher’s smoking habits and alcohol consumption (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that the students, who will train the sportspeople of the future, and should be considered a role model of healthy behavior in society. Consequently, we believe that sports school students should take an active role in providing health education programs to increase their awareness about the detrimental effects of smoking and to extensively quit smoking in public. PMID:22690155
Ulus, Tümer; Yurtseven, Eray; Donuk, Bilge
The purpose of this study was to evaluate smoking prevalence and factors associated with smoking among students at the Physical Education and Sports School of Istanbul University. A cross-sectional study was performed on total of 373 students who have been continuing their education at the school from February to March 2011. A total of 166 responders were male (44.5%) and 207 responders were female (55.5%) out of 373 participants. Of the 373 students, 94 (25.2%) were current smokers and the average age for beginning smoking was 18.03 ± 2.6 (min: 12-max: 30). In this study, we found that the smoking prevalence associated with some variables such as age place of residence, mother's education, father's education, cigarette or tobacco use in the living place, knowledge status of students about their teacher's smoking habits and alcohol consumption (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that the students, who will train the sportspeople of the future, and should be considered a role model of healthy behavior in society. Consequently, we believe that sports school students should take an active role in providing health education programs to increase their awareness about the detrimental effects of smoking and to extensively quit smoking in public.
Dudenhoeffer, Frances Tomlin; Fedak, Joseph F.
This student staff personnel manual is designed to orient student employees of the New Mexico State University (Las Cruces) Office of Intramural/Recreational Sports to their duties and responsibilities and to provide personnel policies and standard operating procedures. Topics include: student employment procedures, pay rates for job…
The research objective is to determine different variables on sport attitudes of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade high school students throughout Turkey. Data were collected using face to face survey method with students studying in 21 provinces within seven different geographical regions of Turkey. 5862 randomized students are selected throughout…
Anderson, Maiya D.
Based on Astin's (1993) theory of involvement and Astin's (1991) college impact model a model of college student leader development was developed to examine the process of leader development among students who participated in sport during college. In addition, the differences between students who participated in different levels of sport…
Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah
Participation in fantasy sports increases annually. Wagering on fantasy sports is a form of gambling and researchers have found that fantasy sports participants are more likely to engage in other forms of sports betting than non-fantasy players; however, no published studies have examined whether there is a relationship between fantasy sports participation and gambling-related problems. Our study examined whether fantasy sports participation is associated with gambling-related problems among college students. We assessed fantasy sports participation and endorsement of DSM-5 gambling disorder (GD) criteria among a large convenience sample (N=1556) of college students via an online health survey. We found that 11.5% of respondents participated in fantasy sports in the past year, the majority of which were males. Logistic regression analyses indicated that males who play fantasy sports for money and females who play fantasy sports (for money or not) were more likely to experience gambling-related problems.
Patel, Divya A.; Zochowski, Melissa; Peterman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Ernst, Susan; Dalton, Vanessa K.
Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine intent and the effect of an educational intervention on vaccine uptake among female college students. Participants: Females aged 18 to 26 attending a university health service gynecology clinic (n = 256). Methods: Participants were randomized to receive either HPV-specific education with a…
Haider, Badeea; Khan, Sumaira; Anwar, Kanwal
There are clear differences in the extent to which people express their emotions. These differences in emotional expressions have long interested researchers and are relevant to several areas of psychology. The research topic is emotional expressions between hostalize male and female in. The sum of 24 students (12 male and 12 female) were selected…
Henry, Wilma J.
The trend of higher enrollment patterns among Black females when compared to their Black male counterparts is pronounced. For example, females comprise 65% of the Black student population on college and university campuses across the country (NCES, 2005). The grave imbalance between Black women and Black men in college raises several issues that…
Current enrollment trends indicate that women now outnumber men in college enrollment among all racial/ethnic populations (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2002b, 2007), and that a large portion of these students are nontraditional (NT). Today, more than 73% of all students in undergraduate institutions are described as different…
Dougherty, Neil J., IV, Ed.
This book provides an overview of sports and information on skills and technique acquisition, safety, scoring, rules and etiquette, strategy, equipment, and related terminology. The emphasis is on individual and dual sports for which facilities are widely available and body contact is limited or unnecessary. Chapters are included on: (1) Health…
de Haan, Donna; Sherry, Emma
Internationalisation of the sport industry has resulted in a demand for integration of international perspectives into the sport management higher education curriculum, to produce graduates capable of working within this rapidly developing global industry. Internationalisation of the curriculum can occur both abroad (i.e., study tour) or at home…
Leone, Janel M.; Carroll, James M.
Objective: To investigate the predictive role of victimization in suicidality among college women. Participants: Female respondents to the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II (N = 258). Methods: Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between victimization and suicidality. Results:…
Dorociak, Jeffery D.; Vincent, Murray L.
A survey was conducted in an attempt to assess the use and knowledge of diet pills and dietary patterns of female college students. Analysis of the data indicated that, while many students used diet pills, their knowledge of the effects of the pills was minimal. Conclusions are presented. (MT)
Myers, Rachel K.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Forke, Christine M.
We examined the occurrence of stalking victimization among female and male undergraduate students attending three urban colleges. Specifically, we explored the proportion of students who experienced only stalking victimization and the relationship to the perpetrator identified by victims of stalking. Our findings suggest that stalking…
Madara, Diana Starovoytova; Namango, Sitati
There is overwhelming evidence that females are underrepresented in engineering worldwide, and Kenya is not an exception. Recent study at School of Engineering (SOE), Moi University (MU) established that engineering parity ration was found to be 1.68 %, meaning that for every 59 students admitted to MU there was only one student admitted to SOE.…
The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational climate and target orientations of team and individual athletes who participate in sports at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of faculties. A total of 200 athletes (students at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of Gazi University, Selçuk…
Nattiv, Aurelia; Loucks, Anne B; Manore, Melinda M; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Warren, Michelle P
The female athlete triad (Triad) refers to the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density, which may have clinical manifestations including eating disorders, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. With proper nutrition, these same relationships promote robust health. Athletes are distributed along a spectrum between health and disease, and those at the pathological end may not exhibit all these clinical conditions simultaneously. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. Low energy availability appears to be the factor that impairs reproductive and skeletal health in the Triad, and it may be inadvertent, intentional, or psychopathological. Most effects appear to occur below an energy availability of 30 kcal.kg(-1) of fat-free mass per day. Restrictive eating behaviors practiced by girls and women in sports or physical activities that emphasize leanness are of special concern. For prevention and early intervention, education of athletes, parents, coaches, trainers, judges, and administrators is a priority. Athletes should be assessed for the Triad at the preparticipation physical and/or annual health screening exam, and whenever an athlete presents with any of the Triad's clinical conditions. Sport administrators should also consider rule changes to discourage unhealthy weight loss practices. A multidisciplinary treatment team should include a physician or other health-care professional, a registered dietitian, and, for athletes with eating disorders, a mental health practitioner. Additional valuable team members may include a certified athletic trainer, an exercise physiologist, and the athlete's coach, parents and other family members. The first aim of treatment for any Triad component is to increase energy availability by increasing energy intake and/or reducing exercise energy expenditure. Nutrition counseling and monitoring are sufficient
Inan, Mehmet; Karagözoglu, Cengiz; Dervent, Fatih; Arslantas, Bülent
In this study, the university students who participate in sports have been examined in terms of their socialization relative to the participation in sport activities and the locus of control. Students are thought to be engaged in many activities in addition to their lessons during their student tenure at higher education institutions. Their…
Anthrop, Joseph; Allison, Maria T.
A study of female high school students sought to measure role conflict among females participating in traditionally approved sports--swimming, golf, gymnastics, and tennis--and those involved in sports such as basketball and track. The females gave little evidence of internal role conflict but had experienced external sources of conflict.…
Balboni, Daniel C.
Researchers have conducted both theoretical and empirical research on the participation of youth in sports to understand the motivation to continue involvement. Researchers have further examined the positive effects of sports on youth who participate. Although information has been gathered in these areas regarding keeping middle school and high…
Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin
Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…
Murphy, Dennis T.; Achtziger, Mary Ann
A program for adult women reentry students at a Long Island campus of the C. W. Post Center is chronicled from the development of a rationale through formation of an advisory committee, institution of a series of workshops, addition of motivation through financial aid, and offering of child care and other needed services. (MSE)
Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie
The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…
Journal of Counseling and Development, 1991
A counseling student describes her experience as a target of long-term, systematic harassment in the form of sexual seduction by her practicum supervisor. The author recounts the effects of experiencing the harassment, confronting her harasser, and enduring an investigation. Claims events of case demonstrate sexualization of professor-student…
This study aims to investigate viewpoints of students in recreation and sport management department on distance education, and the effects of sex, having computers and internet access at home, family's monthly income, district of the family, and students' level of class on these viewpoints. Survey method was used to carry out the study. The sample…
Hastie, Peter A.; Sinelnikov, Oleg A.
This study examined the participation and perceptions of a cohort of sixth-grade Russian students as they participated in a season of basketball that followed a Sport Education format. Thirty-seven students from two classes completed 18-lesson seasons. Throughout the initial skills practice sessions and practice games, as well as the formal…
Lee, Hong-Min; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of occupational socialization on the perspectives and practices of sport pedagogy doctoral students in terms of physical education (PE) teaching and physical education teacher education (PETE). Participants were 12 students. Data were collected through formal and informal interviews,…
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Salvatore, Anthony C.; Casa, Douglas J.
Context: Educational training programs both impart knowledge and allow students to practice skills to gain clinical competence. Objective: Understand the educational training provided to athletic training students regarding sudden death in sport beyond exertional heat stroke. Design: An exploratory, qualitative study using telephone interviews and…
Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston
Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…
Layne, Todd Estel; Hastie, Peter Andrew
The purpose of this article was to provide an account of second-grade students and teachers, as well as a non-participant observer, after they participated in a season of Sport Education. For a total of 12 lessons, students participated in a season of developing throwing and catching and kicking skills. Interviews were conducted at the conclusion…
Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana
The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…
Bosnyák, E; Trájer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kováts, T; Györe, I; Tóth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M
The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (ACE), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows® (significance level: p < 0.05). In comparing the ACE I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p < 0.03). There was no statistical difference when ACE I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the ACE I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes.
De Backer, M; Boen, F; De Cuyper, B; Høigaard, R; Vande Broek, G
The present research aimed to develop and test a theoretical model that links players' perceived justice of the coach to a more optimal motivational climate, which in turn increases players' team identification and cohesion, and results in lower levels of social loafing in female sport teams. Belgian elite female basketball, volleyball, and football players (study 1; N = 259; M(age) = 22.6) and Norwegian world-class female handball players (study 2; N = 110; M(age) = 22.8) completed questionnaires assessing players' perceived justice (distributive and procedural), motivational climate, team identification, team cohesion (task and social), and social loafing (perceived and self-reported). In both studies, confirmatory and exploratory path analyses indicated that perceived justice was positively related to a mastery climate (P < 0.05) and negatively to a performance climate (P < 0.05). In turn, a mastery climate was linked to increased levels of team identification (P < 0.05) and task cohesion (P < 0.05). Consequently, players' perceived and self-reported social loafing decreased (P < 0.05). The findings of both independent studies demonstrated the impact of coaches' fairness, and consequently, the motivational climate created by the coach on the optimal functioning of female sport teams.
Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne
Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations.
Matthews, David O., Ed.
This book is written for the administrators of college sport clubs. It is comprised of a collection of articles on the topics of: (1) Sport Club Administration and Organization; (2) Student Development through Sport Clubs; (3) Sport Club Financing and Fund-Raising; (4) Liability Concerns of Sport Clubs; and (5) Sport Club Program Surveys.…
Nicholson, Connie Snyder
Self-perceived qualities of ambition, competition, strength, and speed were more evident in girls who participated in sports than those who did not. No differences were noted concerning characteristics of happiness, affection, femininity, sensitivity, gentleness, and attractiveness. (JD)
Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen
Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG.
Veliz, Philip; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Austic, Elizabeth; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean Esteban
Purpose Involvement in sports increases the risk of injury and the risk for prescription opioid use and misuse. This was an exploratory retrospective study to examine if previous involvement in interscholastic sports was associated with a greater lifetime prevalence of medical prescription opioid use, lifetime risk of diverting prescribed opioids, and lifetime risk of nonmedical prescription opioid use. Method A web-based survey was self-administered to a sample of 4187 full-time undergraduate students at a large public university located in the Midwest. Student demographics, involvement in interscholastic sports during high school, lifetime medical prescription opioid use, lifetime risk of diverting prescribed opioids, and lifetime risk of nonmedical prescription opioid use were measured and analyzed for this study. Results When compared to their peers who did not participate in interscholastic sports during high school, multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that those who participated in at least one interscholastic sport during high school had greater odds of lifetime medical prescription opioid use on multiple occasions and greater odds of being approached to divert their prescribed opioid medications on multiple occasions. Conclusions The findings indicate some association between previous involvement in interscholastic sports and prescription opioid use and misuse. These findings further suggest that greater awareness should be instilled in parents and coaches regarding this form of substance misuse. PMID:25514090
Carpenter, Eric J.
Students benefit from positive sport experiences in physical education. If designed well, sport provides a social avenue for physical activity and strengthens student achievement in psychomotor (e.g., motor skill), cognitive (e.g., decision-making), and affective (e.g., personal and social responsibility) learning domains. Unfortunately, not all…
Connolly, Daniel J.; Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn; Evans, Adam B.
There is currently a distinct dearth of research into how sports students' career aspirations are formed during their post-compulsory education. This article, based on an ethnographic study of sport students in tertiary education, draws on data collected from two first-year cohorts (n = 34) on two different courses at a further education college…
The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.
Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief
Objective. To assess pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's statement on the pharmacist's role in anti-doping. Students' knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula.
Agbonifoh, Julia Adesua
Against the background of the dangers posed by breast cancer world-wide, and the importance of its early detection and therefore breast self examination (BSE), this study investigated the practice of BSE among female students in tertiary institutions in Edo state. A sample of 723 participants selected through a combination of multi-stage,…
Telles-Irvin, Patricia; Schwartz, Ivy S.
A survey of 164 female members of the Texas dental association and 62 junior and senior students at the 3 Texas dental schools investigated sexual harassment experiences with patients and colleagues, reasons for tolerating such behavior, and the manner in which the offensive behavior was handled. Results and implications are discussed. (MSE)
Duval, Concetta M.
This study attempted to determine if teachers discriminate against female learners of mathematics. More than 1000 secondary mathematics teachers were asked to grade four geometry proofs. Student sex and ability were the independent variables. Analysis yielded no significant F ratios for either of the main effects or their interaction. (Author/MK)
The purpose of the study was to investigate video comprehension strategies used by male and female university students. The researcher designed a video comprehension strategy questionnaire including cognitive, compensation, and memory categories. Totally, 168 Taiwanese university participants completed the questionnaire. The quantitative results…
Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.
A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…
De Groot, Susan Crum
This study found that, prior to beginning school, the typical adult female student at Montclair State College reports moderately positive support from her spouse. However, during the first semester, she encounters mild role conflict and lack of self-confidence in her ability to meet family and academic responsibilities. During her second and third…
Gibson-Beverly, Gina; Schwartz, Jonathan R.
This study examined the utility of attachment and entitlement as predictors of the impostor phenomenon in female graduate students. Findings suggested that individuals with high levels of self-reliance/self-assurance entitlement are able to associate positive feedback with stable internal attributes. Those with anxious attachment and narcissistic…
Villasana, Marcia; Alcaraz-Rodríguez, Rafael; Alvarez, Mario Moisés
The phenomenon of women engaging in entrepreneurship is expanding and becoming acknowledged as a valuable resource that must be institutionally and socially supported. Through entrepreneurship education, female students, as potential entrepreneurs, can develop and strengthen those skills and behaviours identified as characteristic of successful…
Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Welton, Anjale; Lee, Pei-Ling; Young, Michelle D.
Purpose: There is a meager body of research addressing the role educational leadership preparation programs in colleges and universities play in preparing women leaders. Also educational leadership preparation research has yet to explore ways in which mentorship provides additional capital for female graduate students. This study seeks to…
A male student in a California State University-Sacramento psychology lecture on female masturbation has filed a sexual harassment complaint, claiming the lecture violated institutional policy by creating an intimidating, hostile, and offensive learning environment. He felt the lecture was inappropriately graphic and political in intent. (MSE)
Regmi, Kapil Dev
This paper was written as an assignment for one of my courses while pursuing a graduate degree in the Department of Education Studies at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Canada. I have made an attempt to explore perceptions and experiences of a female graduate student on four different aspects of her family and academic life. The four…
Lysova, Aleksandra V.; Douglas, Emily M.
This article reports data from three Russian sites of the International Dating Violence Study. Using a sample of 338 university students (54% female) from three Russian university sites, four different types of partner violence are examined: physical assault, physical injury, sexual coercion, and psychological aggression. High prevalence rates…
Beasley, Martha; Wark, Alan; Zimmerman, Sara
A model for gender equity in a rural Appalachia school system is approaching its second year of implementation at the high school level. This model focuses on equity issues, student motivation, and nontraditional coursework. In addition, it addresses career awareness for females, including a strong emphasis on technology and the sciences. Specific…
Gnanendran, Abbyrhamy; Pyne, David B.; Fallon, Kieran E.; Fricker, Peter A.
We compared the amount of exercise undertaken by medical students, clinicians, and sport scientists with the National Australian Physical Activity (NAPA) Guidelines. A second aim was to compare attitudes to exercise counselling as preventive medicine between university- and clinic-based professionals. The research setting was a university medical school and a sports science sports medicine centre. A 20-item questionnaire was completed by 216 individuals (131 medical students, 43 clinicians and 37 sports scientists). Self-reported physical activity habits, exercise counselling practices and attitudes towards preventive medicine were assessed. The physical activity undertaken by most respondents (70%) met NAPA Guidelines. General practitioners had significantly lower compliance rates with NAPA Guidelines than other professionals. More than half of clinicians and medical students (54%) were less active now compared with levels of activity undertaken prior to graduate training. Most physicians (68%) reported they sometimes discuss physical activity with patients. In contrast, the majority of non-medically qualified respondents (60%) said they never discuss physical activity with their doctor. Most respondents (70%) had positive attitudes to exercise counselling. Sports scientists and respondents who were highly active in childhood had more positive attitudes to exercise counselling than others. Health professionals in this study were more active than the general population, however healthy exercise habits tend to deteriorate after the commencement of medical training. Despite the important role of doctors in health promotion, the degree of exercise counselling to patients is low. Key points The rate of exercise counselling by doctors to patients is low Sports physicians and scientists have substantially more positive attitudes to exercise counselling than clinicians and medical students Medical schools have a responsibility to promote physical activity of students and
Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U
The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be
Marinho, Alcyane; dos Santos, Priscila Mari; Manfroi, Miraíra Noal; de Paula Figueiredo, Juliana; Brasil, Vinicius Zeilmann
Universities have been entrusted with the task of qualifying professionals for their future practice. In light of this, the present study analysed the competencies perceived by 80 physical education students of a public university in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, enrolled in the subject Outdoor Adventure Sports. An exploratory descriptive…
Aslan, Cem Sinan
The aim of this study is to compare the multiple intelligence areas of a group of physical education and sports students according to their demographic features. In the study, "Multiple Intelligence Scale", consisting of 27 items, whose Turkish validity and reliability study have been done by Babacan (2012) and which is originally owned…
The researcher analyzed the moral reasoning ability of Sports Management students in the United States and Italy. The researcher statistically analyzed data collected through a survey questionnaire designed to measure moral reasoning. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) developed by James Rest using Kohlberg's six stages of moral judgment was used in…
Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.; Guilbault, Michael
This study examined the relationship between participation in school-based sports and drug use among Black and White high school students, using data from participants in the National Educational Longitudinal Survey of 1988 (NELS, NCES, 1988) and follow-up surveys in 1990 and 1992. While previous research produced inconsistent results, the present…
Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.
Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of burnout, academic self-efficacy and academic success in predicting procrastination and university life satisfaction among sports schools students. The study sample comprised of 224 participants aged from 18 to 30 years with a mean age of 21.71 (SD = 1.94) who were attending various departments…
Hwang, Seunghyun; Feltz, Deborah L.; Kietzmann, Laura A.; Diemer, Matthew A.
This study examined the relations among sport involvement and social and personal influences on high school students' educational expectations and attainment, using National Education Longitudinal Survey-88. Athletic engagement, educational expectations of significant others, peer support for academics, parental involvement in academics, and…
Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia
This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item…
Studies that examine the attitudes toward information and communication technologies (ICT) among physical education and sport students, pre-service teachers and teachers are fairly limited, even though the investments in information and communication technologies at schools and universities have reached an efficient level. This study investigates…
Mikulec, Erin; McKinney, Kathleen
Learning takes place both inside and outside of the classroom. While there are a few studies that focus on the professional, developmental, and learning outcomes of participation in student organizations, there has been insufficient research on these outcomes in sport clubs. The paper reports on the results of an online, primarily qualitative…
Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.
This annual report compares graduation rates for scholarship athletes at Oklahoma public and private institutions of higher education to those of the student body as a whole over 3- and 6-year periods. Colleges and universities identified scholarship athletes in 11 sport categories: football, basketball, baseball, softball, track and field,…
Regestein, Quentin; Natarajan, Viji; Pavlova, Milena; Kawasaki, Susan; Gleason, Ray; Koff, Elissa
The objective of the study was to evaluate relationships between sleep habits and depressive symptoms. Pilot study data were collected about sleep schedules, related factors and depression in female college students to find whether their sleep schedules correlate with affective symptoms. In the subsequent main study, similar information was collected under more controlled conditions. Depression was measured using the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and HAM-D-3 (modified Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Response rates were 31.3% of eligible students for the pilot survey and 71.6% for the main study. Both studies showed that about 20% of students reported weekday sleep debts of greater than 2 h and about 28% reported significantly greater sleep debt and had significantly higher depression scores (P<0.0001) than other students. Melancholic symptoms indicated by high CES-D scores (>24), were observed in 24% of students. Sleep problems explained 13% of the variance for both the CESD scale and the HAM-D-3 scale. Among female college students, those who report a sleep debt of at least 2 h or significant daytime sleepiness have a higher risk of reporting melancholic symptoms than others.
Anderson, Melissa L; Leigh, Irene W
It has been estimated that roughly 25% of all Deaf women in the United States are victims of intimate partner violence (Abused Deaf Women's Advocacy Services [ADWAS]), a figure similar to annual prevalence rates of 16% to 30% for intimate partners in the general population. One goal of the present study was to ascertain the prevalence of intimate partner violence victimization in a sample of Deaf female college students. When comparing the prevalence of physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion victimization to hearing female undergraduates, the current sample was approximately two times as likely to have experienced victimization in the past year.
Hardy, E; Rebello, I; Faúndes, A
In Brazil, the subject of induced abortion is controversial and considered by some to be a serious public health problem. On the other hand there are little data available as to its frequency and general characteristics. The difficulty encountered in obtaining reliable information is to be explained by the illegality of abortion that inhibits women from talking about their experience, and most studies are carried out in hospitals and thus succeed in identifying only those women who have complications. A study was carried out in 1990, involving all the female graduate students and employees of a Brazilian university. Data was obtained through a questionnaire that was returned by mail, anonymously. This paper presents some of the results relating to the frequency of miscarriage and abortion in this population. Significantly more students than employees were less than 25 years old (85% and 13.7% respectively); fewer students were married or in a common-law union (11% of students as against 56% of employees) and four times fewer students than employees had never been pregnant (15% and 65%). Nine percent of the students and 14% of the employees had had at least one abortion. When only sometime pregnant women were taken into consideration, over half the students (59%) and 20% of the employees had had an abortion. Differences between the two groups were maintained when considered by age, both for miscarriage and abortion. Students of less than 25 years of age presented the highest percentage of abortion.
Hoog, Philipp; Warren, Meghan; Smith, Craig A.
Background Although functional tests including the single leg hop (SLH), triple hop (TH), cross over hop (COH) for distance, and the tuck jump assessment (TJA) are used for return to play (RTP) criteria for post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, sport-specific baseline measurements are limited. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SLH, TH, and COH distance and limb symmetry index (LSI), as well as total scores, number of jumps, and individual flaws of the TJA in 97 injury-free Division I (DI) collegiate female student athletes participating in ACL injury prone vs. non ACL injury prone sports. The hypothesis was that significant mean differences and asymmetries (LSI) would exist between the two groups in SLH, TH, COH and TJA. Study Design Cross sectional. Methods Due to research suggesting inherent ACL injury risk associated with specific sport involvement, participants were grouped into high (HR, n=57) and low (LR, n=40) ACL injury risk based on participating in a sport with high or low ACL injury rates. The HR group was composed of athletes participating in soccer, basketball, and volleyball, while the LR group athletes participated in diving, cross country, and track and field. Participants performed all standard functional tests (SFT) and side-to-side differences for each participant as well as between group differences were assessed for the hop tests. The LSI, a ratio frequently used to gauge athletes’ readiness for RTP post injury, was also assessed for between group differences. The TJA was compared between the groups on individual flaws, overall scores, and number of jumps performed. Results No between group differences for hop distances were found, with medium to large effect sizes for SLH, TH, and COH. The HR group had a higher TJA score, number of jumps, and higher proportion of the flaw of ‘foot placement not shoulder width apart’. Conclusion Although most SFT's showed no significant differences between athlete
This paper seeks to explore the gender dynamics of being a novice male teacher working with female nursing students. Using a reflective framework it examines the gender dynamics within the classroom setting. Educational, social, feminist and political theory are discussed to give some insight into teaching and learning strategies that can perpetuate or circumvent unhelpful gender dynamics. Implications for learning and teaching are evaluated, and further topics for investigation are acknowledged.
This paper investigates reasons for practices and policies that are designed to promote higher levels of enrollment by women in scientific disciplines. It challenges the assumptions and problematic arguments of a recent article questioning their legitimacy. Considering the motivations for and merits of such programs suggests a practical response to the question of whether there should be programs to attract female science and engineering students.
Kaestner, Robert; Xin Xu
Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and weight of adult women some 20-25 years later. Our results indicate that adult women who were affected by Title IX and had greater opportunity to participate in athletics while young had lower body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of obesity and reported being more physically active than women who were not afforded these opportunities. However, effect sizes were quite modest.
Keshtidar, Mohammad; Behzadnia, Behzad
Grounded on the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000) and achievement goals theory (Ames, 1992; Nicholls, 1989), this study via structural equation modelling, predicted intention to continue in sport from goal orientations and motivations among athlete students. 268 athlete students (Mage = 21.9), in Iranian universities completed a multi-section questionnaire tapping the targeted variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) offered an overall support for the proposed model. The results showed that there are positive relationships between intention to continue in sport and both orientations as well as both motivations. A task-involving orientation emerged as a positive predictor of the autonomous motivation, while an ego-involving orientation was a positive predictor controlled motivation as well as autonomous motivation. The results also support positive paths between autonomous motivation and future intention to participate in sport. Autonomous motivation also was a positive mediator in relationship between task orientation and the intentions. As a conclusion, the implications of the task-involving orientation are discussabled in the light of its importance for the quality and potential maintenance of sport involvement among athlete students. PMID:28178308
social learning theory. Bandura argues that most social behavior, including the learning of specific social roles, is acquired by observing the...Interaction in Sport Teams," Albert Carron states that the personality and performance of a group is a function of the personalities of the group’s meooers...characteristics they bring into work groups should differ also. Albert Carron states, "the cnaracteristics of the individuals comprising a group have an
Many people hold this truth to be self-evident that universities should enroll more female students in science and engineering; the main question then being how. Typical arguments include possible benefits to women, possible benefits to the economy, and the unfairness of the current female under-representation. However, when clearly stated and scrutinized these arguments in fact lead to the conclusion that there should be more women in scientific disciplines in higher education in the sense that we should expect more women (which various kinds of discrimination may prevent), not that we should actively enroll more women. Outreach programs towards high school students may therefore be logically incompatible with the arguments supposed to justify them. They should purport to allow women to graduate in a field congruent with her abilities and desires, rather than try to draw as many of them to scientific disciplines as possible: one cannot try to 'recruit' as many female students as possible while claiming to help them choose more freely.
Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD
There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149
Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md
There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.
Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.
We examined the perspective, goals, and strategies of students enrolled in collegiate physical education courses. Our aim was to determine the extent to which a model developed by Allen (1986) describing student-social systems in high schools would approximate those in a collegiate setting. Forty-six students from two elective volleyball classes…
The purpose of this study was to examine differences between intern and non-intern students in terms of their perspectives on sport management internship within the context of field experience. The subjects of the study were a total of 189 students. They were 4th year students who completed their internship and 3rd year students who were yet to…
Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš
Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526
The aim of this study is to explore the task and ego oriented goals of the students majoring at the Faculty of Sports Sciences at Ataturk University. For data collection, "The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire", which was developed by Duda (1) and adapted into Turkish by Toros and Yetim (2), was used in the current study to…
Bar, Mustafa; Yaman, Menzure Sibel; Hergüner, Gülten
The study aimed to determine problems encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and other Secondary School students in physical education and sports activities and to compare these problems according to school type and gender. A questionnaire named "Problems encountered in attending to physical education and sports activities"…
Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.
In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…
Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.
Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…
Alston, Herbert L.; And Others
The constructs in Holland's theory were compared for male and female college students using the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and an adjective checklist (ACL). The correspondence between the VPI for male and female college students' was high. The correspondence between the variables as measured by the ACL for male and female students was…
Alajlan, Sarah Mohammed
The purpose of this quantitative study is to describe female graduate students' perceptions about their democratic empowerment in the classroom at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Their perceptions are compared based on female students' tracks. It also investigates the obstacles for democratic empowerment that female students face in the…
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Turkish female science teachers' gender-related beliefs and those teachers' corresponding interaction with their male and female students. The data was collected from five different sources: Surveys, interviews, observations, chi square data from the observation phase, and interviews with selected teachers. The data was analyzed using the Ericson interpretive method of socio-cultural theories which provided a framework for understanding the development of teacher beliefs and their interactions with their students. In this study, the survey revealed three types of teachers ranging from traditional, moderate to modern. Moderate teachers exhibited characteristics that were on a continuum between the traditional and modern teachers. Traditional teachers believed that males and females should have certain defined roles. Females should be responsible for taking care of the needs of their children and their husbands. By comparison, modern teachers did not assign specific roles to either males or females. With regard to the role of women in science, traditional teachers believed that female scientists could not be as successful as male scientists. By comparison, modern teachers believed that female scientists could be as successful as male scientists. Modern teachers did indicate that they thought females needed to work harder than males to prove themselves. When it came to the teachers' views and beliefs regarding their female and male students' success in their science classrooms, traditional teachers believed that their male students were brighter than their female students. They also believed that female students excelled only because they worked harder. Modern teachers believed that success is dependent on each student's background and his or her interest in science. Classroom observation indicated that traditional and modern teachers interacted differently with their male and female students
Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.
This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…
Ferry, Beatrice; Duclos, Martine; Burt, Lauren; Therre, Perrine; Le Gall, Franck; Jaffré, Christelle; Courteix, Daniel
Sports training characterized by impacts or weight-bearing activity is well known to induce osteogenic effects on the skeleton. Less is known about the potential effects on bone strength and geometry, especially in female adolescent athletes. The aim of this study was to investigate hip geometry in adolescent soccer players and swimmers compared to normal values that stemmed from a control group. This study included 26 swimmers (SWIM; 15.9 ± 2 years) and 32 soccer players (SOC; 16.2 ± 0.7 years), matched in body height and weight. A group of 15 age-matched controls served for the calculation of hip parameter Z-scores. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). DXA scans were analyzed at the femoral neck by the hip structure analysis (HSA) program to calculate the cross-sectional area (CSA), cortical dimensions (inner endocortical diameter, ED; outer width and thickness, ACT), the centroid (CMP), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), section modulus (Z), and buckling ratio (BR) at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanteric (IT), and femoral shaft (FS) sites. Specific BMDs were significantly higher in soccer players compared with swimmers. At all bone sites, every parameter reflecting strength (CSMI, Z, BR) favored soccer players. In contrast, swimmers had hip structural analysis (HSA) Z-scores below the normal values of the controls, thus denoting weaker bone in swimmers. In conclusion, this study suggests an influence of training practice not only on BMD values but also on bone geometry parameters. Sports with high impacts are likely to improve bone strength and bone geometry. Moreover, this study does not support the argument that female swimmers can be considered sedentary subjects regarding bone characteristics.
Douglas, Crystal C.; Rumbak, Ivana; Barić, Irena Colić; Kovačina, Marinela; Piasek, Martina; Ilich, Jasminka Z.
We compared calcium (Ca) sources and intake, as well as multivitamin/mineral supplement use between female students with nutrition/health background and those from general-student-populations. 314 participants 18–37 y, including 57 African-Americans and 54 Caucasian-Americans recruited from Nutrition and/or other Health Sciences departments (NHS), and 100 African-American and 103 Croatian women representing general-student-population (GSP), completed food frequency questionnaire assessing their usual Ca intake and supplement use. NHS populations met recommendations and consumed significantly more Ca, particularly from dairy sources, and were more likely to take supplements than GSP groups, suggesting that health education may influence Ca intake. PMID:22254044
Alonazi, Wadi B; Albaiz, Alyaa S; Albejaidi, Fahd M; Alenazi, Fatimah Z
This study was conducted to assess the level of health awareness (HA) among students attending three undergraduate programs in the Colleges of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (SA). A modified self-reported survey was utilized to measure HA demonstrating four domains: Nutrition (NU), Personal Health (PH), Physical Exercise (PE), and Body Build (BB). The questionnaire was distributed to 302 female students attending the first semester of the academic year 2014-2015 BS degree in Radiology Sciences (RS), Clinical Laboratory (CL), and Health Education (HE) departments. Bloom's taxonomy was utilized to describe the three cognitive levels. Synthesizing, creating, and evaluating were grouped to represent high level indicators; applying cognitive skills only revealed an intermediate level; while memorizing and listing demonstrated low levels. In a 5-point Likert scale, the overall mean (M) of HA among CAMS students was 3.82 with the highest among students attending HE (M = 3.89). The domain of PH ranked first with a high average (M = 4.30). There were significant differences (α = 0.05), in the level of HA in PH and BB domains, among students in terms of program specialty only, but no such significant differences were found for other characteristics. The study recommended incorporating health promotion concepts within teaching curricula and conducting health and education campaigns by health education institutions.
Hoch, Anne Z; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Moraski, LuAnn; Carrera, Guillermo F.; Wilson, Charles R.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Schimke, Jane E.; Gutterman, David D.
Objective To determine the prevalence of the female athlete triad (low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density) in high school varsity athletes in a variety of sports compared with sedentary students/controls. Design Prospective study. Setting Academic medical center in the Midwest. Participants Eighty varsity athletes and eighty sedentary students/controls volunteered for this study. Intervention Subjects completed questionnaires, had their blood drawn and underwent bone mineral density testing. Main Outcome Measures Each participant completed screening questionnaires assessing eating behavior, menstrual status and physical activity. Each subject completed a 3-day food diary. Serum hormonal, TSH and prolactin levels were determined. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results Low energy availability was present in similar numbers of athletes (36%) and sedentary/control subjects (39%; p=0.74). Athletes suffered more menstrual abnormalities (54%) compared with sedentary students/controls (21%) (p=<0.001). DXA revealed that 16% of the athletes and 30% of the sedentary/controls had low BMD (p=0.03). Risk factors for reduced BMD include sedentary control student, low BMI and increased caffeine consumption. Conclusions A substantial number of high school athletes (78%) and a surprising number of sedentary students (65%) suffer from one or more components of the triad. Given the high prevalence of triad characteristics in both groups, education in the formative elementary school years has the potential to prevent several of the components in both groups, therefore, improving health and averting long-term complications. PMID:19741317
Leberman, Sarah; Shaw, Sally
The business case for diversity is increasingly being recognised. However, worldwide women are still under-represented at the executive level. The notions of employability and career adaptability are examined in the context of female sport management graduates, to better understand why they are not attaining leadership positions in New Zealand…
This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…
Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L; Pavlou, Susana Elisa
This study examined the prevalence and reporting of date rape among female college students (aged 18-24) in Cyprus and assessed the students' attitudes and awareness regarding date rape. In addition, the study examined how date rape is perceived among representatives of related private and governmental organizations in Cyprus. This is part of a larger multi-country study. This paper will focus only on the results pertaining to Cyprus. The study was coordinated by the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods. In total, 476 female college students responded to an anonymous questionnaire, two focus group discussions were carried out, and five key-informant interviews with relevant institutional representatives were conducted. The results of the study indicated that unwanted sexual experiences and sexual violence, including date rape, do exist among young Cypriot women. Specifically, 1.3% of the research participants reported experiencing an attempted rape by their date, and 1.9 % of the study participants reported being raped on a date. Often this was caused by their boyfriend, friend or sexual partner (54.2%). The results of the qualitative study showed that young female Cypriots agreed that many women give in to psychological pressure because they feel guilty about letting the other person down or because they 'didn't satisfy him' or fear they might lose him. Despite the explorative nature of the study, it is significant as research on date rape in Cyprus is almost non-existent. The authors anticipate that the results of the study will be useful to other researchers and policy-makers involved in this area of research.
Harmon, Noel Suzanne
The purpose of this study was to gather descriptive data on the experiences of Black female student athletes. A better understanding of the experiences of Black female student athletes as students, as athletes, and as developing young women may help student affairs practitioners better understand their collegiate experience; provide them with…
Thevis, Mario; Sauer, Michael; Geyer, Hans; Sigmund, Gerd; Mareck, Ute; Schänzer, Wilhelm
Drug abuse by adolescents has been investigated in various surveys that reported correlations between age, gender, and activity. However, none of these studies included chemical analyses to help substantiate the statements of participants. In the present study, the urine specimens of 964 students (439 females, 525 males; mean age 22.1 years, s = 1.7), who applied to study sports sciences at university, were assessed for anabolic steroids, stimulants, and selected drugs prohibited in sports. In total, 11.2% of the urine specimens provided contained drugs covered by doping controls. The most frequently detected compound was the major metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (9.8%) followed by various stimulants related to amphetamine and cocaine (1.0%). Indications of anabolic steroid use were found in 0.4% of urine samples but originated from contraceptives containing norethisterone. The present study provided unambiguous data on the status quo of drug (ab)use by adolescents hoping for a career related to elite sport or sports sciences. No use of anabolic steroids was detected. However, evidence for stimulants and tetrahydrocannabinol administration was obtained, although not reported by any participant, which highlights the issue of under-reporting in surveys based solely on questionnaires.
Çelik, Ali Kemal; Akyol, Kübra
The main purpose of this paper was to determine the predictors of student satisfaction focusing on campus recreational sports and cultural facilities. The present study utilized data from a written-questionnaire administered to one thousand adult undergraduate students. The dependent variable used in predicting student satisfaction was…
The present research was conducted in order to compare self-esteem of American students with Turkish students in terms of the sport participation at the universities. For this purpose, a total of 460 students (M age = 19,61 ± 1,64) voluntarily participated in the study from two universities. As data collection tool, Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem…
Ivashchenko, S N
This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the well-being of foreign and domestic students sporting disciplines defined by studying the performance of their emotional state at different stages of the learning process. It was found that the decrease in value of the conditional measures of psychological atmosphere of the day, as the main indicator of the emotional state of students is more pronounced in the group of foreign students. The reason for this phenomenon is a chronic emotional stress caused by the conflict between the desire of students to the successful development of training programs and the inability to effectively receive educational material due the insufficient knowledge of the terms of professional and applied value. One way of solving this problem is the use of the method of accelerated expansion of vocabulary terms of professional and practical importance in the program of preparation of foreign students to study in the higher educational institutions of Ukraine.
Pereira, José; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Bessa, Cristiana; Mesquita, Isabel
This study conducted a comparative analysis of students’ knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls). Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students’ gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task. Key points The results in this study showed that regardless of students’ sex, both DI and SE were efficient in the promotion of improvements in students’ content knowledge of athletics. Both boys and girls improved from the pre-test to the post-test in SE and DI. SE was particularly beneficial to lower skill-level. On the contrary, in the DI unit
Gustafson, Robert L.; Thomsen, Steven R.; Popovich, Mark N.
A study employed Q methodology, personal interviews, and a self-administered questionnaire to explore how female college students, a population segment with one of the highest incidences of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders, rank magazine advertisements that feature a variety of potentially harmful female stereotypes. Specifically, the…
Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants’ exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects’ body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students. PMID:27630436
Kubik, Martha Y; Davey, Cynthia; Nanney, Marilyn S
This ecologic study evaluated the association between school policy allowing students to purchase sports drinks from school vending machines and school stores and student body mass index (BMI). Data were from surveillance surveys of Minnesota secondary schools (n = 238) and students (n = 59,617), administered in 2012 and 2013, respectively. We used generalized linear models to assess the association between policies and mean age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentile. In adjusted multivariate analysis, school policy was positively associated with BMI percentile (P = .005). School policy restricting student access to sports drinks at school may contribute to decreasing consumption of sport drinks among school-aged youth and improving student weight outcomes in this population.
Davey, Cynthia; Nanney, Marilyn S.
This ecologic study evaluated the association between school policy allowing students to purchase sports drinks from school vending machines and school stores and student body mass index (BMI). Data were from surveillance surveys of Minnesota secondary schools (n = 238) and students (n = 59,617), administered in 2012 and 2013, respectively. We used generalized linear models to assess the association between policies and mean age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentile. In adjusted multivariate analysis, school policy was positively associated with BMI percentile (P = .005). School policy restricting student access to sports drinks at school may contribute to decreasing consumption of sport drinks among school-aged youth and improving student weight outcomes in this population. PMID:26564011
Clemen, Valerie A.
Issues surrounding female participation in graduate theological education are complex and multifaceted. One important problem concerning female theological students is the lack of research exploring the experiences and unique challenges faced by conservative evangelical female Master of Divinity (M. Div.) students as they pursue academic and…
Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that impact Chinese female students' intention to study overseas. This study also aimed to understand how these factors impact female students' decision making process. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 96 female undergraduates who enrolled in a 4-year public university…
Kwong Caputo, Jolina Jade
This study sought to explore the lived experiences of five female, first-generation, low-income students who attend a metropolitan commuter university, and investigate how a structured undergraduate research experience exerts influence on the women's academic and social involvement. A qualitative case study with a narrative and grounded…
Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia
We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students from both…
Lock, Robynne M.; Hazari, Zahra
Despite the fact that approximately half of high school physics students are female, only 21% of physics bachelor's degrees are awarded to women. In a previous study, drawn from a national survey of college students in introductory English courses, five factors commonly proposed to positively impact female students' choice of a physical science…
White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S
Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women.
Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Hur, Won-Moo
This study investigated the attitudes of body-tanning behaviors: suntanning, tanning bed, tanning spray, and sunless tanning product use. Data collected from 208 female college students (M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 2.0; M weight = 63.3 kg, SD = 2.0; M height = 165.9 cm, SD = 8.1) online. The questionnaire comprised four constructs: appearance-based, health-based, and emotion-based tanning attitudes, and body-tanning behaviors. Both appearance-based and emotion-based pro-tanning attitudes were associated with significantly higher body-tanning behaviors. However, health-based pro-tanning attitudes did not significantly affect body-tanning behaviors. The results from both UV- and non-UV exposure-related tanning behaviors provide future intervention strategies, such as establishing a positive body image without a tan and identifying negative emotional consequences as a result of tanning.
Al-Darmaki, Fatima; Thomas, Justin; Yaaqeib, Saad
Recent epidemiological data from Arabian Gulf nations suggest that mental health problems such as depression and anxiety have a relatively high prevalence, particularly amongst women. However, despite the widespread morbidity, treatment seeking for mental health problems is low. Mental health beliefs amongst female Emirati college students were explored. A questionnaire exploring perceptions about the causes, consequences and best forms of intervention for mental health problems was administered to 70 participants. Data revealed that social and environmental factors were given the most weight in terms of etiology. Social stigma was the most frequently identified barrier to help seeking. Religious practices were commonly reported as an approach to cope with mental health problems and to maintain good psychological health. Most participants reported willingness to seek help from a healthcare professional. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for improving the quality and accessibility of mental health services in the gulf region.
Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko; Kaliterna, Andreja
The aim of the study was to analyze the relation between motor abilities and performance in folk dances originating from the island of Hvar and modern social dances. Two groups of variables were used in a sample of 78 female students of the Teacher Training College from Split: 7 motor variables as a battery of predictors, and performance evaluation of 4 dances (2 folk dances, i.e. ciciliona and pasavijen, and 2 social dances, i.e. cha-cha-cha and rock-'n'-roll) as criterion variables. Canonical correlation analysis between the groups of variables yielded two canonical correlations of 0.94 and 0.73, with a level of significance of p<0.001. The first canonical correlation was based on marked determination of coordination and ciciliona dance, and the second one on explosive strength of the running type with below-average coordination and the cha-cha-cha, rock-'n'-roll and pasavijen dances. Regression analysis indicated the battery of motor variables used to be a good predictor of performance in all study dances, with multiple correlation of 0.93 in ciciliona, 0.84 in pasavijen, 0.75 in rock-'n'-roll and 0.73 in cha-cha-cha. In ciciliona and pasavijen, the latent dance structure is predominantly explained by coordination, in rock-'n'-roll by explosive strength, and in cha-cha-cha by explosive strength and speed. Discriminative analysis revealed the general dance performance to mostly depend on coordination, then on explosive strength, and to a lesser extent on speed (movement frequency). Dance is an irreplaceable educational tool in kinesiologic education of female students, among others for its considerable contribution to the development and maintenance of basic motor abilities.
Correia, Divanise Suruagy; Monteiro, Vera Grácia Neumann; Cavalcante, Jairo Calado; Maia, Eulália Maria Chaves
This study aimed to identify the knowledge about induced abortion complications and its relation to age. This is a cross-sectional study performed in schools of Maceió, state of Alagoas, Brazil, with students 12 to 19 years old. The sample was calculated considering post-abortion curettage data. The Epi Info computer program was used for data analysis. From 2,592 female adolescents studied 65.64% didn't know about any complications of induced abortion. The most mentioned complications were death and sterility. Clinical manifestations of abortion were wrongly mentioned by them as complications. Signification was found between the knowledge of the complications sterility, hemorrhage, and age. Death was significant fo rgirls under 15 and sterility for the older ones. The conclusion is that female adolescents don't have a correct knowledge of induced abortion complications, which shows the risk suffered by the ones that induce it. Thus, there is a need to further clarify the issue and for sexual education.
Demirel, Duygu Harmandar
This study was conducted to examine the differences between the study approach of students studying in Physical Education and Faculties of Education. For the study, Dumlupinar University School of Physical Education and Sports and Faculty of Education students were voluntarily participated to the study. As a data collection tool, conducted with…
Samalot-Rivera, Amaury; Porretta, David
Background: Many educators assume that students develop appropriate social skills as a by-product of participation in physical education and sports (Hellison 2003). However, it has been demonstrated that appropriate social behaviours improve when interventions are implemented (Balderson and Sharpe 2005). It is known that students with…
Peters, Derek; Jones, Gareth; Peters, John
This article investigates the "preferred learning styles" and their relationship with grades for students undertaking sports-related undergraduate programmes at a higher education institution in the UK. Preferred "learning styles" in students in this discipline have been identified as auditory, kinaesthetic and group, although…
Smither, Katelyn; Xihe Zhu,
This study examined high school students' experiences in a Sport Education unit being implemented with smaller teams and fewer roles. The participants included one physical education teacher and her 70 ninth-grade students. Each week, we conducted two to three observations and four to six informal interviews with the participants for over eight…
Problem Statement: Student candidates who want to be a Physical Education Teacher in Turkey should take special ability exams of Physical Education and Sports Schools. In this exam, it is required to have a high physical capability apart from a high level of special branch skills. For this reason, the students who pass and start their education at…
Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others
Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…
Vandorpe, Barbara; Vandendriessche, Joric B; Vaeyens, Roel; Pion, Johan; Lefevre, Johan; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu
Gymnastics talent identification focuses on the identification of young gymnasts who display characteristics for potential success in the future. The aim of this study was to identify which current performance characteristics are related to performance in competition 2 years later. Twenty-three female gymnasts aged 7-8 years completed a multidimensional test battery measuring anthropometric, physical, and coordinative characteristics and were technically evaluated by expert coaches. Two years later, the all-around competition results of those gymnasts now participating in elite (n = 12) and sub-elite (n = 11) competition were obtained. None of the initial measurements significantly correlated with the results of the sub-elite gymnasts 2 years later. For the elite gymnasts, a non-sport-specific motor test battery correlated strongly with the competition result, with more than 40% of the variation in competition performance being explained by the result on that test 2 years earlier. Neither the coaches' judgement nor the anthropometric and physical characteristics were sensitive enough to predict performance. A motor coordination test might be valuable in the early identification of gymnasts, as its discriminative and predictive qualities might be sufficiently powerful for selection within a relatively homogeneous population of gymnasts exhibiting similar anthropometric and physical profiles.
Papandreou, Dimitrios; Noor, Zujaja Tul; Rashed, Maitha; Jaberi, Hadeel Al
BACKGROUND: Obesity levels have been dramatically increased in the United Arab Emirates over the last few years. High levels of body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent of total body fat as a measure of obesity have found to be related to cardiovascular risk factors and other diseases. Neck circumference is a new tool that has been linked to obesity. However, no studies in UAE have been conducted yet. AIM: The purpose of this study was to measure the obesity levels in a college population and to correlate them with NC and other anthropometrical indexes. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Two hundred forty three (243) female students aged 18-25 were conveniently selected to participate in the study. Anthropometrical indexes were obtained from all subjects e after fasting. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity together was found to be 28.4 % (n = 69). Pearson correlation showed that WC, NC and BF (%) were significantly positively related to obesity, (r = 0.790; r = 0.758; r = 0.767, p < 0.001), respectively. In multiple regression analysis, only NC (Beta: 1.627, 95 %CI: 0.370, 2.846, p < 0.001) and WC (Beta: 0.464, 95 %CI: 0.135, 0.664, p < 0.001) were found to be independently associated with obesity. CONCLUSION: NC was found to be independently associated with obesity levels in Emirati college students. PMID:27275290
Hinchberger, Patricia A
Violence, harassment, and bullying in the workplace are not new phenomena. However, the growing epidemic of violence in the health sector workplace is raising great concern among workers, employers, and governmental agencies across Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. National and international literature reveals that the prevalence of violence experienced by graduate and undergraduate female nursing students in the college and workplace settings is largely unknown. Moreover, the prevalence of violence is now recognized as a major health priority by the World Health Organization, the International Council of Nurses, and Public Services International. Even so, the number of nursing personnel affected by this problem continues to rise. A modified self-report online survey was used to ascertain the level of violence experienced by nursing students in their clinical placements. One hundred percent of those surveyed had experienced some type of workplace violence and the perpetrators were most often other staff members followed closely by patients. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing Position Statement recommends that all faculty prepare nurses to recognize and prevent all forms of violence in the workplace. This research seeks to develop practical approaches to better understand and prevent this global public health issue.
Raffaelli, Marcela; Zamboanga, Byron L; Carlo, Gustavo
The authors examined relations among different measures of acculturation, and between acculturation and sexual behavior, in a sample of female Cuban American college students (n=61, M age = 18.4 years) who completed self-report surveys. In the first set of analyses, weak to moderate associations emerged among 4 measures of acculturation (birthplace, childhood language use, current language use, and ethnic identity), suggesting that inconsistent findings from prior research may have resulted from measurement limitations. In multivariate analyses, the authors examined predictors of sexual behavior and found that 1 aspect of acculturation (higher levels of ethnic identity) and background characteristics (being older and less religious) were associated with voluntary sexual intercourse. Moreover, higher levels on a sexual risk composite were associated with being born in the United States, more ethnically identified, older, and less religious. These analyses highlight the need for specificity in assessing acculturation in a college student population and support the need to examine cultural factors directly in sexuality research.
Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.
Research has shown that female students cannot profit as much as male students can from cooperative learning in physics, especially in mixed-gender dyads. This study has explored the influence of partner gender on female students' learning achievement, interaction and the problem-solving process during cooperative learning. In Shanghai, a total of 50 students (26 females and 24 males), drawn from two classes of a high school, took part in the study. Students were randomly paired, and there were three research groups: mixed-gender dyads (MG), female-female dyads (FF) and male-male dyads (MM). Analysis of students' pre- and post-test performances revealed that female students in the single-gender condition solved physics problems more effectively than did those in the mixed-gender condition, while the same was not the case for male students. We further explored the differences between female and male communication styles, and content among the three research groups. It showed that the females' interaction content and problem-solving processes were more sensitive to partner gender than were those for males. This might explain why mixed-gender cooperation in physics disadvantages females in high schools.
Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.
With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…
Miles, Jennifer M.
Student involvement is encouraged at contemporary colleges and universities. Involvement in student organizations can assist with academic and social integration, as well as retention. One way for students to become involved is through student government associations. As student government members, students participate in the governance process at…
Mean, Lindsey J.; Kassing, Jeffrey W.
The community of sport is a powerful site for the construction of masculinity, male identities, and heterosexuality. Consequently, the increased entry of women into the sporting arena has been actively resisted, with women athletes either excluded or framed within traditional, sexualized discourses of femininity and heterosexuality. Yet Title IX…
MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A
Female undergraduate students at two Canadian universities (N = 378) completed the NEO PI-R (Costa, P.T. & McCrae, R.R. (1992). NEO PI-R Professional Manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, D. M., Olmstead, M. P., Bohr, Y. & Garfinkel, P. E. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: Psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878.). Eating disorder symptomatic (N = 43) and nonsymptomatic (N = 335) women differed on facets of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness. Among symptomatic women, the Oral Control subscale of the EAT-26 was correlated significantly with facets of Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Specifically, the Impulsivity facet of Neuroticism was positively correlated with the Bulimia and Food Preoccupation subscale of EAT-26, but negatively correlated with the Oral Control and Dieting subscales. Overall, results suggest that high scores on Neuroticism may be a risk factor for development of disordered eating behavior and that the degree of Impulsiveness may predict the eating disorder subtype to which one is most susceptible.
van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Talens, Jona G; Woertman, Liesbeth
Studies in the field of body image have primarily addressed its negative aspects, such as body dissatisfaction. The present study focused instead on women who are satisfied with their bodies and on how body satisfaction relates to sexual health. A sample of 319 Dutch female university students completed an online survey that included items about body image evaluation, body image investment, overweight preoccupation, body image affect during sexual activity, sexual frequency, sexual functioning, and sexual self-esteem. We found that the level of body dissatisfaction was minimal in our sample. The majority reported neutral or mildly positive body evaluations, and in 30% of the sample these evaluations were clearly positive. Comparisons between women who reported positive versus neutral body evaluations showed that the body-satisfied women had lower body mass indexes (BMIs) and reported less body image investment, less overweight preoccupation, and less body self-consciousness during sexual activity. With regard to sexual health, they reported higher sexual self-esteem and better sexual functioning. Furthermore, we found that body image self-consciousness was negatively associated with sexual functioning, sexual self-esteem, and frequency of sexual activity with a partner. Body satisfaction did not account for a portion of the relationship of body self-consciousness during sexual activity with sexual health.
Spittle, Michael; Byrne, Kate
Background: Physical educators are faced with trying to provide motivating and enjoyable experiences in physical education. Sport Education is an instructional model that aims to provide positive motivational sport experiences by simulating the features of authentic sport. Research support for Sport Education is positive, however, the effects on…
Lindley, Lisa L.; Elkind, Julia S.; Landi, Suzanne N.; Brandt, Heather M.
Objective: To determine receipt of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among female college students by demographic/descriptive characteristics and sexual behaviors. Methods: A secondary analysis of the Spring 2009 National College Health Assessment-II was conducted with 40,610 female college students (aged 18 to 24 years) attending 4-year…
Konczos, Csaba; Bognar, Jozsef; Szakaly, Zsolt; Barthalos, Istvan; Simon, Istvan; Olah, Zsolt
Study aim: To assess body composition, health awareness and cardiorespiratory fitness in female university students differing in volume of obligatory physical activity classes. Material and methods: 109 female students of the University of West Hungary volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups according to…
Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…
Laux, John M.; Salyers, Kathleen M.; Jones, Amy L.
This study found a statistically significant inverse relationship between defensiveness and female college students' Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (M. L. Selzer, 1971) and CAGE (J. A. Ewing, 198 ) scores. Female college students who produce negative screening scores were more defensive than those whose alcohol use screens were positive.…
Higgins, Louise T.
To compare the culturally acquired aspects of fears in two different cultures, the author gave an augmented version of the I. M. Marks and A. M. Mathews Fear Scale (1979) to 50 female students in China and 49 female students in England. When the rank ordering of the fears measured in both groups was compared, the author found a high positive…
Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff; Klein, Jenny; Oliveros, Arazais
This study examined the relationships among the childhood discipline styles experienced by 116 female college students, their perceptions of their parents, and their current functioning. Results of this study indicated that female college students' report of childhood discipline, their perceptions of their parents, and their outcomes were related…
This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…
Okwilagwe, Oshiotse Andrew
This study examines the influence of self-prescribed literature on sex education of female students at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The sample population consists of 303 married, engaged, those in love and those yet to fall in love female students. The analysis of data reveals that they read books specifically on friendship, love, marriage…
Saleh, Al-Jufout; Ziad, Abu-Hamatteh; Lama, Al-Qaisy
The current article presents an analytical study of female students' participation in the representative councils in various Jordanian Universities. The data-base applied in the present investigation has indicated a clear weak representation of female students in general. The possible reasons, behind this weakness, have been tracked using a…
Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad
The present study aimed at examining the interpersonal aspects of depression among female college students. A sample of 60 undergraduate female college students (50 pairs: 25 depressed and 25 non-depressed subjects along with their best friends) was drawn from Government Degree College for Women, Multan. Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al.,…
Bireda, Asamenew Demessie
This study aimed to investigate some challenges female doctoral students experience in their doctoral journey. The study used a qualitative design and structured interviews. The theoretical framework that guided the study was that of Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecosystemic theory. A purposely selected sample of five female doctoral students from the…
Miller, Joseph M.; Smith, Imogene K.
A study showed that although female medical students had slightly lower National Board examination scores on part one and lower grade point averages, they performed significantly better in the obstetrics and gynecology clerkship. Possible factors include women students' interest in women's health care and female representation on the house staff.…
Latha, K. S.; Hegde, Supriya; Bhat, S. M.; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Rai, Pooja
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Body Mass Index (BMI) and the subjective perception of body weight, and body shape satisfaction predict level of self-esteem and depression among female college students. Method: The sample comprised of 124 female college students ranging in age from 16-21 years. Self perception of…
Aljaad, Nawal Hamad Mohamad
This study aims at identifying the role of social communication tools in education from the Saudi female students' perspectives that are studying at the college of education in King Saud University-Riyadh. This study used a survey, which was distributed to 500 female students. The results showed that 90% of respondents used social media where 95%…
Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu
This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…
Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan
The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants.
Lindo, Jason M.; Swensen, Isaac D.; Waddell, Glen R.
We consider the relationship between collegiate-football success and non-athlete student performance. We find that the team's success significantly reduces male grades relative to female grades. This phenomenon is only present in fall quarters, which coincides with the football season. Using survey data, we find that males are more likely than…
Propositions of stereotype threat theory imply that the social consequences of academic distinction in advanced quantitative areas (such as math and the physical sciences) for women may promote the under representation of female students in advanced quantitative academic courses. The hypothesis that female students will be underrepresented in advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses is tested using academic performance and enrollment data for high school students in a "Student/Parent Informed Choice" (open registration) school district in North Carolina. Results show female students to be overrepresented in both advanced verbal/writing intensive (honors and advanced placement English, foreign language, and social science) and advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses compared to their proportion of the student body. More surprisingly, results also indicate female students (compared to male students) to be overrepresented in advanced courses compared to their proportion of high-performing students. Furthermore, as with patterns observed at the district level, additional analysis of enrollment data for the entire state reveals similar results. Taken together, the findings call into question the prevailing presumption that female students continue to be underrepresented in math and physical science courses. Instead, the changing social context within which females and males experience schooling may provide an explanation for the findings.
Phillips, Clive; Izmirli, Serdar; Aldavood, Javid; Alonso, Marta; Choe, Bi; Hanlon, Alison; Handziska, Anastasija; Illmann, Gudrun; Keeling, Linda; Kennedy, Mark; Lee, Gwi; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie; Pelagic, Veselinas; Rehn, Therese
Simple Summary We surveyed university students in 11 Eurasian countries for their attitudes to animals, using an internet-based questionnaire to which 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responded from 102 universities. Across countries female students had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, but especially so in more gender empowered countries. One contributing factor appeared to be the greater association of females than males with pets, and a possible outcome was greater female avoidance of meat consumption, especially red meat. Abstract Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. We tested this theory of ‘female empowered empathy’ internationally in a survey of female and male students' attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received. Respondents rated the acceptability of 43 major concerns about human use of animals, and the importance of 13 world social issues, including animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable development. Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males. There was a positive correlation between the Gender Empowerment Measure and the ratio of female to male concern for animal welfare and rights, but not for other world issues. Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much
Marchand, Erica; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan
This study assessed HPV vaccination and its correlates among culturally diverse 18-26 year-old community college women in Los Angeles. Specific research questions were: (1) What proportion of respondents have initiated the HPV vaccine, and what proportion have completed the three-dose series? (2) What demographic (e.g., age, ethnicity), psychosocial (e.g., vaccine-related beliefs, perceived social norms), and health care-related variables (e.g., health insurance status, provider recommendation, health care trust and satisfaction) are associated with vaccine initiation for this sample? Participants were recruited from the campus of a community college in central Los Angeles. All female students between 18 and 26 were eligible to participate. An anonymous web-based survey assessed number of HPV vaccine doses received as well as demographic information, HPV- and HPV vaccine-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, perceived social norms, provider & health care system factors, sexual behavior, cervical health, and mother-daughter communication about sex. Analyses were conducted using 178 surveys. Multivariate logistic regression tested the relationships of statistically significant bivariate predictors to vaccine initiation. Those who initiated the vaccine were younger, more often had a health-related academic major, thought the vaccine to be safer, perceived HPV severity lower, and perceived higher social approval for HPV vaccination than those unvaccinated. All who had initiated the vaccine had a doctor's recommendation. To increase uptake among 18-26-year-old women, research should explore provider interventions to increase vaccine recommendation, and also identify individuals and groups who may have negative beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy to provide support in vaccine decision-making.
Starobin, Soko S.; Smith, Dimitra Jackson; Laanan, Frankie Santos
This qualitative study explored the experiences of female transfer students majoring in STEM areas at a midwestern university by highlighting the role of Transfer Student Capital in their academic and social adjustment. The authors further deconstructed the notion of Transfer Student Capital by looking at how cultural and social capital intersect…
Rockey, Donald L., Jr.; King, Chris
This chapter discusses wagering on college athletics and sports wagering by college students and student athletes. Programs implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and other organizations to minimize such behavior are also discussed, and recommendations for practice and research are shared.
Serrat, A; García de Herreros, A
OBJECTIVE: To perform genetic sex typing during the Barcelona Olympic Games using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of Y chromosome specific sequences. METHODS: The assay consisted of the amplification of a specific sequence corresponding to the repeat DYZ1 element from buccal smears samples of 2406 female competitors. Positive samples were reanalysed for the presence of another Y chromosome specific gene, SRY. RESULTS: The expression of these two elements did not always correlate; six samples were found where the presence of DYZ1 but not SRY was detected. This presence of DYZ1 sequence in female athletes is higher than in unselected females, where no DYZ1 amplification was observed in any of the 1629 samples analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Amplification of DYZ1 repeat should not be used as the only index for determining genetic sex, at least in sporting events. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9015592
Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…
Renfrow, Matthew S.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Otto, Stephanie M.; Farley, Richard F.; Eveland-Sayers, Brandi M.
The purpose of this case study was to examine the relationship between sports participation and health-related physical fitness in middle school and high school students. Health-related physical fitness was measured using the Fitnessgram test battery to assess healthy fitness zone (HFZ) achievement in five areas: body composition, muscular…
Fox, Claudia K.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie
Background: Previous studies have found that higher physical activity levels are associated with greater academic achievement among students. However, it remains unclear whether associations are due to the physical activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose…
Hastie, Peter A.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.
Background: Sport Education (SE) and Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) are two curriculum models that were developed to help students participate in fair and equitable ways and challenge their thinking beyond the replication of techniques and skills. Given that the general aim of both models is to employ more democratic pedagogies and…
Stylianou, Michalis; Enright, Eimear; Hogan, Anna
Numerous academics have argued that if a field is to progress, attention needs to be paid to how future generations of researchers are being prepared. To date, data generated on research training in physical education and sport pedagogy (PESP) have primarily focused on students undertaking doctoral programmes with a formal coursework component,…
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to adapt and test the construct validity of the Self- Perceived Employability Scale; and second, to analyze the employability perceptions of students and graduates of sports departments according to their gender, level of education, ability to communicate in a foreign language, and work experience. A…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... flight rules of part 91 of this chapter for operations in Class B, C, and D airspace and air traffic... the solo flight is authorized, if applicable, within the 90-day period preceding the date of...
Edim, M. E.; Odok, E. A.
The main thrust of this study was to investigate sports participation and social personality variable of students in secondary schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Literature review was carried out according to the variable of…
Phillips, Clive; Izmirli, Serdar; Aldavood, Javid; Alonso, Marta; Choe, Bi; Hanlon, Alison; Handziska, Anastasija; Illmann, Gudrun; Keeling, Linda; Kennedy, Mark; Lee, Gwi; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie; Pelagic, Veselinas; Rehn, Therese
Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. We tested this theory of 'female empowered empathy' internationally in a survey of female and male students' attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received. Respondents rated the acceptability of 43 major concerns about human use of animals, and the importance of 13 world social issues, including animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable development. Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males. There was a positive correlation between the Gender Empowerment Measure and the ratio of female to male concern for animal welfare and rights, but not for other world issues. Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much greater concern than males for animal issues, whereas in other countries the responses of males and females were more similar. Across countries female students were more likely to avoid meat and less likely to avoid eggs, milk and seafood than male students, and were more likely to have kept pets than males. Females rated cats as more sentient than males did. The results demonstrate that females have greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, and that this is more likely to be expressed in countries where females are relatively empowered, suggesting that
Habib, Ihab S.
The problem studied in this research project was the enrollment of female STEM Engineering Technology students and the impact of professional mentoring and financial incentives on their enrollment, retention, and completion of engineering curriculum. Several tasks were presented in researchers' professional position; to recruit more students to the program, especially female as a minority in the Engineering Technology Department, make appropriate changes to the curriculum, and make improvements in mentoring students to improve rates of enrollment, retention, and completion of the program. A survey was created to study the effects of Science Engineering Technology and Mathematics for Engineering Technology (STEM ENGT) students' perceptions, mentorship, and scholarships availability, enrollment, retention, and program completion by enrolled student gender. Other studies have discovered that more scholarship and faculty mentorship support provided for female students resulted in improved diversity within engineering curricula student bodies (Sorcinelli, 2007).
This study examined how college experiences affect student leadership capacity in the general college population, as well as in male versus female populations. The data were drawn from a longitudinal sample of students across 156 colleges in Taiwan. Results of this study indicated that student leadership capacity increased after college entry.…
Mena, Ileana F.
A six week study in an urban district was conducted attempting to compare the academic interests between male and female students at the second and third grade levels, and correlate these with the students' academic performance, as put forth on the Record of Student Growth, or Report Card. The children completed teacher made interest inventories.…
This qualitative narrative study presents the interpreted experiences of seventeen female ROTC student-cadets enrolled in one of five traditional universities (as opposed to military institutions) located in the southeast U.S. I create a theoretical framework of four metaphors to represent university students and ROTC young women student-cadets;…
Bailey, Roger C.; Hankins, Norman E.
Results from scores on the Somatotype Rating Scale (SRS) indicated that, while there was close agreement between males and females on the measures, females exhibited more dissatisfaction with their body build and greater congruency between their self-concept and their same-sex stereotype than did males. (Author)
Rahimi, Mehrak; Yadollahi, Samaneh
The aim of this study was investigating Iranian female students' attitude towards CALL and its relationship with their level of education, computer ownership, and frequency of use. One hundred and forty-two female students (50 junior high-school students, 49 high-school students and 43 university students) participated in this study. They filled…
Hailemeskel, Solomon; Demissie, Asrate; Assefa, Nigussie
Background Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is the most common gynecologic compliant among adolescent females. There is a wide variation in the estimate of PD, which ranges from 50% to 90%, and the disorder is the most common cause of work and school absenteeism in adolescent females. Objective To assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of PD among female university students and understand its effects on students’ academic performance. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed in 440 research participants. A multistage stratified sampling technique was employed to select the study units. Structured and pretested self-administered questionnaires were used and weight and height measurements were conducted. The severity of dysmenorrheal pain was assessed by using a verbal multidimensional scoring system and visual analog scale. The data were double entered in Epi Info version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results A total of 440 students participated in this study. The prevalence of PD was 368 (85.4%). Of these, 123 (28.5%) had mild, 164 (38.1%) moderate, and 81 (18.8%) severe primary dysmenorrheal pain. Among students with PD, 88.3% reported that PD had a negative effect on their academic performance. Of these, 80% reported school absence, 66.8% reported loss of class concentration, 56.3% reported class absence, 47.4% reported loss of class participation, 37.8% reported limited sport participation, 31.7% reported limitation in going out with friends, and 21% reported inability to do homework. Based on the multivariate logistic regression, PD was statistically significant with those who had lower monthly stipends, a history of attempt to lose weight, a history of depression or anxiety, disruption of social network of family, friends or people they love, who consumed more than four glasses of tea per day, who drunk one or more Coca-Cola or Pepsi per day, in
Vazquez-Akim, Jenny Amanda
Female and underrepresented racial minority (URM) students are indicating their interest in STEM fields at increasing rates, yet when examining the engineering discipline specifically disparities in degree completion rates between female URM students and others in the racial or gender majority are even more severe. This study explored female URM college student perceptions of school and classroom climate and the impact these factors had on their decision to persist or to leave engineering. Through a qualitative interview methodology grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study explored factors including self-efficacy, perceived barriers and supports, other-group orientation and outcome expectations that influenced students' academic decision-making. Interview participants consisted of 5 female URM students that matriculated into an engineering major at a top tier, private university but subsequently left the discipline in pursuit of another field of study. The perceptions of this target population were juxtaposed with interview data from 4 male non-URM, 4 female non-URM, and 4 male URM leavers in addition to 7 female URM engineering persisters. As a final component in the research design, 9 undergraduate engineering faculty were interviewed to understand their perceptions of why female URM students leave engineering in pursuit of other disciplines. With faculty being a central component of the academic environment, their perceptions of female URM students, as well as how they view their role in these students' retention, provided insight on this other side of retention question. Salient findings emerged that differentiated female URM leavers' experiences in engineering from other student populations. Female URM leavers were less likely to call upon self-directed learning strategies in response to academic challenges. Perceived academic barriers such as heavy course loads, lack of connection between material and application, and perceived academic
Aligolbandi, Kobra; Siamian, Hasan; Balaghafari, Azita; Vahedi, Mohammad; Naeimi, Omolbanin
Background: Distraction is nothing but internal intension of the mind towards involvement of the person. This research studied classroom distractions factors among students of Faculty of Allied medical Sciences in year 2014-2015, so that with the findings of the research about classroom distractors’ factors and to present proposed suggestions for decreasing and removing of distractions. Methods: This is an exploratory study. Data collection in this study was the researcher made questionnaire based on Likert-type scales. SPSS software was used for analyzing the data statistics such as mean, standard deviation and frequency ratings, each subset of the elements associated with distraction Friedman test has been used to determine the ranking of each of the components. Results: 139 people participated in the six majors in this study which 91 people (65.5%) was female, and 48 people (34.5%) was male. Maximum number of 31 people (22.3) was in laboratory science, Lowest number of 15 (10.08 percent) in medical records, 25 (18%) people in Radiology, health information technology and medical emergencies which each of above course studies with 23 people (16.5 %), Anesthesiology 22 (15.8 percent) participated in this study. Among the internal factors of distraction between male and female students, the sleeping factor was in first priority and “My phone / pager ringing or answering the mobile” was in last priority. Among distraction external factors in male students, the factor “Adornment of professors” with mean 3.27 and SD=1.30 and Mean Rank=23.06 was in first priority, and among external distraction factors in girl students, the factor, “Used clothing and exotic costumes of Classmates” with mean=3.21, SD=1.30 and mean rank=22.66 was in first priority and factor of “Surroundings Noise (mowing, drilling, construction, and …)” for male and female students was in last priority. Conclusions: Attention and concentration are crucial to effective accomplishment
The purpose of this study is to compare the academic performance of male and female students in high school elective science courses. The data for this study were drawn from the grade books of six teachers of elective science courses and consists of the grades earned by the males and females during one academic year. The number of students…
Wang, Hongjing; Long, Lu; Cai, Hui; Wu, Yue; Xu, Jing; Shu, Chang; Wang, Peng; Li, Bo; Wei, Qinyu; Shang, Xuejun; Wang, Xueyi; Zhang, Meimei; Xiong, Chengliang; Yin, Ping
This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9%) of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge. PMID:26091505
Wang, Hongjing; Long, Lu; Cai, Hui; Wu, Yue; Xu, Jing; Shu, Chang; Wang, Peng; Li, Bo; Wei, Qinyu; Shang, Xuejun; Wang, Xueyi; Zhang, Meimei; Xiong, Chengliang; Yin, Ping
This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9%) of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge.
Rees, C. Roger; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Lewis, Dawn K.
In this article we examine the importance of sensation seeking and pragmatism in the steroids and sports supplements behavior and attitudes of high school and junior high school students on Long Island, New York. Steroid use is much less acceptable than sports supplement use, although the reasons for use are similar. Respondents use supplements…
Menke, Donna J.
This phenomenological study sought to address the overarching research questions: What are the costs and benefits of participation in Division I college sports? How does participation in Division I college sports prepare student-athletes for life after college? A qualitative methodology was selected to provide richer data than that which could be…
Williams, Erin Beth
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between personality characteristics of female and male freshmen, engineering students. A secondary purpose was to ascertain whether personality characteristics of freshmen, engineering students were different from those of general collegiate students of the same sex. The Millon Index of Personality Styles (MIPS) was administered to a sample of 72 female and 86 male freshmen, engineering students at a private midwestern engineering institution. The MIPS college normative sample of 1,600 college students was used as a comparison group. A total of 24 personality characteristics were assessed in the domains of motivation aims, cognitive modes, and interpersonal behaviors. Four hypotheses, which dealt with comparisons of the engineering samples, were tested by way of discriminant analyses. Two hypotheses, which compared the engineering samples to the collegiate samples of the same sex, were tested by way of t-tests. All six hypotheses yielded significant differences across various personality variables. It was concluded that engineering students of both sexes were more similar than different in personality characteristics. It was also concluded that there were greater personality differences between freshmen male engineering students and male college students than there are between freshmen female engineering students and female college students.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the two dimensional theory of achievement motivation (Doi, 1982) in female students. Doi's motivation scale were administered to 81 female university students, 58 female students of school of nursing and 77 female students of school of English Language, and the Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory was also administered to the first and the second groups. Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation were extracted by principal component analyses and canonical correlation analyses. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was found to be related to personality type: emotional instability and introversion. These findings differ from achievement motivation concepts (Murray, 1938; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), that include emotional stability and extraversion.
Bilgiç, Pelin; Yabancı, Nurcan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Studies have indicated that university students majoring in nutrition and dietetics or sport sciences may have more obsessions associated with eating attitudes and body shape perception compared to other disciplines i.e. social sciences. Therefore, this study aimed to assess and compare the risk of eating disorders and body shape perception. MATERIALS/METHODS Data was collected from 773 undergraduate students at the Departments of Nutrition and Dietetics (NDD) (n = 254), Physical Education and Sports (PESD) (n = 263), and Social Sciences (SOC) (n = 256).A socio-demographic and personal information questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34), Perceived Figure Rating Scale (FRS) were applied; and body weights and heights were measured. RESULTS Mean EAT-40 scores showed that, both male and female students of PESD had the highest scores (17.4 ± 11.6) compared with NDD (14.3 ± 8.3) and SOC (13.0 ± 6.2) (P < 0.05). According to EAT-40 classification, high risk in abnormal eating behavior was more in PESD (10.7%) compared to NDD (2.9%) and SOC (0.4%) students (P < 0.05). Students of PESD, who skipped meal, had higher tendency to the risk of eating disorders (P < 0.05). In parallel, body shape perception was found to be marked with higher scores in NDD (72.0 ± 28.7) and PESD (71.5 ± 32.8) compared with SOC (64.2 ± 27.5) students (P < 0.05). Considering BSQ-34 classification, high concern (moderate and marked) for body shape were more in PESD (7.4 %) compared to NDD (5.2%) and SOC (1.9%) students (P < 0.05). The body size judgement via obtained by the FRS scale were generally correlated with BMI. The Body Mass Index levels were in normal range (Mean BMI: 21.9 ± 2.8 kg/m2) and generally consistent with FRS data. CONCLUSIONS Tendency to the abnormal eating behavior and substantial body shape perception were higher in PESD students who have more concern on body shape and were not well-educated about nutrition
Ezeudu, Florence O.; Chiaha, Gertrude-Theresa Uzoamaka; Anazor, Lynda Chioma; Eze, Justina Uzoamaka; Omeke, Faith Chinwe
The purpose of this study was to do a SWOT analysis and compare performances of male and female students in chemistry. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Two boys', two girls' and two coeducational schools involving 1319 males and 1831 females, were selected by a stratified, deliberate sampling technique. A…
Henry, Wilma J.; West, Nicole M.; Jackson, Andrea
This article explores unique issues regarding the effects of hip-hop culture on the identity development of young Black female college students. Through the lenses of womanist and Black feminist perspectives, the intersecting impact of race and gender are reviewed within the context of the competing influences of hip-hop on Black female identity.…
This paper summarizes the findings of a five-year study aimed at improving the retention rates of female students pursuing careers in engineering. The study analyzed a series of programs implemented at the University of Toledo. The programs involve hands-on design projects, research experiences, communication tools geared towards females,…
Lovelace, Kathi J.; Yunhyung Chung,
Opportunities for expatriate assignments are increasing and many students are interested in gaining international work experience. However, females are underrepresented in this expatriate applicant pool. This is because organizational members often perceive that female expatriates would be less successful than male counterparts and thereby females…
Duggan, Louise Maria
This article explores the use of qualitative research methods towards our understanding of the issues affecting female undergraduate engineers. As outlined in this article female engineering students face many challenges during their undergraduate studies. Qualitative research methods provide an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the…
Bian, Hui; Wu, Jingjin; Li, Yan; Largo-Wight, Erin
This study examined Chinese female college students' multiple health behaviors, their quality of life, and mental and psychological well-being and compared that with American counterparts. A convenience sample of 293 female undergraduates participated in the study during spring 2010, in Eastern China. A traditional self-report paper-pencil…
Evans, Karlin S.
Female identity is centered on interconnectedness, and it is often based on a secure attachment with the family. This study addressed the relationship between attachment and self-esteem in African American and White female college students. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987) was used to assess the cognitive or…
Burke, Lee-Ann; Murphy, Elizabeth
This study explores how female students compare learning computer technology in a single- versus a mixed- gender school setting. Twelve females participated, all of whom were enrolled in a grade 12 course in Communications' Technology. Data collection included a questionnaire, a semi-structured interview and focus groups. Participants described…
Bruening, Jennifer E.; Dover, Kydani M.; Clark, Brianna S.
Youth development research has found that children become more engaged and benefit more from being incorporated as decision makers. Thus participation helps promote development and encourages engagement. Based in theories of engagement and free-choice learning, the current research focused on a program combining sport/physical activity, life…
Rosenfelt, Deborah Silverton, Ed.
The tenth volume in a series, this publication is a collection of papers produced by college students in women's studies classes around the country. The major purpose of the collection is to provide teachers and students in the field with access to the products of classes other than their own. Most of the writings come from the humanities or from…
Kalavar, Jyotsna M.
College students (n=200) expressed their preferences for the ages of 13 service providers such as doctors, pilots, and mechanics. The mean age preferred was below 40. Except for barbers/beauticians, no gender differences were found. However, scores on the Fraboni Scale of Ageism showed that male students had more ageist attitudes. (SK)
Bruce-Low, S S; Burnet, S; Arber, K; Price, D; Webster, L; Stopforth, M
Mobile learning has increasingly become interwoven into the fabric of learning and teaching in the United Kingdom higher education sector, and as technological issues become addressed, this phenomena has accelerated. The aim of the study was to examine whether learning using a mobile learning device (Samsung NC10 Netbook) loaded with interactive exercises promoted learning compared with a traditional library exercise. Using a randomized trial, 55 students from an undergraduate sports science course (n = 28) and medical course (n = 27) volunteered to participate in this study. A mixed-model design ANOVA was used to examine the percent change in test score after a 3-wk intervention. Results showed that there was a significant difference between the two courses (P < 0.001), methods (P = 0.01), and trials (P < 0.001). The findings suggested that both methods augmented student knowledge and understanding in sports science and medical students. The sports science group demonstrated proportionally greater increases in test performance when exposed to the mobile interactive intervention compared with the traditional library approach. Qualitative data suggest an increased level of engagement with the Netbooks due to the stimulating interactive content. In conclusion, the Netbooks were an effective additional learning tool, significantly enhancing knowledge and understanding in students. Further research should ensure that participants are assessed for preferred learning styles, the subjective task value of expectancy value, and readiness for mobile learning to ascertain if this has an effect on the potential for using mobile learning and interactivity.
Bartholomew, Cheryl G.; Schnorr, Donna L.
Although most women are now working outside the home, gender equity in the labor force has not been achieved. Women are still concentrated in low-paying, traditionally female-dominated occupations (such as clerical and retail sales), while most jobs in the higher paying, more prestigious professions are held by men. Despite attempts to reduce…
Hazari, Zahra; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hodapp, Theodore
Given the historic and continued underrepresentation of women in physics, it is important to understand the role that high school physics might play in attracting female students to physics careers. Drawing on data from over 900 female undergraduates in physics, we examine when these women became interested in physics careers and different sources of recognition (important for physics identity development) that may have affected their choices at certain time points. The results provide optimism since many of these female students, even those not previously intending science careers, began to intend physics careers in high school and recognition from high school physics teachers had a significant effect on predicting these intentions.
Ludvigson, Carol L.
Although many student-athletes find participation in college sports rewarding, there are many who experience difficulties. Student-athletes face the same concerns that nonathletes do which include becoming independent, coping with uncertainty, finding a clear purpose, and clarifying values (Astin, 1977; Chickering, 1969; Farnsworth, 1966;…
Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Allen, Taryn Ozuna
Using Merton's (1957) anticipatory socialization theory, this qualitative study explored how participation in dual credit in high school helped introduce 12 female students to the academic and social aspects of college to ease their first-year transitions. These students, who entered one Texas university with between 15 and 78 dual credits,…
Le, Anh T.; LaCost, Barbara Y.; Wismer, Michael
International female graduate students have to negotiate multiple aspects of their identities as non-native learners and women in a society with different gender norms than their home countries. However, their experiences have not been well researched within the scholarship on international students. In this study, using the phenomenological…
Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr
Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…
Analyzed data from research on Japanese high school students' attitudes toward learning English to investigate female students' more positive attitudes toward English learning. Girls' attitudes toward English were affected by a composite of Japanese social and educational elements (e.g., characterization of English as a woman-dominant choice at…
Woodbum, Stephen M.
In this article, the author shares the views of his undergraduate students regarding elder female agency and their answers to the question: "Do old ladies make world history?" Because his undergraduate students mostly view the past in terms of the Great Man theory of history, which holds that those who make history are necessarily great,…
This study examined the relationships between experiences in high school, the choice of college majors, and postcollege career decisions among female college students in Korea, applying growth curve modeling. Findings revealed that as students gained college experience, the possibility of a career-related decision increased each year, but slowly.…
Although students equipped with the concept of gender equity may be better prepared to participate in a democratic society, gender is not a given but a construct, formalising a discourse in a non-arbitrary way through a matrix of practices. The study reports how two male Taiwanese university students, Jay and Dick, responded to female-centred…
Fischer, Franziska; Schult, Johannes; Hell, Benedikt
School success is closely linked to intelligence but also to non-cognitive factors such as achievement motivation. The present study examines which non-cognitive factors predict secondary school grades and looks at reasons why female students tend to outperform their male counterparts. A sample of 554 German freshman students provided measures of…
Eitel, Susan J.; Martin, Jennifer
First-generation female college students (FGFCS) make up a large portion of the diversity in higher education. Unfortunately "access" to education does not translate to success. Persistence and degree completion for these students is often undermined by seemingly insurmountable obstacles. The purposes of this study were to identify the financial…
The life and educational experiences of nine male students during their doctoral programs were studied using the narrative tradition of qualitative research with multiple interviews with each participant. Their responses were then compared with those from a similar dissertation study that focused on the experiences of female graduate students from…
For decades, research has been conducted regarding alcohol consumption and behaviors, binge drinking, alcohol prevention, and education programs; however, there is limited research investigating a student's decision not to drink. In particular, there is minimal research on the experiences of underage female college students who have chosen to…
Sottile, James M., Jr.; Brozik, Dallas
The purpose of this research was to describe and better understand the ethical experiences of graduate and undergraduate, male and female college students attending a university in a rural location of a mid-eastern state. A survey was created to determine the ethical activities of college students. A total of 2,718 surveys were completed.…
Burgess, K.; McKenzie, W.; Fehr, F.
This pilot study explored the international female (IF) students' (n = 17) lived experiences of health care accessibility while studying in a small town in Canada. Analysis guided by a phenomenological method resulted in three major themes--(1) after arriving to attend university, IF students experienced challenges in staying healthy, such as…
Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane
Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…
VanderGast, Tim S.; Foxx, Sejal Parikh; Flowers, Claudia; Rouse, Andrew Thomas; Decker, Karen M.
In an effort to increase multicultural competence, professional counselors in the United States analyzed archival data from high school students from Seoul, South Korea. A sample of all female (N = 577) high school students responded to survey questions related to stress and coping. Results demonstrated statistical significance in levels of stress…
This article reports on the views of seven Asian female Social Science students following a class seminar on religious issues and schooling at a university in the UK. It explores the importance of the post-class spontaneous student dialogue where participation in much teaching and learning is voluntary. The concern is with engaged pedagogy and…
This research investigates how three female Nigerian high school students were taught to deploy critical multimodal literacy to interrogate texts and reconstruct unequal social structures. A class of ninth-grade students in an all-women school was given instruction through the analysis of how multiple modes were used to represent meanings in…
Plante, Isabelle; Theoret, Manon; Favreau, Olga Eizner
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gender stereotypes endorsed by elementary and high school students regarding mathematics and language. We developed a questionnaire allowing students to rate mathematics and language as either male or female domains and administered it to a sample of 984 elementary and high school French-speaking…
Hess, Cynthia; Krohn, Sylvia; Reichlin, Lindsey; Román, Stephanie; Gault, Barbara
Community colleges are a critical resource for women seeking to achieve economic security and stability, yet many women who are community college students face challenges that make it difficult to persist in their education and complete their degrees. To understand the circumstances and experiences of female community college students in…
Jorstad, John; Starobin, Soko S.; Chen, Yu; Kollasch, Aurelia
This quantitative study examined the predictive impact of a series of factors on female community college students' intention to transfer in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The STEM Student Success Literacy survey (SSSL) was utilized to collect data from a large, diverse community college located in Florida. After the…
Drummond, Jason S.
The purpose of this study was to determine factors that best describe the philanthropic motivations of female student-athletes when considering making financial contributions to their alma mater. A survey instrument was developed and administered to 2,351 alumnae student-athletes which had 347 respondents. The independent variables chosen were…
Boyd, Deanna Sherrise
Currently, students in the United States are educated in either single or mixed gender learning environments. An achievement gap between male and female students in the area of science indicates a need for instructional strategies and environments that will address these learning needs. Single gender classrooms are one possible solution as males and females have gender differences that may contribute to the way they learn. This quantitative, causal comparative study compared the differences in the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards science achievement scores of middle school females in single and mixed gender environments in a state in the Southeastern United States. Independent samples t tests, Chi-Square Tests, and two-way ANOVA analyses determined if group differences in science achievement existed between sixth through eighth grade female students in single and mixed gender classrooms. Results of the study revealed there was no significant difference in achievement scores between the two groups. The research findings provide the stakeholders with information that can potentially influence the implementation of single gender programs to improve the achievement of female students in middle grades science. Keywords: single gender, science, female students, education
Schmidt, Manuela; Umans, Timurs
The aim of this study was to explore how female PhD students experience and perceive their well-being. Focus groups were conducted with female PhD students employed at a Swedish university. The study was performed using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach based on the concept of the lifeworld, used as both a philosophical perspective and a methodology. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: being true to oneself, being in the sphere of influence, and performing a balancing act. By unfolding these themes, the study shows that perceptions and experiences of well-being in female PhD students are a multifaceted phenomenon and materialize through interaction of different aspects of “self” (agent) and “others” (structure). As well as illustrating these perceptions and experiences, the study also presents female PhD students’ conceptualization of their well-being, expressed in terms of a white-water rafting metaphor. PMID:24746246
Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Exner, Theresa M.; Mabude, Zonke; Hoffman, Susie; Beksinska, Mags; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Stein, Zena A.
Relatively few interventions have tested the efficacy of female condom promotion either alone or in combination with other barrier methods. We evaluated the efficacy of a two-session (enhanced) cognitive-behavioral intervention (EI) (n=147) against aone-session control (minimal) educational intervention (MI) (n=149) to promote female condom (FC) use among female students aged 18-28 at a South African university. We assessed change from baseline to 2.5 and 5 months in number of vaginal intercourse occasions unprotected by male or female condoms in EI vs. MI using generalized linear models with a log link function and GEE. Both groups reported significant reductions in number of unprotected vaginal intercourse occasions from baseline to each follow-up, with no significant difference between the two-session and single-session intervention. Introduction of a brief group-based MI FC promotion intervention with FC access holds promise for delivery in clinics and other community venues. PMID:25092513
Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rucheng; Cao, Yue; Li, Jingjing; Zuo, Dan; Yan, Hong
Objectives This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. Results Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their “boyfriends” than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. Conclusions Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children. PMID:24023905
Singh, Gundeep; Garg, Shalini; Damle, Satyawan Gangaramji; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Kaur, Ambreen; Singla, Shilpy
Background: Oral and dental injuries contribute to a major part of sports related injuries in children. Trauma occurring in developing years disrupts normal social functioning and brings about a major impact on quality of life due to their cumulative effect. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and causes of various sports related traumatic orodental injuries among 8 to 16 year school students along with identifying the associated risk factors in North India. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study consisting of high school students of different organized sports teams aged 8-16 years was carried out in geographical area of north India. The students were selected by multistage cluster sampling methodology. 1105 students from 19 school teams (sports teams) and sports academies participated in study through structured interview and clinical examination in different sports situations. Results: 30.3% (n = 335) of students suffered from orodental injuries. A higher number of girls had injury (32%) than boys (29%), though the difference was not significant. Most of the students suffered from soft tissue injuries (48%) followed by tooth fractures (43%). Maximum numbers of injuries were reported in high velocity (44.1%) and medium intensity sports (46.6%) (P < 0.001) Maximum injuries occurred in basketball (50%) and lowest in the field of badminton (6.1%) (P < 0.05). Amateurs (52%) suffered the most from injuries as per level of coaching. Only 6% of boys and 2% of girls used mouthguards. Conclusions: The result of the present study confirmed that students participating in different organized sports at high school level are at a very high risk of getting orodental injury. Hence knowledge and education regarding prevention of traumatic injuries is of paramount importance. PMID:25520762
Introduction The influence of obesity on cardio-respiratory efficiency in the various phases of menstrual cycle is not well understood until now. As majority of Indian women have a favourable attitude towards participation in sports it is significant to understand the variation in exercise performance during different phases of menstrual cycle to have an optimum performance. Aim To evaluate the endurance capacity and cardio-respiratory responses in normal, obese and overweight female undergraduate students during different phases of menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods Twenty normal weight, 20 obese and 20 over weight, unmarried, undergraduate female volunteers between the age group of 18-22 years, were recruited by convenient sampling. Cardio-respiratory efficiency was assessed by cardiac efficiency test, respiratory endurance test and respiratory blast test. Results Overall, exercise efficiency varied significantly during the different phases of the menstrual cycle with the highest during luteal phase and lowest during menstrual phase. Similar trend was observed in all the three weight sub-categories, but it was statistically significant in the normal and overweight category only. There was no significant difference in blast test during menstrual phase, follicular phase and luteal phase of menstrual cycle among three groups of individuals. Overall the obese and overweight females had a decreased value for blast test compared to the normal individuals. Significant difference was observed in endurance test among follicular and luteal phase of normal females but there is no change in overweight and obese. Significant difference was observed in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) among luteal phase in normal and overweight individuals but there is no change in obese females. Overall obese individuals have a significant low PEFR compared to normal and overweight individuals. Conclusion Significant increase in cardiac and respiratory efficiency was observed in the
Strayhorn, Terrell L.; Johnson, Royel M.
Data from the Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire were analyzed for a sample of 315 Black women attending community colleges. Specifically, we conducted multivariate analyses to assess the relationship between background traits, commitments, engagement, academic performance, and satisfaction for Black women at community colleges.…
Turjoman, Mona Obaid Alrahman Ashik
Since the English Language teaching system differs from public schools to private ones, it is presumed that this would have a great impact of students' willingness to communicate in English in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of private and public school education on WTC in English among Saudi Female…
Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.
Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…
Layne, Todd; Hastie, Peter
Background: Previous research on Sport Education in which the participants were in the primary grades has focused on perceptions of fun and enjoyment as well as other components of motivation. To date, no study in Sport Education has examined the accomplishment of the various instructional and managerial tasks by upper primary school children,…
Sport and physical education can play an important role on the development of moral behavior. However, there has been a surge in unethical conducts both in and out of sports fields in recent years. Conducts such as match fixing and incentive payment which fall into the realm of corruption are unacceptable by some fans. For some others, these are…
Discussion of science topics can be generated using sport and fitness as a context, either in relation to the Olympic Games this summer or more generally. In this article a new set of Concept Cartoons focused on sport and fitness, produced as a partnership publication between the Association for Science Education (ASE) and Millgate House…
Gilbert, Jenelle N.
Coaches lacking a formal background in sport psychology may shy away from teaching these skills in favor of teaching physical skills with which they are more familiar. Other coaches may assume that athletes will learn sport psychology skills as a byproduct of their coaching pedagogy. Regardless, high school coaches are responsible for teaching…
Johnson, A Wayne; Eastman, Carie S; Feland, Jeffery Brent; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Mortensen, Bartley Brett; Eggett, Dennis
Maximum running speed and acceleration are essential components in many sports. The identification of specific training protocols to maximize sprint speed would be useful knowledge for coaches and players. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a high-speed treadmill (HST) with the use of a body weight support (BWS) system in a 6-week sport acceleration program (SAP) on female soccer athlete's 40-yard sprint time and maximal isometric knee flexor and extensor strength. Two treatment groups and one control group were created. Both treatment groups participated in a 12-session SAP. The first treatment group (n = 12) used a BWS system while running on a HST; the second group (n = 12) used a standard treadmill (ST) with no BWS system. The participants of the control group (n = 8), NT, did not participate in a sports acceleration program and did not alter their exercise routines outside of the study. An analysis of covariance was performed using baseline measures as the covariate. The 40-yard sprint times for both treatment groups were shown to improve significantly compared with the control group (p < 0.001). Isometric knee flexor strength showed a greater increase in the ST group (p = 0.026) than in the other 2 groups, whereas knee extensor strengths did not show significant differences between treatment groups and control group (p > 0.05). Participants in the ST group had a much higher rate (66%) of shin splints and foot pain throughout the study than those in the HST (8%) and NT (0%) groups. These results can help high school coaches and athletes determine the optimal treadmill training regime.
Archer, David Eric
Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to discover the meanings female intercollegiate athletes ascribe to their experiences preceding exit from NCAA Division I competition. The study sample included five Division I female intercollegiate athletes. Four of these attended a large public research institution in the Southern Plains…
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.
Gaffney, Kathleen F; Wichaikhum, Orn-Anong; Dawson, Ellen M
The transition from high school to college begins a time of personal growth accompanied by normal developmental stressors. Some young women use smoking as a coping mechanism. The immediate danger for these students is nicotine dependence, with subsequent maternal and child morbidities. College provides an optimal time to break this devastating trajectory. With an understanding of psychosocial development, nurses who care for college-age women can effect changes in smoking behavior.
After Gardner had introduced the Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory, many researchers tried to find out the possibilities of applying this theory in the education domain. Moreover, the effects of different kinds of athletic applications on intelligence development within the framework of this theory have also been under investigation. This study…
Lock, Robynne M.; Hazari, Zahra
Despite the fact that approximately half of high school physics students are female, only 21% of physics bachelor's degrees are awarded to women. In a previous study, drawn from a national survey of college students in introductory English courses, five factors commonly proposed to positively impact female students' choice of a physical science career were tested using multivariate matching methods. The only factor found to have a positive effect was the explicit discussion of the underrepresentation of women in physics. In order to explore this further, a case study of the classes of one teacher reported to discuss the underrepresentation of women was conducted. Two classroom underrepresentation discussions were recorded, students and teacher were interviewed, and relevant student work was collected. Analyzing the case study data using a figured worlds framework, we found that discussing the underrepresentation of women in science explicitly creates an opportunity for students' figured worlds of professional and school science to change, and facilitates challenging their own implicit assumptions about how the world functions. Subsequently, the norms in students' figured worlds may change or become less rigid allowing for a new openness to physics identity development amongst female students.
Hendershot, Richard Lane
The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of males and females at Clovis Community College towards math anxiety and to look for possible factors that could be used to assist in the assignment of students to various math classes. The subjects in the study were fifty male students and fifty female students. Subjects responded to a math…
During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry,…
Kibelloh, Mboni; Bao, Yukun
It is a common phenomenon for many mature female international students enrolled in high education overseas to experience strain from managing conflicting roles of student and family, and difficulties of cross-cultural adjustment. The purpose of this study is to examine perceptions and behavioral intentions of international female students toward…
Tucci, Sonia; Peters, Jennifer
The present study examined the immediate impact of media portrayals on evaluations of body shape and disordered eating symptomatology in female undergraduates. By using a repeated measures design, participants (N= 42) were exposed on two consecutive occasions to magazine images representing the thin-ideal physique and overweight models. Body satisfaction was recorded both before and after exposure to the images and eating disorder symptomatology was measured following both exposures. Results showed that participants' body satisfaction scores decreased following exposure to the thin-ideal physique and increased following exposure to the larger models. When analysing eating disorder symptomatology, body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness were higher following exposure to slender media images compared to the larger media images. However, exposure to the thin-ideal physique did not increase disordered eating behaviours. These results provide evidence that one brief exposure to media images could exert immediate impact on some behaviours, attitudes and perceptions.
Moodi, Mitra; Mood, Mahdi Baladi; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza; Shahnazi, Hossein; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Due to the role of breast self-examination (BSE) in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting student knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard. This study was conducted to evaluation BSE education in female University students using Health Belief Model. METHODS: In this semi-experimental study, 243 female students were selected using multi-stage randomized sampling in 2008. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire (43 questions) before intervention and one week after intervention. The intervention program was consisted of one educational session lasting 120 minutes by lecturing and showing a film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5) using statistical paired t-test and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. RESULTS: 243 female students aged 20.6 ± 2.8 years old were studied. Implementing the educational program resulted in increased knowledge and HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier) scores in the students (p ≤ 0.01). Significant increases were also observed in knowledge and perceived benefit after the educational program (p ≤ 0.05). ANOVA statistical test showed significant difference in perceived benefit score in students of different universities (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Due to the positive effects of education on increasing knowledge and attitude of university students about BSE, the efficacy of the HBM in BSE education for female students was confirmed. PMID:22091251
Farmer, Lesley S. J.
This book brings the notions of sports and mathematics together. Educators can use sports to provide a real-life context based on student interest. Not only do students become aware of mathematical thinking, but they can be "trained" to improve their mathematical skills and habits of mind through sports-related learning experiences in math. A…
Describes a Sports English class for tenth grade athletes at Vero Beach Senior High School (Florida) in which Sports Illustrated and local newspaper's sports section are required reading to capitalize on students' interests and revive reading and writing skills. Learning activities, student attitudes, and future course adaptations are discussed.…
Cerón Loayza, María Luisa; Bravo Cabrejos, Jorge Aurelio
We report the results of a statistical study on the number of women entering the undergraduate and master's programs of physics at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Peru. From 2006 through 2010, 13 female students entered the master's degree program but no females graduated with the degree. Considering that Peru is a developing country, a career in physics is not considered an attractive professional choice even for male students because it is thought that there are no work centers to practice this profession. We recommend that the causes preventing female physics students from completing their studies and research work be analyzed, and that strategies be planned to help women complete their academic work. We are considering getting help from the Peruvian Physics Society (SOPERFI) in order to draw more attention for our plan.
Newton-Taylor, B; DeWit, D; Gliksman, L
The authors examined the prevalence of physical and sexual assault of female university students and associated factors. In a survey of a random sample of 3,642 female students from 6 universities across Ontario, 24% of female students reported being physically assaulted and 15% reported being sexually assaulted during the previous year. When the assault measures were combined, 32% of university women reported being either physically or sexually assaulted during the previous year. Of those experiencing assault, 40% had been the victim of 2 or more types of assaults. Logistic regression analysis revealed that assault was associated with year of study, marital status, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, prescription drug use, unhealthy eating and stress behaviors, less time spent on academics, and more time involved in social activities. University programs and activities directed toward the reduction of assault should incorporate the factors identified in this study to increase awareness of the situational factors surrounding likelihood of assault.
Bruening, Jennifer E; Dover, Kydani M; Clark, Brianna S
Youth development research has found that children become more engaged and benefit more from being incorporated as decision makers. Thus participation helps promote development and encourages engagement. Based in theories of engagement and free-choice learning, the current research focused on a program combining sport/physical activity, life skills, and mentoring while promoting healthy life choices for preadolescent girls of color The co-investigators, all women, conducted two 2-hr visits per week for two 12-week periods with a group of 8 girls at a community recreation center in Hartford, Connecticut, including lessons in nutrition and life skills and participation in a sport/physical activity. Five of the girls completed every stage of data collection, including participant journals and four individual interviews with each participant and her parents, over the course of the 24 weeks. The co-investigators also kept journals throughout the program. The results reflected the following themes: self-esteem/self-worth, accountability/responsibility for self connections to community and a sense of belonging, knowledge and acquisition of health/life skills, application of those skills, and planning and recognizing one's own influence on self and others.
Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Bazylak, Grzegorz
The aim of present study was to estimate nutrient intake as well as nutritional status of female pharmacy students from Bydgoszcz, and to investigate relationship of these factors with type of usual residence place during academic year The 24-hour recall method was used to evaluate dietary intake of 47 subjects. Measured values of height, body mass and four skinfolds thickness were used for calculation of BM, FFM, %FM indices. An analysis of nutritional status of studied population showed lower body mass and BMI in the sub-group of female students residing outside of their family home. In comparison to the female students living without parents percentage of energy provided by total fat (29.9%) was significantly less and percentage of energy from carbohydrate was significantly higher (55.4%) than students who reside with their parents. Elevated intake of phosphorus and retinol accompanied by inadequate intake of riboflavin, calcium, iron and copper was exhibited in both residence-type related sub-groups of investigated female pharmacy students.
The study explored facets of identity formation considered to be of significance by Zimbabwean female adolescent students in physics. Four high schools that were offering physics at A' level in the Midlands Province, in Zimbabwe were targeted. Nine female adolescents doing mathematics and physics and only mathematics were chosen. Data generation…
The study investigated the Zimbabwean female participation in physics, with special emphasis on the factors of identity formation considered as contributing to developing an orientation to physics by female students. The main study from which this paper was taken explored the influence of identity formation on the Zimbabwean Advanced Level…
Cotel, Aline; Rimer, Sara; Reddivari, Sahithya
ct- The need for strategies to empower Liberian women is exemplified in the recent study carried out by ActionAid International, which examined the state of Liberian undergraduate women in urban areas. The results show that these women often face sexual intimidation by faculty and instructors, women are often excluded from student organizations, there exists a lack of institutional support for female organizations at the universities, and that the women do not feel safe in the university due to low security standards. The situation is even direr for the female engineering students with less than 5% of the engineering student population being women, therefore they are quite isolated in their engineering studies with minimal role models and professional support as they persist. We have planned a leadership camp for female Liberian engineering undergraduate women. The ultimate goal is to empower the Liberian women engineers with the skills, support and inspiration necessary to becoming successful engineering professionals. The leadership camp is planned and facilitated collaboratively by the members of the University of Michigan Society of Women Engineers (UM-SWE) student chapter and the Liberia Society of Women Engineers (L-SWE) student organization. The 2 week-long leadership camp has a workshop-based format with two themes: (i) academic and professional skills, and (ii) student organization development. Funded by UM CRLT, IRWG, STEM Africa.
Mesquita, Isabel; Farias, Claudio; Hastie, Peter
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a hybrid Sport Education-Invasion Games Competence Model (SE-IGCM) unit application on students' improvements in decision making, skill execution and overall game performance, during a soccer season. Twenty-six fifth-grade students from a Portuguese public elementary school participated in a…
West, Ellen Jo
Each student has a unique learning style or individual way of perceiving, interacting, and responding to a learning environment. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the prevalence of learning styles among undergraduate Sport Management Studies (SMS) students at California University of Pennsylvania (Cal U). Learning style…
Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.
The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…
Crim, Sharan R.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000) reports an achievement gap between male and female students and majority and minority students in science literacy. Rutherford and Algren (2000) describe a scientifically literate person as one who is aware that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent human enterprises with strengths and limitations; understands key concepts and principles of science; is familiar with the natural world and recognizes both its diversity and unity; and uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for individual and social purposes. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to investigate African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy. A social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) and constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1977) served as a guide for the researcher. Two questions were explored: (1) What are African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy? (2) In what ways do the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students influence their learning of science literacy? Purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998) was used with four African American eighth grade female students selected as participants for the study. Data collection and analysis occurred between February and August in a single year. Data sources included an open-ended questionnaire, two in-depth interviews with each participant (Seidman, 1991); classroom observations, participant reflective journals, student artifacts, and a researcher's log. Data were analyzed through the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), and richly descriptive participant portraits and qualitative case studies (Merriam, 1998) were used to report the findings. Three themes emerged from the study that positively affected the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students as
Science is a part of all students' education, PreK-12. Preparing students for a more scientifically and technologically complex world requires the best possible education including the deliberate inclusion and full contributions of all students, especially an underrepresented group: females in science. In the United States, as elsewhere in the world, the participation of girls and women in science education and professional careers in science is limited, particularly in the physical sciences (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2006). The goal of this research study is to gain a better understanding of the perspectives and perceptions of girls and women, both science educators and students, related to gender and participation in science at the time of an important course: high school chemistry. There is a rich body of research literature in science education that addresses gender studies post---high school, but less research that recognizes the affective voices of practicing female science teachers and students at the high school level (Bianchini, Cavazos, & Helms, 2000; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982). Similarly, little is known with regard to how female students and teachers navigate their educational, personal, and professional experiences in science, or how they overcome impediments that pose limits on their participation in science, particularly the physical sciences. This exploratory study focuses on capturing voices (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982) of high school chemistry students and teachers from selected urban and suburban learning communities in public schools in the Capital Region of New York State. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this qualitative study explores the intersection of the students' and teachers' experiences with regard to the following questions: (1) How do female chemistry teachers view the role gender has played in their professional and personal lives as they have pursued education, degree status, and
McManus, Chris J; Murray, Kelly A; Parry, David A
The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km) in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days. Prior to undertaking the 26 marathon challenge, three consultations were held between the athlete and a sports nutrition advisor; planning and tailoring the general diet and race-specific strategies to the endurance challenge. During the marathons, the mean energy and fluid intake was 1039.7 ± 207.9 kcal (607.1 - 1453.2) and 2.39 ± 0.35 L (1.98 - 3.19). Mean hourly carbohydrate intake was 38.9 g·hr(-1). 11 days following the completion of the 26 marathons, body mass had reduced by 4.6 kg and lean body mass increasing by 0.53 kg when compared with 20 days prior. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for multi-day endurance running events.
How does life drawing impact on a group of 14-16-year-old female art and design students and their perception of body image? In contemporary Western society, we are bombarded with advertising, social media and celebrity culture on a daily basis, often with a focus on body image. This article questions whether, due to this visual assault, young…
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project ("n" = 7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what…
Gipple, Deborah Ellen; Lee, Sang Min; Puig, Ana
This study examined the relationship among coping strategies, dissociation, and childhood abuse experiences of female college students. Results provided support for the theoretical links between 3 types of child abuse experience (sexual abuse, physical abuse, and negative home environment) and coping style and dissociation. The study's results add…
Brack, Gregory; And Others
Examined effects of stress on depression in female commuter college students (n=106). Results indicate that problem-solving confidence was important moderating variable and suggest that perception of long-term stress directly affects current depression level. Positive long-term experiences seemed to moderate subsequent negative experiences that…
Russell, H. Jill
A qualitative, hermeneutic phenomenological study conducted through interviews with 20 non-traditional (NT) Hispanic/Latino female part-time community college students and located at an urban community college in southern New Jersey explored for factors of persistence and discontinuation. Six themes emerged. Theme 1: Institutional persistence…
This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…
Sira, Natalia; White, Carmel Parker
Objective: This study investigates the relative contributions of global self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), dieting behaviors, and perceived parental control and care on body satisfaction among a nonclinical sample of college students. Participants and Methods: Participants (49 males and 299 females) reported weight and height (to calculate BMI)…
This study of seven female nurses who were presently students at or had graduated from John Abbott College was conducted to determine whether the moral and intellectual development of the participants followed parallel courses; whether the participants adopted a "justice" or a "care" approach to moral questions per Carol Gilligan's model; whether…
Meyer, Dinah F.
This study investigated the psychological correlates of treatment seeking for eating disorders in female college students. Results indicated that 56% of the 106 participants with eating-disorder symptomatology did not believe their behaviors warranted therapy. Women with eating-disorder symptoms who did not believe their behaviors warranted…
Rusmadi, Siti Zulaikha; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Praveena, Sarva Mangala
Many cases of dermatologic complication were reported with the use of skin lightening products. This study assessed the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students. Self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 104 female students (56 undergraduates and 48 postgraduates) aged 24 ± 2 years in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A total of 60.6% (N = 63) of the female students used skin lightening products (61.9% of undergraduates and 38.1% of postgraduates). Reasonable price (N = 35, 55.6%) and ingredients (N = 29, 46%) were considered the most important factors in the product selection. Most respondents purchased the product from drugstores (N = 39, 61.9%). Twenty-two respondents (34.9%) in this study experienced skin problem from the products they used. Skin peeling (N = 13, 12.5%) and acne (N = 9, 8.7%) were the most frequent symptoms experienced. Most of the respondents have the perception that lighter skin provides high self-esteem (N = 56, 53.8%) and looks beautiful and healthier (N = 54, 51.9%). The use of skin lightening products is common among female students in this study and some of these products can cause skin problems such as skin peeling, acne, and itching.
Rusmadi, Siti Zulaikha; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Praveena, Sarva Mangala
Many cases of dermatologic complication were reported with the use of skin lightening products. This study assessed the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students. Self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 104 female students (56 undergraduates and 48 postgraduates) aged 24 ± 2 years in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A total of 60.6% (N = 63) of the female students used skin lightening products (61.9% of undergraduates and 38.1% of postgraduates). Reasonable price (N = 35, 55.6%) and ingredients (N = 29, 46%) were considered the most important factors in the product selection. Most respondents purchased the product from drugstores (N = 39, 61.9%). Twenty-two respondents (34.9%) in this study experienced skin problem from the products they used. Skin peeling (N = 13, 12.5%) and acne (N = 9, 8.7%) were the most frequent symptoms experienced. Most of the respondents have the perception that lighter skin provides high self-esteem (N = 56, 53.8%) and looks beautiful and healthier (N = 54, 51.9%). The use of skin lightening products is common among female students in this study and some of these products can cause skin problems such as skin peeling, acne, and itching. PMID:26693230
Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa
Two-year colleges have played an important role in providing postsecondary education for women in postwar Japan. More recently, a dwindling college-bound population in Japan has resulted in a drastic decrease in the number of and enrollment in 2-year colleges. This study explored the motivations and aspirations of 12 Japanese female students to…
Suliga, Edyta; Wronka, Iwona; Pawlinska-Chmara, Romana
Study aim: To determine whether the self-assessment of body mass has an impact on the nutritional behaviour of young women. Material and methods: The material was gathered in cross-sectional research of 1129 female university students. The measurements of body height, body mass, and waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a…
Ng, Kok-Mun; Parikh, Sejal; Guo, Lan
Through case presentation, this article illustrates the integration of person-centered skills and guided imagery into Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) with a Chinese female college student who was experiencing emotional distress due to relationship loss. Transcripts from select portions of actual counseling sessions further demonstrate the…
Sandekian, Robyn E.; Weddington, Michael; Birnbaum, Matthew; Keen, J. Katée
Saudi student enrollment in U.S. colleges and universities has nearly tripled since 2009-2010, in large part due to the King Abdullah Scholarship Program. The representation of Saudi females is also increasing due to the loosening of Saudi Arabia's long-standing restrictions on women's travel and acceptable fields of study and careers. This…
Lewis, John; And Others
For a sample of 75 female senior nursing students the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale exhibited statistically significant correlations with the Adjective Check List (ACL) scales of Endurance, Nurturance, and Affiliation. Statistically significant negative correlations were found for the ACL scales of Aggression and Succorance. (Author/BW)
Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Bradley J.
Purpose: Chinese female international students (CFIS) have been identified as one of the least physically active groups in the United States. In an effort to better understand this situation, this study's purpose was to examine CFIS in American higher education in terms of the meaning they assigned to physical activity and facilitators and…
Harter, Susan; Waters, Patricia L.; Whitesell, Nancy R.; Kastelic, Diana
Examined levels of self-reported "voice" (authentic self expression) with various persons among high school students. Found no gender differences nor evidence that voice declines in female adolescents. Perceived support for voice predicted level of voice. Feminine girls reported lower levels of voice than androgynous girls in public relational…
DeMartini, Kelly S.; Carey, Kate B.
Objective: The current study identified gender-specific correlates of hazardous drinker status as defined by the AUDIT. Participants: A total of 462 college student volunteers completed the study in 2006. The sample was predominantly Caucasian (75%) and female (55%). Methods: Participants completed a survey assessing demographics, alcohol use…
Investigated the meaning of early marriage among Hmong American female college students. Interview and observation data attested to the complexity of the meaning of early marriage in the Hmong American community. Results refuted explanations of cultural difference as underlying early marriage and indicated that early marriage was an expression of…
Examined the relationship between the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and scores on the Adventure scale of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII) among female college students (n=55). Women scoring high on the SSS scales also scored high on the Adventure scale, thereby supporting the construct validity of the SII Adventure scale. (RJM)
Ma, Yingyi; Wang, Lifang
As the Chinese mainland has transitioned from elite to mass higher education, the race to attend university has escalated to become a race to attend selective universities. This study focuses on rural female university students and explores how they make sense of their higher education admission experiences. We rationalize that the inquiry into…
Farinde, Abiola A.; Lewis, Chance W.
African American women are underrepresented in STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) fields (Catsambis, 1994). The socialization and "under-education" of African American female students engenders ideas of inferiority, while the presence of an inferior race, sex and class, in one body, may produce an ideology of mediocrity.…
Friday, Yolanda Cleveland
This dissertation examines the job satisfaction of mid to high level female student affairs administrators within higher education institutions in the United States. The study investigates factors related to job satisfaction as identified through Kalleberg's theory on intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and theories on mentorship and sponsorship as…
Robinson, Martha; Ally, Mohamed
This article describes a study that examines female Arab students' experiences in a pilot eSchoolbag project. The project used a blended approach which combined face-to-face instruction with e-learning resources and strategies. The study found that educational values, English-language ability, and experience with computers emerged as structural…
King, Karen L.
This qualitative dissertation study explores the ways television program content informs the participant's notions of academic and professional achievement and success. I argue that the undergraduate female students who participated in this study, whom I characterize as the post-feminist generation, are imagined as occupying a pivot point in…
Nikitina, Larisa; Furuoka, Fumitaka
Substantial research has been done on gender differences in relation to various aspects of learning and teaching. In the field of language learning learner's gender and its relationship with emotional (affective) components of language study has been a subject of numerous academic inquiries. These studies have focused on female and male students'…
This paper qualitatively documents and analyses the attitudes and identities of female students from the urban disadvantaged social class towards English and Hindi in the city of New Delhi. These attitudes include not only instrumental views of English but also the impression that it creates a new personality for an individual. English is part of…
Wen-jin, Kuo; Chia-ju, Liu; Shi-an, Leou
The purpose of this study is to design different hands-on science activities and investigate which activities could better promote female students' learning motivation towards science. This study conducted three types of science activities which contains nine hands-on activities, an experience scale and a learning motivation scale for data…
Crum, Cindy Bagwell; Franklin, Kathy K.
The purpose of this study was to explore female students perceptions about research while enrolled in a graduate program. In the Husserlian phenomenological tradition (E. Husserl, 1859-1938), a theoretical framework was developed from extent literature a priori to inform the parameters of the study. The phenomenologist used a computer-mediated…
In this article I explore how a group of female university students, mostly British Asian and in their late teens and early twenties, perform femininities in talk about heritage languages. I argue that analysis of this talk reveals ways in which the participants enact "culturally intelligible" gendered subject positions. This frequently…
Najarkolaei, Fatemeh Rahmati; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Aminshokravi, Farkhondeh; Tavafian, Sedigheh S.; Joneidi Jafari, Nemat Allah; Golabchi, Allahyar
Background: The effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention on intension for sexual abstinence among female university students was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Female students were recruited from humanity sciences department through cluster sampling. Educational intervention was applied for four 90-min sessions and by application of cognitive theories during 4 weeks. Results: One hundred and nine female students with mean age of 20.74 ± 1.57 years took part in the study. Despite the similarity of two groups of intervention (n = 53) and control (n = 59) at baseline, there were significant differences between the two groups in mean scores of the variables, knowledge (4.62 ± 1.38 vs. 3.53 ± 1.61), perceived susceptibility (14.05 ± 1.51 vs. 12.37 ± 2.11), and perceived benefits (28.41 ± 2.14 vs. 27.51 ± 3.05), at follow-up time after 3 months (P < 0.05). Additionally, these variables were observed with improvement over 3 months in the intervention group (P < 0.05). However, this study showed no significant effect on the behavior intention and self-efficacy. Conclusion: This study showed that educational intervention could improve knowledge, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy of the female students regarding HIV/AIDS. PMID:23900294
Helmer, Brad C.
The purpose of this research was to determine if a direct relationship between the ways in which a principal communicates information to his or her classroom teachers and the classroom teachers' perception of the campus' morale and students' learning exists. The sample included 124 female elementary school teachers of 13 elementary schools in a…
Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau
Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…
The present study is a review of the literature concerning the barriers and challenges of female adult students enrolled in colleges and universities in the United States. Findings indicated that the commitments of multiple roles, lower level of self-confidence, and insufficient family and social support were the most significant variables related…
Okafor, Chinwuba Ambrose; Egbon, Osamuyimen
Prior researches on the differences in classroom performance between male and female students show mixed results. While significant differences exist in some studies, others show no differences. Moreover, such studies were done in developed countries. This study aims to contribute to this gender discourse by using a developing country setting. It…
Weinland, Kathryn Ann
Scope and Method of Study: This study examined how social influence plays a part in female students' choices of college major, specifically engineering instead of science, technology, and math. Social influence may show itself through peers, family members, and teachers and may encompass resources under the umbrella of social capital. The…
García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli
Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.
Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.
Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…
McMahon, Jenny; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
This paper explores three female swimmers' relationships with their male coaches and the body practices they were exposed to within Australian swimming. Particular attention is given to how the relationships and practices might relate to gender. Additionally, the article examines how (if at all) the conduct contributed to the social construction…
Acet, Mehmet; Karademir, Tamer; Gökçiçek, Sercan
This study was conducted to find out how the empathic tendency levels of adolescent high school students were shaped in terms of sport activities and some variables. The study group includes a total of 1868 students, 866 females and 1002 males, between the ages 14 and 18 who were studying in different high schools (science high school, vocational…
... season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports physical exam is known as ... to consider possible conditions you may have. Most sports medicine doctors believe the medical history is the most ...
Kittipichai, Wirin; Sataporn, Hatairat; Sirichotiratana, Nithat; Charupoonphol, Phitaya
This study aimed to investigate alcoholic beverages drinking and predictive factors among female students. The participants were 377 subjects from 3 high schools in a tourist province, of Thailand. Data collection was done through self-administered questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.84 - 0.88. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed as follows. About half (51%) of them have ever drunk and 10.5% of drinkers have drunk once a week. In addition, 15.6% of drinkers began their first drink when they were under 10 years old. Risk factors for alcohol consumption of female student were age, GPA, drinker in family, peer pressure, advertisement and accessibility to alcoholic beverages while protective factors were perception of drinking impacts on family and moral values. Students who have a drinking family member were 4.6 times more likely to drink than those who do not have.
Maimanee, Tahia A
Anxiety affects the level of blood fats such as the triglycerides according to several studies conducted in various conditions causing anxiety as exam for the university students. The health experts suggested that the anxiety works to stimulate the autonomic nervous system which in turn leads to the appearance of a group of physiologic symptoms. The current study showed the changes happened in the triglycerides' levels in the female university students before and after exams at the intermediate anxiety level compared to other high and low levels of anxiety. In addition, there was a difference in triglycerides' levels in female students of college of Science before and after exam. This difference did not appear in case of other colleges. The exam type had an impact as the significant difference appeared in the triglycerides' levels during the periodical tests and these differences did not appear in the final exam.
McManus, Chris J.; Murray, Kelly A.; Parry, David A.
The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg-1·min-1) who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km) in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days. Prior to undertaking the 26 marathon challenge, three consultations were held between the athlete and a sports nutrition advisor; planning and tailoring the general diet and race-specific strategies to the endurance challenge. During the marathons, the mean energy and fluid intake was 1039.7 ± 207.9 kcal (607.1 – 1453.2) and 2.39 ± 0.35 L (1.98 – 3.19). Mean hourly carbohydrate intake was 38.9 g·hr-1. 11 days following the completion of the 26 marathons, body mass had reduced by 4.6 kg and lean body mass increasing by 0.53 kg when compared with 20 days prior. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for multi-day endurance running events. Key points Multi-day endurance running (MDER) events are increasingly prevalent among recreational and elite runners, as such, reporting the practices of populations underrepresented in the literature are important. This case study reports nutritional practices of a female recreational runner undertaking 26 marathons in 26 consecutive days. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for MDER events. PMID:28344459
Padmanabhan, Ramya; Chinnakalai, Palnivel
Introduction Breastfeeding is important for promoting child’s health. Since, breastfeeding decisions are made before pregnancy and are strongly influenced by women’s knowledge and attitude, it is important to identify knowledge gaps in youth girls. Aim To assess the knowledge, attitude and future intention regarding infant feeding among female college students in Puducherry, India. Materials and Methods This descriptive study was done among 307 college going female students. Their knowledge, attitude and future intention was assessed using structured questions and Likert’s scale. Data were summarized as percentages with 95% confidence interval. Responses to Likert’s scale were analyzed using consensus index. Results Around 98% (95% CI: 96.5%, 99.6%) and 86.3% (95% CI: 82.5%, 90.2%) knew that breast milk and colostrum respectively is good for the child. However, students had poor knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding, the age of starting supplementation, recommended duration of breastfeeding. Noteworthy, 15% and 38% of them thought that breastfeeding spoils the mother’s beauty and interferes with mother’s employment respectively. Around 98% (95% CI: 97.0%, 100.0%) wanted to breastfeed their child in future. A high proportion of students, 20.5% (95% CI: 16.0%, 25.0%) wanted to give formula feed before 6 months. Knowledge and future intention to breastfeed was better among ‘arts and science’ students than engineering students. Conclusion The knowledge and attitude of female college students on breastfeeding is good. Almost all students wanted to breastfeed their children in future. However, the study has identified knowledge gaps and misconceptions which need to be stressed during the health education activity to promote optimal breastfeeding practices. PMID:28050407
Ferreira, Maria M.
This study examined the impact of an after-school science program that incorporated cooperative learning, hands-on activities, mentoring, and role models on a group of minority female students' attitudes toward science, engineering, and mathematics. Eighteen African American middle school students participated in the study. Seven female engineers…
Rind, Irfan Ahmed
This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…
Dubetz, Terry A.; Wilson, Jo Ann
Girls in Engineering, Mathematics and Science (GEMS) is a science and math outreach program for middle-school female students. The program was developed to encourage interest in math and science in female students at an early age. Increased scientific familiarity may encourage girls to consider careers in science and mathematics and will also help…
Kiley, Jill; Robinson, Daniel Bruce
This article presents the results from a qualitative case study that examined the influencers upon a somewhat unique group of female students who opted out of elective physical education (PE). More specifically, this study focused upon female students attending an affluent private school, investigating why--when they transitioned from middle…
Alanazy, Manal M.
In 2005, the Saudi government started a new scholarship program that sent many female and male students to some Western countries including the United States of America. When Saudi female students enroll in universities in the United States and register for mixed-gender (face-to-face and online) classes, they have to participate in the classroom.…
Chang, Edward C.; Yu, Tina; Chang, Olivia D.; Jilani, Zunaira
Objectives: The present study examined perfectionism (viz, evaluative concerns and personal standards) and ethnicity as predictors of body dissatisfaction in female college students. Participants: Participants were 298 female college students sampled by December of 2013. Methods: A self-report survey with measures of body dissatisfaction,…
Hayden, Kelly; Graham, Melissa; Lamaro, Greer
Issue addressed: Unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships have the potential to have serious negative health consequences. To date, there has been scant focus on these issues among university students in Australia. The aim of the current study was to describe the extent of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships experienced in their lifetime by female university students aged 18-25 years.Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 465 female students aged 18-25 years. Students were recruited through one faculty within a Victorian university and invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire.Results: Sixty-seven per cent (n = 312) of female students reported experiencing unwanted sexual attention in their lifetime. The most common form of unwanted sexual attention was kissing or touching over clothes (98%; n = 306). Over 43% (n = 124) of the female students reported that the experience of unwanted sexual experience occurred after their protests were ignored. Thirty per cent (n = 135) of the female students reported experiencing at least one element of an unhealthy intimate relationship.Conclusions: The high rates of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships among female university students is of concern given the negative impact such events can have on individual's physical, emotional and social well being.So what?: Public health and health promotion action is required to prevent female students from experiencing unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships, and to address the negative health and well being consequences.
Zayed, Mouchira; Ahmed, Dalia; Halawa, Eman Fawzy
Violence among female adolescents is a major public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the pattern and predicting factors of interpersonal violence among adolescent female students in a nursing high school in Cairo. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2011-2012 and included a total of 220 students using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical violence exposure at home, school and community among studied adolescents were 65.5, 30.4 and 25.9% respectively. Verbal violence was found in 55, 69 and 60% at home, school and community respectively. Finally 5 and 41.3% of studied students were exposed to sexual violence at home and community respectively. The highest violence exposure score was at school from teachers while the highest score of being violent was mainly towards the community. Multivariate regression analysis for violence scores revealed that younger students, students from urban residence and higher crowding index were significant predictors for total violence exposure and being violent scores. Prevention programmes should be given for all students especially high risk ones (young age, urban residence and high crowdness index families) and their families to address and overcome this problem.
Zhang, Ni; Tsark, JoAnn; Campo, Shelly; Teti, Michelle
Facebook, a social network site, has been widely used among young adults. However, its potential to be used as a health promotion medium has not been fully examined. This study explored Facebook's potential for sharing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine information among female college students in Hawai'i. Culturally tailored flyers and handouts were developed and distributed at one large university in Hawai'i to recruit female college students between the age of 18 and 26 having an active Facebook account. Three focus group meetings were conducted to gather student perspectives about how information about HPV vaccine may be best shared via Facebook. We found that students believed Facebook is a good awareness tool but they needed more knowledge about the HPV vaccine to feel comfortable sharing the information. Participants preferred forwarding information to chatting about HPV. Some participants expressed concern that their Facebook friends would think the HPV vaccine information they forwarded on Facebook is spam. Participants suggested prefacing the posted HPV vaccine information with a personal note in their own words to make the message more interesting and relevant to their Facebook friends. Future interventions using Facebook to promote HPV vaccine could provide students with HPV vaccine information from credible sources and ask students to attach personal testimonials or endorsements while forwarding the information on Facebook.
Tsark, JoAnn; Campo, Shelly; Teti, Michelle
Facebook, a social network site, has been widely used among young adults. However, its potential to be used as a health promotion medium has not been fully examined. This study explored Facebook's potential for sharing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine information among female college students in Hawai‘i. Culturally tailored flyers and handouts were developed and distributed at one large university in Hawai‘i to recruit female college students between the age of 18 and 26 having an active Facebook account. Three focus group meetings were conducted to gather student perspectives about how information about HPV vaccine may be best shared via Facebook. We found that students believed Facebook is a good awareness tool but they needed more knowledge about the HPV vaccine to feel comfortable sharing the information. Participants preferred forwarding information to chatting about HPV. Some participants expressed concern that their Facebook friends would think the HPV vaccine information they forwarded on Facebook is spam. Participants suggested prefacing the posted HPV vaccine information with a personal note in their own words to make the message more interesting and relevant to their Facebook friends. Future interventions using Facebook to promote HPV vaccine could provide students with HPV vaccine information from credible sources and ask students to attach personal testimonials or endorsements while forwarding the information on Facebook. PMID:25954600
A theoretical framework for the study of sport sociology is provided in this text. It is intended for students of sport, arts and humanities, sociology, and social psychology. Sport and social organization are discussed first. Three models of societies and six theories of social organization are presented which form the basis of the eclectic…
José, María; Somavilla, Ruiz
This study addresses the explicit and implicit exclusion mechanisms that limited the access of women to internships in Paris hospitals during the last decades of the 19th century through examination of the documentation generated in the admission process and the texts of female physicians who supported their access. In response to the applications of female medical students to register for the admission tests, the Conseil de Surveillance de l'Assistance Publique delayed their entry for some years until their registration was finally permitted. However, their inclusion in the institution did not produce integration because of the multiple dimensions of the exclusion mechanisms.
Yan, Hong; Li, Li; Bi, Yongyi; Xu, Xunyu; Li, Shiyue; Maddock, Jay E
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in China has increased dramatically over the last 20 years, and heterosexual transmission is rapidly becoming the primary route of HIV transmission. Despite this growing epidemic, little is known about the correlates of sexual behavior in young Chinese women. The objective of this study was to assess family and peer factors related to sexual behavior in Chinese female college students. Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female college students, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured socio-demographic, family, and peer factors. To examine factors associated with sexual behavior, multiple logistic regression was used, yielding odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Over 18% of female students participating reported ever having sexual intercourse, of whom 31.52% had their first sexual intercourse at the age of 18 or younger with more than 50% at an age less than 20 years. Several socio-demographic, family, and peer factors were associated with ever having intercourse. Those more likely to engage in premarital sex were older; majored in art; were from one-child, richer and/or divorced families; had a mother with university or above education; had parents with a strict disciplinary style; had middle-school close friends falling in love; and had current close friends living with boyfriends. Interventions to protect young women from sexually transmitted diseases need to target early sex education and address peer and parents influences.
Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi; Cleland, John; Mehryar, Amir Hooshang
Background This paper aims to examine the reproductive health and behaviors which might expose young people at risks of STIs/HIV and potential correlates of such behaviors among female college students in Tehran. Methods This paper focuses on the study conducted on a sample of 1743 female undergraduate students in four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran during 2005− 2006 using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. The main focus was to determine the predictors of premarital heterosexual reproductive behavior among female students. Results The mean age of the unmarried students was 21.4 years. Low self-efficacy (OR=7.87, p <0.001), perceived peers’ liberal attitude on virginity (OR= 4.33), perception of parents’ liberal attitude towards relationship with the opposite sex and poor family atmosphere (OR=3.04 and 2.20, p <0.001, respectively) were predictors of ever having any type of sexual experience after controlling for other factors. The only predictors of penetrative sex remained in the logistic model were older age (OR=5.95), low self-efficacy (OR=10.86), poor family atmosphere (OR= 2.96), liberal parental attitude (OR=4.29) and liberal peer norms on virginity (OR= 4.90). Conclusion Interventional programs need to be designed at various levels such as enhancing self-efficacy, informing families of the protective role of a balanced control and monitoring over adolescents’ behavior and choices of peer network against premarital sexual activity. PMID:23926523
This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at increasing female students' interest in science and science-related careers. This study examined the effectiveness of InSTEP on 123 female students' pre-assessment and post-assessment changes in attitudes toward science and content knowledge of selected science concepts. An attitude survey, a science content test with multiple-choice questions, written assignments, and interviews to collect data were all used to measure students' attitudes and content knowledge. A within-group, repeated measure design was conducted, and the results indicated that at the post-intervention level, InSTEP increased the participants' positive attitudes toward science, science-related careers, and content knowledge of selected science concepts.
Al-Eisa, Einas; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Al-Osaimi, Atheer O; Al-Mubarak, Huda A; Al-Huwaimel, Noura A
[Purpose] Insomnia is quite common and it can affect the quality of life of an individual. Students undergo stress due to various academic demands leading to sleeplessness and daytime sleepiness. This study was conducted to investigate the association between physical activity and insomnia among female Saudi students. [Subjects] 62 female students with a mean age of 21 ± 1.5 years took part in a motivational program to increase the number of steps taken per day for three weeks. [Methods] After obtaining subject's informed consent all the subjects were assessed for insomnia using the insomnia severity index (ISI), They were then given pedometers to calculate the number of steps they took per day. A physical activity log was kept for three weeks. Pre- and post -intervention ISI scores were calculated and correlated with the 3-week physical activity log. [Results] 50% of the subjects had no clinically significant insomnia (NCSI), 42% had sub threshold (STI), and 8% had moderate clinical (MCI) insomnia. There was a moderate negative correlation between physical activity and ISI scores after the 3-week motivation program. [Conclusion] Prevalence of insomnia was common among female Saudi students and increase in physical activity appears to improve the sleep pattern.
Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q
Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis.
Nibabe, Wendwosen T.
Background Unwanted teenage pregnancies have a notable detrimental impact on the learners’ trajectory and have been associated with jeopardising the students’ educational progress and future career prospects. These pregnancies are mostly unplanned and unintended and many are terminated, either legally or illegally. Aim The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives. Setting Three tertiary institutions in Dessie, Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative self-administered questionnaires were used to collect descriptive data from 352 female college students. Results The study revealed that there was a high percentage (78.3%) of unwanted pregnancies amongst those engaging in sex. Significantly, nearly half (43.3%) of these unwanted pregnancies resulted in abortion. Only 10% of the students sampled admitted to ever having used emergency contraception. Even though more than half (69.9%) of the students knew about emergency contraception, only 27% of them felt confident that they understood when it was most effective. Conclusion These and other observed findings confirm the need for improvement of female college students’ knowledge and timely utilisation of emergency contraception. PMID:26245395
Shaffi Ahamed, Shaik; Enani, Jawaher; Alfaraidi, Lama; Sannari, Lujain; Algain, Rihaf; Alsawah, Zainah; Al Hazmi, Ali
Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing psychiatric disorder. So far there have not been any studies on BDD in Saudi Arabia. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female medical students and to investigate whether there is an association between BDD and body features of concern, social anxiety and symptoms of BDD. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was carried out on female medical students of the college of medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during January to April, 2015. Data were collected using the body image disturbance questionnaire, Body dysmorphic disorder symptomatology and social interaction anxiety scale. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze the results. Results Out of 365 students who filled out the questionnaire, 4.4% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.54% to 7.04%) were positive for BDD with skin (75%) and fat (68.8%) as the most frequent body features of concern. Ten features (skin, fat, chest, hips, buttocks, arms, legs, lips, fingers, and shoulders) out of twenty-six were significantly associated with BDD. Arms and chest were independently associated with BDD. The odds of presence of body concern related to “arms” was 4.3 (95% C.I: 1.5, 12.1) times more in BDD subjects than non-BDD subjects, while concern about “chest” was 3.8 (1.3, 10.9) times more when compared to non-BDD subjects. No statistically significant association was observed between BDD and social anxiety (P = 0.13). Conclusions This was the first study conducted in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) on female medical students, which quantified the prevalence of BDD and identified the body features associated with it. Body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in female medical students but it is relatively rare and an unnoticed disorder. PMID:27803720
Gallian, Joseph A., Ed.
"Mathematics and Sports", edited by Joseph A. Gallian, gathers 25 articles that illuminate the power and role of mathematics in the worlds of professional and recreational play. Divided into sections by the kind of sports, the book offers source materials for classroom use and student projects. Readers will encounter mathematical ideas from an…
Toma, J. Douglas
Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…
Kingsbury, Cheryl D.
Academic departments in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, strive to develop in students the ability to problem solve, analyze, and to critically think about solutions to problems. Academic departments are committed to success, yet retention rates are lower than would be expected for females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields of study, where female students are underrepresented. The purpose of the study was to explore the perceptions of male and female traditional and nontraditional students who participated in a science, technology, engineering or mathematics STEM course during the spring 2010 semester regarding peer tutoring, and to understand why females are underrepresented and not retained at the same level as males in science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM courses at the University of North Dakota. The participants in this quantitative study were students enrolled at the University of North Dakota who voluntarily completed a peer tutoring usage survey. A total of 231 students enrolled in Concepts of Biology (Biol 111), Introduction to Chemistry (Chem 115), Advanced Applications of CADD (Tech 202), Material Properties and Selection (ME 313), and College Algebra (Math 103), completed a survey about their spring 2010 semester. Five research questions searched for the differences between male and female perceptions regarding peer tutoring, a component of student retention. The independent variable was gender, the dependent variables were the factors regarding peer tutoring: academic preparedness, academic support and cost, and demographics. Two significant differences were found: (a) females viewed themselves as less prepared for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses than did male students, and (b) females were more in favor of the costs of peer tutoring than were male students. These findings support Merton's Self-fulfilling Prophecy Theory. Female students perceived
Mohr, Derek J.; Sibley, Benjamin A.; Townsend, J. Scott
Limited research exists on effective teaching methods in university physical activity instruction (PAI) program courses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAI courses taught utilizing a sport education curriculum and instructional model. The Individual Development and Educational Assessment (IDEA) teaching evaluation was administered to…
Lundberg, Neil R.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.; Smith, Kevin M.; Barney, Keith W.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a campus-wide intramural wheelchair sports program on attitudes toward people with disabilities. The sample consisted of 126 participants at a large, western university. A quasi-experimental pre-post design was used. Results indicated that there was a significant decrease in discomfort in…
Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. In fact, sport or exercise may be also expected to be helpful for psychological health. In the present study, depression, anxiety and psychological stress points…
Philippe, Marc; Wegst, Daniel; Müller, Tom; Raschner, Christian; Burtscher, Martin
Climbing performance relies to a great extent on the performance of the finger flexor muscles. Only a few studies investigated this performance in top class climbers and only one study compared gender-specific differences. This study investigated the climbing-specific finger flexor strength and endurance and related muscular oxygenation in 12 elite female and male climbers and 12 non-climbers. After the assessment of maximum voluntary finger flexor contraction (MVC), two isometric finger flexor endurance tests were performed at 40% MVC until exhaustion. A continuous isometric test was followed by an intermittent isometric test (10 s contraction, 3 s rest). Changes in oxygenation of finger flexor muscles were recorded using near infrared spectroscopy. MVC and strength-to-weight ratio were greater in climbers than non-climbers (P = 0.003; P < 0.001) and greater in men than women (P < 0.001; P = 0.002). Time to task failure for the intermittent test and the force-time integrals for the continuous and the intermittent test were also significantly greater in climbers (P = 0.030; P = 0.027; P = 0.005). During the intermittent test, re-oxygenation of the working muscles was faster in climbers (P < 0.05) without gender-specific differences. Close correlations were demonstrated between the best on-sight climbing performance and strength-to-weight ratio (r (2) = 0.946, P < 0.001) only in female climbers. The superior intermittent finger flexor endurance of climbers over non-climbers may be explained by the faster re-oxygenation of the finger flexor muscles during the short rest phases.
Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Kulkarni, Suhas; Karunakar, P
Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding breast self-examination (BSE) in a cohort of Indian female dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12). Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68). The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05). Conclusion: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior. PMID:22837614
Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Middendorf, Katharine G.; Martin, Scott B.
Female student athletes often desire a muscular body to be successful in sport, but this body type does not conform to traditional cultural norms of femininity. In this study, the authors qualitatively examined the experiences of female intercollegiate volleyball players to better understand their beliefs about their bodies--both as athletes and…
Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P
This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance.
Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed.
During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student's perceptions of parents' attitudes toward science. The Children's Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students' levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students' overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students' academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students' perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students' motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.
Irez, Gonul Babayigit
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…
Weinland, Kathryn Ann
Scope and Method of Study: This study examined how social influence plays a part in female students' choices of college major, specifically engineering instead of science, technology, and math. Social influence may show itself through peers, family members, and teachers and may encompass resources under the umbrella of social capital. The purpose of this study was to examine how female students' social networks, through the lens of social capital, influence her major choice of whether or not to study engineering. The variables of peer influence, parental influence, teacher/counselor influence, perception of engineering, and academic background were addressed in a 52 question, Likert scale survey. This survey has been modified from an instrument previously used by Reyer (2007) at Bradley University. Data collection was completed using the Dillman (2009) tailored design model. Responses were grouped into four main scales of the dependent variables of social influence, encouragement, perceptions of engineering and career motivation. A factor analysis was completed on the four factors as a whole, and individual questions were not be analyzed. Findings and Conclusions: This study addressed the differences in social network support for female freshmen majoring in engineering versus female freshmen majoring in science, technology, or math. Social network support, when working together from all angles of peers, teachers, parents, and teachers/counselors, transforms itself into a new force that is more powerful than the summation of the individual parts. Math and science preparation also contributed to female freshmen choosing to major in engineering instead of choosing to major in science, technology, or math. The STEM pipeline is still weak and ways in which to reinforce it should be examined. Social network support is crucial for female freshmen who are majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math.
Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali
Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p < 0.05). Each 10 μg/dL increment in serum zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p < 0.05). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.
McCaslin, Stephanie D.
The areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics have long been overrepresented by men. In the workforce, more men work in these fields than women, and in school, more male students select majors in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) than female students. Research has indicated that female students represent less than a third of college students selecting STEM majors. Several recommendations have been made by prominent educational organizations, such as the American Association of University Women (AAUW), including promoting these subjects to female students through STEM initiatives that are innovative and expose female students to careers in these areas. This qualitative research study sought to analyze the effectiveness of these initiatives by determining what factors are considered when a female student selects a STEM field of study at the college level and to examine how these students perceived the effectiveness of the STEM initiatives in which they participated. A series of interviews were conducted with female college students with declared majors in STEM fields who had participated in STEM initiatives in the state of Maryland. After analysis of the data collected, it was determined that STEM initiatives are not necessarily effective in increasing the number of women who enroll in STEM programs at the college level, however, they are effective in encouraging female students who are already interested in STEM. Female students who participated in these STEM initiatives more frequently were more likely to have a better understanding of STEM options, and were also more likely to complete STEM college degrees in less time than those who did not participate frequently in STEM initiatives.
Hurdiel, Rémy; Watier, Timothée; Honn, Kimberly; Pezé, Thierry; Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis
Lack of sleep is known to negatively affect adolescent's health and the links between regular physical activity and sleep are unclear.This pilot study investigated whether the regular practice of physical activities among sedentary female students would improve their sleep. Nineteen female students, identified as sedentary and having poor subjective sleep quality were assigned in two groups to a 12-week university physical activities programme in accordance with the recommendations of World Health Organisation (N = 10) or to a control condition (N = 9). Sleep was assessed with actigraphy before and after the study and with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality 15 Index (PSQI) at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. The intensity of physical activities was controlled by heart rate monitor. The analysis showed that sleep quality in the physical activities group improved, with the mean ± SD PSQI score decreasing from 9.1 ± 1.7 to 4.8 ± 2.0. Despite some limitations, these pilot data indicate that a physical activities programme is feasible to implement in students, and that participation in such a programme improves sleep in 18- 24 -year-old female adolescents. Further potential benefits remain to be investigated in follow-up research.
Teimourpour, Negar; Moshtagh Bidokhti, Nahaleh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Bahrami Ehsan, Hadi
Objective: To determine association between sexual desire and marital satisfaction and sex guilt among a sample of Iranian female university students. Methods: The data presented here were obtained from a total of 192 married Iranian female university students who were selected via a multi-cluster sampling method from universities of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tarbiat Modarres, and Islamic Azad. The subjects' sociodemographic data, marital satisfaction (using ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire), sex guilt (using Mosher Revised Sex-Guilt Inventory), and sexual desire (using Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire) were gathered. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis methods were used to analyse the data. Results: Findings showed there are significant relationships between sexual desire and marital satisfaction (r = 0.51, p < 0.01) and also between sexual desire and sex guilt (r = -0.44, p < 0.01). Also marital satisfaction and sex guilt were able to predict 31 percent of the variance of sexual desire. Conclusion: Marital satisfaction and sex guilt are two factors that significantly affect fluctuations in sexual desire of Iranian female university students. PMID:25798176
Labib, Nargis; Radwan, Ghada; Mikhail, Nabiel; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Setouhy, Maged El; Loffredo, Christopher; Israel, Ebenezer
This study investigated behavioral and sociodemographic factors associated with tobacco use among female university students patronizing water pipe cafes in Cairo, Egypt. We interviewed two groups of female university student smokers (100 and 96 students from a public and a private university, respectively). The interviews took place in nine water pipe cafes near the two universities. A logistic regression model was developed to analyze the relationship between tobacco-related knowledge and beliefs and the choice between smoking water pipe or cigarettes. Among these smokers, 27% smoked cigarettes only, 37.8% smoked water pipe only, and 35.2% smoked both types of tobacco. Most of the water pipe smokers (74.1%) preferred this method because they believe it to be less harmful than smoking cigarettes. More than half of the subjects were encouraged to start smoking by other females (56.6%). Curiosity was a significant factor for initiation (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3-6.2, p<.01). We found no significant differences between water pipe and cigarette smokers regarding current age, age at initiation, quit attempts, knowledge about the hazards of smoking, wanting to be fashionable, or smoking with friends. About one in four (23.7%) attempted to quit, with health cited as a major reason. An urgent need exists for correction of the misperception among this study population that water pipe smoking is safe and less harmful than cigarette smoking.
Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T
Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females.
Sanaeinasab, H; Tavakoli, R; Karimizarchi, A; Amini, Z Haji; Farokhian, A; Najarkolaei, F Rahmati
This study was conducted to determine the impact of education using the Health Belief Model on preventing osteoporosis among female students. This interventional study (quasi-experimental) was performed on 45 female students aged 15-16 years old who resided in a town near Tehran. The females participated in a threeweek educational programme based on the Health Belief Model. The data collection instrument was a validated and reliable questionnaire in five sections: demographics, knowledge, Health Belief Model constructs, physical activity and consumption of foods containing calcium. The mean scores of students' knowledge were significantly different before and after the educational intervention (P < 0.05). The mean scores of some Health Belief Model structures changed significantly after the intervention (P < 0.05). Also post-intervention, physical activity increased (P = 0.041) but calcium intake did not. The use of an educational intervention on osteoporosis seems to improve knowledge and health beliefs and may positively impact physical activity-related behaviour.
Vázquez, Fernando L; Torres, Ángela; Otero, Patricia; Díaz, Olga
This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), axis I mental disorders among Spanish female students and investigated their psychiatric comorbidity and correlates. 1054 female students with a mean age of 22.2 years were randomly selected, with stratification by academic seniority and the type of academic discipline. The cases of mental disorder were identified by clinically trained interviewers with the aid of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinician Version. The lifetime prevalence of the targeted psychiatric disorders was 50.8%, and its point prevalence was 37.3%. The commonest disorders were nicotine dependence, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder. Nearly 37% of subjects with a psychiatric disorder had two or more diagnoses. Mental illness was associated with family income, financial independence, type of academic discipline, violence from men, social support, and self-esteem. Psychiatric disorders are common among female university students. Serious attention should be paid to preventive and therapeutic programs in this group.
Brandell, Gerd; Staberg, Else-Marie
The aim of the current study is to investigate whether Swedish secondary school students perceive mathematics as a female, male or gender-neutral domain. A sample of 1300 students in two age groups, 15- and 17- years, answered a questionnaire and about 50 students participated in interviews. The main part of the inquiry form consists of "Who…
Sy, Susan R.; Fong, Kristen; Carter, Rebecca; Boehme, Julia; Alpert, Amy
This study compares first-generation and continuing-generation female college students in terms of: (a) level of parents' emotional and informational support; (b) level of students' stress; and (c) the relationship between both types of parent support and students' stress during the transition to college. We collected survey data from an…
How do refugee students construct their lives in school in their host country? What are some difficulties that they face and how do they respond to those? Findings of a qualitative study conducted with female refugee students from Somalia indicate that students are to varying degrees active agents in the construction of their lives in a US urban…
Kay, Noy S.; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Ding, Kele; Fernandez, Xinia; Encarnacion, Haydee
Examined attitudes and knowledge among U.S., Thai, Costa Rican, and Puerto Rican female college students regarding breast self-examination (BSE). Students completed surveys before and after watching an instructional video on BSE. BSE practice was low in all four countries. Students considered BSE a necessary part of individual healthy behaviors.…
Drawing from the findings of a qualitative study with female refugee high school students from Somalia in the US, this paper attempts to provide a window to understanding the multilayered character of newcomer students' academic identity construction. The students' micro-level processes of creating spaces for belonging at school are linked to…
Brown, Susan Wightman
National statistics clearly demonstrate an underrepresentation of minorities in the fields of science and engineering. Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians do not typically choose science or engineering as their college major; therefore, there is a very small representation of these minorities in the science and engineering labor force. The decision not to major in science and engineering may begin as soon as the child can begin to recognize role models in the media. News stories, magazine articles, television programs, teachers, parents, administrators, and other agencies have painted the picture of a scientist or engineer as being dominantly a White male. Schools have continued society's portrayal by using curriculum, textbooks, role models, instructional strategies, and counseling that continues to encourage the White male to succeed in science and engineering, but discourages the minority students, male and female, from succeeding in these fields. In this qualitative study, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, who are majoring in science or engineering, were interviewed using Seidman's in-depth interviewing technique. These students were shadowed in their college science or engineering classes; their high school and college transcripts were analyzed; and, a focus group was brought together at the end of the interviewing process in order to allow interaction between the participants. The goal was to explore the educational journeys of the 22 Hispanic students. What made a difference in the journeys of these 22 students so that they could succeed in majors that have historically discouraged minority students? Seven themes emerged: family support, honors program, challenging and interactive curriculum, college preparation in high school courses, caring and kind teachers, small class size, and small communities. Gender comparison of the educational journeys documents these differences between the females and males: college preparation, mentoring
Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city (< 2.5% in each phase) or those recently entering the trade (≤ 1.5%). Similarly, demand for sex work, indicated by median number of clients (around 12 per week) and amount charged per transaction ($13) remained similar in the three study periods. Only a third of participants reported observing any change in the sex industry ascribed to the World Cup. Self-reported condom-use with clients remained high across all samples (> 92.4% in all phases). Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P = 0.075). Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work
Crance, Marie-Cecile; Trohel, Jean; Saury, Jacques
Introduction: This study investigated the experience of a highly skilled student during a handball physical education unit in a French high school. More specifically, the analysis describes the nature of his involvement during two lessons that follow a pedagogical model close to the principles of Sport Education. The present case study of a…
Çetin, Mehmet Çagri
The study was conducted in order to detect critical thinking dispositions and learning styles of the students of school of physical education and sports, to explore whether there was a significant difference in terms of gender variable and academic department variable and, to discover the correlation between critical thinking tendencies and…
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have become an integral component of Physical Education (PE) and Sport Science (SS) curricula and professions. It is thus imperative that PE and SS students develop ICT skills, self-efficacy in ICT and positive attitudes towards ICT. This study was aimed at designing a computer literacy course…
Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe
The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.
Rettig, Jean; Hu, Shouping
Using data from a random sample of first-year students in the 2009 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), we compared engagement in educationally purposeful activities in college, a set of educational outcomes, and the relationship between student engagement and educational outcomes for nonathletes and student-athletes participating in low-…
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...
McClearn, Duane G
51 nonathletes, students (45 women) at a medium-sized southern university, were administered a survey containing three scales: an Interest in Sports Scale, a Belief in Sports Superstitions Scale, and Tobacyk and Milford's Paranormal Belief Scale (1983). Scores on the Interest in Sports Scale were significantly correlated with scores on the Belief in Sports Superstitions Scale, which measured adherence specifically to sports superstitions, but not with scores on the Paranormal Belief Scale, which measured a wide variety of irrational beliefs. Thus, participants with high interest in sports showed a tendency to subscribe to the type of irrational belief associated specifically with sports. Scores on the Belief in Sports Superstitions Scale were positively correlated with scores on the Paranormal Belief Scale.
Based on interviews with Norwegian athletes living as lesbians, gays and bisexuals, this article investigates the possible subversive effect of queer visibility in sport. While female athletes living as lesbians sometimes create queer alternative spaces within mainstream sport contexts, male athletes acting openly as homosexuals challenge heteronormative discourses by attempting to disrupt hegemonic beliefs about homosexual behavior. The sexual practices of both groups confirm as well as challenge the laws of heteronormativity.
Myint, Khin Zay Yar; Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Nanishi, Keiko; Poudel, Krishna Chandra; Yasuoka, Junko; Miyagi, Masaya; Shinjo, Masaki; Kobayashi, Jun
Weight concerns and dieting are prevalent among female adolescents both in Western and Asian countries. They can result in negative psychological and physiological consequences. This study aimed to examine the relative importance of social and personal factors in the decision to diet among female adolescent students in Japan, applying the Theory of Planned Behavior. Data were collected from five junior high schools and three high schools in Naha City, Okinawa Prefecture, in 2010, through self-administered questionnaires. The data of 756 female students were assessed. The independent variables included social factor variables (norms) and personal factor variables (attitude to dieting, perceived behavior control, body esteem, body-figure discrepancy and past dieting). The dependent variables were dieting intention and behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine three models: model 1 (age and obesity index), model 2 (social factor variables with age and obesity index) and model 3 (all variables). Although model 2 failed to explain a substantial proportion of the variance, model 3 explained approximately a half of the variance for intention (R(2) = 0.507) and more than one third of the variance for behavior (R(2) = 0.376). Past experience of dieting was the best predictor of both dieting intention and behavior. Body esteem was the second best predictor for dieting behavior. In conclusion, personal factors are more likely than social factors to drive the dieting decision. Diet education programs should consider targeting frequent dieters and those with poor body esteem.
Myint, Khin Zay Yar; Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Nanishi, Keiko; Poudel, Krishna Chandra; Yasuoka, Junko; Miyagi, Masaya; Shinjo, Masaki; Kobayashi, Jun
Weight concerns and dieting are prevalent among female adolescents both in Western and Asian countries. They can result in negative psychological and physiological consequences. This study aimed to examine the relative importance of social and personal factors in the decision to diet among female adolescent students in Japan, applying the Theory of Planned Behavior. Data were collected from five junior high schools and three high schools in Naha City, Okinawa Prefecture, in 2010, through self-administered questionnaires. The data of 756 female students were assessed. The independent variables included social factor variables (norms) and personal factor variables (attitude to dieting, perceived behavior control, body esteem, body-figure discrepancy and past dieting). The dependent variables were dieting intention and behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine three models: model 1 (age and obesity index), model 2 (social factor variables with age and obesity index) and model 3 (all variables). Although model 2 failed to explain a substantial proportion of the variance, model 3 explained approximately a half of the variance for intention (R2 = 0.507) and more than one third of the variance for behavior (R2 = 0.376). Past experience of dieting was the best predictor of both dieting intention and behavior. Body esteem was the second best predictor for dieting behavior. In conclusion, personal factors are more likely than social factors to drive the dieting decision. Diet education programs should consider targeting frequent dieters and those with poor body esteem. PMID:26161031
Abu Sharour, L; Al-Ghabeesh, S; Suleiman, K; Salameh, A B; Jacoob, S; Al-Kalaldeh, M
Breast cancer is considered one of the main types of cancer among female worldwide and in Jordan also. Early detection of it will improve the prognosis and decrease the mortality rate also. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the predictors of breast self-examination performance among Jordanian university female students. Across-sectional design was utilised in this study. A sample of 100 participants was completed the study survey (The Champion's Health Belief Model Scale). The main results or regression analysis showed that confidence (β = .71, p < .0001) and perceived barriers (β = -.061, p = .0004) were significant predictors of breast self-examination performance. In summary, other variables of Health belief model were found not be significant indicators of BSE performance in this study. However, the HBM is considered a valid framework to assess the predictors of breast self-examination knowledge, attitude, beliefs and barriers among Jordanian college female students.
Dehghan, Parvin; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Salekzamani, Shabnam
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the validity, reliability and feasibility of eating behavior pattern questionnaire (EBPQ) in female university students. Methods: In this study, after forward-backward translation, the questionnaire was reviewed by a panel of nutritionists and a psychologist and further thirty participants for the content validity measurement. The translated and modified questionnaire was completed by 225 female students of Tabriz University in 2013. Principle axis factoring, confirmatory factor analysis and known group analysis were conducted for construct, convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were assessed by Cronbach’s α coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Ceiling and floor effects were also performed for evaluating the feasibility of the instrument. Results: By using exploratory factor analysis, nine factors were extracted. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the convergent validity. Cronbach ’s αand ICC were ranged between 0.55 to 0.78 and 0.67 to 0.89, respectively. The significant difference for some three subscales between diabetes and healthy subjects determined the discriminant validity. No ceiling and floor effects were found. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the initial validity, reliability and feasibility of the Iranian version of EBPQ as a useful tool for eating behavior studies in young females. PMID:26290828
Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina
This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.