Science.gov

Sample records for fennel foeniculum vulgare

  1. Method for attaining fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed oil fractions with different composition and antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is cultivated for its seeds and foliage, which contain essential oil. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity. We collected ess...

  2. Comparison of the volatile composition of wild fennel samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad; Esteban, Joaquín; Sanz, Jesús

    2006-09-01

    Comparison of the volatile composition of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) has been carried out using direct thermal desorption (DTD) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty-two wild fennel stem samples were collected in two different geographical areas of Central Spain. DTD allowed a high recovery of volatiles from small sample sizes without thermal decomposition. trans-Anethole was the main volatile compound for most cases, although a high variability was found among samples, showing clear phytochemical differences.

  3. Salinity impact on yield, water use, mineral and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental study was carried out to determine the effects of salinity on water consumption, plant height, fresh and seed yields, biomass production, ion accumulation and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted with a ...

  4. Method for obtaining three products with different properties from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of distillation time (DT; 15-1080 min) on yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed essential oil (EO) as well as on the yield, composition, and properties of lipids extracted from steam-distilled fenne...

  5. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Javidnia, K; Dastgheib, L; Mohammadi Samani, S; Nasiri, A

    2003-01-01

    Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. In this study we evaluated the clinical response of idiopathic hirsutism to topical Fennel extract. Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a plant, which has been used as an estrogenic agent. The ethanolic extract of Fennel was obtained by using a soxhlete apparatus. In a double blind study, 38 patients were treated with creams containing 1%, 2% of Fennel extract and placebo. Hair diameter was measured and rate of growth was considered. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% Fennel is better than the cream containing 1% Fennel and these two were more potent than placebo. The mean values of hair diameter reduction was 7.8%, 18.3% and -0.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%, 2% and 0% (placebo) respectively.

  6. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; González, N; Luño, V

    2012-05-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and it is also sensitive to peroxidation due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen boar sperm. Fennel has been shown to contain antioxidant substances. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of fennel added to the freezing extender on boar semen quality and lipid peroxidation after thawing. Semen collected from four boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying concentration of fennel essences: low (LF); medium (MF); high (HF). Analysis of data clearly indicated that higher concentrations of fennel produced significant improvement in total motility. Moreover, when fennel was included in the extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase sperm viability was observed. In contrast, the addition of fennel had no effect on acrosome integrity or hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) compared with the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) formation decreased significantly in fennel groups, yielding similar results for MF and HF. Fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation.

  7. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.

  8. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  9. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  10. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  11. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

  12. Anthelmintic effects of the essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; de Melo, Nathalya I; Aguiar, Daniela P; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Groppo, Milton; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae), known as fennel, is a widespread aromatic herbaceous plant, and its essential oil is used as additive in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industries. The in vitro antischistosomal activity and cytotoxic effects against V79 cells of the essential oil of F. vulgare cultivated in southeastern Brazil (FV-EO) was investigated. The FV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (E)-Anethole (69.8%) and limonene (22.5%) were identified as the major constituents. Its anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml, and it was found to be active against adult S. mansoni worms, although it was less effective than the positive control praziquantel (PZQ) in terms of separation of the coupled pairs, mortality, and decreased motor activity. However, FV-EO elicited an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of S. mansoni eggs. On their own, (E)-anethole and the limonene enantiomers were much less effective than FV-EO and PZQ. An XTT-cytotoxicity-based assay evidenced no FV-EO cytotoxicity against V79 cells. In summary, FV-EO displayed moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms, exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on the egg development, and was of low toxicity.

  13. Anthelmintic effects of the essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; de Melo, Nathalya I; Aguiar, Daniela P; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Groppo, Milton; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae), known as fennel, is a widespread aromatic herbaceous plant, and its essential oil is used as additive in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industries. The in vitro antischistosomal activity and cytotoxic effects against V79 cells of the essential oil of F. vulgare cultivated in southeastern Brazil (FV-EO) was investigated. The FV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (E)-Anethole (69.8%) and limonene (22.5%) were identified as the major constituents. Its anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml, and it was found to be active against adult S. mansoni worms, although it was less effective than the positive control praziquantel (PZQ) in terms of separation of the coupled pairs, mortality, and decreased motor activity. However, FV-EO elicited an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of S. mansoni eggs. On their own, (E)-anethole and the limonene enantiomers were much less effective than FV-EO and PZQ. An XTT-cytotoxicity-based assay evidenced no FV-EO cytotoxicity against V79 cells. In summary, FV-EO displayed moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms, exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on the egg development, and was of low toxicity. PMID:26172330

  14. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  15. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety. PMID:24453016

  16. Effect of planting date and spacing on growth and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under irrigated conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Dalain, Saddam Aref; Abdel-Ghani, Adel H; Al-Dala'een, Jawad A; Thalaen, Haditha A

    2012-12-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) plant is a medicinal aromatic herb and belongs to Apiaceae family. It has a rich nutritional value and has many medicinal usages. Very limited information is available in the literature about fennel cultivation and production practices. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of planting date and plant spacing and their interactive effects on yield, yield components and growth of Fennel under irrigation. Three planting dates (Oct. 1st, Nov. 1st and Dec. 1st) and four plant spacings (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm with constant row width, 60 cm) were used. Fruit yield was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by plant spacing and planting date and their interaction. Early planting significantly increased the fruit yield combined with higher number of branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number of fruit per plant and plant height. The percentage of increases in Oct. 1st were 34.4 and 32.2% in fruit and biological yield respectively compared with Dec. 1st. Harvest index and thousand fruit weight was not significantly affected by planting date. Increase plant spacing to 30 cm led to more than 15% increase in fruit and biological yield. The early planting date with 30 cm plant spacing resulted in higher fruit (4136 kg ha(-1)) and biological yield (10,114 kg ha(-1)).

  17. Near-infrared analysis of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) on different spectrometers--basic considerations for a reliable network.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Boris; Schulz, Hartwig

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and transferability of near-infrared (NIR) calibrations for estimating the content and composition of the volatile fraction in fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) as an example of medicinal and spice plants. A master calibration with spectra obtained on a scanning monochromator was generated using 345 samples from three different harvests (1997-1999). A subset of 70 samples from 1999 was also measured on a dispersive grating and a scanning diode array system to gain an insight into the influence of sample presentation and scanning techniques. For all instruments, calibrations with standard errors in the range of the reference method were achieved. Furthermore the influence of storage on NIR spectra and, additionally, the potential of transferring spectra between both scanning monochromators was studied.

  18. Investigation of the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptosis-inducing effects of estragole isolated from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Villarini, Milena; Pagiotti, Rita; Dominici, Luca; Fatigoni, Cristina; Vannini, Samuele; Levorato, Sara; Moretti, Massimo

    2014-04-25

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate, in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line, the in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic activities of estragole (1), contained in the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and suspected to induce hepatic tumors in susceptible strains of mice. Toward this end, an MTT cytotoxicity assay, a trypan blue dye exclusion test, a double-staining (acridine orange and DAPI) fluorescence viability assay, a single-cell microgel-electrophoresis (comet) assay, a mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) assay, and a DNA fragmentation analysis were conducted. In terms of potential genotoxic effects, the comet assay indicated that estragole (1) was not able to induce DNA damage nor apoptosis under the experimental conditions used.

  19. Effects of Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera on growth and yield of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Dolatabadi, Hossein Kari; Goltapeh, Ebrahim Mohammadi; Jaimand, Kamkar; Rohani, Neda; Varma, Ajit

    2011-02-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a very important plant in the family of Apiaceae. Effects of inoculation of two endophytic fungi (Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera) in growth, yield and composition of the essential oil of fennel (F. vulgare) were evaluated in pot cultures. Dry fruits were ground with an electric grinder and oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, and their composition was determined by GC/MS. In pot experiment, the maximum dry weight of the green tissue and root and plant height were obtained with P. indica, and maximum number of umbels per plant and dry weight of 1000 fruits were produced with S. vermifera. The P. indica and S. vermifera inoculation significantly increased oil yield as compared to non-inoculated control plants. GC and GC/MS studies revealed that the level of anethole was increased with P. indica and S. vermifera.

  20. Characteristics of fatty acids and essential oil from sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce) and bitter fennel fruits (F. vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coşge, Belgin; Kiralan, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Bilal

    2008-01-01

    Oil content in sweet and bitter fennels was obtained 12.22% and 14.41%, respectively. The C(18:1 c6), C(18:2), C(18:1 c9) and C(16:0) acids corresponding to approximately 97% of total oil was recorded as principal fatty acids. The ratios of essential oil from sweet and bitter fennels were found similar (average 3.00%). trans-Anethole, estragole and fenchone were found to be the main constituents in both fennels. The compound with the highest value in the two oil samples was trans-anethole as 95.25% (sweet) and 75.13% (bitter). While estragole was found in bitter fennel oil in a remarkable amount (15.51%), sweet fennel oil contained small amounts of estragole (2.87%). Fenchone was found <1% in sweet and approximately 5% in bitter fennel. p-Anisaldehyde in bitter fennel essential oil, and alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene in sweet fennel essential oil were not recorded, and these compounds were found very low or <1%.

  1. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    PubMed

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress.

  2. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    PubMed

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress. PMID:26017296

  3. Exchangeable sodium induced changes in yield, water relation and cation composition of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Singh, P K; Pushpangadan, P

    2005-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with the objectives to assess the adaptation potential of fennel crop grown at 10, 20, 25, 35 and 40 ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) levels. Results showed that the rate of seed germination, plant growth including branching pattern, umbels per plant and 1000 test seed weight were adversely affected by sodic soils. Assuming that fifty percent reduction in seed yield and Na+/K+ ratio in leaf tissue as an index of alkali tolerance revealed that fennel was tolerant up to 25 ESP. The cell sap pH and EC reflected optimum osmoticum maintenance to withstand sodicity stress at this level and beyond this leaf water potential decreased (negatively) more to impede water uptake.

  4. Bioguided isolation and identification of the nonvolatile antioxidant compounds from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) waste.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Irene; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Burillo, Jesús; Codina, Carles

    2004-04-01

    A bioguided isolation of an aqueous extract of fennel waste led to the isolation of 12 major phenolic compounds. Liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/UV/APCI-MS) combined with spectroscopic methods (NMR) was used for compound identification. Radical scavenging activity was tested using three methods: DPPH*, superoxide nitro-blue tetrazolium hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, and *OH/luminol chemiluminescence. In addition to products described in the literature, eight antioxidant compounds were isolated and identified for the first time in fennel: 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rosmarinic acid, eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. The structures of eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide were completely elucidated by two-dimensional NMR experiments. The isolated compounds exhibited a strong antiradical scavenging activity, which may contribute to the interpretation of the pharmacological effects of fennel.

  5. Phytotoxicity and stimulatory impacts of nanosized and bulk titanium dioxide on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Feizi, Hassan; Kamali, Maryam; Jafari, Leila; Rezvani Moghaddam, Parviz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the this study was to compare concentrations of nanosized TiO2 at 0, 5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L(-1) with bulk TiO2 for phytotoxic and stimulatory effects on fennel seed germination and early growth stage. After 14 d of seed incubation, germination percentage highly improved following exposure to 60 ppm nanosized TiO2. Similar positive effects occurred in terms of shoot dry weight and germination rate. Application of bulk TiO2 particles in 40 ppm concentration greatly decreased shoot biomass up to 50% compared to the control. Application of 40 ppm nanosized TiO2 treatment improved mean germination time by 31.8% in comparison to the untreated control. In addition, low and intermediate concentrations of nanosized TiO2 enhanced indices such as germination value, vigor index and mean daily germination. In general, there was a considerable response by fennel seed to nanosized TiO2 presenting the possibility of a new approach to overcome problems with seed germination in some plant species, particularly medicinal plants.

  6. Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator.

    PubMed

    Subehan; Zaidi, Syed F H; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2007-12-12

    Fennel, a seed of Foeniculum vulgare, is used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine. The methanolic extract of fennel showed a characteristic of mechanism-based inactivation on erythromycin N-demethylation mediated by human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The present study was conducted to identify the fennel constituent having the inhibition. Thirteen compounds have been isolated from a methanol extract of fennel and tested for their inhibition on CYP3A4. Among them, 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18.3 microM and a mixed type of inhibition. In addition, with the preincubation time of 20 min only 5-MOP showed preincubation time dependency; the IC50 value decreased from 18.3 microM with a preincubation time of 0 min to 4.6 microM with a preincubation time of 20 min. Further investigation on 5-MOP showed the characteristics of time-dependent inhibition, requirement of NADPH, lack of protecting effect of nucleophiles, and recovery of CYP3A4 activity by the competitive inhibitor. This result suggests that the inhibitory activity of CYP3A4 by 5-MOP was a mechanism-based inactivation. The kinetic parameter for mechanism-based inactivation was characterized by a KI value of 15.0 microM and a kinact value of 0.098 min(-1).

  7. Chemomodulatory action of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) on skin and forestomach papillomagenesis, enzymes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant status in murine model system.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Kale, R K

    2008-12-01

    The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Fennel) seeds was examined on DMBA-induced skin and B(a)P-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Fennel seeds exhibiting a significant reduction in the skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. Further, biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes were observed with all the doses of test diet under study. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel. Glyoxalase I activity and the content of reduced glutathione were significantly elevated. Expectedly, the levels of peroxidative damage along with lactate dehydrogenase activity, exhibited a significant reduction at all three doses of test diets. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of Fennel against carcinogenesis.

  8. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo, Ignacio Javier; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2005-06-29

    Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In general, fennel oil extracted by SDE and SFE showed similar compositions, with trans-anethole, estragole, and fenchone as the main components. In contrast, thymol and p-cymene, the most abundant compounds in thyme leaves, showed big differences, with generally higher amounts of monoterpenes obtained by SDE. However, in this case, the differences between the extracts were higher. Key odorants of fennel seeds determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) showed similar patterns when applying SDE and SFE. trans-Anethole (anise, licorice), estragole (anise, licorice, sweet), fenchone (mint, camphor, warm), and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) were the most intense odor compounds detected in fennel extracts. Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves.

  9. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations.

  10. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. PMID:26471600

  11. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Ragaa Hosny; El-Bastawesy, Amal Mohamad; Abdel-Monem, Mohamad Gamil; Noor, Assmaa Mahmoud; Al-Mehdar, Hussain Abdel Rahman; Sharawy, Sabry Mohamad; El-Merzabani, Mahmuod Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of fennel seed methanolic extract (FSME) for its antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antitumor activities and for its capacity to serve as a nontoxic radioprotector in Swiss albino mice. We also assessed the natural antioxidant compounds of FSME for use in industrial application. Cytotoxic activity of FSME was evaluated in a mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and on different types of human cell lines in vitro. The safety and optimum dose of FSME were determined. FSME, 100 mg/kg, was injected intraperitoneally into mice bearing EAC before the mice were exposed to three 2-Gy doses of gamma irradiation. After 30 days, mice were fasted for 18 hours and then sacrificed to observe the lifespan of EAC-bearing hosts. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, glutathione content, and total protein in serum, liver tissue, and ascitic fluid were determined. Iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin, and ferritin were also evaluated in serum. The data showed the presence of different types of compounds in FSME, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, and sterols; estragole (71.099%) was the predominant alcohol, gallic acid was the phenolic compound (18.895%), and L-limonene was the most prevalent monoterpene hydrocarbon (11.967%). The mean±standard deviation 50% inhibitory concentrations were 50±0.03 μg/mL for the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and 48±022 μg/mL for the Hepg-2 liver cancer cell line. The significant increase in MDA levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing EAC were ameliorated after FSME administration. In contrast, total protein content was increased in ascitic fluid. Serum iron was inversely proportional to the levels of ferritin and transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. Administration of FSME before irradiation exerted a cytoprotective effect against gamma irradiation, as manifested by a restoration of the

  12. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Ragaa Hosny; El-Bastawesy, Amal Mohamad; Abdel-Monem, Mohamad Gamil; Noor, Assmaa Mahmoud; Al-Mehdar, Hussain Abdel Rahman; Sharawy, Sabry Mohamad; El-Merzabani, Mahmuod Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of fennel seed methanolic extract (FSME) for its antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antitumor activities and for its capacity to serve as a nontoxic radioprotector in Swiss albino mice. We also assessed the natural antioxidant compounds of FSME for use in industrial application. Cytotoxic activity of FSME was evaluated in a mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and on different types of human cell lines in vitro. The safety and optimum dose of FSME were determined. FSME, 100 mg/kg, was injected intraperitoneally into mice bearing EAC before the mice were exposed to three 2-Gy doses of gamma irradiation. After 30 days, mice were fasted for 18 hours and then sacrificed to observe the lifespan of EAC-bearing hosts. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, glutathione content, and total protein in serum, liver tissue, and ascitic fluid were determined. Iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin, and ferritin were also evaluated in serum. The data showed the presence of different types of compounds in FSME, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, and sterols; estragole (71.099%) was the predominant alcohol, gallic acid was the phenolic compound (18.895%), and L-limonene was the most prevalent monoterpene hydrocarbon (11.967%). The mean±standard deviation 50% inhibitory concentrations were 50±0.03 μg/mL for the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and 48±022 μg/mL for the Hepg-2 liver cancer cell line. The significant increase in MDA levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing EAC were ameliorated after FSME administration. In contrast, total protein content was increased in ascitic fluid. Serum iron was inversely proportional to the levels of ferritin and transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. Administration of FSME before irradiation exerted a cytoprotective effect against gamma irradiation, as manifested by a restoration of the

  13. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25143939

  15. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) using liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Irene; Jauregui, Olga; Sánchez-Rabaneda, Ferran; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2004-06-16

    Liquid chromatography (LC) diode array detection (DAD) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for the rapid and sensitive identification of water-soluble phenolic compounds in fennel waste. The plant material was first extracted and then chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 to afford seven fractions, each of them being subjected to LC-MS analysis. Identification of the compounds was carried out by interpretation of UV, MS, and MS/MS spectra. Forty-two phenolic substances were identified, 27 of which had not previously been reported in fennel, including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid glycosides, and flavonoid aglycons.

  16. Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dadalioglu, Itir; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2004-12-29

    Chemical compositions and inhibitory effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P. H. Davis), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. After the essential oils were applied on the foodborne pathogens at doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 80 microL/mL, the resultant numbers of cells surviving were counted. Results revealed that all essential oils exhibited a very strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria (P < 0.05). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed that carvacrol (68.23%), 1,8-cineole (60.72%), fenchone (55.79%), and trans-anethole (85.63%) were the predominant constituents in Turkish oregano, bay laurel, Spanish lavender, and fennel essential oils, respectively.

  17. First report of bacterial streak of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) in California caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new bacterial streak disease appeared on fennel leaves, stems and bulbs grown in Salinas California production fields. Initial symptoms consisted of small black lesions on stems that spread down the stem to the bulbs and up the stem to leaves as the disease progressed. The disease rendered the pl...

  18. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel [Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell.] against foodborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Bülent; Ozer, Hakan; Cakir, Ahmet; Polat, Taşkin; Dursun, Atilla; Mete, Ebru; Oztürk, Erdoğan; Ekinci, Melek

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical compositions of the essential oil and hexane extract isolated from the inflorescence, leaf stems, and aerial parts of Florence fennel and the antimicrobial activities of the essential oil, hexane extract, and their major component, anethole, against a large variety of foodborne microorganisms. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the essential oils obtained from inflorescence, leaf stems, and whole aerial parts contained (E)-anethole (59.28-71.69%), limonene (8.30-10.73%), apiole (trace to 9.23%), beta-fenchyl acetate (3.02-4.80%), and perillene (2.16-3.29%) as the main components. Likewise, the hexane extract of the plant sample exhibited a similar chemical composition, and it contained (E)-anethole (53.00%), limonene (27.16%), gamma-terpinene (4.09%), and perillene (3.78%). However, the hexane extract also contained less volatile components such as n-hexadecanoic acid (1.62%), methyl palmitate (1.17%), and linoleic acid (1.15%). The in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that the essential oil, anethole, and hexane extract were effective against most of the foodborne pathogenic, saprophytic, probiotic, and mycotoxigenic microorganisms tested. The results of the present study revealed that (E)-anethole, the main component of Florence fennel essential oil, is responsible for the antimicrobial activity and that the essential oils as well as the hexane extract can be used as a food preservative. This study is the first report showing the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel against probiotic bacteria.

  19. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent.

  20. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent. PMID:25351709

  1. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea.

  2. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun

    2015-01-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2. There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  3. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  4. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anethole-rich oil from leaves of selected varieties of fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell].

    PubMed

    Senatore, Felice; Oliviero, Filomena; Scandolera, Elia; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roscigno, Graziana; Zaccardelli, Massimo; De Falco, Enrica

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oils obtained from the leaves of two different cultivars of Florence fennel cropped under three different fertilization treatments (Control not fertilized; Mineral Fertilization; Compost from Municipal Solid Wastes) have been analyzed. All the oils were characterized by high anethole concentration and some showed also a good percentage of limonene. Thus, the leaves of Florence fennel, which are agricultural wastes, could be used for the recovery of anethole to be used for its flavoring and biomedical properties. The antimicrobial activity expressed by assays on the examined oils indicates an appreciable effect, generally higher on Gram-positive bacteria. The various samples of Florence fennel analyzed did not show any results with FRAP test. The DPPH test showed a weak capacity of the samples to catch the free radicals from the solution, attributable to their content in anethole.

  5. Inhibitory effect of different fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) samples and their phenolic compounds on formation of advanced glycation products and comparison of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Salami, Maryam; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Ehtemam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-15

    In this study, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiglycation properties of methanolic extracts of 23 fennel samples were evaluated and their major compounds were determined using HPLC analysis. The anti-glycative activity of extracts was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by Congo red binding assay and a brown staining method. Among samples, Kh1 from Iran possessed the highest TFC (14.8mgQUEg(-1)), TPC (262mg/g DW) and antioxidant activity (IC50=76μg/ml). The HPLC results revealed high variation in 23 fennel samples according to their major flavonoid (quercetin, apigenin and rutin) and phenolic (chlorogenic, caffeic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) compounds. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts against four food-borne pathogens was also assessed. The seed extracts of Kh1 and En samples showed moderate to good inhibitory activities (MICs=62.5-125μg/ml) against three bacteria, as well as high anti-glycative activity.

  6. Inhibitory effect of different fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) samples and their phenolic compounds on formation of advanced glycation products and comparison of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Salami, Maryam; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Ehtemam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-15

    In this study, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiglycation properties of methanolic extracts of 23 fennel samples were evaluated and their major compounds were determined using HPLC analysis. The anti-glycative activity of extracts was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by Congo red binding assay and a brown staining method. Among samples, Kh1 from Iran possessed the highest TFC (14.8mgQUEg(-1)), TPC (262mg/g DW) and antioxidant activity (IC50=76μg/ml). The HPLC results revealed high variation in 23 fennel samples according to their major flavonoid (quercetin, apigenin and rutin) and phenolic (chlorogenic, caffeic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) compounds. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts against four food-borne pathogens was also assessed. The seed extracts of Kh1 and En samples showed moderate to good inhibitory activities (MICs=62.5-125μg/ml) against three bacteria, as well as high anti-glycative activity. PMID:27451172

  7. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  8. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vainav V.; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H.

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  9. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Crithmum maritimum essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ruberto, G; Baratta, M T; Deans, S G; Dorman, H J

    2000-12-01

    The essential oils obtained from Crithmum maritimum L. (marine fennel) and two samples of Foeniculum vulgare Miller (common fennel) were analysed by GC and GC-MS and assayed for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activity of the oils was evaluated by two lipid model systems: a modified thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and a spectrophotometric detection of hydroperoxydienes from linoleic acid in a micellar system. The oils demonstrated antioxidant capacities, comparable in some cases to that of alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), used as reference antioxidants. Concerning the antimicrobial tests the essential oils were assayed against twenty-five genera of bacteria, including animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. Oils from the two samples of F. vulgare showed a higher and broader degree of inhibition than that of C. maritimum. PMID:11199122

  11. Nitrites derived from Foneiculum vulgare (fennel) seeds promotes vascular functions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Akila; Sridhara, Sree Rama Chaitanya; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Siamwala, Jamila H; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that nitrites play an important role in the cardiovascular system. Fennel (Foneiculum vulgare) seeds are often used as mouth fresheners after a meal in both the Indian sub-continent and around the world. The present study aims to quantify the nitrite and nitrates in fennel seeds as well as elucidating the effect of fennel derived-nitrites on vascular functions. Results from our study show that fennel seeds contain significantly higher amount of nitrites when compared to other commonly used post-meal seeds. Furthermore our study confirmed the functional effects of fennel derived-nitrites using in vitro and ex vivo models that describe the promotion of angiogenesis, cell migration, and vasorelaxation. We also showed that chewing fennel seeds enhanced nitrite content of saliva. Thus our study indicates the potential role of fennel derived-nitrites on the vascular system.

  12. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Roja; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2013-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (F. vulgare), commonly known as Fennel, is a popular medicinal plant with various pharmacological activities mentioned in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) and modern phytotherapy such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, bronchodilatory, estrogenic, diuretic, lithontripic, galactogogue, emmenagogue, antithrombotic, hypotensive, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, memory enhancing, and antimutagenic activities. No serious adverse events were recorded after ingestion of F. vulgare except some cases of allergic reactions. The estrogenic activity of F. vulgare brings some side effects such as decrease in protein concentration and acid and alkaline phosphatase in male genital organs, increase in weight of mammary glands and reproductive organs in women and premature thelarche in girls. However, no evidence of teratogenicity was recorded, it is better not to use F. vulgare during pregnancy due to its estrogenic activity. Because of inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs mainly metabolized by this isozyme may be affected by F. vulgare. In addition, a significant interaction between cyprofloxacin and F. vulgare was demonstrated. The aim of current paper is to review pharmacological properties, toxicity and adverse events, and drug interactions of vulgare and brings conclusive results about the use of this plant in men, women and during pregnancy.

  13. Essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits from pharmacies in different countries.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commercial fruits obtained from retail pharmacies in Estonia, Norway, Austria and Moldova and from a spice shop in Turkey were determined using capillary GC techniques. The essential oil content of all the samples was 5-51 mL kg(-1) and between 22 and 51 mL kg(-1) in fennel fruits bought from pharmacies. A total of 34 compounds were identified. The major component was trans-anethole (34.8-82.0%); the other principal compounds in oils were fenchone (1.6-22.8%), estragole (2.4-17.0%), limonene (0.8-16.5%), and cis-anethole (0.1-8.6%). The yield of essential oil (5.0 mL kg(-1)) and content of trans-anethole was very low (34.8%) in the Turkish spice sample. Maximum yield of essential oil was found in fennel from Norway and Austria (50.7 and 50.5 mL kg(-1), respectively); these samples were rich in fenchone (21.2% and 22.8%), but contained less trans-anethole (64.6-63.7) than samples from Estonia and Moldova (82.0% and 80.9%). The typical samples of sweet fennel (bought from Estonia and Moldova) and bitter fennel (from Norway and Austria) were found to conform completely or partially to EP standards, although fennel type was always not marked on the packages.

  14. Depolymerized carrageenan ameliorates growth, physiological attributes, essential oil yield and active constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Nadeem; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin; Idrees, Mohd; Khan, Zeba H; Ali, Akbar; Varshney, Lalit

    2012-09-01

    Irradiated carrageenan (IC) elicits an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. An experiment was carried out in the naturally illuminated conditions of net house in order to assess the effects of foliar spray of IC on agricultural performance of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), which is a high-value essential oil bearing medicinal crop used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. There were applied four IC concentrations (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)) as foliar sprays. Application of IC significantly improved the growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters, essential oil yield and the contents of main components of essential oil of fennel. IC applied at 80 mg L(-1) enhanced these parameters maximally. Unirradiated carrageenan and deionized water had no effect on the attributes studied. Moreover, GLC analysis revealed a significant increase in the components of essential oil, viz. fenchone (4.48-7.82%) and anethole (78.38-86.08%) compared to the control.

  15. Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and Foeniculum vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    El Bardai, S; Lyoussi, B; Wibo, M; Morel, N

    2001-05-01

    The hypotensive effects of the water extract of Marrubium vulgare L. and Foeniculum vulgare L. were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Oral administration of Marrubium or Foeniculum extract lowered the systolic blood pressure of SHR but not of WKY. In SHR, Foeniculum but not Marrubium treatment increased water, sodium and potassium excretion. Ex vivo as well as in vitro, Marrubium extract inhibited the contractile responses of rat aorta to noradrenaline and to KCl (100 mM). Inhibition was greater in aorta from SHR compared to WKY and was not affected by the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine. Vascular effects of Foeniculum extract were less pronounced than those of Marrubium and were blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine. These results indicate that hypotensive activity of Marrubium and Foeniculum extracts seems to be mediated through different pathways: Foeniculum appeared to act mainly as a diuretic and a natriuretic while Marrubium displayed vascular relaxant activity.

  16. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through ERK-dependent NF-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Su; Kang, Purum; Kim, Ka Young; Seol, Geun Hee

    2015-03-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) is used to flavor food, in cosmetics, as an antioxidant, and to treat microbial, diabetic and common inflammation. No study to date, however, has assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in experimental models of inflammation. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were randomly assigned to seven groups (n=7~10). In five groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1% Tween 80-saline (vehicle), fennel (125, 250, 500µl/kg), or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1.5 mg/kg). In two groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or fennel (250µl/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of sterile saline. Mice were sacrificed 4 h later, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained. Fennel significantly and dose-dependently reduced LDH activity and immune cell numbers in LPS treated mice. In addition fennel effectively suppressed the LPS-induced increases in the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, with 500µl/kg fennel showing maximal reduction. Fennel also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the activity of the proinflammatory mediator matrix metalloproteinase 9 and the immune modulator nitric oxide (NO). Assessments of the involvement of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that fennel significantly decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Fennel effectively blocked the inflammatory processes induced by LPS, by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production, transcription factors, and NO.

  17. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through ERK-dependent NF-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Su; Kang, Purum; Kim, Ka Young; Seol, Geun Hee

    2015-03-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) is used to flavor food, in cosmetics, as an antioxidant, and to treat microbial, diabetic and common inflammation. No study to date, however, has assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in experimental models of inflammation. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were randomly assigned to seven groups (n=7~10). In five groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1% Tween 80-saline (vehicle), fennel (125, 250, 500µl/kg), or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1.5 mg/kg). In two groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or fennel (250µl/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of sterile saline. Mice were sacrificed 4 h later, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained. Fennel significantly and dose-dependently reduced LDH activity and immune cell numbers in LPS treated mice. In addition fennel effectively suppressed the LPS-induced increases in the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, with 500µl/kg fennel showing maximal reduction. Fennel also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the activity of the proinflammatory mediator matrix metalloproteinase 9 and the immune modulator nitric oxide (NO). Assessments of the involvement of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that fennel significantly decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Fennel effectively blocked the inflammatory processes induced by LPS, by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production, transcription factors, and NO. PMID:25729281

  18. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Leukocytes and Hematological Tests in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Kooti, Wesam; Bazvand, Maryam; Ghasemi Boroon, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Afrisham, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Jalali, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have a long history in treating blood disorders, which is one of the most common problems in today's advanced world. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a medicinal plant with a high content of polyphenols and has antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel on some hematological indices in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (five rats in each group). The first group (control) did not receive any dose; the second group (sham) received 1 mL normal saline (extraction solvent); and the experimental groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively received 1 mL hydro alcoholic extract of fennel in four doses of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight every 48 hours for 30 days by gavage. One day after the last gavage following induction of anesthesia and taking blood from the heart of rats, measurement of red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and tests of bleeding and coagulation time (CT) were performed. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS15 software. Results: Fennel increased mean RBC (7.54 ± 0.53 × 106) and WBC (5.89 ± 0.78 × 103) values, especially at a dose of 250 mg/mL and CT (2.45 ± 0.20) at a dose of 500mg/mL compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Fennel increased red and white blood cells probably due to the presence of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fennel and reduced negative effects of free radicals on blood cells. PMID:25866717

  19. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of volatile oils from Sardinian Foeniculum vulgare ssp. vulgare (Apiaceae): chemical composition and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Piras, Alessandra; Falconieri, Danilo; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results on the composition and antifungal effect of volatile extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Sardinian wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and by hydrodistillation (HD). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for qualitative composition and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector to establish the percentage of constituents. The main components were fenchone (7.1% vs. 8.8%), estragole (34.9% vs. 42.6%) and (E)-anethole (24.6% vs. 43.4%) in the SFE and HD extract, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth macrodilution protocols. Minimum lethal concentrations were determined by subsequent subculturing of the same cell suspensions in solid medium. The essential oil was more active against Candida albicans, whereas the supercritical fluid extract possesses higher activity against Candida guillermondii and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values of 0.32 μL/mL.

  20. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of volatile oils from Sardinian Foeniculum vulgare ssp. vulgare (Apiaceae): chemical composition and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Piras, Alessandra; Falconieri, Danilo; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results on the composition and antifungal effect of volatile extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Sardinian wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and by hydrodistillation (HD). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for qualitative composition and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector to establish the percentage of constituents. The main components were fenchone (7.1% vs. 8.8%), estragole (34.9% vs. 42.6%) and (E)-anethole (24.6% vs. 43.4%) in the SFE and HD extract, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth macrodilution protocols. Minimum lethal concentrations were determined by subsequent subculturing of the same cell suspensions in solid medium. The essential oil was more active against Candida albicans, whereas the supercritical fluid extract possesses higher activity against Candida guillermondii and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values of 0.32 μL/mL. PMID:25115687

  1. Assessment of fennel aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their predators in fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, F S; Fernandes, F S; Nascimento, A R B; Nascimento Júnior, J L; Malaquias, J B; Silva, C A D

    2012-02-01

    The fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller in northeast region of Brazil. We hypothesize that intercropping can be used as an alternative pest management strategy to reduce aphid yield loss in fennel. Thus, we investigated the severity of fennel plant damage in relation to infestation by the fennel aphid and predation by Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (spotless lady beetle), green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in sole fennel plots and plots of fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers. The fennel aphid populations in nontreated plots were significantly larger in sole fennel plots than in intercropped plots. The highest densities of C. sanguinea, green lacewings and Scymnus spp., associated with the suppression of fennel aphid populations was found in fennel in the intercropping systems. Fennel aphids reduced the fennel seed yield by 80% in the sole fennel plots compared with approximately 30% for all intercropping systems. The results obtained in this research are of practical significance for designing appropriate strategies for fennel aphid control in fennel-cotton intercropping systems. In summary, intercropping fennel with cotton with colored fibers apparently promoted biocontrol of fennel aphid in fennel.

  2. Study of Foeniculum vulgare Effect on Folliculogenesis in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Mozafar; Montaseri, Azadeh; Khazaei, Mohammad Rasool; Khanahmadi, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) is used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, palliative and anti-inflammatory effects. Traditionally, FVE is utilized for treating female infertility. The present study aims to investigate the effects of FVE extract on folliculogenesis in female albino mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 20 female albino mice were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental) received FVE alcoholic extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for five days. Group 3 (negative control) received ethanol and group 4 (positive control) was administered normal saline, in the same doses as the experimental groups. Animals in all groups were sacrificed on the sixth day of the study; their ovaries were dissected out and prepared for histological examinations. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained microscopic slides were evaluated and the numbers of ovarian follicles were compared between groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Results: The total follicle numbers were 26.5 ± 5.24 for group 1 (100 mg/kg FVE), 27.2 ± 4.1 for group 2 (200 mg/kg FVE), 10.1 ± 2.53 for group 3 (ethanol control) and 17.2 ± 3.9 for the saline control group (group 4). The numbers of graffian, antral and multilaminar follicles increased significantly in both experimental groups when compared with the control groups (p<0.05), however there were no significant differences in follicle numbers among the experimental groups. The number of unilaminar primary follicles did not significantly change between all groups. GCMS analysis of FVE extract identified the presence of diosgenin, an estrogenic compound. Conclusion: FVE induced folliculogenesis in female mice ovary and increased the number of growing ovarian follicles. The estrogenic component of FVE, diosgenin, may exert this effect. PMID:25101154

  3. Investigation of antimutagenic potential of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pankaj; Tripathi, Rina; Patel, Rakesh K; Pancholi, Shyam S

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration (CA), micronucleus, and sperm abnormality assays were employed to measure genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver were also investigated spectrophotometrically. Animals were administered two different doses of FEO (1 and 2 mL/kg) continuously for 3 days at intervals of 24 hours by the oral route before tissue sampling. The results showed that CP produced a significant increase in the average percentage of aberrant metaphases and CAs, excluding gap and micronuclei formation in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), produced cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, and induced abnormal sperms in the male germ line. CP also markedly inhibited the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH and increased MDA content. Pretreatments with FEO significantly inhibited the frequencies of aberrant metaphases, CAs, micronuclei formation, and cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells induced by CP and also produced a significant reduction of abnormal sperm and antagonized the reduction of CP-induced SOD, CAT, and GSH activities and inhibited increased MDA content in the liver. FEO inhibits genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by CP.

  4. Effect of foeniculum vulgare seed extract on mammary glands and oviducts of ovariectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Devi, K; Vanithakumari, G; Anusya, S; Mekala, N; Malini, T; Elango, V

    1985-10-01

    The effect of acetone extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., seeds at different dose levels (50/ug, 150/ug and 250/ug/100gm body wt.) on mammary glands and oviducts of castrated rats was investigated. The extract was found to increase nucleic acids and protein concentration as well as the organ weights in both the tissues. The medium and high doses were very effective. The results confirm the estrogenic nature of the seed extract.

  5. [Isolation and identification of flavon(ol)-O-glycosides in caraway (Carum carvi L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and of flavon-C-glycosides in anise. I. Phenolics of spices (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kunzemann, J; Herrmann, K

    1977-07-29

    The flavonoid constituents of various spices were separated by means of chromatography on cellulose colums, and the following compounds were obtained crystalline: Quercetin 3-glucuronide from caraway, fennel, anise, and coriander; isoquercitrin from caraway and fennel; rutin from fennel and anise; quercetin 3-O-caffeylglucoside and kaempferol 3-glucoside from caraway; quercetin 3-arabinoside from fennel, and luteolin 7-glucoside, isoorientin and isovitexin from anise. Other constitutents which were however not obtained crystalline, but which could be identified by the usual procedures were kaempferol 3-glucuronide and kaempferol 3-arabinoside in fennel, apigenin 7-glucoside and a luteolin glycoside in anise, and isoquercitrin and rutin in coriander. The glycosides contained in the fruit of the four spices also occur in the leaves. Leaves of caraway and fennel in addition contain isorhammetin glycosides in low concentration.

  6. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.

  7. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene. PMID:25973508

  8. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were establi...

  9. Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Albert-Puleo, M

    1980-12-01

    Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, and anise, Pimpinella anisum, are plants which have been used as estrogenic agents for millennia. Specifically, they have been reputed to increase milk secretion, promote menstruation, facilitate birth, alleviate the symptoms of the male climacteric, and increase libido. In the 1930s, some interest was shown in these plants in the development of synthetic estrogens. The main constituent of the essential oils of fennel and anise, anethole, has been considered to be the active estrogenic agent. However, further research suggests that the actual pharmacologically active agents are polymers of anethole, such as dianethole and photoanethole. PMID:6999244

  10. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Hendawy, Saber F; Omer, Elsayed A; Hammouda, Faiza M; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-02-01

    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  11. Major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity activity from leaves of Foeniculum vulgare against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ro, Hee-Myong; Moon, Huyng-In

    2011-09-01

    The leaves of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the essential oils of F. vulgare leaves. The F. vulgare essential oil yield was 0.97%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were methyl clavicol (46.3%), α-phellandrene (18.2%), fenchone (10.6%), (E)-anethole (11.3%), myrcene (3.4%), and α-pinene (2.1%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 41.23 ppm and an LC(90) value of 65.24 ppm. Also, methyl clavicol (≥98.0%), α-phellandrene (≥95.0%), fenchone (≥98.0%), (E)-anethole (≥99.0%), myrcene (≥99.0%), and α-pinene (≥99.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Fenchone (≥98.0%) and (E)-anethole (≥99.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 73.11 ppm and 102.41 ppm. The above data indicate that major compounds interaction may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil.

  12. Major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity activity from leaves of Foeniculum vulgare against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ro, Hee-Myong; Moon, Huyng-In

    2011-09-01

    The leaves of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the essential oils of F. vulgare leaves. The F. vulgare essential oil yield was 0.97%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were methyl clavicol (46.3%), α-phellandrene (18.2%), fenchone (10.6%), (E)-anethole (11.3%), myrcene (3.4%), and α-pinene (2.1%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 41.23 ppm and an LC(90) value of 65.24 ppm. Also, methyl clavicol (≥98.0%), α-phellandrene (≥95.0%), fenchone (≥98.0%), (E)-anethole (≥99.0%), myrcene (≥99.0%), and α-pinene (≥99.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Fenchone (≥98.0%) and (E)-anethole (≥99.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 73.11 ppm and 102.41 ppm. The above data indicate that major compounds interaction may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21077804

  13. Antimycobacterial activity of constituents from Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce grown in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; Garza-González, Elvira; Waksman, Noemí; Ríos, María Yolanda; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María

    2012-07-13

    Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100-200 µg/mL), undecanal (MIC 50-200 µg/mL), and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25-50 µg/mL), the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.

  14. Can estragole in fennel seed decoctions really be considered a danger for human health? A fennel safety update.

    PubMed

    Gori, L; Gallo, E; Mascherini, V; Mugelli, A; Vannacci, A; Firenzuoli, F

    2012-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mature fruit (commonly known as seeds) and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasm. Traditionally in Europe and Mediterranean areas fennel is used as antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy and integrator. Topically, fennel powder is used as a poultice for snake bites. In Asian cultures fennel was ingested to speed the elimination of poisons. As one of the ancient Saxon people's nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure. Fennel was also valued as a magic herb: in the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer's Eve to protect the household from evil spirits. Recently because of estragole carcinogenicity, fennel has been charged to be dangerous for humans especially if used as decoction for babies. But this allegation do not consider the remedy is prepared as a matrix of substances, and recent researches confirm that pure estragole is inactivated by many substance contained in the decoction.

  15. Can Estragole in Fennel Seed Decoctions Really Be Considered a Danger for Human Health? A Fennel Safety Update

    PubMed Central

    Gori, L.; Gallo, E.; Mascherini, V.; Mugelli, A.; Vannacci, A.; Firenzuoli, F.

    2012-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mature fruit (commonly known as seeds) and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasm. Traditionally in Europe and Mediterranean areas fennel is used as antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy and integrator. Topically, fennel powder is used as a poultice for snake bites. In Asian cultures fennel was ingested to speed the elimination of poisons. As one of the ancient Saxon people's nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure. Fennel was also valued as a magic herb: in the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer's Eve to protect the household from evil spirits. Recently because of estragole carcinogenicity, fennel has been charged to be dangerous for humans especially if used as decoction for babies. But this allegation do not consider the remedy is prepared as a matrix of substances, and recent researches confirm that pure estragole is inactivated by many substance contained in the decoction. PMID:22899959

  16. Can estragole in fennel seed decoctions really be considered a danger for human health? A fennel safety update.

    PubMed

    Gori, L; Gallo, E; Mascherini, V; Mugelli, A; Vannacci, A; Firenzuoli, F

    2012-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mature fruit (commonly known as seeds) and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasm. Traditionally in Europe and Mediterranean areas fennel is used as antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy and integrator. Topically, fennel powder is used as a poultice for snake bites. In Asian cultures fennel was ingested to speed the elimination of poisons. As one of the ancient Saxon people's nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure. Fennel was also valued as a magic herb: in the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer's Eve to protect the household from evil spirits. Recently because of estragole carcinogenicity, fennel has been charged to be dangerous for humans especially if used as decoction for babies. But this allegation do not consider the remedy is prepared as a matrix of substances, and recent researches confirm that pure estragole is inactivated by many substance contained in the decoction. PMID:22899959

  17. Cytotoxicity of syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol isolated from Foeniculum vulgare on selected human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lall, Namrita; Kishore, Navneet; Binneman, Brigitte; Twilley, Danielle; van de Venter, Maryna; du Plessis-Stoman, Debbie; Boukes, Gerhardt; Hussein, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic effect of seven plant extracts and the isolated compounds - syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol - on cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare was found to exhibit the most significant toxicity with an IC50 value of 19.97 μg/mL on HeLa cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two compounds, syringin (1) and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol (2). Both compounds showed toxicity against MCF-7, HeLa and DU145 cancer cell line. The results showed that compound 2 showed high toxicity against all the cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 14.24, 7.82 and 22.10 μg/mL, respectively. 4-Methoxycinnamyl alcohol also showed no apoptotic effect in cell cycle analysis after 48 h at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. However, DNA fragmentation study revealed that necrosis took place at a concentration of 10 μg/mL after 48 h exposure.

  18. Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF.

  19. Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF. PMID:25994836

  20. Cytotoxicity of syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol isolated from Foeniculum vulgare on selected human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lall, Namrita; Kishore, Navneet; Binneman, Brigitte; Twilley, Danielle; van de Venter, Maryna; du Plessis-Stoman, Debbie; Boukes, Gerhardt; Hussein, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic effect of seven plant extracts and the isolated compounds - syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol - on cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare was found to exhibit the most significant toxicity with an IC50 value of 19.97 μg/mL on HeLa cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two compounds, syringin (1) and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol (2). Both compounds showed toxicity against MCF-7, HeLa and DU145 cancer cell line. The results showed that compound 2 showed high toxicity against all the cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 14.24, 7.82 and 22.10 μg/mL, respectively. 4-Methoxycinnamyl alcohol also showed no apoptotic effect in cell cycle analysis after 48 h at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. However, DNA fragmentation study revealed that necrosis took place at a concentration of 10 μg/mL after 48 h exposure. PMID:25588942

  1. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of wild, edible, and medicinal fennel from different Mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Faudale, Mariangela; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Poli, Ferruccio; Codina, Carles

    2008-03-26

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is a typical aromatic plant of the Mediterranean area, long used as a medicinal and spice herb. Fennel is also well-known for its essential oil, which has been extensively studied for many years owing to its commercial importance. In this work, the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as the quantitative determination of individual flavonoids and phenolic acids of wild, edible, and medicinal fennel from different Mediterranean countries, have been determined. The antioxidant activity was measured as the free radical (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activities. Wild fennel was found to exhibit a radical scavenging activity, as well as a total phenolic and total flavonoid content, higher than those of both medicinal and edible fennels.

  2. Inhibition of aldose reductase and anti-cataract action of trans-anethole isolated from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits.

    PubMed

    Dongare, Vandana; Kulkarni, Chaitanya; Kondawar, Manish; Magdum, Chandrakant; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

    2012-05-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruits are routinely consumed for their carminative and mouth freshening effect. The plant was evaluated for aldose reductase inhibition and anti-diabetic action. Bioguided fractionation using silica gel column chromatography, HPLC, and GC-MS analysis revealed trans-anethole as the bioactive constituent possessing potent aldose reductase inhibitory action, with an IC50 value of 3.8μg/ml. Prolonged treatment with the pet ether fraction of the F. vulgare distillate demonstrated improvement in blood glucose, lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin and other parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Trans-anethole could effectively show anti-cataract activity through the increase in soluble lens protein, reduced glutathione, catalase and SOD activity on in vitro incubation of the eye lens with 55mM glucose. Trans-anethole demonstrated noncompetitive to mixed type of inhibition of lens aldose reductase using Lineweaver Burk plot.

  3. Comparison of Scolicidal Effects of Amphotricin B, Silver Nanoparticles,_and Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Hydatid Cysts Protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    LASHKARIZADEH, Mohammad Reza; ASGARIPOUR, Keivan; SAEDI DEZAKI, Ebrahim; FASIHI HARANDI, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgery is the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during surgery, but they are associated with adverse side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scolicidal effects of amphotricin B, Silver nano particles, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, essential oil and hypertonic saline against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst on an in vitro model. Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from the naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of AmB (2.5–20 mg/ml), Ag-NPs (0.5–4 mg/ml), F. vulgare essential oil (0.125–1 mg/ml) and hypertonic saline (10–20%) were used for 5–60 min. Eosin exclusion test was used to determine the viability of protoscoleces. Results: Maximum protoscolicidal effect of AmB and Ag-NPs was found at concentrations of 20 and 4 mg/mL, resulting in only 82.3% and 71.6% of the protoscoleces after 60 min of incubation, respectively. In contrast, F. vulgare essential oil at concentration of 1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline 20% killed 100% protoscoleces after 5 and 10 min of exposure, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated weak scolicidal activity of AmB and Ag-NPs; whereas F. vulgare essential oil had potent scolicidal activity against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst that revealed the potential of F. vulgare as a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in the in vivo model. PMID:26246818

  4. Repellent activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2002-11-20

    The repellent activity of materials derived from the methanol extract of fruits from Foeniculum vulgareagainst hungry Aedes aegypti females was examined using skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid by spectroscopic analyses. Responses varied according to compound, dose, and exposure time. In a skin test with female mosquitoes, at a dose of 0.4 mg/cm(2), (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment, whereas deet provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at 0.2 mg/cm(2). (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid was a more potent repellent agent than (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents or as lead compounds. PMID:12428949

  5. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. PMID:26904653

  6. Potent inhibitory effect of Foeniculum vulgare Miller extract on osteoclast differentiation and ovariectomy-induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2012-06-01

    Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is considered an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss. To find natural compounds that may inhibit osteoclastogenesis, we screened herbal extracts on bone marrow cultures. In this study, we found that an aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare Miller seed (FvMs) at low concentration, which has traditionally been used as a treatment for a variety of ailments, inhibits the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorptive activity of mature osteoclasts. We further investigated the effects of FvMs on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss using microcomputed tomography, biomechanical tests and serum marker assays for bone remodeling. Oral administration of FvMs (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks had an intermediary effect on the prevention of femoral bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and other parameters compared to OVX controls. In addition, FvMs slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were accelerated by OVX. The bone-protective effects of FvMs may be due to suppression of an OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, our findings indicate that FvMs have potential in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis by reducing both osteoclast differentiation and function.

  7. Formulation development of a cream containing fennel extract: in vivo evaluation for anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Rasul, A; Akhtar, N; Khan, B A; Mahmood, T; Uz Zaman, S; Khan, H M Shoaib

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to formulate and evaluate anti-aging effects of a topical cream (w/o emulsion) containig extract of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) versus its base. Formulation containing 4% concentrated extract of Foeniculum vulgare was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion and base contained no extract. Both the base and formulation were stored under different storage conditions to predict their stability. The formulation and base were evaluated for effect on skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The base showed insignificant while the formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and TEWL. The parameter volume and surface evaluation of living skin (SELS) parameters SEr, SEsc, SEsm, SEw were also evaluated and showed a significant (p < or = 0.05) decline. The texture parameter energy showed a significant increase proving that the formulation possesses potential anti-aging effects.

  8. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT), measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2) in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1) during the placebo treatment (p < 0.001). Number of evacuations per day increased during the use of active tea; significant differences were observed as of the second day of treatment (p < 0.001). Patient perception of bowel function was improved (p < 0.01), but quality of life did not show significant differences among the study periods. Except for a small reduction in serum potassium levels during the active treatment, no significant differences were observed in terms of adverse effects throughout the study period. Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial

  9. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of Portuguese Foeniculum vulgare fruits.

    PubMed

    Mota, Ana S; Martins, M Rosário; Arantes, Sílvia; Lopes, Violeta R; Bettencourt, Eliseu; Pombal, Sofia; Gomes, Arlindo C; Silva, Lúcia A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of Portugal. Composition of essential oils was established by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly in the range of 1.1 to 2.9% (v/w) and the chemical composition varied with the region of collection. A total of 16 compounds were identified. The main compounds were fenchone (16.9 - 34.7%), estragole (2.5 - 66.0%) and trans-anethole (7.9 - 77.7%). The percentages of these three main compounds were used to determine the relationship between the different oil samples and to group them into four different chemotypes: anethole/fenchone; anethole; estragole and anethole/estragole. Antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against six food spoilage fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. japonicus, A. oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizophus oryzae and R. stolonifer. Antibacterial activity was assessed against three Gram-positive strains: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and S. aureus ATCC 28213; and against six Gram-negative strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Morganella morganii LFG 08; Proteus mirabilis LFG 04; Salmonella enteritidis LFG 05; S. entiritidis serovar typhimurium LFG 06 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 by the disc diffusion agar method; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth macro-dilution method. The MIC values varied from 62.5 (E. coli ATCC 25922) to 2000 µmL (P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853).

  10. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of Portuguese Foeniculum vulgare fruits.

    PubMed

    Mota, Ana S; Martins, M Rosário; Arantes, Sílvia; Lopes, Violeta R; Bettencourt, Eliseu; Pombal, Sofia; Gomes, Arlindo C; Silva, Lúcia A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of Portugal. Composition of essential oils was established by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly in the range of 1.1 to 2.9% (v/w) and the chemical composition varied with the region of collection. A total of 16 compounds were identified. The main compounds were fenchone (16.9 - 34.7%), estragole (2.5 - 66.0%) and trans-anethole (7.9 - 77.7%). The percentages of these three main compounds were used to determine the relationship between the different oil samples and to group them into four different chemotypes: anethole/fenchone; anethole; estragole and anethole/estragole. Antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against six food spoilage fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. japonicus, A. oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizophus oryzae and R. stolonifer. Antibacterial activity was assessed against three Gram-positive strains: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and S. aureus ATCC 28213; and against six Gram-negative strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Morganella morganii LFG 08; Proteus mirabilis LFG 04; Salmonella enteritidis LFG 05; S. entiritidis serovar typhimurium LFG 06 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 by the disc diffusion agar method; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth macro-dilution method. The MIC values varied from 62.5 (E. coli ATCC 25922) to 2000 µmL (P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853). PMID:25973507

  11. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  12. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda. PMID:26868417

  13. Volatile fraction of lavender and bitter fennel infusion extracts.

    PubMed

    Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

    2010-09-01

    The relative proportions of chemical classes (hydrocarbons, oxides, alcohols/ethers, aldehydes/ketones, acids/esters/lactones) in the essential oil of lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., family Lamiaceae) and bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare var. vulgare (Mill.) Thellung, family Apiaceae) and in the volatile fraction of infusion extracts were examined and showed remarkable differences. The volatile compounds of infusions were isolated by hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE). Their qualitative and semiquantitative compositions were compared with the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation directly from the plant material and analyzed by GC-MS. Furthermore, quantification of the major constituents of lavender oil and of the volatile fraction obtained by hydrodistillation of the infusion was performed. Comparison of the total essential oil yield quantified by hydrodistillation of the lavender infusion (0.7% v/w, corresponding to plant material) with the essential oil yield of the blossoms (5.1% v/w) revealed that only 13.9% of the initial oil could be extracted by infusion. The main constituents of the volatile fraction of the lavender infusion were (hydrodistillation/SPE): linalool (39.3%/28.2%), 1,8 cineole (24.8%/18.9%), cis-linalool oxide (furanoid) (5.8%/8.0%), trans-linalool oxide (furanoid) (4.1%/7.1%), camphor (5.3%/4.0%) and alpha-terpineol (4.0%/3.0%). The major constituents of lavender essential oil were linalool (28.8%), 1,8-cineole (18.05%), linalyl acetate (13.9%) and alpha-terpineol (4.0%). Most intriguing, in the volatile fraction of lavender infusion a significant proportional decrease of linalyl acetate and an increase of linalool oxides was recognized. The essential oil yield of fennel fruits was 12.5% v/w, whereas 1.8% v/w volatile fraction (corresponding to plant material) was obtained by hydrodistillation of the fennel infusion, which is equivalent to 14.5% of the initial fennel essential oil. The main

  14. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Godoy, Wesley A C; Santos, Bárbara Davis B

    2015-01-01

    Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in cotton with coloured fibres, fennel and cotton intercropped with fennel. Association analysis was used to investigate whether the presence or absence of prey and predator species can indicate possible interactions between aphids and ladybugs. Significant associations among both apterous and alate H. foeniculi and C. sanguinea were observed in both the fennel and fennel-cotton intercropping systems. The similarity analysis showed that the presence of aphids and ladybugs in the same system is significantly dependent on the type of crop. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that the presence of the ladybug C. sanguinea, is associated with apterous or alate A. gossypii and H. foeniculi in fennel-cotton intercropping system. We recommend that future research vising integrated aphid management taking into account these associations for take decisions.

  15. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Francisco S.; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Malaquias, José B.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Santos, Bárbara Davis B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in cotton with coloured fibres, fennel and cotton intercropped with fennel. Association analysis was used to investigate whether the presence or absence of prey and predator species can indicate possible interactions between aphids and ladybugs. Significant associations among both apterous and alate H. foeniculi and C. sanguinea were observed in both the fennel and fennel-cotton intercropping systems. The similarity analysis showed that the presence of aphids and ladybugs in the same system is significantly dependent on the type of crop. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that the presence of the ladybug C. sanguinea, is associated with apterous or alate A. gossypii and H. foeniculi in fennel-cotton intercropping system. We recommend that future research vising integrated aphid management taking into account these associations for take decisions. PMID:26241862

  16. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Godoy, Wesley A C; Santos, Bárbara Davis B

    2015-01-01

    Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in cotton with coloured fibres, fennel and cotton intercropped with fennel. Association analysis was used to investigate whether the presence or absence of prey and predator species can indicate possible interactions between aphids and ladybugs. Significant associations among both apterous and alate H. foeniculi and C. sanguinea were observed in both the fennel and fennel-cotton intercropping systems. The similarity analysis showed that the presence of aphids and ladybugs in the same system is significantly dependent on the type of crop. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that the presence of the ladybug C. sanguinea, is associated with apterous or alate A. gossypii and H. foeniculi in fennel-cotton intercropping system. We recommend that future research vising integrated aphid management taking into account these associations for take decisions. PMID:26241862

  17. In Vitro Inhibition of Cholera Toxin Production in Vibrio cholerae by Methanol Extract of Sweet Fennel Seeds and Its Components.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Asakura, Masahiro; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Ramamurthy, T; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-09-21

    A newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain with multidrug resistance is considered a threat to public health. Recent strategies to suppress virulence factors production instead of bacterial growth may lead to less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. The use of spices and their active constituents as the inhibitory agents against cholera toxin (CT) production in V. cholerae may be an alternative approach to treat cholera. In this study, we examined the potential of sweet fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. dulce) methanol extract to inhibit CT production in V. cholerae without affecting viability. The methanol extract of sweet fennel seeds significantly inhibited CT production in various V. cholerae strains, regardless of serogroup or biotype. Interestingly, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole, essential oil components of sweet fennel seeds, also demonstrated similar effects. Here, we report that sub-bactericidal concentrations of sweet fennel seed methanol extract and its major components can drastically inhibit CT production in various V. cholerae strains.

  18. In Vitro Inhibition of Cholera Toxin Production in Vibrio cholerae by Methanol Extract of Sweet Fennel Seeds and Its Components.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Asakura, Masahiro; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Ramamurthy, T; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-09-21

    A newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain with multidrug resistance is considered a threat to public health. Recent strategies to suppress virulence factors production instead of bacterial growth may lead to less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. The use of spices and their active constituents as the inhibitory agents against cholera toxin (CT) production in V. cholerae may be an alternative approach to treat cholera. In this study, we examined the potential of sweet fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. dulce) methanol extract to inhibit CT production in V. cholerae without affecting viability. The methanol extract of sweet fennel seeds significantly inhibited CT production in various V. cholerae strains, regardless of serogroup or biotype. Interestingly, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole, essential oil components of sweet fennel seeds, also demonstrated similar effects. Here, we report that sub-bactericidal concentrations of sweet fennel seed methanol extract and its major components can drastically inhibit CT production in various V. cholerae strains. PMID:26902215

  19. Changes in Volatile Compounds during Aging of Sweet Fennel Fruits-Comparison of Hydrodistillation and Static Headspace Sampling Methods.

    PubMed

    Najdoska-Bogdanov, Mence; Bogdanov, Jane B; Stefova, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Two extraction methods for subsequent gas chromatographic (GC) determination of volatiles from freshly harvested and aged fennel fruit samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,ssp. vulgare var. dulce) have been compared. Hydrodistillation followed by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis was used as a standard method for essential oil characterization, while static headspace followed by GC (SHS-GC-FID) was used as a comparative method for determination of volatile components. As the fennel fruit ages, there is a gradual loss of the volatile components as indicated by the lower yield of essential oil and lower content of volatiles, as indicated by the alternative SHS-GC-FID analysis. Slight differences observed for the main components (trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone, and limonene) using the two methods are negligible, indicating that these volatiles did not undergo chemical transformation during the sample preparation procedures. A difference in anisaldehyde content was observed when the composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil was compared with the SHS-GC-FIDanalysis of volatiles and explanation for the variation of anisaldehyde content and the origin of other compounds was suggested. Comparison of the obtained results showed that limonene oxides, carvone and carveolare detectable in SHS-GC-FID analysis of the aged fennel fruits, while in hydrodistilled samples analyzed by GC-FID they were not present. Another observed difference was the appearance of products in significant amounts with higher retention times than trans-anethole, namely threo- and erythro-anethole β-hydroxymethylether and anethole glycol that are not detectable in the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation. So, the relative abundance of the major components is comparable between these two methods for fennel seed up to 3 years from harvest and they can be used interchangeably depending on the purpose and amount of material. Furthermore, SHS-GC-FID can be used for assessment of maximum storage time

  20. Changes in Volatile Compounds during Aging of Sweet Fennel Fruits-Comparison of Hydrodistillation and Static Headspace Sampling Methods.

    PubMed

    Najdoska-Bogdanov, Mence; Bogdanov, Jane B; Stefova, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Two extraction methods for subsequent gas chromatographic (GC) determination of volatiles from freshly harvested and aged fennel fruit samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,ssp. vulgare var. dulce) have been compared. Hydrodistillation followed by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis was used as a standard method for essential oil characterization, while static headspace followed by GC (SHS-GC-FID) was used as a comparative method for determination of volatile components. As the fennel fruit ages, there is a gradual loss of the volatile components as indicated by the lower yield of essential oil and lower content of volatiles, as indicated by the alternative SHS-GC-FID analysis. Slight differences observed for the main components (trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone, and limonene) using the two methods are negligible, indicating that these volatiles did not undergo chemical transformation during the sample preparation procedures. A difference in anisaldehyde content was observed when the composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil was compared with the SHS-GC-FIDanalysis of volatiles and explanation for the variation of anisaldehyde content and the origin of other compounds was suggested. Comparison of the obtained results showed that limonene oxides, carvone and carveolare detectable in SHS-GC-FID analysis of the aged fennel fruits, while in hydrodistilled samples analyzed by GC-FID they were not present. Another observed difference was the appearance of products in significant amounts with higher retention times than trans-anethole, namely threo- and erythro-anethole β-hydroxymethylether and anethole glycol that are not detectable in the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation. So, the relative abundance of the major components is comparable between these two methods for fennel seed up to 3 years from harvest and they can be used interchangeably depending on the purpose and amount of material. Furthermore, SHS-GC-FID can be used for assessment of maximum storage time

  1. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: Comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms.

    PubMed

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Beatriz P P Oliveira, M; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-15

    Globally, there is a trend for healthy food products, preferably incorporating natural bioactive ingredients, replacing synthetic additives. From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) maintained nutritional properties and improved the antioxidant activity of cottage cheese. Nevertheless, this effect was limited to 7 days. Accordingly, aqueous extracts of these plants were microencapsulated in alginate and incorporated into cottage cheese to achieve an extended bioactivity. Plain cottage cheese, and cheese functionalized by direct addition of free decoctions, were prepared and compared. Independently of plant species, "functionalization type" factor did not show a significant effect on the nutritional parameters, as also confirmed in the linear discriminant analysis, where these parameters were not selected as discriminating variables. Furthermore, samples functionalized with microencapsulated extracts showed higher antioxidant activity after the 7th day, thereby demonstrating that the main purpose of this experimental work was achieved.

  2. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: Comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms.

    PubMed

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Beatriz P P Oliveira, M; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-15

    Globally, there is a trend for healthy food products, preferably incorporating natural bioactive ingredients, replacing synthetic additives. From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) maintained nutritional properties and improved the antioxidant activity of cottage cheese. Nevertheless, this effect was limited to 7 days. Accordingly, aqueous extracts of these plants were microencapsulated in alginate and incorporated into cottage cheese to achieve an extended bioactivity. Plain cottage cheese, and cheese functionalized by direct addition of free decoctions, were prepared and compared. Independently of plant species, "functionalization type" factor did not show a significant effect on the nutritional parameters, as also confirmed in the linear discriminant analysis, where these parameters were not selected as discriminating variables. Furthermore, samples functionalized with microencapsulated extracts showed higher antioxidant activity after the 7th day, thereby demonstrating that the main purpose of this experimental work was achieved. PMID:26776029

  3. The biology and thermal requirements of the fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Malaquias, José B; Ramalho, Francisco S; Lira, Aline C S; Oliveira, Flávia Q; Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Zanuncio, José C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae)) crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h) produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C) to 19 (15°C) days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0%) was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest.

  4. The Biology and Thermal Requirements of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Malaquias, José B.; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Lira, Aline C. S.; Oliveira, Flávia Q.; Fernandes, Francisco S.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Zanuncio, José C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae)) crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h) produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C) to 19 (15°C) days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0%) was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest. PMID:25003593

  5. Effect of fennel on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea: A placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Shabnam; Esmailzadeh, Sedighe; Baradaran, Mahmood; Basirat, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical effect of Foeniculum vulgare on primary dysmenorrhoea. Sixty virgin girls with complaints of dysmenorrhoea were enrolled in this study, out of which 50 cases were completed the course of treatment and were divided in two groups (study and placebo) and were under treatment for two cycles. In study group a capsule of 30 mg fennel extract, four times a day for three days from start of their menstrual period and in placebo a capsule containing wheat flour in same dose was administered. Intensity of pain was reported by using a 10 - point linear analogue technique. In study group the mean age of menarche was 13.1 ± 0.1 and onset age of dysmenorrhoea was 14.5 ± 0.1 years. Both groups were relieved but there was significant difference between study and placebo group. Study group shown more effective results than placebo in pain relief (P`0.05). Based on the observations, it can be concluded that, fennel is an effective herbal drug for menstrual pain. PMID:23559811

  6. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Wanderley, Paulo A; Wanderley, Maria J A; Silva, José C R; Michaluk, Lynnette M

    2007-01-01

    It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50% were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior.

  7. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB.

  8. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB. PMID:25935540

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Essential Oil Components and Fatty Acids in Fennel using Gas Chromatography with a Polar Capillary Column.

    PubMed

    Najdoska-Bogdanov, Menče; Bogdanov, Jane B; Stefova, Marina

    2015-09-01

    Cultivated and wild growing samples of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) from R. Macedonia were studied for their volatiles and fatty acid composition. The main essential oil components isolated via hydrodistillation were: trans-anethole (>80%), estragole (< 6%), limonene (< 6%), anisaldehyde (< 1%) and 0.5 % fenchone. An alternative method for characterization of both the non-polar volatile and non volatile fractions was developed using n-hexane and dichloromethane (3:1, v/v) in a Soxhlet extraction followed by transesterification. The obtained extracts were then characterized and the dominant fatty acid was 18:1 (petroselinic and oleic acid) 75.0-82.8%, followed by 18:2 (linoleic acid) 10.8-16.2% and other fatty acids: palmitic (4.3-6.9%), stearic (1.2-1.7%) and myristic (0-2.9%). The results for the volatile fraction after Soxhlet extraction and transesterification did not significantly differ from results obtained after hydrodistillation, especially for the main components (trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene), implying that the developed method can be used for simultaneous determination of volatiles and fatty acids.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Essential Oil Components and Fatty Acids in Fennel using Gas Chromatography with a Polar Capillary Column.

    PubMed

    Najdoska-Bogdanov, Menče; Bogdanov, Jane B; Stefova, Marina

    2015-09-01

    Cultivated and wild growing samples of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) from R. Macedonia were studied for their volatiles and fatty acid composition. The main essential oil components isolated via hydrodistillation were: trans-anethole (>80%), estragole (< 6%), limonene (< 6%), anisaldehyde (< 1%) and 0.5 % fenchone. An alternative method for characterization of both the non-polar volatile and non volatile fractions was developed using n-hexane and dichloromethane (3:1, v/v) in a Soxhlet extraction followed by transesterification. The obtained extracts were then characterized and the dominant fatty acid was 18:1 (petroselinic and oleic acid) 75.0-82.8%, followed by 18:2 (linoleic acid) 10.8-16.2% and other fatty acids: palmitic (4.3-6.9%), stearic (1.2-1.7%) and myristic (0-2.9%). The results for the volatile fraction after Soxhlet extraction and transesterification did not significantly differ from results obtained after hydrodistillation, especially for the main components (trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene), implying that the developed method can be used for simultaneous determination of volatiles and fatty acids. PMID:26594773

  11. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  12. Epileptic seizure induced by fennel essential oil.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Souad; Soulaymani Bencheikh, Rachida

    2011-09-01

    An epileptic seizure is reported in a 38-year-old woman, known to be an epileptic patient. Although she was under antiepileptic treatment and had well-controlled epilepsy, she developed a typical generalised tonic-clonic seizure and remained unconscious for 45 minutes following ingestion of a number of cakes containing an unknown quantity of fennel essential oil. Involuntary diarrhoea accompanied her epileptic seizure. This reported case recalls the fact that fennel essential oil can induce seizures and that this oil should probably be avoided by patients with epilepsy. Labelling of products with fennel essential oil should refer to the risk of seizures, particularly for patients with epilepsy. An awareness programme should involve all stakeholders affected by this issue.

  13. Free radical kinetics on irradiated fennel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2008-09-01

    Herein, an electron spin resonance study on the behavior of organic radicals in fennel before and after irradiation is reported. The spectrum of irradiated fennel composed of the spectrum component derived from the un-irradiated sample (near g=2.005) and the spectra components derived from carbohydrates. The time decay of intensity spectral components was well explained by first-order kinetics with a variety of rate constants. Especially, the signal at near g=2.02 ascribed to stable cellulose-derivative components is expected to be a good indicator in the identification of irradiated plant samples.

  14. Vulgar Music and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Rock music, rap, and heavy metal are all forms of vulgar music. Vulgarity refers to actions and communication that are "common, noisy, and gross," and are "untranscendent." A technological society is a vulgar society in its base of materialism and exclusive concern with power. Its excessive rationality produces a need for escape, for ecstasy, for…

  15. Fennel waste-based films suitable for protecting cultivations.

    PubMed

    Mariniello, L; Giosafatto, C V L; Moschetti, G; Aponte, M; Masi, P; Sorrentino, A; Porta, R

    2007-10-01

    Biodegradable, flexible, and moisture-resistant films were obtained by recycling fennel waste and adding to fennel homogenates the bean protein phaseolin that was modified or not modified by the enzyme transglutaminase. All films were analyzed for their morphology, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, and susceptibility to biodegradation under soil-like conditions. Our experiments showed that transglutaminase treatment of the phaseolin-containing fennel waste homogenates allowed us to obtain films comparable in their mechanical properties and water vapor permeability to the commercial films Ecoflex and Mater-Bi. Furthermore, biodegradability tests demonstrated that the presence of the enzyme in the film-casting sample significantly influences the integrity of such a product that lasts longer than films obtained either with fennel waste alone or with a mixture of fennel waste and phaseolin. These findings indicate the fennel-phaseolin film prepared in the presence of transglutaminase to be a promising candidate for a new environmentally friendly mulching bioplastic.

  16. The Sublime and the Vulgar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Karen

    1990-01-01

    Explores how Edmund Burke's discourse on the sublime helps illuminate attacks on the vulgarization of culture (as typified by Allan Bloom), both for the presumedly "vulgar" reader and for the champions of high culture. (MG)

  17. Biosignals analysis for kidney function effect analysis of fennel aromatherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Hyun; Cho, Dong-Uk; Seo, Ssang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Human effort in order to enjoy a healthy life is diverse. IT technology to these analyzes, the results of development efforts, it has been applied. Therefore, I use the care and maintenance diagnostic health management and prevention than treatment. In particular, the aromatherapy treatment easy to use without the side effects there is no irritation, are widely used in modern society. In this paper, we measured the aroma effect by applying a biosignal analysis techniques; an experiment was performed to analyze. In particular, we design methods and processes of research based on the theory aroma that affect renal function. Therefore, in this paper, measuring the biosignals and after fennel aromatherapy treatment prior to the enforcement of the mutual comparison, through the analysis, studies were carried out to analyze the effect of fennel aromatherapy therapy on kidney function.

  18. Biosignals analysis for kidney function effect analysis of fennel aromatherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Hyun; Cho, Dong-Uk; Seo, Ssang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Human effort in order to enjoy a healthy life is diverse. IT technology to these analyzes, the results of development efforts, it has been applied. Therefore, I use the care and maintenance diagnostic health management and prevention than treatment. In particular, the aromatherapy treatment easy to use without the side effects there is no irritation, are widely used in modern society. In this paper, we measured the aroma effect by applying a biosignal analysis techniques; an experiment was performed to analyze. In particular, we design methods and processes of research based on the theory aroma that affect renal function. Therefore, in this paper, measuring the biosignals and after fennel aromatherapy treatment prior to the enforcement of the mutual comparison, through the analysis, studies were carried out to analyze the effect of fennel aromatherapy therapy on kidney function. PMID:25977696

  19. Fennel and raspberry leaf as possible inhibitors of acetaminophen oxidation.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Astrid Jordet; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2014-10-01

    In addition to CYP2E1, several CYP isoenzymes, notably CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4, are suggested to contribute in acetaminophen oxidation and formation of the hepatotoxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). The in vitro CYP2E1 inhibitory potentials of fennel and raspberry leaf, herbs previously found to inhibit CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 activities in vitro, were investigated. Extracts from commercially available herbal products were incubated with recombinant cDNA-expressed human CYP2E1. A validated LC/MS/MS methodology was applied for determination of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone formation with disulfiram used as a positive inhibitory control. CYP2E1 IC50 inhibition constants were found to be 23 ± 4 and 27 ± 5 µg/ml for fennel and raspberry leaf, respectively, constants significantly lower than those presented in the literature for other herbal extracts. Together with previous findings, the presented in vitro data for CYP2E1 inhibition suggest that fennel and raspberry leaf have a significant potential of inhibiting all the major metabolic pathways for acetaminophen oxidation and NAPQI formation. Both herbs should be further investigated for their in vivo ability of inhibiting acetaminophen oxidation and NAPQI formation.

  20. Chemical composition of fennel essential oil and its impact on Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Li, Hongen; Su, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Luo, Mingjing; Wang, Jianfeng; Leng, Bingfeng; Deng, Yanhong; Liu, Juxiong; Deng, Xuming

    2012-04-01

    In this study, fennel oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, and the chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activity of fennel oil against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated by broth microdilution. A haemolysis assay, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) release assay, western blot, and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were applied to investigate the influence of fennel oil on the production of S. aureus virulence-related exoproteins. The data show that fennel oil, which contains a high level of trans-anethole, was active against S. aureus, with MICs ranging from 64 to 256 μg/ml. Furthermore, fennel oil, when used at subinhibitory concentrations, could dose-dependently decrease the expression of S. aureus exotoxins, including α-toxin, Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1).

  1. The effect of encapsulated fennel extracts on the quality of silver carp fillets during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mazandrani, Hoda Alipour; Javadian, SeyedRoholla; Bahram, Somayeh

    2016-03-01

    The effect of fennel extract on the quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) fillets, and the possible efficacy of liposomal encapsulation in the improvement of its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity during chilled storage (4 + 1°C) of the fillets were examined over a period of 15 days. Silver carp fillets were treated with pure fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v) and liposomal encapsulated fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v), and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), microbial counts, and sensory properties were investigated. Fennel extract could retard the deterioration of silver carp fillets, as reflected in lower TVB-N, PV and TBA value. Moreover, the efficacy of fennel extract was improved when it was encapsulated into liposome. Silver carp fillets treated with the encapsulated fennel extract showed the lowest amount of lipid oxidation and microbial deterioration during the storage period compared with the control and pure extract treatments. Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf life of silver carp fillet was longest for samples treated with encapsulated fennel extract at 0.5% (15 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05).

  2. The effect of encapsulated fennel extracts on the quality of silver carp fillets during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mazandrani, Hoda Alipour; Javadian, SeyedRoholla; Bahram, Somayeh

    2016-03-01

    The effect of fennel extract on the quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) fillets, and the possible efficacy of liposomal encapsulation in the improvement of its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity during chilled storage (4 + 1°C) of the fillets were examined over a period of 15 days. Silver carp fillets were treated with pure fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v) and liposomal encapsulated fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v), and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), microbial counts, and sensory properties were investigated. Fennel extract could retard the deterioration of silver carp fillets, as reflected in lower TVB-N, PV and TBA value. Moreover, the efficacy of fennel extract was improved when it was encapsulated into liposome. Silver carp fillets treated with the encapsulated fennel extract showed the lowest amount of lipid oxidation and microbial deterioration during the storage period compared with the control and pure extract treatments. Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf life of silver carp fillet was longest for samples treated with encapsulated fennel extract at 0.5% (15 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05). PMID:27004119

  3. Allelopathic Plants. Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an annual cereal and one of the first agricultural crops to be domesticated. It is a versatile crop and is broadly used as a food grain for human consumption, malt source for brewing, and feed grain for livestock. On-farm crop uses include pasture, a hay and silage sou...

  4. Fennel allergy is a lipid-transfer protein (LTP)-related food hypersensitivity associated with peach allergy.

    PubMed

    Pastorello, Elide A; Farioli, Laura; Stafylaraki, Chrysi; Scibilia, Joseph; Giuffrida, Maria G; Mascheri, Ambra; Piantanida, Marta; Baro, Cristina; Primavesi, Laura; Nichelatti, Michele; Schroeder, Jan W; Pravettoni, Valerio

    2013-01-23

    Fennel allergy has been rarely reported, and the association with peach allergy has never been described. Our aim was to (i) study the correlation between symptom severity of peach and fennel and (ii) identify fennel allergens and the role of rPru p 3 antibodies in severe reactions to fennel. In 148 patients with peach allergy, we investigated 58 patients with symptoms and IgE antibodies positive to fennel. IgE to rPru p 1, 3, and 4 and rBet v 1, 2, and 4 were measured by immunoblotting, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences and relevant allergens were determined. We found significant association between severe reactions to fennel and peach (p = 0.0009). A major allergen was ~9 kDa lipid-transfer protein (LTP), cross-reactive with Pru p 3, a 15 kDa protein identified as a pathogenesis-related protein 1 of the Bet v 1 family. In conclusion, peach and fennel severe allergic symptoms are significantly related, and LTP is a major fennel allergen. Fennel should be included in the LTP syndrome.

  5. Effects of essential oils from fennel (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway (Carvi aetheroleum) in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schöne, F; Vetter, A; Hartung, H; Bergmann, H; Biertümpfel, A; Richter, G; Müller, S; Breitschuh, G

    2006-12-01

    The ban of antibiotics as a feed additive requires alternatives to stabilize the health and performance particularly of the young animals. Essential oils obtained from fennel seed (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway seed (Carvi aetheroleum) were tested in diets for weaned piglets in comparison with either a diet without feed additive or with a combination of formic acid and copper (positive control). Four groups of sixteen piglets (live weight 7 kg, age 26 days) received diets without (1) or with supplements of 7.5 g formic acid + 160 mg Cu/kg (2), 100 mg fennel oil/kg (3) or 100 mg caraway oil/kg (4) during 3 weeks after weaning. In the subsequent 4 weeks, all piglets were fed a diet without these additions. Fennel oil contained almost 2/3 anethol, approximately 1/5 fenchon and the remaining part consisting of alpha + beta-pinen, limonen (p-mentha-1,8-dien) and estragol. In the caraway oil, half of the contents was represented by limonen and the other half by carvon. There were no piglet losses and only few cases of diarrhoea. The combination of formic acid and copper increased feed consumption by 27% and daily weight gain by 25%. There were no differences in the performance between the group fed fennel oil and the control without additives. Piglets fed caraway oil tended to consume less feed and to gain approximately 10% less. In feed choice experiments, pigs consumed the same two diets from two troughs with 50% of total feed amount, as expected. The diets containing fennel or caraway oils were consumed at less than 50%. If the diet contained 100 mg fennel oil/kg, the decrease of percentual feed intake was significant. The results of the feeding experiment and of the feed choice experiment question the classification of fennel and caraway oils as flavour additives or as 'appetite promoters' in diets for weaned piglets. PMID:17083431

  6. Effects of essential oils from fennel (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway (Carvi aetheroleum) in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schöne, F; Vetter, A; Hartung, H; Bergmann, H; Biertümpfel, A; Richter, G; Müller, S; Breitschuh, G

    2006-12-01

    The ban of antibiotics as a feed additive requires alternatives to stabilize the health and performance particularly of the young animals. Essential oils obtained from fennel seed (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway seed (Carvi aetheroleum) were tested in diets for weaned piglets in comparison with either a diet without feed additive or with a combination of formic acid and copper (positive control). Four groups of sixteen piglets (live weight 7 kg, age 26 days) received diets without (1) or with supplements of 7.5 g formic acid + 160 mg Cu/kg (2), 100 mg fennel oil/kg (3) or 100 mg caraway oil/kg (4) during 3 weeks after weaning. In the subsequent 4 weeks, all piglets were fed a diet without these additions. Fennel oil contained almost 2/3 anethol, approximately 1/5 fenchon and the remaining part consisting of alpha + beta-pinen, limonen (p-mentha-1,8-dien) and estragol. In the caraway oil, half of the contents was represented by limonen and the other half by carvon. There were no piglet losses and only few cases of diarrhoea. The combination of formic acid and copper increased feed consumption by 27% and daily weight gain by 25%. There were no differences in the performance between the group fed fennel oil and the control without additives. Piglets fed caraway oil tended to consume less feed and to gain approximately 10% less. In feed choice experiments, pigs consumed the same two diets from two troughs with 50% of total feed amount, as expected. The diets containing fennel or caraway oils were consumed at less than 50%. If the diet contained 100 mg fennel oil/kg, the decrease of percentual feed intake was significant. The results of the feeding experiment and of the feed choice experiment question the classification of fennel and caraway oils as flavour additives or as 'appetite promoters' in diets for weaned piglets.

  7. Chemical analysis of estragole in fennel based teas and associated safety assessment using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Alhusainy, Wasma; Restani, Patrizia; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the analysis of estragole in dry fennel preparations and in infusions prepared from them and an associated safety assessment. A wide range of estragole levels of 0.15-13.3mg/g dry fennel preparation was found. The estragole content in infusions was considerably lower ranging between 0.4 and 133.4μg/25mL infusion prepared from 1g dry material. Infusions prepared from whole fennel fruits contained about 3-fold less estragole compared to infusions prepared from fine cut fennel material. Safety assessment was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach comparing available tumour data to the estimated daily estragole intakes from the consumption of 1-3 cups fennel tea. MOEs obtained for adults generally point at a low priority for risk management, especially when one cup of fennel tea is used daily during lifetime. MOEs for use of fennel teas by children were generally <10,000 indicating a priority for risk management. However, limiting such uses to 1-2weeks, MOEs might be 3 orders of a magnitude higher and there would be no priority for risk management. These results indicate a low priority for risk management actions for use of fennel teas especially for short-term uses proposed for the symptomatic treatment of digestive disorders.

  8. Hordeum vulgare Seedlings Amine Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Cogoni, Antonina; Piras, Carla; Farci, Raffaele; Melis, Antonello; Floris, Giovanni

    1990-01-01

    Although no amine oxidase could be detected in crude extracts, the enzyme has been purified to apparent homogeneity from Hordeum vulgare seedlings using ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on DEAE cellulose, Hydroxylapatite, and Sephadex G200 columns. Gel filtration experiments indicate a molecular weight of about 150,000. The pH optimum of the enzyme was found to be 7.5 in potassium phosphate buffer. The spectrum of ultraviolet and visible regions were similar to Cuamine oxidase from Leguminosae. PMID:16667542

  9. Antibacterial effects of Iranian fennel essential oil on isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Jazani, N H; Zartoshti, M; Babazadeh, H; Ali-daiee, N; Zarrin, S; Hosseini, S

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Fennel essential oil on isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. Forty eight isolates were collected from clinical specimens from burn wards of hospitals in Tehran, Iran between April and September, 2006. The susceptibility of isolates was determined using a broth microdilution method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of isolates to Fennel essential oil were determined. The susceptibilities of isolates to different antibiotics were tested using agar disk diffusion method. The rates of resistance were determined to antibiotics as follows: cefazolin 100%, ciprofloxacin 100%, ofloxacin 95.8%, kanamycin 95.8%, carbenicillin 93.7%, ticarcillin 93.7%, piperacillin 88.9%, co-trimoxazole 79.1%, ceftizoxime 75%, gentamicin 70.8%, cefalotin 60.4%, amikacin 52% and imipenem 14.6%. Fennel essential oil possessed antibacterial effect against all isolates of A. baumannii. These results suggest the potential use of the Fennel essential oil for the control of multi-drug resistant A. baumannii infections. However, more adequate studies must be carried out to verify the possibility of using it for fighting bacterial infections in human.

  10. Discrimination of fennel chemotypes applying IR and Raman spectroscopy: discovery of a new γ-asarone chemotype.

    PubMed

    Gudi, Gennadi; Krähmer, Andrea; Krüger, Hans; Hennig, Lothar; Schulz, Hartwig

    2014-04-23

    Various vibrational spectroscopy methods have been applied to classify different fennel chemotypes according to their individual profile of volatile substances. Intact fennel fruits of different chemotypes could be successfully discriminated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Solvent extracts (CCl4) of the considered fennel fruits showed characteristic fingerprints with marker bands related to the individual volatile components (trans-anethole, fenchone, estragole, piperitenone oxide, γ-asarone, limonene) for ATR-FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Especially νC═C and νC═O absorption bands contribute to the different spectral profiles. On the basis of hierarchical cluster analysis, the considered fennel accessions were classified according to gas chromatographic (GC) and vibrational spectroscopic data. Furthermore, even a discrimination of "sweet" and "bitter" fennel fruits, both belonging to the trans-anethole chemotype, could be successfully performed. All vibrational spectroscopical techniques used in this study are rapid and easy to apply. Hence, they allow different fennel chemotypes to be reliably distinguished and can also be used for on-site measurement in free nature.

  11. Study of the metabolism of estragole in humans consuming fennel tea.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Annette; Horst, Kathie; Rychlik, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The metabolism of the potent carcinogen estragole was investigated in humans after consumption of fennel tea by analyses of its metabolites in blood plasma and urine. Stable isotope dilution assays based on LC-MS/MS detection revealed that 1'-hydroxylation of estragole happened very fast as the concentration of conjugated 1'-hydroxyestragole in urine peaked after 1.5 h, whereas it was no longer detectable after 10 h. Besides the formation of less than 0.41% conjugated 1'-hydroxyestragole of the estragole dose administered, the further metabolite p-allylphenol was generated from estragole in a higher percentage (17%). Both metabolites were also detected in blood plasma in less than 0.75-2.5 h after consumption of fennel tea. In contrast to this, no estragole was present in these samples above its detection limit. From the results, it can be concluded that an excess of the major fennel odorant trans-anethole principally does not interfere with estragole metabolism, whereas influences on the quantitative composition of metabolites cannot be excluded. The presence of a sulfuric acid conjugate of estragole could not be confirmed, possibly due to its high reactivity and lability.

  12. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M.; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M.

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  13. Comparison of Repellency Effect of Mosquito Repellents for DEET, Citronella, and Fennel Oil

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jong Kwang; Kim, Kang-Chang; Cho, Yeondong; Gwon, Yong-Dae; Cho, Han Sam; Heo, Yoonki; Park, Kihoon; Lee, Yang-Won; Kim, Mijeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2015-01-01

    To confirm that Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guidelines are applicable to test the efficacy of mosquito repellents, these guidelines were used to test the efficacy and complete protection times (CPTs) of three representative mosquito repellents: N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), citronella, and fennel oil. The repellency of citronella oil decreased over time, from 97.9% at 0 h to 71.4% at 1 h and 57.7% at 2 h, as did the repellency of fennel oil, from 88.6% at 0 h to 61.2% at 1 h and 47.4% at 2 h. In contrast, the repellency of DEET remained over 90% for 6 h. The CPT of DEET (360 min) was much longer than the CPTs of citronella (10.5 min) and fennel oil (8.4 min). These results did not differ significantly from previous findings, and hence confirm that the KFDA guidelines are applicable for testing the efficacy of mosquito repellents. PMID:26527362

  14. Comparison of Repellency Effect of Mosquito Repellents for DEET, Citronella, and Fennel Oil.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Kwang; Kim, Kang-Chang; Cho, Yeondong; Gwon, Yong-Dae; Cho, Han Sam; Heo, Yoonki; Park, Kihoon; Lee, Yang-Won; Kim, Mijeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2015-01-01

    To confirm that Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guidelines are applicable to test the efficacy of mosquito repellents, these guidelines were used to test the efficacy and complete protection times (CPTs) of three representative mosquito repellents: N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), citronella, and fennel oil. The repellency of citronella oil decreased over time, from 97.9% at 0 h to 71.4% at 1 h and 57.7% at 2 h, as did the repellency of fennel oil, from 88.6% at 0 h to 61.2% at 1 h and 47.4% at 2 h. In contrast, the repellency of DEET remained over 90% for 6 h. The CPT of DEET (360 min) was much longer than the CPTs of citronella (10.5 min) and fennel oil (8.4 min). These results did not differ significantly from previous findings, and hence confirm that the KFDA guidelines are applicable for testing the efficacy of mosquito repellents.

  15. Comparison of Repellency Effect of Mosquito Repellents for DEET, Citronella, and Fennel Oil.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Kwang; Kim, Kang-Chang; Cho, Yeondong; Gwon, Yong-Dae; Cho, Han Sam; Heo, Yoonki; Park, Kihoon; Lee, Yang-Won; Kim, Mijeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2015-01-01

    To confirm that Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guidelines are applicable to test the efficacy of mosquito repellents, these guidelines were used to test the efficacy and complete protection times (CPTs) of three representative mosquito repellents: N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), citronella, and fennel oil. The repellency of citronella oil decreased over time, from 97.9% at 0 h to 71.4% at 1 h and 57.7% at 2 h, as did the repellency of fennel oil, from 88.6% at 0 h to 61.2% at 1 h and 47.4% at 2 h. In contrast, the repellency of DEET remained over 90% for 6 h. The CPT of DEET (360 min) was much longer than the CPTs of citronella (10.5 min) and fennel oil (8.4 min). These results did not differ significantly from previous findings, and hence confirm that the KFDA guidelines are applicable for testing the efficacy of mosquito repellents. PMID:26527362

  16. Temperature-Dependent Fecundity and Life Table of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Lira, Aline C S; Oliveira, Flávia Q; Zanuncio, José C; Fernandes, Francisco S

    2015-01-01

    Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a cosmopolitan species and the main pest of fennel in northeastern Brazil. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of H. foeniculi is essential to predict the population dynamics of this aphid in the fennel crop. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of constant temperature on the adult prereproductive period and the life table fertility parameters (infinitesimal increase ratio (rm), gross reproduction rate (GRR), net reproduction rate (R0), finite increase ratio (λ), generation time (GT), the time required for the population to double in the number of individuals (DT), and the reproduction value (RVx)) of the fennel pest H. foeniculi. The values of lx (survival of nymphs at age x) increased as the temperature rose from 15 to 28°C and fell at 30°C, whereas mx (number of nymphs produced by each nymph of age x) increased from 15 to 25°C and fell at 28 and 30°C. The net reproduction rates (R0) of populations of H. foeniculi increased with temperature and ranged from 1.9 at 15°C to 12.23 at 28°C for each generation. The highest population increase occurred with the apterous aphids at 28°C. The rate of population increase per unit time (rm) (day) ranged from 0.0033 (15°C) to 0.1995 (28°C). The highest values of rm were recorded at temperatures of 28°C and 30°C. The rm values were a good fit to the models tested, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The models tested (Davidson, Sharpe and DeMichele modified by Schoolfield et al., Logan et al., Lamb, and Briere et al.) were very good fits for the rm values observed, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The only exception was the Davidson model. Of the parameters studied, the reproductive capacity was higher in the apterous aphids, with the unique exception of daily fecundity at 28°C, which was higher in the alate aphids of H. foeniculi. Parameters relating to the age-specific fertility table for H

  17. Temperature-Dependent Fecundity and Life Table of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Lira, Aline C S; Oliveira, Flávia Q; Zanuncio, José C; Fernandes, Francisco S

    2015-01-01

    Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a cosmopolitan species and the main pest of fennel in northeastern Brazil. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of H. foeniculi is essential to predict the population dynamics of this aphid in the fennel crop. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of constant temperature on the adult prereproductive period and the life table fertility parameters (infinitesimal increase ratio (rm), gross reproduction rate (GRR), net reproduction rate (R0), finite increase ratio (λ), generation time (GT), the time required for the population to double in the number of individuals (DT), and the reproduction value (RVx)) of the fennel pest H. foeniculi. The values of lx (survival of nymphs at age x) increased as the temperature rose from 15 to 28°C and fell at 30°C, whereas mx (number of nymphs produced by each nymph of age x) increased from 15 to 25°C and fell at 28 and 30°C. The net reproduction rates (R0) of populations of H. foeniculi increased with temperature and ranged from 1.9 at 15°C to 12.23 at 28°C for each generation. The highest population increase occurred with the apterous aphids at 28°C. The rate of population increase per unit time (rm) (day) ranged from 0.0033 (15°C) to 0.1995 (28°C). The highest values of rm were recorded at temperatures of 28°C and 30°C. The rm values were a good fit to the models tested, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The models tested (Davidson, Sharpe and DeMichele modified by Schoolfield et al., Logan et al., Lamb, and Briere et al.) were very good fits for the rm values observed, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The only exception was the Davidson model. Of the parameters studied, the reproductive capacity was higher in the apterous aphids, with the unique exception of daily fecundity at 28°C, which was higher in the alate aphids of H. foeniculi. Parameters relating to the age-specific fertility table for H

  18. Vulgar Pragmatism, Critical Pragmatism, and EAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Alastair

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Allison's (1996) defense of pragmatism, arguing that it is necessary to distinguish between "vulgar" and "critical" pragmatism and showing how various "discourses of neutrality" help construct English for academic purposes (EAP) as a neutral enterprise. Some of the directions in which a critical approach to EAP might proceed are…

  19. Quantification of estragole in fennel herbal teas: implications on the assessment of dietary exposure to estragole.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Antonio; Nicoli, Stefano; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    Quantification of estragole content in commercial fennel herbal teas was carried out in order to allow for a more accurate estimate of the dietary exposure to estragole. A simple and rapid analytical method, based on Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction and GC-MS, was developed for this purpose. Fennel teas obtained from different types of commercial products were analysed. Concentration levels ranged from 241 to 2058 μg L(-1) in teas from teabags, from 9 to 912 μg L(-1) in diluted instant teas, from 251 to 1718 μg L(-1) in teas from not packaged seeds. Based on these data and considering the daily consumption of three portions of herbal tea, a maximum exposure to estragole for adults of 10 μg/kg bw/day was calculated. The relatively high level observed in diluted instant teas of some brands deserves attention since these products are designed for infant consumption. Estimated exposure in infants was up to 51 μg/kg bw/day for teas from teabags, and up to 23 μg/kg bw/day for instant teas. A generalization of the use of suitable technologies in production processes of instant teas could substantially reduce the exposure to estragole in the vulnerable population groups (infants, young children, pregnant and breastfeeding women) who consume these products.

  20. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil. PMID:17337133

  1. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil.

  2. Development and characterization of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum as a source of donor alleles in a Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare background.

    PubMed

    Matus, I; Corey, A; Filichkin, T; Hayes, P M; Vales, M I; Kling, J; Riera-Lizarazu, O; Sato, K; Powell, W; Waugh, R

    2003-12-01

    The ancestor of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) may be a source of novel alleles for crop improvement. We developed a set of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using an accession of H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Caesarea 26-24, from Israel) as the donor and Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Harrington' (the North American malting quality standard) as the recurrent parent via two backcrosses to the recurrent parent, followed by six generations of selfing. Here we report (i) the genomic architecture of the RCSLs, as inferred by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and (ii) the effects of H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum genome segment introgressions in terms of three classes of phenotypes: inflorescence yield components, malting quality traits, and domestication traits. Significant differences among the RCSLs were detected for all phenotypes measured. The phenotypic effects of the introgressions were assessed using association analysis, and these were referenced to quantitative trait loci (QTL) reported in the literature. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, despite its overall inferior phenotype, contributed some favorable alleles for agronomic and malting quality traits. In most cases, the introgression of the ancestral genome resulted in a loss of desirable phenotypes in the cultivated parent. Although disappointing from a plant breeding perspective, this finding may prove to be a useful tool for gene discovery.

  3. Changes in the Essential Oil Components during the Development of Fennel Plants from Somatic Embryoids.

    PubMed

    Miura, Y; Ogawa, K; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

    1987-02-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes of essential oils during the development of clonal plants of fennel propagated through somatic embryogenesis were investigated. Although no essential oil could be detected either in cultured cells or in somatic embryoids, monoter-penes such as alpha-phellandrene and alpha-pinene were found in radical leaves of regenerated plantlets cultured on a hormone-free agar medium. The regenerated plants cultivated in the field for about one month accumulated phenylpropanoids such as estragole, anethole, and fenchone in addition to the two monoterpenes described above in radical leaves. Rich accumulations of phenylpropanoids and monoterpenes were observed in the fruits; especially the contents of estragole and anethole were much higher than in radical leaves. PMID:17268973

  4. [Influence of spiced feed additives on taste of hen's eggs].

    PubMed

    Richter, Th; Braun, P; Fehlhaber, K

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the spices garlic (Allium sativum), extract from garlic, sage (Salvia officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), peppermint (Mentha piperita), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), paprika (Capsicum annuum), marjoram (Majorana hortensis), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and sausage-mix fed to white hybrides on the quality of eggs (n = 705) was tested by 10 qualified persons. Changes in smell or taste were partly significant; a direct improvement is hard to induce. A well seasoned taste was obtained by feeding of garlic, fennel, peppermint and marjoram. They produce an aromatic flavor. A practical application is possible but limited by higher production prices. Further, it is uncertain if there is a need for "taste-manipulated" eggs.

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of selected Iranian essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nutrient broth medium.

    PubMed

    Mohsenzadeh, Mohammad

    2007-10-15

    The antibacterial effect of different concentrations (0.01 to 15%) of thyme (Thymus vulgaris), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) caraway seed (Carum carvi), fennel (Foeniculum vulgar), tarragon (Artmesia dracunculus) and pennyroyal (Mentha pullegium) essential oils on the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied in nutrient broth medium. The MIC values of peppermint, fennel, thyme, pennyroyal and caraway essential oils against Escherichia coli were 0.5 +/- 0.03, 1 +/- 0.03, 0.3 +/- 0.01, 0.7 +/- 0.03 and 0.6 +/- 0.02% and in contrast, for Staphylococcus aureus were 0.4 +/- 0.01, 2 +/- 0.13, 0.1 +/- 0.01, 0.5 +/- 0.02 and 0.5 +/- 0.02%, respectively. The MBC values of peppermint, fennel, thyme, pennyroyal and caraway essential oils for Escherichia coli were 0.7 +/- 0.02, 2 +/- 0.05, 0.5 +/- 0.02, 1 +/- 0.02 and 0.8 +/- 0.02 and for Staphylococcus aureus were 0.5 +/- 0.02, 4 +/- 0.26, 0.3 +/- 0.02, 0.7 +/- 0.02 and 0.6 +/- 0.01, respectively. Statistical evaluation of the results indicated that the essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) showed the broadest spectrum of action (p < 0.05). Essential oils of peppermint (Mentha piperita), caraway seed (Carum carvi), pennyroyal (Menthae pullegium) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgar) had moderate effect against tested microorganisms and in contrast, tarragon essential oil were less effective against tested microorganisms. In conclusion, essential oils of edible plants could be a potential source for inhibitory substances for some foodborne pathogens. Natural substances that extracted from plants have applications in controlling pathogens in foods.

  6. Analysis of chromosomal polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and between H. vulgare and H. chilense using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Szakács, É; Kruppa, K; Molnár-Láng, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study chromosomal polymorphism within cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The physical distribution of the most frequently used, highly repetitive DNA sequences (GAA)7 specific for pericentromeric heterochromatic regions, the ribosomal DNA clone pTa71, specific for the 45S rDNA, and the barley-specific telomere-associated sequence HvT01, was investigated to reveal genetic diversity in metaphase spreads of ten barley genotypes with diverse geographical origin, growth habit and row number. A wild relative of barley, Hordeum chilense was also studied in order to compare the polymorphism between and within Hordeum species. Significant differences in the hybridization patterns of all three DNA probes could be detected between the two related species, but only probes pTa71 and HvT01 showed variation in the intensity and/or position of hybridization sites among genotypes of H. vulgare ssp. vulgare. The extent of polymorphism was less than that earlier reported for molecular markers and was restricted to the long chromosome arms, with differences between the chromosomes. 1H and 3H proved to be the most variable chromosomes and 4H and 6H the most conserved.

  7. Marruboside, a new phenylethanoid glycoside from Marrubium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Hennebelle, Thierry; Bailleul, François

    2002-06-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, marruboside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. Its structure was established as 3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenylethoxy-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-4-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  8. The vasorelaxant activity of marrubenol and marrubiin from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    El Bardai, Sanae; Morel, Nicole; Wibo, Maurice; Fabre, Nicolas; Llabres, Gabriel; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2003-01-01

    Crude extracts of the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare show a potent in vitro inhibition of KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta. Bio-guided fractionations, spectroscopic analysis and chemical derivatization revealed the furanic labdane diterpenes marrubenol and marrubiin as the most active compounds.

  9. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of Sargassum vulgare alginate from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Marcia R; Sousa, Alessandra P A; Silva Filho, Eduardo A T; Melo, Dirce F; Feitosa, Judith P A; de Paula, Regina C M; Lima, Maria G S

    2007-10-15

    Alginate fractions from Sargassum vulgare brown seaweed were characterized by (1)H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy and by rheological measurements. The alginate extraction conditions were investigated. In order to carry out the structural and physicochemical characterization, samples extracted for 1 and 5h at 60 degrees C were further purified by re-precipitation with ethanol and denoted as SVLV (S. vulgare low viscosity) and SVHV (S. vulgare high viscosity), respectively. The M/G ratio values for SVLV and SVHV were 1.56 and 1.27, respectively, higher than the ratio for most Sargassum spp. alginates (0.19-0.82). The homopolymeric blocks F(GG) and F(MM) of these fractions characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy were 0.43 and 0.55 for SVHV and 0.36 and 0.58 for SVLV samples, respectively, these values typically being within 0.28-0.77 and 0.07-0.41, respectively. Therefore, the alginate samples from S. vulgare are much richer in mannuronic block structures than those from other Sargassum species. Values of M(w) for alginate samples were also calculated using intrinsic viscosity data. The M(w) value for SVLV (1.94 x 10(5)g/mol) was lower than that for SVHV (3.3 x 10(5)g/mol). Newtonian behavior was observed for a solution concentration as high as 0.7% for SVLV, while for SVHV the solutions behaved as a Newtonian fluid up to 0.5%. The optimal conditions for obtaining the alginates from S. vulgare were 60 degrees C and 5h extraction. Under these conditions, a more viscous alginate in higher yield was extracted from the seaweed biomass. PMID:17585891

  10. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) inhibition by tienilic acid produces hepatic injury: Antioxidant protection by fennel extract and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, Khaled G; Fawzi, Heba; Mannaa, Fathia A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC) or fennel seed extract (FSE) on paraoxonase-1 activity (PON1) and oxidative stress in liver of tienilic acid (TA) treated rats. Six groups of rats were treated for six weeks as follows: control; WPC (0.5g/kg/day); FSE (200mg/ kg/day); TA (1g/kg/twice a week); TA (1g/kg/twice a week) plus WPC (0.5g/kg/day); TA (1g/kg/twice a week) plus FSE (200mg/kg/day). TA administration significantly increased ALT and AST besides to total- and direct bilirubin levels. Also, serum tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels were significantly increased. Furthermore, serum PON1, and hepatic reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase values were diminished matched with a significant rise in the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation. Also, triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly elevated while HDL-cholesterol was unchanged. The administration of either WPC or FSE to TA-treated animals significantly protected the liver against the injurious effects of tienilic acid. This appeared from the improvement of hepatic functions, atherogenic markers, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity, endogenous antioxidants and hepatic lipid peroxidation level; where WPC showed the strongest protection effect. In conclusion, the present study indicated that WPC and FSE improve PON1 activity and attenuate liver dysfunction induced by TA. This may be attributed to the high content of antioxidant compounds in WPC and fennel extract.

  11. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) inhibition by tienilic acid produces hepatic injury: Antioxidant protection by fennel extract and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, Khaled G; Fawzi, Heba; Mannaa, Fathia A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC) or fennel seed extract (FSE) on paraoxonase-1 activity (PON1) and oxidative stress in liver of tienilic acid (TA) treated rats. Six groups of rats were treated for six weeks as follows: control; WPC (0.5g/kg/day); FSE (200mg/ kg/day); TA (1g/kg/twice a week); TA (1g/kg/twice a week) plus WPC (0.5g/kg/day); TA (1g/kg/twice a week) plus FSE (200mg/kg/day). TA administration significantly increased ALT and AST besides to total- and direct bilirubin levels. Also, serum tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels were significantly increased. Furthermore, serum PON1, and hepatic reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase values were diminished matched with a significant rise in the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation. Also, triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly elevated while HDL-cholesterol was unchanged. The administration of either WPC or FSE to TA-treated animals significantly protected the liver against the injurious effects of tienilic acid. This appeared from the improvement of hepatic functions, atherogenic markers, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity, endogenous antioxidants and hepatic lipid peroxidation level; where WPC showed the strongest protection effect. In conclusion, the present study indicated that WPC and FSE improve PON1 activity and attenuate liver dysfunction induced by TA. This may be attributed to the high content of antioxidant compounds in WPC and fennel extract. PMID:26884099

  12. Isolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Garbacki, Nancy; Tits, Monique; Bailleul, Francois

    2002-03-01

    The isolation and identification of major phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare: (+) (E)-caffeoyl-L-malic acid 1, acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, ballotetroside 5, as well as their anti-inflammatory activity are reported for the first time. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of these five compounds on cyclooxygenase (Cox) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis activity. Only the glycosidic phenylpropanoid esters showed an inhibitory activity towards the Cox-2 enzyme and three of them: acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, exhibited higher inhibitory potencies on Cox-2 than on Cox-1. These results are of interest, as Cox-2 is mainly associated with inflammation and the Cox-1 inhibition with adverse side effects often observed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The occurrence of these phenylpropanoid esters could also explain some other pharmacological properties of M. vulgare.

  13. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study we aimed to quantify marrubiin, as the major active compound, in the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare from Iran using a HPTLC-densitometry technique. Methods: Quantitative determination of marrubiin in M. vulgare methanol extract was performed by HPTLC analysis via a fully automated TLC scanner. Later on, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the M. vulgare methanol extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the methanol extract were quantified, spectrophotometrically. Results: The amount of marrubiin was calculated as 156 mg/g of M. vulgare extract. The antioxidant assay revealed a strong radical scavenging activity for the M. vulgare methanol extract with RC50 value of 8.24μg/mL. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents for M. vulgare were determined as 60.4 mg gallic acid equivalent and 12.05 mg quercetin equivalent per each gram of the extract, correspondingly. Conclusion: The presented fingerprint of marrubiin in M. vulgare extract developed by HPTLC densitometry afforded a detailed chemical profile, which might be useful in the identification as well as quality evaluation of herbal medications based on M. vulgare. Besides, the considerable antioxidant activity of M. vulgare was associated with the presence of marrubiin along with phenolics and flavonoids exerting a synergistic effect. PMID:27123428

  14. Chemical constituents and biological studies of Origanum vulgare Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Mukhopadhyay, T.; Annamalai, T.; Radhakrishnan, N.; Sahoo, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanolic extract of the leaves of Origanum vulgare Linn., yielded two protocatechuic acid ester derivatives, origanol A (1) and origanol B (2) along with ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5), and triacontanol (6). Structures of the compound were established based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass). Origanol A (1) showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. PMID:21772760

  15. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on Origanum vulgare L.(Laminaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Prathyusha, P.; Subramanian, M.S.; Nisha, M.C.; Santhanakrishnan, R.; Seena, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    With increasing demand in the field of herbal medicines and cosmetics, it has become necessary and pertinent to probe into the area of systematic knowledge about herbal drugs. There is a need for the application of this knowledge in authentification, detailed study and practical utilization of crude drugs. The present paper deals with the taxonomy, anatomy, powder study pertaining to organoleptic, microscopic, fluorescence, physical constant evaluations and phytochemical screening of Origanum vulgare L. PMID:22557346

  16. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate. PMID:26454793

  17. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate.

  18. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    De Falco, Enrica; Mancini, Emilia; Roscigno, Graziana; Mignola, Enrico; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis. PMID:24304588

  19. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    De Falco, Enrica; Mancini, Emilia; Roscigno, Graziana; Mignola, Enrico; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Senatore, Felice

    2013-12-04

    This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  20. "Reader, I Detained Him Under the Mental Health Act": a literary response to Professor Fennell's best interests and treatment for mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Gurnham, David

    2008-09-01

    This is a response to Professor Fennell's paper on the recent influence and impact of the best interests test on the treatment of patients detained under the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA) for mental disorder. I discuss two points of general ethical significance raised by Professor Fennell. Firstly, I consider his argument on the breadth of the best interests test, incorporating as it does factors considerably wider than those of medical justifications and the risk of harm. Secondly, I discuss his contention that the apparent permeability of the line between the interests of the patient and the interests of society is something to be concerned about in itself. Since the overarching theme of the paper is the proper place of social and cultural values, my reponse considers the implications of Fennell's arguments in the light of Charlotte Brontë's novel 'Jane Eyre', which, through the character of Bertha Mason (the infamous 'mad woman in the attic') provides a provocative study of the relationship between mental disorder and society.

  1. Crop residue and residue management effects on Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae) populations and soybean stand densities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W A; Alfaress, S; Whitworth, R J; McCornack, B P

    2012-10-01

    In general, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) are considered nonpests of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], but changes in soil conservation practices have shifted the pest status of this organism from an opportunistic to a perennial, early-season pest in parts of central Kansas. As a result, soybean producers that rotate with corn (Zea mays L.) under conservation tillage practices have resorted to removing excess corn residue by using controlled burns. In a 2-yr field study (2009-2010), we demonstrated that residue removal in burned compared with unburned plots (measured as previous crop residue weights) had minimal impact on numbers of live and dead A. vulgare, soybean seedling emergence, and isopod feeding damage over time. Specifically, removal of residue by burning did not result in higher emergence rates for soybean stands or less feeding damage by A. vulgare. In a separate study, we found that number of live A. vulgare and residue weights had no consistent relationship with seedling emergence or feeding damage. Furthermore, seedling emergence was not impacted by higher numbers ofA. vulgare in unburned plots, indicating that emergence in this study may have been influenced by factors other than A. vulgare densities. These studies demonstrate that removing residue through controlled burning did not impact seedling emergence in presence of A. vulgare and that residue and feeding damage to seedlings did not consistently relate to A. vulgare densities. Other factors that may have influenced a relationship between residue and live isopod numbers, such as variable moisture levels, are discussed. PMID:23156159

  2. The complete chloroplast genome of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lukas, Brigitte; Novak, Johannes

    2013-10-10

    Oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae) is a medicinal and aromatic plant maybe best known for flavouring pizza. New applications e.g. as natural antioxidants for food are emerging due to the plants' high antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Origanum vulgare (GenBank/EBML/DDBJ accession number: JX880022) consists of 151,935 bp and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,527 bp separated by one small and one large single copy region (SSC and LSC) of 17,745 and 83,136 bp, respectively. The genome with an overall GC content of 38% hosts 114 genes that covering 63% of the genome of which 8% were introns. The comparison of the Origanum cp genome with the cp genomes of two other core lamiales (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Sesamum indicum L.) revealed completely conserved protein-coding regions in the IR region but also in the LSC and SSC regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the lamiids based on 56 protein-coding genes give a hint at the basic structure of the Lamiales. However, further genomes will be necessary to clarify this taxonomically complicated order. The variability of the cp within the genus Origanum, studied exemplarily on 16 different chloroplast DNA regions, demonstrated that in 14 regions analyzed, the variability was extremely low (max. 0.7%), while only two regions showed a moderate variability of up to 2.3%. The cp genome of Origanum vulgare contains 27 perfect mononucleotide repeats (number of repeats>9) consisting exclusively of the nucleotides A or T. 34 perfect repeats (repeat lengths>1 and number of repeats>3) were found, of which 32 were di-, and 2 were trinucleotide repeats.

  3. Analgesic profile of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    de Souza, M M; de Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Schlemper, V

    1998-04-01

    Marrubium vulgare L. is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to cure a variety of diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that a hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed significant, nonspecific antispasmodic effects on isolated smooth muscle. In this report, we have investigated the possible analgesic effects of the same hydroalcoholic extract in different models of pain in mice. The results suggest that this extract exhibits significant analgesic activity, antagonizing chemically-induced acute pain. Such effects may be related to the presence of steroids and terpenes, which were detected by TLC analysis.

  4. Evaluation of essential oils for maintaining postharvest quality of Thompson seedless table grape.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Ali; Hassani, Abbas; Ghosta, Youbert; Bernousi, Iraj; Meshkatalsadat, Mohammad Hadi; Shabani, Razieh; Ziaee, Seyed Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The effects of postharvest spraying of essential oils from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), summer savory (Satureja hortensis) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on fungal decay and quality parameters of the 'Thompson seedless' table grape stored at 0 ± 1°C for 60 days were evaluated. Results showed that the essential oils, especially of thyme and fennel, have a good inhibitory effect on the development of fungal decay in Thompson table grapes. In addition, essential oils reduced weight loss, berry and rachis browning and had no considerable adverse effect on the flavour of the fruits. GC-MS analysis showed that the main compounds identified in sweet basil, fennel, summer savory and thyme oils are linalool (65.25%), trans-anethole (64.72%), carvacrol (54.14%) and β-ocimene (12.62%), respectively. Therefore, these essential oils have good potential for use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides for the preservation and storage of table grapes. PMID:21999332

  5. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis)

    PubMed Central

    Akaberi, Maryam; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally. PMID:26949491

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Agona: characterization of a diffuse outbreak caused by aniseed-fennel-caraway infusion.

    PubMed

    Rabsch, W; Prager, R; Koch, J; Stark, K; Roggentin, P; Bockemühl, J; Beckmann, G; Stark, R; Siegl, W; Ammon, A; Tschäpe, H

    2005-10-01

    During 2002-2003 increased numbers of notified salmonellosis due to S. enterica serovar Agona were observed in Germany. In order to understand the recent spread of this serovar and to trace the route of infection to its source, a new phage-typing scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to analyse these isolates. By using 14 bacteriophages, 52 phage types were distinguished among the S. Agona strains. PFGE also differentiated 52 different patterns. A combination of both methods generated 94 clonal types among 165 S. Agona strains originating from Germany and other countries including the United States, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, India, Austria and Finland, indicating a great biological diversity within this serovar. However, 36 recent S. Agona isolates from infantile gastroenteritis in Germany, from an untreated batch of aniseed imported from Turkey and from fennel-aniseed-caraway infusion (packed in tea bags) revealed clonal identity indicating their epidemiological relatedness as a new source of infection. It is suggested that strains of S. Agona will continue to be of public health concern, and that phage typing together with PFGE typing should be applied as reliable and rapid tools for epidemiological subtyping and future monitoring.

  7. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis).

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-11-01

    Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally.

  8. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis).

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-11-01

    Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally. PMID:26949491

  9. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Echium vulgare honey found in pure pollen.

    PubMed

    Boppré, Michael; Colegate, Steven M; Edgar, John A

    2005-02-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloids previously identified in floral honey attributed to Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae) have been detected (8000-14 000 ppm) in pure pollen collected from the anthers of Echium vulgare. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and/or their N-oxides were isolated from the aqueous acid extracts of pollen by use of strong cation-exchange, solid-phase extraction and identified by liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (LCMS) analysis. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the pollen are present mainly as the N-oxides. In addition to seven previously described pyrrolizidine alkaloids and/or their N-oxides (echimidine, acetylechimidine, uplandicine, 9-O-angelylretronecine, echiuplatine, leptanthine, and echimiplatine), one unidentified (echivulgarine), but previously found in honey, and two previously undescribed (vulgarine and 7-O-acetylvulgarine) pyrrolizidine alkaloids and/or their N-oxides were identified in the pollen. Tentative structures for these unidentified pyrrolizidine alkaloids are proposed on the basis of the mass spectrometric data and biogenetic considerations. The implications of these results for identifying the source and subsequent concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honeys and commercial bee pollen are briefly discussed. PMID:15686407

  10. The renal effects of alginates isolated from brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare.

    PubMed

    de Paula Alves Sousa, Alessandra; Barbosa, Paulo Sergio Ferreira; Torres, Márcia Rocha; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Martins, René Duarte; de Sousa Alves, Renata; de Sousa, Daniel Freire; Alves, Claudênio Diógenes; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Monteiro, Helena Serra Azul

    2008-04-01

    Alginates isolated from Sargassum vulgare, present a strong antitumor activity, associated with kidney reversible damage, as analysed by histopathology of treated animals. In the present study, the renal alteration mechanisms of S. vulgare alginates were investigated using the isolated perfused rat kidney and the isolated perfused rat mesenteric blood vessel methods. The results showed that the effects of Sargassum vulgare low viscosity (SVLV) alginate were more potent than those of Sargassum vulgare high viscosity (SVHV) alginate in the isolated rat kidney. The SVLV alginate caused considerable changes in renal physiology, as shown by an increase in parameters such as perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow and sodium, potassium and chloride excretion and by reduction of chloride tubular transport. The effects of SVHV were weaker than those of SVLV. The effects of SVLV on kidney could be related to direct vascular action as demonstrated with SVLV alginate on mesenteric blood vessels. In conclusion, the Sargassum vulgare alginate altered the renal function parameters evaluated. S. vulgare low viscosity alginate renal effects were more potent than S. vulgare high viscosity alginate. It is suggested that physicochemical differences between SVHV and SVLV could explain the differences found in the results. PMID:17642066

  11. Intercropping garlic plants reduces Tetranychus urticae in strawberry crop.

    PubMed

    Hata, Fernando T; Ventura, Maurício U; Carvalho, Mateus G; Miguel, André L A; Souza, Mariana S J; Paula, Maria T; Zawadneak, Maria A C

    2016-07-01

    The effect of aromatic plants on number of twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, when intercropped with strawberry were assessed in the field. During the first year, chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), or sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) were intercropped with strawberry. Assessments were performed on TSSM populations by taking six samples from July 20 to September 20, 2012. During the second year, garlic plants were intercropped between rows of strawberry at three densities in greenhouse and field. Mobile forms and eggs numbers (only in field) of TSSM were evaluated from April 18 to June 05 (greenhouse) and June 06 to August 14, 2013 (field). It was found that intercropping with garlic caused a greater reduction of TSSM (up to 52 %) in strawberry plants when higher populations of TSSM occurred in the field. TSSM reduction was found in one sample when fennel and chives were intercropped with strawberries (42 and 50 % reduction, respectively); this also occurred when populations of TSSM were higher. The three densities of garlic plants (one, two and three rows among the strawberry rows) reduced TSSM mobile forms by 49, 53 and 60 % (greenhouse) and 44, 51 and 65 % (field), and eggs by 38, 43 and 64 % (field), respectively. The results suggest that intercropping garlic plants between strawberry rows is a promising strategy to reduce TSSM populations. PMID:27085718

  12. Non-destructive NIR-FT-Raman analyses in practice. Part I. Analyses of plants and historic textiles.

    PubMed

    Andreev, G N; Schrader, B; Schulz, H; Fuchs, R; Popov, S; Handjieva, N

    2001-12-01

    Non-destructive analysis of natural substances in plants as well as of old dyed textiles by Raman spectroscopy has not been possible using conventional techniques. Exciting lines from the visible part of the spectrum produced photochemical and thermal decomposition of the objects as well as strong fluorescence. Using Nd:YAG laser excitation at 1,064 nm together with a special sample arrangement and interferometric recording, various polyacetylenes in Aethusa cynapium and in chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and the main valuable substances in gentian species (Gentiana lutea and G. punctata), curcuma roots (Curcuma longa), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), and ginger (Zingiber officinale) were analyzed non-destructively and discussed in comparison with the corresponding pure standard compounds. We further analyzed non-destructively the FT Raman spectra of collections of historical textiles and lakes used for dyeing. It is possible to distinguish the main dye component non-destructively by using Raman bands.

  13. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives.

    PubMed

    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-01

    Consumers demand more and more so-called "natural" products and, therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the effects of natural versus synthetic antioxidant preservatives in yogurts. Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) decoctions were tested as natural additives, while potassium sorbate (E202) was used as a synthetic additive. The fortification of yogurts with natural and synthetic antioxidants did not cause significant changes in the yoghurt pH and nutritional value, in comparison with control samples (yogurt without any additive). However, the fortified yogurts showed higher antioxidant activity, mainly the yogurts with natural additives (and among these, the ones with chamomile decoction). Overall, it can be concluded that plant decoctions can be used to develop novel yogurts, by replacing synthetic preservatives and improving the antioxidant properties of the final product, without changing the nutritional profile. PMID:27211646

  14. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives.

    PubMed

    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-01

    Consumers demand more and more so-called "natural" products and, therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the effects of natural versus synthetic antioxidant preservatives in yogurts. Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) decoctions were tested as natural additives, while potassium sorbate (E202) was used as a synthetic additive. The fortification of yogurts with natural and synthetic antioxidants did not cause significant changes in the yoghurt pH and nutritional value, in comparison with control samples (yogurt without any additive). However, the fortified yogurts showed higher antioxidant activity, mainly the yogurts with natural additives (and among these, the ones with chamomile decoction). Overall, it can be concluded that plant decoctions can be used to develop novel yogurts, by replacing synthetic preservatives and improving the antioxidant properties of the final product, without changing the nutritional profile.

  15. Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Origanum vulgare Linn has traditionally been used in the treatment of urolithiasis. Therefore, we investigated the crude extract of Origanum vulgare for possible antiurolithic effect, to rationalize its medicinal use. Methods The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare (Ov.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, supersaturated solution of calcium and oxalate, kidney epithelial cell lines (MDCK) and urinary bladder of rabbits were used, whereas, in the in vivo studies, rat model of urolithiasis was used for the study of preventive and curative effect. Results In the in vitro experiments, Ov.Cr exhibited a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of nucleation and aggregation and also decreased the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM) produced in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against DPPH free radical and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ov.Cr reduced the cell toxicity using MTT assay and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm2) crystals. Ov.Cr relaxed high K+ (80 mM) induced contraction in rabbit urinary bladder strips, and shifted the calcium concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right with suppression of the maximum response similar to that of verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. In male Wistar rats receiving lithogenic treatment comprising of 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water given for 3 weeks along with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) for the first 5 days, Ov.Cr treatment (10-30 mg/kg) prevented as well as reversed toxic changes including loss of body weight, polyurea, crystalluria, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. Conclusion These data indicating the antiurolithic activity in Ov.Cr, possibly mediated

  16. Protein profiling of hemocytes from the terrestrial crustacean Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Herbinière, Juline; Grève, Pierre; Strub, Jean-Marc; Thiersé, Danièle; Raimond, Maryline; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2008-01-01

    To establish and maintain a successful infection, microbial pathogens have evolved various strategies to infect the host in the face of a functional immune system. In this context, the alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia capacities to infect new host species have been greatly evidenced. Indeed, in terrestrial isopods, experimentally transferred Wolbachia invade all host tissues, including immune cells such as hemocytes. To investigate mechanisms that have to be avoided by bacteria to maintain themselves in hemocytes, we characterized the hemocyte proteome of Armadillidium vulgare by a 2D gel electrophoresis approach. Fifty-six proteins were identified and classified into functional groups (stress and immunity, glucose metabolisms, cytoskeleton, others). We focused on immune response and cytoskeleton proteins often exploited by bacteria to invade their host. From the microsequences obtained by mass spectrometry, PCR primers were designed to amplify seven partial cDNAs encoding masquerade, alpha2-macroglobulin, transglutaminase, MnSOD, calreticulin, cyclophilin, and vinculin, confirming their expression in hemocytes. PMID:18329099

  17. Proinflammatory activity of an alginate isolated from Sargassum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Lins, Kézia O A L; Vale, Mariana L; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2013-01-30

    Alginates are unbranched polymers of polysaccharide presented as the structural components of marine brown algae. The proinflammatory activity of SVHV, an alginate isolated from Sargassum vulgare, was investigated using models of paw edema, mast cells degranulation and neutrophil migration in vivo. SVHV induced a dose dependent paw edema, with a peak at 2 h, associated with an increased myeloperoxidase activity and production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Pharmacological modulators, remarkably dexamethasone and indomethacin, inhibited the edema. SVHV (1.0 mg) also led to a significant induction of neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity of rats. This neutrophil migration was significantly reduced by peritoneal resident macrophages depletion, but was not affected by the depletion of mast cells. Our data suggest that SVHV has proinflammatory activity dependent of the activation of resident cells, being the macrophages the main cells involved. PMID:23218314

  18. Repellents in the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, against the pill-bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Jun; Kim, Chul-Sa; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Horiike, Michio

    2002-11-01

    Sandaracopimarinol and (1S,6R)-2,7(14),10-bisabolatrien-1-ol-4-one were isolated and identified from Cryptomeria japonica as repellents against Armadillidium vulgare which is well known as an unpleasant pest in the house and as vegetable pest in Japan. These compounds strongly repelled A. vulgare when they were combined, although each compound alone did not show any activity. PMID:12506982

  19. Monosomic and double monosomic substitutions of Hordeum bulbosum L. chromosomes into H. vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Pickering, R A

    1992-07-01

    One of the aims of the interspecific crossing programme between Hordeum vulgare L. and H. bulbosum L. has been to introgress desirable genes into barley from the wild species. However, despite their close taxonomic relationship there have been few reports of achieving this objective using amphidiploid hybrids. In order to broaden the range of available hybrids, partially fertile triploids between H. vulgare (2n = 2x = 14) and H. bulbosum (2n = 4x = 28) were developed and crossed with H. vulgare as female parent. From 580 progeny which were screened, eight putative single monosomic chromosome substitution lines and one double monosomic substitution were identified by cytological analysis. These involved the substitution of H. vulgare chromosome 1 (two lines), 6 (four lines), 6L (one line), 7 (one line) and 1 + 4 (one line) by their respective H. bulbosum homoeologues. The H. bulbosum chromosome was frequently eliminated during plant development, but it was observed regularly in pollen mother cells of two lines. However, pairing between the H. bulbosum chromosome and its H. vulgare homoeologue was low. Several of the lines were more resistant than their H. vulgare parents to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f.sp. hordei Em. Marchai), net blotch (Drechslera teres Sacc.) and scald (Rhynchosporium secalis (Oudem.) Davis). Apart from their use in studying genome relationships, their value to plant breeders will depend on the ease of inducing translocations between the parental chromosomes.

  20. Proteomic analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under glutathione reveals high demand for thiamin transport and antioxidant protection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhang, Lu; Qiao, Bin; Pan, Chensong; Yi, Hong; Wang, Lili; Yuan, Ying-jin

    2012-01-01

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4-6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM). To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare.

  1. Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3− or NO3− from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3− plus ClO3− concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3−/ClO3− ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3− for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3− influx into barley roots at different external ClO3−/NO3− ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3− and NO3−. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident. PMID:16662478

  2. Antioedematogenic effect of marrubiin obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Stulzer, Hellen K; Tagliari, Monika P; Zampirolo, Julio A; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Schlemper, Valfredo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the antioedematogenic profile of marrubiin (1), the main constituent of Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine of several countries to treat different pathologies. Compound (1) was analyzed in a model of microvascular leakage in mice ears. The results show that it exhibits significant and dose-related antioedematogenic effects. The results obtained for ID50 values (mg/kg, i.p.) and maximal inhibition (%) for the different phlogistic agents used were as follows: histamine (HIS, 13.84 mg/kg and 73.7%); (BK, 18.82 mg/kg and 70.0%); carrageenan (CAR, 13.61 mg/kg and 63.0%). The other phlogistic agonists, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), caused inhibition of less than 50%. In addition, (1) (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the OVO-induced allergic edema in actively sensitized animals (maximal inhibition 67.6+/-4%). Our results demonstrate that the systemic administration of marrubiin exerts a non-specific inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory agent-induced microvascular extravasation of Evans blue in mouse ear.

  3. Antiviral Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Plouguerné, Erwan; de Souza, Lauro M; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cavalcanti, Jéssica Figueiredo; Villela Romanos, Maria Teresa; da Gama, Bernardo A P; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2013-11-01

    Total lipids from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v) at room temperature. After performing Folch partition of the crude lipid extract, the lipids recovered from the Folch lower layer were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and methanol. The fraction eluted with methanol, presented a strong orcinol-positive band characteristic of the presence of sulfatides when examined by TLC. This fraction was then purified by two successive silica gel column chromatography giving rise to fractions F4I86 and F4II90 that exhibited strong activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2. The chemical structures present in both fractions were elucidated by ESI-MS and ¹H/¹³C NMR analysis HSQC fingerprints based on their tandem-MS behavior as Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs). The main SQDG present in both fractions and responsible for the anti-herpes activity observed was identified as 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol. PMID:24284427

  4. Antiviral Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) from the Brazilian Brown Seaweed Sargassum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Plouguerné, Erwan; de Souza, Lauro M.; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; Cavalcanti, Jéssica Figueiredo; Villela Romanos, Maria Teresa; da Gama, Bernardo A. P.; Crespo Pereira, Renato; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Total lipids from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v) at room temperature. After performing Folch partition of the crude lipid extract, the lipids recovered from the Folch lower layer were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and methanol. The fraction eluted with methanol, presented a strong orcinol-positive band characteristic of the presence of sulfatides when examined by TLC. This fraction was then purified by two successive silica gel column chromatography giving rise to fractions F4I86 and F4II90 that exhibited strong activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2. The chemical structures present in both fractions were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis HSQC fingerprints based on their tandem–MS behavior as sulfoquinovosildiacylglycerols (SQDGs). The main SQDG present in both fractions and responsible for the anti-herpes activity observed was identified as 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol. PMID:24284427

  5. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Pensel, P. E.; Maggiore, M. A.; Gende, L. B.; Eguaras, M. J.; Denegri, M. G.; Elissondo, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus. PMID:25180033

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis.

  7. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Pensel, P E; Maggiore, M A; Gende, L B; Eguaras, M J; Denegri, M G; Elissondo, M C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  8. Evidence for a new feminizing Wolbachia strain in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare: evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Cordaux, R; Michel-Salzat, A; Frelon-Raimond, M; Rigaud, T; Bouchon, D

    2004-07-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular maternally inherited alpha-Proteobacteria infecting a wide range of arthropods. In the common pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the known Wolbachia strain is responsible for feminization of genetic males. We have investigated Wolbachia diversity in 20 populations of A. vulgare from west and east Europe, north Africa and north America. A new Wolbachia strain (wVulM) was identified through the variability of the wsp gene, distantly related to that previously known (wVulC) in this host species. No individual with multiple infections was detected. Inoculation experiments indicated that the new wVulM bacterial strain also induces feminization in A. vulgare. However, the wVulC strain showed a higher transmission rate than the wVulM strain and was the most geographically widespread Wolbachia in A. vulgare populations. Mitochondrial 16SrDNA gene sequencing was conducted in Wolbachia-infected individuals, revealing the occurrence of four host lineages. The comparison of bacterial strains and their respective host mitochondrial phylogenies failed to show concordance, indicating horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strains within populations of A. vulgare. PMID:15138452

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis. PMID:26886858

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of experimental evolution of the Bacillus cereus-Ketogulonicigenium vulgare co-culture.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian; Zou, Yang; Lv, Yajin; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The microbial co-culture system composing of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus cereus was widely adopted in industry for the production of 2-keto-gulonic acid (2-KGA), the precursor of vitamin C. We found serial subcultivation of the co-culture could enhance the yield of 2-KGA by 16% in comparison to that of the ancestral co-culture. To elucidate the evolutionary dynamics and interaction mechanisms of the two microbes, we performed iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses of the pure cultures of K. vulgare, B. cereus and their co-culture during serial subcultivation. Hierarchy cluster analyses of the proteomic data showed that the expression level of a number of crucial proteins associated with sorbose conversion and oligopeptide transport was significantly enhanced by the experimental evolution. In particular, the expression level of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenase was enhanced in the evolved K. vulgare, while the expression level of InhA and the transport efficiency of oligopeptides were increased in the evolved B. cereus. The decreased sporulating protein expression and increased peptide transporter expression observed in evolved B. cereus, together with the increased amino acids synthesis in evolved K. vulgare suggested that serial subcultivation result in enhanced synergistic cooperation between K. vulgare and B. cereus, enabling an increased production of 2-KGA. PMID:24619085

  11. Use of a hydrological model to evaluate the effects of climate change on adaptative capacity of a maize and fennel cultivation in an area of Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; de Lorenzi, Francesca; Riggi, Ezio; Avola, Giovanni; Menenti, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    Crop production depends significantly on the pedoclimatic conditions. The evolution of climate may thus endanger not only yield (IPCC, 2007), but, more significantly, the sustainability of the cultivation of current varieties. Adaptation of current production systems may be feasible, but requires a timely evaluation of weather adaptation to climate evolution might be limited to improving crop and soil management or should involve replacement of varieties or species altogether. This study addressed this question by evaluating the adaptive capacity of a flat area of 22.000 ha "Destra Sele" (Campania Region, Southern Italy) where the main crops are is maize for livestock and fennel. Two climate scenarios have been considered at + 5 and + 30 years, generated by a regional climate model applied to Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. For each climate scenario the hydro-thermal regime of the soils of the selected study area has been calculated by means of a simulation model of the soil-water-atmosphere system (SWAP). Synthetic indicators of the regimes (e.g., crop water stress index, available water content, soil temperature) have been calculated and compared with the thermal and water requirements of a set of maize and fennel varieties, including the ones currently cultivated in the area. The hydrological model SWAP was applied to the representative soils of the entire area (20 soil units): their soil hydraulic properties were derived applying the pedo-transfer function HYPRES which reliability was tested and validated on three soils of the same area. Upper boundary conditions were derived from the regional climate scenarios. Unit gradient in soil water potential was set as lower boundary condition. Crop-specific input data and model parameters were estimated on the basis of literature and assumed to be generically representative of the species. This applies to Leaf Area Index (LAI), crop coefficient (Kc) and the root water uptake function parameters. From the comparison

  12. Insights into mutualism mechanism and versatile metabolism of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare Hbe602 based on comparative genomics and metabolomics studies.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Du, Jin; Pan, Cai-Hui; Tian, Geng; Lang, Ji-Dong; Fang, Jian-Huo; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare has been widely used in vitamin C two steps fermentation and requires companion strain for optimal growth. However, the understanding of K. vulgare as well as its companion strain is still preliminary. Here, the complete genome of K. vulgare Hbe602 was deciphered to provide insight into the symbiosis mechanism and the versatile metabolism. K. vulgare contains the LuxR family proteins, chemokine proteins, flagellar structure proteins, peptides and transporters for symbiosis consortium. Besides, the growth state and metabolite variation of K. vulgare were observed when five carbohydrates (D-sorbitol, L-sorbose, D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannitol) were used as carbon source. The growth increased by 40.72% and 62.97% respectively when K. vulgare was cultured on D-mannitol/D-sorbitol than on L-sorbose. The insufficient metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins is the main reason for the slow growth of K. vulgare. The combined analysis of genomics and metabolomics indicated that TCA cycle, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were significantly up-regulated when K. vulgare was cultured on the D-mannitol/D-sorbitol, which facilitated the better growth. The present study would be helpful to further understand its metabolic structure and guide the engineering transformation. PMID:26979567

  13. Insights into mutualism mechanism and versatile metabolism of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare Hbe602 based on comparative genomics and metabolomics studies

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Du, Jin; Pan, Cai-Hui; Tian, Geng; Lang, Ji-Dong; Fang, Jian-Huo; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare has been widely used in vitamin C two steps fermentation and requires companion strain for optimal growth. However, the understanding of K. vulgare as well as its companion strain is still preliminary. Here, the complete genome of K. vulgare Hbe602 was deciphered to provide insight into the symbiosis mechanism and the versatile metabolism. K. vulgare contains the LuxR family proteins, chemokine proteins, flagellar structure proteins, peptides and transporters for symbiosis consortium. Besides, the growth state and metabolite variation of K. vulgare were observed when five carbohydrates (D-sorbitol, L-sorbose, D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannitol) were used as carbon source. The growth increased by 40.72% and 62.97% respectively when K. vulgare was cultured on D-mannitol/D-sorbitol than on L-sorbose. The insufficient metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins is the main reason for the slow growth of K. vulgare. The combined analysis of genomics and metabolomics indicated that TCA cycle, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were significantly up-regulated when K. vulgare was cultured on the D-mannitol/D-sorbitol, which facilitated the better growth. The present study would be helpful to further understand its metabolic structure and guide the engineering transformation. PMID:26979567

  14. Composition and antiproliferative effect of essential oil of Origanum vulgare against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Begnini, Karine Rech; Nedel, Fernanda; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Rodrigues, Maria Regina Alves; Beira, Fátima Tereza Alves; Del-Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death and is responsible for one in eight deaths worldwide. The use of herbs as complementary medicine for cancer, especially advanced cancer, has recently increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro, the antiproliferative effect of Origanum vulgare against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29). The essential oil (EO) was extracted from a bought amount of O. vulgare dried leaves and analyzed in a gas chromatograph interfaced with a mass selective detector. The cytotoxicity test was performed by sulforhodamine B assay. The results show that the EO is composed mostly of 4-terpineol and induces a high cytotoxicity effect in HT-29. In the MCF-7 cell line the EO was less effective. In conclusion, this study showed that O. vulgare main component is 4-terpineol and was effective in inducing cancer cell growth inhibition.

  15. Antispasmodic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Marrubium vulgare on isolated tissues.

    PubMed

    Schlemper, V; Ribas, A; Nicolau, M; Cechinel Filho, V

    1996-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare is a medicinal plant used in Brazil and in many countries in folk medicine against several diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the roots and aerial parts of M. vulgare in several smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The results showed that this extract exert a significant antispasmodic activity which inhibits the action of some neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, bradykinin, prostaglandin E(2), histamine and oxytocin, with putative selectivity for cholinergic contractions. These findings support the popular use in folk medicine of this plant as an antispasmodic.

  16. Growth retardation and elemental differences in juvenile Armadillidium vulgare latreille exposed to lead nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, M.; Heisey, R.; Witkus, R. ); Vernon, G.M. )

    1992-01-01

    Although it is well established that isopods store heavy metals, especially zinc, cadmium, lead and copper, there is relatively little known about the effects of these metals on the isopod. The literature is sparse relating to the effects of non-essential heavy metals on concentrations of essential elements in isopods. The contaminated isopods assimilated insignificant concentrations of lead in their tissues. In a recent study adult A. vulgare exposed to lead sequestered copper and zinc in the hepatopancreas to levels far above the controls. In the present study, the effect of lead nitrate on A. vulgare recently released from the brood pouch was examined.

  17. SIRE1 RETROTRANSPOSONS IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Cakmak, B; Marakli, S; Gozukirmizi, N

    2015-07-01

    Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE) retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (GAG, ENV and RT) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for GAG, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for RT and ENV. The sequencing of SIRE1 GAG, ENV and RT domains revealed 79% similarity for GAG, 96% for ENV and 83% for RT to copia retrotransposons. Comparison between barley retrotransposons and SIRE1 in barley indicated that SIRE1-GAG, ENV and RT might be diverge earlier from barley retrotransposons. SIRE1 sequences were compared with SIRE1 in barley, results showed the closest homologues were SIRE1-ENVand SIRE1-RTsequences, and SIRE1-GAG sequences was a sister group to sequences of Glycine max. This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.

  18. Optimization of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid extraction from oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Baranauskaitė, Justė; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Kopustinskienė, Dalia M; Drakšienė, Gailutė; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to increase the extraction efficiency of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid from the different species of oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.). Various extraction methods (ultrasound-assisted, heat-reflux, continuous stirring, maceration, percolation) and extraction conditions (different solvent, material:solvent ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time) were used, and the active substances were determined by HPLC. The lowest content of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid was obtained by percolation. During heat-reflux extraction, the content of active substances depended on the solvent used: ethanol/non-aqueous solvent (glycerol or propylene glycol) mixture was more effective compared with ethanol alone. The results showed that for each species of oregano the most optimal extraction method should be selected to maximize the content of biologically active substances in the extracts.

  19. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal activities of the essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Salama, Maha M; Taher, Eman E; El-Bahy, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare), composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98%) and thymol (32.82%) in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55%) in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens.

  20. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal activities of the essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Salama, Maha M; Taher, Eman E; El-Bahy, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare), composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98%) and thymol (32.82%) in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55%) in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens. PMID:22983292

  1. Role of Phenolic Acids in Expression of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Autotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of phenolic acids in autotoxicity of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties was investigated using radicle growth bioassays and analytical techniques. Total phenolic content of barley plant components varied within and between varieties during the 1999-2002 growing seasons. Inhibition o...

  2. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  3. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  4. Vulgar, Indecent, and Offensive Student Speech: How Should Public School Administrators Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that a commitment to supporting student First Amendment rights can and should be a primary educational goal, helping to instill in students an appreciation for responsible citizenship in a pluralistic society. Discusses definitions of "obscene,""vulgar," and "indecent," and how a school should respond to situations involving charges that…

  5. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; 0, control vs. 500 g/d, OV) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, an...

  6. Systematic evaluation of the antioxidant potential of different parts of Foeniculumvulgare Mill. from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Heleno, Sandrina A; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2009-10-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is a widespread perennial umbeliferous (Apiaceae) herb, traditionally used for medicinal purposes and human consumption. It is highly recommended for diabetes, bronchitis and chronic coughs, and for the treatment of kidney stones; some of those chronic diseases are related to the production of radical species involved in the oxidative stress. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of this herb might explain some of their empirical uses in folk medicine. This is the first time that a systematic study on different parts of fennel is performed, in order to understand differences in the antioxidant potential of shoots, leaves, steams, and inflorescences, particularly related to their composition in antioxidant compounds such as vitamins (ascorbic acid and tocopherols) and phenolics. The shoots seems to have the highest radical-scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (EC(50) values<1.4 mg/ml), which is in agreement with the highest content in phenolics (65.85+/-0.74 mg/g) and ascorbic acid (570.89+/-0.01 microg/g) found in this part. The shoots also revealed high concentration of tocopherols (34.54+/-1.28 microg/g) and were the only part with flavonoids. PMID:19596397

  7. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3.48 ± 0.218 μg/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125 μg/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351 g and 1.09 g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3'-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC(50) of 34.46 ± 0.48 μg/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00 μg/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1 μg/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8 μg/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for the Isopod Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and Transferability in Terrestrial Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

  9. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and transferability in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Isabelle; Valette, Victorien; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and transferability in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Isabelle; Valette, Victorien; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies.

  11. Comparing the effect of encapsulated and unencapsulated fennel extracts on the shelf life of minced common kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris caspia) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated in the mince.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Roya; Izadi Amoli, Rabeeh; Tabari Shahndasht, Nastaran; Shahosseini, Seyed Rasoul

    2016-03-01

    The quality of minced kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris caspia) with gum arabic encapsulated (0.3% and 0.5% w/w) and unencapsulated fennel extract (FE) (0.3% and 0.5% w/w) stored at 4°C was examined over a storage period of 15 days. The control and the treated fish samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count [TVC] and total psychrotrophic count [TPC]) and chemical (peroxide value (PV) and total volatile nitrogen (TVB-N)) parameters. Also the inhibitory effect of encapsulated and unencapsulated FE was evaluated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inoculated in minced kilka. According to the results, encapsulated FE samples showed the lowest amount of lipid oxidation and microbial deterioration during the storage period compared with the control and pure extract treatments. Although, the encapsulated FE at 0.5% showed drastic bacterial effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to others. Generally, gum arabic encapsulation could help to obtain higher antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in lower FE concentrations in minced fish.

  12. Comparing the effect of encapsulated and unencapsulated fennel extracts on the shelf life of minced common kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris caspia) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated in the mince.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Roya; Izadi Amoli, Rabeeh; Tabari Shahndasht, Nastaran; Shahosseini, Seyed Rasoul

    2016-03-01

    The quality of minced kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris caspia) with gum arabic encapsulated (0.3% and 0.5% w/w) and unencapsulated fennel extract (FE) (0.3% and 0.5% w/w) stored at 4°C was examined over a storage period of 15 days. The control and the treated fish samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count [TVC] and total psychrotrophic count [TPC]) and chemical (peroxide value (PV) and total volatile nitrogen (TVB-N)) parameters. Also the inhibitory effect of encapsulated and unencapsulated FE was evaluated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inoculated in minced kilka. According to the results, encapsulated FE samples showed the lowest amount of lipid oxidation and microbial deterioration during the storage period compared with the control and pure extract treatments. Although, the encapsulated FE at 0.5% showed drastic bacterial effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to others. Generally, gum arabic encapsulation could help to obtain higher antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in lower FE concentrations in minced fish. PMID:27004111

  13. Time measurement in the photoperiodic induction of sexual rest in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille).

    PubMed

    Nasri-Ammar, K; Souty-Grosset, C; Mocquard, J P

    2001-08-01

    The photoperiodic control of sexual rest in Armadillidium vulgare was investigated using various experimental protocols. When reared in conditions of a Nanda-Hamner (i.e. resonance) protocol from their first parturial moult to their post experimental moult, females showed a weak resonance effect in sexual rest incidence. The transfer from a long day cycle to a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod--consisting of two equal light pulses per 24 h of continuous darkness--revealed the involvement of a circadian oscillatory system in the photoperiodic clock of this species. The data, obtained in the whole experiments, suggested that both oscillator and hourglass features are involved in the photoperiodic response controlling the sexual rest in Armadillidium vulgare. Moreover, when non-24-h light-dark cycles (with a long photophase) were applied, a mechanism responsible of arrest of reproduction also implied a photoperiodic counter which accumulated and added up the photoperiodic information within a sensitive period during post parturial intermoult. PMID:11510415

  14. Dataset for transcriptional response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to drought and subsequent re-watering.

    PubMed

    Kokáš, Filip; Vojta, Petr; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important species, which can be cultivated in environmentally adverse conditions due to its higher tolerance in contrast to other cereal crops. The draft of H. vulgare genome is available already for couple of years; however its functional annotation is still incomplete. All available databases were searched to expand current annotation. The improved annotation was used to describe processes and genes regulated in transgenic lines showing higher tolerance to drought in our associated article, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2016.01.010 (Vojta et al., 2016) [1]. Here we present whole transcriptome response, using extended annotation, to severe drought stress and subsequent re-watering in wild-type barley plants in stem elongation phase of growth. Up- and down-regulated genes fall into distinct GO categories and these enriched by stress and revitalization are highlighted. Transcriptomic data were evaluated separately for root and aerial tissues.

  15. Agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic characterisation of Sicilian Origanum vulgare (L.) ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Martinelli, Federico; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Leto, Claudio; Maggio, Antonella; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Although Origanum vulgare (L.) has been deeply analysed at phytochemical level, poor knowledge is available regarding non-volatile compounds such as lipids. The aim of this work was to characterise five wild Sicilian Origanum ecotypes from an agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic perspective. Serradifalco presented higher dry weight and inflorescences/plant than the others while Favara had a significantly higher number of branches per plant and more extensive flowered stratum. Metabolomic analysis, performed with LC-MS-TOF, allowed a preliminary characterisation of the non-volatile metabolome of the five oregano ecotypes Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. Twenty-five metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, carnithines, nucleic bases and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Lipidomic analysis identified 115 polar plant membrane glycerolipid species. Thirteen of them were differentially present in the two chosen ecotypes. The role of these metabolites in plant physiology from a qualitative and pharmacological point of view was discussed.

  16. Diuretic activity of the aqueous extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Sanaa; Tahraoui, Adil; Israili, Zafar; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2007-04-01

    In the Moroccan traditional medicine, the ripe fruits of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae/Compositae), two widely available plant materials, are used as diuretics. Since, the diuretic activity of these substances has not been investigated in scientifically controlled studies, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of aqueous extracts of Carum carvi fruit (caraway) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) in normal rats after acute and sub-chronic oral administration. Water extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare (100 mg/kg) or the reference drug, furosemide (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally to male Wistar rats and their urine output was quantitated at several intervals of time after the dose. After single doses of the extracts of both caraway seeds and tansy leaves, urine output was significantly increased at all time points, and at 24 h after the dose, the total volume of urine excreted was similar for the plant extracts and furosemide. Both extracts increased urinary levels of Na(+) and K(+), to about the same extent, while furosemide increased urinary levels of only Na(+) and decreased urinary K(+). Despite changes in urinary excretion of the electrolytes, plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were not affected by any of the three substances. In the 8-day sub-chronic study, all three substances induced significant diuresis and natriuresis; only tansy increased urinary potassium excretion. The plant extracts did not appear to have renal toxicity or any other adverse effects during the study period. In conclusion, water extracts of both Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare have strong diuretic action confirming their ethnopharmacological use. From the pattern of excretion of water, sodium and potassium, it may be deduced that there are atleast two types of active principals present in these extracts, one having a furosemide-like activity and the other a thiazide-like activity.

  17. Structure and evolution of the atypical mitochondrial genome of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Marcadé, Isabelle; Cordaux, Richard; Doublet, Vincent; Debenest, Catherine; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Roland

    2007-12-01

    The crustacean isopod Armadillidium vulgare is characterized by an unusual approximately 42-kb-long mitochondrial genome consisting of two molecules co-occurring in mitochondria: a circular approximately 28-kb dimer formed by two approximately 14-kb monomers fused in opposite polarities and a linear approximately 14-kb monomer. Here we determined the nucleotide sequence of the fundamental monomeric unit of A. vulgare mitochondrial genome, to gain new insight into its structure and evolution. Our results suggest that the junction zone between monomers of the dimer structure is located in or near the control region. Direct sequencing indicated that the nucleotide sequences of the different monomer units are virtually identical. This suggests that gene conversion and/or replication processes play an important role in shaping nucleotide sequence variation in this mitochondrial genome. The only heteroplasmic site we identified predicts an alloacceptor tRNA change from tRNA(Ala) to tRNA(Val). Therefore, in A. vulgare, tRNA(Ala) and tRNA(Val) are found at the same locus in different monomers, ensuring that both tRNAs are present in mitochondria. The presence of this heteroplasmic site in all sequenced individuals suggests that the polymorphism is selectively maintained, probably because of the necessity of both tRNAs for maintaining proper mitochondrial functions. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for the tRNA gene recruitment model of tRNA evolution. Moreover, interspecific comparisons showed that the A. vulgare mitochondrial gene order is highly derived compared to the putative ancestral arthropod type. By contrast, an overall high conservation of mitochondrial gene order is observed within crustacean isopods. PMID:17906827

  18. Feminizing Wolbachia: a transcriptomics approach with insights on the immune response genes in Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wolbachia are vertically transmitted bacteria known to be the most widespread endosymbiont in arthropods. They induce various alterations of the reproduction of their host, including feminization of genetic males in isopod crustaceans. In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the presence of Wolbachia is also associated with detrimental effects on host fertility and lifespan. Deleterious effects have been demonstrated on hemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and natural hemolymph septicemia, suggesting that infected individuals could have defective immune capacities. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in Wolbachia-A. vulgare interactions and its secondary immunocompetence modulation, we developed a transcriptomics strategy and compared A. vulgare gene expression between Wolbachia-infected animals (i.e., “symbiotic” animals) and uninfected ones (i.e., “asymbiotic” animals) as well as between animals challenged or not challenged by a pathogenic bacteria. Results Since very little genetic data is available on A. vulgare, we produced several EST libraries and generated a total of 28 606 ESTs. Analyses of these ESTs revealed that immune processes were over-represented in most experimental conditions (responses to a symbiont and to a pathogen). Considering canonical crustacean immune pathways, these genes encode antimicrobial peptides or are involved in pathogen recognition, detoxification, and autophagy. By RT-qPCR, we demonstrated a general trend towards gene under-expression in symbiotic whole animals and ovaries whereas the same gene set tends to be over-expressed in symbiotic immune tissues. Conclusion This study allowed us to generate the first reference transcriptome ever obtained in the Isopoda group and to identify genes involved in the major known crustacean immune pathways encompassing cellular and humoral responses. Expression of immune-related genes revealed a modulation of host immunity when females are

  19. Uzu mutation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reduces the leaf unrolling response to brassinolide.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Chono, Makiko; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-01

    A sensitive method to examine the brassinolide (BL) response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using dark-grown leaf segments was established based on the known method for wheat. BL responses of 53 dwarf isogenic lines of barley were examined, and two lines were found having a uzu gene that doesn't respond significantly. These results indicate that uzu dwarfism may be caused by the non-responding character to BL.

  20. Adaptive variation in offspring size in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brody, M.S.; Lawlor, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the birth size of offspring of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was observed in laboratory experiments and in field populations. In the laboratory, larger offspring were produced when the mother's food supply was reduced. In field populations, larger offspring were produced during the summer, a period of reduced food availability. Smaller offspring are produced in the spring, when food is readily available. Females may be making larger young to increase survival during the more severe conditions of the summer breeding period.

  1. Multi-Infections of Feminizing Wolbachia Strains in Natural Populations of the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec’h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occuring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  2. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  3. Biosynthesis of the labdane diterpene marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare via a non-mevalonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Knöss, W; Reuter, B; Zapp, J

    1997-09-01

    The biosynthesis of the furanic labdane diterpene marrubiin has been studied in plantlets and shoot cultures of Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae). The use of [2-14C]acetate, [2-14C]pyruvate, [2-14C]mevalonic acid and [U-14C]glucose incorporation experiments showed that the labelling of sterols in etiolated shoot cultures of M. vulgare was in accordance with their biosynthesis via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. In contrast, the incorporation rates of these precursors into the diterpene marrubiin could not be explained by biosynthesis of this compound via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. Cultivation of etiolated shoot cultures of M. vulgare on medium containing [1-13C]glucose and subsequent 13C-NMR spectroscopy of marrubiin led to the conclusion that the biosynthesis of marrubiin follows a non-mevalonate pathway. All isoprenic units of 13C-labelled marrubiin were enriched in those carbons that correspond to positions 1 and 5 of a putative precursor isopentenyl diphosphate. This labelling pattern from [1-13C]glucose is consistent with an alternative pathway via trioses, which has already been shown to occur in Eubacteria and Gymnospermae. The labdane skeleton is a precursor of many other skeletal types of diterpenes. Therefore it becomes obvious that in connection with the few known examples of a non-mevalonate pathway to isoprenoids the formation of some isoprenoids in plants via a non-mevalonate pathway might be quite common.

  4. Multi-infections of feminizing Wolbachia strains in natural populations of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec'h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occurring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  5. Biosynthesis of stable iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Hordeum vulgare and Rumex acetosa plants.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Valentin V; Makarova, Svetlana S; Love, Andrew J; Sinitsyna, Olga V; Dudnik, Anna O; Yaminsky, Igor V; Taliansky, Michael E; Kalinina, Natalia O

    2014-05-27

    We report the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles from iron salts in aqueous extracts of monocotyledonous (Hordeum vulgare) and dicotyledonous (Rumex acetosa) plants. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, absorbance spectroscopy, SAED, EELS, XPS, and DLS methods and were shown to contain mainly iron oxide and iron oxohydroxide. H. vulgare extracts produced amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of up to 30 nm. These iron nanoparticles are intrinsically unstable and prone to aggregation; however, we rendered them stable in the long term by addition of 40 mM citrate buffer pH 3.0. In contrast, amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles (diameters of 10-40 nm) produced using R. acetosa extracts are highly stable. The total protein content and antioxidant capacity are similar for both extracts, but pH values differ (H. vulgare pH 5.8 vs R. acetosa pH 3.7). We suggest that the presence of organic acids (such oxalic or citric acids) plays an important role in the stabilization of iron nanoparticles, and that plants containing such constituents may be more efficacious for the green synthesis of iron nanoparticles.

  6. Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Hordeum vulgare seeds on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jignesh G.; Patel, Bharat G.; Patel, Sandip B.; Patel, Ravindra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds (EHV) on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Urolithiasis was produced in Wistar albino rats by adding 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol (EG) to drinking water for 28 days. The ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds (EHV) was assessed for its curative and preventive action in urolithiasis. In preventive treatment, the EHV given from 1st day to 28th day, while in the curative regimen, the EHV was given from 15th day to 28th day. Various renal functional and injury markers such as urine volume, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, magnesium, urea, and oxalate were evaluated using urine, serum, and kidney homogenate. Antioxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also determined. Results: The EHV treatment (both preventive and curative) increased the urine output significantly compared to the control. The EHV treatment significantly reduced the urinary excretion of the calcium, phosphate, uric acid, magnesium, urea, and oxalate and increased the excretion of citrate compared to EG control. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment with EHV. It was also observed that the treatment with EHV produced significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusion: These results suggest the usefulness of ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds as an antiurolithiatic and antioxidant agent. PMID:23248392

  7. Multi-infections of feminizing Wolbachia strains in natural populations of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec'h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occurring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females.

  8. The role of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in litter decomposition and soil organic matter stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalodova, Alexandra; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Armadilidum vulgare is common terrestrial isopod in Europe which is also important invasive species in North America. In ienvasive range it can reach densities up to 10 000 individuals per m square, consume all litter fall and substantially effect litter mineralisation and nutrient release. Here we are focusing on the effects of A. vulgare feeding on organic matter decomposition and stabilization. During 65 weeks laboratory experiment we observed the microbial activity of intact leaf litter (Acer pseudoplatanus), faecal pellets of terrestrial isopods (Armadillidium vulgare) produced from the same litter and unconsumed residues of this litter. Simultaneously we compared the response of microbial activity of excrements and litter to changes of humidity, temperature and addition of easily decomposable substances. Microbial respiration of faecal pellets was lower than microbial respiration of intact leaf litter or unconsumed litter residues. At the same time moisture and temperature fluctuations and addition of easily decomposable substances led to much higher increase in respiration in litter than in faecal pellets. As a conclusion, processing of litter by soil macrofauna slowed down microbial respiration and made it less sensitive to environmental fluctuation. 13C NMR spectra from excrements indicated preferential loss of polysaccharide-carbon and accumulation of lignin with some modification to the O-aromatic-C. Thermochemolysis showed that not only amount of lignin increased in litter but also its quality changed. Guaiacyl units were depleted, which indicate breakdown of guaiacyl associated with gut passage.

  9. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  10. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. PMID:25764982

  11. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested.

  12. In-syringe reversed dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the evaluation of three important bioactive compounds of basil, tarragon and fennel in human plasma and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Barfi, Azadeh; Nazem, Habibollah; Saeidi, Iman; Peyrovi, Moazameh; Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Barfi, Behruz; Salavati, Hossein

    2016-03-20

    In the present study, an efficient and environmental friendly method (called in-syringe reversed dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IS-R-DLLME)) was developed to extract three important components (i.e. para-anisaldehyde, trans-anethole and its isomer estragole) simultaneously in different plant extracts (basil, fennel and tarragon), human plasma and urine samples prior their determination using high-performance liquid chromatography. The importance of choosing these plant extracts as samples is emanating from the dual roles of their bioactive compounds (trans-anethole and estragole), which can alter positively or negatively different cellular processes, and necessity to a simple and efficient method for extraction and sensitive determination of these compounds in the mentioned samples. Under the optimum conditions (including extraction solvent: 120 μL of n-octanol; dispersive solvent: 600 μL of acetone; collecting solvent: 1000 μL of acetone, sample pH 3; with no salt), limits of detection (LODs), linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) and recoveries (R) were 79-81 ng mL(-1), 0.26-6.9 μg mL(-1) and 94.1-99.9%, respectively. The obtained results showed that the IS-R-DLLME was a simple, fast and sensitive method with low level consumption of extraction solvent which provides high recovery under the optimum conditions. The present method was applied to investigate the absorption amounts of the mentioned analytes through the determination of the analytes before (in the plant extracts) and after (in the human plasma and urine samples) the consumption which can determine the toxicity levels of the analytes (on the basis of their dosages) in the extracts. PMID:26802527

  13. In-syringe reversed dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the evaluation of three important bioactive compounds of basil, tarragon and fennel in human plasma and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Barfi, Azadeh; Nazem, Habibollah; Saeidi, Iman; Peyrovi, Moazameh; Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Barfi, Behruz; Salavati, Hossein

    2016-03-20

    In the present study, an efficient and environmental friendly method (called in-syringe reversed dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IS-R-DLLME)) was developed to extract three important components (i.e. para-anisaldehyde, trans-anethole and its isomer estragole) simultaneously in different plant extracts (basil, fennel and tarragon), human plasma and urine samples prior their determination using high-performance liquid chromatography. The importance of choosing these plant extracts as samples is emanating from the dual roles of their bioactive compounds (trans-anethole and estragole), which can alter positively or negatively different cellular processes, and necessity to a simple and efficient method for extraction and sensitive determination of these compounds in the mentioned samples. Under the optimum conditions (including extraction solvent: 120 μL of n-octanol; dispersive solvent: 600 μL of acetone; collecting solvent: 1000 μL of acetone, sample pH 3; with no salt), limits of detection (LODs), linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) and recoveries (R) were 79-81 ng mL(-1), 0.26-6.9 μg mL(-1) and 94.1-99.9%, respectively. The obtained results showed that the IS-R-DLLME was a simple, fast and sensitive method with low level consumption of extraction solvent which provides high recovery under the optimum conditions. The present method was applied to investigate the absorption amounts of the mentioned analytes through the determination of the analytes before (in the plant extracts) and after (in the human plasma and urine samples) the consumption which can determine the toxicity levels of the analytes (on the basis of their dosages) in the extracts.

  14. Binary and Tertiary Mixtures of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils as Potent Antimicrobial Agents Against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Natasa; Orcic, Dejan; Franciskovic, Marina; Knezevic, Petar; Beara, Ivana; Aleksic, Verica; Svircev, Emilija; Buzas, Krisztina; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity, even against multiresistant Helicobacter pylori. Available therapies against H. pylori infection have multiple disadvantages, indicating a great need for a development of new therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to develop a potent natural product based anti-H. pylori formulation. First, anti-H. pylori activity of nine essential oils was determined, after which the most active oils were mixed in various ratios for further testing. Satureja hortensis, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils expressed the highest activity (MIC = 2 μL mL(-1)). Their binary and ternary mixtures exhibited notably higher antimicrobial activity (MIC ≤ 2 μL mL(-1)). The most active was the mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum oils in volume ratio 2:1, which expressed 4 times higher activity than individual oils (MIC = 0.5 μL mL(-1)). According to GC-MS, both oils in the mixture were characterized by high content of phenols (48-73%), with carvacrol as the main carrier of antimicrobial activity. Presented in vitro study pointed out binary mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils in volume ratio 2:1 as promising candidate for further in vivo studies targeting H. pylori infection.

  15. Binary and Tertiary Mixtures of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils as Potent Antimicrobial Agents Against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Natasa; Orcic, Dejan; Franciskovic, Marina; Knezevic, Petar; Beara, Ivana; Aleksic, Verica; Svircev, Emilija; Buzas, Krisztina; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity, even against multiresistant Helicobacter pylori. Available therapies against H. pylori infection have multiple disadvantages, indicating a great need for a development of new therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to develop a potent natural product based anti-H. pylori formulation. First, anti-H. pylori activity of nine essential oils was determined, after which the most active oils were mixed in various ratios for further testing. Satureja hortensis, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils expressed the highest activity (MIC = 2 μL mL(-1)). Their binary and ternary mixtures exhibited notably higher antimicrobial activity (MIC ≤ 2 μL mL(-1)). The most active was the mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum oils in volume ratio 2:1, which expressed 4 times higher activity than individual oils (MIC = 0.5 μL mL(-1)). According to GC-MS, both oils in the mixture were characterized by high content of phenols (48-73%), with carvacrol as the main carrier of antimicrobial activity. Presented in vitro study pointed out binary mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils in volume ratio 2:1 as promising candidate for further in vivo studies targeting H. pylori infection. PMID:26686190

  16. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (Cav.) andOriganum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Leonor; Miguel, Graça; Gomes, Sónia; Costa, Ludmila; Venâncio, Florencia; Teixeira, Adriano; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2005-10-19

    Antilisterial activities of Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare essential oils were tested against 41 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. The oil of T. capitata was mainly constituted by one component, carvacrol (79%), whereas for O. vulgare three components constituted 70% of the oil, namely, thymol (33%), gamma-terpinene (26%), and p-cymene (11%). T. capitata essential oil had a significantly higher antilisterial activity in comparison to O. vulgare oil and chloramphenicol. No significant differences in L. monocytogenes susceptibilities to the essential oils tested were registered. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. capitata essential oil and of carvacrol were quite similar, ranging between 0.05 and 0.2 microL/mL. Antioxidant activity was also tested, the essential oil of T. capitata showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of O. vulgare. Use of T. capitata and O. vulgare essential oils can constitute a powerful tool in the control of L. monocytogenes in food and other industries. PMID:16218659

  17. Antibacterial effect of a magnetic field on Serratia marcescens and related virulence to Hordeum vulgare and Rubus fruticosus callus cells.

    PubMed

    Piatti, Elena; Albertini, Maria Cristina; Baffone, Wally; Fraternale, Daniele; Citterio, Barbara; Piacentini, Maria Piera; Dachà, Marina; Vetrano, Flavio; Accorsi, Augusto

    2002-06-01

    The exposure to a static magnetic field of 80+/-20 Gauss (8+/-2 mT) resulted in the inhibition of Serratia marcescens growth. Callus cell suspensions from Hordeum vulgare and Rubus fruticosus were also examined and only the former was found to be affected by the magnetic field, which induced a decreased viability. S. marcescens was shown to be virulent only toward H. vulgare and this virulence was reduced by the presence of the magnetic field. The modification of glutathione peroxidase activity under the different experimental conditions allowed us to speculate on the possibility of an oxidative-stress response of H. vulgare both to S. marcescens infection and magnetic field exposure. Since the control of microbial growth by physical agents is of interest for agriculture, medicine and food sciences, the investigation presented herein could serve as a starting point for future studies on the efficacy of static magnetic field as low-cost/easy-handling preservative agent.

  18. Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

    2011-10-01

    Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

  19. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Starks, Courtney; Hamberger, Björn; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five different candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs) of the TPS-c and TPS-e/f clades. We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the M. vulgare diTPS family. In addition to MvEKS ent-kaurene synthase of general metabolism, we identified three diTPSs of specialized metabolism: MvCPS3 (+)-copalyl diphosphate synthase, and the functional diTPS pair MvCPS1 and MvELS. In a sequential reaction, MvCPS1 and MvELS produce a unique oxygenated diterpene scaffold 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene en route to marrubiin and an array of related compounds. In contrast with previously known diTPSs that introduce a hydroxyl group at carbon C-8 of the labdane backbone, the MvCPS1-catalyzed reaction proceeds via oxygenation of an intermediate carbocation at C-9, yielding the bicyclic peregrinol diphosphate. MvELS belongs to a subgroup of the diTPS TPS-e/f clade with unusual βα-domain architecture. MvELS is active in vitro and in vivo with three different prenyl diphosphate substrates forming the marrubiin precursor 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene, as identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, manoyl oxide and miltiradiene. MvELS fills a central position in the biosynthetic system that forms the foundation for the diverse repertoire of Marrubium diterpenoids. Co-expression of MvCPS1 and MvELS in engineered E. coli and Nicotiana benthamiana offers opportunities for producing precursors for an array of biologically active diterpenoids.

  20. Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

    2011-10-01

    Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances.

  1. Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA Variation in HORDEUM VULGARE and HORDEUM SPONTANEUM

    PubMed Central

    Holwerda, Barry C.; Jana, Sakti; Crosby, William L.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of restriction fragment polymorphism in Hordeum vulgare and Hordeum spontaneum was made using 17 and 16 hexanucleotide restriction endonucleases on chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA, respectively. The plant accessions originated from various places throughout the Fertile Cresent and Mediterranean. The types of changes in cpDNA consisted of nucleotide substitutions and insertions and deletions on the order of 100 base pairs. In contrast, mtDNA has most likely undergone larger insertions and deletions of up to 20 kilobase pairs in addition to rearrangements. Grouping of mtDNA fragment data showed that in some cases geographical affinities existed between the two species, whereas in others there were no clear affinities. Nucleotide diversity estimates derived from the restriction fragment data were used in a number of comparisons of variability. Comparisons of overall mtDNA variability (nucleotide diversity = 9.68 x 10-4) with cpDNA variability (nucleotide diversity = 6.38 x 10-4 ) indicated that the former are somewhat more variable. Furthermore, there was no indication that the wild H. spontaneum (cpDNA diversity = 5.57 x 10-4; mtDNA diversity = 6.04 x 10 -4) was more variable than the land races of H. vulgare (cpDNA diversity = 5.88 x 10-4; mtDNA diversity = 9.79 x 10-4). In fact, on the basis of mtDNA diversity, H. vulgare was the more variable species. Comparison of organelle nucleotide diversity estimates with an estimate of nuclear nucleotide diversity derived from existing isozyme data provided evidence that both organelle genomes are evolving at a slower rate than the nuclear genome. PMID:17246361

  2. Genome sequence of a crustacean iridovirus, IIV31, isolated from the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Asgari, Sassan; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridovirus 31 (IIV31) was originally isolated from adult pill bugs, Armadillidium vulgare (class Crustacea, order Isopoda, suborder Oniscidea), found in southern California on the campus of the University of California, Riverside, USA. IIV31 virions are icosahedral, have a diameter of about 135 nm, and contain a dsDNA genome 220.222 kbp in length, with 35.09 mol % G+C content and 203 ORFs. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the eighth genome sequence of an IIV reported. PMID:24722681

  3. Genome sequence of a crustacean iridovirus, IIV31, isolated from the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Asgari, Sassan; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridovirus 31 (IIV31) was originally isolated from adult pill bugs, Armadillidium vulgare (class Crustacea, order Isopoda, suborder Oniscidea), found in southern California on the campus of the University of California, Riverside, USA. IIV31 virions are icosahedral, have a diameter of about 135 nm, and contain a dsDNA genome 220.222 kbp in length, with 35.09 mol % G+C content and 203 ORFs. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the eighth genome sequence of an IIV reported.

  4. Growth of AM fungi on in vitro root organ culture of Sorghum vulgare and Saccharum officinarum.

    PubMed

    Raman, N; Sahadevan, C; Srinivasan, V

    2001-12-01

    Spores of Gl mosseae and Gig gigantea germinated on minimal medium produced extraradical mycelium. Gl. mosseae infected roots of S. officinarum in in vitro condition were inoculated in M medium with in vitro cultured roots of Sorghum vulgare (test roots). From the infected root of S. officinarum, the mycelium developed and it infected the test roots. The roots developed new mycelia and further the mycelia produced a few hyaline spores. In MS medium combined with soil extract, root exudate, thiamine HCl and inositol combination, spore germination and germ tube growth were higher when compared with other media. PMID:12018527

  5. Metabolite profiles of essential oils and molecular markers analysis to explore the biodiversity of Ferula communis: Towards conservation of the endemic giant fennel.

    PubMed

    Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Lamine, Myriam; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Hammami, Majdi; Sellami, Ibtissem Hamrouni

    2016-04-01

    Giant fennel (Ferula communis L.) is well known in folk medicine for the treatment of various organ disorders. The biological importance of members of genus Ferula prompted us to investigate the leaves of the endangered Tunisian medicinal plant F. communis L. not previously investigated. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Thus, four F. communis populations were RAPD fingerprinted (63 RAPD markers generated by 7 primers) and the composition of their leaf essential oils (EO) (134 EO compounds) was characterized by GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on the leaf volatiles chemical composition of F. communis accessions defined three chemotypes according to main compounds have been distinguished: α-eudesmol/β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; α-eudesmol/α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide and chamazulene/α-humulene chemotypes. A high genetic diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them, based on RAPDs, were revealed (H(pop)=0.320 and GST=0.288) caused both by the habitat fragmentation, the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The RAPD dendrogram showed separation of three groups. Populations dominated by individuals from the β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; chemotype showed the lowest gene diversity (H=0.104), while populations with exclusively α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide chemotype showed the highest value (H=0.285). The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on volatiles yielded higher separation among populations, indicated specific adaptation of populations to the local environments. Correlation analysis showed a non-significant association between the distance matrices based on the genetic markers (RAPD) and chemical compounds of essential oil (P>0.05) indicating no influence of genetic background on the observed chemical profiles. These results reinforce the use of both volatile compounds and RAPD markers as a starting point for

  6. Metabolite profiles of essential oils and molecular markers analysis to explore the biodiversity of Ferula communis: Towards conservation of the endemic giant fennel.

    PubMed

    Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Lamine, Myriam; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Hammami, Majdi; Sellami, Ibtissem Hamrouni

    2016-04-01

    Giant fennel (Ferula communis L.) is well known in folk medicine for the treatment of various organ disorders. The biological importance of members of genus Ferula prompted us to investigate the leaves of the endangered Tunisian medicinal plant F. communis L. not previously investigated. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Thus, four F. communis populations were RAPD fingerprinted (63 RAPD markers generated by 7 primers) and the composition of their leaf essential oils (EO) (134 EO compounds) was characterized by GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on the leaf volatiles chemical composition of F. communis accessions defined three chemotypes according to main compounds have been distinguished: α-eudesmol/β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; α-eudesmol/α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide and chamazulene/α-humulene chemotypes. A high genetic diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them, based on RAPDs, were revealed (H(pop)=0.320 and GST=0.288) caused both by the habitat fragmentation, the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The RAPD dendrogram showed separation of three groups. Populations dominated by individuals from the β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; chemotype showed the lowest gene diversity (H=0.104), while populations with exclusively α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide chemotype showed the highest value (H=0.285). The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on volatiles yielded higher separation among populations, indicated specific adaptation of populations to the local environments. Correlation analysis showed a non-significant association between the distance matrices based on the genetic markers (RAPD) and chemical compounds of essential oil (P>0.05) indicating no influence of genetic background on the observed chemical profiles. These results reinforce the use of both volatile compounds and RAPD markers as a starting point for

  7. Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare Completely Inhibits the Growth of Multidrug-Resistant Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Giovanna; Maggini, Valentina; Maida, Isabel; Lo Nostro, Antonella; Calonico, Carmela; Sassoli, Chiara; Perrin, Elena; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Chiellini, Carolina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Bogani, Patrizia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Campana, Silvia; Ravenni, Novella; Dolce, Daniela; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2016-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. Particularly interesting is the possible use of EOs to treat multidrug-resistant cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens. We tested the essential oil (EO) from Origanum vulgare for in vitro antimicrobial activity, against three of the major human opportunistic pathogens responsible for respiratory infections in CF patients; these are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Antibiotic susceptibility of each strain was previously tested by the standard disk diffusion method. Most strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics and could be defined as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). The antibacterial activity of O. vulgare EO (OEO) against a panel of 59 bacterial strains was evaluated, with MIC and MBC determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by a microdilution method. The OEO was effective against all tested strains, although to a different extent. The MBC and MIC of OEO for S. aureus strains were either lower or equal to 0.50%, v/v, for A. xylosoxidans strains were lower or equal to 1% and 0.50%, v/v, respectively; and for S. maltophilia strains were lower or equal to 0.25%, v/v. The results from this study suggest that OEO might exert a role as an antimicrobial in the treatment of CF infections. PMID:27534136

  8. Phenolic compounds of 'Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa' olive oils along early ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Peres, Fátima; Martins, Luisa L; Mourato, Miguel; Vitorino, Conceição; Antunes, Paulo; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the lipophilic and hydrophilic phenol composition of virgin olive oils (VOO) obtained from olives from two of the most important Portuguese cultivars ('Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa'), harvested at different ripening stages and under two irrigation schemes (rain fed and irrigated), was evaluated. Phenolic alcohols (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), phenolic acids and derivatives and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), as well as tocopherols were quantified. Lipophilic (>300mgkg(-1)) and hydrophilic phenols (>600mgkg(-1)) were present in high contents in both VOO, for early ripening stages. Gamma-tocopherol content is higher in 'Galega Vulgar' VOO. Total phenols showed a decrease between ripening index 2.5 and 3.5. The dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), also known as oleacein, was the major phenolic compound identified in both oils. The concentration of free hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in both VOO is very low while their esterified derivatives, like 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, are much more abundant. PMID:27283606

  9. Efficient genetic transformation and regeneration system from hairy root of Origanum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Peyman; de Sa, Maria Fatima Grossi; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Makhzoum, Abdullah; da Luz Costa, Jefferson; Borghetti, Ivo Albertto; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Origanum vulgare L is commonly known as a wild marjoram and winter sweet which has been used in the traditional medicine due to its therapeutic effects as stimulant, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and many other diseases. A reliable gene transfer system via Agrobacterium rhizogenes and plant regeneration via hairy roots was established in O. vulgare for the first time. The frequency of induced hairy roots was different by modification of the co-cultivation medium elements after infection by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains K599 and ATCC15834. High transformation frequency (91.3 %) was achieved by co-cultivation of explants with A. rhizogenes on modified (MS) medium. The frequency of calli induction with an 81.5 % was achieved from hairy roots on MS medium with 0.25 mg/L(-1) 2,4-D. For shoot induction, initiated calli was transferred into a medium containing various concentrations of BA (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg/L(-1)). The frequency of shoot generation (85.18 %) was achieved in medium fortified with 0.25 mg/L(-1) of BA. Shoots were placed on MS medium with 0.25 mg/l IBA for root induction. Roots appeared and induction rate was achieved after 15 days. PMID:27436918

  10. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  11. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, Amel; Henchiri, Cherifa; Siracusa, Laura; Sari, Madani; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in Algeria. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusion revealed the presence of fifteen metabolites, all belonging to the class of polyphenols. Particularly, seven flavonoids have been detected, together with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid in small amounts; the extract is dominated by the presence of a series of complex molecules, characterized as verbascoside (acteoside) derivatives. Concerning the anti-diabetic effectiveness a series of in vivo experiments were carried out on albinos Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxane; they were treated twice a day with aqueous extract from aerial part infusion (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. Oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract the Marrubium vulgare induced an significant effect antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic (dose-dependent effect). A decrease in blood glucose by 50% for the dose 100 mg/kg and more than 60% for doses 200 and 300 mg/kg, as well as a significant lowering of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in treated animals, compared with diabetic controls group (p<0.001), have been observed. Glibenclamide was used as reference and showed similar effects.

  12. Analysis of the antinociceptive properties of marrubiin isolated from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V

    2000-04-01

    We have shown previously that Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant employed frequently in folk medicine to treat a variety of ailments, exhibits antispasmodic and antinociceptive effects in different experimental models. This work describes the antinociceptive profile of marrubiin, the main constituent of this plant, which was analysed in some models of nociception in mice. The results showed that marrubiin exhibits potent and dose-related antinociceptive effects, whose calculated ID50 values (micromol/kg, i.p.) were the following: 2.2 in the writhing test, 6.6 (first phase) and 6.3 (second phase) in the formalin-induced pain test and 28.8 when evaluated in the capsaicin test. It was more potent than some well-known analgesic drugs. The antinociception produced by the marrubiin was not reversed by naloxone when analyzed against the writhing test. In the hot-plate test, marrubiin did not increase the latency period of pain induced by the thermal stimuli. Its exact mechanism of action remains to be determined, but the results suggest that marrubiin, like hydroalcoholic extract of M. vulgare, does not interact with opioid systems.

  13. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  14. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work. PMID:21335098

  15. Individual variation in the seasonal reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Nasri, Karima; Mocquard, Jean-Pierre; Juchault, Pierre

    1998-08-01

    Under particular conditions of photoperiod and temperature, Armadillidium vulgare females, originating from a single population, might exhibit individual differences in the onset of reproduction and duration of the breeding period. In a population issued from a strain from middle latitudes, some females underwent only one parturial moult (northern tendency) and others three parturial moults (southern tendency). Females with an atypical northern phenology are the most numerous and tend to be found near the Danish population. In the latter, there is an asymmetrical response to laboratory selection (favourable to females with a longer breeding period). The asymmetrical variation in atypical individuals acts as a safety device against the unpredictability of the environment. The adaptation of this species, originally from the Mediterranean periphery, to a northern environment has led to a reduction in its capacity to breed over long periods of time. Populations from middle latitudes can undergo one or several parturial moults which enables the species to successfully colonize even far-away countries. These intrapopulation differences have an essential role and explain why Armadillidium vulgare is one of the most widely distributed species among Oniscidea.

  16. Phenolic compounds of 'Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa' olive oils along early ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Peres, Fátima; Martins, Luisa L; Mourato, Miguel; Vitorino, Conceição; Antunes, Paulo; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the lipophilic and hydrophilic phenol composition of virgin olive oils (VOO) obtained from olives from two of the most important Portuguese cultivars ('Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa'), harvested at different ripening stages and under two irrigation schemes (rain fed and irrigated), was evaluated. Phenolic alcohols (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), phenolic acids and derivatives and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), as well as tocopherols were quantified. Lipophilic (>300mgkg(-1)) and hydrophilic phenols (>600mgkg(-1)) were present in high contents in both VOO, for early ripening stages. Gamma-tocopherol content is higher in 'Galega Vulgar' VOO. Total phenols showed a decrease between ripening index 2.5 and 3.5. The dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), also known as oleacein, was the major phenolic compound identified in both oils. The concentration of free hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in both VOO is very low while their esterified derivatives, like 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, are much more abundant.

  17. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen. PMID:27244472

  18. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work.

  19. Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare Completely Inhibits the Growth of Multidrug-Resistant Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Giovanna; Maggini, Valentina; Maida, Isabel; Lo Nostro, Antonella; Calonico, Carmela; Sassoli, Chiara; Perrin, Elena; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Chiellini, Carolina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Bogani, Patrizia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Campana, Silvia; Ravenni, Novella; Dolce, Daniela; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2016-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. Particularly interesting is the possible use of EOs to treat multidrug-resistant cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens. We tested the essential oil (EO) from Origanum vulgare for in vitro antimicrobial activity, against three of the major human opportunistic pathogens responsible for respiratory infections in CF patients; these are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Antibiotic susceptibility of each strain was previously tested by the standard disk diffusion method. Most strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics and could be defined as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). The antibacterial activity of O. vulgare EO (OEO) against a panel of 59 bacterial strains was evaluated, with MIC and MBC determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by a microdilution method. The OEO was effective against all tested strains, although to a different extent. The MBC and MIC of OEO for S. aureus strains were either lower or equal to 0.50%, v/v, for A. xylosoxidans strains were lower or equal to 1% and 0.50%, v/v, respectively; and for S. maltophilia strains were lower or equal to 0.25%, v/v. The results from this study suggest that OEO might exert a role as an antimicrobial in the treatment of CF infections.

  20. A new genetic linkage map of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) facilitates genetic dissection of height and spike length and angle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant height and spike length and angle are important agronomic traits in the production of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to strong correlations with lodging and disease. The objective of this study was to use QTL analysis to identify genetic regions associated with each trait in a recombinant inb...

  1. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils Combinations.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Dal Ben, Vanessa Silveira; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Baptista, Cristiane Telles; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations. Susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 protocol, and combinations were evaluated by the microdilution cherkerboard method. All tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum, and the greatest activity of O. vulgare was highlighted. Synergistic and/or indifferent effect was observed for all combinations evaluated, especially the M. piperita and O. vulgare combination, which showed 65 % synergism. This is the first study to report in vitro combinations of essential oils against P. insidiosum indicating the susceptibility of this oomycete to M. alternifolia, M. piperita and O. vulgare essential oils, as well as their combinations. PMID:27209011

  2. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils Combinations.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Dal Ben, Vanessa Silveira; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Baptista, Cristiane Telles; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations. Susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 protocol, and combinations were evaluated by the microdilution cherkerboard method. All tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum, and the greatest activity of O. vulgare was highlighted. Synergistic and/or indifferent effect was observed for all combinations evaluated, especially the M. piperita and O. vulgare combination, which showed 65 % synergism. This is the first study to report in vitro combinations of essential oils against P. insidiosum indicating the susceptibility of this oomycete to M. alternifolia, M. piperita and O. vulgare essential oils, as well as their combinations.

  3. Morphological and physiological development of anterior thoracic stretch receptors in two isopods, Armadillidium vulgare and Ligia exotica.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masazumi; Ohata, Ayako; Niida, Akiyoshi

    2007-07-01

    Abdominal muscle receptor organs (MROs) monitor the position and movement of abdomen in crustaceans. Thoracic segments of decapods are fused and immovable. It is speculated that MROs had retrograded simple shape, N-cells that lost receptor muscles, a receptor cell and accessory nerves. We focused on the effect of segmental movement in respect to thoracic N-cells and MROs in isopods that have movable thoracic segments. Armadillidium vulgare rolled up its body segments. Ligia exotica swam by quick movement of the posterior thoracic segments. Both isopods possessed N-cells and MROs in the thorax. N-cells were a simple structure, but N-cells from the second and third thoracic segments of A. vulgare had a muscle strand. MROs(T3-T4) (from the third and fourth thoracic segments) of A. vulgare had two receptor muscles. MROs(T3-T4) of L. exotica had one long receptor muscle. N-cells of both species and MROs of A. vulgare showed slowly adapting stretch-activated discharges. MROs of L. exotica showed both slowly and rapidly adapting discharges. The stretch-activated responses of N-cells and MROs inhibited each other. N-cells or MROs in the thorax of isopods are not related to the segmental structure. The morphology and physiology of N-cells and MROs are specialized to species-specific behaviors. PMID:17473927

  4. Effects of Anti-Tobacco Advertisements Based on Risk-Taking Tendencies: Realistic Fear vs. Vulgar Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moon J.; Ferguson, Mary Ann

    2002-01-01

    Explores how college students with different risk-taking tendencies responded to different emotional appeals in anti-tobacco advertisements. Finds that rebellious participants who watched realistic fear advertisements reported higher levels of interest than those who watched the vulgar humor advertisements. Explains that impulsive participants…

  5. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C. PMID:26248285

  6. The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to validate its antiseptic and anticancer properties with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time the antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of M. vulgare L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of M. vulgare essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of M. vulgare essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against the different tested microorganisms. The present results results showed a significant activity against microorganisms especially Gram (+) bacteria with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 6.6-25.2 mm and 1120-2600 μg/ml, respectively, whereas Gram (-) bacteria exhibited a higher resistance. As far as the antifungal activity, among four strains tested, Botrytis cinerea exhibited the strongest activity with inhibition zones of 12.6 mm. However, Fusarium solani, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger were less sensitive to M. vulgare essential oil. About the citotoxicity assay, this finding indicate the capability of this essential oil to inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cell lines under some conditions with IC50 value of 0.258 μg/ml. Conclusion This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against some Gram (+) pathogenic bacteria and Botrytis cinerea fungi. The present studies confirm the use of this essential oil as anticancer

  7. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C. PMID:26248285

  8. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  9. [Stress response genes expression analysis of barley Hordeum vulgare under space flight environment].

    PubMed

    Shagimardanova, E I; Gusev, O A; Sychev, V N; Levinskikh, M A; Sharipova, M R; Il'inskaia, O N; Bingham, G; Sugimoto, M

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptome of barley Hordeum vulgare grown aboard International Space Station (ISS) was analyzed by means of microarray. It was revealed 500 genes with mRNA level, changed more than two folds in space environment. Among them are genes encoding stress response proteins, videlicet Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), Pathogenesis-Related Proteins (PR) and Antioxidant Proteins. Further analysis of these genes by real time PCR showed enhanced transcription level of Reactive oxygen Species (ROS) scavenging genes. The mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (sod) was 6 folds higher in space environment when compare to Earth conditions. Glutamyl transferase gene expression was enhanced 24 times in space. Transcription of catalase gene (cat) was increased 18 times and of ascorbate peroxidase was increased 3 times in space in comparison with ground control. For the first time it was shown that space flight environment may induce oxidative stress in plants.

  10. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26996035

  11. A new monoterpene acid from Marrubium vulgare with potential antihepatotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bahar; Masoodi, Mubashir H; Siddique, Anwarul H; Khan, Shamshir

    2010-11-01

    The whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. afforded a new terpenoid, characterised as p-menthane-5,6-dihydroxy-3-carboxylic acid (1), which has been designated as marrubic acid. Its structure has been elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical analyses. The compound (1) also exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) by 40.16%, serum glutamate pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) by 35.06%, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 30.51%. On the other hand, total protein (TP) levels were increased by 34.07%, as compared to the standard drug silymarin, which decreased SGOT by 53.04%, SGPT by 55.96%, ALP by 35.87% and increased TP levels by 59.59%. These biochemical observations were also supplemented by histopathological examinations of liver sections.

  12. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    PubMed

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised.

  13. Analgesic potential of marrubiin derivatives, a bioactive diterpene present in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Meyre-Silva, C; Yunes, R A; Schlemper, V; Campos-Buzzi, F; Cechinel-Filho, V

    2005-04-01

    Marrubiin, a furane labdane diterpene, is the main analgesic compound present in Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in Brazil and other countries to treat several ailments. Considering its important pharmacological action, as well as its high yield, some structural modifications were performed in order to obtain more active compounds. Success was obtained in reducing the lactonic function, in the formation of marrubiinic acid and two esterified derivatives, which exhibited significant analgesic effect against the writhing test in mice. Marrubiinic acid showed better activity and excellent yield, and its analgesic effect was confirmed in other experimental models of pain in mice, suggesting its possible use as a model to obtain new and potent analgesic agents.

  14. Chemical constituents of Marrubium vulgare as potential inhibitors of nitric oxide and respiratory burst.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Farzana; Rasoola, Shagufta; Shah, Zafar Ali; Soomro, Samreen; Jabeen, Almas; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L., led to the isolation of three new secondary metabolites, 11-oxomarrubiin (1), vulgarcoside A (2) and 3-hydroxyapigenin-4'-O-(6"-O-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with four known constituents 4-7 from the polar fractions of the methanolic extract. The structures of all compounds were deduced on the basis of NMR data and HRESI-MS measurements. The new constituents 1-3 exhibited moderate to low level of inhibition on nitric oxide (NO.) production. The compound 2 also showed a moderate inhibition on pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. The new constituents 1-3 showed no inhibitory effect on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production.

  15. [Stress response genes expression analysis of barley Hordeum vulgare under space flight environment].

    PubMed

    Shagimardanova, E I; Gusev, O A; Sychev, V N; Levinskikh, M A; Sharipova, M R; Il'inskaia, O N; Bingham, G; Sugimoto, M

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptome of barley Hordeum vulgare grown aboard International Space Station (ISS) was analyzed by means of microarray. It was revealed 500 genes with mRNA level, changed more than two folds in space environment. Among them are genes encoding stress response proteins, videlicet Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), Pathogenesis-Related Proteins (PR) and Antioxidant Proteins. Further analysis of these genes by real time PCR showed enhanced transcription level of Reactive oxygen Species (ROS) scavenging genes. The mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (sod) was 6 folds higher in space environment when compare to Earth conditions. Glutamyl transferase gene expression was enhanced 24 times in space. Transcription of catalase gene (cat) was increased 18 times and of ascorbate peroxidase was increased 3 times in space in comparison with ground control. For the first time it was shown that space flight environment may induce oxidative stress in plants. PMID:21090239

  16. Diagnosing latent copper deficiency in intact barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare, L.) using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    van Maarschalkerweerd, Marie; Bro, Rasmus; Egebo, Max; Husted, Søren

    2013-11-20

    Chemometric analysis of near-infrared (NIR) spectra recorded directly on fresh leaves of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare, L.) enabled the separation of control and Cu deficient samples before any visual deficiency symptoms developed. This demonstrates that the molecular structure of leaves is modified during latent Cu deficiency. Lignin biosynthesis is a primary target of Cu deficiency, but lignin concentrations were unaltered when separation was first possible, indicating that alteration of lignin composition, not concentration, is among the earliest effects of Cu deficiency in plants. Validation of chemometric models using an independent test set found that 92% of samples were correctly classified as control or Cu deficient, respectively. Models were undisturbed by including spectra from plants deficient in P, Mg, B, or Mn, establishing their specificity for Cu deficiency. This study is the first to demonstrate that NIR has the potential to successfully diagnose the deficiency of an essential trace element in plants.

  17. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Smigel, Jacob T; Gibbs, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 +/- 1 degrees C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation. PMID:20233103

  18. Conglobation in the Pill Bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a Water Conservation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Smigel, Jacob T.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 ± 1°C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation. PMID:20233103

  19. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients.

  20. Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum Desf. at Different Phenological Stages

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Hédia; Jemli, Maroua; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil (EO) of wild population of Origanum vulgare at different phenological stages, including vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, is reported. The oils of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation. The yield of oils (w/w%) at different stages were in the order of late vegetative (2.0%), early vegetative (1.7%), and flowering (0.6%) set. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 36, 33, and 16 components were identified and quantified in vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, representing 94.47%, 95.91%, and 99.62% of the oil, respectively. Carvacrol was the major compound in all samples. The ranges of major constituents were as follows: carvacrol (61.08–83.37%), p-cymene (3.02–9.87%), and γ-terpinene (4.13–6.34%). Antibacterial activity of the oils was tested against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion method and determining their diameter of inhibition and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial strains, which were sensitive to the EO of O. vulgare subsp. glandulosum, were in the range of 9–36 mm and 125–600 μg/mL, respectively. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against all tested bacteria, of which Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive and resistant strain, respectively. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that exhibited potential for use in pathogenic systems. PMID:24320986

  1. Chitosan boosts the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil in modified atmosphere packaged pork.

    PubMed

    Paparella, Antonello; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Guerrieri, Oana; Serio, Annalisa

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chitosan as a possible booster of the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare EO (OEO) against spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in fresh pork meat. Pork fillets were inoculated with 3 L. monocytogenes strains, dipped either in Origanum vulgare (oregano) Essential Oil (OEO) at 2 and 4%, or in chitosan 1% alone or added with 2 and 4% OEO, then packed under modified atmosphere (70% O2, 20% CO2, 10% N2) and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. OEO did not reduce L. monocytogenes growth, while 2 Log decrease was obtained after 2 days of storage in treatments with chitosan alone or with OEO, with growth inhibition up to day 15 in samples with chitosan and OEO 4%. When OEO was combined with chitosan, total viable counts and spoilage bacteria were reduced and contained over time, particularly Pseudomonas (2.0 Log CFU/g at day 15) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (undetectable). All the treatments applied extended meat shelf-life with respect to control, whose commercial shelf-life was 10 days. Chitosan treatments enhanced L* and maintained a* values almost stable during storage. Chitosan and OEO singly applied reduced lipid oxidation (0.62-0.75 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat) compared to control (0.99 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat). Finally, chitosan treated samples were not recognized with respect to the control, whereas OEO gave bitter taste; chitosan with OEO instead mitigated the effect of OEO addition to meat. Chitosan combined with OEO boosts its antimicrobial activity and shows a potential for application in industrial production of fresh pork in MAP, to achieve shelf-life extension, control of L. monocytogenes growth, stability of color and protective effect from oxidation, with low sensory impact. PMID:27375241

  2. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum Desf. at different phenological stages.

    PubMed

    Béjaoui, Afef; Chaabane, Hédia; Jemli, Maroua; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil (EO) of wild population of Origanum vulgare at different phenological stages, including vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, is reported. The oils of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation. The yield of oils (w/w%) at different stages were in the order of late vegetative (2.0%), early vegetative (1.7%), and flowering (0.6%) set. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 36, 33, and 16 components were identified and quantified in vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, representing 94.47%, 95.91%, and 99.62% of the oil, respectively. Carvacrol was the major compound in all samples. The ranges of major constituents were as follows: carvacrol (61.08-83.37%), p-cymene (3.02-9.87%), and γ-terpinene (4.13-6.34%). Antibacterial activity of the oils was tested against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion method and determining their diameter of inhibition and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial strains, which were sensitive to the EO of O. vulgare subsp. glandulosum, were in the range of 9-36 mm and 125-600 μg/mL, respectively. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against all tested bacteria, of which Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive and resistant strain, respectively. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that exhibited potential for use in pathogenic systems. PMID:24320986

  3. Egg envelopes of Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille, 1804) (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea): Ultrastructure and lectins binding.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Sinatra, F; Villaggio, G; Longo, G

    2016-09-01

    The ultrastructural study carried out on (a) oocytes of Armadillidium vulgare during vitellogenesis, (b) mature eggs taken from the ovaries during the parturial moult of the posterior half of the body, and (c) fertilized eggs collected within a few hours of their release into the brood pouch, has clearly demonstrated that before the fertilization the chorion is the only envelope present in the egg of oniscidean isopods. In the mature eggs, the chorion appears as a uniformly electron-dense lamina, about 0.4-0.5 µm thick, which does not show any specialized area. A second envelope, described by other authors as vitelline envelope, is formed above the oolemma only right after fertilization and appears separated from the chorion by a space full of liquid. The ways in which the genesis of this envelope is realized are not yet clear; it could be interpreted rather as a fertilization membrane. The investigations carried out with the aid of a battery of FITC-lectins have highlighted the presence at the chorion surface of unfertilized eggs of various saccharide residues distributed in uniform way. No significant change was observed in the pattern of lectins binding to the chorion of eggs taken from the brood pouch, thus demonstrating how, after the fertilization, no significant rearrangement in the distribution of saccharide residues present on the egg surface occurs in A. vulgare. The ways in which, therefore, the recognition, the binding and the entry of the peculiar sperm of oniscidean isopods into the egg occur, still remain all to be deciphered. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:792-798, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324273

  4. Metallothioneins and heat shock proteins 70 in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea) exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Giannetto, A; Brundo, M V; Maisano, M; Ferrante, M; Copat, C; Mauceri, A; Longo, G

    2015-06-01

    The heavy metals bioaccumulation capability in Armadillidium vulgare feeded with chestnut leaves contaminated with various sublethal concentrations of Cd and Pb, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The metal concentration found in the hepatopancreas of treated animals, as measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), affected the expression and localization of MT and HSP70 as shown by immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. The Cd content of the animals treated with the various concentrations of the metal has been always higher than that of chestnut leaves contaminated. The accumulation of Pb was, instead, always modest compared to the content of the chestnut leaves. The immunohistochemical investigation in hepatopancreas tissue of animals treated with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb, by using the anti-MT and anti-HSP70 antibodies, has provided a response clearly positive even if differentiated in relation to the metal and concentration tested. In particular, a positive response to anti-MT antibody was detected in B and S cells nuclei and S cells cytoplasm; the localization of HSP70 was particularly intense at the cell surface. Western blotting analysis showed significant up-regulation of the expression (about 2.6 fold) of HSP70 proteins in the hepatopancreas of animals exposed to highest Pb concentrations respect to control. Moreover, samples exposed to higher Cd and Pb concentrations showed a higher expression of MT (3.2 fold and 4 fold respectively) compared to control. In summary, our data beyond to clearly demonstrate for the first time the expression of MT in terrestrial isopods, suggest that A. vulgare would be a suitable organism for assessing Cd and Pb exposure in environments threatened by metal pollution as suggested by the modulation of the biomarkers MT and HSP70. PMID:25779333

  5. The Immune Cellular Effectors of Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium vulgare: Meeting with Their Invaders, Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Bertaux, Joanne; Raimond, Maryline; Morel, Franck; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background Most of crustacean immune responses are well described for the aquatic forms whereas almost nothing is known for the isopods that evolved a terrestrial lifestyle. The latter are also infected at a high prevalence with Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium which affects the host immune system, possibly to improve its transmission. In contrast with insect models, the isopod Armadillidium vulgare is known to harbor Wolbachia inside the haemocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings In A. vulgare we characterized three haemocyte types (TEM, flow cytometry): the hyaline and semi-granular haemocytes were phagocytes, while semi-granular and granular haemocytes performed encapsulation. They were produced in the haematopoietic organs, from central stem cells, maturing as they moved toward the edge (TEM). In infected individuals, live Wolbachia (FISH) colonized 38% of the haemocytes but with low, variable densities (6.45±0.46 Wolbachia on average). So far they were not found in hyaline haemocytes (TEM). The haematopoietic organs contained 7.6±0.7×103 Wolbachia, both in stem cells and differentiating cells (FISH). While infected and uninfected one-year-old individuals had the same haemocyte density, in infected animals the proportion of granular haemocytes in particular decreased by one third (flow cytometry, Pearson's test = 12 822.98, df = 2, p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance The characteristics of the isopod immune system fell within the range of those known from aquatic crustaceans. The colonization of the haemocytes by Wolbachia seemed to stand from the haematopoietic organs, which may act as a reservoir to discharge Wolbachia in the haemolymph, a known route for horizontal transfer. Wolbachia infection did not affect the haemocyte density, but the quantity of granular haemocytes decreased by one third. This may account for the reduced prophenoloxidase activity observed previously in these animals. PMID:21533137

  6. Metallothioneins and heat shock proteins 70 in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea) exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Giannetto, A; Brundo, M V; Maisano, M; Ferrante, M; Copat, C; Mauceri, A; Longo, G

    2015-06-01

    The heavy metals bioaccumulation capability in Armadillidium vulgare feeded with chestnut leaves contaminated with various sublethal concentrations of Cd and Pb, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The metal concentration found in the hepatopancreas of treated animals, as measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), affected the expression and localization of MT and HSP70 as shown by immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. The Cd content of the animals treated with the various concentrations of the metal has been always higher than that of chestnut leaves contaminated. The accumulation of Pb was, instead, always modest compared to the content of the chestnut leaves. The immunohistochemical investigation in hepatopancreas tissue of animals treated with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb, by using the anti-MT and anti-HSP70 antibodies, has provided a response clearly positive even if differentiated in relation to the metal and concentration tested. In particular, a positive response to anti-MT antibody was detected in B and S cells nuclei and S cells cytoplasm; the localization of HSP70 was particularly intense at the cell surface. Western blotting analysis showed significant up-regulation of the expression (about 2.6 fold) of HSP70 proteins in the hepatopancreas of animals exposed to highest Pb concentrations respect to control. Moreover, samples exposed to higher Cd and Pb concentrations showed a higher expression of MT (3.2 fold and 4 fold respectively) compared to control. In summary, our data beyond to clearly demonstrate for the first time the expression of MT in terrestrial isopods, suggest that A. vulgare would be a suitable organism for assessing Cd and Pb exposure in environments threatened by metal pollution as suggested by the modulation of the biomarkers MT and HSP70.

  7. Chitosan boosts the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil in modified atmosphere packaged pork.

    PubMed

    Paparella, Antonello; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Guerrieri, Oana; Serio, Annalisa

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chitosan as a possible booster of the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare EO (OEO) against spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in fresh pork meat. Pork fillets were inoculated with 3 L. monocytogenes strains, dipped either in Origanum vulgare (oregano) Essential Oil (OEO) at 2 and 4%, or in chitosan 1% alone or added with 2 and 4% OEO, then packed under modified atmosphere (70% O2, 20% CO2, 10% N2) and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. OEO did not reduce L. monocytogenes growth, while 2 Log decrease was obtained after 2 days of storage in treatments with chitosan alone or with OEO, with growth inhibition up to day 15 in samples with chitosan and OEO 4%. When OEO was combined with chitosan, total viable counts and spoilage bacteria were reduced and contained over time, particularly Pseudomonas (2.0 Log CFU/g at day 15) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (undetectable). All the treatments applied extended meat shelf-life with respect to control, whose commercial shelf-life was 10 days. Chitosan treatments enhanced L* and maintained a* values almost stable during storage. Chitosan and OEO singly applied reduced lipid oxidation (0.62-0.75 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat) compared to control (0.99 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat). Finally, chitosan treated samples were not recognized with respect to the control, whereas OEO gave bitter taste; chitosan with OEO instead mitigated the effect of OEO addition to meat. Chitosan combined with OEO boosts its antimicrobial activity and shows a potential for application in industrial production of fresh pork in MAP, to achieve shelf-life extension, control of L. monocytogenes growth, stability of color and protective effect from oxidation, with low sensory impact.

  8. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides. PMID:21707233

  9. Effect of cadmium on selected physiological and morphological parameters in metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Echium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Sławomir; Bednarek, Wiesław; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium tolerance of three populations of Echium vulgare L., naturally occurring on two Zn-Pb waste deposits (metallicolous populations M1, M2) and on an uncontaminated site (non-metallicolous population, NM) was investigated. The plants were cultivated in hydroponics at 0, 5, 15, 30, or 50μM Cd for 14 days. Although Cd reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments indifferently in the three populations, plant growth parameters and root viability analyses confirmed different Cd tolerances decreasing in the order M1>M2>NM in the populations studied. Organic acids (tartrate, malate, citrate, succinate) were not responsible for the elevated Cd tolerance of the metallicolous populations, although malate and citrate might participate in Cd detoxification in the roots of the M1 and M2. Phytochelatin concentrations were higher in the roots of M1 and M2 populations of E. vulgare, suggesting their role in Cd detoxification and different Cd tolerances.

  10. Complete genomic sequence of barley (Hordeum vulgare) endornavirus (HvEV) determined by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Candresse, Thierry; Marais, Armelle; Sorrentino, Roberto; Faure, Chantal; Theil, Sébastien; Cadot, Valérie; Rolland, Mathieu; Villemot, Julie; Rabenstein, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Endornaviruses are unusual plant-, fungus- and oomycete-infecting viruses with a large, ca 14- to 17-kb linear double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome and a persistent lifestyle. The complete genome sequence of an endornavirus from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Nerz variety was determined from paired Illumina MySeq reads derived from purified dsRNAs. The genome is 14,243 nt long, with 5' and 3' non-coding regions of 207 and 47 nt, respectively. It encodes a single large protein of 4663 amino acids that carries conserved motifs for a methyltransferase, a helicase and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The sequence of Hordeum vulgare endornavirus (HvEV) carries all the hallmarks of a typical member of the genus Endornavirus, with the exception of an UDP-glycosyltransferase motif observed in many, but not all, endornaviral genomes.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  12. Taxonomic complexity in the halophyte Limonium vulgare and related taxa (Plumbaginaceae): insights from analysis of morphological, reproductive and karyological data

    PubMed Central

    Cortinhas, Ana; Erben, Matthias; Paula Paes, Ana; Espírito Santo, Dalila; Guara-Requena, Miguel; Caperta, Ana D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Limonium is a well-known example of a group of plants that is taxonomically complex due to certain biological characteristics that hamper species' delineation. The closely related polyploid species Limonium vulgare Mill., L. humile Mill. and L. narbonense Mill. are defined species and can be used for studying patterns of morphological and reproductive variation. The first two taxa are usually found in Atlantic Europe and the third in the Mediterranean region, but a number of intermediate morphological forms may be present alongside typical examples of these species. This study attempts to elucidate morphological, floral and karyological diversity representative of these taxa in the Iberian Peninsula. Methods The extent of morphological differentiation was tested through comparison of 197 specimens from both Portugal and Spain using 17 descriptive morphological characters and 19 diagnostic morphometric characters. Analyses of floral morphisms (heterostyly and pollen–stigma dimorphism) and karyological determinations were also conducted. Key Results and Conclusions Discriminant analysis using morphometric variables reliably assigned individuals in natural populations to their respective groups. In addition, the results provide the first direct evidence that L. narbonense and a new species, Limonium maritimum Caperta, Cortinhas, Paes, Guara, Espírito-Santo and Erben, sp. nov., related to L. vulgare are present on Portuguese coasts. Most of these species are found together in mixed populations, especially L. vulgare and L. narbonense. It is hypothesized that taxonomic biodiversity found in sites where distinct species co-occur facilitates the evolutionary processes of hybridization, introgression and apomixis. This study therefore contributes to the elucidation of the taxonomic diversity in L. vulgare-related species and may also help in implementing future conservation programmes to maintain the evolutionary processes generating biodiversity

  13. The potential of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2008-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has been currently known for their interesting antimicrobial activity being regarded as alternative antimicrobial for use is food conservation systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of O. vulgare essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. terreus, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus and A. niger). The essential oil revealed a strong anti-Aspergillus property providing an inhibition of all assayed mould strains. MIC values were between 80 and 20 μL/mL being found a MIC50 of 40 μL/mL. The essential oil at concentration of 80 and 40 μL/mL provided a fungicidal effect on A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger noted by a total inhibition of the radial mycelial growth along 14 days of interaction. In addition, the essential oil was able to inhibit the mould spores germination when assayed at concentrations of 80 and 40 μL/mL. Our results showed the interesting anti-Aspergillus activity of O. vulgare essential oil supporting their possible use as anti-mould compound in food conservation. PMID:24031231

  14. Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare L. on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Soraya, Hamid; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khorrami, Arash; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2013-08-01

    Isoproterenol injection (100 mg/kg; sc) produced changes in ECG pattern including ST-segment elevation and suppressed R-amplitude. The methanolic extract of M. vulgare at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg significantly amended the ECG changes. A severe myocardial necrosis and edematous along with a sharp reduction in the arterial blood pressure, left ventricular contractility (LVdP/dt(max or min)), but a marked increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were seen in the isoproterenol group. All parameters were significantly improved by the extract treatment. The extract (10 mg/kg) strongly increased LVdP/dt(max). Similarly, treatment with 40 mg/kg of M. vulgare lowered the elevated LVEDP and the heart to body weight ratio. In addition to in vitro antioxidant activity, the extract suppressed markedly the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in serum and in myocardium. The results demonstrate that M. vulgare protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and suggest that the effects could be related to antioxidant activities.

  15. Characterization of microRNAs and their targets in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) using deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pingchuan; Bian, Jianxin; Yue, Hong; Feng, Kewei; Wang, Mengxing; Du, Xianghong; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a negative regulatory role in various developmental and metabolic processes of plants. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum), as the progenitor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare), has served as a valuable germplasm resource for barley genetic improvement. To survey miRNAs in wild barley, we sequenced the small RNA library prepared from wild barley using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 70 known miRNAs and 18 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that all of the miRNAs identified in wild barley contained the highly conserved hairpin sequences found in barley cultivars. MiRNA target predictions showed that 12 out of 52 miRNA families were predicted to target transcription factors, including 8 highly conserved miRNA families in plants and 4 wheat-barley conserved miRNA families. In addition to transcription factors, other predicted target genes were involved in diverse physiological and metabolic processes and stress defense. Our study for the first time reported the large-scale investigation of small RNAs in wild barley, which will provide essential information for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in wild barley and also shed light on future practical utilization of miRNAs for barley improvement.

  16. Effects of parasitic sex-ratio distorters on host genetic structure in the Armadillidium vulgare-Wolbachia association.

    PubMed

    Verne, S; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D; Grandjean, F

    2012-02-01

    In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Oniscidea), Wolbachia facilitates its spread through vertical transmission via the eggs by inducing feminization of genetic males. The spread of feminizing Wolbachia within and across populations is therefore expected to influence mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic structure by hitchhiking. To test this hypothesis, we analysed nuclear and mtDNA genetic structure, and Wolbachia prevalence in 13 populations of the pill bug host. Wolbachia prevalence (ranging from 0% to 100% of sampled females) was highly variable among populations. All three Wolbachia strains previously observed in A. vulgare were present (wVulC, wVulM and wVulP) with wVulC being the most prevalent (nine of 13 populations). The host showed a genetic structure on five microsatellite loci that is compatible with isolation by distance. The strong genetic structure observed on host mtDNA was correlated with Wolbachia prevalence: three mitotypes were in strong linkage disequilibrium with the three strains of Wolbachia. Neutrality tests showed that the mtDNA polymorphism is not neutral, and we thus suggest that this unusual pattern of mtDNA polymorphism found in A. vulgare was due to Wolbachia. PMID:22188300

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Physalis alkekengi L., Alcea rosea L., Bunium persicum B. Fedtsch. and Marrubium vulgare L. on Mushroom Tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Jahangiri, Alireza; Azemi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Arkian, Elaheh; Mousavi, Hamideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The key enzyme in the process of melanin biosynthesis is tyrosinase. Skin hyperpigmentation and browning of foods are undesirable phenomena which tyrosinase represents. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors have been used increasingly for medicinal and cosmetic products. Objectives: In this study, inhibitory effects of four plants including: physalis alkekengi L., Alcea rosea L., Bunium persicum B. Fedtsch. and Marrubium vulgare L. on diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of plants against oxidation of L-Dopa (as a substrate) by mushroom tyrosinase were investigated. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of P. alkekengi showed the most tyrosinase inhibitory effect with IC50 of 0.09 mg/mL vs. 0.38, 0.38 and 2.82 mg/mL of B. persicum, A. rosea and M. vulgare, respectively. M. vulgare exhibited uncompetitive inhibition and other plants showed mixed type inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase. Conclusions: All plants could inhibit mushroom tyrosinase, but more investigations on human tyrosinase and clinical studies are needed. PMID:25866725

  18. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  19. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  20. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  1. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120 days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the β-carotene - linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects.

  2. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

  3. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  4. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

  5. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  6. The use of health foods, spices and other botanicals in the Sikh community in London.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Davinder S; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-07-01

    Attitudes and practice concerning complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are currently an area of considerable interest. However, little is known about the overall importance of such practices, for example, in immigrant communities such as the Sikh (Punjabi) British. The use of CAM in immigrants belonging to the Sikh religion in London was studied. The primary objective was to analyse the extent to which traditional medicine is used and understood by this population. Traditional Sikh medicine is important to this group of informants and a total of 42 species were recorded and identified tentatively. The most frequently mentioned species were Allium cepa (onion -- gunda), Allium sativum (garlic -- lasan, thon), Capsicum frutescens (cayenne pepper -- lalmirch), Cinnamomum verum (cinnamom--dhal chini), Citrus limon (lemon -- nimbu), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel -- saunf), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom -- elaichi) and Zingiber officinale (ginger -- adrak). The study also highlights the rapid change this tradition is undergoing in a diaspora situation. In depth studies on the use of CAM among other immigrant communities and among ethnic groups are urgent and may help to manage better the treatment of minor ailments as well as chronic diseases. Specifically, more research on traditional and herbal remedies amongst the numerous ethnic groups in urban Britain and how this impacts on the use of biomedicine (e.g. as it is provided by the NHS) is essential.

  7. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120 days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the β-carotene - linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

  8. Extraction of volatile oil from aromatic plants with supercritical carbon dioxide: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Jose P; Cristino, Ana F; Matos, Patrícia G; Rauter, Amélia P; Nobre, Beatriz P; Mendes, Rui L; Barroso, João G; Mainar, Ana; Urieta, Jose S; Fareleira, João M N A; Sovová, Helena; Palavra, António F

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the studies carried out in our laboratories on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of volatile oils from seven aromatic plants: pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), savory (Satureja fruticosa Béguinot), winter savory (Satureja montana L.), cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparisus) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), is presented. A flow apparatus with a 1 L extractor and two 0.27 L separators was built to perform studies at temperatures ranging from 298 to 353 K and pressures up to 30.0 MPa. The best compromise between yield and composition compared with hydrodistillation (HD) was achieved selecting the optimum experimental conditions of extraction and fractionation. The major differences between HD and SFE oils is the presence of a small percentage of cuticular waxes and the relative amount of thymoquinone, an oxygenated monoterpene with important biological properties, which is present in the oils from thyme and winter savory. On the other hand, the modeling of our data on supercritical extraction of volatile oil from pennyroyal is discussed using Sovová's models. These models have been applied successfully to the other volatile oil extractions. Furthermore, other experimental studies involving supercritical CO(2) carried out in our laboratories are also mentioned. PMID:22951395

  9. The evaluation of the climate change effects on maize and fennel cultivation by means of an hydrological physically based model: the case study of an irrigated district of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, A.; Alfieri, M. S.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Fiorentino, N.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of climate change on irrigated agricultural systems will be different from area to area depending on some factors as: (i) water availability, (ii) crop water demand (iii) soil hydrological behavior and (iv) irrigation management strategy. The adaptation of irrigated crop systems to future climate change can be supported by physically based model which simulate the water and heat fluxes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of climate change on the heat and water balance of a maize-fennel rotation. This was applied to a on-demand irrigation district of Southern Italy ("Destra Sele", Campania Region, 22.645 ha). Two climate scenarios were considered, current climate (1961-1990) and future climate (2021-2050), the latter constructed by applying statistical downscaling to GCMs scenarios. For each climate scenario the soil moisture regime of the selected study area was calculated by means of a simulation model of the soil-water-atmosphere system (SWAP). Synthetic indicators of the soil water regimes (e.g., crop water stress index - CWSI, available water content) have been calculated and impacts evaluated taking into account the yield response functions to water availability of different cultivars. Different irrigation delivering strategies were also simulated. The hydrological model SWAP was applied to the representative soils of the whole area (20 soil units) for which the soil hydraulic properties were derived by means of pedo-transfer function (HYPRES) tested and validated on the typical soils in the study area. Upper boundary conditions were derived from two climate scenarios, i.e. current and future. Unit gradient in soil water potential was set as lower boundary condition. Crop-specific input data and model parameters were derived from field experiments, in the same area, where the SWAP model was calibrated and validated. The results obtained have shown a significant increase of CWSI in the future

  10. Spatially resolved analysis of variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain micronutrient accumulation.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Amelie; Pongrac, Paula; Rensch, Stefan; Reuscher, Stefan; Pečovnik, Matic; Vavpetič, Primož; Pelicon, Primož; Holzheu, Stefan; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Genetic biofortification requires knowledge on natural variation and the underlying mechanisms of micronutrient accumulation. We therefore studied diversity in grain micronutrient concentrations and spatial distribution in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a genetically tractable model cereal and an important crop with widespread cultivation. We assembled a diverse collection of barley cultivars and landraces and analysed grain micronutrient profiles in genebank material and after three independent cultivations. Lines with contrasting grain zinc (Zn) accumulation were selected for in-depth analysis of micronutrient distribution within the grain by micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE). Also, we addressed association with grain cadmium (Cd) accumulation. The analysis of > 120 lines revealed substantial variation, especially in grain Zn concentrations. A large fraction of this variation is due to genetic differences. Grain dissection and μ-PIXE analysis of contrasting lines showed that differences in grain Zn accumulation apply to all parts of the grain including the endosperm. Cd concentrations exceeded the Codex Alimentarius threshold in most of the representative barley lines after cultivation in a Cd-contaminated agricultural soil. Two important conclusions for biofortification are: first, high-Zn grains contain more Zn also in the consumed parts of the grain; and second, higher micronutrient concentrations are strongly associated with higher Cd accumulation. PMID:27125321

  11. Farmers without borders-genetic structuring in century old barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Forsberg, N E G; Russell, J; Macaulay, M; Leino, M W; Hagenblad, J

    2015-02-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity can reveal the evolutionary history of a species. For crop plants, phylogeographic patterns also indicate how seed has been exchanged and spread in agrarian communities. Such patterns are, however, easily blurred by the intense seed trade, plant improvement and even genebank conservation during the twentieth century, and discerning fine-scale phylogeographic patterns is thus particularly challenging. Using historical crop specimens, these problems are circumvented and we show here how high-throughput genotyping of historical nineteenth century crop specimens can reveal detailed geographic population structure. Thirty-one historical and nine extant accessions of North European landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in total 231 individuals, were genotyped on a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism assay. The historical material shows constant high levels of within-accession diversity, whereas the extant accessions show more varying levels of diversity and a higher degree of total genotype sharing. Structure, discriminant analysis of principal components and principal component analysis cluster the accessions in latitudinal groups across country borders in Finland, Norway and Sweden. FST statistics indicate strong differentiation between accessions from southern Fennoscandia and accessions from central or northern Fennoscandia, and less differentiation between central and northern accessions. These findings are discussed in the context of contrasting historical records on intense within-country south to north seed movement. Our results suggest that although seeds were traded long distances, long-term cultivation has instead been of locally available, possibly better adapted, genotypes. PMID:25227257

  12. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture.

  13. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents.

    PubMed

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine; Suntres, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  14. Photosynthetic and Photorespiratory Characteristics of Mutants of Hordeum vulgare L 1

    PubMed Central

    McCashin, Barry G.; Canvin, David T.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthesis and photorespiration was determined in normal and 26 mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Himalaya). The rate of apparent photosynthesis ranged from 1 to 30 milligrams of CO2 per square decimeter per hour. The variation in rate of photosynthesis was due, in some cases, to differences in chlorophyll content, in others to stomatal resistance, and in still others to unknown factors; but no single factor accounted for the variation. Photorespiratory activity, as determined by the 14CO2/12CO2 technique, CO2 evolution into CO2-free air, and the response of photosynthesis to low and high O2 concentrations, was positively and significantly correlated with photosynthesis. This supports the idea that the two processes are integrally and tightly coupled. There appears to be no competition between photosynthesis and photorespiration, and the probability of finding plants with high rates of photosynthesis and low rates of photorespiration measured under natural conditions, appears to be very low. PMID:16660965

  15. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  16. Bio-efficacy of the essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae. Ssp. Hirtum).

    PubMed

    Grondona, Ezequiel; Gatti, Gerardo; López, Abel G; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Rivero, Virginia; Pessah, Oscar; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the essential oil isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (EOv). We analyzed the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse-airway inflammation model and the in vitro antimicrobial activity, genotoxicity over the anaphase-telophase with the Allium cepa strain and its cytotoxicity/viability in A549 culture cells. In vivo, EOv modified the levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and viable activated macrophages and was capable to mitigate the effects of degradation of conjugated dienes. In vitro, EOv reduced the viability of cultured A549 cells as well as the mitotic index and a number of chromosomal aberrations; however, it did not change the number of phases. We found that EOv presents antimicrobial activity against different Gram (-) and (+) strains, measured by disc-diffusion test and confirmed with a more accurate method, the AutoCad software. We postulate that EOv presents antibacterial, antioxidant and chemopreventive properties and could be play an important role as bioprotector agent. PMID:25266989

  17. Biochemical and Physiological Studies on the Effects of Senescence Leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Khaket, Tejinder Pal; Kumar, Viney; Singh, Jasbir; Dhanda, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Triticum vulgare (Wheat) based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar). During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed's germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple. PMID:25610892

  18. Differences in shoot and root terpenoid profiles and plant responses to fertilisation in Tanacetum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific chemical diversity is a common phenomenon especially found in shoots of essential oil-accumulating plant species. Abiotic factors can influence the concentration of essential oils, but the effects are inconsistent and little is known in how far these may vary within an individual and within species between chemotypes. Tanacetum vulgare L. occurs in various chemotypes that differ in the composition of mono- and sesquiterpenoids in their shoot tissues. We investigated how far shoot chemotype grouping is mirrored in root terpenoid profiles. Furthermore, we studied whether different fertilisation amounts influence the plant growth and morphological traits as well as the constitutive terpenoid concentration of leaves and roots of three chemotypes, trans-carvyl acetate, β-thujone, and camphor, to different degrees. Shoot terpenoids were dominated by monoterpenoids, while the roots contained mainly sesquiterpenoids. The clear grouping in three chemotypes based on leaf chemistry was weakly mirrored in the root terpenoid composition. Furthermore, the leaf C/N ratio and the stem height differed between chemotypes. All plants responded to increased nutrient availability with increased total biomass and specific leaf area but decreased C/N and root/shoot ratios. Leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased with increasing fertiliser supply, independent of chemotype. In contrast to the leaves, the terpenoid concentrations of the roots were unaffected by fertilisation. Our results demonstrate that aboveground and belowground organs within a species can be under different selection pressures.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Acid Soil Resistance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ma, Yanling; Zhou, Meixue; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia, and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM) and a mixed linkage model (MLM), respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM) and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM), localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al3+ resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley. PMID:27064793

  20. Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Possible Tool for Salinity Tolerance Screening in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Belkhodja, R.; Morales, F.; Abadia, A.; Gomez-Aparisi, J.; Abadia, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to screening barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for salinity tolerance has been investigated. Excised barley leaves were cut under water and incubated with the cut end immersed in water or in a 100-mM NaCl solution, either in the dark or in high light. Changes in rapid fluorescence kinetics occurred in excised barley leaves exposed to the saline solution only when the incubation was carried out in the presence of high light. Fluorescence changes consisted of decreases in the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio and in increases in the relative proportion of variable fluorescence leading to point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve. These relative increases in fluorescence at point I appeared to arise from a delayed plastoquinone reoxidation in the dark, since they disappeared after short, far-red illumination, which is known to excite photosystem I preferentially. We show that a significant correlation existed between some fluorescence parameters, measured after a combined salt and high-light treatment, and other independent measurements of salinity tolerance. These results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence, and especially the relative fluorescence at point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve, could be used for the screening of barley genotypes for salinity tolerance. PMID:12232117

  1. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E.; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V.; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G.; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O.; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer. PMID:26257756

  2. Bio-efficacy of the essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae. Ssp. Hirtum).

    PubMed

    Grondona, Ezequiel; Gatti, Gerardo; López, Abel G; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Rivero, Virginia; Pessah, Oscar; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the essential oil isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (EOv). We analyzed the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse-airway inflammation model and the in vitro antimicrobial activity, genotoxicity over the anaphase-telophase with the Allium cepa strain and its cytotoxicity/viability in A549 culture cells. In vivo, EOv modified the levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and viable activated macrophages and was capable to mitigate the effects of degradation of conjugated dienes. In vitro, EOv reduced the viability of cultured A549 cells as well as the mitotic index and a number of chromosomal aberrations; however, it did not change the number of phases. We found that EOv presents antimicrobial activity against different Gram (-) and (+) strains, measured by disc-diffusion test and confirmed with a more accurate method, the AutoCad software. We postulate that EOv presents antibacterial, antioxidant and chemopreventive properties and could be play an important role as bioprotector agent.

  3. Activity of ladanein on leukemia cell lines and its occurrence in Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Alkhatib, Racha; Joha, Sami; Cheok, Meyling; Roumy, Vincent; Idziorek, Thierry; Preudhomme, Claude; Quesnel, Bruno; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François; Hennebelle, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Three methoxylated flavones isolated from Marrubium peregrinum - ladanein, scutellarein-5,7,4'-trimethyl ether, and scutellarein-5,6,7,4'-tetramethyl ether - were assayed for their cytotoxicity towards a recently developed dasatinib-resistant murine leukemia cell line (DA1-3b/M2 (BCR-ABL)), together with the structurally related non-methylated flavone scutellarein. The most active compound, ladanein, was looked for in 20 common Lamiaceae species by a quick HPLC screening. Among the possible positive results, the most interesting source was found to be Marrubium vulgare, which led to the isolation and identification of ladanein for the first time in this species. Ladanein also displayed moderate (20-40 microM) activities against K562, K562R (imatinib-resistant), and 697 human leukemia cell lines but was toxic neither to MOLM13 nor to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This work provides a common natural source for the hemi-synthesis of future ladanein-derived flavones and the study of their antileukemic activity.

  4. Properties and regulation of Mg2+-dependent chloroplast inorganic pyrophosphatase from Sorghum vulgare leaves.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, V A; Gnanam, A

    1988-01-01

    A Mg2+ dependent inorganic pyrophosphatase from chloroplasts of Sorghum vulgare has been purified 275-fold to electrophoretic purity with an overall recovery of about 25% activity. Estimations of native and monomeric relative molecular weights by size exclusion chromatography and denaturing electrophoresis suggest that the holoenzyme is a monomer of 42 +/- 1.5 kDa. A high specificity for tetrasodium pyrophosphate (PPi) as substrate has been observed, as the other phosphoesters tested were virtually unaffected. The Mg2+:PPi ratio of 5:1 at pH 8.0 shifts to 2.5:1.0 at pH 9.0 and 10:1 at pH 7.0. None of the divalent cations tested could substitute for Mg2+. Further, in the presence of Mg2+, these divalent cations inhibit the catalytic hydrolysis of PPi. EDTA rapidly and irreversibly inactivates the purified enzyme in a biphasic manner. Of the metabolites tested, Pi and L-malate significantly inhibited the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Malate inhibits the enzyme through an allosteric mechanism. A Hill plot of this inhibition shows that at least two molecules of malate bind to each molecule of the purified enzyme. The likely physiological significance of this result is discussed.

  5. Expression and characterization of a cytosolic glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase isoform from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Daniela; Cardi, Manuela; Landi, Simone; Cafasso, Donata; Esposito, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    In plant cells, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH-EC 1.1.1.49) regulates the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), a metabolic route involved in the production of NADPH for various biosynthetic processes and stress response. In this study, we report the overexpression of a cytosolic G6PDH isoform from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots in bacteria, and the biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant enzyme (HvCy-G6PDH). A full-length cDNA coding for a cytosolic isoform of G6PDH was isolated, and the sequence was cloned into pET3d vector; the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by anion exchange and affinity chromatography. The kinetic properties were calculated: the recombinant HvCy-G6PDH showed KMs and KINADPH comparable to those observed for the enzyme purified from barley roots; moreover, the analysis of NADPH inhibition suggested a competitive mechanism. Therefore, this enzyme could be utilised for the structural and regulatory characterization of this isoform in higher plants.

  6. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply.

    PubMed

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn K; Genc, Yusuf; Pedas, Pai; Hayes, Julie E; Toubia, John; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2014-01-01

    High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report, barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvZIP7 was investigated for its functions in Zn transport. The functions of HvZIP7 in planta were studied using in situ hybridization and transient analysis of subcellular localization with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Transgenic barley lines overexpressing HvZIP7 were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays characteristics of low-affinity Zn transport. The unique function of HvZIP7 provides new insights into the role of ZIP genes in Zn homeostasis in monocots, and offers opportunities to develop Zn biofortification strategies in cereals.

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis of aluminum ion stress in barley roots. [Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, M.M.; Foy, C.D.; Coradetti, C.A.; Reinsel, M.D. )

    1990-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyze root surface changes when Dayton barley (Hordeum vulgare) (Al tolerant) and Kearney barley (Al sensitive) seedlings were grown in nutrient solution in the presence and absence of 37.0 micromolar Al. The electron spectra from root surfaces contained strong lines in order of decreasing intensity from organic forms of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and weak lines due to inorganic elements in the form of anions and cations on the surface. The surface composition of root tips from Kearney was C, 65.6%; 0, 26.8%; N, 4.4% and tips from Dayton was C, 72.7%; O, 23.6%; N, 1.9%, grown in the absence of aluminum. Electron lines characteristic of nitrate, potassium, chloride, phosphate were also present in the spectra from those roots. Dayton roots grown in the presence of 37.0 micromolar aluminum contained 2.1% aluminum while Kearney contained 1.3% aluminum. The ratio of aluminum to phosphate was close to 1.0. Dayton roots usually contained twice as much aluminum phosphate in the surface region as Kearney. Dayton may be less susceptible to Al toxic effects by accumulation of aluminum phosphate on the root surface which then acts as a barrier to the transport of aluminum into the interior of the roots.

  8. Physiological and biochemical response of soil-grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rico, Cyren M; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Rubenecia, Rosnah; Lee, Sang Chul; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-07-01

    A soil microcosm study was performed to examine the impacts of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) on the physiology, productivity, and macromolecular composition of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The plants were cultivated in soil treated with nCeO2 at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg kg(-1) (control, nCeO2-L, nCeO2-M, and nCeO2-H, respectively). Accumulation of Ce in leaves/grains and its effects on plant stress and nutrient loading were analyzed. The data revealed that nCeO2-H promoted plant development resulting in 331 % increase in shoot biomass compared with the control. nCeO2 treatment modified the stress levels in leaves without apparent signs of toxicity. However, plants exposed to nCeO2-H treatment did not form grains. Compared with control, nCeO2-M enhanced grain Ce accumulation by as much as 294 % which was accompanied by remarkable increases in P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Al. Likewise, nCeO2-M enhanced the methionine, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, arginine, and linolenic acid contents in the grains by up to 617, 31, 58, 141, 378, and 2.47 % respectively, compared with the rest of the treatments. The findings illustrate the beneficial and harmful effects of nanoceria in barley.

  9. Bulbosum to Go: A Toolbox to Utilize Hordeum vulgare/bulbosum Introgressions for Breeding and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Wendler, Neele; Mascher, Martin; Himmelbach, Axel; Johnston, Paul; Pickering, Richard; Stein, Nils

    2015-10-01

    Hordeum bulbosum L., a wild relative of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), has been considered as a valuable source of genetic diversity for barley improvement. Since the 1990s, a considerable number of barley/H. bulbosum introgression lines (IL)s has been generated, with segments introgressed from H. bulbosum harboring a diverse set of desirable traits. However, the efficient utilization of these ILs has been hampered, largely due to the lack of suitable molecular tools for their genetic characterization and highly reduced interspecific recombination frequencies in the region of the introgression. In the present study, we utilized genotyping-by-sequencing for the detailed molecular characterization of 145 ILs. Genotypic information allows the genetic diversity within the set of ILs to be determined and a strategy was outlined to tackle the obstacle of reduced recombination frequencies. Furthermore, we compiled exome capture re-sequencing information of barley and H. bulbosum and designed an integrated barley/H. bulbosum sequence resource with polymorphism information on interspecific and intraspecific sequence variations of both species. The integrated sequence will be valuable for marker development in barley/H. bulbosum ILs derived from any barley and H. bulbosum donors. This study provides the tools for the widespread utilization of barley/H. bulbosum ILs in applied barley breeding and academic research.

  10. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes.

  11. Extraction, purification and identification of antifreeze proteins from cold acclimated malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangli; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

    2015-05-15

    Antifreeze proteins from cold-acclimated malting barley were extracted by infiltration-centrifugation. The infiltration time was optimised, and its extraction effect was evaluated. The effect of cold acclimation on the accumulation of barley antifreeze proteins (BaAFPs) was assessed by comparing the thermal hysteresis activities (THA) of proteins extracted from both cold acclimated and non-cold acclimated barley grain. Ultra-filtration, ammonium precipitation and column chromatography were used successively to purify the BaAFPs, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS was used for protein identification. The results showed that infiltration-centrifugation was more targeted than the traditional method, and 10h was the optimal infiltration time. THA was observed only after cold acclimation implied that AFPs only began to accumulate after cold acclimation. After purification, BaAFP-I was obtained at an electrophoresis level and its THA was 1.04°C (18.0 mg ml(-1)). The mass fingerprinting and sequencing results indicated the homology of the BaAFP-I to alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1 (Hordeum vulgare).

  12. Host origin and tissue microhabitat shaping the microbiota of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jessica; Lesobre, Jérôme; Moumen, Bouziane; Bouchon, Didier

    2016-05-01

    We present the first in-depth investigation of the host-associated microbiota of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. This species is an important decomposer of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems and a major model organism for arthropod-Wolbachia symbioses due to its well-characterized association with feminizing Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene pyrotags were used to characterize its bacterial microbiota at multiple levels: (i) in individuals from laboratory lineages and field populations and (ii) in various host tissues. This integrative approach allowed us to reveal an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity, placing this species in the same league as termites in terms of symbiotic diversity. Interestingly, both animal groups belong to the same ecological guild in terrestrial ecosystems. While Wolbachia represented the predominant taxon in infected individuals, it was not the only major player. Together, the most abundant taxa represented a large scope of symbiotic interactions, including bacterial pathogens, a reproductive parasite (Wolbachia) and potential nutritional symbionts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals from different populations harboured distinct bacterial communities, indicating a strong link between the host-associated microbiota and environmental bacteria, possibly due to terrestrial isopod nutritional ecology. Overall, this work highlights the need for more studies of host-microbiota interactions and bacterial diversity in non-insect arthropods. PMID:27004796

  13. Developmental pattern of aquaporin expression in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Matthieu; Knipfer, Thorsten; Miller, Anthony J.; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Jahn, Thomas P.; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Aquaporins are multifunctional membrane channels which belong to the family of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) and are best known for their ability to facilitate the movement of water. In the present study, earlier results from microarray experiments were followed up. These experiments had suggested that, in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), aquaporin family members are expressed in distinct patterns during leaf development. Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization were used to analyse the level and tissue-distribution of expression of candidate aquaporins, focusing on plasma membrane and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (PIPs, TIPs). Water channel function of seven aquaporins, whose transcripts were the most abundant and the most variable, was tested through expression in yeast and, in part, through expression in oocytes. All PIP1 and PIP2 subfamily members changed in expression during leaf development, with expression being much higher or lower in growing compared with mature tissue. The same applied to those TIPs which were expressed at detectable levels. Specific roles during leaf development are proposed for particular aquaporins. PMID:21737414

  14. The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  15. Effects of landfill leachate treatment on hepatopancreas of Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Manti, Anita; Canonico, Barbara; Mazzeo, Roberto; Santolini, Riccardo; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Nannoni, Francesco; Protano, Giuseppe; Papa, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The major environmental impact of landfills is emission of pollutants via the leachate and gas pathways. The hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea, Latreille 1804) plays an important role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants, such as heavy metals. To evaluate the effects of landfill leachate treatment, 2 different approaches were applied: 1) the detection of accumulation of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, Zn, Pb, Ni, V) in hepatopancreatic cells, and 2) the evaluation of biological effect of contaminants on fresh hepatopancreatic cells by flow-cytometric analyses. The presence of 2 different cell types (herein referred to as "small" [S] cells and "big" [B] cells, in agreement with the literature based on morphological examinations) was detected for the first time by flow cytometry, which also highlighted their different response to stress stimuli. In particular, B cells appeared more sensitive to landfill leachate treatment, being more damaged in the short term, while S cells seemed more adaptive. Furthermore, S cells could represent a pool from which they are able to differentiate into B cells. These findings were also confirmed by principal component analyses, underlining that S SYBR Green I bright cells correlate with specific chemicals (Ca, Cu, Co), confirming their resistance to stress stimuli, and suggesting that the decrease of specific cell types may prime other elements to replace them in a homeostasis-preservation framework. PMID:23929682

  16. Self-corrective behavior for turn alternation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Toru; Migita, Masao; Mitsuishi, Meiji

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) demonstrate a behavior called turn alternation that keeps their overall direction of movement straight after obstacles in experimental settings force them to deviate from a course. For example, this behavior is seen when they alternate their path choice on successive trials of the T-maze test. However, sometimes pill bugs stop after turning and change their direction (directional change). The function of this directional change has not been investigated because such individuals are usually omitted from the data. The present paper shows that pill bugs use directional changes to prevent them from turning in the same direction on two successive turns, a behavior called turn repetition. We examined the behavior of 36 pill bugs that each completed 130 successive T-maze trials. Directional changes appeared more frequently when individuals had begun a turn repetition than when they had begun a turn alternation. Furthermore, after correcting for turn repetition, turn alternations increased. These results suggest that pill bugs have an inherent mechanism that acts to maintain turn-alternating behavior. PMID:26621257

  17. Characterization and cDNA cloning of androgenic gland hormone of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Okuno, A; Hasegawa, Y; Ohira, T; Katakura, Y; Nagasawa, H

    1999-10-22

    The sex differentiation in crustaceans is known to be controlled by a peptide hormone called androgenic gland hormone (AGH). AGH was extracted and purified from the androgenic glands (AGs) of the male isopod Armadillidium vulgare by high-performance liquid chromatography. AGH consisted of two peptide chains and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. A cDNA encoding AGH was cloned by PCR and sequenced. The cDNA had an open reading frame of 432 bp, which encoded a preproAGH consisting of a signal peptide (21 residues), B chain (44 residues), C peptide (46 residues), and A chain (29 residues). Through processing, the A and B chains might form a heterodimer interlinked by disulfide bonds. The A chain possessed a putative N-linked glycosylation site. A Northern blot analysis using the cDNA as a probe detected a hybridization signal with 0.8 kb in the RNA preparation only from the AGs. PMID:10529379

  18. Streptomyces coacervatus sp. nov., isolated from the intestinal tract of Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Shibazaki, Azusa; Omoto, Yuta; Kudo, Takuji; Yaguchi, Takashi; Saito, Akihiro; Ando, Akikazu; Mikami, Yuzuru; Gonoi, Tohru

    2011-05-01

    A Gram-staining-positive bacterium, designated AS-0823(T), which formed spiral spore chains on the aerial mycelium, was isolated from the intestinal tract of Armadillidium vulgare, a small terrestrial crustacean commonly found on the ground around houses in Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Streptomyces and was most closely related to Streptomyces longisporus ISP 5166(T) (98.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces curacoi NBRC 12761(T) (98.4 %) and Streptomyces griseoruber NBRC 12873(T) (98.4 %). The affiliation of strain AS-0823(T) to the genus Streptomyces was supported by chemotaxonomic data: iso-C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acids, ll-diaminopimelic acid as the characteristic diamino acid in the peptidoglycan and the absence of mycolic acids. DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical analysis supported the differentiation of strain AS-0823(T) from S. longisporus JCM 4395(T). Therefore, strain AS-0823(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces coacervatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AS-0823(T) ( = IFM 11055(T)  = DSM 41983(T)  = JCM 17138(T)). PMID:20525817

  19. Embryo tolerance and maternal control of the marsupial environment in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Surbida, K L; Wright, J C

    2001-01-01

    Marsupial development in terrestrial isopods subjects embryos to potential physiological stresses, including desiccation, osmotic variation, and high ammonia concentrations. In this study, we investigated tolerance of osmotic extremes, total ammonia, and pH in developmental stages of Armadillidium vulgare cultured in vitro. Marsupial stages were classified as stage 1 (chorionated eggs), stage 2 (having shed the chorion), and stage 3 (mancas). All stages showed wide but differing tolerance ranges. Stage 1 eggs possess the greatest ammonia tolerance, with high 7-d survival in 150 mM total ammonia, and a wide pH tolerance range. Mancas show the widest osmotic tolerance (100-1,400 mosm x kg(-1)) and display proficient hemolymph osmoregulation over this range. Stage 2 eggs reveal the narrowest tolerance ranges for all three parameters but still qualify as eurytopic. Silver staining revealed two distinct ion-transporting tissues in the developmental stages: a median band on the vitelline membrane of stage 1 and stage 2 eggs, corresponding in location to the embryonic dorsal organ, and the posterior three pairs of pleopodal endopodites in mancas. Gravid females do not downregulate ammonia but show efficient regulation of marsupial fluid pH and downregulation of osmolality during dehydration, both of which will provide additional protection to the marsupial young. PMID:11731981

  20. Partial characterization of vitellin and localization of vitellogenin production in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Okuno, A; Katayama, H; Nagasawa, H

    2000-07-01

    Vitellins were purified separately from ovaries and eggs of the isopod, Armadillidium vulgare. Ovarian vitellin consisted of at least six proteins with relative molecular masses of 205, 200, 185, 180, 122 and 112 kDa. The larger four proteins disappeared in eggs within a week after oviposition and a 59-kDa protein appeared thereafter. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of these vitellin proteins were identical except for the ovarian 112 kDa, egg 112 kDa and 59 kDa proteins, and showed considerable similarity to those of known vitellogenins from other animals. Comparison of tryptic peptide maps of the 122 and 112 kDa proteins from eggs on reversed-phase HPLC and sequence identification of two randomly selected peaks having the same retention times indicated that two peptides were mostly similar in sequence. PCR-assisted cloning of the 5' region of a cDNA (591 bp) encoding vitellogenin revealed the presence of a signal peptide consisting of 16 amino acid residues and clarified the structural relationship among the protein components except for the ovarian 112 kDa and the egg 59 kDa proteins. Northern blot analysis revealed that the fat body is the main vitellogenin producing organ. PMID:11007182

  1. Abscisic acid effects on activity and expression of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Cafasso, Donata; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Total glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, protein abundance, and transcript levels of G6PDH isoforms were measured in response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) supply to barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Nure) hydroponic culture. Total G6PDH activity increased by 50% in roots treated for 12 h with exogenous 0.1 mM ABA. In roots, a considerable increase (35%) in plastidial P2-G6PDH transcript levels was observed during the first 3 h of ABA treatment. Similar protein variations were observed in immunoblotting analyses. In leaves, a 2-fold increase in total G6PDH activity was observed after ABA treatment, probably related to an increase in the mRNA level (increased by 50%) and amount of protein (increased by 85%) of P2-G6PDH. Together these results suggest that the plastidial P2-isoform plays an important role in ABA-treated barley plants. PMID:21464159

  2. Self-corrective behavior for turn alternation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Toru; Migita, Masao; Mitsuishi, Meiji

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) demonstrate a behavior called turn alternation that keeps their overall direction of movement straight after obstacles in experimental settings force them to deviate from a course. For example, this behavior is seen when they alternate their path choice on successive trials of the T-maze test. However, sometimes pill bugs stop after turning and change their direction (directional change). The function of this directional change has not been investigated because such individuals are usually omitted from the data. The present paper shows that pill bugs use directional changes to prevent them from turning in the same direction on two successive turns, a behavior called turn repetition. We examined the behavior of 36 pill bugs that each completed 130 successive T-maze trials. Directional changes appeared more frequently when individuals had begun a turn repetition than when they had begun a turn alternation. Furthermore, after correcting for turn repetition, turn alternations increased. These results suggest that pill bugs have an inherent mechanism that acts to maintain turn-alternating behavior.

  3. The Best Timing of Mate Search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  4. The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods.

  5. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  6. Spatially resolved analysis of variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain micronutrient accumulation.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Amelie; Pongrac, Paula; Rensch, Stefan; Reuscher, Stefan; Pečovnik, Matic; Vavpetič, Primož; Pelicon, Primož; Holzheu, Stefan; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Genetic biofortification requires knowledge on natural variation and the underlying mechanisms of micronutrient accumulation. We therefore studied diversity in grain micronutrient concentrations and spatial distribution in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a genetically tractable model cereal and an important crop with widespread cultivation. We assembled a diverse collection of barley cultivars and landraces and analysed grain micronutrient profiles in genebank material and after three independent cultivations. Lines with contrasting grain zinc (Zn) accumulation were selected for in-depth analysis of micronutrient distribution within the grain by micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE). Also, we addressed association with grain cadmium (Cd) accumulation. The analysis of > 120 lines revealed substantial variation, especially in grain Zn concentrations. A large fraction of this variation is due to genetic differences. Grain dissection and μ-PIXE analysis of contrasting lines showed that differences in grain Zn accumulation apply to all parts of the grain including the endosperm. Cd concentrations exceeded the Codex Alimentarius threshold in most of the representative barley lines after cultivation in a Cd-contaminated agricultural soil. Two important conclusions for biofortification are: first, high-Zn grains contain more Zn also in the consumed parts of the grain; and second, higher micronutrient concentrations are strongly associated with higher Cd accumulation.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Acid Soil Resistance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ma, Yanling; Zhou, Meixue; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia, and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM) and a mixed linkage model (MLM), respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM) and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM), localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al(3+) resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley.

  8. Farmers without borders-genetic structuring in century old barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Forsberg, N E G; Russell, J; Macaulay, M; Leino, M W; Hagenblad, J

    2015-02-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity can reveal the evolutionary history of a species. For crop plants, phylogeographic patterns also indicate how seed has been exchanged and spread in agrarian communities. Such patterns are, however, easily blurred by the intense seed trade, plant improvement and even genebank conservation during the twentieth century, and discerning fine-scale phylogeographic patterns is thus particularly challenging. Using historical crop specimens, these problems are circumvented and we show here how high-throughput genotyping of historical nineteenth century crop specimens can reveal detailed geographic population structure. Thirty-one historical and nine extant accessions of North European landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in total 231 individuals, were genotyped on a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism assay. The historical material shows constant high levels of within-accession diversity, whereas the extant accessions show more varying levels of diversity and a higher degree of total genotype sharing. Structure, discriminant analysis of principal components and principal component analysis cluster the accessions in latitudinal groups across country borders in Finland, Norway and Sweden. FST statistics indicate strong differentiation between accessions from southern Fennoscandia and accessions from central or northern Fennoscandia, and less differentiation between central and northern accessions. These findings are discussed in the context of contrasting historical records on intense within-country south to north seed movement. Our results suggest that although seeds were traded long distances, long-term cultivation has instead been of locally available, possibly better adapted, genotypes.

  9. Differential heat sensitivity index in barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence OKJIP.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; El Madidi, Saïd; Strasser, Reto J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to differentiate the heat tolerance in ten varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Morocco. Five modern varieties and five landraces (local varieties) collected at five different geographical localities in the south of Morocco were investigated in the present study. After two weeks of growth, detached leaves were short term exposure to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C) for 10 min in the dark. Two chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters derived from chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OKJIP) (performance index (PIABS) and relative variable fluorescence at the K-step (VK)) were analysed. Heat treatment had a significant effect on the PIABS and VK at 45 °C treatment and the analysis of variance for PIABS and VK is highly significant between all varieties. The slope of the relationship between logPIABS and VK named heat sensitivity index (HSI) was used to evaluate the thermotolerance of photosystem II (PSII) between the studied barley varieties. According to this approach, barley varieties were screened and ranked for improving heat tolerance. HSI was found to be a new indicator with regard to distinguishing heat tolerance of different barley cultivars.

  10. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer.

  11. Non-reciprocal interactions between K+ and Na+ ions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Szczerba, Mark W.; Schulze, Lasse M.; Britto, Dev T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of sodium and potassium ions in the context of the primary entry of Na+ into plant cells, and the subsequent development of sodium toxicity, has been the subject of much recent attention. In the present study, the technique of compartmental analysis with the radiotracers 42K+ and 24Na+ was applied in intact seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to test the hypothesis that elevated levels of K+ in the growth medium will reduce both rapid, futile Na+ cycling at the plasma membrane, and Na+ build-up in the cytosol of root cells, under saline conditions (100 mM NaCl). We reject this hypothesis, showing that, over a wide (400-fold) range of K+ supply, K+ neither reduces the primary fluxes of Na+ at the root plasma membrane nor suppresses Na+ accumulation in the cytosol. By contrast, 100 mM NaCl suppressed the cytosolic K+ pool by 47–73%, and also substantially decreased low-affinity K+ transport across the plasma membrane. We confirm that the cytosolic [K+]:[Na+] ratio is a poor predictor of growth performance under saline conditions, while a good correlation is seen between growth and the tissue ratios of the two ions. The data provide insight into the mechanisms that mediate the toxic influx of sodium across the root plasma membrane under salinity stress, demonstrating that, in the glycophyte barley, K+ and Na+ are unlikely to share a common low-affinity pathway for entry into the plant cell. PMID:18562445

  12. Biogenesis of water splitting by photosystem II during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Shevela, Dmitriy; Arnold, Janine; Reisinger, Veronika; Berends, Hans-Martin; Kmiec, Karol; Koroidov, Sergey; Bue, Ann Kristin; Messinger, Johannes; Eichacker, Lutz A

    2016-07-01

    Etioplasts lack thylakoid membranes and photosystem complexes. Light triggers differentiation of etioplasts into mature chloroplasts, and photosystem complexes assemble in parallel with thylakoid membrane development. Plastids isolated at various time points of de-etiolation are ideal to study the kinetic biogenesis of photosystem complexes during chloroplast development. Here, we investigated the chronology of photosystem II (PSII) biogenesis by monitoring assembly status of chlorophyll-binding protein complexes and development of water splitting via O2 production in plastids (etiochloroplasts) isolated during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Assembly of PSII monomers, dimers and complexes binding outer light-harvesting antenna [PSII-light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplexes] was identified after 1, 2 and 4 h of de-etiolation, respectively. Water splitting was detected in parallel with assembly of PSII monomers, and its development correlated with an increase of bound Mn in the samples. After 4 h of de-etiolation, etiochloroplasts revealed the same water-splitting efficiency as mature chloroplasts. We conclude that the capability of PSII to split water during de-etiolation precedes assembly of the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. Taken together, data show a rapid establishment of water-splitting activity during etioplast-to-chloroplast transition and emphasize that assembly of the functional water-splitting site of PSII is not the rate-limiting step in the formation of photoactive thylakoid membranes.

  13. Host origin and tissue microhabitat shaping the microbiota of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jessica; Lesobre, Jérôme; Moumen, Bouziane; Bouchon, Didier

    2016-05-01

    We present the first in-depth investigation of the host-associated microbiota of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. This species is an important decomposer of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems and a major model organism for arthropod-Wolbachia symbioses due to its well-characterized association with feminizing Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene pyrotags were used to characterize its bacterial microbiota at multiple levels: (i) in individuals from laboratory lineages and field populations and (ii) in various host tissues. This integrative approach allowed us to reveal an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity, placing this species in the same league as termites in terms of symbiotic diversity. Interestingly, both animal groups belong to the same ecological guild in terrestrial ecosystems. While Wolbachia represented the predominant taxon in infected individuals, it was not the only major player. Together, the most abundant taxa represented a large scope of symbiotic interactions, including bacterial pathogens, a reproductive parasite (Wolbachia) and potential nutritional symbionts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals from different populations harboured distinct bacterial communities, indicating a strong link between the host-associated microbiota and environmental bacteria, possibly due to terrestrial isopod nutritional ecology. Overall, this work highlights the need for more studies of host-microbiota interactions and bacterial diversity in non-insect arthropods.

  14. Effects of landfill leachate treatment on hepatopancreas of Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Manti, Anita; Canonico, Barbara; Mazzeo, Roberto; Santolini, Riccardo; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Nannoni, Francesco; Protano, Giuseppe; Papa, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The major environmental impact of landfills is emission of pollutants via the leachate and gas pathways. The hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea, Latreille 1804) plays an important role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants, such as heavy metals. To evaluate the effects of landfill leachate treatment, 2 different approaches were applied: 1) the detection of accumulation of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, Zn, Pb, Ni, V) in hepatopancreatic cells, and 2) the evaluation of biological effect of contaminants on fresh hepatopancreatic cells by flow-cytometric analyses. The presence of 2 different cell types (herein referred to as "small" [S] cells and "big" [B] cells, in agreement with the literature based on morphological examinations) was detected for the first time by flow cytometry, which also highlighted their different response to stress stimuli. In particular, B cells appeared more sensitive to landfill leachate treatment, being more damaged in the short term, while S cells seemed more adaptive. Furthermore, S cells could represent a pool from which they are able to differentiate into B cells. These findings were also confirmed by principal component analyses, underlining that S SYBR Green I bright cells correlate with specific chemicals (Ca, Cu, Co), confirming their resistance to stress stimuli, and suggesting that the decrease of specific cell types may prime other elements to replace them in a homeostasis-preservation framework.

  15. Differential heat sensitivity index in barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence OKJIP.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; El Madidi, Saïd; Strasser, Reto J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to differentiate the heat tolerance in ten varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Morocco. Five modern varieties and five landraces (local varieties) collected at five different geographical localities in the south of Morocco were investigated in the present study. After two weeks of growth, detached leaves were short term exposure to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C) for 10 min in the dark. Two chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters derived from chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OKJIP) (performance index (PIABS) and relative variable fluorescence at the K-step (VK)) were analysed. Heat treatment had a significant effect on the PIABS and VK at 45 °C treatment and the analysis of variance for PIABS and VK is highly significant between all varieties. The slope of the relationship between logPIABS and VK named heat sensitivity index (HSI) was used to evaluate the thermotolerance of photosystem II (PSII) between the studied barley varieties. According to this approach, barley varieties were screened and ranked for improving heat tolerance. HSI was found to be a new indicator with regard to distinguishing heat tolerance of different barley cultivars. PMID:27093113

  16. Spectroscopy, microscopy and fluorescence imaging of Origanum vulgare L. basis for nondestructive quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Novo, Johanna M; Iriel, Analia; Claudia Marchi, María; Gabriela Lagorio, María

    2013-01-01

    The organs of Origanum vulgare L. plant were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and autofluorescence imaging. The different organs were also studied spectroscopically. Fluorescence emission spectra were recorded for intact inflorescences, leaves and stems. Several fluorescence ratios (Blue/Red, Blue/Far-red, Green/Red and Green/Far-red), which varied depending on the considered organ of the plant, were derived. For leaves, a dependence of fluorescence spectra with water content was obtained as well. The intact samples were also analyzed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. These spectra were transformed to the Remission function depending on the wavenumber and two absorption bands (811 and 1740 cm(-1)), which displayed differences according to the plant organ sampled, were detected. These results were consistent with higher carvacrol content in inflorescences. The spectroscopic results were connected with the microscopic observation and with the presence of relevant nutraceutics contained in the plant. The optical indexes derived in this work may serve as potential indicators to be explored in the development of nondestructive methods for oregano quality assessment.

  17. Senescence-induced iron mobilization in source leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rongli; Weber, Günther; Köster, Jessica; Reza-Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Zou, Chunqin; Zhang, Fusuo; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-07-01

    • Retranslocation of iron (Fe) from source leaves to sinks requires soluble Fe binding forms. As much of the Fe is protein-bound and associated with the leaf nitrogen (N) status, we investigated the role of N in Fe mobilization and retranslocation under N deficiency- vs dark-induced leaf senescence. • By excluding Fe retranslocation from the apoplastic root pool, Fe concentrations in source and sink leaves from hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were determined in parallel with the concentrations of potential Fe chelators and the expression of genes involved in phytosiderophore biosynthesis. • N supply showed opposing effects on Fe pools in source leaves, inhibiting Fe export out of source leaves under N sufficiency but stimulating Fe export from source leaves under N deficiency, which partially alleviated Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Both triggers of leaf senescence, shading and N deficiency, enhanced NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE2 gene expression, soluble Fe pools in source leaves, and phytosiderophore and citrate rather than nicotianamine concentrations. • These results indicate that Fe mobilization within senescing leaves is independent of a concomitant N sink in young leaves and that phytosiderophores enhance Fe solubility in senescing source leaves, favoring subsequent Fe retranslocation.

  18. Activity of ladanein on leukemia cell lines and its occurrence in Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Alkhatib, Racha; Joha, Sami; Cheok, Meyling; Roumy, Vincent; Idziorek, Thierry; Preudhomme, Claude; Quesnel, Bruno; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François; Hennebelle, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Three methoxylated flavones isolated from Marrubium peregrinum - ladanein, scutellarein-5,7,4'-trimethyl ether, and scutellarein-5,6,7,4'-tetramethyl ether - were assayed for their cytotoxicity towards a recently developed dasatinib-resistant murine leukemia cell line (DA1-3b/M2 (BCR-ABL)), together with the structurally related non-methylated flavone scutellarein. The most active compound, ladanein, was looked for in 20 common Lamiaceae species by a quick HPLC screening. Among the possible positive results, the most interesting source was found to be Marrubium vulgare, which led to the isolation and identification of ladanein for the first time in this species. Ladanein also displayed moderate (20-40 microM) activities against K562, K562R (imatinib-resistant), and 697 human leukemia cell lines but was toxic neither to MOLM13 nor to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This work provides a common natural source for the hemi-synthesis of future ladanein-derived flavones and the study of their antileukemic activity. PMID:19644796

  19. Characterization of the association of nitrate reductase with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerhoff, P. A.; Fox, T. C.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The nature of the association between nitrate reductase (NR) and membranes was examined. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) associated with the microsomal fraction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots amounted to 0.6 to 0.8% of soluble NRA following sonication in the presence of 250 mM KI and repeated osmotic shock. This treatment removed all contaminating soluble NRA from microsomes of uninduced barley roots that had been homogenized in a soluble extract from roots of NO3(-)-induced plants. On continuous sucrose gradients, NRA co-migrated specifically with VO4(-)-sensitive ATPase activity, a plasma membrane (PM) marker; activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, assayed as cytosolic marker, co-migrated with NRA. Microsomal NRA was absent in barley deficient in soluble NR. Perturbation and trypsinolysis experiments with PM vesicles isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning indicated that NR is associated with the periphery of the cytoplasmic face of the bilayer. These results demonstrate that PM and soluble NRs are essentially the same protein but that the membrane-associated form is tightly bound. Although it is possible that PM-associated NR exists in vivo, unequivocal evidence for this has yet to be shown. However, PM NR is definitely present in vitro.

  20. Combinational expression of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenases and cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone increases 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production in Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus cereus consortium.

    PubMed

    Du, Jin; Bai, Wei; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The expression levels of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenase genes (sdh and sndh) and the synthesis genes (pqqABCDEN) of the adjoint cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) were genetically manipulated in Ketogulonigenium vulgare to increase the production of 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG), the precursor of vitamin C, in the consortium of K. vulgare and Bacillus cereus. We found that overexpression of sdh-sndh alone in K. vulgare could not significantly enhance the production of 2-KLG, revealing the cofactor PQQ was required for the biosynthesis of 2-KLG. Various expression levels of PQQ were achieved by differential expression of pqqA, pqqABCDE and pqqABCDEN, respectively. The combinatorial expression of sdh/sndh and pqqABCDEN in K. vulgare enabled a 20% increase in the production of 2-KLG (79.1±0.6gl(-1)) than that of the parental K. vulgare (65.9±0.4gl(-1)) in shaking flasks. Our results demonstrated the balanced co-expression of both the key enzymes and the related cofactors was an efficient strategy to increase chemicals' biosynthesis.

  1. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA p< 0.02). In the case of patients treated with M. vulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment.

  2. The effect of drought on photosynthetic plasticity in Marrubium vulgare plants growing at low and high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ghader; Ajory, Neda

    2015-11-01

    Photosynthesis is a biological process most affected by water deficit. Plants have various photosynthetic mechanisms that are matched to specific climatic zones. We studied the photosynthetic plasticity of C3 plants at water deficit using ecotypes of Marrubium vulgare L. from high (2,200 m) and low (1,100 m) elevation sites in the Mishou-Dagh Mountains of Iran. Under experimental drought, high-altitude plants showed more tolerance to water stress based on most of the parameters studied as compared to the low-altitude plants. Increased tolerance in high-altitude plants was achieved by lower levels of daytime stomatal conductance (g s) and reduced damaging effect on maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (F v /F m ) coupled with higher levels of carotenoids and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). High-altitude plants exhibited higher water use efficiency (WUE) than that in low-altitude plants depending on the presence of thick leaves and the reduced daytime stomatal conductance. Additionally, we have studied the oscillation in H(+) content and diel gas exchange patterns to determine the occurrence of C3 or weak CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) in M. vulgare through 15 days drought stress. Under water-stressed conditions, low-altitude plants exhibited stomatal conductance and acid fluctuations characteristic of C3 photosynthesis, though high-altitude plants exhibited more pronounced increases in nocturnal acidity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, suggesting photosynthetic flexibility. These results indicated that the regulation of carotenoids, NPQ, stomatal conductance and diel patterns of CO2 exchange presented the larger differences among studied plants at different altitudes and seem to be the protecting mechanisms controlling the photosynthetic performance of M. vulgare plants under drought conditions.

  3. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera, and comparative analyses with other grass genomes

    PubMed Central

    Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Fjellheim, Siri; Guda, Chittibabu; Jansen, Robert K.; Luo, Hong; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Rognli, Odd Arne; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera to six published grass chloroplast genomes reveal that gene content and order are similar but two microstructural changes have occurred. First, the expansion of the IR at the SSC/IRa boundary that duplicates a portion of the 5′ end of ndhH is restricted to the three genera of the subfamily Pooideae (Agrostis, Hordeum and Triticum). Second, a 6 bp deletion in ndhK is shared by Agrostis, Hordeum, Oryza and Triticum, and this event supports the sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. Repeat analysis identified 19–37 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity of at least 90%. Seventeen of the 26 shared repeats are found in all the grass chloroplast genomes examined and are located in the same genes or intergenic spacer (IGS) regions. Examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 16–21 potential polymorphic SSRs. Five IGS regions have 100% sequence identity among Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum and Sorghum bicolor, whereas no spacer regions were identical among Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, H. vulgare and A. stolonifera despite their close phylogenetic relationship. Alignment of EST sequences and DNA coding sequences identified six C–U conversions in both Sorghum bicolor and H. vulgare but only one in A. stolonifera. Phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes of 38 taxa using both maximum parsimony and likelihood methods provide moderate support for a sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. PMID:17534593

  4. Comparative study of the antihypertensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    El Bardai, Sanae; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Wibo, Maurice; Morel, Nicole

    2004-08-01

    Water extract of Marrubium vulgare is widely used as antihypertensive treatment in folk medicine. We have compared the effect of 10-week-long treatment with amlodipine or Marrubium water extract on systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiovascular remodeling and vascular relaxation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both treatments produced similar decrease in SBP. Amlodipine treatment reduced left ventricle, aortic and mesenteric artery weight. Marrubium treatment had a significant antihypertrophic effect in aorta only. Relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) of mesenteric artery was improved by Marrubium but not by amlodipine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in addition to its antihypertensive effect, Marrubium water extract improved the impaired endothelial function in SHR.

  5. Radiation injury and acute death in Armadillidium vulgare (terrestrial isopod, Crustacea) subjected to ionizing radiation. [/sup 137/Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuchi, Y.; Egami, N.

    1981-01-01

    From whole- and partial-body irradiation experiments with adult Armadillidium vulgare, the following conclusions were drawn: the LD/sub 50/-30 days for this animal when subjected to ..gamma.. radiation at 25 +- 2/sup 0/C was about 30 kR. Radiosensitivity of the animal changed during the molt cycle. Ionizing radiation increased mortality at ecdysis and during intermolt stages. Anatomical and histological observations indicated that (1) gastrointestinal injury as the major cause of acute death does not apply to this animal because the intestine is not a cell-proliferative organ: (2) the epidermis may be the critical target organ.

  6. Proteomic Response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to Salinity Stress: Similarities and Differences between a Glycophyte and a Halophyte

    PubMed Central

    Maršálová, Lucie; Vítámvás, Pavel; Hynek, Radovan; Prášil, Ilja T.; Kosová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley H. marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defense-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant family, several chaperones from heat shock protein family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper and nascent polypeptide-associated complex families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H. vulgare indicate plant tissue damage as

  7. Proteomic Response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to Salinity Stress: Similarities and Differences between a Glycophyte and a Halophyte.

    PubMed

    Maršálová, Lucie; Vítámvás, Pavel; Hynek, Radovan; Prášil, Ilja T; Kosová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley H. marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defense-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant family, several chaperones from heat shock protein family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper and nascent polypeptide-associated complex families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H. vulgare indicate plant tissue damage as

  8. Regulation of the Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathway Genes in Purple and Black Grains of Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Hans-Peter; Kukoeva, Tatjana V.; Börner, Andreas; Khlestkina, Elena K.

    2016-01-01

    Barley grain at maturity can have yellow, purple, blue, and black pigmentations which are suggested to play a protective role under stress conditions. The first three types of the colors are caused by phenolic compounds flavonoids; the last one is caused by phytomelanins, oxidized and polymerized phenolic compounds. Although the genetic basis of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in barley has been thoroughly studied, there is no data yet on its regulation in purple and black barley grains. In the current study, genetic model of Hordeum vulgare ‘Bowman’ near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to investigate the regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis in white, purple, and black barley grains. Microsatellite genotyping revealed donor segments in the purple- and black-grained lines on chromosomes 2H (in region of the Ant2 gene determining purple color of grains) and 1H (in region of the Blp gene determining black lemma and pericarp), respectively. The isolated dominant Ant2 allele of the purple-grained line has high level of sequence similarity with the recessive Bowman’s ant2 in coding region, whereas an insertion of 179 bp was detected in promoter region of ant2. This structural divergence between Ant2 and ant2 alleles may underlie their different expression in grain pericarp: Bowman’s Ant2 is not transcribed, whereas it was up-regulated in the purple-grained line with coordinately co-expressed flavonoid biosynthesis structural genes (Chs, Chi, F3h, F3’h, Dfr, Ans). This led to total anthocyain content increase in purple-grained line identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Collectively, these results proved the regulatory function of the Ant2 gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis in barley grain pericarp. In the black-grained line, the specific transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes was not detected, suggesting that flavonoid pigments are not involved in development of black lemma and pericarp trait. PMID

  9. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N.; Casao, M. Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod–insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states. PMID:26068005

  10. Drought stress and leaf herbivory affect root terpenoid concentrations and growth of Tanacetum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    Plant responses of both shoots and roots to combined abiotic and biotic stress have been rarely investigated. However, stresses such as drought and aboveground herbivory might lead to conflicting resource allocation patterns and pronounced shifts in shoot vs. root defenses. In the present study, the effects of water availability and leaf herbivory by caterpillars of a generalist on various shoot and root traits of the aromatic plant Tanacetum vulgare L. were investigated. This species contains terpenoids in leaves and roots, which can differ in composition among individuals, forming so-called chemotypes. To test for intraspecific variation, responses were investigated in two chemotypes, the thujone and the carvyl acetate chemotype. Furthermore, effects of differences in plant quality on the herbivores were studied. Shoot biomass significantly decreased due to drought and herbivory, whereas the root/shoot ratio increased following drought but was unaffected by herbivory. No shifts in C/N ratios were found. In contrast to our expectation, leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased only slightly due to drought, whereas root terpenoids were significantly induced by both drought and herbivory. Chemotypes showed distinct responses to drought at least in the root/shoot ratio, with a higher drought sensitivity of the carvyl acetate chemotype. The body mass of the caterpillars was unaffected by the irrigation treatment but depended on chemotype and terpenoid concentration of the plants. Thus, both qualitative and quantitative defenses strongly affect herbivore development. The present results offer new insights into the above- and belowground organ-specific responses of plants. They highlight the importance of roots in response to various environmental challenges.

  11. Purification and characterization of three soluble invertases from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Obenland, D M; Simmen, U; Boller, T; Wiemken, A

    1993-01-01

    Three soluble isoforms of invertase (beta-fructofuranosidase; EC 3.2.1.26) were purified from 7-d-old primary leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Invertase I, a monomeric protein of 64 kD, was purified to apparent homogeneity as shown by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Invertases IIA and IIB, multimeric proteins with molecular masses of the 116 and 155 kD, were purified 780- and 1370-fold, respectively, but were not yet homogeneous. Extracts of epidermal strips of leaves contained only invertase IIB. The specific activity of invertase was more than 100-fold higher in the epidermis than in the mesophyll. All three isoforms were acidic invertases, with pH optima of around 5.0 and little activity in the alkaline range. Invertase I had a Km for sucrose of 8.1 mM, and invertases IIA and IIB had much lower values of 1.0 and 1.7 mM, respectively. Invertase I was more than 2-fold more resistant than the other two invertases to the inhibitors HgCl2 and pyridoxal. All three constitutive invertases were found to act also as sucrose-sucrose fructosyltransferases when supplied with high concentrations of sucrose, forming 1-kestose as principal product. However, the fructosyltransferase activity of all three enzymes was inhibited by pyridoxal in the same way as their invertase activity. This characteristic clearly differentiates them from the inducible sucrose-sucrose fructosyltransferase of barley leaves, the activity responsible for the initial steps of fructan biosynthesis, which has previously been shown to be insensitive to pyridoxal. PMID:8310063

  12. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N; Casao, M Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.

  13. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2009-09-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R{sub cryst} of 19.0% and an R{sub free} of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

  14. A novel approach to monitor the hydrolysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt: a chemometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, D; Degner, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-12-01

    Malting barley is a process that has been profusely studied and is known to be influenced by several physical and biochemical properties of the grain. In particular, the amount of material that can be extracted from the malt (malt extract) is an important measure of brewing performance and end quality. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare the time course of hydrolysis of different malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties and (b) to evaluate the usefulness of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy as high-throughput method to monitor malt hydrolysis. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis were observed between the malt samples analyzed where samples from the same variety that have similar hot water extract (HWE) values tend to have the same pattern of hydrolysis. Principal component score plots based on the MIR spectra showed similar results. Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify malt samples according to their corresponding variety and time course of hydrolysis. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the standard error of cross validation (SECV) obtained for the prediction of variety and time course of hydrolysis were 0.67 (1.01) and 0.38 (19.90), respectively. These differences might be the result of the different composition in sugars between the barley varieties analyzed after malting, measured as wort density and not observed when only the HWE value at the end point is reported. This method offers the possibility to measure several parameters in malt simultaneously, reducing the time of analysis as well as requiring minimal sample preparation.

  15. Identification and expression analyses of cytosolic glutamine synthetase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Goodall, Andrew J; Kumar, Pankaj; Tobin, Alyson K

    2013-04-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in nitrogen (N) assimilation, particularly during seed development. Three cytosolic GS isoforms (HvGS1) were identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Golden Promise). Quantitation of gene expression, localization and response to N supply revealed that each gene plays a non-redundant role in different tissues and during development. Localization of HvGS1_1 in vascular cells of different tissues, combined with its abundance in the stem and its response to changes in N supply, indicate that it is important in N transport and remobilization. HvGS1_1 is located on chromosome 6H at 72.54 cM, close to the marker HVM074 which is associated with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for grain protein content (GPC). HvGS1_1 may be a potential candidate gene to manipulate barley GPC. HvGS1_2 mRNA was localized to the leaf mesophyll cells, in the cortex and pericycle of roots, and was the dominant HvGS1 isoform in these tissues. HvGS1_2 expression increased in leaves with an increasing supply of N, suggesting its role in the primary assimilation of N. HvGS1_3 was specifically and predominantly localized in the grain, being highly expressed throughout grain development. HvGS1_3 expression increased specifically in the roots of plants grown on high NH(+)4, suggesting that it has a primary role in grain N assimilation and also in the protection against ammonium toxicity in roots. The expression of HvGS1 genes is directly correlated with protein and enzymatic activity, indicating that transcriptional regulation is of prime importance in the control of GS activity in barley.

  16. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hove, Runyararo M; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  17. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to excessive boron.

    PubMed

    Tombuloglu, Guzin; Tombuloglu, Huseyin; Sakcali, M Serdal; Unver, Turgay

    2015-02-15

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for optimum plant growth. However, above certain threshold B is toxic and causes yield loss in agricultural lands. While a number of studies were conducted to understand B tolerance mechanism, a transcriptome-wide approach for B tolerant barley is performed here for the first time. A high-throughput RNA-Seq (cDNA) sequencing technology (Illumina) was used with barley (Hordeum vulgare), yielding 208 million clean reads. In total, 256,874 unigenes were generated and assigned to known peptide databases: Gene Ontology (GO) (99,043), Swiss-Prot (38,266), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) (26,250), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (36,860), as determined by BLASTx search. According to the digital gene expression (DGE) analyses, 16% and 17% of the transcripts were found to be differentially regulated in root and leaf tissues, respectively. Most of them were involved in cell wall, stress response, membrane, protein kinase and transporter mechanisms. Some of the genes detected as highly expressed in root tissue are phospholipases, predicted divalent heavy-metal cation transporters, formin-like proteins and calmodulin/Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In addition, chitin-binding lectin precursor, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, and serine/threonine-protein kinase AFC2 genes were indicated to be highly regulated in leaf tissue upon excess B treatment. Some pathways, such as the Ca(2+)-calmodulin system, are activated in response to B toxicity. The differential regulation of 10 transcripts was confirmed by qRT-PCR, revealing the tissue-specific responses against B toxicity and their putative function in B-tolerance mechanisms.

  18. Drought acclimation in wild and cultivated barley lines. [Hordeum spontaneum; Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Glinka, Z. ); Gunasekera, D.; Mane, S.; Berkowitz, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) seeds collected from arid and temperate regions in Israel were used, along with cultivated barley (H. vulgare) in a study to evaluate the range of acclimation responses to low leaf water potential ({Psi}w). Stress was imposed on plants by withholding water until {Psi}w was {minus}2 megapascals (MPa). Protoplast volume (PV) was measured at {minus}0.2 and {minus}2 MPa (imposed in vitro) in leaf tissue from well-watered and stressed plants. In well-watered plants, PV declined at {minus}2, as compared to {minus}0.2 MPa in all lines. With tissue from in situ stressed plants, PV reduction at {minus}2 MPa was not as great in some lines. The change in the extent of PV reduction occurring at {minus}2 MPa was used as an index of drought acclimation. The 13 wild barley lines were separated into high, medium, and low acclimation groups. Lines collected from arid regions scored in the high acclimation group. The cultivated barley lines scored in the medium and low groups. Relative water content decline at low leaf {Psi}w in situ was not a good indicator of acclimation; all lines responded similarly. Photosynthesis in situ was measured at high and low leaf {Psi}w in lines from the three groupings. Photosynthetic sensitivity to low {Psi}w was twice as great in low acclimation, as compared to high acclimation lines. It was concluded that PV response to low {Psi}w is a good indicator of drought acclimation in barley, and that wild lines offer a range of acclimation potential which could be used in breeding programs.

  19. Optimization protocol for the extraction of antioxidant components from Origanum vulgare leaves using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Mudasir; Hussain, Abdullah I.; Chatha, Shahzad A.S.; Khosa, Muhammad K.K.; Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to determine optimum conditions for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from Origanum vulgare leaves. Four process variables were evaluated at three levels (31 experimental designs): methanol (70%, 80%, and 90%), the solute:solvent ratio (1:5, 1:12.5, 1:20), the extraction time (4, 10, 16 h), and the solute particle size (20, 65, 110 micron). Using RSM, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained by multiple regression analysis for predicting optimization of the extraction protocol. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied and the significant effect of the factors and their interactions were tested at 95% confidence interval. The antioxidant extract (AE) yield was significantly influenced by solvent composition, solute to solvent ratio, and time. The maximum AE was obtained at methanol (70%), liquid solid ratio (20), time (16 h), and particle size (20 micron). Predicted values thus obtained were closer to the experimental value indicating suitability of the model. Run 25 (methanol:water 70:30; solute:solvent 1:20; extraction time 16 h and solute particle size 20) showed highest TP contents (18.75 mg/g of dry material, measured as gallic acid equivalents) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 5.04 μg/mL). Results of the present study indicated good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results of the study indicated that phenolic compounds are powerful scavengers of free radical as demonstrated by a good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. PMID:27081365

  20. Phenotypic plasticity and interpopulation differences in life history traits of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda:Oniscidae).

    PubMed

    Hassall, Mark; Helden, Alvin; Benton, Timothy

    2003-09-01

    The hypothesis that the balance of trade-offs between survivorship, growth and reproductive allocation in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare will change when resource input is increased has been investigated experimentally. When the quality of food available was increased, by adding a mixture of litter from herbaceous dicotyledonous plants to a background low-quality food of dead grasses, survivorship was found to be the most phenotypically plastic trait, increasing by 168%. Growth rates increased by 99% but reproductive allocation by only 21%. In the field, members of a population from a site with more high-quality food grew more than twice as fast as those from a site where less high-quality food was available. The population from the site with higher food availability, contrary to predictions from the laboratory study, did not survive as well as that from the site with less available high-quality food. This may be because the site that is more favourable for growth has a more stressful physical environment due to much bigger temperature fluctuations, which are known to be an important cause of mortality in this species. When individuals from both populations were reared under controlled laboratory conditions, both the parental and F1 generations from the poor growth environment survived better than those from the good growth habitat. However, even when given an excess of high-quality food those from the poor growth environment continued to grow more slowly and had a lower reproductive allocation than those from the site with higher food availability. We conclude that microevolutionary changes may have occurred in the balance of resource allocation between survivorship, growth and reproductive allocation, to favour higher survivorship during the longer prereproductive period at the site where growth to the threshold size for reproduction takes longer. PMID:12827489

  1. Localization and pattern of graviresponse across the pulvinus of barley Hordeum vulgare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Lu, C. R.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0 degrees and the lowermost point 180 degrees. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40 degrees of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation.

  2. Identification of hydroxyl copper toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation in solution culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuedong; Ma, Yibing; Hua, Luo; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2009-03-01

    The effect of pH on the acute toxicity of Cu to barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation was investigated in solution culture. The results showed that the median effective concentrations (EC50s; i.e., the concentration that reduced root elongation by 50% based on free Cu(2+) activity) were not significantly different in the low-pH range from 4.5 to 6.5, but in the high-pH range from 7.0 to 8.0, a significant effect of pH on EC50s was found. The nonlinear relationship between EC50 and H(+) activity in the present study indicated that the increased toxicity with increasing pH in solution may not be caused by decreasing H(+) competition. When we take account of CuOH(+) activities, a good linear relationship (r(2) > 0.97) between the ratio of CuOH(+) activity to free Cu(2+) activity and acute Cu toxicity to barley root elongation was achieved, which indicated that the observed toxicity in the high-pH range may be caused by CuOH(+) plus free Cu(2+) in solution. Linear-regression analysis suggested CuOH(+) had a greater binding affinity than Cu(2+) at the biotic ligand sites. The logistic dose-response curve showed that expressing the Cu dose as Cu(2+) + 2.92.CuOH(+) improved the data fit significantly compared to consideration of the free Cu(2+) activity only. Thus, our results suggest CuOH(+) was highly toxic to barley root elongation. The enhanced toxicity of CuOH(+) therefore needs to be considered when modeling the effect of pH on Cu toxicity to barley for exposures having pH greater than 6.5.

  3. A novel approach to monitor the hydrolysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt: a chemometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, D; Degner, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-12-01

    Malting barley is a process that has been profusely studied and is known to be influenced by several physical and biochemical properties of the grain. In particular, the amount of material that can be extracted from the malt (malt extract) is an important measure of brewing performance and end quality. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare the time course of hydrolysis of different malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties and (b) to evaluate the usefulness of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy as high-throughput method to monitor malt hydrolysis. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis were observed between the malt samples analyzed where samples from the same variety that have similar hot water extract (HWE) values tend to have the same pattern of hydrolysis. Principal component score plots based on the MIR spectra showed similar results. Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify malt samples according to their corresponding variety and time course of hydrolysis. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the standard error of cross validation (SECV) obtained for the prediction of variety and time course of hydrolysis were 0.67 (1.01) and 0.38 (19.90), respectively. These differences might be the result of the different composition in sugars between the barley varieties analyzed after malting, measured as wort density and not observed when only the HWE value at the end point is reported. This method offers the possibility to measure several parameters in malt simultaneously, reducing the time of analysis as well as requiring minimal sample preparation. PMID:25393707

  4. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). PMID:26057533

  5. Optimization protocol for the extraction of antioxidant components from Origanum vulgare leaves using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Mudasir; Hussain, Abdullah I; Chatha, Shahzad A S; Khosa, Muhammad K K; Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Kamal, Mohammad A; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to determine optimum conditions for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from Origanum vulgare leaves. Four process variables were evaluated at three levels (31 experimental designs): methanol (70%, 80%, and 90%), the solute:solvent ratio (1:5, 1:12.5, 1:20), the extraction time (4, 10, 16 h), and the solute particle size (20, 65, 110 micron). Using RSM, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained by multiple regression analysis for predicting optimization of the extraction protocol. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied and the significant effect of the factors and their interactions were tested at 95% confidence interval. The antioxidant extract (AE) yield was significantly influenced by solvent composition, solute to solvent ratio, and time. The maximum AE was obtained at methanol (70%), liquid solid ratio (20), time (16 h), and particle size (20 micron). Predicted values thus obtained were closer to the experimental value indicating suitability of the model. Run 25 (methanol:water 70:30; solute:solvent 1:20; extraction time 16 h and solute particle size 20) showed highest TP contents (18.75 mg/g of dry material, measured as gallic acid equivalents) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 5.04 μg/mL). Results of the present study indicated good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results of the study indicated that phenolic compounds are powerful scavengers of free radical as demonstrated by a good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. PMID:27081365

  6. Effects of selected essential oils on the growth and production of ochratoxin A by Penicillium verrucosum.

    PubMed

    Jeršek, Barbara; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Skrt, Mihaela; Gavarić, Neda; Božin, Biljana; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), and pine (Abies alba Mill.) needles and cones, and their active substances thymol, carvacrol, menthol, and anisaldehyde were tested for antifungal activity against Penicillium verrucosum. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were achieved for essential oil of oregano, followed by carvacrol, thymol, and menthol. These antifungal components were further investigated, as the main aim of our study was to elucidate the effect of natural antifungals on ochratoxin A production. During 21 days of exposure, the growth of P. verrucosum, and subsequently the production of ochratoxin A, was fully inhibited by thymol at ½ MIC (0.0625 mg mL-1), but menthol at ¼ and ½ MIC (0.1875 and 3750 mg mL-1) showed no growth inhibition. After 21 days of incubation, the greatest inhibitory effect on ochratoxin production (inhibition was 96.9 %) was also achieved with thymol at ¼ MIC (0.0313 mg mL-1). Essential oil of oregano (¼ MIC, 0.2930 μL mL-1) and carvacrol (½ MIC, 0.1953 μL mL-1) stimulate production of ochratoxin A at 13.9 % to 28.8 %, respectively. The observed antifungal effects depended on the agent, the concentration used, and the time of interaction between the agent and P. verrucosum. Our results indicate the possibility of using oregano essential oil as a substitute for artificial preservatives in certain foods, but further research is needed. PMID:24945417

  7. Large gene overlaps and tRNA processing in the compact mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Ubrig, Elodie; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Bouchon, Didier; Marcadé, Isabelle; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    A faithful expression of the mitochondrial DNA is crucial for cell survival. Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a highly compact gene organization. The typical 16.5 kbp animal mtDNA encodes 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. In the backyard pillbug Armadillidium vulgare, the rather small 13.9 kbp mtDNA encodes the same set of proteins and rRNAs as compared to animal kingdom mtDNA, but seems to harbor an incomplete set of tRNA genes. Here, we first confirm the expression of 13 tRNA genes in this mtDNA. Then we show the extensive repair of a truncated tRNA, the expression of tRNA involved in large gene overlaps and of tRNA genes partially or fully integrated within protein-coding genes in either direct or opposite orientation. Under selective pressure, overlaps between genes have been likely favored for strong genome size reduction. Our study underlines the existence of unknown biochemical mechanisms for the complete gene expression of A. vulgare mtDNA, and of co-evolutionary processes to keep overlapping genes functional in a compacted mitochondrial genome.

  8. A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Mugnaini, Linda; Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Leonardi, Michele; Giuliotti, Lorella; Benvenuti, Maria N; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    A number of herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimycotic properties are available for dermatological usage. The successful treatment of 13 sheep affected by ringworm due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a mixture consisting of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serpillum 2%, Origanum vulgare 5% and Rosmarinus officinalis 5% in sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) oil. The effectiveness of EOs and of the major components of the mixture (thymol, carvacrol, 1,8 cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene) against the fungal clinical isolate was evaluated by a microdilution test. Thirteen animals were topically administered with the mixture twice daily for 15 days. The other sheep were administered with a conventional treatment (seven animals) or left untreated (two animals). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 0.1% for T. serpillum, 0.5% for O. vulgare, 2.5% for I. verum and 5% for both R. officinalis and C. limon. Thymol and carvacrol showed MICs of 0.125% and 0.0625%. A clinical and aetiological cure was obtained at the end of each treatment regimen in only the treated animals. Specific antimycotic drugs licenced for food-producing sheep are not available within the European Community. The mixture tested here appeared to be a versatile tool for limiting fungal growth. PMID:23368893

  9. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    PubMed

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.

  10. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts.

  11. Marrubium vulgare extract inhibits human-LDL oxidation and enhances HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Isabelle, Maxim; Cherki, Mounia; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the beneficial properties of aqueous extracts of Marrubium vulgare (AEM) towards cardiovascular disease by protecting human-LDL against lipid peroxidation and promoting HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human-LDL were oxidised by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of increased concentrations of AEM (0-100 microg/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene formation, vitamin E disappearance as well as LDL-electrophoretic mobility. HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux assay was carried out in human THP-1 macrophages. Incubation of LDL with AEM significantly prolonged the lag phase (P=0.014), lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P=0.004), reduced the disappearance of vitamin E and the electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. Also, incubation of HDL with AEM significantly increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages implicating an independent ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) pathways. Our findings suggest that M. vulgare provides a source of natural antioxidants, which inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance reverse cholesterol transport and thus can prevent cardiovascular diseases development. These antioxidant properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL.

  12. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC EFFECT OF MARRUBIUM VULGARE AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA EXTRACTS ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Harraz, Fathalla M.; Ghareib, Salah A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Gabr, Salah A.; Suliaman, Mansour I.; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats’ liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats’ liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts. PMID:24825994

  13. Genetic Transformation of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum for the Development of a Transposon-Based Insertional Mutagenesis System.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-10-01

    Domestication and intensive selective breeding of plants has triggered erosion of genetic diversity of important stress-related alleles. Researchers highlight the potential of using wild accessions as a gene source for improvement of cereals such as barley, which has major economic and social importance worldwide. Previously, we have successfully introduced the maize Ac/Ds transposon system for gene identification in cultivated barley. The objective of current research was to investigate the response of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum wild barley accessions in tissue culture to standardize parameters for introduction of Ac/Ds transposons through genetic transformation. We investigated the response of ten wild barley genotypes for callus induction, regenerative green callus induction and regeneration of fertile plants. The activity of exogenous Ac/Ds elements was observed through a transient assay on immature wild barley embryos/callus whereby transformed embryos/calli were identified by the expression of GUS. Transient Ds expression bombardment experiments were performed on 352 pieces of callus (3-5 mm each) or immature embryos in 4 genotypes of wild barley. The transformation frequency of putative transgenic callus lines based on transient GUS expression ranged between 72 and100 % in wild barley genotypes. This is the first report of a transformation system in H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum. PMID:27480175

  14. Combined application of origanum vulgare l. essential oil and acetic acid for controlling the growth of staphylococcus aureus in foods

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Barros, Jefferson Carneiro; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Neto, Nelson Justino Gomes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and acetic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index and kill-time assay in nutrient broth, meat broth and in a food model (meat pieces). Acetic acid showed MIC and MFC of 0.6 and 1.25 μL.mL-1, respectively. For O. vulgare essential oil MIC and MBC were 1.25 and 2.5 μL.mL-1, respectively. FIC indexes of the mixture of essential oil and acetic acid at MIC x ½ were ≤ 1.0, showing an additive effect. No synergy was found at kill-time study. Anti-staphylococcal effect of the antimicrobials alone or in mixture (MIC x ½) was lower in meat than in nutrient and meat broths. The effective combination of essential oils and organic acids could appear as an attractive alternative for the food industry, as the doses to inhibit the microbial growth in foods can be lowered. PMID:24031377

  15. Large gene overlaps and tRNA processing in the compact mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Ubrig, Elodie; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Bouchon, Didier; Marcadé, Isabelle; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    A faithful expression of the mitochondrial DNA is crucial for cell survival. Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a highly compact gene organization. The typical 16.5 kbp animal mtDNA encodes 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. In the backyard pillbug Armadillidium vulgare, the rather small 13.9 kbp mtDNA encodes the same set of proteins and rRNAs as compared to animal kingdom mtDNA, but seems to harbor an incomplete set of tRNA genes. Here, we first confirm the expression of 13 tRNA genes in this mtDNA. Then we show the extensive repair of a truncated tRNA, the expression of tRNA involved in large gene overlaps and of tRNA genes partially or fully integrated within protein-coding genes in either direct or opposite orientation. Under selective pressure, overlaps between genes have been likely favored for strong genome size reduction. Our study underlines the existence of unknown biochemical mechanisms for the complete gene expression of A. vulgare mtDNA, and of co-evolutionary processes to keep overlapping genes functional in a compacted mitochondrial genome. PMID:26361137

  16. In vivo ion fluxes across the eggs of Armadillidium vulgare (Oniscidea: Isopoda): the role of the dorsal organ.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan C; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The thin-walled, lecithotrophic eggs of land isopods (suborder Oniscidea) are brooded in a fluid-filled maternal marsupium until a few days following the second embryonic molt. Eggs of Armadillidium vulgare possess a well-developed dorsal organ underlying a broad silver-staining saddle on the vitelline membrane. Based on its chloride permeability and known transport functions in planktotrophic crustaceans, we hypothesized that the dorsal organ functions in passive or active ion movements. To study this, we employed the automated scanning electrode technique with self-referencing ion-selective microelectrodes to measure ion fluxes across the dorsal organ and adjacent egg poles. Stage 1 (chorionated) eggs revealed only small ion fluxes, indicating low permeability. Early stage 2 eggs--between the first embryonic molt and blastokinesis--showed evidence for active uptake of Ca(2+) and Cl(-) and possibly Na(+) against low bathing concentrations, and uptake fluxes were predominantly localized over the dorsal organ. Late stage 2 eggs revealed no capacity for ion uptake, consistent with the atrophy of the dorsal organ at blastokinesis, but high ion permeability. In all stages, the silver-staining saddle showed a sustained outward proton flux indicating that it is the primary site for metabolic acid/CO(2) excretion. The emerging picture is that the embryo dorsal organ in A. vulgare serves important functions in ion regulation, calcium provisioning, and acid excretion. PMID:20465420

  17. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    PubMed

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants. PMID:25495930

  18. Large gene overlaps and tRNA processing in the compact mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Doublet, Vincent; Ubrig, Elodie; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Bouchon, Didier; Marcadé, Isabelle; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    A faithful expression of the mitochondrial DNA is crucial for cell survival. Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a highly compact gene organization. The typical 16.5 kbp animal mtDNA encodes 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. In the backyard pillbug Armadillidium vulgare, the rather small 13.9 kbp mtDNA encodes the same set of proteins and rRNAs as compared to animal kingdom mtDNA, but seems to harbor an incomplete set of tRNA genes. Here, we first confirm the expression of 13 tRNA genes in this mtDNA. Then we show the extensive repair of a truncated tRNA, the expression of tRNA involved in large gene overlaps and of tRNA genes partially or fully integrated within protein-coding genes in either direct or opposite orientation. Under selective pressure, overlaps between genes have been likely favored for strong genome size reduction. Our study underlines the existence of unknown biochemical mechanisms for the complete gene expression of A. vulgare mtDNA, and of co-evolutionary processes to keep overlapping genes functional in a compacted mitochondrial genome. PMID:26361137

  19. Irniine, a pyrrolidine alkaloid, isolated from Arisarum vulgare can induce apoptosis and/or necrosis in rat hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Rakba, N; Melhaoui, A; Rissel, M; Morel, I; Loyer, P; Lescoat, G

    2000-10-01

    The effects of irniine, a pyrrolidine alkaloid extracted from the tubers of Arisarum vulgare, on rat hepatocyte primary cultures and rat liver epithelial cell line (RLEC) were studied. Cytotoxicity was first evaluated by LDH release, MTT and NR tests and MDA production, while cellular alterations were visualized by electron microscopy and DNA gel-electrophoresis. In hepatocyte and RLEC cultures, a major toxicity appeared at 40 microM of irniine and was demonstrated by an increase in LDH release and decreases in MTT reduction and NR uptake while concentrations lower than 40 microM did not induce significant changes in these parameters. However, we observed an increase in MDA production at 30 microM. Important alterations of the nuclei and mitochondria were also visualized by electron microscopy in cells treated with 50 microM. Using DNA gel-electrophoresis, we demonstrated that irniine at 40 and 50 microM induced DNA damage. All together these results demonstrate that: (1) Irniine induces a significant hepatotoxicity. (2) Irniine toxicity is not mediated by a metabolic derivative since RLEC, which do not contain a monooxygenase system, were also affected by this compound. (3) Irniine induces a significant DNA damage and oxidative stress which leads to cell death by necrosis and/or by apoptosis. Moreover, our data suggest that the alkaloid irniine contained in A. vulgare may be involved in the toxic symptoms observed after medicinal use or consumption of the plant tubers as food both by humans and animals.

  20. Reduction in amounts of mitochondrial DNA in the sperm cells as a mechanism for maternal inheritance in Hordeum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Sodmergen; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Yingtao; Sakamoto, Wataru; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2002-12-01

    It is known that extranuclear organelle DNA is inherited maternally in the majority of angiosperms. The mechanisms for maternal inheritance have been well studied in plastids but not in mitochondria. In the present study we examined the mitochondrial DNA in the male reproductive cells of Hordeum vulgare L. by immunoelectron microscopy. Our results show that the number of anti-DNA gold particles on sections of sperm cell mitochondria decreased by 97% during pollen development. The reduction occurred rapidly in the generative cells and subsequently in the sperm cells, concomitant with a remarkable reduction in mitochondrial volume. It seems that the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA were reduced in the male reproductive cells, which may be a possible mechanism by which paternal transmission is inhibited. Unlike mitochondria, plastids are excluded from the generative cells during the first pollen mitosis. These data suggest a mechanism for maternal inheritance of mitochondria in angiosperms and for independent control of inheritance of mitochondria and plastids in H. vulgare.

  1. Evidence for Lack of Acquisition of Tolerance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 after Exposure to Subinhibitory Amounts of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Carvacrol

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Isabelle da Silva; Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Tavares, Adassa Gama; Nunes, Pollyana Campos; Magnani, Marciane

    2012-01-01

    Overnight exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sublethal amounts of Origanum vulgare essential oil (OV) and carvacrol (CAR) did not result in direct and cross-bacterial protection. Cells subcultured with increasing amounts of OV or CAR survived up to the MIC of either compound, revealing few significant changes in bacterial susceptibility. PMID:22544235

  2. Broadly conserved fungal effector BEC1019 suppresses host cell death and enhances pathogen virulence in powdery mildew of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, is an ideal model to address fundamental questions in host resistance and susceptibility. Effector proteins secreted by B. graminis act to inhibit, induce, or accelerate host pr...

  3. Ecotypic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Hassall, Mark; Helden, Alvin; Goldson, Andrew; Grant, Alastair

    2005-03-01

    Armadillidium vulgare differed in growth and survivorship on two field sites. Growth rates were higher at a site with consistently higher quality food than at the other site where less high-quality food was produced and which was less predictably accessible. Survivorship was higher at the second site where temperature fluctuations were consistently smaller. Individuals from the two populations were kept for 6 months under the same food and temperature conditions and patterns of resource allocation to reproductive traits analysed. Members of the population from the site with good growth conditions had significantly higher reproductive allocation, by 13.5%, and larger broods, by 9.1%, than those from the site with poor growth conditions. Contrary to theoretical predictions, they also had significantly larger offspring, by 7.5% dry mass. Larger offspring survived better than small ones. This differential survivorship, by 20% for a 3.4% difference in live mass, was much more pronounced under conditions of moisture stress and under fluctuating temperature regimes. Larger offspring would therefore be at a selective advantage on the site with more severe temperature fluctuations. Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits in response to experimental changes in food quality, temperature and crowding were monitored. Reproductive allocation was increased by 20.8% under conditions of higher food quality, by 14.7% at higher temperatures, and by 12.5% under less crowded conditions. Brood size, but not offspring dry mass, increased when food quality increased. When crowding increased by 25.0%, the size of broods remained the same but the dry mass of individual offspring decreased by 11.2%. Members of the population from the site with more variable access to high-quality food showed more plasticity in reproductive traits in response to changes in food supply than members of the population from the site with the more predictable food supply. Members of the population from the

  4. Cytogenetic diversity of SSR motifs within and between Hordeum species carrying the H genome: H. vulgare L. and H. bulbosum L.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Alejandro; Friero, Eva; de Bustos, Alfredo; Jouve, Nicolás; Cuadrado, Angeles

    2013-04-01

    Non-denaturing FISH (ND-FISH) was used to compare the distribution of four simple sequence repeats (SSRs)-(AG) n , (AAG) n , (ACT) n and (ATC) n -in somatic root tip metaphase spreads of 12 barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivars, seven lines of their wild progenitor H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and four lines of their close relative H. bulbosum, to determine whether the range of molecular diversity shown by these highly polymorphic sequences is reflected at the chromosome level. In both, the cultivated and wild barleys, clusters of AG and ATC repeats were invariant. In contrast, clusters of AAG and ACT showed polymorphism. Karyotypes were prepared after the identification of their seven pairs of homologous chromosomes. Variation between these homologues was only observed in one wild accession that showed the segregation of a reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 5H and 7H. The two subspecies of H. vulgare analysed were no different in terms of their SSRs. Only AAG repeats were found clustered strongly on the chromosomes of all lines of H. bulbosum examined. Wide variation was seen between homologous chromosomes within and across these lines. These results are the first to provide insight into the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs in barley and its closest relatives. Differences in the abundance and distribution of each SSR analysed, between H. vulgare and H. bulbosum, suggest that these species do not share the same H genome, and support the idea that these species are not very closely related. Southern blotting experiments revealed the complex organization of these SSRs, supporting the findings made with ND-FISH. PMID:23242107

  5. HPLC-HRMS method for fast phytochelatins determination in plants. Application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Bardarov, Krum; Naydenov, Mladen; Djingova, Rumyana

    2015-09-01

    An optimized analytical method based on C8 core-shell reverse phase chromatographic separation and high resolution mass spectral (HRMS) detection is developed for a fast analysis of unbound phytochelatins (PCs) in plants. Its application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L. is demonstrated where proper PCs liberating and preservation conditions were employed using dithiotreitol in the extraction step. A baseline separation of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins from 2 to 5 (PC2-PC5) for 3 min was achieved at conventional HPLC backpressure, with detection limits from 3 ppt (for GSH) to 2.5 ppb (for PC5). It is shown, that the use of HRMS with tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) capabilities permits additional wide range screening ability for iso-phytochelatins and PC similar compounds, based on exact mass and fragment spectra in a post acquisition manner. PMID:26003687

  6. Do predator cues influence turn alternation behavior in terrestrial isopods Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kevin G; Kight, Scott L

    2014-07-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) make more alternating maze turns in response to negative stimuli, a navigational behavior that corrects divergence from a straight line. The present study investigates this behavioral pattern in two species, Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, in response to short-term vs. long-term exposure to indirect cues from predatory ants. Neither isopod species increased the number of alternating turns in response to short-term indirect exposure to ants, but both species made significantly more alternating turns following continuous indirect exposure to ants for a period of one-week. These results are surprising given differences in behavioral and morphological predator defenses between these species (the Armadillidiidae curl into defensive postures when attacked, whereas the Porcellionidae flee). The marked similarity in alternating turn behavior of the two families suggests evolutionary conservation of antipredator navigation mechanisms. PMID:24954552

  7. A sulfated polysaccharide, fucans, isolated from brown algae Sargassum vulgare with anticoagulant, antithrombotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Dore, Celina Maria P Guerra; das C Faustino Alves, Monique Gabriela; Will, Luiza Sheyla E Pofírio; Costa, Thiago G; Sabry, Diego A; de Souza Rêgo, Leonardo Augusto R; Accardo, Camila M; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre O; Filgueira, Luciana Guimarães A; Leite, Edda Lisboa

    2013-01-01

    Fucan (SV1) sulfated polysaccharides from the brown algae Sargassum vulgare were extracted, fractionated in acetone and examined with respect to chemical composition, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic effects and cellular proliferation. These polysaccharides contain low levels of protein, high level of carbohydrate and sulfate. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that SV1 was composed of fucose, galactose, xylose, glucuronic acid and mannose. SV1 polysaccharide prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and exhibited high antithrombotic action in vivo, with a concentration ten times higher than heparin activity. PSV1, a purified form in gel filtration showed very low biological activities. SV1 stimulated the enzymatic activity of FXa. Its action on DPPH radical scavenging activity was 22%. This polymer has no cytotoxic action (hemolytic) on ABO and Rh blood types in different erythrocyte groups. It displays strong anti-inflammatory action at all concentrations tested in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, demonstrated by reduced edema and cellular infiltration. PMID:23044157

  8. HPLC-HRMS method for fast phytochelatins determination in plants. Application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Bardarov, Krum; Naydenov, Mladen; Djingova, Rumyana

    2015-09-01

    An optimized analytical method based on C8 core-shell reverse phase chromatographic separation and high resolution mass spectral (HRMS) detection is developed for a fast analysis of unbound phytochelatins (PCs) in plants. Its application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L. is demonstrated where proper PCs liberating and preservation conditions were employed using dithiotreitol in the extraction step. A baseline separation of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins from 2 to 5 (PC2-PC5) for 3 min was achieved at conventional HPLC backpressure, with detection limits from 3 ppt (for GSH) to 2.5 ppb (for PC5). It is shown, that the use of HRMS with tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) capabilities permits additional wide range screening ability for iso-phytochelatins and PC similar compounds, based on exact mass and fragment spectra in a post acquisition manner.

  9. Do predator cues influence turn alternation behavior in terrestrial isopods Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kevin G; Kight, Scott L

    2014-07-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) make more alternating maze turns in response to negative stimuli, a navigational behavior that corrects divergence from a straight line. The present study investigates this behavioral pattern in two species, Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, in response to short-term vs. long-term exposure to indirect cues from predatory ants. Neither isopod species increased the number of alternating turns in response to short-term indirect exposure to ants, but both species made significantly more alternating turns following continuous indirect exposure to ants for a period of one-week. These results are surprising given differences in behavioral and morphological predator defenses between these species (the Armadillidiidae curl into defensive postures when attacked, whereas the Porcellionidae flee). The marked similarity in alternating turn behavior of the two families suggests evolutionary conservation of antipredator navigation mechanisms.

  10. Development of PLA films containing oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) intended for use in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Bermúdez, J M; Baños, A; Núñez, C; Guillamón, E; Aucejo, S; Cameán, A M

    2016-08-01

    Consumers' concerns about the environment and health have led to the development of new food packaging materials avoiding petroleum-based matrices and synthetic additives. The present study has developed polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different concentrations of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. virens (OEO). The effectiveness of this new active packaging was checked for use in ready-to-eat salads. A plasticising effect was observed when OEO was incorporated in PLA films. The rest of the mechanical and physical properties of developed films did not show much change when OEO was included in the film. An antioxidant effect was recorded only for films containing the highest percentages of the active agent (5% and 10%). In addition, films exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus. Moreover, in ready-to-eat salads, antimicrobial activity was only observed against yeast and moulds, where 5% and 10% of OEO was the most effective.

  11. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  12. Effects of an aqueous extract from leaves of Ligustrum vulgare on mediators of inflammation in a human neutrophils model.

    PubMed

    Czerwińska, Monika E; Granica, Sebastian; Kiss, Anna K

    2013-07-01

    Leaves of Ligustrum vulgare (common privet) have been used for treatment of oropharyngeal inflammations or as antirheumatic, diuretic, and hypotensive agents in folk medicine in southern Europe. Taking into account that neutrophils are involved in the inflammation, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of an aqueous extract prepared from leaves of Ligustrum vulgare on neutrophil functions. The extract was characterized by the HPLC-DAD-MSn method. The inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils was determined using luminol- or lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. The effect on myeloperoxidase, metalloproteinase 9, and interleukin 8 production by neutrophils was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil elastase release was established spectrophotometrically. The expression of adhesion molecules on neutrophils was analyzed with flow cytometry. The main compounds detected were flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, hydroxycinnamates, and secoiridoids. The inhibition of oxidative burst by the extract was comparable in both stimuli models (formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine: IC50 = 18.2 ± 4.0 µg/mL; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate: IC50 = 19.8 ± 3.0 µg/mL). The extract in the concentration range of 5-50 µg/mL inhibited neutrophil elastase release by 23.9-34.1 % and myeloperoxidase release by 24.2-37.4 %. The inhibitory effect on metalloproteinase 9 and interleukin 8 production was around 20 %. The extract in the highest concentration modulated the expression of L-selectin and β2 integrin. Our results partly support the traditional use of common privet leaves as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  13. Sex reversal by implantations of ethanol-treated androgenic glands of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, crustacea).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1998-09-01

    The androgenic glands (AGs) of malacostracan crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characteristics, and sex reversal is readily obtained by implantation of AGs in female crustaceans. In order to induce sex reversal, we implanted inactive AGs (dead cells) into young females of Armadillidium vulgare. Before implantation fresh AGs (living cells) were treated twice with 80% ethanol for 3 min and kept in crustacean physiological saline for 30 s. We refer to these AGs as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Stage 6 females were used as recipients of t-AG implantation. They received an implant of three t-AGs (3 t-AGs) three times, once each week. Testis formation in recipients was used as an indicator of the masculinized levels of female gonads. Female sexual characteristics were masculinized in proportion to the number of 3 t-AG implantations. Three implantations (total number of t-AGs, nine glands) induced development of testes, penes, and male copulatory organs in the recipient females. Furthermore, they could produce progeny. These results show that t-AG implantations are capable of inducing masculinization of female sexual characteristics. The procedure of three implantations with 3 t-AGs at stage 6 is enough to transform the sex from a genetic female into a functional male. If t-AGs are used to implant instead of fresh AGs, we can detect the effects induced by newly formed AGs of recipient females, not by implanted donor's AGs. The present method may be useful for examining the regulatory mechanism of sex differentiation of female A. vulgare. PMID:9707482

  14. Feminization of the Isopod Cylisticus convexus after Transinfection of the wVulC Wolbachia Strain of Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Myriam; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are able to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts by inducing parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility or feminization of genetic males. Despite extensive studies, no underlying molecular mechanism has been described to date. The goal of this study was to establish a system with a single Wolbachia strain that feminizes two different isopod species to enable comparative analyses aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of feminization. It was previously suggested that Wolbachia wVulC, which naturally induces feminization in Armadillidium vulgare, induces the development of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected Cylisticus convexus adult males. However, this does not demonstrate that wVulC induces feminization in C. convexus since feminization is the conversion of genetic males into functional females that occurs during development. Nevertheless, it suggests that C. convexus may represent a feminization model suitable for further development. Knowledge about C. convexus sexual differentiation is also essential for comparative analyses, as feminization is thought to take place just before or during sexual differentiation. Consequently, we first described gonad morphological differentiation of C. convexus and compared it with that of A. vulgare. Then, wVulC was injected into male and female C. convexus adult individuals. The feminizing effect was demonstrated by the combined appearance of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected adult males, as well as the presence of intersexes and female biases in progenies in which wVulC was vertically transmitted from transinfected mothers. The establishment of a new model of feminization of a Wolbachia strain in a heterologous host constitutes a useful tool towards the understanding of the molecular mechanism of feminization. PMID:26047139

  15. Feminization of the Isopod Cylisticus convexus after Transinfection of the wVulC Wolbachia Strain of Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Myriam; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are able to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts by inducing parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility or feminization of genetic males. Despite extensive studies, no underlying molecular mechanism has been described to date. The goal of this study was to establish a system with a single Wolbachia strain that feminizes two different isopod species to enable comparative analyses aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of feminization. It was previously suggested that Wolbachia wVulC, which naturally induces feminization in Armadillidium vulgare, induces the development of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected Cylisticus convexus adult males. However, this does not demonstrate that wVulC induces feminization in C. convexus since feminization is the conversion of genetic males into functional females that occurs during development. Nevertheless, it suggests that C. convexus may represent a feminization model suitable for further development. Knowledge about C. convexus sexual differentiation is also essential for comparative analyses, as feminization is thought to take place just before or during sexual differentiation. Consequently, we first described gonad morphological differentiation of C. convexus and compared it with that of A. vulgare. Then, wVulC was injected into male and female C. convexus adult individuals. The feminizing effect was demonstrated by the combined appearance of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected adult males, as well as the presence of intersexes and female biases in progenies in which wVulC was vertically transmitted from transinfected mothers. The establishment of a new model of feminization of a Wolbachia strain in a heterologous host constitutes a useful tool towards the understanding of the molecular mechanism of feminization. PMID:26047139

  16. Effects of an aqueous extract from leaves of Ligustrum vulgare on mediators of inflammation in a human neutrophils model.

    PubMed

    Czerwińska, Monika E; Granica, Sebastian; Kiss, Anna K

    2013-07-01

    Leaves of Ligustrum vulgare (common privet) have been used for treatment of oropharyngeal inflammations or as antirheumatic, diuretic, and hypotensive agents in folk medicine in southern Europe. Taking into account that neutrophils are involved in the inflammation, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of an aqueous extract prepared from leaves of Ligustrum vulgare on neutrophil functions. The extract was characterized by the HPLC-DAD-MSn method. The inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils was determined using luminol- or lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. The effect on myeloperoxidase, metalloproteinase 9, and interleukin 8 production by neutrophils was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil elastase release was established spectrophotometrically. The expression of adhesion molecules on neutrophils was analyzed with flow cytometry. The main compounds detected were flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, hydroxycinnamates, and secoiridoids. The inhibition of oxidative burst by the extract was comparable in both stimuli models (formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine: IC50 = 18.2 ± 4.0 µg/mL; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate: IC50 = 19.8 ± 3.0 µg/mL). The extract in the concentration range of 5-50 µg/mL inhibited neutrophil elastase release by 23.9-34.1 % and myeloperoxidase release by 24.2-37.4 %. The inhibitory effect on metalloproteinase 9 and interleukin 8 production was around 20 %. The extract in the highest concentration modulated the expression of L-selectin and β2 integrin. Our results partly support the traditional use of common privet leaves as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:23824550

  17. In vitro synergic efficacy of the combination of Nystatin with the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Pelargonium graveolens against some Candida species.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Antonio; Vitali, Cesare; Piarulli, Monica; Mazzotta, Manuela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Mallamaci, Rosanna

    2009-10-01

    In this study we investigated a synergistic effect between the essential oils Origanum vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens and Melaleuca alternifolia and the antifungal compound Nystatin. Nystatin is considered a drug of choice in the treatment of fungal infections, but it can cause some considerable problems through its side effects, such as renal damage. Finding a new product that can reduce the Nystatin dose via combination is very important. Our findings showed an experimental occurrence of a synergistic interaction between two of these essential oils and Nystatin. The essential oil O. vulgare appeared to be the most effective, inhibiting all the Candida species evaluated in this study. Some combinations of Nystatin and P. graveolens essential oil did not have any synergistic interactions for some of the strains considered. Associations of Nystatin with M. alternifolia essential oil had only an additive effect. PMID:19616925

  18. In vitro synergic efficacy of the combination of Nystatin with the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Pelargonium graveolens against some Candida species.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Antonio; Vitali, Cesare; Piarulli, Monica; Mazzotta, Manuela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Mallamaci, Rosanna

    2009-10-01

    In this study we investigated a synergistic effect between the essential oils Origanum vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens and Melaleuca alternifolia and the antifungal compound Nystatin. Nystatin is considered a drug of choice in the treatment of fungal infections, but it can cause some considerable problems through its side effects, such as renal damage. Finding a new product that can reduce the Nystatin dose via combination is very important. Our findings showed an experimental occurrence of a synergistic interaction between two of these essential oils and Nystatin. The essential oil O. vulgare appeared to be the most effective, inhibiting all the Candida species evaluated in this study. Some combinations of Nystatin and P. graveolens essential oil did not have any synergistic interactions for some of the strains considered. Associations of Nystatin with M. alternifolia essential oil had only an additive effect.

  19. Correlation of the chemical composition of essential oils from Origanum vulgare subsp. virens with their in vitro activity against pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Vale-Silva, Luís; Silva, Maria-João; Oliveira, Daniela; Gonçalves, Maria-José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; Pinto, Eugénia

    2012-02-01

    Origanum vulgare subsp. virens (Hoffmanns. & Link) Bonnier & Layens and its essential oil (EO) are widely used in the treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections in traditional medicine. In order to establish a basis for its traditional use, the antimicrobial activity of the EO of O. vulgare subsp. virens was evaluated against human fungal pathogens. Different oil samples were studied in order to elucidate the intraspecific chemical variability and its impact on the biological activity. Flowering aerial parts of three samples of O. vulgare subsp. virens were collected in different geographical locations and EOs were isolated from air-dried plant material by hydrodistillation. The oils were analysed by GC and GC-MS. Minimal inhibitory and minimal lethal concentrations were measured by broth macrodilution methods for the oils and their main constituents against human pathogenic fungi and the influence of the oils on the filamentation in Candida albicans was assayed. The effect of the oil samples on cell metabolism and cell membrane integrity was studied by flow cytometry. Significant quantitative differences in chemical composition were found between the EO samples and, while the three samples generally displayed potent fungicidal activity, their antifungal potencies varied and appeared to be intensified by increasing carvacrol content. The inhibition of filamentation, on the other hand, may correlate more with γ-terpinene content. The flow cytometry results confirmed the occurrence of damage to the plasma membrane, although not necessarily as a direct effect of the oil on the membrane. The EO of O. vulgare subsp. virens is a broad-spectrum fungicide, thus justifying its potential for use in the treatment of superficial or mucosal fungal infections. The EO shows significant variability in chemical composition between samples, which, in turn, affects its biological activity. PMID:22016556

  20. Treatment of experimental pythiosis with essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita singly, in association and in combination with immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Anelise O S; Pereira, Daniela I B; Botton, Sônia A; Pötter, Luciana; Sallis, Elisa S V; Júnior, Sérgio F V; Filho, Fernando S M; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Maroneze, Beatriz P; Valente, Julia S S; Baptista, Cristiane T; Braga, Caroline Q; Ben, Vanessa Dal; Meireles, Mario C A

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the in vivo antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita both singly, associated and in combination with immunotherapy to treat experimental pythiosis. The disease was reproduced in 18 rabbits divided into six groups (n=3): group 1, control; group 2, treated with essential oil of Mentha piperita; group 3, treated with essential oil of Origanum vulgare; group 4, treated with commercial immunotherapic; group 5, treated with a association of oils of M. piperita and O. vulgare and group 6, treated with a combination of both oils plus immunotherapy. Essential oils were added in a topical cream base formula, and lesions were treated daily for 45 days. The animals in groups 4 and 6 received a dose of immunotherapeutic agent every 14 days. The results revealed that the evolution of lesions in groups 5 and 6 did not differ from one another but differed from the other groups. The lesions of group 5 increased 3.16 times every measurement, while those of group 6 increased 1.83 times, indicating that the smallest growth of the lesions occurred when the combination of therapies were used. A rabbit from group 5 showed clinical cure at day 20 of treatment. This research is the pioneer in the treatment of experimental pythiosis using essential oils from medicinal plants and a combination of therapies. This study demonstrated that the use of essential oils can be a viable alternative treatment to cutaneous pythiosis, particularly when used in association or combination with immunotherapy.

  1. A DNA marker closely linked to the vrs1 locus (row-type gene) indicates multiple origins of six-rowed cultivated barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Tanno, K; Taketa, S; Takeda, K; Komatsuda, T

    2002-01-01

    The origin of six-rowed cultivated barley was studied using a DNA marker cMWG699 closely linked to the vrs1 locus. Restriction patterns of the PCR-amplified product of the cMWG699 locus were examined in 280 cultivated ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and 183 wild ( H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) barleys. Nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were also examined in selected accessions. Six-rowed cultivated barleys were divided into two distinct groups, types I and II. Type I six-rowed cultivated barley was distributed widely while type II six-rowed cultivated barley was found only in the Mediterranean region. The type I sequence was also found in a wild barley accession from Turkmenistan whereas the type II sequence was also found in a two-rowed cultivated barley from North Africa and a wild barley from Morocco. These results suggested that the six-rowed type I and II barleys were derived from two-rowed type I and II barleys, respectively, by independent mutations at the vrs1 locus.

  2. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg·kg−1 cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO2 and nTiO2 treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO2 treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO2 stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO2. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO2 aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO2 was not present in the form of nanoclusters. PMID:26999181

  3. Antifungal Activity of Some Constituents of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil Against Postharvest Disease of Peach Fruit.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Hazem S; Mancini, Emilia; Sakr, Shimaa; De Martino, Laura; Mattia, Carlo Andrea; De Feo, Vincenzo; Camele, Ippolito

    2015-08-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) can potentially replace synthetic fungicides in the management of postharvest fruit and vegetable diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of thymol, carvacrol, linalool, and trans-caryophyllene, single constituents of the EO of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum against Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola, which are important phytopathogens and causal agents of brown rot of pome and stone fruits in pre- and postharvest. Moreover, the possible phytotoxic activity of these constituents was assessed and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. In vitro experiment indicated that thymol and carvacrol possess the highest antifungal activity. Results of in vivo trials confirmed the strong efficacy of thymol and carvacrol against brown rot of peach fruits. The thymol MIC resulted to be 0.16 μg/μL against M. laxa and M. fructigena and 0.12 μg/μL against M. fructicola, whereas for carvacrol they were 0.02 μg/μL against the first two Monilinia species and 0.03 μg/μL against the third. Results of this study indicated that thymol and carvacrol could be used after suitable formulation for controlling postharvest fruit diseases caused by the three studied Monilinia species. PMID:25599273

  4. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on phytopathogenic strains isolated from soybean.

    PubMed

    Oliva, M de las M; Carezzano, M E; Giuliano, M; Daghero, J; Zygadlo, J; Bogino, P; Giordano, W; Demo, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species isolated from soybean. Strains with characteristics of P. syringae were isolated from leaves of soybean plants with blight symptoms. Ten of these could be identified in Group Ia of LOPAT as P. syringae. Six of these were confirmed as P. syringae using 16S rRNA, indicating the presence of these phytopathogenic bacteria in east and central Argentina. All the phytopathogenic bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the infected plants. MIC values for thyme were 11.5 and 5.7 mg·ml(-1) on P. syringae strains, while oregano showed variability in the inhibitory activity. Both essential oils inhibited all P. syringae strains, with better inhibitory activity than the antibiotic streptomycin. The oils were not bactericidal for all pseudomonads. Both oils contained high carvacrol (29.5% and 19.7%, respectively) and low thymol (1.5%). Natural products obtained from aromatic plants represent potential sources of molecules with biological activity that could be used as new alternatives for the treatment of phytopathogenic bacteria infections. PMID:25359697

  5. Development of PLA films containing oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) intended for use in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Bermúdez, J M; Baños, A; Núñez, C; Guillamón, E; Aucejo, S; Cameán, A M

    2016-08-01

    Consumers' concerns about the environment and health have led to the development of new food packaging materials avoiding petroleum-based matrices and synthetic additives. The present study has developed polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different concentrations of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. virens (OEO). The effectiveness of this new active packaging was checked for use in ready-to-eat salads. A plasticising effect was observed when OEO was incorporated in PLA films. The rest of the mechanical and physical properties of developed films did not show much change when OEO was included in the film. An antioxidant effect was recorded only for films containing the highest percentages of the active agent (5% and 10%). In addition, films exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus. Moreover, in ready-to-eat salads, antimicrobial activity was only observed against yeast and moulds, where 5% and 10% of OEO was the most effective. PMID:27455176

  6. Tolerance response of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains to habituation to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Monte, Daniel F M; Tavares, Adassa G; Albuquerque, Allan R; Sampaio, Fábio C; Oliveira, Tereza C R M; Franco, Octavio L; Souza, Evandro L; Magnani, Marciane

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from human outbreaks or from poultry origin were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance to sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lactic acid, acetic acid, and ciprofloxacin after habituation in subinhibitory amounts ( of the minimum inhibitory concentration - (MIC) and of the minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC) of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO) at different time intervals. The habituation of S. enterica to OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by the modulation of MIC values. However, cells habituated to OVEO maintained or increased susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials agents, with up to fourfold double dilution decrease from previously determined MIC values. This study reports for the first time the non-inductive effect of OVEO on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in multidrug-resistant S. enterica strains to antimicrobial agents that are largely used in food preservation, as well as to CIP, the therapeutic drug of salmonellosis. PMID:25566231

  7. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  8. Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oil prevented biofilm formation and showed antibacterial activity against planktonic and sessile bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Domenico; Napoli, Edoardo Marco; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Vitale, Maria; Ruberto, Andgiuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils from six different populations of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum were compared for their antibiofilm properties. The six essential oils (A to F) were characterized by a combination of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector analyses. All oils showed weak activity against the planktonic form of a group of Staphylococcus aureus strains and against a Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 reference strain. The ability to inhibit biofilm formation was investigated at sub-MIC levels of 200, 100, and 50 m g/ml by staining sessile cells with safranin. Sample E showed the highest average effectiveness against all tested strains at 50 m g/ml and had inhibition percentages ranging from 30 to 52%. In the screening that used preformed biofilm from the reference strain P. aeruginosa, essential oils A through E were inactive at 200 m g/ml; F was active with a percentage of inhibition equal to 53.2%. Oregano essential oil can inhibit the formation of biofilms of various food pathogens and food spoilage organisms. PMID:24112575

  9. Conflict between feminizing sex ratio distorters and an autosomal masculinizing gene in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, T; Juchault, P

    1993-02-01

    Female sex determination in the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare is frequently under the control of feminizing parasitic sex factors (PSF). One of these PSF is an intracytoplasmic Wolbachia-like bacterium (F), while the other (f) is suspected of being an F-bacterial DNA sequence unstably integrated into the host genome. In most wild populations harboring PSF, all individuals are genetic males (ZZ), and female phenotypes occur only due to the presence of PSF which overrides the male determinant carried by the Z chromosome (females are thus ZZ +F or ZZ +f neo-females). Here we report the effects of the conflict between these PSF and a dominant autosomal masculinizing gene (M) on phenotypes. The M gene is able to override the feminizing effect of the f sex factor and, consequently, male sex may be restored. However, M is unable to restore male sex when competing with the F bacteria. It seems that the main effect of M is to delay the expression of F bacteria slightly, inducing intersex phenotypes. Most of these intersexes are functional females, able to transmit the masculinizing gene. The frequency of M and its effects on the sex ratio in wild populations are discussed. PMID:8436273

  10. Conflict between Feminizing Sex Ratio Distorters and an Autosomal Masculinizing Gene in the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare Latr

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, T.; Juchault, P.

    1993-01-01

    Female sex determination in the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare is frequently under the control of feminizing parasitic sex factors (PSF). One of these PSF is an intracytoplasmic Wolbachia-like bacterium (F), while the other (f) is suspected of being an F-bacterial DNA sequence unstably integrated into the host genome. In most wild populations harboring PSF, all individuals are genetic males (ZZ), and female phenotypes occur only due to the presence of PSF which overrides the male determinant carried by the Z chromosome (females are thus ZZ +F or ZZ +f neo-females). Here we report the effects of the conflict between these PSF and a dominant autosomal masculinizing gene (M) on phenotypes. The M gene is able to override the feminizing effect of the f sex factor and, consequently, male sex may be restored. However, M is unable to restore male sex when competing with the F bacteria. It seems that the main effect of M is to delay the expression of F bacteria slightly, inducing intersex phenotypes. Most of these intersexes are functional females, able to transmit the masculinizing gene. The frequency of M and its effects on the sex ratio in wild populations are discussed. PMID:8436273

  11. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) circadian clock genes can respond rapidly to temperature in an EARLY FLOWERING 3-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Brett; Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Oliver, Sandra; Boden, Scott; Hemming, Megan; Trevaskis, Ben

    2016-01-01

    An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops. This study examines the relationship between temperature, the circadian clock, and the expression of flowering-time genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a crop model for temperate cereals. Transcript levels of barley core circadian clock genes were assayed over a range of temperatures. Transcript levels of core clock genes CCA1, GI, PRR59, PRR73, PRR95, and LUX are increased at higher temperatures. CCA1 and PRR73 respond rapidly to a decrease in temperature whereas GI and PRR59 respond rapidly to an increase in temperature. The response of GI and the PRR genes to changes in temperature is lost in the elf3 mutant indicating that their response to temperature may be dependent on a functional ELF3 gene. PMID:27580625

  12. Increased yield stability of field-grown winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varietal mixtures through ecological processes

    PubMed Central

    Creissen, Henry E.; Jorgensen, Tove H.; Brown, James K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Crop variety mixtures have the potential to increase yield stability in highly variable and unpredictable environments, yet knowledge of the specific mechanisms underlying enhanced yield stability has been limited. Ecological processes in genetically diverse crops were investigated by conducting field trials with winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare), grown as monocultures or as three-way mixtures in fungicide treated and untreated plots at three sites. Mixtures achieved yields comparable to the best performing monocultures whilst enhancing yield stability despite being subject to multiple predicted and unpredicted abiotic and biotic stresses including brown rust (Puccinia hordei) and lodging. There was compensation through competitive release because the most competitive variety overyielded in mixtures thereby compensating for less competitive varieties. Facilitation was also identified as an important ecological process within mixtures by reducing lodging. This study indicates that crop varietal mixtures have the capacity to stabilise productivity even when environmental conditions and stresses are not predicted in advance. Varietal mixtures provide a means of increasing crop genetic diversity without the need for extensive breeding efforts. They may confer enhanced resilience to environmental stresses and thus be a desirable component of future cropping systems for sustainable arable farming. PMID:27375312

  13. Characterisation of marrubenol, a diterpene extracted from Marrubium vulgare, as an L-type calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    El-Bardai, Sanae; Wibo, Maurice; Hamaide, Marie-Christine; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Morel, Nicole

    2003-12-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of marrubenol, a diterpenoid extracted from Marrubium vulgare. In rat aorta, marrubenol was a more potent inhibitor of the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl (IC50: 11.8+/-0.3 microM, maximum relaxation: 93+/-0.6%) than of the contraction evoked by noradrenaline (maximum relaxation: 30+/-1.5%). 2. In fura-2-loaded aorta, marrubenol simultaneously inhibited the Ca2+ signal and the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl, and decreased the quenching rate of fura-2 fluorescence by Mn2+. 3. Patch-clamp data obtained in aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) indicated that marrubenol inhibited Ba2+ inward current in a voltage-dependent manner (KD: 8+/-2 and 40+/-6 microM at holding potentials of -50 and -100 mV, respectively). 4. These results showed that marrubenol inhibits smooth muscle contraction by blocking L-type calcium channels.

  14. Evolutionary history of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) analyzed using multilocus sequence data and paleodistribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Sabine S; Rödder, Dennis; Engler, Jan O; Shaaf, Salar; Ozkan, Hakan; Blattner, Frank R; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Studies of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, the wild progenitor of cultivated barley, have mostly relied on materials collected decades ago and maintained since then ex situ in germplasm repositories. We analyzed spatial genetic variation in wild barley populations collected rather recently, exploring sequence variations at seven single-copy nuclear loci, and inferred the relationships among these populations and toward the genepool of the crop. The wild barley collection covers the whole natural distribution area from the Mediterranean to Middle Asia. In contrast to earlier studies, Bayesian assignment analyses revealed three population clusters, in the Levant, Turkey, and east of Turkey, respectively. Genetic diversity was exceptionally high in the Levant, while eastern populations were depleted of private alleles. Species distribution modeling based on climate parameters and extant occurrence points of the taxon inferred suitable habitat conditions during the ice-age, particularly in the Levant and Turkey. Together with the ecologically wide range of habitats, they might contribute to structured but long-term stable populations in this region and their high genetic diversity. For recently collected individuals, Bayesian assignment to geographic clusters was generally unambiguous, but materials from genebanks often showed accessions that were not placed according to their assumed geographic origin or showed traces of introgression from cultivated barley. We assign this to gene flow among accessions during ex situ maintenance. Evolutionary studies based on such materials might therefore result in wrong conclusions regarding the history of the species or the origin and mode of domestication of the crop, depending on the accessions included.

  15. Oxygen deficiency and salinity affect cell-specific ion concentrations in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Kotula, Lukasz; Clode, Peta L; Striker, Gustavo G; Pedersen, Ole; Läuchli, André; Shabala, Sergey; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen deficiency associated with soil waterlogging adversely impacts root respiration and nutrient acquisition. We investigated the effects of O2 deficiency and salinity (100 mM NaCl) on radial O2 concentrations and cell-specific ion distributions in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Microelectrode profiling measured O2 concentrations across roots in aerated, aerated saline, stagnant or stagnant saline media. X-ray microanalysis at two positions behind the apex determined the cell-specific elemental concentrations of potassium (K), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) across roots. Severe O2 deficiency occurred in the stele and apical regions of roots in stagnant solutions. O2 deficiency in the stele reduced the concentrations of K, Na and Cl in the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells at the subapical region. Near the root apex, Na declined across the cortex in roots from the aerated saline solution but was relatively high in all cell types in roots from the stagnant saline solution. Oxygen deficiency has a substantial impact on cellular ion concentrations in roots. Both pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells are involved in energy-dependent K loading into the xylem and in controlling radial Na and Cl transport. At root tips, accumulation of Na in the outer cell layers likely contributed to reduction of Na in inner cells of the tips.

  16. Characterization of volatile organic compounds emitted by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots and their attractiveness to wireworms.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, Aurélie; Laloux, Morgan; Barsics, Fanny; Kati, Djamel Edine; Haubruge, Eric; du Jardin, Patrick; Verheggen, François J; Lognay, Georges; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2013-08-01

    Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here on the identification of VOCs emitted by barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L.). Twenty nine VOCs were identified from isolated 21-d-old roots. The detection was dependent on the medium used for root cultivation. We identified 24 VOCs from 7-d-old roots when plants were cultivated on sterile Hoagland gelified medium, 33 when grown on sterile vermiculite, and 34 on non-sterile vermiculite. The major VOCs were fatty acid derived compounds, including hexanal, methyl hexanoate, (E)-hex-2-enal, 2-pentylfuran, pentan-1-ol, (Z)-2-(pentenyl)-furan, (Z)-pent-2-en-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol, (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol (likely a contaminant), (E)-non-2-enal, octan-1-ol, (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal, methyl (E)-non-2-enoate, nonan-1-ol, (Z)-non-3-en-1-ol, (E)-non-2-en-1-ol, nona-3,6-dien-1-ol, and nona-2,6-dien-1-ol. In an olfactometer assay, wireworms (larvae of Agriotes sordidus Illiger, Coleoptera: Elateridae) were attracted to cues emanating from barley seedlings. We discuss the role of individual root volatiles or a blend of the root volatiles detected here and their interaction with CO2 for wireworm attraction.

  17. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific, filial determinant of seed total phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Raboy, Victor; Cichy, Karen; Peterson, Kevin; Reichman, Sarah; Sompong, Utumporn; Srinives, Peerasak; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or "phytic acid") typically accounts for 75 (± 10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). In some cases, genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In nonmutant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caryopses, ~80% of Ins P6 and total P accumulate in the aleurone layer, the outer layer of the endosperm, with the remainder in the germ. In barley low phytic acid 1-1 (Hvlpa1-1) seed, both endosperm Ins P6 and total P are reduced (~45% and ~25%, respectively), but germs are phenotypically wild type. This translates into a net reduction in whole-seed total P of ~15%. Nutrient culture studies demonstrate that the reduction in endosperm total P is not due to a reduction in the uptake of P into the maternal plant. Genetic tests (analyses of testcross and F2 seed) reveal that the Hvlpa1-1 genotype of the filial seed conditions the seed total P reduction; sibling seed in the same head of barley that differ in their Hvlpa1-1 genotype (heterozygous vs. homozygous recessive) differ in their total P (normal vs. reduced, respectively). Therefore, Hvlpa1 functions as a seed-specific or filial determinant of barley endosperm total P.

  18. Overexpression, purification and enzymatic characterization of a recombinant plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Nure) roots.

    PubMed

    Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Castiglia, Daniela; Cafasso, Donata; Pizzo, Elio; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    In plant cells, the plastidial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (P2-G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) represents one of the most important sources of NADPH. However, previous studies revealed that both native and recombinant purified P2-G6PDHs show a great instability and a rapid loss of catalytic activity. Therefore it has been difficult to describe accurately the catalytic and physico-chemical properties of these isoforms. The plastidial G6PDH encoding sequence from barley roots (Hordeum vulgare cv. Nure), devoid of a long plastidial transit peptide, was expressed as recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, either untagged or with an N-terminal his-tag. After purification from both the soluble fraction and inclusion bodies, we have explored its kinetic parameters, as well as its sensitivity to reduction. The obtained results are consistent with values determined for other P2-G6PDHs previously purified from barley roots and from other land plants. Overall, these data shed light on the catalytic mechanism of plant P2-G6PDH, summarized in a proposed model in which the sequential mechanism is very similar to the mammalian cytosolic G6PDH. This study provides a rational basis to consider the recombinant barley root P2-G6PDH as a good model for further kinetic and structural studies.

  19. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-03-17

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg · kg(-1) cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO₂) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO₂) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO₂ and nTiO₂ treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO₂ treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO₂ stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO₂. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO₂ aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO₂ was not present in the form of nanoclusters.

  20. Sperm storage, sperm translocation and genitalia formation in females of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Peracarida, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andreas; Suzuki, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated sperm storage, sperm transfer from the oviduct to the seminal receptacle, and formation of the cuticular genitalia in female Armadillidium vulgare using light and electron microscopy. Apolysis of the genitalia within the oviduct forms a circum-genital lumen. During insemination this space is filled with immobile spermatozoa. Sperm transfer into the seminal receptacle takes place before oviposition. Within a peculiar proximal neck region of the oviduct spermatozoa are bundled and enveloped by a folded epicuticular layer. The envelope tightly surrounds the spermatozoa probably forming a seal against the main part of the circum-genital lumen. We propose that hydrostatic pressure produced by the muscle cells surrounding the oviduct leads to sperm transfer into the seminal receptacle. Within the seminal receptacle the sperm bundle forms a ring just around the orifice to the oviduct. At one side sheath-like extensions of epithelial cells surround the ring of spermatozoa holding it in place. At the other side oocytes would have access to the sperm during oviposition, probably allowing for fertilisation when they pass right through the ring of spermatozoa. After oviposition the new genitalia are formed from epicuticular folds, and cuticle secreted by the epithelial cells. PMID:20659586

  1. Spatial distribution of calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate in the cuticle of the terrestrial crustaceans Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Hild, Sabine; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2008-07-01

    The crustacean cuticle is an interesting model to study the properties of mineralized bio-composites. The cuticle consists of an organic matrix composed of chitin-protein fibres associated with various amounts of crystalline and amorphous calcium carbonate. It is thought that in isopods the relative amounts of these mineral polymorphs depend on its function and the habitat of the animal. In addition to the composition, the distribution of the various components should affect the properties of the cuticle. However, the spatial distribution of calcium carbonate polymorphs within the crustacean cuticle is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the mineralized cuticles of the terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio scaber using scanning electron-microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and confocal mu-Raman spectroscopic imaging. We show for the first time that the mineral phases are arranged in distinct layers. Calcite is restricted to the outer layer of the cuticle that corresponds to the exocuticle. Amorphous calcium carbonate is located within the endocuticle that lies below the exocuticle. Within both layers mineral is arranged in rows of granules with diameters of about 20 nm. The results suggest functional implications of mineral distribution that accord to the moulting and escape behaviour of the animals. PMID:18550385

  2. Spatial distribution of calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate in the cuticle of the terrestrial crustaceans Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Hild, Sabine; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2008-07-01

    The crustacean cuticle is an interesting model to study the properties of mineralized bio-composites. The cuticle consists of an organic matrix composed of chitin-protein fibres associated with various amounts of crystalline and amorphous calcium carbonate. It is thought that in isopods the relative amounts of these mineral polymorphs depend on its function and the habitat of the animal. In addition to the composition, the distribution of the various components should affect the properties of the cuticle. However, the spatial distribution of calcium carbonate polymorphs within the crustacean cuticle is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the mineralized cuticles of the terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio scaber using scanning electron-microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and confocal mu-Raman spectroscopic imaging. We show for the first time that the mineral phases are arranged in distinct layers. Calcite is restricted to the outer layer of the cuticle that corresponds to the exocuticle. Amorphous calcium carbonate is located within the endocuticle that lies below the exocuticle. Within both layers mineral is arranged in rows of granules with diameters of about 20 nm. The results suggest functional implications of mineral distribution that accord to the moulting and escape behaviour of the animals.

  3. Contrasting effects of ethylene perception and biosynthesis inhibitors on germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Locke, J M; Bryce, J H; Morris, P C

    2000-11-01

    The effects of the plant growth regulator ethylene, and of ethylene inhibitors, on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germination and seedling growth were investigated. Exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) at 100 microM enhanced ethylene production by barley seedlings and stimulated shoot growth, whereas both germination and seedling growth were inhibited by antagonists of ethylene perception (75 microM silver ions, 100 microM 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD)). In contrast, germination was unaffected by, and root and shoot growth of seedlings was strongly stimulated by inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis (10 microM cobalt chloride, 10 microM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)). Since the ethylene and polyamine biosynthetic pathways are linked through S:-adenosylmethionine, this prompted further explorations into the role of polyamines in germination and seedling growth. Exogenous polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) at 1 microM concentration stimulated barley seedling growth in a similar fashion to the ethylene biosynthetic inhibitors. Both polyamines and ethylene biosynthetic inhibitors reversed the inhibitory effects of ethylene perception inhibitors on germination and seedling growth. Blocking endogenous ethylene production with aminoethoxyvinylglycine enhanced the free putrescine and spermidine content of germinating barley grains. Thus endogenous polyamines may play a complementary, growth-promotive, role to ethylene in the normal course of barley germination. Further, experiments that have been carried out using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis may have to be re-evaluated to take the possible effect of polyamines into account.

  4. Limitation of Cell Elongation in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves Through Mechanical and Tissue-Hydraulic Properties.

    PubMed

    Touati, Mostefa; Knipfer, Thorsten; Visnovitz, Tamás; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Fricke, Wieland

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanical and hydraulic limitation of growth in leaf epidermal cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to agents which affect cellular water (mercuric chloride, HgCl(2)) and potassium (cesium chloride, CsCl; tetraethylammonium, TEA) transport, pump activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and wall acidification (fusicoccin, FC). Cell turgor (P) was measured with the cell pressure probe, and cell osmotic pressure (π) was analyzed through picoliter osmometry of single-cell extracts. A wall extensibility coefficient (M) and tissue hydraulic conductance coefficient (L) were derived using the Lockhart equation. There was a significant positive linear relationship between relative elemental growth rate and P, which fit all treatments, with an overall apparent yield threshold of 0.368 MPa. Differences in growth between treatments could be explained through differences in P. A comparison of L and M showed that growth in all except the FC treatment was co-limited through hydraulic and mechanical properties, though to various extents. This was accompanied by significant (0.17-0.24 MPa) differences in water potential (ΔΨ) between xylem and epidermal cells in the leaf elongation zone. In contrast, FC-treated leaves showed ΔΨ close to zero and a 10-fold increase in L.

  5. Sperm storage, sperm translocation and genitalia formation in females of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Peracarida, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andreas; Suzuki, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated sperm storage, sperm transfer from the oviduct to the seminal receptacle, and formation of the cuticular genitalia in female Armadillidium vulgare using light and electron microscopy. Apolysis of the genitalia within the oviduct forms a circum-genital lumen. During insemination this space is filled with immobile spermatozoa. Sperm transfer into the seminal receptacle takes place before oviposition. Within a peculiar proximal neck region of the oviduct spermatozoa are bundled and enveloped by a folded epicuticular layer. The envelope tightly surrounds the spermatozoa probably forming a seal against the main part of the circum-genital lumen. We propose that hydrostatic pressure produced by the muscle cells surrounding the oviduct leads to sperm transfer into the seminal receptacle. Within the seminal receptacle the sperm bundle forms a ring just around the orifice to the oviduct. At one side sheath-like extensions of epithelial cells surround the ring of spermatozoa holding it in place. At the other side oocytes would have access to the sperm during oviposition, probably allowing for fertilisation when they pass right through the ring of spermatozoa. After oviposition the new genitalia are formed from epicuticular folds, and cuticle secreted by the epithelial cells.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on phytopathogenic strains isolated from soybean.

    PubMed

    Oliva, M de las M; Carezzano, M E; Giuliano, M; Daghero, J; Zygadlo, J; Bogino, P; Giordano, W; Demo, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species isolated from soybean. Strains with characteristics of P. syringae were isolated from leaves of soybean plants with blight symptoms. Ten of these could be identified in Group Ia of LOPAT as P. syringae. Six of these were confirmed as P. syringae using 16S rRNA, indicating the presence of these phytopathogenic bacteria in east and central Argentina. All the phytopathogenic bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the infected plants. MIC values for thyme were 11.5 and 5.7 mg·ml(-1) on P. syringae strains, while oregano showed variability in the inhibitory activity. Both essential oils inhibited all P. syringae strains, with better inhibitory activity than the antibiotic streptomycin. The oils were not bactericidal for all pseudomonads. Both oils contained high carvacrol (29.5% and 19.7%, respectively) and low thymol (1.5%). Natural products obtained from aromatic plants represent potential sources of molecules with biological activity that could be used as new alternatives for the treatment of phytopathogenic bacteria infections.

  7. Antifungal Activity of Some Constituents of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil Against Postharvest Disease of Peach Fruit.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Hazem S; Mancini, Emilia; Sakr, Shimaa; De Martino, Laura; Mattia, Carlo Andrea; De Feo, Vincenzo; Camele, Ippolito

    2015-08-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) can potentially replace synthetic fungicides in the management of postharvest fruit and vegetable diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of thymol, carvacrol, linalool, and trans-caryophyllene, single constituents of the EO of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum against Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola, which are important phytopathogens and causal agents of brown rot of pome and stone fruits in pre- and postharvest. Moreover, the possible phytotoxic activity of these constituents was assessed and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. In vitro experiment indicated that thymol and carvacrol possess the highest antifungal activity. Results of in vivo trials confirmed the strong efficacy of thymol and carvacrol against brown rot of peach fruits. The thymol MIC resulted to be 0.16 μg/μL against M. laxa and M. fructigena and 0.12 μg/μL against M. fructicola, whereas for carvacrol they were 0.02 μg/μL against the first two Monilinia species and 0.03 μg/μL against the third. Results of this study indicated that thymol and carvacrol could be used after suitable formulation for controlling postharvest fruit diseases caused by the three studied Monilinia species.

  8. Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oil prevented biofilm formation and showed antibacterial activity against planktonic and sessile bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Domenico; Napoli, Edoardo Marco; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Vitale, Maria; Ruberto, Andgiuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils from six different populations of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum were compared for their antibiofilm properties. The six essential oils (A to F) were characterized by a combination of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector analyses. All oils showed weak activity against the planktonic form of a group of Staphylococcus aureus strains and against a Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 reference strain. The ability to inhibit biofilm formation was investigated at sub-MIC levels of 200, 100, and 50 m g/ml by staining sessile cells with safranin. Sample E showed the highest average effectiveness against all tested strains at 50 m g/ml and had inhibition percentages ranging from 30 to 52%. In the screening that used preformed biofilm from the reference strain P. aeruginosa, essential oils A through E were inactive at 200 m g/ml; F was active with a percentage of inhibition equal to 53.2%. Oregano essential oil can inhibit the formation of biofilms of various food pathogens and food spoilage organisms.

  9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) by using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagözlü, Nural; Sahin, Serpil

    2011-06-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) were determined by using solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), supercritical fluid extraction, and conventional hydrodistillation (CH) methods. The inhibitory effects on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical of essential oils obtained from oregano by using SFME and CH were similar. However, essential oil extracted by CH showed greater (2.69 μmol/μL of oil) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than oregano oils obtained by SFME (P < .05). The difference between percentage inhibition and TEAC values most probably is due to the fact that undiluted and diluted samples are used in the percentage inhibition assay and the TEAC assay, respectively. TEAC values of oregano essential oils obtained by SFME at different microwave power levels were found to be similar and ranged from 0.72 to 0.84 μmol/μL of oil. Essential oils obtained by CH and SFME at different microwave powers inhibited the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, whereas survival of Staphylococcus aureus was not influenced. In addition, oregano oil obtained by SFME at 40% power level did not show any inhibitory effect on E. coli O157:H7.

  10. Genotypic differences in root and shoot growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under different salinity levels.

    PubMed

    Bchini, Houcine; Ben Naceur, M; Sayar, R; Khemira, H; Ben Kaab-Bettaeïb, L

    2010-06-01

    In water-limited areas of Tunisia, more than 30% of subsurface water used for irrigation is saline water, leading to a long-term salinization and degradation processes. To prevent the problems and to minimize the negative impact of using saline water, selection of proper germplasm as well as integrated soil and water management are essential. Understanding the diversity for salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes will facilitate their use in genetic improvement. Our objectives were to evaluate, in green, house-salt tolerance for 14 barley cultivars under three different salinity levels: (tap water with an Ec = 0.73 dSm(-1), tap water with 102 mM of NaCl, Ec = 10.76 dSm(-1) and tap water with 151 mM of NaCl, Ec = 15.38 dSm(-1)), and quantify genetic variation based on salt tolerance index, morphological traits, molecular and factorial analysis of correspondence (FAC). The study was conducted in a randomized complete block design arranged as a split plot. The results indicate a great genetic variability to salt tolerance among used barley genotypes. Consequently, it is possible to identify superior cultivars, and evaluate the genotypic performance under salinities conditions. In addition, results obtained were confirmed by clustering made by SSR tool on the base of DNA analysis, which is compatible with the arrangement obtained with statistical method. PMID:20626765

  11. Differential sensitivity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to chlorpyrifos and propiconazole: Morphology, cytogenetic assay and photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pragyan; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation was performed to evaluate the effects of an insecticide and fungicide, namely, chlorpyrifos (CP) and propiconazole (PZ) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety Karan-16). The seeds were treated with three concentrations of CP and PZ, i.e., 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5% for 6 hours after different pre-soaking durations of 7, 17 and 27 hours. Different pre-soaking durations (7, 17 and 27 h) represent three phases of the cell cycle i.e., G1, S and G2, respectively. Double distilled water and ethyl methane sulfonate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. As compared to their respective controls, treated root tip meristematic cells of barley showed significant reductions in the germination percentage, seedling height, mitotic index and comparative increase in chromosomal aberrations against both the pesticides, and the magnitude was higher in CP. After treatment with the pesticides, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents increased up to 0.1% but reduced at 0.5% and the decrease was more prominent in CP as compared to PZ. In treated cells, fragmentation, stickiness, bridges, multipolar anaphase and diagonal anaphase were observed as aberrations. As compared to control, chromosomal aberrations were higher in CP as compared to PZ. The results of the present study concluded that CP induced chromosomal aberrations were more frequent than PZ; hence it has higher probability to cause genotoxicity in barley.

  12. Milling, water uptake, and modification properties of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots in relation to grain composition and structure.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Serenius, Marjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Wilhelmson, Annika; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lehtinen, Pekka

    2014-09-01

    Milling properties, water uptake, and modification in malting were studied in 14 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots from two consecutive crop years. In all barley lots studied, grains with lower β-glucan and protein content and higher starch content produced finer flours upon milling. Grains with lower β-glucan content also hydrated more rapidly during steeping. A detailed study of two cultivars from two crop years indicated that similar environmental conditions could induce a higher β-glucan content and concentration of aggregated B hordein in the peripheral endosperm and a lower proportion of C hordein entrapped among aggregated hordeins deeper within the endosperm. These characteristics were associated with production of coarser flours during milling as well as with slower water uptake and lower modification. However, the data do not distinguish between the effect of β-glucan content and that of hordein localization. Distribution of β-glucan or total protein within the kernel was not linked to hydration or modification.

  13. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage. PMID:23575125

  14. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  15. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    PubMed

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species. PMID:21462837

  16. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  17. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage.

  18. Investigations into the antiadhesive activity of herbal extracts against Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Bensch, K; Tiralongo, J; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E

    2011-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrhoea in the industrialized world, being associated with the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and inducing diseases partially through intestinal adherence. With increasing reports of C. jejuni drug resistance against standard antibiotics, investigations into antiadhesive agents for the prevention of bacterial infection are highly significant. Given the consumer-driven development towards holistic and integrative healthcare, research into additional anti-Campylobacter effects of herbal medicines that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions is important. Twenty-one herbal extracts were screened for antiadhesive activity against C. jejuni using modifications of previously published antiadhesion assays. Antiadhesion effects with IC(50) values <3 mg/mL were obtained for seven ethanol plant extracts, with Zingiber officinale (ginger), Capsicum annum (cayenne) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) displaying the highest antiadhesion activity against C. jejuni (IC(50) : <0.1 mg/mL, 0.29 mg/mL and 0.65 mg/mL, respectively). Differences in antiadhesion activity were found for two different Echinacea species, with E. purpurea displaying significantly higher and dose dependent antiadhesion activity than E. angustifolia. No significant antiadhesion activity (IC(50) values >35 mg/mL) was found for Agrimonia eupatoria (agrimony), Andrographis paniculata (andrographis), Matricaria recutita (chamomile), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Filipendula ulmaria (meadowsweet) and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) extracts. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of marketed herbal medicines in gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21280113

  19. Treatment of experimental pythiosis with essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita singly, in association and in combination with immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Anelise O S; Pereira, Daniela I B; Botton, Sônia A; Pötter, Luciana; Sallis, Elisa S V; Júnior, Sérgio F V; Filho, Fernando S M; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Maroneze, Beatriz P; Valente, Julia S S; Baptista, Cristiane T; Braga, Caroline Q; Ben, Vanessa Dal; Meireles, Mario C A

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the in vivo antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita both singly, associated and in combination with immunotherapy to treat experimental pythiosis. The disease was reproduced in 18 rabbits divided into six groups (n=3): group 1, control; group 2, treated with essential oil of Mentha piperita; group 3, treated with essential oil of Origanum vulgare; group 4, treated with commercial immunotherapic; group 5, treated with a association of oils of M. piperita and O. vulgare and group 6, treated with a combination of both oils plus immunotherapy. Essential oils were added in a topical cream base formula, and lesions were treated daily for 45 days. The animals in groups 4 and 6 received a dose of immunotherapeutic agent every 14 days. The results revealed that the evolution of lesions in groups 5 and 6 did not differ from one another but differed from the other groups. The lesions of group 5 increased 3.16 times every measurement, while those of group 6 increased 1.83 times, indicating that the smallest growth of the lesions occurred when the combination of therapies were used. A rabbit from group 5 showed clinical cure at day 20 of treatment. This research is the pioneer in the treatment of experimental pythiosis using essential oils from medicinal plants and a combination of therapies. This study demonstrated that the use of essential oils can be a viable alternative treatment to cutaneous pythiosis, particularly when used in association or combination with immunotherapy. PMID:26036789

  20. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. PMID:26850541

  1. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.

  2. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2) and titanium oxide (nTiO2) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production. PMID:27294945

  3. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy. PMID:27219840

  4. Physiological and proteomic characterization of manganese sensitivity and tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) in comparison with barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Führs, Hendrik; Behrens, Christof; Gallien, Sébastien; Heintz, Dimitri; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Research on manganese (Mn) toxicity and tolerance indicates that Mn toxicity develops apoplastically through increased peroxidase activities mediated by phenolics and Mn, and Mn tolerance could be conferred by sequestration of Mn in inert cell compartments. This comparative study focuses on Mn-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Mn-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa) as model organisms to unravel the mechanisms of Mn toxicity and/or tolerance in monocots. Methods Bulk leaf Mn concentrations as well as peroxidase activities and protein concentrations were analysed in apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) in both species. In rice, Mn distribution between leaf compartments and the leaf proteome using 2D isoelectic focusing IEF/SDS–PAGE and 2D Blue native BN/SDS–PAGE was studied. Key Results The Mn sensitivity of barley was confirmed since the formation of brown spots on older leaves was induced by low bulk leaf and AWF Mn concentrations and exhibited strongly enhanced H2O2-producing and consuming peroxidase activities. In contrast, by a factor of 50, higher Mn concentrations did not produce Mn toxicity symptoms on older leaves in rice. Peroxidase activities, lower by a factor of about 100 in the rice leaf AWF compared with barley, support the view of a central role for these peroxidases in the apoplastic expression of Mn toxicity. The high Mn tolerance of old rice leaves could be related to a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls. Proteomic studies suggest that the lower Mn tolerance of young rice leaves could be related to Mn excess-induced displacement of Mg and Fe from essential metabolic functions. Conclusions The results provide evidence that Mn toxicity in barley involves apoplastic lesions mediated by peroxidases. The high Mn tolerance of old leaves of rice involves a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls, whereas Mn toxicity in less Mn-tolerant young leaves is related to Mn-induced Mg and Fe deficiencies. PMID:20237113

  5. Variation between Ethiopian and North American barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare) in response to Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) populations.

    PubMed

    Araya, Alemu; Belay, Tesfay; Hussein, Temam

    2014-03-15

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), causes severe damage to barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), in the highlands of Ethiopia. Little information is available on the control of this pest in Ethiopia. An experiment aimed at evaluating the resistance of barley varieties from the USA to D. noxia populations and determining biotypic variation between Ethiopian and North American D. noxia populations was conducted. The D. noxia-resistant barley varieties Burton and RWA-1758 from the USA, the resistant barley line 3296-15 from Ethiopia, and a local Ethiopian susceptible variety were included in a randomized design in a greenhouse under natural light conditions. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean D. noxia population, leaf chlorosis, leaf rolling, plant stunting, number of tillers per plant, and the percentage of infested tillers per plant between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The aphid population per tiller was lower on the resistant barley plants than on the susceptible plants. Severe plant damage was observed on the local barley variety, while the least damage was observed on Burton, followed by RWA-1758. Burton and RWA-1758 were therefore highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to the northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations, indicating similarities in biotypes between the United States and northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations. The damage to variety 3296-15 was greater than to Burton and RWA-1758. Leaf chlorosis scores and leaf rolling scores for variety 3296-15 upon treatment with the north Ethiopian D. noxia population indicate likely biotypic variation between D. noxia populations of northern and central Ethiopia.

  6. Precursor structure, distribution and possible functions of pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille).

    PubMed

    Fouda, Maged Mohamed Ali; Hiragaki, Susumu; Tufail, Muhammad; Shao, Qi-Miao; Takeda, Makio

    2010-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) is an 18 amino acid neuropeptide that induces pigment migration in Decapoda and serves as a circadian neurotransmitter in the locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila. In this study, a cDNA encoding PDH was cloned from adult brains of the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Av). The cDNA comprising 529 bp encodes a peptide (AvPDH) that consists of a putative 26 amino acid signal peptide, and a 34 amino acid PDH-precursor-related peptide containing an 18 amino acid mature peptide. The peptide shows a high sequence identity (55-77%) to crustacean β-PDHs and insect PDFs. The tissue-specific expression pattern was examined by reverse transcription PCR. The transcript is expressed in the brain strongly and ventral nerve cord weakly, but the signal was not detected in the intestinal tract. A similar expression profile appeared in Western blot analyses. Western blot analyses with timed samples showed more intense expression of PDH-like antigen at night. PDH-like immunohistochemical reactivity (PDH-ir) was detected in the optic lobe, anteromedian protocerebrum, accessory lobe, tritocerebrum, and suboesophageal ganglion but the reactivity was faint or nil in the pseudofrontal organ (sinus gland). These results were substantiated by in situ hybridization. Co-localization using anti-Gryllus bimaculatus (Gb)-PDF, anti-Bombyx mori (Bm)-CLK, and anti-Bm-CYC showed a co-localization of these antigens in the optic lobe and SOG. The results provide the first structural and immunocytochemical identification of PDH neurons in terrestrial isopods, and the co-localization of PDH with CLK and CYC supports its possible involvement in circadian clock. A day/night rhythm of PDH content is also a new feature. PMID:20637211

  7. Evolutionary History of Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) Analyzed Using Multilocus Sequence Data and Paleodistribution Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Sabine S.; Rödder, Dennis; Engler, Jan O.; Shaaf, Salar; Özkan, Hakan; Blattner, Frank R.; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, the wild progenitor of cultivated barley, have mostly relied on materials collected decades ago and maintained since then ex situ in germplasm repositories. We analyzed spatial genetic variation in wild barley populations collected rather recently, exploring sequence variations at seven single-copy nuclear loci, and inferred the relationships among these populations and toward the genepool of the crop. The wild barley collection covers the whole natural distribution area from the Mediterranean to Middle Asia. In contrast to earlier studies, Bayesian assignment analyses revealed three population clusters, in the Levant, Turkey, and east of Turkey, respectively. Genetic diversity was exceptionally high in the Levant, while eastern populations were depleted of private alleles. Species distribution modeling based on climate parameters and extant occurrence points of the taxon inferred suitable habitat conditions during the ice-age, particularly in the Levant and Turkey. Together with the ecologically wide range of habitats, they might contribute to structured but long-term stable populations in this region and their high genetic diversity. For recently collected individuals, Bayesian assignment to geographic clusters was generally unambiguous, but materials from genebanks often showed accessions that were not placed according to their assumed geographic origin or showed traces of introgression from cultivated barley. We assign this to gene flow among accessions during ex situ maintenance. Evolutionary studies based on such materials might therefore result in wrong conclusions regarding the history of the species or the origin and mode of domestication of the crop, depending on the accessions included. PMID:24586028

  8. TaMSH7: A cereal mismatch repair gene that affects fertility in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Andrew H; Milligan, Andrew S; Langridge, Peter; Able, Jason A

    2007-01-01

    Background Chromosome pairing, recombination and DNA repair are essential processes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. Investigating the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Ph2 (Pairing homoeologous) locus has identified numerous candidate genes that may have a role in controlling such processes, including TaMSH7, a plant specific member of the DNA mismatch repair family. Results Sequencing of the three MSH7 genes, located on the short arms of wheat chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D, has revealed no significant sequence divergence at the amino acid level suggesting conservation of function across the homoeogroups. Functional analysis of MSH7 through the use of RNAi loss-of-function transgenics was undertaken in diploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Quantitative real-time PCR revealed several T0 lines with reduced MSH7 expression. Positive segregants from two T1 lines studied in detail showed reduced MSH7 expression when compared to transformed controls and null segregants. Expression of MSH6, another member of the mismatch repair family which is most closely related to the MSH7 gene, was not significantly reduced in these lines. In both T1 lines, reduced seed set in positive segregants was observed. Conclusion Results presented here indicate, for the first time, a distinct functional role for MSH7 in vivo and show that expression of this gene is necessary for wild-type levels of fertility. These observations suggest that MSH7 has an important function during meiosis and as such remains a candidate for Ph2. PMID:18096080

  9. Methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare ameliorates type 1 diabetes through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana; Blagojevic, Dusko; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2015-03-14

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell destruction and results in hyperglycaemia. Since current T1D therapy mainly involves insulin replacement, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) leaf extract rich in biophenols for the treatment of T1D. The phytochemical profile of methanolic oregano extract (MOE) and aqueous oregano extract (AOE) was determined by liquid chromatography/electrospray ion-trap tandem MS (LC/DAD/ESI-MSn), while their main compounds were quantified by HPLC with diode array detection. After establishing their potent in vitro antioxidant activity, the extracts were administered to C57BL/6 mice treated with multiple low doses of streptozotocin for diabetes induction. While prophylactic AOE therapy had no impact on diabetes induction, MOE reduced diabetes incidence and preserved normal insulin secretion. In addition, MOE scavenged reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and, therefore, alleviated the need for the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes. MOE treatment specifically attenuated the pro-inflammatory response mediated by T helper 17 cells and enhanced anti-inflammatory T helper 2 and T regulatory cells through the impact on specific signalling pathways and transcription factors. Importantly, MOE preserved β-cells from in vitro apoptosis via blockade of caspase 3. Finally, rosmarinic acid, a predominant compound in MOE, exhibited only partial protection from diabetes induction. In conclusion, acting as an antioxidant, immunomodulator and in an anti-apoptotic manner, MOE protected mice from diabetes development. Seemingly, there is more than one compound responsible for the beneficial effect of MOE.

  10. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy.

  11. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of gene-derived SSR-markers in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Thiel, T; Michalek, W; Varshney, R K; Graner, A

    2003-02-01

    A software tool was developed for the identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in a barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) EST (expressed sequence tag) database comprising 24,595 sequences. In total, 1,856 SSR-containing sequences were identified. Trimeric SSR repeat motifs appeared to be the most abundant type. A subset of 311 primer pairs flanking SSR loci have been used for screening polymorphisms among six barley cultivars, being parents of three mapping populations. As a result, 76 EST-derived SSR-markers were integrated into a barley genetic consensus map. A correlation between polymorphism and the number of repeats was observed for SSRs built of dimeric up to tetrameric units. 3'-ESTs yielded a higher portion of polymorphic SSRs (64%) than 5'-ESTs did. The estimated PIC (polymorphic information content) value was 0.45 +/- 0.03. Approximately 80% of the SSR-markers amplified DNA fragments in Hordeum bulbosum, followed by rye, wheat (both about 60%) and rice (40%). A subset of 38 EST-derived SSR-markers comprising 114 alleles were used to investigate genetic diversity among 54 barley cultivars. In accordance with a previous, RFLP-based, study, spring and winter cultivars, as well as two- and six-rowed barleys, formed separate clades upon PCoA analysis. The results show that: (1) with the software tool developed, EST databases can be efficiently exploited for the development of cDNA-SSRs, (2) EST-derived SSRs are significantly less polymorphic than those derived from genomic regions, (3) a considerable portion of the developed SSRs can be transferred to related species, and (4) compared to RFLP-markers, cDNA-SSRs yield similar patterns of genetic diversity. PMID:12589540

  12. Calcium transport in protoplasts isolated from ml-o barley isolines resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Wrona, A.F.; Spanswick, R.M.; Aist, J.R. )

    1988-12-01

    Free cytoplasmic calcium has been postulated to play a role in preventing powdery mildew in a series of homozygous ml-o mutants of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Protoplasts isolated from 7-day-old plants of the ml-o resistant-susceptible (R-S) barley isolines, Riso 5678/3* {times} Carlsberg II R and S, were used to test for differences in fluxes of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma. Greater influx or lesser efflux might account for a higher free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} postulated to exist in ml-o R mutants. Uniform patterns of uptake were maintained for 3 hours from solutions of 0.2 and 2 millimolar Ca{sup 2+}. Washout curves of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from R and S protoplasts revealed three compartments - presumed to represent release from the vacuole, organelles, and the cytoplasm (which included bound as well as free Ca{sup 2+}). Uptake and washout did not differ between isolines. On the basis of recent determinations of submicromolar levels of free cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} and their initial rates of {sup 45}ca-labeled Ca{sup 2+} uptake, they show that measurement of the unidirectional influx of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not feasible because the specific activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium increases almost instantaneously to a level that would result in a significant, but unknown, efflux of label. Similarly, measurement of the efflux of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not possible since the activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium is a factor of 350 smaller than the most rapid component of the washout experiment. This pool of cytoplasmic free Ca{sup 2+} will wash out too rapidly and be too small to detect under the conditions of these experiments.

  13. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  14. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF₃) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  15. Armadillidin H, a Glycine-Rich Peptide from the Terrestrial Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, Displays an Unexpected Wide Antimicrobial Spectrum with Membranolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Verdon, Julien; Coutos-Thevenot, Pierre; Rodier, Marie-Helene; Landon, Celine; Depayras, Segolene; Noel, Cyril; La Camera, Sylvain; Moumen, Bouziane; Greve, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47%) cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed toward Bacillus megaterium. In the present work, we report identification of armadillidin Q, a variant of armadillidin H (earlier known as armadillidin), from crude haemocyte extracts of A. vulgare using LC-MS approach. We demonstrated that both armadillidins displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, but were totally inactive against yeasts. Membrane permeabilization assays, only performed with armadillidin H, showed that the peptide is membrane active against bacterial and fungal strains leading to deep changes in cell morphology. This damaging activity visualized by electronic microscopy correlates with a rapid decrease of cell viability leading to highly blebbed cells. In contrast, armadillidin H does not reveal cytotoxicity toward human erythrocytes. Furthermore, no secondary structure could be defined in this study [by circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] even in a membrane mimicking environment. Therefore, armadillidins represent interesting candidates to gain insight into the biology of glycine-rich AMPs. PMID:27713732

  16. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist.

    PubMed

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.

  17. Chemometrics applied to the analysis of induced phytochelatins in Hordeum vulgare plants stressed with various toxic non-essential metals and metalloids.

    PubMed

    Dago, Àngela; González, Inmaculada; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare plants were stressed with Hg, Cd and As and their phytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of growth inhibition and total metal uptake by the plant. The synthesised phytochelatins ((γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, n=2-5; PCs) were determined by HPLC with amperometric detection at a glassy carbon electrode. The results indicate that H. vulgare is a good phytostabilisation plant due to its capacity to accumulate heavy metals in roots. Cd and Hg are the most uptake toxic elements, being Cd the most potent inducer of PCs. The data obtained on the different PCs and related peptides induced by each heavy metal were used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the results as a function of the contaminating toxic element or its concentration level. The nature of the stressor element could be predicted from the pattern of PCs and related peptides identified by PCA. PCs were the most strongly induced peptides under Cd and Hg stress, whereas As only tended to synthesise small thiols such as glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine, both precursors of PCs synthesis. This finding indicates that PCs are induced at different rates depending on the metal stressor used. PMID:24274289

  18. Armadillidin: a novel glycine-rich antibacterial peptide directed against gram-positive bacteria in the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare (Terrestrial Isopod, Crustacean).

    PubMed

    Herbinière, Juline; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Grève, Pierre; Strub, Jean-Marc; Frère, Jacques; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    We report the isolation and the characterization of a novel antibacterial peptide from hemocytes of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare, naturally infected or uninfected by Wolbachia, an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium. This molecule displays antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria despite its composition which classes it into the glycine-rich antibacterial peptide family, usually directed against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. The complete sequence was determined by a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and cDNA cloning using a hemocyte library. The mature peptide (53 residues) has a 5259 Da molecular mass and is post-translationally modified by a C-terminal amidation. This peptide is characterized by a high level of glycine (47%) and a fivefold repeated motif GGGFH(R/S). As no evident sequence homology to other hitherto described antibacterial peptides has been found out, this antibacterial peptide was named armadillidin. Armadillidin is constitutively expressed in hemocytes and appears to be specific of A. vulgare. PMID:15752546

  19. Chemometrics applied to the analysis of induced phytochelatins in Hordeum vulgare plants stressed with various toxic non-essential metals and metalloids.

    PubMed

    Dago, Àngela; González, Inmaculada; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare plants were stressed with Hg, Cd and As and their phytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of growth inhibition and total metal uptake by the plant. The synthesised phytochelatins ((γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, n=2-5; PCs) were determined by HPLC with amperometric detection at a glassy carbon electrode. The results indicate that H. vulgare is a good phytostabilisation plant due to its capacity to accumulate heavy metals in roots. Cd and Hg are the most uptake toxic elements, being Cd the most potent inducer of PCs. The data obtained on the different PCs and related peptides induced by each heavy metal were used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the results as a function of the contaminating toxic element or its concentration level. The nature of the stressor element could be predicted from the pattern of PCs and related peptides identified by PCA. PCs were the most strongly induced peptides under Cd and Hg stress, whereas As only tended to synthesise small thiols such as glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine, both precursors of PCs synthesis. This finding indicates that PCs are induced at different rates depending on the metal stressor used.

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. Methods: The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Results: Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. Conclusion: This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model. PMID:27563424

  1. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  2. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  3. Comparison of the effects of Origanum vulgare with LHRH-A2 and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus.

    PubMed

    Bagheri Ziari, Sedigheh; Naji, Tahereh; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, Homayoun

    2015-10-01

    Origanum vulgare is a plant of the mint family that contains phytoestrogens. This study compared the effects of O. vulgare, LHRH-A2, and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus. Fish (5.1±0.032cm and 2.1±0.043g, n=150) were randomly divided into four treatment groups (three hormonal treatments and control) and treated intramuscularly at four levels with 17β-estradiol or O. vulgare at 10, 20, 30 and 50mg/kg body weight and with LHRH-A2 at 0.001, 0.002, 0.003, and 0.005mg/kg body weight. There were three control treatments: saline, ethanol and placebo. Fish were kept in 15 tanks, with 10 fish per tank, injected a total of seven doses over 13 days. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and oocyte diameter were lower (P≤0.05) in the control than in the three hormonal treatments. The highest GSI and oocyte diameter responses were observed in fish treated with 17β-estradiol (2.76±0.23%, 149.8±15.43mm) followed by O. vulgare (1.86±0.18%, 104.3±11.5mm) and LHRH-A2 (1.52±0.12%, 91.75±9.02mm) (P≤0.05). Moreover, there was a significant effect of dose level within all the hormonal treatments (P≤0.05). The effect of treatment on the length and weight was likely GSI. Ovarian tissue results showed faster oogenesis of oocytes in fish treated with O. vulgare, after 17β-estradiol. Ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells demonstrated less stimulation by O. vulgare than by 17β-estradiol and LHRH-A2. This study suggests that compared with the two hormonal treatments, O. vulgare dose-dependently affects ovarian oogenesis and gonadotroph cells. PMID:26324391

  4. Comparison of the effects of Origanum vulgare with LHRH-A2 and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus.

    PubMed

    Bagheri Ziari, Sedigheh; Naji, Tahereh; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, Homayoun

    2015-10-01

    Origanum vulgare is a plant of the mint family that contains phytoestrogens. This study compared the effects of O. vulgare, LHRH-A2, and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus. Fish (5.1±0.032cm and 2.1±0.043g, n=150) were randomly divided into four treatment groups (three hormonal treatments and control) and treated intramuscularly at four levels with 17β-estradiol or O. vulgare at 10, 20, 30 and 50mg/kg body weight and with LHRH-A2 at 0.001, 0.002, 0.003, and 0.005mg/kg body weight. There were three control treatments: saline, ethanol and placebo. Fish were kept in 15 tanks, with 10 fish per tank, injected a total of seven doses over 13 days. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and oocyte diameter were lower (P≤0.05) in the control than in the three hormonal treatments. The highest GSI and oocyte diameter responses were observed in fish treated with 17β-estradiol (2.76±0.23%, 149.8±15.43mm) followed by O. vulgare (1.86±0.18%, 104.3±11.5mm) and LHRH-A2 (1.52±0.12%, 91.75±9.02mm) (P≤0.05). Moreover, there was a significant effect of dose level within all the hormonal treatments (P≤0.05). The effect of treatment on the length and weight was likely GSI. Ovarian tissue results showed faster oogenesis of oocytes in fish treated with O. vulgare, after 17β-estradiol. Ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells demonstrated less stimulation by O. vulgare than by 17β-estradiol and LHRH-A2. This study suggests that compared with the two hormonal treatments, O. vulgare dose-dependently affects ovarian oogenesis and gonadotroph cells.

  5. A spiroketal-enol ether derivative from Tanacetum vulgare selectively inhibits HSV-1 and HSV-2 glycoprotein accumulation in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ángel L; Habtemariam, Solomon; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Melón, Santiago; Dalton, Kevin P; Parra, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    The inhibitory effects of Tanacetum vulgare rhizome extracts on HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro replication were assessed. Unlike extracts obtained from the aerial parts, adsorption inhibition and virucidal activities seemed not to be relevant for the observed antiviral action of tansy rhizome extracts. Instead, the most significant effects were the inhibition of virus penetration and a novel mechanism consisting of the specific arrest of viral gene expression and consequently the decrease of viral protein accumulation within infected cells. Through a bioactivity-guided fractionation protocol we isolated and identified the spiroketal-enol ether derivative (E)-2-(2,4-hexadiynyliden)-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-ene as the active compound responsible for this inhibitory effect.

  6. Armochaetoglobins A-J: Cytochalasan Alkaloids from Chaetomium globosum TW1-1, a Fungus Derived from the Terrestrial Arthropod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmei; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Junjun; Zhu, Hucheng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jinwen; Luo, Zengwei; Yao, Guangmin; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-06-26

    Ten new cytochalasan alkaloids, termed armochaetoglobins A-J (1-10), and four known chaetoglobosins (11-14) were isolated from a methanol extract of Chaetomium globosum TW1-1, a fungus isolated from the medicinal terrestrial arthropod Armadillidium vulgare. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and ECD calculations. Armochaetoglobins A-E (1-5) represented the first examples of seco-chaetoglobosins arising from an oxidative cleavage of C-19 and C-20. Among these compounds, armochaetoglobin A (1) features an unusual pyrrole ring. The cytotoxic activities of 2-10 were evaluated, and armochaetoglobin H (8) showed moderate inhibitory activities against five human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 3.31 to 9.83 μM. PMID:26068802

  7. Localization of crustacean hyperglycemic and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormones in separate cell types in the protocerebrum of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Azzouna, A; Philippe, M; Jarry, T; Grève, P; Martin, G

    2003-04-01

    We gave an accurate immunolocalization of CHH (crustacean hyperglycemic hormone) and VIH (vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone) in the brain and the sinus gland of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare. The two immune sera have been respectively raised against HPLC-purified CHH and against a small peptide derived from the N-terminus of VIH. By immunocytochemistry, we showed that CHH and VIH were synthesized in different perikarya and stored in different axon endings of the sinus gland. As in other crustacean species studied to date, CHH was located in the axon endings filled with the biggest granules. Immunoblotting confirmed that VIH was stored in the sinus glands of both the female and the male. These clear localizations of CHH- and VIH-antigens do not preclude that only one peptide is released from a given type of SG endings and do not rule out that each peptide can be involved in the control of different physiological processes. PMID:12679090

  8. Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.

    PubMed

    Otoni, Caio G; Pontes, Silvania F O; Medeiros, Eber A A; Soares, Nilda de F F

    2014-06-01

    Consumers are increasingly demanding foods with lower synthetic preservatives. Plant essential oils are natural compounds with remarkable antimicrobial properties and may be incorporated as emulsions into water-soluble polymers to form antimicrobial films. Coarse emulsions (diameters of 1.3-1.9 μm) and nanoemulsions (diameters of 180-250 nm) of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils were produced through low-speed mixing and ultrasonication, respectively. Methylcellulose was added for film-forming purposes. Both essential oils reduced the rigidity and increased the extensibility of the methylcellulose films, effects that were even more pronounced for nanodroplets. Both essential oils lessened the counts of yeasts and molds in sliced bread during 15 days, and droplet size reduction provided a further improvement in antimicrobial properties. Due to increased bioavailability, less preservative content might be used and still deliver the same antimicrobial efficiency if encapsulated in smaller particles.

  9. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from different areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).

    PubMed

    Mancini, Emilia; Camele, Ippolito; Elshafie, Hazem S; De Martino, Laura; Pellegrino, Carlo; Grulova, Daniela; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000 ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes.

  10. Influence of Phenological Stages on Yield and Quality of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Under the Agroclimatic Condition of Doon Valley (Uttarakhand).

    PubMed

    Chauhan, N K; Singh, S; Haider, S Z; Lohani, H

    2013-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, in order to determine the effects of phenological stages on herbage yield and quality of oil in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). Plants were harvested in five phenological stages, i.e. early vegetative, late vegetative, flower initiation, full bloom, and fruit set stages. Results showed the significant effects of phenological stages on herbage, yield, and quality of oregano. Harvesting at full bloom stage showed better results in terms of herbage and oil yield. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC/MS. Thymol content was rich in all the stages (46.90-62.26%) followed by γ-terpinene (1.11-11.75%) and p-cymene (3.11-5.32%).

  11. Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.

    PubMed

    Otoni, Caio G; Pontes, Silvania F O; Medeiros, Eber A A; Soares, Nilda de F F

    2014-06-01

    Consumers are increasingly demanding foods with lower synthetic preservatives. Plant essential oils are natural compounds with remarkable antimicrobial properties and may be incorporated as emulsions into water-soluble polymers to form antimicrobial films. Coarse emulsions (diameters of 1.3-1.9 μm) and nanoemulsions (diameters of 180-250 nm) of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils were produced through low-speed mixing and ultrasonication, respectively. Methylcellulose was added for film-forming purposes. Both essential oils reduced the rigidity and increased the extensibility of the methylcellulose films, effects that were even more pronounced for nanodroplets. Both essential oils lessened the counts of yeasts and molds in sliced bread during 15 days, and droplet size reduction provided a further improvement in antimicrobial properties. Due to increased bioavailability, less preservative content might be used and still deliver the same antimicrobial efficiency if encapsulated in smaller particles. PMID:24815228

  12. Marrubium vulgare L. methanolic extract inhibits inflammatory response and prevents cardiomyocyte fibrosis in isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Soraya, Hamid; Rameshrad, Maryam; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, finding new therapeutic compounds from natural products for treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases including cardiovascular disorders is getting a great deal of attention. This approach would result in finding new drugs which are more effective and have fewer side effects than the conventional medicines. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic extract of Marrubiumvulgare, a popular traditional medicinal herb, on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/12h of the extract given orally concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day) for two consecutive days was used to induce MI. Then, histopathological changes and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results: Isoproterenol injection increased inflammatory response, as shown by a significant increase in peripheral neutrophil count, myocardial myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum levels of creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and TNF-α (p<0.001). In the groups treated with 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of M.vulgare extract serum CK-MB was subsided by 55.4%, 52.2% and 69%, respectively. Also treatment with the extract (40 mg/kg) significantly reduced (p<0.001) MPO activity in MI group. The levels of TNF-α was also considerably declined in the serums of MI group (p<0.001). In addition, peripheral neutrophil count, was significantly lowered by all doses of the extract (p<0.001). Interstitial fibrosis significantly was attenuated in treated groups compared with control MI group. Conclusion: The results of study demonstrate that the M. vulgare extract has strong protective effects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction and it seems possible that this protection is due to its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24790895

  13. [Specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic lines obtained based on hybridization of self-fertilized offspring of barley-wheat (Hordeum vulgare L. x Triticum aestivum L.) amphiploid with common wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 and Pyrotrix 28].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Trubacheeva, N V; Kravtsova, L A; Dobrovol'skaia, O B

    2012-12-01

    The problems of fertility restoration in the progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. vulgare x T. aestivum) are explained by incompatibility between the cytoplasm of cultivated barley and the nuclear genome of common wheat. Suitable models for studying these problems are alloplasmic lines that combine the cytoplasm of barley and the nuclear genome of wheat. In this work, the specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic common wheat lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum were studied depending on the influence of wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 (Sar29) and Pyrotrix 28 (Pyr28) used to produce these lines. The alloplasmic lines were created using hybrids between the 48-chromosome offspring (Amph1) of the barley-wheat amphiploid H. vulgare (ya-319) x T. aestivum (Sar29) and these wheat varieties. Backcrossing of the Amph1 (2n = 48) x Sar29 hybrid with the wheat variety Sar29 resulted in the complete sterility in the (H. vulgare)-Sar29 line, which suggests the incompatibility of the nuclear genome of the common wheat variety Sar29 with the cytoplasm of H. vulgare. Crossing of Amph1 (2n = 48) with Pyr28 resulted in the restoration of self-fertility in the hybrid with 2n = 44. In the alloplasmic lines (2n = 42) formed based on plants of the self-fertilized generations of this hybrid, the barley chromosomes were eliminated, and recombination between the nuclear genomes of the parental wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28 took place. Alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with different levels of fertility were isolated. As was shown by the SSR analysis, differences in the fertility traits between these lines are determined by variations in the content of the genetic material from the wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28. The complete restoration of fertility in these alloplasmic recombinant lines is accompanied by the formation of a nuclear genome in which the genetic material of Pyr28 significantly prevails. The conclusion is made that the common wheat variety

  14. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination