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Sample records for fenol con hierro

  1. The sub-volcanic system of El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, I.; Becerril, L.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The main volcanotectonic structures of El Hierro are three rift zones, trending northeast, west, and south. Most of the eruptions in El Hierro within these zones are basaltic fissure eruptions fed by subvertical dykes. The dykes appear as close to collinear or slightly offset segments, their surface expressions being clusters of cinder cones and eruptive vents. Three large landslides, referred to as El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas, have eroded the areas between rift axes and provide exposures that make it possible to provide a three-dimensional view of the uppermost part of the sub-volcanic system. Here we report the results of a structural study of the sub-volcanic system as obtained through the analysis of dykes and eruptive vents. The data obtained from surface outcrops have been combined with data from subsurface water galleries. More than 600 eruptive vents and 625 dykes have been studied in detail to characterise the subvolcanic system of the island. Using cinder-cone and other eruptive-vent alignments it has been possible to infer 115 eruptive fissures with lengths that range from 40 m to 2200 m. NE-SW trending volcanic fissures and dykes are common on the entire island and predominate in the northeast rift zone. The main strike of the dykes and fissures in the south and west rift zones are approximately NNW-SSE and E-W, respectively. However, in the west rift zone, eruptive fissures display a fan distribution with directions that range from N43°E to N124°E. Volcanic fissures within the El Golfo landslide valley trend parallel to the head scarp, except those that are close to the head of the valley, many of which are perpendicular to the scarp. Dykes show a radial distribution in the head scarp of the El Golfo landslide. Three feeder-dykes directly connected with their lava flows have been identified in El Hierro. Feeder dykes are difficult to observe in the field but provide important information when their lengths and thicknesses can be measured

  2. Geochronological constraints on the evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Ubide, Teresa; Sudo, Masafumi; Martí, Joan; Galindo, Inés; Galé, Carlos; Morales, Jose María; Yepes, Jorge; Lago, Marceliano

    2016-01-01

    New age data have been obtained to time constrain the recent Quaternary volcanism of El Hierro (Canary Islands) and to estimate its recurrence rate. We have carried out 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on samples spanning the entire volcanostratigraphic sequence of the island and 14C geochronology on the most recent eruption on the northeast rift of the island: 2280 ± 30 yr BP. We combine the new absolute data with a revision of published ages onshore, some of which were identified through geomorphological criteria (relative data). We present a revised and updated chronology of volcanism for the last 33 ka that we use to estimate the maximum eruptive recurrence of the island. The number of events per year determined is 9.7 × 10-4 for the emerged part of the island, which means that, as a minimum, one eruption has occurred approximately every 1000 years. This highlights the need of more geochronological data to better constrain the eruptive recurrence of El Hierro.

  3. Mode switching in volcanic seismicity: El Hierro 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2016-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter b value is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. Such studies typically analyze discrete time windows or phases, but the choice of such windows is subjective and can introduce significant bias. Here we minimize this sample bias by iteratively sampling catalogs with randomly chosen windows and then stack the resulting probability density functions for the estimated b>˜ value to determine a net probability density function. We examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalog during a period of unrest in 2011-2013 and demonstrate clear multimodal behavior. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b>˜ value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity. Multimodality is primarily associated with intermittent activation and cessation of activity in different parts of the volcanic system rather than with respect to any systematic inferred underlying process.

  4. Spatial probability distribution of future volcanic eruptions at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption that took place in the proximity of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has raised the need to identify the most likely future emission zones even on volcanoes characterized by low frequency activity. Here, we propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the probabilistic analysis of volcano-structural data of the Island collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, as well as analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. These data have been divided into different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. The most likely area to host new eruptions in El Hierro is in the south-western part of the West rift. High probability locations are also found in the Northeast and South rifts, and along the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency measures and civil defense actions.

  5. Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

  6. Full-Vector Geomagnetic Field Records for the Late Quaternary from El Hierro and the Eifel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monster, M.; de Groot, L. V.; Dekkers, M. J.; van Galen, J. P.; Kuiper, K.; Langemeijer, J.; Wiarda, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-eight flows in the age range of c. 100 to c. 500 ka were sampled on the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) and twelve in the Eifel (Germany). All sites from the Eifel had been previously dated, whereas the ages of the El Hierro flows were approximated by stratigraphic and directional coherency with a dated section c. 4 km to the north-east. Additionally, seven flows were dated using the ThermoFisher Helix multi-collector mass spectrometer at VU University Amsterdam (the Netherlands). The rocks were subjected to standard rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic experiments. Palaeodirections were obtained using both thermal and alternating-field demagnetisation techniques. Apart from two sites that appear to have been struck by lightning, all sites yielded reliable palaeodirections. Absolute palaeointensities were obtained using three different methods: IZZI-Thellier, the multispecimen protocol and the calibrated pseudo-Thellier technique. Nineteen sites from El Hierro and all twelve sites from the Eifel passed the selection criteria for one or more of these methods, with the pseudo-Thellier technique having the highest success rate (c. 35% for El Hierro and 55% for the Eifel). The palaeointensities obtained for El Hierro were mostly between 20 and 40 μT and for the Eifel between 20 and 50 μT, both with a tendency to be somewhat low compared to the present-day field of c. 39 μT and c. 49 μT, respectively. The pseudo-Thellier and multispecimen methods generally yielded lower palaeointensities than IZZI-Thellier, but no clear trend was visible.

  7. Mafic intrusion remobilising silicic magma under El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.; Laporte, D.; Marti, J.; Devouard, B.; Cluzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands, has produced volcanic bombs that degas at sea surface, boil seawater and sink when cooled and degassed. At the beginning of the eruption white coloured pumices enveloped in darker coloured spatters floated on land. These composite pumices show evidence of magma mingling with folds and undulations of the darker coloured magma within the white pumice suggesting magma mingling in a viscous regime. The white pumice is highly vesicular and resembles foam. Most of the vesicular structure is made of tightly packed, polygonal bubbles of uniform size (˜ 100 μm), suggesting a single event of homogeneous bubble nucleation. An earlier event of heterogeneous bubble nucleation is indicated by the presence of a few large bubbles developed around tiny quartz crystals. Both the darker and lighter coloured pumices are almost aphyric. A few olivine crystals with perfect euhedral morphology occur within the darker part. Rare olivines of same composition are also found in the white pumice glass but then display somewhat rounded outlines and hopper-type structure. Melt inclusions in olivines of the darker pumice are of the same composition as the enveloping mafic glass, whereas olivines in the mixing boundary layer have melt inclusions of less mafic composition. The whole-rock composition and slightly more evolved glass composition are of basanitc and alkali rhyolitic composition (at the limit of the trachyte field) according to the TAS classification. Such rhyolitic compositions are rare in the Canaries. Analyses of residual volatile concentration in the glasses show that the silicic glass is highly degassed (F: 511 ±222; Cl: 202 ±58; S: below detection limit; values in ppm,1SD, n=10), whereas the basanitic glass still has very high halogene concentrations (F: 1354 ±151; Cl: 1026 ±47; S: 362 ±29; 1SD, n=10). In-situ analysis of trace element compositions of the dark glasses reveal typical basanitic compositions with

  8. Melt inclusion study of the most recent basanites from El Hierro and Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Huertas, Maria Jose; Ancochea, Eumenio

    2015-04-01

    The latest eruptions of both Lanzarote (one of the oldest and easternmost of the Canary Island archipelago) and El Hierro (the youngest and westernmost) produced basanite lavas. Major, volatile and trace element concentrations of melt inclusion (MI) hosted in olivine for both eruptions have been analysed. The basanites display primitive mantle normalized trace element spectra suggesting a magma source largely composed of recycled oceanic crust. In addition, beneath Lanzarote an interaction with a carbonatitic fluid phase or metasome would explain eccentric Ba/U and other trace element ratios. Contribution of carbonatitic component would readily account for extremely volatile-rich (Cl, F, S) MI from Lanzarote (Cl=1577-2500 ppm) whereas the maximum for El Hierro is 1080 ppm. The submarine character of the 2011-12 eruption off El Hierro appears to have affected the degassing behavior, whereas estimated sulfur emission to the atmosphere during the historical Lanzarote eruptions are amongst the highest observed so far. An estimated magma volume (VDRE) of 0.02 km3 yields atmospheric mass loading of 0.2 Mt SO2 from the 1824 Lanzarote eruption. Scaling the volume of the 1824 Lanzarote eruption to that of the previous Timanfaya eruption (1730-6; 5 km3) results in estimated 12 Mt SO2, an atmospheric mass loading only outnumbered by the historical Laki and Eldgjá eruptions in Iceland. The significantly greater volatile budget of basanites from Lanzarote compared to El Hierro is thus controlled by more fertile source composition closer to the African continent.

  9. Magmatic sill intrusions beneath El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito-Saz, María Á.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle M.; García-Cañada, Laura; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2016-04-01

    El Hierro, the most southwestern island of Canary Islands, Spain, is a volcano rising from around 3600 m above the ocean floor and up to of 1500 m above sea level. A submarine eruption occurred off the coast of El Hierro in 2011-2012, which was the only confirmed eruption in the last ~ 600 years. Activity continued after the end of the eruption with six magmatic intrusions occurring between 2012-2014. Each of these intrusions was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes and 3-19 centimeters of observed ground deformation. Ground displacements at ten continuous GPS sites were initially inverted to determine the optimal source parameters (location, geometry, volume/pressure change) that best define these intrusions from a geodetic point of view. Each intrusive period appears to be associated with the formation of a separate sill, with inferred volumes between 0.02 - 0.3 km3. SAR images from the Canadian RADARSAT-2 satellite and the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed constellation have been used to produce high-resolution detailed maps of line-of-sight displacements for each of these intrusions. These data have been combined with the continuous GPS observations and a joint inversion undertaken to gain further constraints on the optimal source parameters for each of these separate intrusive events. The recorded activity helps to understand how an oceanic intraplate volcanic island grows through repeated sill intrusions; well documented by seismic, GPS and InSAR observations in the case of the El Hierro activity.

  10. Early signs of geodynamic activity before the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Martí, Joan; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-02-01

    The potential relation between mantle plume dynamics, regional tectonics and eruptive activity in the Canary Islands has not been studied yet through the analysis of long-time series of geophysical observational data. The existence of highly reliable seismic and geodetic data has enabled us to study from 1996 to 2014 the geodynamic evolution of the North Atlantic Azores-Gibraltar region (including the NW African margin) and its relationship with recent volcanic activity in El Hierro (Canary Islands). We compiled a new and unified regional seismic catalog and used long time-series of digital 3D surface displacements recorded by permanent GPS stations in the region. A joint regional- and local-scale analysis based on these data enabled us to identify signs of anomalous tectonic activity from 2003 onwards, whose intensity increased in 2007 and finally accelerated three months before the onset of the volcanic eruption on El Hierro in October 2011. Activity included the occurrence of regional extension and an uplift process affecting the southern Iberian Peninsula, NW Africa, and the Canary Islands. We interpret these observations as early signs of the geodynamic activity, which led to El Hierro eruption and the subsequent episodes of magma intrusion. Results point to the significant contribution of the mantle plume dynamics (i.e. external forces) in this renewed volcanic activity in the Canary Islands and emphasize the role of mantle dynamics in controlling regional tectonics.

  11. Structural interpretation of El Hierro (Canary Islands) rifts system from gravity inversion modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.

    2017-08-01

    Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.

  12. Psychological aspects in a volcanic crisis: El Hierro Island eruption (October, 2011).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, P.; Llinares, A.; Garcia, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-04-01

    The recent eruption on the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has shown that Psychology plays an important role in the emergence management of a natural phenomenon. However, Psychology continues to have no social coverage it deserves in the mitigation of the effects before, during and after the occurrence of a natural phenomenon. Keep in mind that an unresolved psychological problem involves an individual and collective mismatch may become unrecoverable. The population of El Hierro has been under a state of alert since July 2011, when seismic activity begins, until the occurrence of submarine eruption in October 2011 that is held for more than three months. During this period the inhabitants of the small island have gone through different emotional states ranging from confusion to disappointment. A volcanic eruption occurs not unexpectedly, allowing to have a time of preparation / action before the disaster. From the psychological point of view people from El Hierro Island have responded to different stages of the same natural process. Although the island of El Hierro is of volcanic origin, the population has no historical memory since the last eruption occurred in 1793. Therefore, the educational system does not adequately address the formation in volcanic risk. As a result people feel embarrassment when the seismovolcanic crisis begins, although no earthquakes felt. As an intermediate stage, when the earthquakes are felt by the population, scientists and operational Emergency Plan care to inform and prepare actions in case of a possible eruption. The population feel safe despite the concerns expressed by not knowing where, how and when the eruption will occur. Once started the submarine eruption, taking into account that all the actions (evacuation, relocation, etc.) have worked well and that both their basic needs and security are covered there are new states of mind. These new emotional states ranging from disenchantment with the phenomenology of the

  13. From 3D to 4D seismic tomography at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Yeguas, A.; Koulakov, I.; Jakovlev, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we are going to show the advantages of a dynamic tomography 4D, versus a static image 3D related with a volcanic reactivation and eruption at El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). In this process a high number of earthquakes before and during the eruptive processes have been registered. We are going to show a 3D image as an average of the velocity structure and then the characteristics and physical properties on the medium, including the presence or not of magma. This image will be complemented with its evolution along the time, observing its volcanic dynamic and its influence over the medium properties, including its power as an important element on early warnings protocols. After more than forty years of quiet at Canary Islands, since 1971 with Teneguía eruption at La Palma Island, and more than 200 years on El Hierro Island (The last eruption known at El Hierro took place in 1793, volcán de Lomo Negro), on 19th July on 2011 the Spanish seismic national network, administered by IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional), detected an increase of local seismic activity below El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since this moment an intense swarm took place, with more than 11000 events, until 11th December, with magnitudes (MLg) from 0.2 to 4.4. In this period two eruptive processes have been declared in front of the South coast of El Hierro island, and they have not finished yet. This seismic swarm has allowed carrying out a 3D seismic tomography, using P and S waves traveltimes. It has showed a low velocity from the North to the South. On the other hand, we have performed a 4D seismic tomography, taking the events occurred at different intervals of time. We can observe the evolution of the negative anomaly along the time, from the North to the South, where has taken place La Restinga submarine eruption. 4D seismic tomography is an innovative and powerful tool able to show the evolution in time of a volcanic process.

  14. Felsic volcanism in a basic shield (El Hierro, Canary Islands). Implications in terms of volcanic hazards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Meletlidis, Stavros; Galindo Jiménez, Inés

    2014-05-01

    El Hierro, the southwesternmost and smallest island of the Canary Archipelago, is a complex basaltic shield volcano characterized by mainly effusive volcanism with both Strombolian and Hawaiian activity. Explosive felsic volcanism is not a common feature of the archipelago and, so far, it has only been reported on the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, where it has been responsible for the formation of large central volcanic complexes. The presence of felsic rocks on the other islands of the archipelago and specifically on El Hierro is mostly restricted to subvolcanic intrusions and a few lava flows, generally associated with the oldest parts of the islands. We hereby report the presence of a trachytic pumice deposit on the island of El Hierro, referred to here as the Malpaso Member. A detailed stratigraphic, lithological, and sedimentological study was carried out on the deposits of this explosive episode of felsic composition, which is the only one found on the Canary Islands apart from those of Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Four different subunits were identified on the basis of their lithological and granulometrical characteristics. The products of the eruption correspond to a single eruptive event and cover an area of about 13 km2. This deposit originated from a base-surge-type explosive eruption with a subsequent radial emplacement of dilute PDC currents, was emplaced from the vent that would have been located in a similar position to the volcano of Tanganasoga. The low vesicularity of juvenile fragments and the morphological characteristics of the fine particles, as well as the high proportion of lithic fragments and the ash-rich nature of the deposit, suggest that magma/water interaction controlled the dynamics of the eruption. This study demonstrates that magmas from El Hierro could have the potential for producing an explosive eruption, in an environment in which the majority of the eruptions are basaltic and effusive in nature. Bearing in mind

  15. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  16. Origin and significance of the 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek-Pedroza, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi; Carracedo, Juan C.; Klügel, Andreas; Harris, Chris; Wiesmaier, Sebastian; Berg, Sylvia E.; Barker, Abigail K.

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of the 2011/2012 submarine eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands), peculiar light-coloured pumiceous rocks (xeno-pumice) were found floating on the sea. The appearance of these rocks led to a potentially inappropriate response from the authorities, because the rocks were viewed as likely indicators of high-silica magma and possible explosive eruptive behaviour. However, the eruption remained a relatively minor and dominantly effusive event and the origin and significance of these peculiar xeno-pumice rocks for volcanic monitoring remains unresolved. Three contrasting models have been put forward, describing them as: a) recycled hydrothermally altered felsic magmatic rocks (Meletlidis et al., 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39:L17302), b) sediment-contaminated high-silica magma (Sigmarsson et al., 2013, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 165:601-622) or c) frothy xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary strata that were melted while immersed in magma (Troll et al., 2012, Solid Earth, 3:97-110). Here, we combine the three available datasets to assess the origin of El Hierro xeno-pumice in the light of texture, mineralogy, major and trace element composition, and oxygen isotope characteristics in order to discuss their significance. We note that: 1) Sedimentary relicts occur frequently in xeno-pumice samples with occasionally observed relict bedding. 2) Vesicle sizes are extremely variable, which documents multiple degassing events. The vesicles are biggest especially close to sedimentary relicts, likely the result of a complex mix of minerals and porewaters originally present. 3) The mineral assemblage of xeno-pumice includes quartz, smectite, illite, wollastonite, jasper and mica (XRD) and is akin to marine sedimentary rocks in the region (Hoernle, 1998, J. Petrol.,39:859-880; Robertson & Stillman, 1979, J. Geol. Soc., 136:47 -60; Aparicio et al., 2006, Geol. Mag. 143:181 -193). 4) CIPW norms calculated from xeno-pumice major element compositions show the

  17. El Hierro's floating stones as messengers of crust-magma interaction at depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchardt, S.; Troll, V. R.; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.; Blythe, L. S.; Longpré, M. A.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    During the early stages of the submarine eruption that started on October 10 2011 south of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface. These centimetre- to decimetre-sized "bombs" have been termed "restingolites" after the nearby village La Restinga and consist of a basaltic rind and a white to light grey core that resembles pumice in texture. According to Troll et al. (2011; see also Troll et al. EGU 2012 Abstracts), this material consists of a glassy matrix hosting extensive vesicle networks, which results in extremely low densities allowing these rocks to float on sea water. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses reveal that the "restingolites" originate from the sedimentary rocks (sand-, silt-, and mudstones) that form layer 1 of the oceanic crust beneath El Hierro. During the onset and early stages of the eruption, magma ponded at the base of this sedimentary sequence, breaking its way through the sedimentary rocks to the ocean floor. The textures of the "restingolites" reveal that crust-magma interaction during fragmentation and transport of the xenoliths involved rapid partial melting and volatile exsolution. Xenoliths strikingly similar to those from El Hierro are known from eruptions on other Canary Islands (e.g. La Palma, Gran Canaria, and Lanzarote). In fact, they resemble in texture xenoliths of various protoliths from volcanic areas worldwide (e.g. Krakatao, Indonesia, Cerro Quemado, Guatemala, Laacher See, Germany). This indicates that the process of partial melting and volatile exsolution, which the "restingolites" bear witness of, is probably occurring frequently during shallow crustal magma emplacement. Thermomechanical numerical models of the effect of the density decrease associated with the formation of vesicle networks in partially molten xenoliths show that xenoliths of crustal rocks initially sink in a magma chamber, but may start to float to the chamber roof once they start to heat up

  18. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  19. Driving magma to the surface: The 2011-2012 El Hierro Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Carmen; Benito-Saz, Maria A.; Martí, Joan; del-Fresno, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Albert, Helena; Lamolda, Héctor

    2017-08-01

    We reanalyzed the seismic and deformation data corresponding to the preeruptive unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands) in 2011. We considered new information about the internal structure of the island. We updated the seismic catalog to estimate the full evolution of the released seismic energy and demonstrate the importance of nonlocated earthquakes. Using seismic data and GPS displacements, we characterized the shear-tensile type of the predominant fracturing and modeled the strain and stress fields for different time periods. This enabled us to identify a prolonged first phase characterized by hydraulic tensile fracturing, which we interpret as being related to the emplacement of new magma below the volcanic edifice on El Hierro. This was followed by postinjection unidirectional migration, probably controlled by the stress field and the distribution of the structural discontinuities. We identified the effects of energetic magmatic pulses occurring a few days before the eruption that induced shear seismicity on preexisting faults within the volcano and raised the Coulomb stress over the whole crust. We suggest that these magmatic pulses reflect the crossing of the Moho discontinuity, as well as changes in the path geometry of the dyke migration toward the surface. The final phase involved magma ascent through a prefractured crust.

  20. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  1. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  2. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d‑1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  3. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d−1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%. PMID:27157062

  4. Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by X-ray computed microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, S. E.; Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Burchardt, S.; Krumbholz, M.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Soler, V.; Arzilli, F.; Brun, F.

    2016-12-01

    During the first week of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, abundant light-coloured pumiceous, high-silica volcanic bombs coated in dark basanite were found floating on the sea. The composition of the light-coloured frothy material (`xeno-pumice') is akin to that of sedimentary rocks from the region, but the textures resemble felsic magmatic pumice, leaving their exact mode of formation unclear. To help decipher their origin, we investigated representative El Hierro xeno-pumice samples using X-ray computed microtomography for their internal vesicle shapes, volumes, and bulk porosity, as well as for the spatial arrangement and size distributions of vesicles in three dimensions (3D). We find a wide range of vesicle morphologies, which are especially variable around small fragments of rock contained in the xeno-pumice samples. Notably, these rock fragments are almost exclusively of sedimentary origin, and we therefore interpret them as relicts an the original sedimentary ocean crust protolith(s). The irregular vesiculation textures observed probably resulted from pulsatory release of volatiles from multiple sources during xeno-pumice formation, most likely by successive release of pore water and mineral water during incremental heating and decompression of the sedimentary protoliths.

  5. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island.

    PubMed

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L

    2016-05-09

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  6. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-22

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  7. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode. PMID:25609055

  8. Bone cadmium and lead in the ancient population from El Hierro, Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Galindo-Martín, L; Santolaria-Fernández, F

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in 63 bone samples of the prehispanic population of the island El Hierro, comparing them with the values obtained on 98 prehispanic samples from Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, and La Palma, all of them in the Canary Islands, and with eight modern samples who served as controls. Prehispanic individuals from El Hierro showed the lowest bone Pb values of all the archipelago (0.72+/-1.01 mg/kg), significantly different (F=6.9, p<0.001) from the values obtained for the population of other islands such as Tenerife (4.87+/-5.36 mg/kg) or Fuerteventura (4.45+/-7.85 mg/kg) and also from those of the modern population (30.53+/-14.62 mg/kg). On the other hand, bone Cd, although slightly lower in the ancient population groups, was not significantly different when compared with the modern one. In addition, no differences were observed in bone Cd among the ancient population of the different islands. Bone lead but not cadmium kept an inverse significant relationship with the distance of the burial site both to south Spain (r=-0.31) and Atlantic Morocco (r=-0.28, p<0.001 in both cases).

  9. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of Lomo Negro volcanic eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island.

  10. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data for ultramafic xenoliths from Hierro, Canary Islands: Melt infiltration processes in the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Neumann, E.-R.

    1995-03-01

    We present here Sr, Nd, and Pb-isotopic data from harzburgite (group I) and dunite-pyroxenite (group II) suite mantle xenoliths from the island of Hierro, one of the youngest and westernmost of the Canary Islands. A progressive leaching technique has been developed and applied to the whole-rock powder samples in order to identify and remove as far as possible any recent additions (host basalt and/or sea-water). Isotopic analyses of the leached residues show significant systematic differences between these two suites. Dunite-pyroxenite suite xenoliths (olivine pyroxenites, dunites and wehrlites) exhibit a relatively small range of isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr from 0.70292 to 0.70315; 143Nd/144Nd from 0.51295 to 0.51302; 206Pb/204Pb from 19.18 to 19.40) compared to the harzburgite suite (87Sr/86Sr from 0.70295 to 0.70320; 143Nd/144Nd from 0.51285 to 0.51296; 206Pb/204Pb from 18.85 to 19.41). In all isotope correlation diagrams the leached dunite-pyroxenite suite xenoliths plot between the Hierro basalt field and a hypothetical depleted mantle suggesting that these xenoliths may have been strongly infiltrated by Hierro-type basalt. Progressive leaching of this suite of samples showed removal of a component with more enriched Sr (higher 87Sr/86Sr relative to depleted mantle) and Nd (lower 143Nd/144Nd) isotopic compositions that is probably host basalt glass. The leached harzburgite suite xenoliths extend to more enriched Sr and Nd isotopic compositions than Hierro-type basalt but always have more depleted Pb. This relationship can best be explained if this suite has been subject to infiltration by earlier magmas of the Canary Island suite (in particular, those from Gran Canaria show appropriate compositional ranges), although additional infiltration by Hierro basalt cannot be ruled out. The leaching experiments for this suite mostly show removal of a radiogenic Sr component only (? seawater) which supports the interpretation of early infiltration and subsequent

  11. Origin of three-armed rifts in volcanic islands: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo Jiménez, Inés; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Rifts zones in volcanic oceanic islands are common structures that have been explained through several theories/models. However, despite all these models it is as yet unclear whether it is the intense intrusive activity or the sector collapses that actually control the structural evolution and geometry of oceanic-island rift zones. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the origin and characteristics of the feeding system of oceanic-island rift zones based on the analysis of more than 1700 surface, subsurface (water galleries), and submarine structural data from El Hierro (Canary Islands). El Hierro's geological structure is primarily controlled by a three-armed rift-zone, the arms striking NE, WSW and S. Between the rift axes there are three valleys formed during huge landslides: El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas. Our results show: (1) a predominant NE-SW strike of structural elements, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary Archipelago as a whole; (2) a clear radial strike distribution of structural elements for the whole volcanic edifice (including submarine flanks) with respect to the centre of the island; (3) that the rift zones are mainly subaerial structures and do not propagate through the submarine edifice; (4) that it is only in the NE rift that structures have a general strike similar to that of the rift as a whole, and; (5) that in the W and S rifts there is not clear main direction, showing the structural elements in the W rift a fan distribution coinciding with the general radial pattern in the island as a whole. Based on these data, we suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields that operated during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice, that is, the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures, reflect local stress fields related

  12. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; de Armas, D.; González, A. G.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Escánez, J.

    2013-01-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Here, we present dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. Our findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem.

  13. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro.

    PubMed

    Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Fraile-Nuez, E; de Armas, D; González, A G; Domínguez-Yanes, J F; Escánez, J

    2013-01-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10(th) 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Here, we present dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. Our findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem.

  14. Parasite fauna of rodents (Murinae) from El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Feliu, Carlos; López, Mercedes; Gómez, María S; Torres, Jordi; Sánchez, Santiago; Miquel, Jordi; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Segovia, Juan M; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Montoliu, Isabel; Villa, Mercedes; Fernández-Álvarez, Angela; Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Valladares, Basilio; Orós, Jorge; Foronda, Pilar

    2012-06-01

    The parasite fauna (protozoa, helminths and insects) of the two most widespread Murinae rodents in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain), the black rat (Rattus rattus) and the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) was studied. Faunistic, ecological, ecotoxicological data, as well as information on the biology of some nematode parasites of R. rattus are provided. The present work is unprecedented in the Canary Islands, and provides the first data on the parasite biodiversity in Murinae from the archipelago. Concerning to parasitofaunas stands out: a) impoverishment of biodiversity of helminths respect of which have the same hosts in other islands; b) increasing the number of species of Siphonaptera, even compared with flea species that parasitize the same hosts from continental biotopes.

  15. Radiopaque transverse lines (Harris lines) in the prehispanic population of El Hierro (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Arnay-de-la Rosa, M; González-Reimers, E; Castilla-Garcia, A; Santolaria-Fernandez, F

    1994-03-01

    Harris lines were assessed in 48 right tibiae of prehispanic inhabitants of El Hierro (one of the Canary Islands), belonging to 23 adult females and 25 adult males. No Harris lines were detected in sixteen (33%) of the adult individuals (7 females = 30% and 9 males = 36%), these differences are not statistically significant. Female tibiae showed a slightly higher mean number of Harris lines at the distal end than male ones (2.091 +/- 1.9 in females vs 1.417 +/- in males). Ages at which Harris lines were formed show two peaks, a major one at the age of 2 years, and another one between 11 and 13, particularly in the females. Harris lines were more frequently observed at the proximal than at the distal end of the bone. No relation was found between the number of Harris lines and stature. The relative high number of lines detected in our population speak for several stressful episodes suffered during growth.

  16. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; de Armas, D.; González, A. G.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Escánez, J.

    2013-01-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Here, we present dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. Our findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem. PMID:23355953

  17. Soil gas 222Rn and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, G.; Hernández, P. A.; Padrón, E.; Barrancos, J.; Melián, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Pereza, M. D.; Pérez, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro (278 km2) is the southwesternmost island of the Canarian archipelago. From June 19, 2011 to January 2012, more than 11,950 seismic events have been detected by the seismic network of IGN. On 10 October 2011 the earthquake swarm changed its behaviour and produced a harmonic tremor due to magma movement, indicating that a submarine eruption located at 2 km south of La Restinga had started which is still in progress. Since 2003, the ITER Environmental Research Division now integrated in the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias, INVOLCAN, has regularly performed soil gas surveys at El Hierro as a geochemical tool for volcanic surveillance. Among the investigated gases, soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) have played a special attention. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion or advection, mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Years before the starts of the volcanic-seismic crisis on July 17, 2011, a volcanic multidisciplinary surveillance program was implemented at El Hierro including discrete and continuous measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn. Two soil gas 222Rn surveys had been carried out at El Hierro in 2003 and 2011, and four continuous geochemical monitoring stations for 222Rn and 220Rn measurements had been installed (HIE02, HIE03, HIE04 and HIE08). Soil gas 222Rn surveys were carried out at the surface environment of El Hierro after selecting 600 sampling observation sites (about 40 cm depth). Geochemical stations measure 222Rn and 220Rn activities by pumping the gas from a PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground and thermally isolated. The results of the 2003 and 2011 soil gas 222Rn surveys show clearly a relatively higher observed 222Rn activities in the surface environment on 2011 than those observed on 2003 when no anomalous seismicity were taking place beneath El Hierro. The observed

  18. Characterization of the seismicity prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; del Fresno, Carmen; Gomis Moreno, Almudena; Hernández Yanes, Paula; Meletlidis, Stavros; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    The last eruption of the Canary Islands started on 10 October 2011, 2 km south of El Hierro. This submarine eruption was the first fully monitored volcanic eruption in this archipelago and was preceded by various precursory signals, the most evident of which was the seismicity that started in July 2011. This seismicity includes almost 10,000 low-magnitude earthquakes located during 81 days before the eruption which revealed a 20 km horizontal migration from the north of the island to the south at depths of between 10 and 17 km, the deeper events occurring further south. In this work we try to improve the quality of the seismic catalogue. We applied a relative location algorithm (hypoDD) to improve hypocentral locations. Tests performed to check the reliability of the results gave maximum uncertainties of 400 m in the relocations. Furthermore, new features were found, including the origin of the seismicity in the center of the island and the presence of two alternating seismogenic zones in the north of the island during the first month of activity. The first days of the unrest the seismic network was composed by only 2 seismic stations and almost no location was possible. We obtained information about location and magnitude of these events at the beginning of the seismic crisis by comparison of the waveforms by correlation with located earthquakes. We have also analyzed the baselevel seismicity of El Hierro from 1996 using digital data of a short period station. Manual revision of these data showed a considerably low number of earthquakes in the region before the unrest (less than one event per day).

  19. Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Lopez, Carmen; Marti Molist, Joan

    2016-03-01

    A detailed statistical investigation of the seismicity occurred at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 has been performed by analysing the time variation of four parameters: the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the local coefficient of variation, the scaling exponent of the magnitude distribution and the main periodicity of the earthquake sequence calculated by using the Schuster's test. These four parameters are good descriptors of the time and magnitude distributions of the seismic sequence, and their variation indicate dynamical changes in the volcanic system. These variations can be attributed to the causes and types of seismicity, thus allowing to distinguish between different host-rock fracturing processes caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and overpressures. The statistical patterns observed among the studied unrest episodes and between them and the eruptive episode of 2011-2012 indicate that the response of the host rock to the deformation imposed by magma intrusion did not differ significantly from one episode to the other, thus suggesting that no significant local stress changes induced by magma intrusion occurred when comparing between all them. Therefore, despite the studied unrest episodes were caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and locations below El Hierro island, the mechanical response of the lithosphere was similar in all cases. This suggests that the reason why the first unrest culminated in an eruption while the other did not, may be related to the role of the regional/local tectonics acting at that moment, rather than to the forceful of magma intrusion.

  20. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  1. Osteoarthritis among the prehispanic population from La Gomera and El Hierro (Canary Islands): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Castañeyra-Ruiz, María; Trujillo-Mederos, Aioze; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, Matilde; González-Reimers, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is still unclear, and several factors may play a role in its development, including joint trauma or microtrauma (usually related to lifestyle), local inflammation, loading charge, and genetics. Assessment of osteoarthritis among ancient populations is important, since it may yield information relative to life habits. Therefore, we have performed the present study in order to assess the prevalence of osteoarthritis among the prehispanic populations from La Gomera and El Hierro, two islands of the Canary Archipelago with a similar size and altitude which were colonized by individuals of North African origin about 2000 - 2500 years ago. The economy of these people was based on goat herding, shellfishing, and agriculture together with consumption of some wild vegetal species. However, despite a similar geographic environment and a similar economic pattern, prevalence of osteoarthritis was by far higher among the population from La Gomera (78.57 % vs 15.85 %, p < 0.001), and that of eburnation, 11.65 % and 1.05 %, respectively (p = 0.016); in contrast, the population of El Hierro was markedly more robust than that of La Gomera. Globally, a trend to an inverse relationship was observed between epiphyseal robusticity index and the presence of osteoarthritis, which was statistically significant when only men were analysed. However, after performing a multivariate analysis, the only factor that was independently related to the presence of osteoarthritis was the variable "island" (i.e., population group), suggesting that - possibly - genetic factors played a major role in the differences observed.

  2. Observations of coupled seismicity and ground deformation at El Hierro Island (2011-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    New insights into the magma storage and evolution at oceanic island volcanoes are now being achieved using remotely sensed space geodetic techniques, namely satellite radar interferometry. Differential radar interferometry is a technique tracking, at high spatial resolution, changes in the travel-time (distance) from the satellites to the ground surface, having wide applications in Earth sciences. Volcanic activity usually is accompanied by surface ground deformation. In many instances, modelling of surface deformation has the great advantage to estimate the magma volume change, a particularly interesting parameter prior to eruptions. Jointly interpreted with petrology, degassing and seismicity, it helps to understand the crustal magmatic systems as a whole. Current (and near-future) radar satellite missions will reduce the revisit time over global sub-aerial volcanoes to a sub-weekly basis, which will increase the potential for its operational use. Time series and filtering processing techniques of such streaming data would allow to track subsurface magma migration with high precision, and frequently update over vast areas (volcanic arcs, large caldera systems, etc.). As an example for the future potential monitoring scenario, we analyze multiple satellite radar data over El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) to measure and model surface ground deformation. El Hierro has been active for more than 3 years (2011 to 2014). Initial phases of the unrest culminated in a submarine eruption (late 2011 - early 2012). However, after the submarine eruption ended, its magmatic system still active and affected by pseudo-regular energetic seismic swarms, accompanied by surface deformation without resumed eruptions. Such example is a great opportunity to understand the crustal magmatic systems in low magma supply-rate oceanic island volcanoes. This new approach to measure surface deformation processes is yielding an ever richer level of information from volcanology to

  3. Acanthamoeba genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Valerón-Tejera, Marco Antonio; Wagner, Carolina; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-08-01

    The genus Acanthamoeba includes pathogenic strains which are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis that often may end fatal in humans and other animals. In the present study, forty soil samples were collected in the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Samples were cultivated onto 2 % non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was carried out in order to confirm morphological identification of the amoebae. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 47.5 % of soil samples. Moreover, genotypes T2, T4, and T11 were identified in these samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island.

  4. Time lag between deformation and seismicity along monogenetic volcanic unrest periods: The case of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamolda, Héctor; Felpeto, Alicia; Bethencourt, Abelardo

    2017-07-01

    Between 2011 and 2014 there were at least seven episodes of magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island, but only the first one led to a submarine eruption in 2011-2012. In order to study the relationship between GPS deformation and seismicity during these episodes, we compare the temporal evolution of the deformation with the cumulative seismic energy released. In some of the episodes both deformation and seismicity evolve in a very similar way, but in others a time lag appears between them, in which the deformation precedes the seismicity. Furthermore, a linear correlation between decimal logarithm of intruded magma volume and decimal logarithm of total seismic energy released along the different episodes has been observed. Therefore, if a future magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island follows this behavior with a proper time lag, we could have an a priori estimate on the order of magnitude the seismic energy released would reach.

  5. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  6. Analysis of surface deformation during the eruptive process of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain): Detection, Evolution and Forecasting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocoso, M.; Fernandez-Ros, A.; Prates, G.; Martin, M.; Hurtado, R.; Pereda, J.; Garcia, M. J.; Garcia-Cañada, L.; Ortiz, R.; Garcia, A.

    2012-04-01

    The surface deformation has been an essential parameter for the onset and evolution of the eruptive process of the island of El Hierro (October 2011) as well as for forecasting changes in seismic and volcanic activity during the crisis period. From GNSS-GPS observations the reactivation is early detected by analizing the change in the deformation of the El Hierro Island regional geodynamics. It is found that the surface deformation changes are detected before the occurrence of seismic activity using the station FRON (GRAFCAN). The evolution of the process has been studied by the analysis of time series of topocentric coordinates and the variation of the distance between stations on the island of El Hierro (GRAFCAN station;IGN network; and UCA-CSIC points) and LPAL-IGS station on the island of La Palma. In this work the main methodologies and their results are shown: •The location (and its changes) of the litospheric pressure source obtained by applying the Mogi model. •Kalman filtering technique for high frequency time series, used to make the forecasts issued for volcanic emergency management. •Correlations between deformation of the different GPS stations and their relationship with seismovolcanic settings.

  7. Precursory geophysical, geodetic and geochemical signatures of a new 2012 submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; González de Vallejo, Luis; Sagiya, Takeshi; León, Ricardo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Gonzalez-Aller, Daniel; Sánchez de La Madrid, José Luis; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Sumino, Hirochika

    2013-04-01

    Here we report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, which has been detected through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes on June 27, 2012, by the Spanish research vessel "Hespérides". Five distinct acoustic submarine plumes have been recognized in this area at water depths between 64 and 88 m along a submarine platform located in front of the Lomo Negro volcanic cone, northwestern of El Hierro. Submarine plums are characterized by vertical columns of high-amplitude values rising from seafloor. These acoustic imaging data clearly support a new submarine eruption in 2012 associated to the recent magmatic reactivation of El Hierro volcanic system. This new eruption event was preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥ 2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS permanent network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) at El Hierro with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity at HIE02, a geochemical station located in the northwestern of El Hierro, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) the highest observed corrected value of 3He/4He ratio in ground waters (8,5 Ra) from San Simón well at the northwestern of El Hierro on June 16, 2012. These precursory signals have revealed important to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro.

  8. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  9. Searching for structural medium changes during the 2011 El Hierro (Spain) submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar S.; Schimmel, Martin; López, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are often difficult to study due to their restricted access that usually inhibits direct observations. That happened with the 2011 El Hierro eruption, which is the first eruption that has been tracked in real time in Canary Islands. For instance, despite the real-time tracking it was not possible to determine the exact end of the eruption. Besides, volcanic eruptions involve many dynamic (physical and chemical) processes, which cause structural changes in the surrounding medium that we expect to observe and monitor through passive seismic approaches. The purpose of this study is to detect and analyse these changes as well as to search for precursory signals to the eruption itself using ambient noise auto and cross-correlations. We employ different correlation strategies (classical and phase cross-correlation) and apply them to field data recorded by the IGN network during 2011 and 2012. The different preprocessing and processing steps are tested and compared to better understand the data, to find the robust signatures, and to define a routine work procedure. One of the problems we face is the presence of volcanic tremors, which cause a varying seismic response that we can not attribute to structural changes. So far, structural changes could not be detected unambiguously and we present our ongoing research in this field.

  10. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdalena Santana-Casiano, J.; González-Dávila, Melchor; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Important changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients were produced. As a result of the ongoing magmatic activity, the submarine eruption produced an unprecedented episode of severe acidification and fertilization. The findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem.

  11. Volcanic signatures in time gravity variations during the volcanic unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz-Maza Aparicio, Sergio; Arnoso Sampedro, José; González Montesinos, Fuensanta; Martí Molist, Joan

    2014-05-01

    Gravity changes occurring before the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption are interpreted in terms of the pre-eruptive signatures during the episode of unrest. Continuous gravity measurements were made at two sites on the island using the relative spring gravimeter LCR gPhone-054. On September 15, 2011, an observed gravity decrease of 45 µGal, associated with the southward migration of seismic epicenters, suggests that a lateral magma migration occurred beneath the volcanic edifice, an apparently clear precursor of the eruption that took place 25 days later on October 10, 2011. High-frequency gravity signals also appeared on October 6-11, 2011, suggesting that an interaction between a magmatic intrusion and the ocean floor was occurring. These important gravity changes, with amplitudes varying from 10 to -90 µGal, during the first three days following the onset of the eruption are consistent with the northward migration of the eruptive focus along an active eruptive fissure. An apparent correlation of gravity variations with body tide vertical strain was also noted, which suggests that concurrent tidal triggering occurred during the initial stage of the eruption.

  12. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  13. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana-Casiano, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

    2013-12-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. It was observed dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. The findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem. In January 2013, a new project, the VULCANO project, was iniciated to study the post-eruptive phase in the submarine volcanic area.

  14. Volcanic signatures in time gravity variations during the volcanic unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz-Maza Aparicio, S.; Arnoso Sampedro, J.; Gonzalez Montesinos, F.; Martí Molist, J.

    2014-06-01

    Gravity changes occurring during the initial stage of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption are interpreted in terms of the preeruptive signatures during the episode of unrest. Continuous gravity measurements were made at two sites on the island using the relative spring gravimeter LaCoste and Romberg gPhone-054. On 15 September 2011, an observed gravity decrease of 45 μGal, associated with the southward migration of seismic epicenters, is consistent with a lateral magma migration that occurred beneath the volcanic edifice, an apparently clear precursor of the eruption that took place 25 days later on 10 October 2011. High-frequency gravity signals also appeared on 6-11 October 2011, pointing to an occurring interaction between a magmatic intrusion and the ocean floor. These important gravity changes, with amplitudes varying from 10 to -90 μGal, during the first 3 days following the onset of the eruption are consistent with the northward migration of the eruptive focus along an active eruptive fissure. An apparent correlation of gravity variations with body tide vertical strain was also noted, which could indicate that concurrent tidal triggering occurred during the initial stage of the eruption.

  15. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-07-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for land-use planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure quality and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterisation of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted on the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyse the past eruptive activity to determine the spatial and temporal probability, and likely style of a future eruption on the island, i.e. the where, when and how. By studying the past eruptive behaviour of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result, through the combination of the most probable scenarios (lava flows, pyroclastic density currents and ashfall), is the first qualitative integrated volcanic hazard map of the island.

  16. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-02-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for territorial planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure qualitative and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterization of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted in the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyze the past eruptive activity (how), the spatial probability (where) and the temporal probability (when) of an eruption on the island. By studying the past eruptive behavior of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result is the first total qualitative volcanic hazard map of the island.

  17. Seismic tomography model reveals mantle magma sources of recent volcanic activity at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Yeguas, Araceli; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Prudencio, Janire

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-D model of P and S velocities beneath El Hierro Island, constructed using the traveltime data of more than 13 000 local earthquakes recorded by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN, Spain) in the period from 2011 July to 2012 September. The velocity models were performed using the LOTOS code for iterative passive source tomography. The results of inversion were thoroughly verified using different resolution and robustness tests. The results reveal that the majority of the onshore area of El Hierro is associated with a high-velocity anomaly observed down to 10-12-km depth. This anomaly is interpreted as the accumulation of solid igneous rocks erupted during the last 1 Myr and intrusive magmatic bodies. Below this high-velocity pattern, we observe a low-velocity anomaly, interpreted as a batch of magma coming from the mantle located beneath El Hierro. The boundary between the low- and high-velocity anomalies is marked by a prominent seismicity cluster, thought to represent anomalous stresses due to the interaction of the batch of magma with crust material. The areas of recent eruptions, Orchilla and La Restinga, are associated with low-velocity anomalies surrounding the main high-velocity block. These eruptions took place around the island where the crust is much weaker than the onshore area and where the melted material cannot penetrate. These results put constraints on the geological model that could explain the origin of the volcanism in oceanic islands, such as in the Canaries, which is not yet clearly understood.

  18. Morphology, cytochemical staining, and ultrastructural characteristics of the blood cells of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Silvestre, A; Marco, I; Rodriguez-Dominguez, M A; Lavín, S; Cuenca, R

    2005-04-01

    The object of this study was to examine the erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi) by light and electron (TEM) microscopy, and cytochemical staining. Smears were prepared from blood from the ventral coccygeal vein of 10 healthy adult lizards (five males and five females) from the Giant Lizard of El Hierro Reproduction and Research Centre, Canary Islands, Spain. The cytochemical stains used were: benzidine peroxidase (BP), chloroacetate esterase (CAE), alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), acid phosphatase (AP), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), toluidine blue (TB) and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG). Electron microscopy was also performed on all samples. Heterophils had granules that were heterogeneous in both size and electron density, and stained with BP, PAS and ANAE. Eosinophil granules were homogeneously electron-dense and stained for AP, CAE and ANAE. Basophils had both highly and moderately electron-dense granules, and stained with TB and ANAE. Azurophil granules were of low electron-density and stained for AP, CAE and ANAE. Azurophil cytoplasm was vacuolated on TEM. The cytoplasm of lymphocytes contained many ribosomes and was positive for AP. Monocytes had a large nucleus and a vacuolated cytoplasm but did not stain by any of the cytochemical methods used. Thrombocytes had a relatively large nucleus but little cytoplasm; they did not stain cytochemically. The blood cells of the giant lizards of El Hierro differ from those of other members of the Order Squamata both morphologically and cytochemically. The variation in cytochemical responses in the blood of reptiles makes it necessary to study species individually if meaningful clinical decisions are to be made.

  19. The 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands: chemical and isotopic evidence in dissolved gases of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolasco, D.; Padrón, E.; Melián, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Padilla, G.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.; Sumino, H.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is the smallest of the Canary Islands and is located in the southwest extreme of the archipelago. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on October 10, 2011, followed by a green discolouration of seawater and strong degassing on October 12, 2011, indicating the occurrence of a submarine eruption at the south of El Hierro island. Further episodes of volcanic activity had occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. Colour of the discoloured area has changed frequently from light green to dark brown, depending on the eruptive activity. To provide additional information about the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, a chemical and isotopic study of the dissolved gases in the seawater affected by the eruptive event was conducted one week after the eruption started. Sea water samples were collected by the Ignacio Lozano Oceanographic Research Vessel (ICCM). Three vertical geochemical profiles of dissolved gases were carried out near the location of the submarine eruption. Depths of the sea water samples ranged from 10 to 400 meters. Dissolved CO2, He, N2, O2 and Ar as well as the isotopic composition of CO2, Ar and He were analyzed. Relatively high 3He/4He ratio were observed at most of the sea water samples reaching values up to 5.8 RA (RA the 3He/4He ratio on air) at 100 meters depth of the geochemical vertical profile closest to the eruption site, suggesting a significant volcanic-magmatic-hydrothermal discharge through the submarine eruption vent. Other dissolved gas geochemical parameters such as N2/36Ar, N2/O2 and CO2/O2 ratios clearly suggest a strong presence of a submarine volcanic plume around 100 meters depth associated to this submarine eruption. The He and CO2 isotopes systematics confirmed also clearly a

  20. Eighteen years of geochemical monitoring at the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Sharp, Emerson; Woods, Hannah; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    We report herein the latest results of a diffuse CO2 efflux survey at El Hierro volcanic system carried out during the summer period of 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area a during post-eruptive period. El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island. On October 10, 2011, the dominant character of seismicity changed dramatically from discrete earthquakes to continuous tremor, a clear indication that magma was rapidly approaching the surface immediately before the onset of the eruption, October 12. Eruption was declared over on 5 March, 2012. In order to monitor the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island, from 1998 to 2015 diffuse CO2 emission studies have been performed at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis (˜600 observation sites) according to the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. During the eruption period, soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 457 g m-2 d-1, reaching in November 27, 2011, the maximum CO2 output estimated value of all time series, 2,398 t d-1, just before the episodes of maximum degassing observed as vigorous bubbling at the sea surface and an increment in the amplitude of the tremor signal. During the 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 41 g m-2 d-1. The spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 emission values seemed to be controlled by the main volcano structural features of the island. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 575 ± 24 t d-1, value slightly higher that the background CO2 emission estimated at 422 t d-1 (Melián et

  1. Transient changes in bacterioplankton communities induced by the submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M; Montero, María F; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1-V3 regions for Bacteria and V3-V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70-200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed.

  2. Focal mechanism of the seismic series prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Fresno, C.; Buforn, E.; Cesca, S.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of the submarine eruption of El Hierro (10-Oct-2011) was preceded by three months of low-magnitude seismicity (Mw<4.0) characterized by a well documented hypocenter migration from the center to the south of the island. Seismic sources of this series have been studied in order to understand the physical process of magma migration. Different methodologies were used to obtain focal mechanisms of largest shocks. Firstly, we have estimated the joint fault plane solutions for 727 shocks using first motion P polarities to infer the stress pattern of the sequence and to determine the time evolution of principle axes orientation. Results show almost vertical T-axes during the first two months of the series and horizontal P-axes on N-S direction coinciding with the migration. Secondly, a point source MT inversion was performed with data of the largest 21 earthquakes of the series (M>3.5). Amplitude spectra was fitted at local distances (<20km). Reliability and stability of the results were evaluated with synthetic data. Results show a change in the focal mechanism pattern within the first days of October, varying from complex sources of higher non-double-couple components before that date to a simpler strike-slip mechanism with horizontal tension axes on E-W direction the week prior to the eruption onset. A detailed study was carried out for the 8 October 2011 earthquake (Mw=4.0). Focal mechanism was retrieved using a MT inversion at regional and local distances. Results indicate an important component of strike-slip fault and null isotropic component. The stress pattern obtained corresponds to horizontal compression in a NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the southern ridge of the island, and a quasi-horizontal extension in an EW direction. Finally, a simple source time function of 0.3s has been estimated for this shock using the Empirical Green function methodology.

  3. Multi-event behavior of El Golfo landslide (El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Ricardo; Biain, Ander; Urgeles, Roger; Somoza, Luis; Ferrer, Mercedes; García-Crespo, Jesús; Francisco Mediato, José; Galindo, Inés; Yepes, Jorge; Gimenez-Moreno, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Based on the re-interpretation of a vast onshore-offshore data set, a new morpho-structural characterization of the El Golfo giant landslide in the island of El Hierro (Canary Archipelago, Spain) is presented. Offshore multibeam echosounder data, chirp sub-bottom profiles, multichannel seismic reflection data and onshore information from water wells and galleries have been analyzed to determine the nature of the event. The subaerial headscarp shows a non-continuous arcuate profile formed by two nested semi-circular amphitheaters that extend offshore along a smooth chute, suggesting the occurrence of at least two large retrogressive events. Channels/gullies and escarpments developed along the submarine sector of the scar also indicate smaller-scale events and predominance of sediment bypass. At the base of submerged island, two subunits within the related submarine mass transport deposit (MTD) are identified on multichannel seismic reflection profiles confirming the multi-event nature of the landslide. The MTD, identified as a debris avalanche, has a total estimated volume of 318 km3: 84 km3 and 234 km3, for the lower and upper subunits respectively. Data from wells and galleries show abrasion platforms with beach deposits at sea-level (0 masl) formed after the landslide scar and buried by the El Golfo post-collapse infill lavas, suggesting an age at least older than 23.5-82.5 ka for the landslide. This work has been supported by the projects IGCP-640 S4SLIDE, High resolution seabed mapping EASME/EMFF/2016/005 and CTM2010-09496-E. Keywords: Submarine landslides, volcanic islands, debris avalanche, Canary Islands

  4. Transient Changes in Bacterioplankton Communities Induced by the Submarine Volcanic Eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M.; Montero, María F.; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1–V3 regions for Bacteria and V3–V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70–200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed

  5. Magma displacements under insular volcanic fields, applications to eruption forecasting: El Hierro, Canary Islands, 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Berrocoso, M.; Marrero, J. M.; Prates, G.; De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Ortiz, R.

    2014-04-01

    Significant deformations, followed by increased seismicity detected since 2011 July at El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, prompted the deployment of additional monitoring equipment. The climax of this unrest was a submarine eruption first detected on 2011 October 10, and located at about 2 km SW of La Restinga, southernmost village of El Hierro Island. The eruption ceased on 2012 March 5, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through 2012 February. However, the seismic activity did not end with the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. Those crises occurred in 2011 November, 2012 June and September, 2012 December to 2013 January and in 2013 March-April. In all cases the seismic unrest was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma displacement processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. The first main magma movement or `injection' culminated with the 2011 October submarine eruption. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy release has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening.

  6. Monitoring the volcanic unrest of El Hierro (Canary Islands) before the onset of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, C.; Blanco, M. J.; Abella, R.; Brenes, B.; Cabrera Rodríguez, V. M.; Casas, B.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.; Felpeto, A.; de Villalta, M. Fernández; del Fresno, C.; García, O.; García-Arias, M. J.; García-Cañada, L.; Gomis Moreno, A.; González-Alonso, E.; Guzmán Pérez, J.; Iribarren, I.; López-Díaz, R.; Luengo-Oroz, N.; Meletlidis, S.; Moreno, M.; Moure, D.; de Pablo, J. Pereda; Rodero, C.; Romero, E.; Sainz-Maza, S.; Sentre Domingo, M. A.; Torres, P. A.; Trigo, P.; Villasante-Marcos, V.

    2012-07-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south from El Hierro Island (Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. Earthquake migration from the north to the south of the island and acceleration of seismicity are in good correlation with changes in the deformation pattern as well as with some anomalies in geochemical and geomagnetic parameters. An earthquake of local magnitude 4.3 at 12 km depth (8 October 2011) and shallower seismicity a day after, preceded the onset of the eruption. This is the first time that a volcanic eruption is fully monitored in the Canary Islands. Data recorded during this unrest episode at El Hierro will contribute to understand reawakening of volcanic activity in this region and others of similar characteristics.

  7. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

    2013-12-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. (A) Natural color composite from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard ENVISAT Satellite (European Space Agency), (November 9, 2011 at 14:45 UTC). Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the evolution of the volcanic emissions, playing a fundamental role during field cruises in guiding the Spanish government oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. The inset map shows the position of Canary Islands west of Africa and the study area (solid white box). (B) Location of the stations carried out from November 2011 to February 2012 at El Hierro. Black lines denote transects A-B and C-D.

  8. Diffuse CO_{2} degassing monitoring of the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Norrie, Janice; Withoos, Yannick; García-Merino, Marta; Melián, Gladys; Padrón, Eleazar; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Even during repose periods, volcanoes release large amounts of gases from both visible (fumaroles, solfataras, plumes) and non-visible emanations (diffuse degassing). In the last 20 years, there has been considerable interest in the study of diffuse degassing as a powerful tool in volcano monitoring programs, particularly in those volcanic areas where there are no visible volcanic-hydrothermal gas emissions. Historically, soil gas and diffuse degassing surveys in volcanic environments have focused mainly on CO2 because it is, after water vapor, the most abundant gas dissolved in magma. As CO2 travels upward by advective-diffusive transport mechanisms and manifests itself at the surface, changes in its flux pattern over time provide important information for monitoring volcanic and seismic activity. Since 1998, diffuse CO2 emission has been monitored at El Hierro Island, the smallest and south westernmost island of the Canarian archipelago with an area of 278 km2. As no visible emanations occur at the surface environment of El Hierro, diffuse degassing studies have become the most useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity in this volcanic island. The island experienced a volcano-seismic unrest that began in July 2011, characterized by the location of a large number of relatively small earthquakes (M<2.5) beneath El Hierro at depths between 8 and 15 km. On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption was confirmed during the afternoon of October 12, 2011 by visual observations off the coast of El Hierro, about 2 km south of the small village of La Restinga in the southernmost part of the island. During the pre-eruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep seated magmatic gases to the

  9. Diffuse degassing He/CO2 ratio before and during the 2011-12 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David

    2015-04-01

    El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island, culminating with the eruption onset in October 12. Since at El Hierro Islands there are not any surface geothermal manifestation (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Between July 2011 to March 2012, seventeen diffuse CO2 and He emissions soil gas surveys were undertaken at El Hierro volcanic system (600 observation sites) with the aim to investigate the relationship between their temporal variations and the volcanic activity (Padrón et al., 2013; Melián et al., 2014). Based on the diffuse He/CO2 emission ratio, a sharp increase before the eruption onset was observed, reaching the maximum value on September 26 (6.8×10-5), sixteen days before the occurrence of the eruption. This increase coincided with an increase in seismic energy release during the volcanic unrest and occurred together with an increase on the 3He/4He isotopic ratio in groundwaters from a well in El Hierro Island (Padrón et al., 2013; from 2-3 RA to 7.2 RA where RA = 3He/4He ratio in air), one month prior to the eruption onset. Early degassing of new gas-rich magma batch at depth could explain the observed increase on the He/CO2 ratio, causing a preferential partitioning of CO2 in the gas phase with respect to the He, due to the lower solubility of CO2 than that of He in basaltic magmas. During the eruptive period (October 2011-March 2012) the prevalence of a magmatic CO2-dominated component is evident, as indicated by the generally lower He/CO2 ratios and high 3He/4He values (Padrón et al., 2013). The onset of the submarine eruption might have produced a sudden release of volcanic gases, and consequently, a decrease in the volcanic gas pressure of the magma bodies moving beneath the island, reflected by a drastic decrease in

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of soil CO2 degassing rate at El Hierro volcanic system and relation to the 2011 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melían, G.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peréz, N. M.; Peraza, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events. On October 10, 2011, the seismic activity changed behaviour and produced a harmonic tremor due to magma movement suggesting the initial stage of an eruption. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of soil CO2 degassing rates at El Hierro volcanic system and its relation with the 2011 El Hierro volcanic unrest. Since 1998, diffuse CO2 emission has been investigated at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis during the summer periods with approximately 600 observation sites. From 2004 to 2009, a diffuse CO2 emission rate decreasing trend from 1434 to 358 t•d-1 (equivalent to background values) was observed, and this tendency changed from 2009 to 2010 reaching a diffuse CO2 emission rate of 970 t•d-1. Because of this observed tendency change on the diffuse CO2 emission rate is possible to think that the preliminary stages of the 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro did start by the middle of 2010 with aseismic magma rising in the upper mantle beneath El Hierro. Since July 2011 and due to the start of the seismic-volcanic crisis at El Hierro, 16 diffuse CO2 emission surveys have been undertaken until January 2012. Diffuse CO2 emission measurements were performed by means of portable NDIR sensors according to the accumulation chamber method. Observed soil CO2 efflux values for all the 2011-12 surveys have ranged from negligible values to 398 g•m-2•d-1. The diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere for the 2011-12 surveys was estimated between 138 and 2,143 t•d-1. On October 6, 2011, an increase tendency of diffuse CO2 emission rate from 380 to 990 t•d-1 was observed prior the occurrence of the first 4 magnitude type earthquake on October 8, 2011, and El Hierro submarine eruption on October 12, 2011. From October 15, 2011, an

  11. Formation of U-depleted rhyolite from a basanite at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Laporte, Didier; Carpentier, Marion; Devouard, Bertrand; Devidal, Jean-Luc; Marti, Joan

    2013-03-01

    Phonolite and trachyte are the felsic magmas of the alkaline magma suites, which characterize the Canary Islands. The October 2011 submarine eruption off El Hierro, the westernmost island, nevertheless, produced a small volume of rhyolitic magma. The rhyolite occurred as highly vesicular, white coloured pumices enveloped in and mingled with darker coloured basanitic pumice. The basanitic pumice is relatively crystal poor with a few euhedral olivines (mostly Fo77-79), clinopyroxenes and Fe-rich spinels, whereas very rare olivine of same composition is found together with equally rare Fe-sulphide and FeTi-rich oxides in the rhyolite. The Fe-Mg exchange equilibrium in the oxides permits to calculate an equilibrium temperature of 970-890 °C for the rhyolite, in agreement with quartz-melt equilibrium at ca. 930 °C. A striking mineralogical feature of the rhyolite is the presence of rounded to contorted grains of milky quartz, which are xenocrysts incorporated and partly dissolved into the magma. Analyses of residual volatile concentrations in the glasses show that the rhyolite melt was highly degassed, whereas the basanitic glass still has important halogen concentrations. Trace element patterns of the mafic glasses and their elevated incompatible element concentrations are typical of the western Canary Island basanites. In contrast, the trace element composition of the rhyolite shows surprisingly low concentrations for all elements except the most incompatible ones (e.g. Rb, Ba, K and Th). All other measured LILE, HFSE and REE have significantly lower concentration than the basanitic counterpart that can be explained by fractionation of accessory phases (1 % apatite, 1 % sphene and 0.1 % zircon). Surprisingly, low U concentration is presumably related to elevated oxygen fugacity in the rhyolite, causing U to be in a hexavalent state, and fluxing of F-rich gas leading to volatilization of UF6, known to emanate at low temperature. The results suggest that a gas

  12. Time-dependent deformation at elevated temperatures in basalt from El Hierro, Stromboli and Teide volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, P. M.; Fahrner, D.; Harnett, C. E.; Fazio, M.

    2014-12-01

    Time dependent deformation describes the process whereby brittle materials deform at a stress level below their short-term material strength (Ss), but over an extended time frame. Although generally well understood in engineering (where it is known as static fatigue or "creep"), knowledge of how rocks creep and fail has wide ramifications in areas as diverse as mine tunnel supports and the long term stability of critically loaded rock slopes. A particular hazard relates to the instability of volcano flanks. A large number of flank collapses are known such as Stromboli (Aeolian islands), Teide, and El Hierro (Canary Islands). Collapses on volcanic islands are especially complex as they necessarily involve the combination of active tectonics, heat, and fluids. Not only does the volcanic system generate stresses that reach close to the failure strength of the rocks involved, but when combined with active pore fluid the process of stress corrosion allows the rock mass to deform and creep at stresses far lower than Ss. Despite the obvious geological hazard that edifice failure poses, the phenomenon of creep in volcanic rocks at elevated temperatures has yet to be thoroughly investigated in a well controlled laboratory setting. We present new data using rocks taken from Stromboli, El Heirro and Teide volcanoes in order to better understand the interplay between the fundamental rock mechanics of these basalts and the effects of elevated temperature fluids (activating stress corrosion mechanisms). Experiments were conducted over short (30-60 minute) and long (8-10 hour) time scales. For this, we use the method of Heap et al., (2011) to impose a constant stress (creep) domain deformation monitored via non-contact axial displacement transducers. This is achieved via a conventional triaxial cell to impose shallow conditions of pressure (<25 MPa) and temperature (<200 °C), and equipped with a 3D laboratory seismicity array (known as acoustic emission, AE) to monitor the micro

  13. Improvements on the seismic catalog previous to the 2011 El Hierro eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; del Fresno, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Precursors from the submarine eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands) in 2011 included 10,000 low magnitude earthquakes and 5 cm crustal deformation within 81 days previous to the eruption onset on the 10th October. Seismicity revealed a 20 km horizontal migration from the North to the South of the island and depths ranging from 10 and 17 km with deeper events occurring further South. The earthquakes of the seismic catalog were manually picked by the IGN almost in real time, but there has not been a subsequent revision to check for new non located events jet and the completeness magnitude for the seismic catalog have strong changes during the entire swarm due to the variable number of events per day. In this work we used different techniques to improve the quality of the seismic catalog. First we applied different automatic algorithms to detect new events including the LTA-STA method. Then, we performed a semiautomatic system to correlate the new P and S detections with known phases from the original catalog. The new detected earthquakes were also located using Hypoellipse algorithm. The resulting new catalog included 15,000 new events mainly concentrated in the last weeks of the swarm and we assure a completeness magnitude of 1.2 during the whole series. As the seismicity from the original catalog was already relocated using hypoDD algorithm, we improved the location of the new events using a master-cluster relocation. This method consists in relocating earthquakes towards a cluster of well located events instead of a single event as the master-event method. In our case this cluster correspond to the relocated earthquakes from the original catalog. Finally, we obtained a new equation for the local magnitude estimation which allow us to include corrections for each seismic station in order to avoid local effects. The resulting magnitude catalog has a better fit with the moment magnitude catalog obtained for the strong earthquakes of this series in previous studies

  14. On the relation between crustal deformation and seismicity during the 2012-2014 magmatic intrusions in El Hierro island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; García-Cañada, Laura; Ángeles Benito Saz, María; Del Fresno, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    The last volcanic eruption in the Canary Islands took place in 2011 less than 2 km offshore El Hierro island, after 3 months of measuring surface deformation (up to 5 cm) and locating more than 10 000 earthquakes. In the two years following the end of the submarine eruption on 5 March 2012, six deep magmatic intrusions were recorded beneath the island. Despite the short time duration of these intrusions, these events have been more energetic that the 2011 pre-eruptive intrusive event but none of them ended in a new eruption. These post-eruptive reactivations are some of the few examples in the world of well monitored magmatic intrusions related with monogenetic volcanism. In order to understand these processes we have analyzed the geodetic and seismic data with different techniques. First, we did a joint hypocentral relocation of the six seismic swarms, including more than 6 300 events, to analyze the relative distribution of the earthquakes from different intrusions. The uncertainties of the earthquakes relocations was reduced to an average value of 300 m. New earthquakes' distribution shows the alignments of the different intrusions and a temporal migration of the events to larger depths. Moreover, we show the results of the ground deformation using GPS data from the network installed on the island (for each of the six intrusive events) and their inversion considering spherical models. In most of the intrusions the optimal source model was shallower and southern than the corresponding seismicity hypocenters. The intruded magma volume ranges from 0.02 to 0.13 km3. Finally, we also computed the b value from the Gutenberg Richter equation by means of a bootstrap method. The spatial and temporal evolution of the b value for the seismicity show a clear correlation with the temporal evolution of the crustal deformation. The six magma intrusions can be grouped, depending on their location, in three pairs each one associated with each of the three active rifts of El

  15. Enhancement of sub-daily positioning solutions for surface deformation surveillance at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prates, G.; García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.; Berrocoso, M.

    2013-06-01

    El Hierro Island in the Canary Archipelago recently experienced a submerged eruption a few kilometers off its southern shore, detected 2011 October 10 on the island's south-rift alignment. The seismic activity suddenly increased around mid 2011 July, and ground deformation was then detected on the only geodetic benchmark that is continuously observed by global navigation satellite systems techniques and provides public data access. Based on that information, several other global navigation satellite system signal receivers were deployed on the island to provide continuous observation. For data collected by these receivers, a processing strategy was applied to achieve millimeter-level half-hourly positioning solutions. Position updates every 24 h are satisfactory to determine tectonic-plates' velocities. Updates near 1 s or less are required to characterize seismic waves. In between, minute-level updates are well suited for monitoring active volcano's inflation or deflation, providing an optimal time resolution of the local ground deformation. In half-hourly positioning solutions, the heterogeneous satellites' distribution in their orbital planes gives different constraints during satellite-constellation revolution, which can bias the solutions. Also, several geophysical influences can bias the solutions, including those related to gravitational movements. These influences have mostly semi-diurnal periodicities and may be considered Gaussian colored noise on the position's time series. Daily solutions that average out these influences can be applied in active volcanoes, but they can impose some limitations because they average the daily deformation, and the update waiting time is not suitable when near real-time surveillance is mandatory. These semi-diurnal biases do need to be removed or minimized to achieve millimeter-level sub-daily positioning solutions, however, and to do so, a discrete Kalman filter was applied to enhance the half-hourly positioning solutions

  16. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    PubMed Central

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Arístegui, J.; Alonso-González, I. J.; Hernández-León, S.; Blanco, M. J.; Rodríguez-Santana, A.; Hernández-Guerra, A.; Gelado-Caballero, M. D.; Eugenio, F.; Marcello, J.; de Armas, D.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Montero, M. F.; Laetsch, D. R.; Vélez-Belchí, P.; Ramos, A.; Ariza, A. V.; Comas-Rodríguez, I.; Benítez-Barrios, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. PMID:22768379

  17. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Magdalena Santana-Casiano, J.; González-Dávila, Melchor

    2014-05-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments.

  18. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response.

    PubMed

    Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Santana-Casiano, J M; Arístegui, J; Alonso-González, I J; Hernández-León, S; Blanco, M J; Rodríguez-Santana, A; Hernández-Guerra, A; Gelado-Caballero, M D; Eugenio, F; Marcello, J; de Armas, D; Domínguez-Yanes, J F; Montero, M F; Laetsch, D R; Vélez-Belchí, P; Ramos, A; Ariza, A V; Comas-Rodríguez, I; Benítez-Barrios, V M

    2012-01-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments.

  19. The magmatic plumbing system beneath El Hierro (Canary Islands): constraints from phenocrysts and naturally quenched basaltic glasses in submarine rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroncik, Nicole A.; Klügel, Andreas; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2009-05-01

    A thermobarometric and petrologic study of basanites erupted from young volcanic cones along the submarine portions of the three El Hierro rift zones (NE-Rift, NW-Rift and S-Ridge) has been performed to reconstruct magma plumbing and storage beneath the island. Mineral-melt thermobarometry applied to naturally quenched glass and clinopyroxene rims yields pressures ranging from 350 to 1070 MPa with about 80% of the calculated pressures being in the range of 600-800 MPa. This corresponds to a depth range of 19-26 km, implying that the main level of final crystal fractionation is within the uppermost mantle. No systematic dependence between sample locality and fractionation pressures could be observed. Olivine and clinopyroxene crystals in the rocks are complexly zoned and have, on an inter-sample as well as on an intra-sample scale, highly variable core and rim compositions. This can best be explained by mixing of multiply saturated (olivine, magnetite, clinopyroxene, ilmenite), moderately evolved magmas with more mafic magmas being either only saturated with olivine + spinel or with olivine + spinel + clinopyroxene. The inter-sample differences indicate derivation from small, isolated magma chambers which have undergone distinct fractionation and mixing histories. This is in contrast to oceanic intraplate volcanoes situated on plumes with high melt supply rates, e.g. Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii), where magma is mainly transported through a central conduit system and stored in a shallow magma chamber prior to injection into the rift zones. The plumbing system beneath El Hierro rather resembles the magma storage systems beneath, e.g. Madeira or La Palma, indicating that small, intermittent magma chambers might be a common feature of oceanic islands fed by plumes with relatively low fluxes, which results in only limited and periodic magma supply.

  20. Spatio-temporal occurrence of eruptions in El Hierro (Canary Islands). Sequential steps for long-term volcanic hazard assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Bartolini, Stefania; Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; María Morales, José; Galindo, Inés; Geyer, Adelina

    2014-05-01

    Long term volcanic hazard assessment requires the attainment of several sequential steps, including the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterization of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios to get qualitative and representative results. Volcanic hazard assessment has not been yet systematically conducted in the Canary Islands, in spite of being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest and latest island affected by an eruption in the Canary Islands. We analyze the past eruptive activity (how), the spatial probability (where), and the temporal probability (when) on the island. Looking at the past eruptive behavior of the island, and assuming future eruptive patterns will be similar, we try to identify the most likely set of volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards that could occur in the future (eg. lava flows, pyroclastic fallout, and pyroclastic density currents) and estimate their probability of occurrence. The final result shows the first volcanic hazard map of the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of long term volcanic hazard at El Hierro Island with regard to previous studies. The obtained results should represent the main pillars on which to build risk mitigation programs as it is required for territorial planning and to develop emergency plans. This research was partially funded by IGME, CSIC and the European Commission (FT7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO"), and MINECO grant GL2011-16144-E.

  1. Mantle to surface degassing of carbon- and sulphur-rich alkaline magma at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longpré, Marc-Antoine; Stix, John; Klügel, Andreas; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    2017-02-01

    Basaltic volcanoes transfer volatiles from the mantle to the surface of the Earth. The quantification of deep volatile fluxes relies heavily on estimates of the volatile content of primitive magmas, the best archive of which is provided by melt inclusions. Available data from volcanoes producing mafic alkaline lavas in a range of tectonic settings suggest high volatile fluxes, but information remains sparse, particularly for intraplate ocean islands. Here we present measurements of volatile and trace element concentrations, as well as sulphur speciation, in olivine-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glasses from quenched basanite lava balloon samples from the 2011-2012 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands. The results reveal remarkably high concentrations of dissolved volatiles and incompatible trace elements in this magma, with ∼80 ppm Nb and up to 3420 ppm CO2, 3.0 wt.% H2O and 5080 ppm S. Reconstructed primitive CO2 contents, considering CO2/Nb systematics and possible CO2 sequestration in shrinkage bubbles, reach weight percent levels, indicating that carbon is a major constituent of Canary Island magmas at depth and that exsolution of a CO2-rich fluid begins in the mantle at pressures in excess of 1 GPa. Correlations between sulphur concentration, sulphur speciation and water content suggest strong reduction of an initially oxidised mantle magma, likely controlled by coupled H2O and S degassing. This late-stage redox change may have triggered sulphide saturation, recorded by globular sulphide inclusions in clinopyroxene and ulvöspinel. The El Hierro basanite thus had a particularly high volatile-carrying capacity and released a minimum of 1.3-2.1 Tg CO2 and 1.8-2.9 Tg S to the environment, causing substantial stress on the local submarine ecosystem. These results highlight the important contribution of alkaline ocean island volcanoes, such as the Canary Islands, to volatile fluxes from the mantle.

  2. Geochemical monitoring network at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and during 2011 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, P. A.; Meletlidis, S.; Luengo-Oroz, N.; Moure, D.; Rodero, C.; Villasante-Marcos, V.; Abella, R.; López, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Since 17 July 2011 an important increase in the number of seismic events located in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) was detected by the seismic network of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (I.G.N.). This increment was interpreted as a precursory signal of a potential eruption, which in fact took place three months later (10th October 2011). In order to improve and complete the volcano monitoring network several geochemical parameters were measured since the beginning of the anomalous seismic activity. Measurements of CO2 diffuse flux through the soil were carried out in the major part of the island: the central zone, El Golfo (northern area) and the zone delimitated by the western rift. More than 450 measurements were accomplished during July, August, and September 2011. Analysis of the data revealed the existence of a spatial anomaly with relative high CO2 diffuse flux in the southwest part of the El Golfo area, close to the zone where the anomalous seismicity was located. This abnormal flux, almost aligned with the western limit of the seismic swarm, was not detected again in measurements accomplished on September in the same area. Between July and August, four geochemical stations were installed in three sub-horizontal galleries and in one well. Air and soil temperature were measured in all galleries and air 222Rn concentration was determined in the four stations. Two of the galleries were also equipped with a sensor in order to obtain measurements of CO2 concentration in the air. The sampling period for each parameter was established in ten minutes. Anomalous high 222Rn concentrations were detected in the station located in the well, apparently related to increases in the seismic accumulated energy and the GPS deformation rates. Taking into account the location of the earthquake epicentres and in order to study the evolution over the time of some physicochemical parameters of groundwater, four wells in the El Golfo area were regularly sampled since July 2011

  3. Ultramafic Volcanism Associated With the El Golfo Giant Lateral Collapse, El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longpré, M.; Troll, V. R.; Hansteen, T. H.; Walter, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    It is firmly established that giant landslides play a key role in the evolution of ocean island volcanoes. On- and off-shore studies of e.g. Réunion Island, the Hawaiian, Canarian, and Cape Verdean archipelagoes confirm enormous landslide volumes up to thousands of km3 and runout distances frequently exceeding a hundred km [1]. Accelerated post-collapse volcanism has been witnessed at strato-volcanoes (e.g. Bezymianny, Mt. St. Helens), but may also be common for shield-volcanoes (Waianae, Oahu [2]; Teno, Tenerife [3]). The extent of this phenomenon and its consequences for the magmatic plumbing system of the volcanic edifice are poorly constrained. Between 15-134 ka, the El Golfo giant lateral collapse removed a 150-180 km3 sector of the volcanic edifice of El Hierro, the youngest and westernmost of the Canary Islands. Although no major volcanic edifice has been established since the collapse, post-El Golfo landslide volcanic vents concentrate at the base of the collapse scarp while additonal eruptions occurred along the triaxial rift system of the island [4]. Whilst pre- collapse volcanics include relatively differentiated rocks (up to trachytes, SiO2 ~55 wt%, MgO ~1.5 wt% [4]), a drastic change in the volcanic regime is reflected in the post-collapse eruptions of crystal-rich (up to 60 volume %, with megacrysts up to 3 cm in size) lava flows and pyroclastics (basanites, ankaramites, and picrites, SiO2 <45 wt%, MgO = 6-15 wt%). Chemical thermobarometry [5] using augite and olivine (Fo 71-81) rims, fused groundmass, and whole rock compositions of post-collapse samples indicates that crystallisation mostly occurred in the uppermost mantle at pressures and temperatures in the range of 7-13 kbar and 1150-1250°C, respectively. Most volcanics include several crystal populations, including complex normal and reverse zonation patterns. Narrow outer rims (last ~20 μm) of the augite and olivine crystals commonly show a sharp decrease in Mg# (from ~80 to ~70). We propose

  4. Xenopumice erupted on 15 October 2011 offshore of El Hierro (Canary Islands): a subvolcanic snapshot of magmatic, hydrothermal and pyrometamorphic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Meletlidis, S.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Agostini, S.; Ridolfi, F.; Renzulli, A.

    2015-06-01

    On 15 October 2011, a submarine eruption offshore of El Hierro Island gave rise to floating volcanic products, known as xenopumices, i.e., pumiceous xenoliths partly mingled and coated with the juvenile basanitic magma. Over the last few years, no consensus in the scientific community in explaining the origin of these products has been reached. In order to better understand the formation of xenopumice, we present a textural, mineralogical, and geochemical study of the possible magmatic, hydrothermal, and pyrometamorphic processes, which usually operate in the plumbing systems of active volcanoes. We carried out a comprehensive SEM investigation and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses on some samples representative of three different xenopumice facies. All the data were compared with previous studies, new data for El Hierro extrusives and a literature dataset of Canary Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks. In the investigated xenopumices, we emphasize the presence of restitic magmatic phases as well as crystallization of minerals (mainly olivine + pyroxene + magnetite aggregates) as pseudomorphs after pre-existing mafic phenocrysts, providing evidence of pyrometamorphism induced by the high-T juvenile basanitic magma. In addition, we identify veins consisting of zircon + REE-oxides + mullite associated with Si-rich glass and hydrothermal quartz, which indicate the fundamental role played by hydrothermal fluid circulation in the xenopumice protolith. The petrological data agree with a pre-syneruptive formation of the xenopumice, when El Hierro basanite magma intruded hydrothermally altered trachyandesite to trachyte rocks and triggered local partial melting. Therefore, the El Hierro xenopumice represents a snapshot of the transient processes at the magma-wall rock interface, which normally occurs in the feeding system of active volcanoes.

  5. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  6. Diffuse H_{2} emission: a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity at El Hierro volcano system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; González-Santana, Judit; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of interfering processes affecting reactive gases as CO2 during its ascent from magmatic bodies or hydrothermal systems toward the surface environment hinders the interpretation of their enrichments in the soil atmosphere and fluxes for volcano monitoring purposes (Marini and Gambardella, 2005). These processes include gas scrubbing by ground-waters and interaction with rocks, decarbonatation processes, biogenic production, etc. Within the rest of the soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to light and highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. H2 is one of the most abundant trace species in volcano-hydrothermal systems and is a key participant in many redox reactions occurring in the hydrothermal reservoir gas (Giggenbach, 1987). Although H2 can be produced in soils by N2-fixing and fertilizing bacteria, soils are considered nowadays as sinks of molecular hydrogen (Smith-Downey et al., 2006). Because of its chemical and physical characteristics, H2 generated within the crust moves rapidly and escapes to the atmosphere. These characteristics make H2 one of the best geochemical indicators of magmatic and geothermal activity at depth. El Hierro is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands and the scenario of the last volcanic eruption of the archipelago, a submarine eruption that took place 2 km off the southern coast of the island from October 2011 to March 2012. Since at El Hierro Island there are not any surface geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Here we show the results of soil H2 emission surveys that have been carried out regularly since mid-2012. Soil gas samples were collected in ˜600 sites selected based on their accessibility and geological criteria. Soil gases were sampled at ˜40

  7. The 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption: estimation of erupted lava flow volume on the basis of helicopter thermal surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, P. A.; Calvari, S.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Padron, E.; Pérez, N.; Melian, G.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on 10 October, followed on the afternoon of 12 October by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing, and abundant bombs on a decimetre scale found floating on the ocean surface offshore, southwest of La Restinga village. The Canary Government raised the alert level from green to yellow on 10 October (3 colour basis: green, yellow, and red). Further episodes have occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. Colour of the discoloured area has changed frequently from light green to dark brown, depending on the eruptive activity. During the whole eruptive period, The Volcanological Institute of Canary Islands and the Helicopter Unit of the Spanish Civil Guard have carried out regularly thermal surveys with a hand held FLIR Thermal Camera P65. The images have been collected taking care of avoiding solar reflection (with cloudy weather) or at times of the day without direct sun light. Air temperature and humidity were measured with a handled thermo-hygrometer every time before the thermal image collection, and measurements were always performed at two fixed heights: 2000 and 1000 feet, and images were collected as perpendicular as possible to the surface. Together with thermal images, digital photos of the surface have

  8. Deployment of a seismic array for volcano monitoring during the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abella, R.; Almendros, J.; Carmona, E.; Martin, R.

    2012-04-01

    On 17 July 2011 there was an important increase of the seismic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). This increase was detected by the Volcano Monitoring Network (Spanish national seismic network) run by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). As a consequence, the IGN immediately deployed a dense, complete monitoring network that included seismometers, GPS stations, geochemical equipment, magnetometers, and gravity meters. During the first three months of activity, the seismic network recorded over ten thousand volcano-tectonic earthquakes, with a maximum magnitude of 4.6. On 10 October 2011 an intense volcanic tremor started. It was a monochromatic signal, with variable amplitude and frequency content centered at about 1-2 Hz. The tremor onset was correlated with the initial stages of the submarine eruption that occurred from a vent located south of El Hierro island, near the village of La Restinga. At that point the IGN, in collaboration with the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica, deployed a seismic array intended for volcanic tremor monitoring and analysis. The seismic array is located about 7 km NW of the submarine vent. It has a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system sampling each channel at 100 sps. The array is composed by 1 three-component and 9 vertical-component seismometers, distributed in a flat area with an aperture of 360 m. The data provided by the seismic array are going to be processed using two different approaches: (1) near-real-time, to produce information that can be useful in the management of the volcanic crisis; and (2) detailed investigations, to study the volcanic tremor characteristics and relate them to the eruption dynamics. At this stage we are mostly dedicated to produce fast, near-real-time estimates. Preliminary results have been obtained using the maximum average cross-correlation method. They indicate that the tremor wavefronts are highly coherent among array stations and propagate across the seismic array with an

  9. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  10. Different deformation patterns using GPS in the volcanic process of El Hierro (Canary Island) 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Cañada, Laura; José García-Arias, María; Pereda de Pablo, Jorge; Lamolda, Héctor; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Ground deformation is one of the most important parameter in volcano monitoring. The detected deformations in volcanic areas can be precursors of a volcanic activity and contribute with useful information to study the evolution of an unrest, eruption or any volcanic process. GPS is the most common technique used to measure volcano deformations. It can be used to detect slow displacement rates or much larger and faster deformations associated with any volcanic process. In volcanoes the deformation is expected to be a mixed of nature; during periods of quiescence it will be slow or not present, while increased activity slow displacement rates can be detected or much larger and faster deformations can be measure due to magma intrusion, for example in the hours to days prior a eruption beginning. In response to the anomalous seismicity detected at El Hierro in July 2011, the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) improved its volcano monitoring network in the island with continuous GPS that had been used to measure the ground deformation associated with the precursory unrest since summer 2011, submarine eruption (October 2011-March 2012) and the following unrest periods (2012-2013). The continuous GPS time series, together with other techniques, had been used to evaluate the activity and to detect changes in the process. We investigate changes in the direction and module of the deformation obtained by GPS and they show different patterns in every unrest period, very close to the seismicity locations and migrations.

  11. A new Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn (VERDI): Application to El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Becerril, L.; Martí, J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the most important issues in modern volcanology is the assessment of volcanic risk, which will depend - among other factors - on both the quantity and quality of the available data and an optimum storage mechanism. This will require the design of purpose-built databases that take into account data format and availability and afford easy data storage and sharing, and will provide for a more complete risk assessment that combines different analyses but avoids any duplication of information. Data contained in any such database should facilitate spatial and temporal analysis that will (1) produce probabilistic hazard models for future vent opening, (2) simulate volcanic hazards and (3) assess their socio-economic impact. We describe the design of a new spatial database structure, VERDI (Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn), which allows different types of data, including geological, volcanological, meteorological, monitoring and socio-economic information, to be manipulated, organized and managed. The root of the question is to ensure that VERDI will serve as a tool for connecting different kinds of data sources, GIS platforms and modeling applications. We present an overview of the database design, its components and the attributes that play an important role in the database model. The potential of the VERDI structure and the possibilities it offers in regard to data organization are here shown through its application on El Hierro (Canary Islands). The VERDI database will provide scientists and decision makers with a useful tool that will assist to conduct volcanic risk assessment and management.

  12. Seismic hydraulic fracture migration originated by successive deep magma pulses: The 2011-2013 seismic series associated to the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Moreno, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; García-Yeguas, A.; Prudencio, J.; Morales, J.; Tuvè, T.; García, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this manuscript we present a new interpretation of the seismic series that accompanied eruptive activity off the coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, during 2011-2013. We estimated temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b value throughout the period of analysis, and performed high-precision relocations of the preeruptive and syneruptive seismicity using a realistic 3-D velocity model. Our results suggest that eruptive activity and the accompanying seismicity were caused by repeated injections of magma from the mantle into the lower crust. These magma pulses occurred within a small and well-defined volume resulting in the emplacement of fresh magma along the crust-mantle boundary underneath El Hierro. We analyzed the distribution of earthquake hypocenters in time and space in order to assess seismic diffusivity in the lower crust. Our results suggest that very high earthquake rates underneath El Hierro represent the response of a stable lower crust to stress perturbations with pulsatory character, linked to the injection of magma from the mantle. Magma input from depth caused large stress perturbations to propagate into the lower crust generating energetic seismic swarms. The absence of any preferential alignment in the spatial pattern of seismicity reinforces our hypothesis that stress perturbation and related seismicity, had diffusive character. We conclude that the temporal and spatial evolution of seismicity was neither tracking the path of magma migration nor it defines the boundaries of magma storage volumes such as a midcrustal sill. Our conceptual model considers pulsatory magma injection from the upper mantle and its propagation along the Moho. We suggest, within this framework, that the spatial and temporal distributions of earthquake hypocenters reflect hydraulic fracturing processes associated with stress propagation due to magma movement.

  13. Submarine seismic monitoring of El Hierro volcanic eruption with a 3C-geophone string: applying new acquisition and data processing techniques to volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lopez, Carmen; Blanco, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose

    2015-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2011 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. Right after the eruption onset, in October 2011 a geophone string was deployed by the CSIC-IGN to monitor seismic activity. Monitoring with the seismic array continued till May 2012. The array was installed less than 2 km away from the new vol¬cano, next to La Restinga village shore in the harbor from 6 to 12m deep into the water. Our purpose was to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. Each geophone consists on a 3-component module based on 3 orthogonal independent sensors that measures ground velocity. Some of the geophones were placed directly on the seabed, some were buried. Due to different factors, as the irregular characteristics of the seafloor. The data was recorded on the surface with a seismometer and stored on a laptop computer. We show how acoustic data collected underwater show a great correlation with the seismic data recorded on land. Finally we compare our data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing). This evidence is disclosing new and innovative tecniques on monitoring submarine volcanic activity. Reference Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), "Serie El Hierro." Internet: http://www.ign.es/ign/resources /volcanologia/HIERRO.html [May, 17. 2013

  14. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F. C.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Pedroza, K.

    2012-03-01

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the

  15. Crustal Deformation During the 2011 Volanic Crisis of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Revealed by Continuous GPS Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagiya, T.; Barrancos Martinez, J.; Calvo, D.; Padron, E.; Hernandez, G. H.; Hernández, P. A.; Perez Rodriguez, N.; Suárez, J. M. P.

    2012-04-01

    Seismo-volcnic activity of El Hierro started in the middle of July of 2011 and resulted in the active submarine eruption after October 12 south off La Restinga, the southern tip of the island. We have been operating one continuous GPS site on the island since 2004. Responding to the activity, we quickly installed 5 more GPS sites. Including another site operated by the Canary Islands Cartograhical Service (GRAFCAN) for a cartographic purpose, we have been monitoring 7 GPS sites equipped with dual-frequency receivers. We present the result of our crustal deformation monitoring and the magmatic activity inferred from the deformation data. In accordance with the deformation pattern, we divide the volcanic activity in 2011 into 4 stages. The first stage is from the middle of July to middle of September, during which steady magmatic inflation is estimated at the center of the island. The inflated volume of the first stage is estimated to be about 1.3 X 107 m3 at the depth of about 5km. The second stage, which continued until the first submarine eruption on October 12, is characterized by the accelerated deformation due to the upward as well as southward migration of magma. Additional inflation of about 2.1 X 107 m3 occurred in the depth range of 1-2km. The third stage continued for about 3 weeks after the first submarine eruption. During this stage, submarine eruption continues while no significant surface deformation is observed. It is considered magma supply from a deeper magma chamber continued during this 3 weeks period. Therefore, the total inflation volume during the first two stages gives the minimum estimate for the total magma volume. Since the beginning of November 2011, many GPS sites started subsiding. However, this deflation pattern is quite different from those in the shallow inflation stages. Horizontal deformation during this 4th stage is not significant, implying that deflation is occurring below the moho.

  16. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Vermamoeba vermiformis Strains from Soil Sources in El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Furthermore, some genera/species of FLA such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. are also able to cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals. More recently, FLA have been reported to be environmental carriers of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses, and thus have gained further importance from the public health point of view. Among them, Acanthamoeba spp. and Vermamoeba vermiformis have been described in many occasions as the most common carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium spp. In this study, 24 soil samples were collected from the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Soil samples were cultured on 2 % non-nutrient agar plates covered with a thin layer of heat-killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 5 of the 24 processed samples (20.8 %) incubated at room temperature and 37 °C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirming that the isolated strains belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species. The high percentage of V. vermiformis in the studied soil sources should raise awareness in the region since these amoebae are potential environmental carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance.

  17. CO2-SO3-rich (carbonate-sulfate) melt/fluids in the lithosphere beneath El Hierro, Canary Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglialoro, E.; Ferrando, S.; Malaspina, N.; Villa, I. M.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from the island of El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands, have been studied to characterize fluxes of carbon in the lithosphere of an OIB volcanism region. Fifteen xenoliths (4-10 cm in diameter) were collected in a rift lava flow (15-41 ka) at a new xenolith locality in El Julan cliff (S-SW of the island). Peridotites consist of protogranular to porphyroblastic spinel harzburgites, lherzolites, and subordinate dunites. One spinel clinopyroxenite, and one olivine-websterite were also analyzed. Ultramafic xenoliths were classified as HEXO (harzburgite and dunite with exsolved orthopyroxene), HLCO (harzburgite and lherzolite containing orthopyroxene without visible exsolution lamellae), and HTR (transitional harzburgite with exsolved orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, and poikilitic orthopyroxene) following [1]. While HLCO and HTR peridotites contain mostly CO2 fluid inclusions, HEXO peridotites preserve an early association of melt/fluid inclusions containing dominantly carbonate/sulfate/silicate glass, evolving to carbonate/sulfate/phosphate/spinel aggregates, with exsolved CO2 (± carbonates, anhydrite and H2O). Chemical and Raman analyses identify dolomite, Mg-calcite, anhydrite, sulfohalite [Na6(SO4)2FCl] (± other anhydrous and hydrous alkali-sulfates), apatite, and Cr-spinel in the inclusions. Sulfides are noticeably absent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the metasomatic fluids indicate that the peridotites were infiltrated by a carbonate-sulfate-silicate melt/fluid enriched in CO2, H2O, and P. A mantle origin for this fluid is supported by high densities of CO2inclusions (> 1g/cm3), determined by Raman microspectroscopy and cross-checked by microthermometry. Consequently, El Julan peridotites provide the first evidence for liberating oxidized C and S fluxes from the Earth lithosphere in an OIB source region, and suggest that oxidation of sulfide to sulfate can occur during small-degree partial melting of the upper mantle

  18. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain) using extreme value theory, and the recent volcanic eruption of El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Mendoza-Rosas, A. T.; Gómez, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 years, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterise the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. Shortly after the publication of this method an eruption in the island of El Hierro took place for the first time in historical times, supporting our method and contributing towards the validation of

  19. Three-armed rifts or masked radial pattern of eruptive fissures? The intriguing case of El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Martí, J.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2015-04-01

    Using new surface structural data as well as subsurface structural data obtained from seventeen water galleries, we provide a comprehensive model of the volcano-tectonic evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands). We have identified, measured and analysed more than 1700 volcano-structural elements including vents, eruptive fissures, dykes and faults. The new data provide important information on the main structural patterns of the island and on its stress and strain fields, all of which are crucial for reliable hazard assessments. We conducted temporal and spatial analyses of the main structural elements, focusing on their relative age and association with the three main cycles in the construction of the island: the Tiñor Edifice, the El Golfo-Las Playas Edifice, and the Rift Volcanism. A radial strike distribution, which can be related to constructive episodes, is observed in the on-land structures. A similar strike distribution is seen in the submarine eruptive fissures, which are radial with respect to the centre of the island. However, the volcano-structural elements identified onshore and reflecting the entire volcano-tectonic evolution of the island also show a predominant NE-SW strike, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary archipelago as a whole. Two other dominant directions of structural elements, N-S and WNW-ESE, are evident from the establishment of the El Golfo-Las Playas edifice, during the second constructive cycle. We suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses in each of the volcanic edifices. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures reflect local stress fields related to the formation of mega-landslides and masking the general and regional radial patterns.

  20. Assessing the vulnerability of the evacuation emergency plan: the case of the El Hierro, Canary Island, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. M.; Garcia, A.; Llinares, A.; Lopez, P.; Ortinz, R.

    2012-04-01

    On July 17, 2011 an unrest was detected in the El Hierro island. A serretian submarine eruption started on October 10th in the southern area of the island, two miles away from La Restinga village. The analysis and interpretation of seismic and deformation data show a large volume of intruded magma. These data also show a high probability of a new vent opening. One of the most complex volcanic hazard scenarios is a new open vent in the El Golfo Valley, in the north slope of the island, where more than 5,000 people live. In this area there are only two possible terrestrial evacuation routes: 1) HI-1 road NE direction, the fastest but most vulnerable one, very near a 1,000 meters height cliff and through a 2 km tunnel with a structural deficiency that had to be closed during high energy periods of seismic activity; and 2) HI-1 road SW direction, a mountain road with many curves, frequent small landslides and fog. The Emergency Plan of the island takes into account the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley in case of eruption. This process will be carried out by means of an assisted evacuation. The evacuees will be transported to a temporally regrouping shelter outside the valley to organize the transport to Tenerife Island. Only those people who have a second residence or relatives outside the affected area will be able to remain in the island. The evacuation time estimated by authorities for the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley is of about 4 hours. This is extremely low considering: the complexity of the area; the number of evacuees; the lack of preparedness by the population; and adverse weather conditions. To evaluate the Evacuation Plan vulnerability, a series of evacuation scenarios have been simulated: self-evacuation; assisted evacuation; both terrestrial evacuation routes. The warning time, the response time by the population and the evacuation time have been taken into account.

  1. Xenopumices from the 2011-2012 submarine eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): Constraints on the plumbing system and magma ascent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Iribarren, I.; Felpeto, A.; Torres, P. A.; D'Oriano, C.

    2012-09-01

    Textures, petrography and geochemical compositions of products emitted during the onset of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption (15 October, 2011) off the coast of El Hierro have been investigated to get information on interaction mechanism between the first rising magma and the crust during the onset of the eruption as well as to get information on magma storage and plumbing systems beneath El Hierro volcano. Studied products consist of 5-50 cm bombs with an outer black to greenish, vesicular crust with bulk basanite composition containing pumiceous xenoliths (xenopumices). Our results show that xenopumices are much more heterogeneous that previously observed, since consist of a macro-scale mingling of a gray trachyte and white rhyolite. We interpreted xenopumices as resulting from the interaction (heating) between the basanitic magma feeding the eruption, a stagnant trachytic magma pocket/s and an associated hydrothermally altered halo with rhyolitic composition. Our findings confirm the importance of the study of the early products of an eruption since they can contain crucial information on the plumbing system geometry and the mechanism of magma ascent.

  2. Relative and probabilistic non linear relocation of the seismicity of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): Implications for the 2011-2012 eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Garcia-Yeguas, Araceli; De Angelis, Silvio; Prudencio, Janire; Ibañez, Jesus M.; Morales, José; Koulakov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, SPAIN) has recently attracted the interest of the international volcanological community. During a prolonged period of seismic and volcanic unrest, between July 2011 and April 2013, the local seismic network recorded more than 15,000 earthquakes accompanied by a submarine eruption. In this study we present an exhaustive relocation analysis of the original seismic catalog using two well established methods double-difference relative relocation (HypoDD), and probalistic non-linear location (NLLoc). Our relocations are based on 3D velocity models that were obtained from an active-source tomography experiment in the Canary Islands. The relocations constrain the spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity, and help to shed light on the patterns of stress propagation, and areas of crustal weakness under the island. The results show that the seismicity each of unrest recorded during this period is located within a small region close to the center of the island and located around 12 to 14 km depth. Then, the seismicity migrates away from the island. We confirm the presence of a high-velocity block centered underneath El Hierro (up to 15km depth) observed by other authors. This block may represent a barrier to magma propagation and it corresponds to the location of the bulk of seismicity at the beginning of each phase.

  3. Modelling framework developed for managing and forecasting the El Hierro 2011-2014 unrest processes based on the analysis of the seismicity and deformation data rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Alicia; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    In July 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain), a volcanic unrest was detected, with significant deformations followed by increased seismicity. A submarine eruption started on 10 October 2011 and ceased on 5 March 2012, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through February 2012. However, the seismic activity did not end when the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed since. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. In all cases the seismic activity was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GNSS-GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma injection processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy released has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening. The model presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself.

  4. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO2 degassing at El Hierro volcanic system: Relation to the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Nolasco, Dacil

    2014-09-01

    We report herein the results of extensive diffuse CO2 emission surveys performed on El Hierro Island in the period 1998-2012. More than 17,000 measurements of the diffuse CO2 efflux were carried out, most of them during the volcanic unrest period that started in July 2011. Two significant precursory signals based on geochemical and geodetical studies suggest that a magma intrusion processes might have started before 2011 in El Hierro Island. During the preeruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep-seated magmatic gases to the surface. The second one, between 24 October and 27 November 2011, started before the most energetic seismic events of the volcanic-seismic unrest. The data presented here demonstrate that combined continuous monitoring studies and discrete surveys of diffuse CO2 emission provide important information to optimize the early warning system in volcano monitoring programs and to monitor the evolution of an ongoing volcanic eruption, even though it is a submarine eruption.

  5. Short-term volcano-tectonic earthquake forecasts based on a moving mean recurrence time algorithm: the El Hierro seismo-volcanic crisis experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Alicia; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Marrero, José M.; Ortiz, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Under certain conditions, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes may pose significant hazards to people living in or near active volcanic regions, especially on volcanic islands; however, hazard arising from VT activity caused by localized volcanic sources is rarely addressed in the literature. The evolution of VT earthquakes resulting from a magmatic intrusion shows some orderly behaviour that may allow the occurrence and magnitude of major events to be forecast. Thus governmental decision makers can be supplied with warnings of the increased probability of larger-magnitude earthquakes on the short-term timescale. We present here a methodology for forecasting the occurrence of large-magnitude VT events during volcanic crises; it is based on a mean recurrence time (MRT) algorithm that translates the Gutenberg-Richter distribution parameter fluctuations into time windows of increased probability of a major VT earthquake. The MRT forecasting algorithm was developed after observing a repetitive pattern in the seismic swarm episodes occurring between July and November 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands). From then on, this methodology has been applied to the consecutive seismic crises registered at El Hierro, achieving a high success rate in the real-time forecasting, within 10-day time windows, of volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

  6. Insights into the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) from statistical analyses of earthquake activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; Díaz-Moreno, A.; Hernández, P.; Alguacil, G.; Posadas, A.; Pérez, N.

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to gain insights into the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands) by mapping the evolution of the seismic b-value. The El Hierro seismic sequence offers a rather unique opportunity to investigate the process of reawakening of an oceanic intraplate volcano after a long period of repose. The 2011-2012 eruption is a submarine volcanic event that took place about 2 km off of the southern coast of El Hierro. The eruption was accompanied by an intense seismic swarm and surface manifestations of activity. The earthquake catalogue during the period of unrest includes over 12 000 events, the largest with magnitude 4.6. The seismic sequence can be grouped into three distinct phases, which correspond to well-separated spatial clusters and distinct earthquake regimes. The estimated b-value is of 1.18 ± 0.03, and a magnitude of completeness of 1.3, for the entire catalogue. B is very close to 1.0, which indicates completeness of the earthquake catalogue with only minor departures from the linearity of Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution. The most straightforward interpretation of this result is that the seismic swarm reached its final stages, and no additional large magnitude events should be anticipated, similarly to what one would expect for non-volcanic earthquake sequences. The results, dividing the activity in different phases, illustrate remarkable differences in the estimate of b-value during the early and late stages of the eruption. The early pre-eruptive activity was characterized by a b-value of 2.25. In contrast, the b-value was 1.25 during the eruptive phase. Based on our analyses, and the results of other studies, we propose a scenario that may account for the observations reported in this work. We infer that the earthquakes that occurred in the first phase reflect magma migration from the upper mantle to crustal depths. The area where magma initially intruded into the crust, because of its transitional nature

  7. The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island: effects on the scattering migrant biota and the evolution of the pelagic communities.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community.

  8. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  9. The Submarine Volcano Eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the Scattering Migrant Biota and the Evolution of the Pelagic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. PMID:25047077

  10. The 2011 volcanic crisis at El Hierro (Canary Islands): monitoring ground deformation through tiltmeter and gravimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoso, J.; Montesinos, F. G.; Benavent, M.; Vélez, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is an ocean island located at the western end of the Canary Islands, and along with Tenerife and La Palma islands have been the most geologically active in the recent past. The island has a triple armed rift and, presently, is at the stage of growth, representing the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the seafloor at depth of 4000 m up to 1501 m above the sea level (Münn et al., 2006; Carracedo et al., 1999). Since July 19th, 2011 seismic activity has produced more than 11950 events up to date. The seismic crisis resulted in a volcanic eruption that began on October 10th, being still currently active. The new volcano is located 2 km off the coast and about 300 m depth, in the submarine flank of the southern rift of the island, which is extended some 40 km length. Since September 2004 until November 2010 two continuous tilt stations were installed at the north, Balneario site (BA), and at the center of the island, Aula de la Naturaleza (AU) site. Both stations were used to assess the pattern of local ground movements in the island. When seismic swarm started on past July 2011, we have reinstalled both tilt stations (BA and AU) and 2 new ones located at the south of the island, namely Montaña Quemada (MQ) and Restinga (RE) sites. We have used short base platform tiltmeters that measure ground tilts with resolutions varying from 0.1 up to 0.01 microradians (µrad). On October 8th, a 4.4 magnitude earthquake took place and is supposed that fractured the ocean crust at some 8-10 km off the south coast of the island and about 1000 m depth. Typical spike signals were observed at the tilt stations. Two days after, the eruption onset was recorded also at tilt stations through a remarkable increase of the high frequency signal, being of large amplitude the components (radial) orientated towards the new volcano edifice. When compared with previous tiltmeter records in the island, tilt pattern were clearly modified several times at the stations when strong

  11. ConSCRIPT

    PubMed Central

    Mottarella, Scott E.; Rosa, Mario; Bangura, Abdul; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Craig, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Structural Biology Extensible Visualization Scripting Language (SBEVSL) project is to allow users who are experts in one scripting language to use that language in a second molecular visualization environment without requiring the user to learn a new scripting language. ConSCRIPT, the first SBEVSL release, is a plug-in for PyMOL that accepts RasMol scripting commands either as premade scripts or as line-by-line entries from PyMOL's own command line. The plug-in is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbevsl/files in the ConSCRIPT folder. PMID:21567873

  12. The Con Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the format of the Con Test, an Australian television game show which followed the same general rules and game play as the UK show PokerFace. At the end of each round a contestant needs to decide whether or not he or she should fold. A contestant needs to know how likely it is that he or she is in last place.…

  13. InSAR techniques for reliable deformation estimation in volcanic areas and a first glance of Tandem-DEM accuracy - test site El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, X.; Eineder, M.; Fritz, T.

    2013-12-01

    The accuracy and availability of deformation measurements using InSAR techniques is limited due to decorrelation effects, atmospheric disturbances and the SAR side-looking geometry (layover and shadowing). In this talk, we present our recent research and achievements on advanced InSAR techniques in order to retrieve reliable deformation signals from active volcanoes using high resolution TerraSAR-X (TSX) images. Another highlight of this talk is the evaluation of an experimental TanDEM-X (TDX) RawDEM with a resolution of approximately 6 m in order to compensate the topographic phase. A volcanic test site which is currently highly active -El Hierro- has been selected to demonstrate the developed techniques: 1) PSI processing in volcanic areas using high resolution TSX images; 2) Mitigation of atmospheric delay distortions; 3) Fusion of multi-geometrical PSI clouds. In order to measure the deformation from 2011 to 2013 at El Hierro [1], two stacks of stripmap TSX Mission data have been acquired, one in ascending orbit and one in descending. Each stack has more than 25 scenes. More than 1.5 million PSs have been detected (SCR>3.0 dB). The stratified atmospheric delay for each acquisition has been integrated for the PSI reference network and, afterwards, interpolated and compensated for all PSs. A linear deformation model has been assumed for PSI processing. For the descending orbit stack, a relative deformation from -21.7 to 131.8 mm/y from Sep. 2011 to Jan. 2013 with respect to a reference point located on the northeast coast has been measured. On the one hand, the spatial variation of the deformation has a good agreement with the seismicity distribution [1]. On the other hand, the deformation magnitude agrees with in-situ GPS measurements [2]. In ascending orbit, the linear deformation rate varies from -22.8 to 90.9 mm/y. This different range of value is due to a scene acquired on Feb. 2010, which has been included in order to obtain the pre-seismic deformation

  14. Multi-level magmatic system of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) constrained by multi-satellite radar interferometry measurements during the 2011-2012 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, P. J.; Samsonov, S. V.; Pepe, S.; Tiampo, K. F.; Tizzani, P.; Fernandez, J.; Sansosti, E.

    2012-12-01

    Starting from July 2011, anomalous seismicity was observed at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). During the following three months, seismic activity increased both in number of events and in magnitude, while expanding over a large area. In early October 2011 the process led to a submarine eruption, with some uncertainty about the location and timing of vent(s) opening. The site of the eruption was ~10 km from the initial and main earthquake loci, indicative of significant lateral migration. Here, we conduct a multi-frequency, multi-sensor interferometric analysis of space-borne radar images acquired using three different satellites (Radarsat-2, ASAR-ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed). Radar interferometry is used to measure the deformation that occurred from December 2009 to July 2012. InSAR data fully captures both the pre-, co- and post-eruptive phases. Subsequently, elastic modeling of the ground deformation is employed to constrain the dynamics associated with the magmatic and eruptive activity. This study represents one of the first geodetically-constrained active magmatic plumbing system model for any of the Canary Islands volcanoes, and one of the few examples of geodetic measurement of submarine volcanic activity to date. It reveals a complex magmatic system with multiple levels of stagnation, a deeper central system (~8.5 km depth) and a shallower magma reservoir at the flank of the southern rift (~4 km depth). Before eruption, magma propagated ~5 km downrift towards the eruption fissure. From mid-November 2011 to early January 2012 the system was continuously recharged from source(s) deeper than 10 km, which contributed to a relatively atypical long duration for a basaltic eruption (~5 months). The submarine eruption finished on early March 2012. However, on June 24, 2012 the seismic activity resumed and intense ground deformation has been recorded. The anomalous seismicity continued for a month depicting a clear, but different migration path with respect

  15. New Features in the Subsurface Structure Model of El Hierro Island (Canaries) from Low-Frequency Microseismic Sounding: An Insight into the 2011 Seismo-Volcanic Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatikov, A. V.; Montesinos, F. G.; Arnoso, J.; Stepanova, M. Yu; Benavent, M.; Tsukanov, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    To study the deep structure of El Hierro Island, Canarian Archipelago, we have used a microseismic sounding method (MSM) based on the fact that heterogeneities of the Earth's crust disturb the spectrum of the low-frequency microseismic field in their vicinity. So, at the Earth's surface, the spectral amplitudes of definite frequency f above the high-velocity heterogeneities are decreasing, and above the low-velocity ones they are increasing. Moreover, the frequency f is connected with the depth of a heterogeneity H and the velocity of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves V R( f) through the relation H ≈ 0.4 V R( f)/ f. From these relations, the MSM lets us model the subsurface structure in a 3D context by inverting the amplitude-frequency spatial distribution of the microseismic field of low frequency. The validity of the method is shown through of numerical simulations and previous applications with known or verified solutions. This MSM is now used to invert the microseismic data registered in El Hierro Island. The obtained subsurface model reveals two large intrusive bodies beneath the island. Joint interpretation of microseismic and gravimetric data and their comparison with the available geological studies relate the central-eastern intrusive body to the early stage of the island formation. With respect to the western intrusive body, at the depths of 15-25 km, an area with lowest seismic velocities is identified, where we suggest that a modern magmatic reservoir is located. This reservoir could be associated with the recent submarine eruption in October 2011 and the accompanying seismic swarm, which started in July 2011. Several correlations between the shallowest structures identified by the gravity and MSM approaches are also found. Besides the numerical simulation and previous studies of this method, the correlation between gravity results, the MSM model, the geological information and the possible explanation of the features of the seismic swarm through

  16. [Lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis. The results of the Clínica Puerta de Hierro (Madrid) and the Hospital La Fe (Valencia)].

    PubMed

    Lázaro-Carrasco, M T; Morales, P; Ferreiro, M J; Borro, J M; Varela, A; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Estada, J A

    1999-05-01

    Retrospective analysis of cystic fibrosis patients who underwent pulmonary transplantation at Clínica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, and at Hospital La Fe, Valencia. Since the beginning of the programme and until March 1998, a total of 63 patients with cystic fibrosis were studied. Among transplanted patients, 18 were males and 16 females, with a mean age of 18.9 years. All patients underwent sequential bilateral pulmonary transplantation. After transplantation, the most common complication was bacterial pneumonia which affected all patients. Six patients had dehiscence or stenosis of the bronchial suture. Other specific complications of this condition by frequency were intestinal obstruction and diabetes mellitus. Six patients developed obliterans bronchiolitis and one of them underwent a repeat transplantation. Three out of the 34 patients died, and the likelihood of survival after one and three years was 94%. Respiratory function tests and PaO2 peaked at sixth post-transplantation month. Pulmonary transplantation is a therapeutic option to be considered for the patient with cystic fibrosis and severe involvement of his/her pulmonary disease.

  17. Applying fractal dimensions and energy-budget analysis to characterize fracturing processes during magma migration and eruption: 2011-2012 El Hierro (Canary Islands) submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Carmen; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Tarraga, Marta

    2014-05-01

    The impossibility of observing magma migration inside the crust obliges us to rely on geophysical data and mathematical modelling to interpret precursors and to forecast volcanic eruptions. Of the geophysical signals that may be recorded before and during an eruption, deformation and seismicity are two of the most relevant as they are directly related to its dynamic. The final phase of the unrest episode that preceded the 2011-2012 eruption on El Hierro (Canary Islands) was characterized by local and accelerated deformation and seismic energy release indicating an increasing fracturing and a migration of the magma. Application of time varying fractal analysis to the seismic data and the characterization of the seismicity pattern and the strain and the stress rates allow us to identify different stages in the source mechanism and to infer the geometry of the path used by the magma and associated fluids to reach the Earth's surface. The results obtained illustrate the relevance of such studies to understanding volcanic unrest and the causes that govern the initiation of volcanic eruptions.

  18. Applying Fractal Dimensions and Energy-Budget Analysis to Characterize Fracturing Processes During Magma Migration and Eruption: 2011-2012 El Hierro (Canary Islands) Submarine Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Carmen; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Tarraga, Marta

    2014-07-01

    The impossibility of observing magma migration inside the crust obliges us to rely on geophysical data and mathematical modelling to interpret precursors and to forecast volcanic eruptions. Of the geophysical signals that may be recorded before and during an eruption, deformation and seismicity are two of the most relevant as they are directly related to its dynamic. The final phase of the unrest episode that preceded the 2011-2012 eruption on El Hierro (Canary Islands) was characterized by local and accelerated deformation and seismic energy release indicating an increasing fracturing and a migration of the magma. Application of time varying fractal analysis to the seismic data and the characterization of the seismicity pattern and the strain and the stress rates allow us to identify different stages in the source mechanism and to infer the geometry of the path used by the magma and associated fluids to reach the Earth's surface. The results obtained illustrate the relevance of such studies to understanding volcanic unrest and the causes that govern the initiation of volcanic eruptions.

  19. Probabilistic approach to decision making under uncertainty during volcanic crises. Retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; Kilburn, Christopher; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the potential evolution of a volcanic crisis is crucial to improving the design of effective mitigation strategies. This is especially the case for volcanoes close to densely-populated regions, where inappropriate decisions may trigger widespread loss of life, economic disruption and public distress. An outstanding goal for improving the management of volcanic crises, therefore, is to develop objective, real-time methodologies for evaluating how an emergency will develop and how scientists communicate with decision makers. Here we present a new model BADEMO (Bayesian Decision Model) that applies a general and flexible, probabilistic approach to managing volcanic crises. The model combines the hazard and risk factors that decision makers need for a holistic analysis of a volcanic crisis. These factors include eruption scenarios and their probabilities of occurrence, the vulnerability of populations and their activities, and the costs of false alarms and failed forecasts. The model can be implemented before an emergency, to identify actions for reducing the vulnerability of a district; during an emergency, to identify the optimum mitigating actions and how these may change as new information is obtained; and after an emergency, to assess the effectiveness of a mitigating response and, from the results, to improve strategies before another crisis occurs. As illustrated by a retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands, BADEMO provides the basis for quantifying the uncertainty associated with each recommended action as an emergency evolves, and serves as a mechanism for improving communications between scientists and decision makers.

  20. On the biology of Spiruroidea parasites of murine rodents on El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) with molecular characterization of Streptopharagus greenbergi Wertheim, 1993.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Isabel; Sánchez, Santiago; Villa, Mercedes; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Foronda, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the role of darkling beetles Pimelia laevigata costipennis and Hegeter amaroides (Tenebrionidae) as intermediate hosts of spiruroid nematodes parasites of the black rat and house mouse of El Hierro (Canary Islands). Larvae of spiruroid species were found in the two tenebrionids (18.1% in P. l. costipennis, 7.8% in H. amaroides), Streptopharagus greenbergi being predominant in both (16.1% and 7.1%, respectively), ahead of Mastophorus muris and Gongylonema type larva. The larval stages of S. greenbergi are described for the first time, and adult worms were obtained experimentally from an infected laboratory rat, allowing the identification of the species. Morphometric measurements of experimental adults match those of adults detected in naturally infected rats on the island. Molecular data for S. greenbergi, and the ITS nucleotide sequence of the genus Streptopharagus are also provided for the first time. After the isolation of S. greenbergi DNA and amplification of the ITS region, the ITS1 of this spirocercid was sequenced and deposited in the GenBank database.

  1. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  2. Hydrogeochemical variations in groundwater periodically sampled at El Hierro (Canary Islands) and its relationships with the recent eruptive and unrest periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2014-05-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. After the end of the submarine eruption and up to now, several volcanic unrest processes have taken place in the island. The most relevant ones started on June 2012 and March 2013. Each of these periods has been evidenced by intense seismicity and ground deformation. In the framework of this volcanic surveillance program, the IGN team started to periodically sample five groundwater sampling sites. Some parameters have been determined directly in the field (temperature, pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity) and collected samples have been analysed in the laboratory for major (Na, K, NH4, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, CO3, NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO2, Br, F) and trace elements (Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, U) contents. In a few cases samples for the chemical analysis of dissolved gases and for the determination of the isotopic composition of He have been collected at two of the sites. Significant increases in alkalinity have been recorded in all sampling sites correlated both to the eruptive period and also to the following unrest episodes. Such increases are probably related to the dissolution of magmatic CO2 exsolved from the rising magma batches. The magmatic contribution can be confirmed by the isotopic composition of dissolved He showing values in the range from 7.76 to 8.91 R/Ra. Since July 2011, only one important CO2 soil degassing anomaly has been detected. This anomalous flux (620 g/m2.d) was measured in a small area (0.36 km2) before the beginning of the submarine eruption and has not been detected again after the eruption onset

  3. Evolution of submarine eruptive activity during the 2011-2012 El Hierro event as documented by hydroacoustic images and remotely operated vehicle observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Barker, S. J.; Madureira, P.; Medialdea, T.; de Ignacio, C.; Lourenço, N.; León, R.; Vázquez, J. T.; Palomino, D.

    2017-08-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are frequent and important events, yet they are rarely observed. Here we relate bathymetric and hydroacoustic images from the 2011 to 2012 El Hierro eruption with surface observations and deposits imaged and sampled by ROV. As a result of the shallow submarine eruption, a new volcano named Tagoro grew from 375 to 89 m depth. The eruption consisted of two main phases of edifice construction intercalated with collapse events. Hydroacoustic images show that the eruptions ranged from explosive to effusive with variable plume types and resulting deposits, even over short time intervals. At the base of the edifice, ROV observations show large accumulations of lava balloons changing in size and type downslope, coinciding with the area where floating lava balloon fallout was observed. Peaks in eruption intensity during explosive phases generated vigorous bubbling at the surface, extensive ash, vesicular lapilli and formed high-density currents, which together with periods of edifice gravitational collapse, produced extensive deep volcaniclastic aprons. Secondary cones developed in the last stages and show evidence for effusive activity with lava ponds and lava flows that cover deposits of stacked lava balloons. Chaotic masses of heterometric boulders around the summit of the principal cone are related to progressive sealing of the vent with decreasing or variable magma supply. Hornitos represent the final eruptive activity with hydrothermal alteration and bacterial mats at the summit. Our study documents the distinct evolution of a submarine volcano and highlights the range of deposit types that may form and be rapidly destroyed in such eruptions.Plain Language SummaryToday and through most of geological history, the greatest number and volume of volcanic eruptions on Earth have occurred underwater. However, in comparison to subaerial eruption, little is known about submarine eruptive processes as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.4361G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.4361G"><span>Magma storage and migration associated with the 2011-2012 El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> eruption: Implications for crustal magmatic systems at oceanic island volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González, Pablo J.; Samsonov, Sergey V.; Pepe, Susi; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Fernández, José; Camacho, Antonio G.; Sansosti, Eugenio</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Starting in July 2011, anomalous seismicity was observed at El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> Island, a young oceanic island volcano. On 12 October 2011, the process led to the beginning of a submarine NW-SE fissural eruption at ~15 km from the initial earthquake loci, indicative of significant lateral magma migration. Here we conduct a multifrequency, multisensor interferometric analysis of spaceborne radar images acquired using three different satellite systems (RADARSAT-2, ENVISAT, and COSMO-SkyMed (Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean Basin Observation)). The data fully captures both the pre-eruptive and coeruptive phases. Elastic modeling of the ground deformation is employed to constrain the dynamics associated with the magmatic activity. This study represents the first geodetically constrained active magmatic plumbing system model for any of the Canary Islands volcanoes, and one of the few examples of submarine volcanic activity to date. Geodetic results reveal two spatially distinct shallow (crustal) magma reservoirs, a deeper central source (9.5 ± 4.0 km), and a shallower magma reservoir at the flank of the southern rift (4.5 ± 2.0 km). The deeper source was recharged, explaining the relatively long basaltic eruption, contributing to the observed island-wide uplift processes, and validating proposed active magma underplating. The shallowest source may be an incipient reservoir that facilitates fractional crystallization as observed at other Canary Islands. Data from this eruption supports a relationship between the depth of the shallow crustal magmatic systems and the long-term magma supply rate and oceanic lithospheric age. Such a relationship implies that a factor controlling the existence/depth of shallow (crustal) magmatic systems in oceanic island volcanoes is the lithosphere thermomechanical behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615418M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615418M"><span>A new approach to the unrest and subsequent eruption at El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> Island (2011) based on petrological, seismological, geodetical and gravimetric data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meletlidis, Stavros; Di Roberto, Alessio; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; Pompilio, Massimo; García-Cañada, Laura; Bertagnini, Antonella; Benito Saz, Maria Angeles; Del Carlo, Paola; Sainz-Maza Aparicio, Sergio; Lopez Moreno, Carmen; Moure García, David</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A shallow submarine eruption took place on 10th October 2011, about 1.8 km off the coast of La Restinga, a small village located in El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> (Canary Islands, Spain). The eruption lasted for about four months and ended by early March 2012. The eruption was preceded by an unrest episode that initiated about three months before, in July 2011, and characterized by more than 10,000 localized earthquakes accompanied by up to 5 cm of vertical ground deformation. In the Canary Islands, this event represents the first case of an eruption that was monitored since the unrest to the end by the monitoring network of IGN (Instituto Geográfico National), providing a huge dataset that includes geophysical (seismic, magnetic and gravimetric), geodetic, geochemistry and petrological data. In this work we use the seismic, GPS and gravity records collected by IGN along with the petrological data derived from the study of various lava balloons, scoriaceous fragments and ash.Geophysical and geochemical monitoring tools provide a variety of information that need to be interpreted in terms of magma movement and/or interaction of magma with host rocks. We present a model, based on this data, which describes the intrusion and ascent of the magma. According to this model, a major intrusion beneath and around preexisting high-density magmatic bodies, localized in the central sector of the island, led to an eruption in the Southern sector of the island. After a failed attempt to reach the surface, while various dykes were emplaced, through a low fractured area in the Central and Northern parts of the island, the ascending magma finally found its way in the submarine area of La Restinga, in the South rift zone, at a depth of 350 m below sea level. Feeding of the eruption was achieved by the ascension of an important volume of material from the upper mantle which was emplaced near the crust-mantle boundary. However, the very energetic post-eruptive unrests - we had five episodes up today with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P43A0904J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P43A0904J"><span>Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey in the Peña de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jernsletten, J. A.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>This report describes the outcome of a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey carried out in the Peña de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), during May and June of 2003. The MARTE Peña de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> field area is located between the towns of Rio Tinto and Nerva in the Andalucia region of Spain. It is about one hour drive West of the city of Sevilla, and also about one hour drive North of Huelva. The high concentration of dissolved iron (and smaller amounts of other metals) in the very acidic water in the Rio Tinto area gives the water its characteristic wine red color, and also means that the water is highly conductive, and such an acidic and conductive fluid is highly suited for exploration by electromagnetic methods. This naturally acidic environment is maintained by bacteria in the groundwater and it is these bacteria that are the main focus of the MARTE project overall, and of this supporting geophysical work. It is the goal of this study to be able to map the subsurface extent of the high conductivity (low resistivity) levels, and thus by proxy the subsurface extent of the acidic groundwater and the bacteria populations. In so doing, the viability of using electromagnetic methods for mapping these subsurface metal-rich water bodies is also examined and demonstrated, and the geophysical data will serve to support drilling efforts. The purpose of this field survey was an initial effort to map certain conductive features in the field area, in support of the drilling operations that are central to the MARTE project. These conductive features include the primary target of exploration for MARTE, the very conductive acidic groundwater in the area (which is extremely rich in metals). Other conductive features include the pyretic ore bodies in the area, as well as extensive mine tailings piles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27559045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27559045"><span>Mincle Signaling Promotes <span class="hlt">Con</span> A Hepatitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Con</span> A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in <span class="hlt">Con</span> A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine <span class="hlt">Con</span> A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in <span class="hlt">Con</span> A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against <span class="hlt">Con</span> A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in <span class="hlt">Con</span> A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of <span class="hlt">Con</span> A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5026929','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5026929"><span>Mincle Signaling Promotes <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A Hepatitis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Concanavalin-A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42...58G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42...58G"><span>Galaxias australes <span class="hlt">con</span> núcleo doble</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.</p> <p></p> <p>Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes <span class="hlt">con</span> núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones <span class="hlt">con</span> el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15073003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15073003"><span>Ge<span class="hlt">Con</span>T: gene context analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ciria, R; Abreu-Goodger, C; Morett, E; Merino, E</p> <p>2004-09-22</p> <p>The fact that adjacent genes in bacteria are often functionally related is widely known. Ge<span class="hlt">Con</span>T (Gene Context Tool) is a web interface designed to visualize genome context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologs in all the completely sequenced genomes. The graphical information of Ge<span class="hlt">Con</span>T can be used to analyze genome annotation, functional ortholog identification or to verify the genomic context congruence of any set of genes that share a common property. http://www.ibt.unam.mx/biocomputo/gecont.html</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=company+AND+management&pg=2&id=EJ885998','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=company+AND+management&pg=2&id=EJ885998"><span>Inter<span class="hlt">Con</span> Travel Health: Case B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Inter<span class="hlt">Con</span> provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=health+AND+insurance+AND+management+AND+system&id=EJ885998','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=health+AND+insurance+AND+management+AND+system&id=EJ885998"><span>Inter<span class="hlt">Con</span> Travel Health: Case B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Inter<span class="hlt">Con</span> provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4138816','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4138816"><span>Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante <span class="hlt">con</span> osteolisis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente <span class="hlt">con</span> un ependimoma sacro <span class="hlt">con</span> extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 <span class="hlt">con</span> extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa <span class="hlt">con</span> mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros <span class="hlt">con</span> destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/41995','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/41995"><span>Conserva a Puerto Rico <span class="hlt">con</span> bosques maderables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Frank H. Wadsworth</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>[article in Spanish] Puerto Rico consume muchos productos forestales costosos de importar. También tiene bosques extensos <span class="hlt">con</span> maderas explotables. Además, existen condiciones físicas favorables para la producción de madera útil. No obstante, hoy día no se utiliza la madera de los bosques actuales ocurre la deforestación para cualquier fin. Los Bosques productivos de...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20232594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20232594"><span>Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412345B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412345B"><span>Estimated CO2, SO2 and H2S emission to the atmosphere from the 2011 El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> submarine eruption (Canary Islands) on the basis of helicopter gas surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Pérez, N. M.; Melian, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>An accurate estimation of SO2 emission rates is an important issue to elucidate the activity of volcanoes, moreover the monitoring of its temporal evolution might help to predict a possible eruption and thus, save the loss of human's lives in cities nearby volcanoes. In the lasts years new instruments have been developed and improved, in order to be more portable, cheaper and lighter. The miniDOAS consist of a small spectrometer with a lens for collecting scattered UV light, and are controlled/powered via USB with a laptop. Recently, new technical developments have allowed monitoring the emission of other gas species such as CO2, H2S, etc from volcanic plumes by means of portable multisensor system. With both devices we were able to evaluate the SO2 emission rates and the molar ratios of major volcanic gas components, respectively. Multiplying the observed SO2 emission rate times the observed (gas)i/SO2 mass ratios (CO2/SO2 and H2S/SO2) allowed us to estimate other volatiles emission rates. Between November 11, 2011, and January 16, 2012, and as a consequence of the submarine volcanic eruption started on October 10, 2011, south off shore El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span>, Canary Islands, a regularly monitoring of the volcanic plume from the submarine volcano has been performed with remote sensors, always depending of helicopter availability. The instruments are mounted aboard on a helicopter belonged to the Helicopter Unit of Spanish Civil Guard. The SO2 flux measured during this period showed a maximum SO2 emission of 109 ± 19 t/d on November 6, just two days before the occurrence of a intense bubbling at the sea surface on November 8, producing a water, gas and ash column of about 15 meters over the sea surface. That day, CO2 and H2S emission also reached the maximum measured, with 5400 t/d and 3.6 t/d, respectively. Since then, SO2, CO2 and H2S emission rates have declined to values close to detection limit (~ 2 t/d for SO2). These results report the first SO2 emission rates measured</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol2-sec319-301.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol2-sec319-301.pdf"><span>9 CFR 319.301 - Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans. Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans shall contain...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol2-sec319-301.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol2-sec319-301.pdf"><span>9 CFR 319.301 - Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans. Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans shall contain...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol2-sec319-301.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol2-sec319-301.pdf"><span>9 CFR 319.301 - Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans. Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans shall contain...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec319-301.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec319-301.pdf"><span>9 CFR 319.301 - Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans. Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans shall contain...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec319-300.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol2-sec319-300.pdf"><span>9 CFR 319.300 - Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne. “Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of meat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec319-301.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec319-301.pdf"><span>9 CFR 319.301 - Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans. Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne with beans shall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol2-sec319-300.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol2-sec319-300.pdf"><span>9 CFR 319.300 - Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne. “Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol2-sec319-300.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol2-sec319-300.pdf"><span>9 CFR 319.300 - Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne. “Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec319-300.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol2-sec319-300.pdf"><span>9 CFR 319.300 - Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne. “Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol2-sec319-300.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol2-sec319-300.pdf"><span>9 CFR 319.300 - Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne. “Chili <span class="hlt">con</span> carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/81793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/81793"><span>Energy Star program benefits <span class="hlt">Con</span> Edison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>Impressed with savings in energy costs achieved after upgrading the lighting and air conditioning systems at its Manhattan headquarters, Home Box Office (HBO) wanted to do more, James Flock, vice president for computer and office systems, contacted <span class="hlt">Con</span> Edison Co. of New York in March 1991 to determine what the company could do to save money by reducing energy consumed by personal computers. Arthur Kressner, <span class="hlt">Con</span> Edison Research and Development manager contacted industry organizations and manufacturers for advice, but was told only to shut off computers at night and on weekends. Kressner arranged a series of meetings with IBM and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to discuss the issue, then approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was designing a program to promote the introduction and use of energy-efficient office equipment. In 1992, the EPA announced the Energy Star program for PCs, enabling manufacturers to display the Energy Star logo on machines meeting program criteria, including the ability to enter a sleep mode in which neither the computer nor monitor consume more than 30 W or electricity. Industry experts estimate national energy consumption by office equipment could double by the year 2000, but Energy Star equipment is expected to improve efficiency and help maintain electric loads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3422089','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3422089"><span>Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3278648','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3278648"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of phage therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Loc-Carrillo, Catherine</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Many publications list advantages and disadvantages associated with phage therapy, which is the use of bacterial viruses to combat populations of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this commentary is to discuss many of those issues in a single location. In terms of “Pros,” for example, phages can be bactericidal, can increase in number over the course of treatment, tend to only minimally disrupt normal flora, are equally effective against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, often are easily discovered, seem to be capable of disrupting bacterial biofilms, and can have low inherent toxicities. In addition to these assets, we consider aspects of phage therapy that can contribute to its safety, economics, or convenience, but in ways that are perhaps less essential to the phage potential to combat bacteria. For example, autonomous phage transfer between animals during veterinary application could provide convenience or economic advantages by decreasing the need for repeated phage application, but is not necessarily crucial to therapeutic success. We also consider possible disadvantages to phage use as antibacterial agents. These “<span class="hlt">Cons</span>,” however, tend to be relatively minor. PMID:22334867</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ225097.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ225097.pdf"><span>Games <span class="hlt">Con</span> Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hankiss, Agnes</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male <span class="hlt">con</span> artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the <span class="hlt">con</span>-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=247658&keyword=Italy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90707765&CFTOKEN=51873151','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=247658&keyword=Italy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90707765&CFTOKEN=51873151"><span>Breath Analysis Science at Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> 2012, Orlando, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BAAA...46...95F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BAAA...46...95F"><span>Trazando la materia oscura <span class="hlt">con</span> cúmulos globulares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forte, J. C.</p> <p></p> <p>Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados <span class="hlt">con</span> los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados <span class="hlt">con</span> los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=247658&keyword=chemistry+AND+year+AND+11&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=247658&keyword=chemistry+AND+year+AND+11&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Breath Analysis Science at Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> 2012, Orlando, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/459414','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/459414"><span>Robo<span class="hlt">Con</span>: A general purpose telerobotic control center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of Robo<span class="hlt">Con</span>, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. Robo<span class="hlt">Con</span> is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......778V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......778V"><span>Pro/<span class="hlt">con</span> a precessional geodynamo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vanyo, J.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/<span class="hlt">con</span> conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or <span class="hlt">con</span> a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27514827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27514827"><span>[Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4138825','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4138825"><span>Planificación Neuroquirúrgica <span class="hlt">con</span> Software Osirix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. <span class="hlt">Con</span> este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia <span class="hlt">con</span> el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente <span class="hlt">con</span> meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente <span class="hlt">con</span> macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución <span class="hlt">con</span> una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente <span class="hlt">con</span> lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica <span class="hlt">con</span> el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor <span class="hlt">con</span> las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar <span class="hlt">con</span> costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, <span class="hlt">con</span> el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/cz0044.photos.579137p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/cz0044.photos.579137p/"><span>Detail of <span class="hlt">conning</span> tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detail of <span class="hlt">conning</span> tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/rodenticides/canceling-some-d-con-mouse-and-rat-control-products','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/rodenticides/canceling-some-d-con-mouse-and-rat-control-products"><span>Canceling Some d-<span class="hlt">CON</span> Mouse and Rat Control Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA has reached agreement with the manufacturer, to cancel 12 d-<span class="hlt">CON</span> products that do not meet our testing protocols that better protect children, pets and non-target wildlife from accidental exposure to the pesticide. These products will be phased out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11246808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11246808"><span>Providers debate pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of pneumonia vaccination at discharge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>When to vaccinate against pneumonia? Does it makes sense when patients are in the hospital? Or should patients wait for the first post-op visit with the PCP? Office-based and hospital-based physicians weigh the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of each.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988cert.rept.....G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988cert.rept.....G"><span>Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine <span class="hlt">conning</span> towers and rudders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gleyzes, C.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine <span class="hlt">conning</span> towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://espanol.epa.gov/control-de-plagas/utilice-en-forma-segura-los-productos-con-cebo-para-roedores','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://espanol.epa.gov/control-de-plagas/utilice-en-forma-segura-los-productos-con-cebo-para-roedores"><span>Utilice en forma segura los productos <span class="hlt">con</span> cebo para roedores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos <span class="hlt">con</span> veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=MES&pg=4&id=EJ1032811','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=MES&pg=4&id=EJ1032811"><span>Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the <span class="hlt">Cons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sommer, Robert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16931480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16931480"><span>Opioid analgesics in the substance abuser: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ineck, Joseph R; Rule, Ann M</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of using opioid analgesics to help manage pain in patient with a history of substance abuse are presented. Topics discussed include ethical constructs, efficacy, and safety relating to the use of opioids in patients with substance abuse histories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=retirement&pg=2&id=EJ1032811','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=retirement&pg=2&id=EJ1032811"><span>Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the <span class="hlt">Cons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sommer, Robert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMED43D..06D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMED43D..06D"><span>LunGrad<span class="hlt">Con</span>: The Lunar Graduate Conference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGrad<span class="hlt">Con</span>), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGrad<span class="hlt">Con</span>). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGrad<span class="hlt">Con</span> has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGrad<span class="hlt">Con</span>, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGrad<span class="hlt">Cons</span> and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344404"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Strains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present <span class="hlt">Con</span>Strains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying <span class="hlt">Con</span>Strains to simulated and host-derived datasets provides insights into microbial community dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170006879','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170006879"><span>Tailoring a <span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops for NASA LSP Integrated Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Owens, Skip Clark V., III</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>An integral part of the Systems Engineering process is the creation of a Concept of Operations (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops) for a given system, with the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops initially established early in the system design process and evolved as the system definition and design matures. As Integration Engineers in NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), our job is to manage the interface requirements for all the robotic space missions that come to our Program for a Launch Service. LSP procures and manages a launch service from one of our many commercial Launch Vehicle Contractors (LVCs) and these commercial companies are then responsible for developing the Interface Control Document (ICD), the verification of the requirements in that document, and all the services pertaining to integrating the spacecraft and launching it into orbit. However, one of the systems engineering tools that have not been employed within LSP to date is a Concept of Operations. The goal of this paper is to research the format and content that goes into these various aerospace industry <span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops and tailor the format and content into template form, so the template may be used as an engineering tool for spacecraft integration with future LSP procured launch services. This tailoring effort was performed as the authors final Masters Project in the Spring of 2016 for the Stevens Institute of Technology and modified for publication with INCOSE (Owens, 2016).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932184"><span>A complex photoreceptor system mediates the regulation by light of the conidiation genes <span class="hlt">con</span>-10 and <span class="hlt">con</span>-6 in Neurospora crassa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olmedo, María; Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Luque, Eva M; Corrochano, Luis M</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Genes <span class="hlt">con</span>-10 and <span class="hlt">con</span>-6 in Neurospora crassa are activated during conidiation or after illumination of vegetative mycelia. Light activation requires the white-collar complex (WCC), a transcription factor complex composed of the photoreceptor WC-1 and its partner WC-2. We have characterized the photoactivation of <span class="hlt">con</span>-10 and <span class="hlt">con</span>-6, and we have identified 300bp required for photoactivation in the <span class="hlt">con</span>-10 promoter. A complex stimulus-response relationship for <span class="hlt">con</span>-10 and <span class="hlt">con</span>-6 photoactivation suggested the activity of a complex photoreceptor system. The WCC is the key element for <span class="hlt">con</span>-10 activation by light, but we suggest that other photoreceptors, the cryptochrome CRY-1, the rhodopsin NOP-1, and the phytochrome PHY-2, modify the activity of the WCC for <span class="hlt">con</span>-10 photoactivation, presumably through a repressor. In addition we show that the regulatory protein VE-1 is required for full photocarotenogenesis. We propose that these proteins may modulate the WCC in a gene-specific way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23895123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23895123"><span>Molecular diagnostics: Molecular Med Tri-<span class="hlt">Con</span> 2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klein, Roger D</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The 20th annual Molecular Med Tri-<span class="hlt">Con</span> conference, sponsored by Cambridge Health Institute (MA, USA), consisted of over 250 presentations within five parallel 'channels': 'Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Clinical, Informatics and Cancer', along with five preliminary symposia, 15 short courses, a plenary keynote session entitled 'Personalized Oncology - Fulfilling the Promise for Today's Patients' and a keynote panel entitled, 'Emerging Technologies and Industry Perspectives'. Over 3000 individuals from academia, clinical laboratories and industry were in attendance. This article will focus on the Keynote Session of 'Molecular Diagnostics' track within the Diagnostics Channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.G33A..06R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.G33A..06R"><span>Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos <span class="hlt">con</span> GPS en Guatemala</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robles, V. R.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion <span class="hlt">con</span> GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion <span class="hlt">con</span> GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir <span class="hlt">con</span> GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo <span class="hlt">con</span> GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27314106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27314106"><span>Caffe <span class="hlt">con</span> Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present Caffe <span class="hlt">con</span> Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28398150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28398150"><span><span class="hlt">Conning</span> the conmen: Intelligence and female desire in Dedh Ishqiya.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Shailendra Kumar</p> <p>2017-04-11</p> <p>This article investigates the ostensibly paradoxical relationship that exists between the theme of excessive love, as suggested by the title of Abhishek Chaubey's film Dedh Ishqiya (2014), and the actual representation of it in the movie, which is not only restrained and disproportionate, but is also looked at with suspicion and contempt. It examines the logic of this seeming contradiction through the other two related themes that Chaubey's chef-d'œuvre foregrounds, namely that of intelligence and female desire. The quest for financial autonomy that the female protagonists of the movie are involved in-a necessary pre-condition for leading independent lives-is so inextricably intertwined with manipulation, dexterity, and subterfuge, that any overt expression of homoerotic female desire can only jeopardize their existing possibilities of self-aggrandizement. The heteronormative arrangements of Begum Para's palace thus constitute the elaborate mise en scène, behind which female desire is enacted through a politics of intelligence, resourcefulness, discretion, and anonymity. Through this strategic negotiation, which is also a tactical necessity, the female protagonists are not only able to <span class="hlt">con</span> the <span class="hlt">con</span> men in the movie, but also imagine alternative subject positions that recognize the need for both pragmatism and expediency as well as deconstructing heteropatriarchal economies of desire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1617062','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1617062"><span>Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of an antitumour strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called ‘endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:16501583</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28091967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28091967"><span>Balancing Ethical Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650249"><span>Endoscopic scoring systems for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bisschops, Raf; Neumann, Helmut</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Endoscopy plays a pivotal role for diagnosis and assessment of disease activity and extent in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. International guidelines recommend the use of endoscopic scoring systems for evaluation of the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatments. Ideal scoring systems are easy to use, reproducible, reliable, responsive to changes, and validated in different clinical settings in order to guide therapeutic strategies. However, currently available endoscopic scoring systems often appear as complex for routine endoscopy and suffer from insufficient interobserver agreement and lack of formal validation which often limit their use in clinical trials. Here, we describe the role of endoscopic scoring systems in inflammatory bowel diseases focusing on pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging and mucosal healing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARP48005A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARP48005A"><span>Gradient Optimization for Analytic <span class="hlt">con</span>Trols - GOAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank</p> <p></p> <p>Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic <span class="hlt">con</span>Trols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/492007','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/492007"><span>Robo<span class="hlt">Con</span>: Operator interface for robotic applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schempf, H.; Warwick, J.; Fung, M.; Chemel, B.; Blackwell, M.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Carnegie Mellon U. and ORNL`s Robotics and Process Systems Division are developing a state-of-the-art robot operator control station (Robo<span class="hlt">Con</span>) with standardized hardware and software control interfaces to be adaptable to a variety of remote and robotic equipment currently funded by DOE`s Office of Science & Technology Robotics Technology Development Program. The human operation and telerobotic and supervisory control of sophisticated and remote and robotic systems is a complex, tiring, and non-intuitive activity. Since decontamination & decommissioning, selective equipment removal, mixed waste operations, and in-tank cleanup are going to be a major future activity in DOE environmental restoration and waste management cleanup agenda, it seems necessary to utilize an operator control station and interface which maximizes operator comfort and productivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4906251','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4906251"><span>Caffe <span class="hlt">con</span> Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present Caffe <span class="hlt">con</span> Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs. PMID:27314106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26021098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26021098"><span>[Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez-García, F</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16501583','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16501583"><span>Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of an antitumour strategy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called 'endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6595465','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6595465"><span>Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin, offshore Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McMillen, K.J. ); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. )</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425732','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425732"><span>Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin, offshore Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25823456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25823456"><span>Modulation of <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baintner, Károly</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The early phase of the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2084214','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2084214"><span>Cardiac <span class="hlt">CON</span> Regulations and the Availability and Use of Revascularization Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ho, Vivian; Ross, Joseph S.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background Many states enforce Certificate of Need (<span class="hlt">CON</span>) regulations for cardiac procedures, but little is known about how <span class="hlt">CON</span> affects utilization. We assessed the association between cardiac <span class="hlt">CON</span> regulations, availability of revascularization facilities, and revascularization rates. Methods We determined when state cardiac <span class="hlt">CON</span> regulations were active and obtained data for Medicare beneficiaries ages 65 and older who received coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 1989 and 2002. We compared the number of hospitals performing revascularization and patient utilization in states with and without <span class="hlt">CON</span> regulations, and in states which discontinued <span class="hlt">CON</span> regulations during 1989-2002. Results Each year, the per capita number of hospitals performing CABG and PCI was higher in states without <span class="hlt">CON</span> (3.7 per 100,000 elderly for CABG, 4.5 for PCI in 2002), compared with <span class="hlt">CON</span> states (2.5 for CABG, 3.0 for PCI in 2002). Multivariate regressions that adjusted for market and population characteristics found no difference in CABG utilization rates between states with and without <span class="hlt">CON</span> (p=.7). However, <span class="hlt">CON</span> was associated with 19.2 percent fewer PCIs per 1,000 elderly (p=.01), equivalent to 322,526 fewer PCIs for 1989-2002. Among most states that discontinued <span class="hlt">CON</span>, the number of hospitals performing PCI rose in the mid 1990s, but there were no consistent trends in the number of hospitals performing CABG or in PCIs or CABGs per capita. Conclusions <span class="hlt">CON</span> restricts the number of cardiac facilities, but its effect on utilization rates may vary by procedure. PMID:17893007</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9523519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9523519"><span>Laparoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sardinha, T C; Wexner, S D</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>The role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of colorectal malignancies is still under investigation, although it can offer significant benefits to many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the laparoscopic management of IBD. Data were obtained from a review of the literature published since 1992, when the first report of laparoscopic surgery for IBD appeared in print. From 1992 to 1997 several series of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for the management of IBD have been reported. A close evaluation of these studies revealed that laparoscopy in patients with terminal ileal Crohn's disease or anal Crohn's disease in need of fecal diversion offers significant advantages compared to laparotomy, including decreased pain, length of hospitalization, and disability. An additional bonus is improved cosmesis and a reduction in symptomatic postoperative adhesions. These many benefits can be achieved without any increase in morbidity or expense. Conversely, the use of this technology for restorative proctocolectomy in patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis is associated with a longer operative time and an increased incidence of both intra- and postoperative complications compared to laparotomy. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery can thus be advantageous for treatment of terminal ileal Crohn's disease but cannot be routinely justified for the treatment of mucosal ulcerative colitis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27497811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27497811"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of circumcision: an evidence-based overview.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Friedman, B; Khoury, J; Petersiel, N; Yahalomi, T; Paul, M; Neuberger, A</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Based on three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Africa, it can clearly be stated that circumcision lowers the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among males in settings of high HIV and STI endemicity. Similar effects on STI risk may exist for females, although this may result from an indirect effect of decreasing risk of infection among male partners. It is unknown whether circumcision prevents HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM), although there might be a protective effect for men who engage mainly in insertive anal intercourse. When the effects of adult circumcision on sexual function and satisfaction of men are examined, high-quality evidence strongly supports lack of harm. Whether circumcision alters sexual satisfaction of female partners is not known as fewer and smaller studies reported conflicting results. Circumcision rarely causes serious complications if practiced by trained practitioners, in a sterile setting, and with a proper follow-up. These conclusions are limited by the lack of high-quality data from areas outside of Africa. RCTs have not been conducted to assess the effects of circumcising infants or MSM. Circumcision has well-proven benefits for people residing in areas with high prevalence of STIs, including HIV, and is not unethical for those who choose to be circumcised or have their children circumcised on religious, social, or cultural grounds. For many others, a definite pro or <span class="hlt">con</span> recommendation, based on a risk-benefit ratio, cannot be made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3627716','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3627716"><span>Percutaneous coronary intervention in nonagenarians: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Abbate, Antonio; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Presutti, Davide; Peruzzi, Mariangela; Cavarretta, Elena; Marullo, Antonino G.M.; Lotrionte, Marzia; Frati, Giacomo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Percutaneous coronary intervention is a mainstay in the management of symptomatic or high-risk coronary artery disease. The bulk of clinical evidence and experience underlying this fact relies, however, on relatively young patients. Indeed, few data of very limited quality are available which adequately define the risk-benefit and cost-benefit profile of coronary angioplasty and stenting in very old subjects, such as those of 90 years of age or older (i.e., nonagenarians). The aim of this review is to provide a concise, yet practical, synthesis of the available evidence on percutaneous coronary revascularization in the very elderly. The main arguments elaborated upon are to what extent we can extrapolate findings from studies including younger patients to nonagenarians, whether we should provide higher priority to prognosis or quality of life in such patients, and whether we can afford to allocate vast resources to care for such subjects in an era of financial constraints. Our review of 18 studies and 1082 patients suggest that percutaneous coronary intervention is feasible and associated with acceptable short- and long-term results in this population, which is nonetheless fraught with a high mortality risk irrespective of the revascularization procedure. Accordingly, the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of percutaneous coronary intervention should be carefully weighed when considering this treatment in nonagenarians. PMID:23610578</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3657352','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3657352"><span>Immune cascades in human intervertebral disc: the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Xu-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Gao, Yang; Samartzis, Dino; Wang, Hai-Qiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The unique structural hallmark of the intervertebral disc has made its central composition, the nucleus pulposus (NP), excluded from the immunologic tolerance. Consequently, the intervertebral disc is identified as an immune-privileged organ. Traditionally, local detrimental immune activities caused by NP at the lesion sites of the disc are noted as a significant factor contributing to disc degeneration. However, given the beneficial activities of immune cells in other immune-privileged sites on basis of current evidence, the degenerate disc might need the assistance of a subpopulation of immune cells to restore its structure and lessen inflammation. In addition, the beneficial impact of immune cells can be seen in the absorption of the herniated NP, which is an important factor causes the mechanical compression of nerve roots. Consequently, a modulated immune network in degenerate disc is essential for the restoration of this immune-privileged organ. Until now, the understandings of immune response in disc degeneration still rest on the harmful aspect. Further studies are needed to explore its beneficial influence. Accordingly, there are no absolutely the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> in terms of immune reactions caused by NP. PMID:23696917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23696917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23696917"><span>Immune cascades in human intervertebral disc: the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Xu-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Gao, Yang; Samartzis, Dino; Wang, Hai-Qiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The unique structural hallmark of the intervertebral disc has made its central composition, the nucleus pulposus (NP), excluded from the immunologic tolerance. Consequently, the intervertebral disc is identified as an immune-privileged organ. Traditionally, local detrimental immune activities caused by NP at the lesion sites of the disc are noted as a significant factor contributing to disc degeneration. However, given the beneficial activities of immune cells in other immune-privileged sites on basis of current evidence, the degenerate disc might need the assistance of a subpopulation of immune cells to restore its structure and lessen inflammation. In addition, the beneficial impact of immune cells can be seen in the absorption of the herniated NP, which is an important factor causes the mechanical compression of nerve roots. Consequently, a modulated immune network in degenerate disc is essential for the restoration of this immune-privileged organ. Until now, the understandings of immune response in disc degeneration still rest on the harmful aspect. Further studies are needed to explore its beneficial influence. Accordingly, there are no absolutely the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> in terms of immune reactions caused by NP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21423244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21423244"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of screening for occult Cushing syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tabarin, Antoine; Perez, Paul</p> <p>2011-03-22</p> <p>Systematic screening studies performed mainly in patients with diabetes mellitus have revealed an unexpectedly high prevalence of occult Cushing syndrome. Such studies may provide a rationale for systematically screening obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, a screening strategy is only justified if it is supported by enough evidence of its efficacy and if the benefits will outweigh drawbacks. To date, the natural history of occult Cushing syndrome and its possible effect on long-term morbidity are unknown. The clinical spectrum of occult Cushing syndrome and its relatively low prevalence may potentially negatively affect the performance of endocrine tests used to diagnose overt Cushing syndrome and generate false positives. Whether the cure of occult Cushing syndrome favorably influences clinical outcomes and is more beneficial than treatment of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors with currently available pharmacological tools remains to be demonstrated. Last, the acceptability of a screening program by professionals and the health-care system in terms of workload and costs is highly questionable. Thus, an assessment of the indications for and against screening for occult Cushing syndrome on the basis of currently available data suggests that, to date, the <span class="hlt">cons</span> surpass the pros.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3134802','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3134802"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Medical Management of Ulcerative Colitis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Shen, Bo</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation limited to the colon and rectum. Although a complete medical cure may not be possible, UC can be treated with medications that induce and maintain remission. The medical management of this disease continues to evolve with a goal to avoid colectomy and ultimately alter the natural history of UC. Emergence of antitumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) agents has expanded the medical armamentarium. 5-Aminosalicylates continue to be used in mild to moderate UC and corticosteroids are mainly used for induction of remission with immunomodulators (6-mercaptopurine/azathiopurine/methotrexate) being applied as steroid-sparing agents for maintenance therapy. Infliximab has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and used in the treatment of moderate to severe UC; nevertheless, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects and have a negative impact on the postoperative course should the patients undergo restorative proctocolectomy. In addition, there is always a concern about patients' compliance to medical therapy, cost of medications, and risk for UC-associated dysplasia. The authors discuss the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of medications used in the treatment of UC. PMID:22131893</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014954','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014954"><span>Pros, <span class="hlt">Cons</span>, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=220925&keyword=networking&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=220925&keyword=networking&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> 2010, Orlando, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span>" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> began in 1950 as a small sp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21778533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21778533"><span>Gestational surrogacy: could be a way to be a way to reproduction? Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clementina, Peris</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The aim of this article was to address pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of gestational surrogacy, the social and psychological issues involved in surrogate motherhood triads. Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of surrogacy, the possible insurgence of a hematologic disease in the fetus, hemolytic disease of the newborn, naturally acquired microchimerism in surrogacy cases, ethical, medical, psychologic, legal and religious issues of a problem are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=220925&keyword=cope&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78686258&CFTOKEN=49496288','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=220925&keyword=cope&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78686258&CFTOKEN=49496288"><span>Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> 2010, Orlando, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span>" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> began in 1950 as a small sp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dictionaries+AND+Thesauri&pg=4&id=EJ515100','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dictionaries+AND+Thesauri&pg=4&id=EJ515100"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Search: An Electronic Document Research and Retrieval Utility for Windows from Management Information Technologies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Combs, Joseph, Jr.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Reviews <span class="hlt">Con</span>Search 3.0, a product that provides flexible searching of electronic files, allowing the location of related meanings as well as exact matches. <span class="hlt">Con</span>Search 3.0 differs from other file retrieval approaches by relating words in search phrases of questions to the "meaning" of the words, which are stored in a "conceptual…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26866697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26866697"><span>Self-Exfoliated Guanidinium-Based Ionic Covalent Organic Nanosheets (i<span class="hlt">CONs</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitra, Shouvik; Kandambeth, Sharath; Biswal, Bishnu P; Khayum M, Abdul; Choudhury, Chandan K; Mehta, Mihir; Kaur, Gagandeep; Banerjee, Subhrashis; Prabhune, Asmita; Verma, Sandeep; Roy, Sudip; Kharul, Ulhas K; Banerjee, Rahul</p> <p>2016-03-02</p> <p>Covalent organic nanosheets (<span class="hlt">CONs</span>) have emerged as functional two-dimensional materials for versatile applications. Although π-π stacking between layers, hydrolytic instability, possible restacking prevents their exfoliation on to few thin layered <span class="hlt">CONs</span> from crystalline porous polymers. We anticipated rational designing of a structure by intrinsic ionic linker could be the solution to produce self-exfoliated <span class="hlt">CONs</span> without external stimuli. In an attempt to address this issue, we have synthesized three self-exfoliated guanidinium halide based ionic covalent organic nanosheets (i<span class="hlt">CONs</span>) with antimicrobial property. Self-exfoliation phenomenon has been supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation as well. Intrinsic ionic guanidinium unit plays the pivotal role for both self-exfoliation and antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using such i<span class="hlt">CONs</span>, we have devised a mixed matrix membrane which could be useful for antimicrobial coatings with plausible medical benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831263"><span>Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Challa, Siva Reddy</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26634231','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26634231"><span>Synergistic hemolysins of coagulase-negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Różalska, Małgorzata; Derczyńska, Anna; Maszewska, Agnieszka</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A total of 104 coagulase negative staphylococci, belonging to S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. warneri, originating from the collection of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (ZMF), Medical University of Lodz, Poland, were tested for their synergistic hemolytic activity. 83% of strains produced δ-hemolysin, however, the percentage of positive strains of S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. capitis and S. hominis was different - 98%, 78%, 75% and 68%, respectively. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained from culture supernatants by protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate (0-70% of saturation) and extraction by using a mixture of organic solvents. The purity and molecular mass of hemolysins was determined by TRIS/Tricine PAGE. All <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> hemolysins were small peptides with a molar mass of about 3.5 kDa; they possessed cytotoxic activity against the line of human foreskin fibroblasts ATCC Hs27 and lysed red cells from different mammalian species, however, the highest activity was observed when guinea pig, dog and human red blood cells were used. The cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts occurred within 30 minutes. The S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain was used as a control. The antimicrobial activity was examined using hemolysins of S. capitis, S. hominis, S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Hemolysins of the two S. cohnii subspecies did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. Cytolysins of S. capitis and S. hominis had a very narrow spectrum of action; out of 37 examined strains, the growth of only Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pasteurella multocida was inhibited.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799199"><span>Antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>): emergence of teicoplanin-non-susceptible <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> strains with inducible resistance to vancomycin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Xiao Xue; Wang, En Hua; Liu, Yong; Luo, En Jie</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Coagulase-negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>) have become increasingly recognized as important agents of nosocomial infection. One of the characteristics of <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> is their resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> strains (n = 745) isolated from a university teaching hospital in China between 2004 and 2009 were tested for antibiotic resistance. The antibiotics were placed into three categories based on resistance levels of the <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> strains to these antibiotics: high resistance (resistance rate >70 %), including penicillin G, oxacillin and erythromycin; medium resistance (resistance rate between 30 and 70 %), including tetracycline, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol; and low resistance (resistance rate <30 %), including rifampicin, ceftizoxime and gentamicin. We also found that the prevalence of strains non-susceptible to teicoplanin increased from 4.5 to 6.7 % between 2008 and 2009. A one-step vancomycin agar selection experiment and subsequent population analysis revealed potentially vancomycin-resistant subpopulations that have been selected from the teicoplanin-non-susceptible strains. Vigilant surveillance of nosocomial isolates of <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> is needed to determine their resistance to glycopeptides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6271M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6271M"><span>Project "Convective Wind Gusts" (<span class="hlt">Con</span>WinG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohr, Susanna; Richter, Alexandra; Kunz, Michael; Ruck, Bodo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Convectively-driven strong winds usually associated with thunderstorms frequently cause substantial damage to buildings and other structures in many parts of the world. Decisive for the high damage potential are the short-term wind speed maxima with duration of a few seconds, termed as gusts. Several studies have shown that convectively-driven gusts can reach even higher wind speeds compared to turbulent gusts associated with synoptic-scale weather systems. Due to the small-scale and non-stationary nature of convective wind gusts, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding their characteristics and statistics. Furthermore, their interaction with urban structures and their influence on buildings is not yet fully understood. For these two reasons, convective wind events are not included in the present wind load standards of buildings and structures, which so far have been based solely on the characteristics of synoptically-driven wind gusts in the near-surface boundary layer (e. g., DIN EN 1991-1-4:2010-12; ASCE7). However, convective and turbulent gusts differ considerably, e.g. concerning vertical wind-speed profiles, gust factors (i.e., maximum to mean wind speed), or exceedance probability curves. In an effort to remedy this situation, the overarching objective of the DFG-project "Convective Wind Gusts" (<span class="hlt">Con</span>WinG) is to investigate the characteristics and statistics of convective gusts as well as their interaction with urban structures. Based on a set of 110 climate stations of the German Weather Service (DWD) between 1992 and 2014, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution, intensity, and occurrence probability of convective gusts. Similar to thunderstorm activity, the frequency of convective gusts decreases gradually from South to North Germany. A relation between gust intensity/probability to orography or climate conditions cannot be identified. Rather, high wind speeds, e.g., above 30 m/s, can be expected everywhere in Germany with almost</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28256830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28256830"><span>Targeted Drug Delivery in Covalent Organic Nanosheets (<span class="hlt">CONs</span>) via Sequential Postsynthetic Modification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitra, Shouvik; Sasmal, Himadri Sekhar; Kundu, Tanay; Kandambeth, Sharath; Illath, Kavya; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul</p> <p>2017-03-29</p> <p>Covalent organic nanosheets (<span class="hlt">CONs</span>) have emerged as a new class of functional two-dimensional (2D) porous organic polymeric materials with a high accessible surface, diverse functionality, and chemical stability. They could become versatile candidates for targeted drug delivery. Despite their many advantages, there are limitations to their use for target specific drug delivery. We anticipated that these drawbacks could be overturned by judicious postsynthetic modification steps to use <span class="hlt">CONs</span> for targeted drug delivery. The postsynthetic modification would not only produce the desired functionality, it would also help to exfoliate to <span class="hlt">CONs</span> as well. In order to meet this requirement, we have developed a facile, salt-mediated synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). The COFs were subjected to sequential postsynthetic modifications to yield functionalized targeted <span class="hlt">CONs</span> for targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to breast cancer cells. This postsynthetic modification resulted in simultaneous chemical delamination and functionalization to targeted <span class="hlt">CONs</span>. Targeted <span class="hlt">CONs</span> showed sustained release of the drug to the cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, which led to cancer cell death via apoptosis. Considering the easy and facile COF synthesis, functionality based postsynthetic modifications, and chemical delamination to <span class="hlt">CONs</span> for potential advantageous targeted drug delivery, this process can have a significant impact in biomedical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6707442','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6707442"><span>Analyses of muscular dystrophy and <span class="hlt">Con</span> A deficiency traits in testcross progeny of chickens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kline, K; Sanders, B G</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Hereditary muscular dystrophic chickens of the Storrs strain possess two genetic disorders, muscular dystrophy (MD) and a deficient concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span> A), a T-cell mitogen, mediated splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response. A possible amelioration of the MD phenotype in MD chickens expressing normal <span class="hlt">Con</span> A was postulated on the basis of progeny segregating for these two traits in F2 genetic analyses. To test this possibility, testcross progeny were examined for segregation of MD and <span class="hlt">Con</span> A deficiency traits, and for the degree of muscle destruction and <span class="hlt">Con</span> A deficiency. The data show both traits to be inherited independently as autosomal recessive traits, and do not support any phenotypic modifications occurring in chickens expressing MD with normal <span class="hlt">Con</span> A. In the testcross progeny, the <span class="hlt">Con</span> A deficiency disorder is equally deficient in normal and MD progeny, and the degree of muscle destruction as measured by serum creatine phosphokinase levels is equally great in MD chickens with or without the <span class="hlt">Con</span> A deficiency trait. The reduced numbers of MD chickens in the testcross progeny can be accounted for by chance and probably reflect losses during in ovo development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002BAAA...45...37P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002BAAA...45...37P"><span>Abundancias químicas de estrellas de Mercurio-Manganeso obtenidas <span class="hlt">con</span> espectros EBASIM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.</p> <p></p> <p>Se determinan las abundancias químicas de estrellas de HgMn usando espectros obtenidos <span class="hlt">con</span> EBASIM en CASLEO en un rango de longitud de onda comprendido entre los 400 y 890 nm. Los valores iniciales de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial se calculan <span class="hlt">con</span> la fotometría uvbyβ. Las abundancias se calculan usando WIDTH9 y SYNTHE. Los resultados se comparan análisis realizados por los autores usando espectros obtenidos <span class="hlt">con</span> el espectrógrado REOSC del CASLEO, el espectrógrafo echelle del Telescopio Anglo-Australiano y el espectrógrafo Coudé del Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CPL...575...12L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CPL...575...12L"><span>Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory study of <span class="hlt">Con</span>O- (n = 1-3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Ren-Zhong; Liang, Jun; Xu, Xi-Ling; Xu, Hong-Guang; Zheng, Wei-Jun</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Con</span>O- (n = 1-3) clusters were investigated with photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of <span class="hlt">Con</span>O- (n = 1-3) were measured to be 1.54 ± 0.04, 1.43 ± 0.08, and 1.42 ± 0.08 eV respectively from their photoelectron spectra. The electron affinity and term energy of CoO were determined to be 1.54 ± 0.04 eV and 0.31 ± 0.04 eV respectively based on the vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectrum of CoO- and theoretical calculations. The structures of <span class="hlt">Con</span>O- (n = 1-3) were determined by comparison of photoelectron experiments and calculations. The analysis of molecular orbitals shows that the HOMOs of <span class="hlt">Con</span>O- (n = 1-3) cluster anions are mainly localized on the Co atoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/iconfirm/','NCI'); return false;" href="https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/iconfirm/"><span>The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-<span class="hlt">Con</span>FIRM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-<span class="hlt">Con</span>FIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17590280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17590280"><span>i<span class="hlt">Con</span>-TMA for control and quantitation of immunohistochemistry and in situ molecular pathology analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petersen, Iver; Blind, Christiane; Koepenik, Axel; Dietel, Manfred; Krenn, Veit</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Reliable assessment of in situ pathology analyses like immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and FISH are critically important in diagnosis and treatment decisions. We describe the development of small tissue microarrays (TMA) for the internal control and quantitation of these techniques, the i<span class="hlt">Con</span>-TMA. In its simple variant, these i<span class="hlt">Con</span>-TMA (abbreviated from internal control TMA) consist of 2 tissue cylinders, one being clearly positive and the other clearly negative for a specific marker. In its more elaborate format, the i<span class="hlt">Con</span>-TMAs carry additional tissue spots providing a scale for quantitatively assessable markers, e.g. representing scores of negative, weak, moderate, or strong positivity. The specimen with the yet unknown reactivity is then applied to the i<span class="hlt">Con</span>-TMA section, and both are simultaneously processed and analyzed, thus providing a convenient measure for in situ quality control and quantitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6607455','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6607455"><span>Characterization of the effector cells in <span class="hlt">Con</span> A-induced cytotoxicity against HEp 2 tumour targets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pócsik, E; González-Cabello, R; Benedek, K; Perl, A; Láng, I; Gergely, P</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Con</span> A-induced cytotoxic activity of human lymphocyte subpopulations obtained by cell fractionation procedures was studied in a test system using human epipharynx carcinoma cells (HEp 2) as targets. Only T lymphocytes were cytotoxic, non-T cells exerted no cytotoxic activity, but enhanced the adherence of the tumour cells. Tnon-G lymphocytes (Fc-receptor negative T cells) were more active than TG cells (Fc-receptor-positive T cells) in mediating the <span class="hlt">Con</span> A-induced cytotoxic reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960293','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960293"><span>SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-<span class="hlt">CON</span>-230</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG</p> <p>2009-07-16</p> <p>The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-<span class="hlt">CON</span>-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-<span class="hlt">CON</span>-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-<span class="hlt">CON</span>-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-<span class="hlt">CON</span>-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-<span class="hlt">CON</span>-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-<span class="hlt">CON</span>-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28430553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28430553"><span>Sport Concussion Management Using Facebook: A Feasibility Study of an Innovative Adjunct "i<span class="hlt">Con</span>".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Schneiders, Anthony G; McCrory, Paul R; Sullivan, S John</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>  Sport concussion is currently the focus of much international attention. Innovative methods to assist athletic trainers in facilitating management after this injury need to be investigated.   To investigate the feasibility of using a Facebook concussion-management program termed i<span class="hlt">Con</span> (interactive concussion management) to facilitate the safe return to play (RTP) of young persons after sport concussion.   Observational study.   Facebook group containing interactive elements, with moderation and support from trained health care professionals.   Eleven participants (n = 9 men, n = 2 women; range, 18 to 28 years old) completed the study.   The study was conducted over a 3-month period, with participant questionnaires administered preintervention and postintervention. The primary focus was on the qualitative experiences of the participants and the effect of i<span class="hlt">Con</span> on their RTP. Usage data were also collected.   At the completion of the study, all participants (100%) stated that they would recommend an intervention such as i<span class="hlt">Con</span> to others. Their supporting quotes all indicated that i<span class="hlt">Con</span> has the potential to improve the management of concussion among this cohort. Most participants (n = 9, 82%) stated they were better informed with regard to their RTP due to participating in i<span class="hlt">Con</span>.   This interactive adjunct to traditional concussion management was appreciated among this participant group, which indicates the feasibility of a future, larger study of i<span class="hlt">Con</span>. Athletic trainers should consider the role that multimedia technologies may play in assisting with the management of sport concussion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262699','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262699"><span>[PRE-OPERATIVE IRON DEFICIENCY IN BARIATRIC SURGERY: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Magali Sanchez, Angela María; Pampillón, Natalia; Abaurre, Mariela; Omelanczuk, Pablo Esteban</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Introducción: la inflamación crónica inducida por la obesidad produce alteración de la homeostasis del <span class="hlt">hierro</span>, llevando a deficiencia de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> y a anemia de leve a moderada. Entre el 14 y el 43% de los pacientes pueden presentar déficit de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> sin anemia antes de la cirugía. El tratamiento del déficit de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en el perioperatorio mejora el pronóstico y la calidad de vida de los pacientes. En ciertas situaciones, puede el <span class="hlt">hierro</span> enovenoso (el cual evita el bloqueo del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en enterocitos y macrófagos), ser una alternativa segura y efectiva. Objetivos: 1) Valorar la prevalencia de ferropenia en pacientes obesos mórbidos candidatos a cirugía bariátrica. 2) Evaluar si la suplementación de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> parenteral en pacientes ferropénicos es eficaz a la hora de prevenir el descenso de hematocritos tras la cirugía. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional, que incluyó 89 pacientes obesos mórbidos sometidos a cirugía bariátrica. Se dividió la población en el preoperatorio (pre OP) según la condición de ferropenia o ausencia de ferropenia, y se analizó la evolución postoperatoria (post OP). Los pacientes ferropénicos fueron suplementados <span class="hlt">con</span> 500 mg de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> carboximaltosa endovenoso (EV) y evaluados en el post OP. Resultados: veintitrés pacientes (25,8%) presentaron ferropenia en el pre OP y 6 (6,74%) anemia. El 74,2% (66 pacientes) no tuvieron ferropenia. El grupo sin ferropenia al mes de la cirugía presentó: hematocrito: 41,30% ± 3,77; hemoglobina: 13,64 g/l ± 1,25 y saturación de transferrina 30,55 %. Los pacientes <span class="hlt">con</span> ferropenia en el pre OP presentaron: hematocrito: 40,40% ± 3,03; hemoglobina: 13,40 g/l ± 1,07; saturación de transferrina: 15,50% ± 4,18 y ferritina: 87,10 ng/ ml ± 81,23 . En el post OP se observó descenso de hematocrito: 38,40% ± 3,17 (p:0,034). En pacientes ferropénicos, sin aporte de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> EV (n = 15), el hematocrito y hemoglobina fueron de 41,2% ± 2,5 y 13,7 g/l ± 0,9, respectivamente, <span class="hlt">con</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22985053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22985053"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>: prospective predictors of marijuana use on a college campus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Marijuana use on college campuses is prevalent and associated with high rates of abuse and dependence. The Marijuana Decisional Balance (MDB) scales measure perceived pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> toward marijuana use. Evidence supports reliability and concurrent validity of these scales, but the predictive validity has not yet been assessed. The current study evaluated the prospective predictive validity of pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> scales for marijuana use, as well as explored predictive validity for marijuana problem indicators. Secondary analyses included test-retest reliability and internal consistency, to provide additional evidence of psychometric properties. A total of 149 college students (57% recent marijuana users, 77% lifetime users) participated in a baseline survey, then completed a second survey one month later. All provided data on marijuana pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>, as well as use status in the past month. Users at each time point reported on use frequency, problems, and disorder symptoms. In the month between assessments, 55% of the students used marijuana. Both pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> subscales prospectively predicted use status in the subsequent month, but not use frequency. Pros prospectively predicted marijuana problems and dependence symptoms at follow-up, and remained a significant predictor of later dependence symptoms even after controlling for baseline dependence symptoms. In contrast, pros only marginally predicted abuse. <span class="hlt">Cons</span> did not predict problems, abuse, or dependence symptoms. Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> showed strong test-retest reliability (rs = 0.80-0.85) and internal consistency (alphas = 0.92-0.95). In a college sample, pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of marijuana use demonstrated stability over one month, and prospectively predicted use. Pros may also have utility in predicting problems and dependence potential on college campuses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808435"><span>Bioavailability of iron measurement in two nutrients multiple solutions by in vitro and in vivo;a comparative methodology between methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bueno, Luciana; Pizzo, Juliana C; Freitas, Osvaldo; Barbosa Júnior, Fernando; dos Santos, José Ernesto; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Dutra-de-Oliveira, José Eduardo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objetivos: La biodisponibilidad de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> presente en una formulación nutricional puede ser evaluada por in vitro y in vivo, ya que proporcionan para un estudio de línea cohesiva y proporcionado en la literatura. El objetivo de estudio fue evaluar la biodisponibilidad de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> <span class="hlt">con</span> in vitro y in vivo, dirigida a un análisis comparativo de dos formulaciones de suplementos nutricionales (A y B). Métodos: Fueron utilizados dos métodos descritos en la literatura que para evaluar la biodiponibilidad de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Uno que es la simulación de digestión humana y otro por los niveles de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> sérico después de la ingestión de la formulación en los seres humanos. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos por la simulación in vitro de la digestión del tracto gastrointestinal humano fueron 0,70 ± 0,02 y 0,80 dialisibilidad 0,01% de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>, respectivamente, para las formulaciones A y B. Los estudios in vivo, segú n se mide por las curvas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en suero en seres humanos después de la ingestión de las formulaciones mostró coeficiente de variación Δ < 0, lo que indica que había una baja absorción de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. La biodisponibilidad de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> a los dos multi-nutrientes soluciones fueron obtenidos por in vitro y in vivo mostraron que había una comparación de las metodologías utilizadas en soluciones acuosas de muchos nutrientes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28407043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28407043"><span>Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span>: a new ensemble method for improved human subcellular localization predictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salvatore, M; Warholm, P; Shu, N; Basile, W; Elofsson, A</p> <p>2017-08-15</p> <p>Knowledge of the correct protein subcellular localization is necessary for understanding the function of a protein. Unfortunately large-scale experimental studies are limited in their accuracy. Therefore, the development of prediction methods has been limited by the amount of accurate experimental data. However, recently large-scale experimental studies have provided new data that can be used to evaluate the accuracy of subcellular predictions in human cells. Using this data we examined the performance of state of the art methods and developed Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span>, an ensemble method that combines four predictors using a Random Forest classifier. Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span> outperforms earlier methods in a dataset of proteins where two independent methods confirm the subcellular localization. Given nine subcellular localizations, Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span> achieves an F1-Score of 0.79 compared to 0.70 of the second best method. Furthermore, at a FPR of 1% the true positive rate (TPR) is over 58% for Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span> compared to less than 50% for the best individual predictor. Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span> is freely available as a webserver (http://subcons.bioinfo.se) and source code from https://bitbucket.org/salvatore_marco/subcons-web-server. The golden dataset as well is available from http://subcons.bioinfo.se/pred/download. arne@bioinfo.se. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8951E..0AC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8951E..0AC"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>A-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to <span class="hlt">Con</span>A. Thus, binding between <span class="hlt">Con</span>A and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled <span class="hlt">Con</span>A to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27378292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27378292"><span><span class="hlt">Cons</span>Pred: a rule-based (re-)annotation framework for prokaryotic genomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weinmaier, Thomas; Platzer, Alexander; Frank, Jeroen; Hellinger, Hans-Jörg; Tischler, Patrick; Rattei, Thomas</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The rapidly growing number of available prokaryotic genome sequences requires fully automated and high-quality software solutions for their initial and re-annotation. Here we present <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Pred, a prokaryotic genome annotation framework that performs intrinsic gene predictions, homology searches, predictions of non-coding genes as well as CRISPR repeats and integrates all evidence into a consensus annotation. <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Pred achieves comprehensive, high-quality annotations based on rules and priorities, similar to decision-making in manual curation and avoids conflicting predictions. Parameters controlling the annotation process are configurable by the user. <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Pred has been used in the institutions of the authors for longer than 5 years and can easily be extended and adapted to specific needs. The <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Pred algorithm for producing a consensus from the varying scores of multiple gene prediction programs approaches manual curation in accuracy. Its rule-based approach for choosing final predictions avoids overriding previous manual curations. <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Pred is implemented in Java, Perl and Shell and is freely available under the Creative Commons license as a stand-alone in-house pipeline or as an Amazon Machine Image for cloud computing, see https://sourceforge.net/projects/conspred/. thomas.rattei@univie.ac.atSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356902"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Tour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed <span class="hlt">Con</span>Tour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core <span class="hlt">Con</span>Tour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, <span class="hlt">Con</span>Tour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. <span class="hlt">Con</span>Tour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, <span class="hlt">Con</span>Tour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, <span class="hlt">Con</span>Tour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17153705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17153705"><span>A <span class="hlt">Con</span> A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against <span class="hlt">Con</span>-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26802600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26802600"><span>Physician Preparation for the American Board of Emergency Medicine <span class="hlt">Con</span>Cert Examination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marco, Catherine A; Wahl, Robert P; Counselman, Francis L; Heller, Barry N; Kowalenko, Terry; Harvey, Anne L; Joldersma, Kevin B; Reisdorff, Earl J</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>To maintain certification by the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM), physicians are required to pass the Continuous Certification (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Cert) examination at least every 10 years. On the 2014 <span class="hlt">Con</span>Cert postexamination survey, ABEM sought to understand the manner in which ABEM diplomates prepared for the test and to identify associations between test preparation approaches and performance on the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Cert examination. This was a cross-sectional survey study. The survey was administered at the end of the 2014 <span class="hlt">Con</span>Cert examination. Analyses included chi-square and linear regression to determine the association of preparation methods with performance. Of the 2,431 on-time test-takers, 2,338 (96.2%) were included. The most commonly used study approach was the review of written materials designed for test preparation (1,585; 67.8%), followed by an online training course (1,006; 43.0%). There were 758 (32.4%) physicians who took a single onsite board review course, while 41 (1.8%) took two or more onsite courses. Most physicians (1,611; 68.9%) spent over 35 hours preparing for the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Cert examination. The study method that was most associated with favorable test scores was the review of written materials designed for test preparation (p < 0.001). Attending an onsite preparation course was associated with poorer performance (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between no additional preparation and failing the examination (chi-square with Yates correction; p = 0.001). A substantial majority (97.8%) of physicians taking the 2014 ABEM <span class="hlt">Con</span>Cert examination prepared for it. The majority of physicians used written materials specifically designed for test preparation. Reviewing written materials designed for test preparation was associated with the highest performance. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998larm.confE..52C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998larm.confE..52C"><span>Soluciones analiticas AL problema de jets <span class="hlt">con</span> velocidad de eyeccion variable EN EL tiempo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Canto, J.; Raga, A. C.; D'Alessio, P.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>Se presenta un nuevo metodo que permite resolver de manera exacta y analitica las ecuaciones que describen un jet hipersonico <span class="hlt">con</span> velocidad de eyeccion variable en el tiempo. El metodo se basa en consideraciones sencillas de conservacion de momento para las superficies de trabajo que se forman en el interior del jet. Como ejemplo, se presentan soluciones para jets <span class="hlt">con</span> variacion sinusoidal en la velocidad de eyeccion, y tambien para el caso de un incremento lineal en el tiempo. Estas soluciones analiticas tienen una clara aplicacion en la interpretacion de las observaciones de jets asociados a objetos Herbig-Haro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18511460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18511460"><span>Ge<span class="hlt">Con</span>T 2: gene context analysis for orthologous proteins, conserved domains and metabolic pathways.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martinez-Guerrero, C E; Ciria, R; Abreu-Goodger, C; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Merino, E</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The Gene Context Tool (Ge<span class="hlt">Con</span>T) allows users to visualize the genomic context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologous relationships within fully sequenced bacterial genomes. The new version of the server incorporates information from the COG, Pfam and KEGG databases, allowing users to have an integrated graphical representation of the function of genes at multiple levels, their phylogenetic distribution and their genomic context. The sequence of any of the genes can be easily retrieved, as well as the 5' or 3' regulatory regions, greatly facilitating further types of analysis. Ge<span class="hlt">Con</span>T 2 is available at: http://bioinfo.ibt.unam.mx/gecont.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CP....493...85O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CP....493...85O"><span>Reversible hydrogen adsorption on <span class="hlt">Co/N</span>4 cluster embedded in graphene: The role of charge manipulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omidvar, Akbar</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Electrical charging of <span class="hlt">Co/N</span>4 cluster embedded in graphene (<span class="hlt">Co/N</span>4/G) is proposed as an approach for electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen adsorption. Using density functional theory, we found that the H2 molecule is weakly adsorbed on the uncharged <span class="hlt">Co/N</span>4/G cluster. Our results show that the adsorption energy of hydrogen molecule on <span class="hlt">Co/N</span>4/G cluster is significantly increased by introducing extra positive charges into the cluster. Once the charges are removed, H2 molecule spontaneously desorb from the <span class="hlt">Co/N</span>4/G absorbent. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Our study indicates that the <span class="hlt">Co/N</span>4/G nanomaterial is excellent absorbent for controllable and reversible adsorption and release of H2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26351131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26351131"><span>Impact of the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Red program on different cyberbulling roles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article presents results from an evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Red cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The <span class="hlt">Con</span>Red program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. <span class="hlt">Con</span>Red was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The <span class="hlt">Con</span>Red program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=insurance+AND+industry&pg=7&id=ED274916','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=insurance+AND+industry&pg=7&id=ED274916"><span>Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span>. Human Resources Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paterson, Andrea</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24640295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24640295"><span>[(<span class="hlt">Con</span>)natal teeth: a role for maternity care and dental care].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gambon, D L</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A baby was referred to a dentist by an obstetrician 18 days after birth in connection with the presence of 2 teeth in the mandibula which resembled incisors. It appeared to be a case of 2 (<span class="hlt">con</span>)natal teeth with a high degree of mobility. Dental treatment in the form of 2 extractions was necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234845&keyword=clean+AND+city&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234845&keyword=clean+AND+city&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> 2011, Atlanta, Georgia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span>'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coma&id=EJ1102652','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coma&id=EJ1102652"><span>Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable <span class="hlt">con</span> ella"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fellie, Maria C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable <span class="hlt">con</span> ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21999','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21999"><span>Wilderness for science: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of using wilderness areas for biological research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Diana L. Six; Paul Alaback; Robert A. Winfree; Delia Snyder; Anne Hagele</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Research is one of the intended purposes of wilderness. The Wilderness Act states that “wilderness may contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value.” This session specifically focuses on the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of conducting research in wilderness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology+AND+pros+AND+cons&pg=4&id=EJ717645','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology+AND+pros+AND+cons&pg=4&id=EJ717645"><span>Are You Ready to Go Digital?: The Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Electronic Portfolio Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heath, Marilyn</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>There is an increasing need for educators to have professional portfolios, which are considered to be authentic tools for evaluating the knowledge, skill, beliefs and attitudes of prospective educators. Electronic portfolios are gaining in popularity and their relative pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coma&id=EJ1102652','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coma&id=EJ1102652"><span>Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable <span class="hlt">con</span> ella"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fellie, Maria C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable <span class="hlt">con</span> ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234845&keyword=biomedical&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=85806929&CFTOKEN=45439754','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234845&keyword=biomedical&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=85806929&CFTOKEN=45439754"><span>Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span> 2011, Atlanta, Georgia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''Pitt<span class="hlt">Con</span>'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=description+AND+languages+AND+user+AND+interface&id=EJ363755','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=description+AND+languages+AND+user+AND+interface&id=EJ363755"><span>End-User Use of Data Base Query Language: Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nicholes, Walter</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Man-machine interface, the concept of a computer "query," a review of database technology, and a description of the use of query languages at Brigham Young University are discussed. The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of end-user use of database query languages are explored. (Author/MLW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=health+AND+insurance+AND+history&pg=4&id=ED274916','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=health+AND+insurance+AND+history&pg=4&id=ED274916"><span>Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span>. Human Resources Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paterson, Andrea</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=GoPro&id=EJ717645','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=GoPro&id=EJ717645"><span>Are You Ready to Go Digital?: The Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Electronic Portfolio Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heath, Marilyn</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>There is an increasing need for educators to have professional portfolios, which are considered to be authentic tools for evaluating the knowledge, skill, beliefs and attitudes of prospective educators. Electronic portfolios are gaining in popularity and their relative pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2257449H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2257449H"><span>CHILES <span class="hlt">Con</span> Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES <span class="hlt">Con</span> Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES <span class="hlt">Con</span> Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES <span class="hlt">Con</span> Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES <span class="hlt">Con</span> Pol radio data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1138165.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1138165.pdf"><span>Pros & <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Using Blackboard Collaborate for Blended Learning on Students' Learning Outcomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hamad, Mona M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Blackboard Collaborate was introduced to King Khalid University recently in the last decade; instructors and students were trained to use it in an effective way. The objective of this study is to find pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of using Blackboard Collaborate for Blended Learning and its effect on students' learning outcomes. The researcher used the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=familia&id=EJ1124407','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=familia&id=EJ1124407"><span>"<span class="hlt">Con</span> todo mi corazón": Mentoring Latinas in Educational Leadership Doctoral Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodríguez, Mariela A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "<span class="hlt">Con</span> todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=FAMILIA&id=EJ1124407','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=FAMILIA&id=EJ1124407"><span>"<span class="hlt">Con</span> todo mi corazón": Mentoring Latinas in Educational Leadership Doctoral Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodríguez, Mariela A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "<span class="hlt">Con</span> todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Erisa&id=ED330435','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Erisa&id=ED330435"><span>The <span class="hlt">Con</span> Edison Emergency Child Care Plan for Management Employees: Summary Plan Description.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.</p> <p></p> <p>This summary plan description offers guidelines for participation in a pilot program that provides short-term emergency care for children of <span class="hlt">Con</span> Edison managers who are under 13 years old. The plan offers professional, in-home child care that can be used when usual arrangements have collapsed. The summary plan description addresses the following…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED462269.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED462269.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Map: Investigating New Computer-Based Approaches to Assessing Conceptual Knowledge Structure in Physics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beatty, Ian D.</p> <p></p> <p>There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The <span class="hlt">Con</span>Map ("Conceptual Mapping") project, described…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4361383','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4361383"><span>Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct) Electrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5 cm long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10–20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90–95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2–3° <span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° <span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-tovacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal <span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25667060</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASMS..26..659K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASMS..26..659K"><span>Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct) Electrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5-cm-long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10-20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90-95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2-3° <span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° <span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA, USA) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-to-vacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal <span class="hlt">Con</span>Duct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9013B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9013B"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Map - a new spatial data mining framework for terrain based digital soil mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, T.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>In this talk, we present a new digital terrain analysis framework for digital soil mapping based on spatial data mining, referred to as the contextual elevation mapping (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Map). Aiming at integrating different scales, which can be important at landscape scale level due to interrelations of topo- and climofunctions, it comprises local surface function approximations in terms of standard local terrain attributes as well as the incorporation of geomorphic arrangements within larger neighborhoods. In contrast to common digital terrain analysis of deriving multiple terrain attributes, <span class="hlt">Con</span>Map is based on elevation differences from the center pixel to each pixel in a local neighborhood. These differences are then used as predictors in machine learning approaches such as Random Forests. Thus, it is not necessary to choose a specific set of terrain attributes. Additionally, possibly unknown surface functions can be taken into account, as well as larger geomorphic settings. We applied and validated the framework by predicting topsoil silt content for an area of 1150 km2 in Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse, Germany, based on 342 samples, a 20 m resolution DEM, and neighborhood sizes up to 12 km. Cross-validation R2 values increase from 0.15 for standard digital terrain analysis to 0.61 using <span class="hlt">Con</span>Map. This effect is due to a spatial trend in the data. As <span class="hlt">Con</span>Map is able to map this trend and as it is based on the pedological concept of integrating scales it can be seen as a new entry to spatial prediction approaches such as Kriging or Geographically Weighted Regression. We conclude that <span class="hlt">Con</span>Map shows a great potential for future digital soil mapping studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770821"><span>Bead<span class="hlt">Cons</span>: detection of nucleic acid sequences by flow cytometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horejsh, Douglas; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Molecular beacons are single-stranded nucleic acid structures with a terminal fluorophore and a distal, terminal quencher. These molecules are typically used in real-time PCR assays, but have also been conjugated with solid matrices. This unit describes protocols related to molecular beacon-conjugated beads (Bead<span class="hlt">Cons</span>), whose specific hybridization with complementary target sequences can be resolved by cytometry. Assay sensitivity is achieved through the concentration of fluorescence signal on discrete particles. By using molecular beacons with different fluorophores and microspheres of different sizes, it is possible to construct a fluid array system with each bead corresponding to a specific target nucleic acid. Methods are presented for the design, construction, and use of Bead<span class="hlt">Cons</span> for the specific, multiplexed detection of unlabeled nucleic acids in solution. The use of bead-based detection methods will likely lead to the design of new multiplex molecular diagnostic tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25480378','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25480378"><span>Genome<span class="hlt">Cons</span>: a web server for manipulating multiple genome sequence alignments and their consensus sequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, Tetsuya; Suyama, Mikita</p> <p>2015-04-15</p> <p>Genome sequence alignments provide valuable information on many aspects of molecular biological processes. In this study, we developed a web server, Genome<span class="hlt">Cons</span>, for manipulating multiple genome sequence alignments and their consensus sequences for high-throughput genome sequence analyses. This server facilitates the visual inspection of multiple genome sequence alignments for a set of genomic intervals at a time. This allows the user to examine how these sites are evolutionarily conserved over time for their functional importance. The server also reports consensus sequences for the input genomic intervals, which can be applied to downstream analyses such as the identification of common motifs in the regions determined by ChIP-seq experiments. Genome<span class="hlt">Cons</span> is freely accessible at http://bioinfo.sls.kyushu-u.ac.jp/genomecons/ mikita@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011953','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011953"><span>Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 <span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The operational goal of the ATD-1 <span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 <span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2447741','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2447741"><span>Ge<span class="hlt">Con</span>T 2: gene context analysis for orthologous proteins, conserved domains and metabolic pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martinez-Guerrero, C. E.; Ciria, R.; Abreu-Goodger, C.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G.; Merino, E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Gene Context Tool (Ge<span class="hlt">Con</span>T) allows users to visualize the genomic context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologous relationships within fully sequenced bacterial genomes. The new version of the server incorporates information from the COG, Pfam and KEGG databases, allowing users to have an integrated graphical representation of the function of genes at multiple levels, their phylogenetic distribution and their genomic context. The sequence of any of the genes can be easily retrieved, as well as the 5′ or 3′ regulatory regions, greatly facilitating further types of analysis. Ge<span class="hlt">Con</span>T 2 is available at: http://bioinfo.ibt.unam.mx/gecont. PMID:18511460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28693020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28693020"><span>Propiedades biomecánicas de la membrana limitante interna tras recibir tratamiento intravítreo <span class="hlt">con</span> ocriplasmina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vielmuth, Franziska; Schumann, Ricarda G; Spindler, Volker; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Mayer, Wolfgang J; Henrich, Paul B; Haritoglou, Christos</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objetivo: Evaluar la rigidez de la membrana limitante interna (MLI) humana y evaluar los posibles cambios de las propiedades mecánicas tras administrar una inyección intravítrea de ocriplasmina para tratar la tracción vitreomacular. Métodos: Este estudio se compone de una serie de casos intervencionales y comparativos de 12 muestras de MLI extraídas mediante cirugía y obtenidas de forma consecutiva de 9 ojos de 9 pacientes después de someterse sin éxito a vitreólisis farmacológica <span class="hlt">con</span> ocriplasmina. Durante el mismo periodo de tiempo, 16 muestras de otros 13 ojos sin tratamiento <span class="hlt">con</span> ocriplasmina se obtuvieron mediante vitrectomía y sirvieron como controles. Todos los pacientes presentaron agujeros maculares o tracción vitreomacular y se sometieron a vitrectomía <span class="hlt">con</span> disección de la MLI tanto <span class="hlt">con</span> tinción <span class="hlt">con</span> azul brillante (AB) como sin ella. Todas las muestras se analizaron <span class="hlt">con</span> un microscopio de fuerza atómica <span class="hlt">con</span> imágenes de las regiones de 25 × 25 μm. En todas las muestras, se analizaron tanto la parte de la retina como la del vítreo de la MLI. Resultados: La microscopia de fuerza atómica no reveló diferencias significativas en cuanto a elasticidad de las muestras de MLI extraídas de ojos <span class="hlt">con</span> o sin tratamiento <span class="hlt">con</span> ocriplasmina. Las áreas onduladas de la parte de la retina presentaron una mayor rigidez que la parte del vítreo de la MLI. La cartografía topográfica tanto de la parte del vítreo como de la retina de la MLI no mostró ninguna alteración aparente de la morfología en ojos tratados <span class="hlt">con</span> ocriplasmina en comparación <span class="hlt">con</span> los ojos no tratados. La tinción <span class="hlt">con</span> azul brillante conllevó un aumento de la rigidez tisular. Conclusiones: Las inyecciones intravítreas de ocriplasmina no varían las propiedades biomecánicas de la MLI humana. No existen pruebas de un posible efecto enzimático que interfiera <span class="hlt">con</span> la rigidez de esta membrana basal. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5054636','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5054636"><span>Extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion: Do the <span class="hlt">cons</span> outweigh the pros?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Epstein, Nancy E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Major factors prompted the development of minimally invasive (MIS) extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USE) for the thoracic/lumbar spine. These include providing interbody stabilization and indirect neural decompression while avoiding major visceral/vessel injury as seen with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to avert trauma to paraspinal muscles/facet joints found with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterior-lateral fusion techniques (PLF). Although anticipated pros of MIS XLIF included reduced blood loss, operative time, and length of stay (LOS), they also included, higher fusion, and lower infection rates. Unanticipated <span class="hlt">cons</span>, however, included increased morbidity/mortality rates. Methods: We assessed the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> (e.g., risks, complications, comparable value/superiority/inferiority, morbidity/mortality) of MIS XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Results: Pros of XLIF included various biomechanical and technical surgical advantages, along with multiple <span class="hlt">cons</span> vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. For example, XLIF correlated with a considerably higher frequency of major neurological deficits vs. other constructs; plexus injuries 13.28%, sensory deficits 0–75% (permanent in 62.5%), motor deficits 0.7–33.6%, and anterior thigh pain 12.5–25%. XLIF also disproportionately contributed to other major morbidity/mortality; sympathectomy, major vascular injuries (some life-ending others life-threatening), bowel perforations, and seromas. Furthermore, multiple studies documented no superiority, and the potential inferiority of XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Conclusion: Reviewing the pros of XLIF (e.g. radiographic, technical, biomechanical) vs. the <span class="hlt">cons</span> (inferiority, increased morbidity/mortality) vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF, we question whether XLIF should remain part of the lumbar spinal surgical armamentarium. PMID:27843688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000BAAA...44...93V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000BAAA...44...93V"><span>Simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas <span class="hlt">con</span> formación estelar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Volpe, M. G.; Merchan, M.; García Lambas, D.</p> <p></p> <p>Se realizan simulaciones numéricas cosmológicas utilizando el código HYDRA modificado para incluir formación estelar. A partir de éstas, se estiman diferentes parámetros observacionales como la relación Tully- Fisher, función de luminosidad y la tasa de formación estelar en función del redshift. Estos resultados son comparados <span class="hlt">con</span> datos observacionales de diferentes autores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25573443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25573443"><span>The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of endovascular and open surgical treatments for patients with acute limb ischemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Branco, B C; Montero-Baker, M F; Mills, J L</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The present review addresses the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the current, wide variety of therapeutic options available for the treatment of acute limb ischemia (ALI). Despite five prospective randomized controlled trials comparing catheter directed thrombolysis and open surgical revascularization, no single treatment strategy can yet be considered optimal for patients with ALI. This report includes 20 years of published data to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of thrombolytic agents and adjunctive endovascular techniques when compared to open surgical revascularization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997BAAA...41...41G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997BAAA...41...41G"><span>Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas <span class="hlt">con</span> el REOSC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.</p> <p></p> <p>Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada <span class="hlt">con</span> anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo <span class="hlt">con</span> el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa <span class="hlt">con</span> masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación <span class="hlt">con</span> los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110001377','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110001377"><span>NASA KSC/AFRL Reusable Booster System (RBS) Concept of Operations (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zeno, Dnany; Mosteller, Ted; McCleskey, Carey; Jhnson, Robert; Hopkins, Jason; Miller, Thomas</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the study and findings of the study on the Concept of Operations (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops) for Reusable Booster System (RBS) centering on rapid turnaround and launch of a two-stage partially reusable payload delivery system (i.e., 8 hours between launches). The study was to develop rapid ground processing (aircraft like concepts) and identify areas for follow-on study, technology needs, and proof-of-concept demonstrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40R..40R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40R..40R"><span>Nuevas observaciones de 3C10 <span class="hlt">con</span> el VLA*: estudio de la expansión</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reynoso, E. M.; Moffett, D. A.:; Dubner, G. M.; Giacani, E. B.; Reynolds, S. P.; Goss, W. M.; Dickel, J.</p> <p></p> <p>Se presentan nuevos resultados sobre la expansión del remanente de la supernova de Tycho a lo largo de un intervalo de 10.9 años, comparando nuevas observaciones tomadas <span class="hlt">con</span> el VLA a 1375 y 1635 MHz durante 1994 y 1995, <span class="hlt">con</span> observaciones previas realizadas entre 1983 y 1984 (Dickel y col. ~1991 AJ 101, 2151), usando las mismas configuraciones, anchos de banda, calibradores y tiempos de integración. El coeficiente de expansión se calcula para sectores radiales de 4o de ancho cada uno, ajustando la correlación cruzada de las derivadas de los perfiles promedio para cada época. A partir de la expansión medida, se estima el índice (parámetro de expansión) de la ley potencial R∝ tm como m≡ d ln R/d ln t . Este valor se compara <span class="hlt">con</span> coeficientes teóricos para diferentes fases evolutivas de remanentes de supernova.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2696074','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2696074"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Track: Finding the most likely pathways between brain regions using diffusion tractography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sherbondy, Anthony J.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Napel, Sandy; Wandell, Brian A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging coupled with fiber tractography (DFT) is the only non-invasive method for measuring white matter pathways in the living human brain. DFT is often used to discover new pathways. But there are also many applications, particularly in visual neuroscience, in which we are confident that two brain regions are connected, and we wish to find the most likely pathway forming the connection. In several cases, current DFT algorithms fail to find these candidate pathways. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a probabilistic DFT algorithm (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Track) that identifies the most likely pathways between two regions. We introduce the algorithm in three parts: a sampler to generate a large set of potential pathways, a scoring algorithm that measures the likelihood of a pathway, and an inferential step to identify the most likely pathways connecting two regions. In a series of experiments using human data, we show that <span class="hlt">Con</span>Track estimates known pathways at positions that are consistent with those found using a high quality deterministic algorithm. Further we show that separating sampling and scoring enables <span class="hlt">Con</span>Track to identify valid pathways, known to exist, that are missed by other deterministic and probabilistic DFT algorithms. PMID:18831651</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27166375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27166375"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Surf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir</p> <p>2016-07-08</p> <p>The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The <span class="hlt">Con</span>Surf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into <span class="hlt">Con</span>Surf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning <span class="hlt">Con</span>Surf with the taxa of a sub-tree. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5133420','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5133420"><span>What are the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Methods Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. Results The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 <span class="hlt">cons</span>. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The <span class="hlt">cons</span> that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. Conclusions The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care. PMID:27933181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/212501','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/212501"><span>Mound-ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP{sup SM} process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20339232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20339232"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>A and UEA-I lectin histochemistry of parotid gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sobral, Ana Paula V; Rego, Moacyr J B M; Cavalacanti, Carmelita L B; Carvalho, Luiz B; Beltrão, Eduardo I C</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) corresponds to 5-12% of all salivary gland tumours, and is classified as low, intermediate or high grade. Traditionally, immunohistochemistry was considered as the complementary tool for diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasia. Lectin histochemistry has also been increasingly used in recent years. In this work, lectins were used as histochemical markers for normal and transformed parotid glands. Biopsy specimens of 15 cases diagnosed as MEC (low, intermediate and high grade) of the parotid gland were trypsin- and methanol-H(2)O(2)-treated and incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated lectins, Concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span> A-HRP) and Ulex europeus I (UEA-I-HRP). <span class="hlt">Con</span> A stained the neoplasic cells of MEC (all grades). In high and intermediate cases, ductal cells were weakly stained by <span class="hlt">Con</span> A. UEA-I weakly stained normal cells of the excretory duct and neoplasic cells in high grade. Neoplasic cells in intermediate grade were moderately stained and in low grade, the cell membrane was intensely stained with UEA-I. Stroma presented a direct relation between malignancy and staining intensity for UEA-I. The results indicated that lectin histochemistry distinguished the cell biology among histological grades of MEC.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25724751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25724751"><span>Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas <span class="hlt">con</span> adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo <span class="hlt">con</span> adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, <span class="hlt">con</span> posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, <span class="hlt">con</span> posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6592260','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6592260"><span>Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin, offshore Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J. )</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Recent exploration of the south east Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425555','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425555"><span>Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin, offshore Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Recent exploration of the south east Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam <span class="hlt">Con</span> Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MPLB...3150171Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MPLB...3150171Z"><span>Equilibrium geometries, electronic structure and magnetic properties of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Sn (n = 1-12) clusters from density functional calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jing Ya; Lv, Jin</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Equilibrium geometries, relative stabilities, electronic stabilities and magnetic properties of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Sn (n = 1-12) clusters have been systematically investigated by using relativistic all-electron density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation. The results indicated that the lowest-energy structures of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Sn (n = 1-5, 7, 9 and 10) clusters are similar to those of corresponding <span class="hlt">Con</span>+1 clusters. As for Co6Sn, Co8Sn, Co11Sn and Co12Sn clusters, the most stable structures give rise to a geometry reconstruction. In the low-lying structures of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Sn (n = 1-12) clusters, tin impurity prefers to occupy the external site. The second-order difference energy of the ground-state <span class="hlt">Con</span>Sn (n = 1-12) clusters shows a pronounced odd-even oscillation with the number of Co atoms, and the clusters exhibit higher stability at n = 5. Compared with corresponding pure <span class="hlt">Con</span>+1 clusters, the total magnetic moment of the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Sn clusters reduces with 1, 3 and 5 μB, respectively. The different magnetic changes of the tin doped Co clusters are analyzed in detail based on the magnetism coupling, density of state and hybridization between cobalt and tin atoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25271883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25271883"><span>The Transcription Factor <span class="hlt">Con</span>7-1 Is a Master Regulator of Morphogenesis and Virulence in Fusarium oxysporum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies have demonstrated the essential role of morphogenetic regulation in Fusarium oxysporum pathogenesis, including processes such as cell-wall biogenesis, cell division, and differentiation of infection-like structures. We identified three F. oxysporum genes encoding predicted transcription factors showing significant identities to Magnaporthe oryzae <span class="hlt">Con</span>7p, <span class="hlt">Con</span>7-1, plus two identical copies of <span class="hlt">Con</span>7-2. Targeted deletion of <span class="hlt">con</span>7-1 produced nonpathogenic mutants with altered morphogenesis, including defects in cell wall structure, polar growth, hyphal branching, and conidiation. By contrast, simultaneous inactivation of both <span class="hlt">con</span>7-2 copies caused no detectable defects in the resulting mutants. Comparative microarray-based gene expression analysis indicated that <span class="hlt">Con</span>7-1 modulates the expression of a large number of genes involved in different biological functions, including host-pathogen interactions, morphogenesis and development, signal perception and transduction, transcriptional regulation, and primary and secondary metabolism. Taken together, our results point to <span class="hlt">Con</span>7-1 as general regulator of morphogenesis and virulence in F. oxysporum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7343E..0QL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7343E..0QL"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lei, Huan-Yao; Peng, Ching-An; Tang, Ming-Jer; Reindhart, Kit; Szu, Harold H.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of <span class="hlt">Con</span>_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because <span class="hlt">Con</span>_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells. Combined, in this paper, with the absorption exceeding the Carbon NanoTube (CNT) band-gap (ɛbg=~1/CNT diameter) with an active short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1.2~1.5 micron wavelengths), which happened to be translucent to the irradiation upon animal skin, similar to that used in hospital fingertip-clamped Pulse Oxymetry. Once the <span class="hlt">Con</span>_ACNT is guided to hepatoma cells, it is bonded and internalized into the mitochondria (MC) compartment, the cellular energy factory. <span class="hlt">Con</span>_A has the higher specificity for tumor cells useful for targeting because of the abnormal glycosylation on tumor cells. When CNT hitch hike with <span class="hlt">Con</span>_A, they can t together like a laser-denotable chemical missile surgically targeting at the tumor cells precisely by <span class="hlt">Con</span>_A-guidance. We switch on SWIR laser, when the <span class="hlt">Con</span>_A-CNT conjugated complex has been bonded and internalized to MC of malign cells and already commenced cellular programmed death. Thus, it might appear to casual readers that we have initiated an overkill, chemical drugged autophage followed with physical laser ablation, but what if we can eradicate hepatoma totally if no blue print is left behind inadvertently in case of a partial failure. We conclude that using <span class="hlt">Con</span>_A-CNT conjugated complex targeting specifically at malign tumor cells is a novel targeted-laser-radiation therapy for tumors in mice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1304738','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1304738"><span>Wildland Fire Induced Heating of Dome 375 Perma-<span class="hlt">Con</span>®</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Flores, Eugene Michael</p> <p>2016-08-09</p> <p>AET-1 was tasked by ADEM with determining the temperature rise in the drum contents of drums stored in the Dome 375 Perma-<span class="hlt">Con</span>® at TA-54 given a wildland fire. The wildland fire causes radiative and convective heating on the Perma-<span class="hlt">Con</span>® exterior. The wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heating environment were provided to AET-1 by EES-16. If the calculated temperature rise results in a drum content temperature over 40 °C, then ADEM desires a design solution to ensure the peak temperature remains below 40 °C. An axi-symmetric FE simulation was completed to determine the peak temperature of the contents of a drum stored in the Dome 375 Perma-<span class="hlt">Con</span>® during a wildland fire event. Three wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heat transfer were provided by EES-16 and were inputs for the FE simulation. The maximum drum content temperature reached was found to be 110 °C while using inputs from the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx time history input and not including the SWB in the model. Including the SWB in the results in a peak drum content temperature of 61 °C for the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx inputs. EES-16 decided that by using fuel mitigation efforts, such as mowing the grass and shrubs near the Perma-<span class="hlt">Con</span>® they could reduce the shrub/grass fuel loading near the Perma-<span class="hlt">Con</span>® from 1.46 kg/m<sup>2</sup> to 0.146 kg/m<sup>2</sup> and by using a less conservative fuel loading for the debris field inside the Dome 375 perimeter, reducing it from 0.58 kg/m2 to 0.058 kg/m<sup>2</sup> in their model. They also greatly increased the resolution of their radiation model and increased the accuracy of their model’s required convergence value. Using this refined input the maximum drum content temperature was found to be 28 °C with no SWB present in the model. Additionally, this refined input model was modified to include worst case emissivity values for the concrete, drum and Perma-<span class="hlt">Con</span>® interior, along with adding a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28693018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28693018"><span>El efecto de la panfotocoagulación <span class="hlt">con</span> láser en edema macular diabético <span class="hlt">con</span> el fotocoagulador Pascal® versus el láser de argón convencional.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahgoub, Mohamed M; Macky, Tamer A</p> <p>2017-07-11</p> <p>Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el efecto de la panfotocoagulación (PFC) en el edema macular diabético (EMD) en pacientes <span class="hlt">con</span> retinopatía diabética proliferativa (RDP) <span class="hlt">con</span> el fotocoagulador Pascal® (FP) vs. un fotocoagulador <span class="hlt">con</span> láser de argón convencional (FLAC). Métodos: Se aleatorizó el uso de FP o FLAC en ochenta ojos <span class="hlt">con</span> RDP y EMD <span class="hlt">con</span> afectación central de la mácula. Ambos grupos tuvieron una evaluación de base de mejor agudeza visual corregida y fueron examinados <span class="hlt">con</span> tomografía de coherencia óptica y angiografía <span class="hlt">con</span> fluoresceína. Resultados: El número medio de disparos de láser en los grupos de FP y FLAC fue 1.726,10 y 752,00 en la sesión 1 y 1.589,00 y 830,00 (p < 0,001) en la sesión 2, respectivamente. El grosor foveal central (GFC) medio antes de comenzar el estudio fue 306 ± 100 y 314 ± 98 en los grupos de FP y FLAC, respectivamente. A las 8 semanas, el GFC medio fue 332 ± 116 y 347 ± 111 en los grupos de FP y FLAC, respectivamente (p > 0,05). La MAVC media fue similar durante el periodo de estudio y no hubo ninguna diferencia significativa entre los grupos (p > 0,05). Conclusiones: El FP y el FLAC mostraron efectos similares en el EMD en ojos <span class="hlt">con</span> RDP y fueron igualmente seguros sin un aumento significativo del GFC. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1453953','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1453953"><span>Lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in an invertebrate model: <span class="hlt">Con</span> A does not act as a bridge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boswell, C A; Bayne, C J</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The plant lectin concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span> A) has been used in an invertebrate model of lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (LDCC). Macrophage-like cells from the susceptible host snail Biomphalaria glabrata become cytotoxic effectors when they encounter sporocysts of the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni that have been treated with <span class="hlt">Con</span> A. The sugar alpha-methyl mannoside and rabbit anti-<span class="hlt">Con</span> A antibodies fail to block this LDCC. <span class="hlt">Con</span> A is effective only when the target, not the effector cell, has been exposed to it. These results constitute evidence against the molecular bridging hypothesis and support the notion that surface modulation of the target may be the stimulus that provokes cytotoxicity. Results from this invertebrate model are discussed in the context of murine T lymphocyte LDCC. PMID:3949370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28196799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28196799"><span>A phase 2 trial of long-acting Trans<span class="hlt">Con</span> growth hormone in adult GH deficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Höybye, Charlotte; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Ferone, Diego; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Gilfoyle, David; Christoffersen, Eva Dam; Mortensen, Eva; Leff, Jonathan A; Beckert, Michael</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Trans<span class="hlt">Con</span> growth hormone is a sustained-release human growth hormone prodrug under development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly Trans<span class="hlt">Con</span> GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope). Thirty-seven adult males and females diagnosed with adult growth hormone deficiency and stable on growth hormone replacement therapy for at least 3 months were, following a wash-out period, randomized (regardless of their pre-study dose) to one of three Trans<span class="hlt">Con</span> GH doses (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 mg GH/kg/week) or Omnitrope 0.04 mg GH/kg/week (divided into 7 equal daily doses) for 4 weeks. Main outcomes evaluated were adverse events, immunogenicity and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. Trans<span class="hlt">Con</span> GH was well tolerated; fatigue and headache were the most frequent drug-related adverse events and reported in all groups. No lipoatrophy or nodule formation was reported. No anti-growth hormone-binding antibodies were detected. Trans<span class="hlt">Con</span> GH demonstrated a linear, dose-dependent increase in growth hormone exposure without accumulation. Growth hormone maximum serum concentration and insulin-like growth factor 1 exposure were similar after Trans<span class="hlt">Con</span> GH or Omnitrope administered at comparable doses. The results suggest that long-acting Trans<span class="hlt">Con</span> GH has a profile similar to daily growth hormone but with a more convenient dosing regimen. These findings support further Trans<span class="hlt">Con</span> GH development. © 2017 The authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42...14M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42...14M"><span>Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur <span class="hlt">con</span> Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.</p> <p></p> <p>Recordamos que entre el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'', el Observatorio Astronómico de Beijing y el Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata, se ha convenido en desarrollar un Proyecto de Investigación conjunto, para la observación sistemática de estrellas en el Hemisferio Sur, <span class="hlt">con</span> el objeto de la elaboración de un Catálogo Estelar Global utilizando un Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing, que ha sido usado <span class="hlt">con</span> éxito en la República de China. En este trabajo se presenta el Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur, derivado de las observaciones realizadas <span class="hlt">con</span> el PAII instalado en el OAFA, durante el períiodo Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. En este lapso se han observado mas de 400000 pasajes estelares, obteniéndose las correcciones Δ α y Δ δ de 5241 estrellas del FK4, FK5, FK5 Ext., SRS, CAMC y GC. Las precisiones medias son del orden de ± 3,2 ms en ascensión recta y ±0."057 en declinación. Rango de magnitudes : 2,0 a 11,5 Rango de declinaciones : -3o a -60o Epoca Media : 1994.9 Se analizan los residuos en función de la magnitud y tipo espectral, correcciones de grupo y frecuencia de distribución Δ α y Δ δ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5241282','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5241282"><span>Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Westmark, Cara J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition. PMID:28149839</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42...64V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42...64V"><span>Confrontando teorías físicas <span class="hlt">con</span> la Cosmología</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vucetich, H.</p> <p></p> <p>Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse <span class="hlt">con</span> el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27879123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27879123"><span>On application of optimal control to SEIR normalized models: Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Pinho, Maria do Rosario; Nogueira, Filipa Nunes</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this work we normalize a SEIR model that incorporates exponential natural birth and death, as well as disease-caused death. We use optimal control to control by vaccination the spread of a generic infectious disease described by a normalized model with L1 cost. We discuss the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of SEIR normalized models when compared with classical models when optimal control with L1 costs are considered. Our discussion highlights the role of the cost. Additionally, we partially validate our numerical solutions for our optimal control problem with normalized models using the Maximum Principle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28149839','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28149839"><span>Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Westmark, Cara J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..461Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..461Y"><span>The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> about the digital recording of Intangible Cultural Heritage and some strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, H.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Intangible Cultural Heritage (referred to as ICH), whose fundamental nature different from the tangible cultural heritage is "Intangible", and the related physical presence of the heritage is not the core content. Digital means have irreplaceable advantages in recording intangible and dynamic ICH resources, while it also needs flexible and rigorous recording means as a support, thus striving to maximize resources recording and protection. This article will focus on the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> about the digital recording of ICH, and preliminarily discuss some strategies used in the process of recording.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40Q..37A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40Q..37A"><span>La interacción de estrellas WN <span class="hlt">con</span> el medio circundante</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.</p> <p></p> <p>Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas <span class="hlt">con</span> el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21062238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21062238"><span>Nano anti-cancer drugs: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> and future perspectives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ali, Imran</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>For last one decade, scientists are working for developing nano anti-cancer drugs with claim of ideal ones due to their targeted chemotherapic nature. These drugs have many beneficial properties such as targeted drug delivery and gene therapy modalities with minimum side effects. This article describes pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. Efforts have been made to address importance, special features, toxicities (general, blood identities, immune system and environmental) and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. It was concluded that nano anti-cancer drugs may be magic bullet drugs for cancer treatment leading to bright future of the whole world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24548463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24548463"><span>Perceived pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bommelé, Jeroen; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kleinjan, Marloes; van Straaten, Barbara; Wits, Elske; Snelleman, Michelle; van de Mheen, Dike</p> <p>2014-02-18</p> <p>In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Although the perceived pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25927294','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25927294"><span>Establishing confidence in the output of qualitative research synthesis: the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Qual approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Munn, Zachary; Porritt, Kylie; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Edoardo; Pearson, Alan</p> <p>2014-09-20</p> <p>The importance of findings derived from syntheses of qualitative research has been increasingly acknowledged. Findings that arise from qualitative syntheses inform questions of practice and policy in their own right and are commonly used to complement findings from quantitative research syntheses. The GRADE approach has been widely adopted by international organisations to rate the quality and confidence of the findings of quantitative systematic reviews. To date, there has been no widely accepted corresponding approach to assist health care professionals and policy makers in establishing confidence in the synthesised findings of qualitative systematic reviews. A methodological group was formed develop a process to assess the confidence in synthesised qualitative research findings and develop a Summary of Findings tables for meta-aggregative qualitative systematic reviews. Dependability and credibility are two elements considered by the methodological group to influence the confidence of qualitative synthesised findings. A set of critical appraisal questions are proposed to establish dependability, whilst credibility can be ranked according to the goodness of fit between the author's interpretation and the original data. By following the processes outlined in this article, an overall ranking can be assigned to rate the confidence of synthesised qualitative findings, a system we have labelled <span class="hlt">Con</span>Qual. The development and use of the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Qual approach will assist users of qualitative systematic reviews to establish confidence in the evidence produced in these types of reviews and can serve as a practical tool to assist in decision making.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6727839','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6727839"><span>Avoided costs associated with cogeneration: a case study of <span class="hlt">Con</span> Ed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bright, R.; Davitian, H.; Martorella, J.</p> <p>1980-08-01</p> <p>The potential impact of cogeneration in office and apartment buildings in New York City on the Consolidated Edison Company (<span class="hlt">Con</span> Ed) has been investigated using a method of utility cost and fuel use analysis developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This method computes a utility's long run marginal costs and long run marginal fuel consumption associated with load modifications due to the introduction of on-site energy producing technologies. The principal findings of this study show that <span class="hlt">Con</span> Ed's long run average cost is more likely to go down than up due to cogeneration in office and apartment building; the utility's avoided costs (i.e., its long run marginal savings) associated with the gross power output of the cogeneration systems are 10.5 cents/KWh for the office building and 6.4 cents/KWh for the apartment buildings; the utility's marginal savings include a component for avoided capacity costs; and there are net savings in the use of oil due to cogeneration (assuming the building used oil for its boilers before it switched and diesel fuel in its cogenerators afterwards).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17944656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17944656"><span>Reliability of knee extension and flexion measurements using the <span class="hlt">Con</span>-Trex isokinetic dynamometer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Bizzini, Mario; Desbrosses, Kevin; Babault, Nicolas; Munzinger, Urs</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of isokinetic and isometric assessments of the knee extensor and the flexor muscle function using the <span class="hlt">Con</span>-Trex isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty healthy subjects (15 males, 15 females) were tested and retested 7 days later for maximal strength (isokinetic peak torque, work, power and angle of peak torque as well as isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development) and fatigue (per cent loss and linear slope of torque and work across a series of 20 contractions). For both the knee extensor and the flexor muscle groups, all strength data - except angle of peak torque - demonstrated moderate-to-high reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) higher than 0.86. The highest reliability was observed for concentric peak torque of the knee extensor muscles (ICC = 0.99). Test-retest reliability of fatigue variables was moderate for the knee extensor (ICC range 0.84-0.89) and insufficient-to-moderate for the knee flexor muscles (ICC range 0.78-0.81). The more reliable index of muscle fatigue was the linear slope of the decline in work output. These findings establish the reliability of isokinetic and isometric measurements using the <span class="hlt">Con</span>-Trex machine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3470459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3470459"><span>Quick fix or long-term cure? Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of bariatric surgery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Madura, James A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number of bariatric, or weight loss, operations performed. This trend is likely to continue, mirroring the epidemic of obesity around the world and its rising prevalence among children. Bariatric surgery is considered by many to be the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of maintenance of long-term weight loss and improvement in obesity-related comorbid conditions. Although overly simplified, the primary mechanisms of the surgical interventions currently utilized to treat obesity are the creation of a restrictive or malabsorptive bowel anatomy. Operations based on these mechanisms include the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (considered primarily restrictive operations), the laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with or without a duodenal switch (primarily malabsorptive operation), and the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (considered a combination restrictive and selective malabsorptive procedure). Each operation has pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>. Important considerations, for the patient and surgeon alike, in the decision to proceed with bariatric surgery include the technical aspects of the operation, postoperative complications including long-term nutritional problems, magnitude of initial and sustained weight loss desired, and correction of obesity-related comorbidities. Herein, the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the contemporary laparoscopic bariatric operations are reviewed and ongoing controversies relating to bariatric surgery are discussed: appropriate patient selection, appropriate operation selection for an individual patient, surgeon selection, and how to measure success after surgery. PMID:23091563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4686126','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4686126"><span>RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN <span class="hlt">CON</span> ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña <span class="hlt">con</span> comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación <span class="hlt">con</span> el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3011817','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3011817"><span>Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres <span class="hlt">con</span> Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres <span class="hlt">con</span> desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, <span class="hlt">con</span> alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16049064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16049064"><span>Targeting of pro<span class="hlt">Con</span>A to the plant vacuole depends on its nine amino-acid C-terminal propeptide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Claude, Saint-Jore-Dupas; Gilbert, Marie-Agnès; Marie-Agnès, Gilbert; Ramis, Catalina; Catalina, Ramis; Paris, Nadine; Nadine, Paris; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Marie-Christine, Kiefer-Meyer; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Jean-Marc, Neuhaus; Faye, Loïc; Loïc, Faye; Gomord, Véronique; Véronique, Gomord</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A) is a well characterized and extensively used lectin accumulated in the protein bodies of jack bean cotyledons. <span class="hlt">Con</span>A is synthesized as an inactive precursor pro<span class="hlt">Con</span>A. The maturation of inactive pro<span class="hlt">Con</span>A into biologically active <span class="hlt">Con</span>A is a complex process including the removal of an internal glycopeptide and a C-terminal propeptide (CTPP), followed by a head-to-tail ligation of the two largest polypeptides. The cDNA encoding pro<span class="hlt">Con</span>A was cloned and expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells. Pro<span class="hlt">Con</span>A was slowly transported to the vacuole where its maturation into <span class="hlt">Con</span>A was similar to that in jack bean cotyledons, apart from an incomplete final ligation. To investigate the role of the nine amino acid CTPP, a truncated form lacking the propeptide (pro<span class="hlt">Con</span>ADelta9) was expressed in BY-2 cells. In contrast to pro<span class="hlt">Con</span>A, pro<span class="hlt">Con</span>ADelta9 was rapidly chased out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and secreted into the culture medium. The CTPP was then fused to the C-terminal end of a secreted form of green fluorescent protein (secGFP). When expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells and leaf protoplasts, the chimaeric protein was located in the vacuole whereas secGFP was located in the culture medium and in the vacuole. Altogether, our results show we have isolated a new C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26040346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26040346"><span>Iron status and dietary intakes of iron in normal-weight and obese young Mexican women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tijerina-Sáenz, Alexandra; Martínez-Garza, Nancy E; Ramírez-López, Erik; Solís-Pérez, Elizabeth; Martínez-Báez, Adbel Z</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Introducción: la obesidad se ha reportado como predictor de la deficiencia de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. En México, el 45,5% de las mujeres mayores de 20 años tienen obesidad, y la prevalencia de anemia es de 10,2% en mujeres de 20 a 29 años. Objetivo: investigar la relación entre índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de grasa (%GC), ingesta dietética y reservas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en mujeres jóvenes sanas <span class="hlt">con</span> normopeso y obesidad. Métodos: ochenta y seis mujeres [normopeso (n = 46) y obesidad (n = 40)] completaron el estudio. La ingesta fue evaluada por un diario de registro de 8 días. La antropometría y obtención de sangre (hemoglobina, hematocrito, ferritina y transferrina) se consiguieron en la fase lútea del ciclo menstrual; se reportaron las características de la menstruación. Las reservas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> se determinaron según etapas de depleción. Pruebas de T y Mann-Whitney U se usaron para comparar variables entre grupos. La correlación de Pearson se usó para determinar relaciones entre variables. La razón de momios se utilizó para medir la asociación de IMC, %GC e ingesta dietética <span class="hlt">con</span> las reservas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Resultados: los marcadores de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> fueron similares entre grupos. Se encontró una relación positiva entre %GC y ferritina (r = 0,222; p = 0,032). La similitud en ingesta y periodos menstruales puede ser la razón de que existan reservas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> similares. El IMC, %GC e ingesta dietética no contribuyeron independientemente a las etapas de depleción de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Conclusión: se sugiere guía dietética para esta población <span class="hlt">con</span> el fin de evitar complicaciones por deficiencia de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5106187','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5106187"><span>Overcoming the aggregation problem: A new type of fluorescent ligand for <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-based glucose sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cummins, Brian M.; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K.; Birch, David J.S.; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and <span class="hlt">Con</span>A (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS–MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by <span class="hlt">Con</span>A’s full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand’s equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS–MT and 1 μM <span class="hlt">Con</span>A, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to <span class="hlt">Con</span>A’s primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with <span class="hlt">Con</span>A. PMID:25058939</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24556644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24556644"><span>Cue-based assertion classification for Swedish clinical text--developing a lexicon for py<span class="hlt">Con</span>TextSwe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Velupillai, Sumithra; Skeppstedt, Maria; Kvist, Maria; Mowery, Danielle; Chapman, Brian E; Dalianis, Hercules; Chapman, Wendy W</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The ability of a cue-based system to accurately assert whether a disorder is affirmed, negated, or uncertain is dependent, in part, on its cue lexicon. In this paper, we continue our study of porting an assertion system (py<span class="hlt">Con</span>TextNLP) from English to Swedish (py<span class="hlt">Con</span>TextSwe) by creating an optimized assertion lexicon for clinical Swedish. We integrated cues from four external lexicons, along with generated inflections and combinations. We used subsets of a clinical corpus in Swedish. We applied four assertion classes (definite existence, probable existence, probable negated existence and definite negated existence) and two binary classes (existence yes/no and uncertainty yes/no) to py<span class="hlt">Con</span>TextSwe. We compared py<span class="hlt">Con</span>TextSwe's performance with and without the added cues on a development set, and improved the lexicon further after an error analysis. On a separate evaluation set, we calculated the system's final performance. Following integration steps, we added 454 cues to py<span class="hlt">Con</span>TextSwe. The optimized lexicon developed after an error analysis resulted in statistically significant improvements on the development set (83% F-score, overall). The system's final F-scores on an evaluation set were 81% (overall). For the individual assertion classes, F-score results were 88% (definite existence), 81% (probable existence), 55% (probable negated existence), and 63% (definite negated existence). For the binary classifications existence yes/no and uncertainty yes/no, final system performance was 97%/87% and 78%/86% F-score, respectively. We have successfully ported py<span class="hlt">Con</span>TextNLP to Swedish (py<span class="hlt">Con</span>TextSwe). We have created an extensive and useful assertion lexicon for Swedish clinical text, which could form a valuable resource for similar studies, and which is publicly available. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058939"><span>Overcoming the aggregation problem: a new type of fluorescent ligand for <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-based glucose sensing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cummins, Brian M; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K; Birch, David J S; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and <span class="hlt">Con</span>A (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS-MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by <span class="hlt">Con</span>A's full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand's equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS-MT and 1 µM <span class="hlt">Con</span>A, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to <span class="hlt">Con</span>A's primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with <span class="hlt">Con</span>A.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20538309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20538309"><span>Comparison of phenotypic methods in predicting methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>) from animals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Xiaogang; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Zervos, Marcus; Bhargava, Kanika</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Phenotypic detection of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>) of animal origin has been challenging due to the heterogeneous expression of mecA. To compare different phenotypic methods in predicting the mecA presence in <span class="hlt">CoNS</span>, a total of 87 <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> isolates from agricultural animals were analyzed in this study by agar dilution, disk diffusion, and broth microdilution. mecA was present in 81 <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> isolates. Broth microdilution demonstrated the highest sensitivity of 100% in predicting the mecA presence, followed by 72.8% by agar dilution and 70.4% by disk diffusion. The results indicate that broth microdilution may be more suitable for predicting the presence of mecA in <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> from animals than the other two methods, although staphylococcal species may also be a factor affecting the sensitivities of the methods as the top three staphylococcal species in this study were Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus sciuri, and Staphylococcus xylosus (a total of 75 of 87).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27020875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27020875"><span>Contribution of the Kallikrein/Kinin System to the Mediation of <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-Induced Inflammatory Ascites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baintner, Károly</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured. The <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective. It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent <span class="hlt">Con</span>A and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein. Complete inhibition of the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28899798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28899798"><span>Is ACPA positivity the main driver for rheumatoid arthritis treatment? Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alivernini, Stefano; Galeazzi, Mauro; Peleg, Hagit; Tolusso, Barbara; Gremese, Elisa; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Naparstek, Yaakov</p> <p>2017-09-09</p> <p>Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune chronic disease that is characterized by the positivity of various antibodies, the most specific being autoantibodies against citrullinated antigens (ACPA). Despite ACPA are not arthritogenic by themselves, ACPA positive individuals have high risk of RA development and ACPA positivity is associated with severe erosive phenotype and higher mortality rate compared to seronegative RA. Moreover, ACPA status is associated with favorable response to biologics targeting pathways involving autoantibody producing cells as B lymphocytes. In the current review we have discussed the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> on the available scientific evidences, regarding the diagnostic, prognostic and management implications of ACPAs in RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051848"><span>The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> for pediatric and adolescent health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomas, Tami L</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of these issues in advocating for their patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476362"><span>Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liao, Song-Yan; Tse, Hung-Fat</p> <p>2013-12-24</p> <p>Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown. In this review, the potential pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of different types of multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells that have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies are reviewed, and the future perspective of stem cell-based therapy for heart regeneration is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778084"><span>From in vitro Experiments to in vivo and Clinical Studies; Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Manayi, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Biomedical investigators use different methods including experimental animals, tissue, and cell cultures as well as computational simulations and clinical studies finding the ways to treat human diseases and disorders. All the mentioned procedures have their own advantages and disadvantages. For instance although animal models provide some drawbacks like difference in biokinetics parameters or extrapolation of results to human, they are more reliable than in vitro tests. The disadvantage of the in vitro procedures is that they are mostly performed on cancerous cell lines that have a substantially abnormal function. Furthermore, although in vitro models are fruitfully used in biological fields, finding an end point, the initial aim of chemical attack, and extrapolation of the effects to the human are some real weaknesses. Absence of biokinetics in in vitro methods may lead to a misinterpretation of the data. The present review has criticized the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of both methods, especially in the fields of pharmacology, toxicology, and medical sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25857204','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25857204"><span>What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, <span class="hlt">cons</span> and unintended consequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caponnetto, Pasquale; Saitta, Daniela; Sweanor, David; Polosa, Riccardo</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Many public health experts, medical research societies, large health organizations and policy makers have expressed concerns about the increased popularity of electronic cigarettes and have pushed for more restrictive measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products either as medicines or as tobacco products. But these concerns have never been adequately qualified nor quantified. Without judicious assessment and thorough evaluation, regulations may have unintended consequences that can do more damage than good in public health terms. In this article, we will appraise the existing prominent regulatory frameworks for e-cigarettes, namely, general consumer product, medicinal product and tobacco product regulation, to highlight their pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>. Moreover, we provide concrete examples of the unintended consequences which may arise from inappropriate regulatory action.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4056686','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4056686"><span>Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown. In this review, the potential pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of different types of multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells that have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies are reviewed, and the future perspective of stem cell-based therapy for heart regeneration is discussed. PMID:24476362</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17149039','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17149039"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of healthcare information technology implementation: the pros win.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maffei, Roxana</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Countless studies and investigations have been performed siding either for or against the implementation of technology in the healthcare setting. This article presents both sides of this debate, with an obvious conclusion that the pros of this debate win. The practice of information technology in the medical domain lags behind its knowledge and discovery by at least 7 years. The key to closing this gap is to show, through various studies, how information technology systems provide decision support to users at the point in time when decisions are needed. What the reader will obtain from this article is that the pros for information technology implementation in healthcare settings weigh much more and have a greater effect than the <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988easc.conf..153D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988easc.conf..153D"><span>Space and terrestrial media for military communications - Technical pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dharamsi, Manoj T.; Reilly, James F.; Hawrylko, Warren P.</p> <p></p> <p>Technical pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> are presented for space and terrestrial media for defense-wide long-haul military communications. Defense-wide military space communications include use of leased commercial satellite capability in addition to the government-owned Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS). The terrestrial communications include use of troposcatter, HF radios, line-of-sight microwave, and metallic and fiber-optic cables. The current usage, capacity, cost, and other attributes of these media are examined. Current trends and future uses of the space and terrestrial media for military communications are discussed. It is concluded that military communications can continue best by using a mix of both space and terrestrial media.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3711750','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3711750"><span>DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN <span class="hlt">CON</span> ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>En la investigación <span class="hlt">con</span> animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad <span class="hlt">con</span> grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando <span class="hlt">con</span> seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BAAA...46...51B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BAAA...46...51B"><span>Formación estelar en NGC 6357: viendo a través del polvo <span class="hlt">con</span> Gemini</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bosch, G.; Morrell, N.; Barbá, R.</p> <p></p> <p>Presentamos aquí los primeros resultados de fotometría JHKs obtenidos <span class="hlt">con</span> Flamingos I en el telescopio Gemini Sur. El mosaico comprendido por tres posiciones adyacentes tomadas a lo largo de varios semestres nos permite caracterizar la población estelar en la zona que presenta una interacción más importante entre las estrellas masivas y la nube molecular que les dió origen. Los diagramas color-magnitud nos permiten identificar numerosas fuentes <span class="hlt">con</span> exceso infrarrojo, la mayoría de ellas imposible de detectarse en el rango óptico debido a la fuerte absorción del polvo presente en la región. Es altamente probable que la mayoría de estas fuentes <span class="hlt">con</span> exceso sean protoestrellas, aunque es necesario realizar espectroscopía infrarroja de las mismas para confirmar su naturaleza.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3884680','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3884680"><span>La salud en personas <span class="hlt">con</span> discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas <span class="hlt">con</span> discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas <span class="hlt">con</span> DI y compararlos <span class="hlt">con</span> datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos <span class="hlt">con</span> DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos <span class="hlt">con</span> los de la población general. Resultados La muestra <span class="hlt">con</span> DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas <span class="hlt">con</span> DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas <span class="hlt">con</span> DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617577"><span>Effect of alpha lipoic acid on the blood cell count and iron kinetics in hypertensive patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mendes, Paula Renata Florêncio; Félix, Danielle dos Santos; Silva, Paulo César Dantas da; Pereira, Guêdijany Henrique; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da Silva</p> <p>2014-11-03</p> <p>Introducción: El Ácido -Lipóico (ALA) ha sido utilizado como recurso terapéutico para reducir daño oxidativo en la Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (HAS), pero aún no existen estudios in vivo que reporten sobre su mecanismo de acción en el metabolismo del <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto antioxidante del ácido Alfa- Lipóico sobre el hemograma y metabolismo del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en individuos hipertensos <span class="hlt">con</span> o sin anemia. Métodos: Estudio clínico doble-ciego, randomizado y controlado <span class="hlt">con</span> placebo. La muestra fue constituida por 60 individuos hipertensos, distribuidos aleatoriamente en grupo tratamiento (n = 32), que recibió 600 mg/día del ALA por doce semanas y grupo control (n = 28), que recibió el placebo por el mismo período. Fueron analizados antes y después de la intervención, los parámetros del hemograma, <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> Sérico, Ferritina, Capacidad Latente de Enlace del <span class="hlt">hierro</span>, Capacidad Total de Enlace del <span class="hlt">Hierro</span>, Índice de Saturación de la Transferrina (ISI) y Transferrina. Para evaluar las alteraciones entre los grupos, se utilizó el teste t de Student y el análisis de varianza ANOVA, adoptándose el nivel de significación de 5%. Resultados: Después de la intervención, el suplemento <span class="hlt">con</span> el ALA demostró una asociación estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05) <span class="hlt">con</span> la reducción de los leucocitos totales, aumento del número de neutrófilos y reducciones en los niveles de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> Sérico e ISI. Conclusión: La administración oral del ALA como un adyuvante terapéutico, altera la respuesta hematológica del leucograma y reduce la absorción del <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Cabe senãlar que el mecanismo de quelación de metales por el ácido lipoico puede ser responsable de estos cambios y, en consecuencia, podría desencadenar una condicion de anemia ferropénica en individuos hipertensos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26786174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26786174"><span>Self-efficacy, pros, and <span class="hlt">cons</span> as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji</p> <p>2016-01-18</p> <p>This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and <span class="hlt">cons</span> (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower <span class="hlt">cons</span> were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower <span class="hlt">cons</span> were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower <span class="hlt">cons</span> were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26885328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26885328"><span>Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of coagulase-negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>) isolated from clinical specimens in Northern of Jordan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al Tayyar, Ibrahim Ali; Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Hussein, Emad; Khudairat, Salih; Sarosiekf, Konrad</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Coagulase negative Staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>) are one of the most common bacteria found on human skin and on mucous membranes as a component of normal flora. The presence of <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> in clinical specimens is frequently associated with an infectious aetiology or contamination. We aimed to evaluate <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> species distribution and susceptibility patterns in specimens obtained from clinics and hospitals in the Northern area of Jordan. Standard identification methods showed the presence of <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> in 223 specimens at different local hospitals. Susceptibility testing was performed using 18 antibiotics in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were found to be the most common species isolated from all specimens representing 122 (54.7%) and 52 (23.4%) of all <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> species, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> species revealed their sensitivity to vancomycin, linozolid, rifampin and nitrofurantin, while showing a highly resistant pattern to ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, cefazolin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and erythromycin. Some variation of the susceptibility pattern of <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> species were identified in specimens isolated from the ICU and paediatric hospital wards as well as from clinical specimens of urine, blood and catheter tips. The most common <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> isolates were found to be S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus with variable percentages according to the specimen source. Moreover, a high susceptibility <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> to vancomycin, rifampin, and linezolid showed resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1515O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1515O"><span>Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys (EE-<span class="hlt">Con</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortner, Florian; Brantl, Dirk; Meyer, Lukas; Steininger, Karl; Sass, Oliver</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Alps and their population are particularly vulnerable to geomorphological and hydrological hazards and this problem might be amplified by ongoing climate change. Natural disasters cause severe monetary damage which often leads to the difficult question whether it socially pays to protect settlements at high costs or whether alternatively settlement areas should better be abandoned. By investigations in the Johnsbachtal and the Kleinsölktal (Styria), the interdisciplinary project "Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys" (EE-<span class="hlt">Con</span>), funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Are natural hazards and associated damages in fact increasing, and is this due to meteorological triggers, to anthropogenic factors or to internal process dynamics? (2) What is the perception and knowledge of local people, how is risk and risk prevention communicated? (3) What is the respective cost ratio between protection infrastructure, soft measures of adaptation and other options (e.g. reduction of settlement area)? (4) What legitimate claims to compensation do people have, how far does societal responsibility go and where does individual responsibility start if parts of the settlement area had to be abandoned? These questions will be tackled in an interdisciplinary cooperation between geography, economics and normative theory (philosophy). EE-<span class="hlt">Con</span> will follow broadly the path of risk analysis and risk assessment, focusing on the temporal dimension (past - present - future) with the aim to unravel the history of natural hazards in the areas and to analyse the economic values involved. In the following, natural hazard scenarios for the future (2050 and 2100) will be developed considering the economic consequences. Besides this, the project deals with local knowledge, risk perception and risk communication, which will be investigated via group interviews and stakeholder workshops and be integrated into a human</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9451E..0DK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9451E..0DK"><span>Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> from an applications perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4227299','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4227299"><span>iPath<span class="hlt">Cons</span> and iPathDB: an improved insect pathway construction tool and the database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zan; Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Jie, Wencai; Lei, Wenjie; Li, Fei</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Insects are one of the most successful animal groups on earth. Some insects, such as the silkworm and honeybee, are beneficial to humans, whereas others are notorious pests of crops. At present, the genomes of 38 insects have been sequenced and made publically available. In addition, the transcriptomes of dozens of insects have been sequenced. As gene data rapidly accumulate, constructing the pathway of molecular interactions becomes increasingly important for entomological research. Here, we developed an improved tool, iPath<span class="hlt">Cons</span>, for knowledge-based construction of pathways from the transcriptomes or the official gene sets of genomes. Considering the high evolution diversity in insects, iPath<span class="hlt">Cons</span> uses a voting system for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology assignment. Both stand-alone software and a web server of iPath<span class="hlt">Cons</span> are provided. Using iPath<span class="hlt">Cons</span>, we constructed the pathways of molecular interactions of 52 insects, including 37 genome-sequenced and 15 transcriptome-sequenced ones. These pathways are available in the iPathDB, which provides searches, web server, data downloads, etc. This database will be highly useful for the insect research community. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ipath/ PMID:25388589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010100','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010100"><span>Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 <span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops), Version 3.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/397165','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/397165"><span>Treatment of plutonium contaminated soil/sediment from the Mound site using the ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Negri, M.C.; Swift, N.A.; North, J.P.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The removal and/or treatment of contaminated soil is a major problem facing the US DOE. The EG&G Mound Applied Technologies site in Miamisburg, Ohio, has an estimated 1.5 million cubic feet of soils from past disposal and waste burial practices awaiting remediation from plutonium contamination. This amount includes sediment from the Miami-Erie Canal that was contaminated in 1969 following a pipe- rupture accident. Conventional soil washing techniques that use particle separation would generate too large a waste volume to be economically feasible. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed for the cleanup. The ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span> process was developed by SELENTEC for washing soils to selectively dissolve and remove heavy metals and radionuclides. ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span> chemically dissolves and removes heavy metals and radionuclides from soils and sediments into an aqueous medium. The ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span> process uses oxidative carbonate/chelant chemistry to dissolve the contaminant from the sediment and hold the contaminant in solution. The objective of recent work was to document the proves conditions necessary to achieve the Mound-site and regulatory-cleanup goals using the ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span> technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26755499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26755499"><span>Pharmacodynamics of vancomycin for <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> infection: experimental basis for optimal use of vancomycin in neonates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramos-Martín, V; Johnson, A; Livermore, J; McEntee, L; Goodwin, J; Whalley, S; Docobo-Pérez, F; Felton, T W; Zhao, W; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Sharland, M; Turner, M A; Hope, W W</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">CoNS</span> are the most common cause of neonatal late-onset sepsis. Information on the vancomycin pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics against <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize vancomycin pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships for <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> and investigate neonatal optimal dosage regimens. A hollow fibre and a novel rabbit model of neonatal central line-associated bloodstream <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> infections were developed. The results were then bridged to neonates by use of population pharmacokinetic techniques and Monte Carlo simulations. There was a dose-dependent reduction in the total bacterial population and C-reactive protein levels. The AUC/MIC and Cmax/MIC ratios were strongly linked with total and mutant resistant cell kill. Maximal amplification of resistance was observed in vitro at an fAUC/MIC of 200 mg · h/L. Simulations predicted that neonates <29 weeks post-menstrual age are underdosed with standard regimens with respect to older age groups. The AUC/MIC and Cmax/MIC ratios are the pharmacodynamic indices that best explain total and resistant cell kill in <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> infection. This suggests that less-fractionated regimens are appropriate for clinical use and continuous infusions may be associated with increased risk of emergence of antimicrobial resistance. This study has provided the pharmacodynamic evidence to inform an optimized neonatal dosage regimen to take into a randomized controlled trial. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431996','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431996"><span>Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención <span class="hlt">con</span> Hiperactividad en Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención <span class="hlt">con</span> Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados <span class="hlt">con</span> el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado <span class="hlt">con</span> una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, <span class="hlt">con</span> una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras <span class="hlt">con</span> un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960241"><span>Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of interfacial adsorption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan</p> <p>2014-07-09</p> <p>Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036825"><span>Thromboprophylaxis in carriers of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) without previous thrombosis: "Pros" and "<span class="hlt">Cons</span>".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Chighizola, Cecilia; Finazzi, Guido; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Valesini, Guido</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The presence of anti-phospholipid (aPL) is necessary but not sufficient to induce a thrombotic event. The "second hit" hypothesis suggested that an additional trigger may be needed to develop a vascular event in aPL carriers. In this article, pro and <span class="hlt">con</span> of primary thromboprophylaxis in aPL carriers is deeply discussed, concluding that univocal data are not available, due to conflicting results of available clinical trials. However, in clinical practice the primary thromboprophylaxis is not indicated in all unselected asymptomatic aPL carriers, and the best strategy begin with the assessment of the peculiar risk profile of the subject. Thus, it is mandatory to eliminate modifiable prothrombotic risk factors (i.e. smoking, oral contraceptive), to treat the irreversible risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes) and to introduce an aggressive prophylaxis with subcutaneous LMWH in high-risk situations (i.e. surgical procedures with prolonged immobilization). A different evaluation should be addressed to aPL carriers with a concomitant autoimmune disease that are considered as an additional pro-thrombotic risk factor. Similarly, concomitant positivity for more than one anti-phospholipid test confer a stronger risk of developing the thrombotic manifestations. Specific trials with larger cohorts of patients are needed to better clarify this issue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22505637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22505637"><span>Carbon dioxide rebreathing with the anaesthetic conserving device, Ana<span class="hlt">Con</span>Da®.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sturesson, L W; Malmkvist, G; Bodelsson, M; Niklason, L; Jonson, B</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The anaesthetic conserving device (ACD) Ana<span class="hlt">Con</span>Da(®) was developed to allow the reduced use of inhaled agents by conserving exhaled agent and allowing rebreathing. Elevated has been observed in patients when using this ACD, despite tidal volume compensation for the larger apparatus dead space. The aim of the present study was to determine whether CO(2), like inhaled anaesthetics, adsorbs to the ACD during expiration and returns to a test lung during the following inspiration. The ACD was attached to an experimental test lung. Apparent dead space by the single-breath test for CO(2) and the amount of CO(2) adsorbed to the carbon filter of the ACD was measured with infrared spectrometry. Apparent dead space was 230 ml larger using the ACD compared with a conventional heat and moisture exchanger (internal volumes 100 and 50 ml, respectively). Varying CO(2) flux to the test lung (85-375 ml min(-1)) did not change the measured dead space nor did varying respiratory rate (12-24 bpm). The ACD contained 3.3 times more CO(2) than the predicted amount present in its internal volume of 100 ml. Our measurements show a CO(2) reservoir effect of 180 ml in excess of the ACD internal volume. This is due to adsorption of CO(2) in the ACD during expiration and return of CO(2) during the following inspiration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED51E..02K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED51E..02K"><span>Assessing ComSci<span class="hlt">Con</span> 2013: A science communication workshop for STEM graduate students (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohler, S.; Ranjan, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We report on the efficacy of Communicating Science 2013, a science communication workshop for graduate students. Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. Science graduate students are a prime group to target for communication training, as they will be our future scientists, educators, and EPO professionals. To this end, Communicating Science 2013 (ComSci<span class="hlt">Con</span>), a workshop organized by and for STEM graduate students, was held in June of this year. This workshop taught graduate students from around the nation to effectively communicate science to both their peers and the public. To learn about grad students' attitudes toward science communication and establish the workshop's efficacy, we surveyed the participants both before and after the workshop. This assessment probed topics such as communication preparation the participants have already received, how science communication is perceived in their home department, and what participants gained from the workshop. We report the results here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7963444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7963444"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of BCG vaccination in countries with low incidence of tuberculosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tala, E O; Tala-Heikkilä, M M</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Preventive bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, together with case finding and effective chemotherapy, has formed an integral part of the tuberculosis (TB) control program in most countries. In some low-incidence countries the balance of prevention has been more on the side of chemoprophylaxis than of BCG vaccination. The time clearly has come when the strategy of mass BCG vaccination no longer is indicated medically, nor is it cost-effective. The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the programs need to be critically evaluated against the present epidemiological background, taking into account the facts that TB, the killer disease, is recovering strength, human immunodeficiency virus infection is on the increase, and multidrug-resistant TB has changed the outcome of this previously fully curable disease. Although no longer appropriate for mass programs, BCG vaccination still should be considered for the protection of selected risk groups in low-incidence countries. The overall efficacy may be of the order 50% to 80%, but the variation is great. Therefore, further research urgently is needed on the effectiveness of BCG as an intervention in local TB programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4643P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4643P"><span>Leveling data in geochemical mapping: scope of application, pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of existing methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereira, Benoît; Vandeuren, Aubry; Sonnet, Philippe</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Geochemical mapping successfully met a range of needs from mineral exploration to environmental management. In Europe and around the world numerous geochemical datasets already exist. These datasets may originate from geochemical mapping projects or from the collection of sample analyses requested by environmental protection regulatory bodies. Combining datasets can be highly beneficial for establishing geochemical maps with increased resolution and/or coverage area. However this practice requires assessing the equivalence between datasets and, if needed, applying data leveling to remove possible biases between datasets. In the literature, several procedures for assessing dataset equivalence and leveling data are proposed. Daneshfar & Cameron (1998) proposed a method for the leveling of two adjacent datasets while Pereira et al. (2016) proposed two methods for the leveling of datasets that contain records located within the same geographical area. Each discussed method requires its own set of assumptions (underlying populations of data, spatial distribution of data, etc.). Here we propose to discuss the scope of application, pros, <span class="hlt">cons</span> and practical recommendations for each method. This work is illustrated with several case studies in Wallonia (Southern Belgium) and in Europe involving trace element geochemical datasets. References: Daneshfar, B. & Cameron, E. (1998), Leveling geochemical data between map sheets, Journal of Geochemical Exploration 63(3), 189-201. Pereira, B.; Vandeuren, A.; Govaerts, B. B. & Sonnet, P. (2016), Assessing dataset equivalence and leveling data in geochemical mapping, Journal of Geochemical Exploration 168, 36-48.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27553228','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27553228"><span>Evaluation of the Arthritis Foundation's Camine <span class="hlt">Con</span> Gusto Program for Hispanic Adults With Arthritis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Callahan, Leigh F; Rivadeneira, Alfredo; Altpeter, Mary; Vilen, Leigha; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Sepulveda, Victoria E; Hackney, Betsy; Reuland, Daniel S; Rojas, Claudia</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Camine <span class="hlt">Con</span> Gusto (CCG) is the Hispanic version of an evidence-based walking program for people with arthritis. This study examined CCG outcomes, feasibility, tolerability, safety, and acceptability and potential tailoring. A pre and post 6-week evaluation was conducted in Hispanic people with arthritis. Outcomes included pain, stiffness, fatigue, functional capacity, helplessness, and self-efficacy. A formative evaluation with program participants and key stakeholders explored program tailoring. Participants' mean age was 46.9 years, 44.4% had a high school degree or less, 2.5% were born in United States, 60.1% spoke only Spanish, and 74.7% were female. Moderate effect sizes were found: 0.50 for pain, 0.75 for fatigue, 0.49 for stiffness, 0.33 for function, 0.26 for helplessness, and 0.24 for self-efficacy. There were 285 participants recruited with an 82% 6-week retention (feasibility), no adverse events were reported (safety), and 98% reported program satisfaction (acceptability). Recommended adaptations included simpler language, more pictures and content addressing nutrition and chronic conditions, shortened materials, and inclusion of motivational strategies. CCG showed improvement in outcomes in Hispanic individuals comparable to those noted in non-Hispanic White and Black individuals with arthritis. © The Author(s) 2016.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771611"><span>Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Histologic Systems of Evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brunt, Elizabeth M</p> <p>2016-01-13</p> <p>The diagnostic phenotype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)--in particular, the most significant form in terms of prognosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)--continues to rely on liver tissue evaluation, in spite of remarkable advances in non-invasive algorithms developed from serum-based tests and imaging-based or sonographically-based tests for fibrosis or liver stiffness. The most common tissue evaluation remains percutaneous liver biopsy; considerations given to the needle size and the location of the biopsy have the potential to yield the most representative tissue for evaluation. The pathologist's efforts are directed to not only global diagnosis, but also assessment of severity of injury. Just as in other forms of chronic liver disease, these assessments can be divided into necroinflammatory activity, and fibrosis with parenchymal remodeling, in order to separately analyze potentially reversible (grade) and non-reversible (stage) lesions. These concepts formed the bases for current methods of evaluating the lesions that collectively comprise the phenotypic spectra of NAFLD. Four extant methods have specific applications; there are pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> to each, and this forms the basis of the review.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785848"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> in endocrine practice: pre-surgical treatment with somatostatin analogues in acromegaly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Losa, Marco; Bollerslev, Jens</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The aim of this commentary is to balance the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> for pre-surgical SSA treatment in a modern perspective ending up with a pragmatic recommendation for treatment based on the current evidence and expertise of the authors. Even though prospective and randomized studies in this particular area are hampered by obvious limitations, the interpretation of the four published trials has in general been in favor of pre-treatment with SSA, showing a better outcome following surgery. However, major drawbacks of these studies, such as non-optimal diagnostic criteria for cure, potential selection bias, and timing of the postoperative evaluation in SSA pre-treated patients, limit their overall interpretation. Three matched-controlled studies showed remarkably similar results with no apparent beneficial effect of SSA pre-treatment on surgical outcome. Both prospective, randomized studies and retrospective studies did not find any significant difference in the rate of endocrine and non-endocrine complications related to surgery, despite the beneficial clinical effects of SSA treatment in most acromegalic patients. The newly diagnosed patient with acromegaly should be carefully evaluated in the trans-disciplinary neuroendocrine team and treatment individualized accordingly. The issue of SSA pre-treatment to improve surgical outcome is yet to be settled and further methodologically sound studies are probably necessary to clarify this point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26248178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26248178"><span>Arab-American Hookah Smokers: Initiation, and Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Hookah Use.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Jackson, Sheila R; Daffa, Reem M; Liles, Sandy; Hovell, Melbourne F</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>To examine initiation, pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of hookah tobacco smoking among Arab Americans. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we recruited a community-based convenience sample of 458 adult Arab-American hookah smokers, mean age 28.4 years, who completed self-administered questionnaires. Irrespective of sex, most participants initiated hookah tobacco use by young adulthood in private homes or hookah lounges influenced by friends and family. Women initiated hookah use later than men. Ever dual smokers (hookah smokers who ever smoked a cigarette) initiated hookah use later than cigarettes; however, early hookah initiators < 18 years initiated hookah and cigarettes concurrently. Participants enjoyed the flavors of hookah tobacco, and complained about coughing, dizziness, and headaches. Early and late initiation of hookah tobacco use warrant prevention programs targeting the youth and older adults in communities, colleges, and middle and high schools that include health education campaigns, and encouragement of voluntary smokefree home rules. Tobacco control policies aimed to prevent initiation of hookah use should include regulation of hookah tobacco flavors, and should target the physical environments in neighborhoods, especially around schools and colleges, to reduce the proliferation of hookah lounges. Dual hookah tobacco and cigarette use warrant continuous monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12925313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12925313"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of condom use among gay and bisexual men as explored via the Internet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gullette, Donna L; Turner, Joan G</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey utilizing Internet technology related to gay and bisexual men's condom use behavior as an expression of safer sexual practices. A total of 241 self-identified gay and bisexual men responded to the questionnaire in a 3-month period of time. Confidentiality was assured by utilizing an electronic system whereby the respondents e-mail address was eliminated. The study was conceptually guided by the use of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change (TMC) and the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of condom of use were explored. Fifty-six percent of the participants reported that one advantage (pro) of using condoms with casual partners was that it would make them safer from disease. About half of the respondents (n = 119, 49%) reported a history of one or more sexually transmitted diseases. There were 14 variables found to be significantly associated with using a condom with primary and casual partners among gay and bisexual men. Essentially, findings from this study corresponded to results obtained by more traditional data collection methods. Therefore, the authors conclude that electronic data collection may well be an alternative means for collecting sensitive data such as those collected in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16952872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16952872"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the liposome platform in cancer drug targeting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gabizon, Alberto A; Shmeeda, Hilary; Zalipsky, Samuel</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) by incorporation in the liposome bilayer of PEG-derivatized lipids results in inhibition of liposome uptake by the reticulo-endothelial system and significant prolongation of liposome residence time in the blood stream. Parallel developments in drug loading technology have improved the efficiency and stability of drug entrapment in liposomes, particularly with regard to cationic amphiphiles such as anthracyclines. An example of this new generation of liposomes is a formulation of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin known as Doxil or Caelyx, whose clinical pharmacokinetic profile is characterized by slow plasma clearance and small volume of distribution. A hallmark of these long-circulating liposomal drug carriers is their enhanced accumulation in tumors. The mechanism underlying this passive targeting effect is the phenomenon known as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) which has been described in a broad variety of experimental tumor types. Further to the passive targeting effect, the liposome drug delivery platform offers the possibility of grafting tumor-specific ligands on the liposome membrane for active targeting to tumor cells, and potentially intracellular drug delivery. The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the liposome platform in cancer targeting are discussed vis-à-vis nontargeted drugs, using as an example a liposome drug delivery system targeted to the folate receptor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28941583','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28941583"><span><span class="hlt">CON</span>4EI: Evaluation of QSAR models for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geerts, L; Adriaens, E; Alépée, N; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Kandarova, H; Drzewiecka, A; Fochtman, P; Verstraelen, S; Van Rompay, A R</p> <p>2017-09-20</p> <p>Assessment of ocular irritation is a regulatory requirement in safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although a number of in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, none are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as stand-alone assays. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO <span class="hlt">CON</span>4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was developed to assess the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and computational models as well as establishing an optimal tiered-testing strategy. For three computational models (Toxtree, and Case Ultra EYE_DRAIZE and EYE_IRR) performance parameters were calculated. Coverage ranged from 15 to 58%. Coverage was 2 to 3.4 times higher for liquids than for solids. The lowest number of false positives (5%) was reached with EYE_IRR; this model however also gave a high number of false negatives (46%). The lowest number of false negatives (25%) was seen with Toxtree; for liquids Toxtree predicted the lowest number of false negatives (11%), for solids EYE_DRAIZE did ((78%).It can be concluded that the training sets should be enlarged with high quality data. The tested models are not yet sufficiently powerful for stand-alone evaluations, but that they can surely become of value in an integrated weight-of-evidence approach in hazard assessment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..MARQ22007K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..MARQ22007K"><span>Structural and magnetic properties of N doped Fe_m<span class="hlt">Con</span> superlattices: First principles calculations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Miyoung; Freeman, A. J.</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>Magnetic alloys and multilayers have been widely investigated because of their potential for magnetic device applications. In this, materials exhibiting high magnetization as well as good soft magnetic properties are desirable. We investigated the magnetic and structural properties of Fe_m<span class="hlt">Con</span> superlattices with various compositions via first principles local density full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method^(1) calculations. For the 25% Co composition which showed the maximum magnetic moments, we inserted N atoms to make (Fe_3Co)_4N_2, in order to examine the possible magnetic enhancement by N, which has drawn much attention since the first report (in 1972) of a giant magnetic moment for the quasi-stable α-Fe_16N_2. The structural optimization was fully accomplished by total energy and atomic force calculations. Despite the lattice expansion due to the N insertion, the magnetic moment of (Fe_3Co)_4N2 was found to be reduced from the value of the Fe_3Co superlattice by the strong hybridization of N with Fe and Co. (1) E. Wimmer, H. Krakauer, M. Weinert and A. J. Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 864 (1981).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMoSp.307...54S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMoSp.307...54S"><span>A new millimeter-wave observation of the weakly bound <span class="hlt">CO-N</span>2 complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Surin, L. A.; Potapov, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Schlemmer, S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>New millimeter-wave transitions of the <span class="hlt">CO-N</span>2 van der Waals complex have been observed using the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 103-159 GHz. For the less abundant form, CO-paraN2, a total of 37 rotational transitions were assigned to three K = 0-0, 0-1, 2-1 subbands connecting the (jCO, jN2) = (1, 1) and (jCO, jN2) = (0, 1) internal rotor states. The upper K = 0 and K = 2 "stacks" of rotational levels were probed for the first time here by millimeter-wave spectroscopy following a recent infrared study by Rezaei et al. (2013). The observation of new subbands fixes with higher precision not only these upper K = 0 and K = 2 but also lower K = 1(f) levels, not linked with other stacks in earlier rotational studies. For the more abundant form, CO-orthoN2, five new P-branch rotational transitions of the K = 0-0 "CO bending" subband are reported, thus extending previous measurements. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure due to the presence of two equivalent 14N nuclei was partly resolved and analyzed to give additional information about the angular orientation of the N2 molecule in the complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17181357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17181357"><span>Ground and lowest-lying electronic states of <span class="hlt">CoN</span>. A multiconfigurational study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gobbo, João Paulo; Borin, Antonio Carlos</p> <p>2006-12-28</p> <p>The lowest-lying X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II electronic states of <span class="hlt">CoN</span> have been investigated at the ab initio MRCI and MS-CASPT2 levels, with extended atomic basis sets and inclusion of scalar relativistic effects. Among the singlet states, the A1Phi and B1II states have been described for the first time. Potential energy curves, excitation energies, spectroscopic constants, and bonding character for all states are reported. Comparison with other early transition-metal nitrides (ScN, TiN, VN, and CrN), isoelectronic (NiC) and isovalent (RhN and IrN) species has been made, besides analyzing the B1II <=> X1+ electronic transition in terms of Franck-Condon factors, Einstein coefficients, and radiative lifetimes. At both levels of theory, the following energetic order has been obtained: X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II, with good agreement with experimental results. In contrast, previous DFT and MRCI calculations predicted the ground state to be the 5Delta state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5486118','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5486118"><span>Autophagic Mechanism in Anti-Cancer Immunity: Its Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> for Cancer Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Ying-Ying; Feun, Lynn G.; Thongkum, Angkana; Tu, Chiao-Hui; Chen, Shu-Mei; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Wu, Chunjing; Kuo, Macus T.; Savaraj, Niramol</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Autophagy, a self-eating machinery, has been reported as an adaptive response to maintain metabolic homeostasis when cancer cells encounter stress. It has been appreciated that autophagy acts as a double-edge sword to decide the fate of cancer cells upon stress factors, molecular subtypes, and microenvironmental conditions. Currently, the majority of evidence support that autophagy in cancer cells is a vital mechanism bringing on resistance to current and prospective treatments, yet whether autophagy affects the anticancer immune response remains unclear and controversial. Accumulated studies have demonstrated that triggering autophagy is able to facilitate anticancer immunity due to an increase in immunogenicity, whereas other studies suggested that autophagy is likely to disarm anticancer immunity mediated by cytotoxic T cells and nature killer (NK) cells. Hence, this contradiction needs to be elucidated. In this review, we discuss the role of autophagy in cancer cells per se and in cancer microenvironment as well as its dual regulatory roles in immune surveillance through modulating presentation of tumor antigens, development of immune cells, and expression of immune checkpoints. We further focus on emerging roles of autophagy induced by current treatments and its impact on anticancer immune response, and illustrate the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of utilizing autophagy in cancer immunotherapy based on preclinical references. PMID:28629173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545707"><span>Pro/<span class="hlt">Con</span> debate: Is occupational asthma induced by isocyanates an immunoglobulin E-mediated disease?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wisnewski, A V; Jones, M</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Isocyanates, low-molecular weight chemicals essential to polyurethane production, are one of the most common causes of occupational asthma, yet the mechanisms by which exposure leads to disease remain unclear. While isocyanate asthma closely mirrors other Type I Immune Hypersensitivity (Allergic) disorders, one important characteristic of hypersensitivity ('allergen'-specific IgE) is reportedly absent in a large portion of affected individuals. This variation from common environmental asthma (which typically is induced by high-molecular weight allergens) is important for two reasons. (1) Allergen-specific IgE is an important mediator of many of the symptoms of bronchial hyper-reactivity in 'allergic asthma'. Lack of allergen-specific IgE in isocyanate hypersensitive individuals suggests differences in pathogenic mechanisms, with potentially unique targets for prevention and therapy. (2) Allergen-specific IgE forms the basis of the most commonly used diagnostic tests for hypersensitivity (skin prick and RAST). Without allergen-specific IgE, isocyanates may go unrecognized as the cause of asthma. In hypersensitive individuals, chronic exposure can lead to bronchial hyperreactivity that persists years after exposure ceases. Thus, the question of whether or not isocyanate asthma is an IgE-mediated disease, has important implications for disease screening/surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The present Pro/<span class="hlt">Con</span> Debate, addresses contemporary, controversial issues regarding IgE in isocyanate asthma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28693029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28693029"><span>Angio-OCT de la zona avascular foveal en ojos <span class="hlt">con</span> oclusión venosa de la retina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wons, Juliana; Pfau, Maximilian; Wirth, Magdalena A; Freiberg, Florentina J; Becker, Matthias D; Michels, Stephan</p> <p>2017-07-11</p> <p>Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio comprendía visualizar y cuantificar las alteraciones patológicas de la zona avascular foveal (ZAF) mediante angio-OCT en ojos <span class="hlt">con</span> oclusión venosa de la retina (OVR) en comparación <span class="hlt">con</span> el ojo contralateral sano. Procedimientos: La angio-OCT se llevó a cabo mediante el sistema Avanti® RTVue 100 XR (Optovue Inc., Fremont, Calif., EE. UU.). Los bordes de la capa vascular superficial (CVS) se definieron como 3 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y 15 μm por debajo de la capa plexiforme interna y, para la capa vascular profunda (CVP), como 15 y 70 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y de la capa plexiforme interna, respectivamente. La longitud de la ZAF horizontal, vertical y máxima de la CVS y la CVP en cada ojo se midió de forma manual. Además, se midió el ángulo entre el diámetro máximo de la ZAF y el plano papilomacular. Resultados: La angio-OCT representó los defectos dentro de la vasculatura en el área perifoveal en ojos <span class="hlt">con</span> oclusión de rama venosa de la retina (ORVR; n = 11) y <span class="hlt">con</span> oclusión de la vena central de la retina (OVCR; n = 8). Esto resultó en un crecimiento del diámetro máximo de la ZAF en ojos <span class="hlt">con</span> OVR (n = 19) en comparación <span class="hlt">con</span> el ojo contralateral (n = 19; 921 ± 213 frente a 724 ± 145 µm; p = 0,008). Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la mejor agudeza visual corregida (MAVC) y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF en la CVP (ρ de Spearman = -0,423, p < 0,01). Por último, en los ojos <span class="hlt">con</span> OVR, el ángulo entre el plano papilomacular y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF se dio tan solo en el 21,05% (CVS) y en el 15,79% (CVP) de los casos a 0 ± 15 ó 90 ± 15°, respectivamente. En ojos sanos, estos ángulos (que supuestamente representan una configuración de la ZAF regular) fueron más prevalentes (CVS 68,42 frente a 21,05%, p = 0,003; CVP 73,68 frente a 15,79%, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: La angio-OCT muestra alteraciones morfológicas de la ZAF en ojos <span class="hlt">con</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol24-sec180-1213.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol24-sec180-1213.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain <span class="hlt">CON</span>/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain <span class="hlt">CON</span>/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain <span class="hlt">CON</span>/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol23-sec180-1213.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol23-sec180-1213.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain <span class="hlt">CON</span>/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain <span class="hlt">CON</span>/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain <span class="hlt">CON</span>/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26923569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26923569"><span>Single step purification of concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span> A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span> A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying <span class="hlt">Con</span> A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of <span class="hlt">Con</span> A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) <span class="hlt">Con</span> A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of <span class="hlt">Con</span> A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED41B..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED41B..05H"><span>Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix Comi<span class="hlt">Con</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Phoenix Comi<span class="hlt">Con</span> (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24841985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24841985"><span>(<span class="hlt">Con</span>)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yong, Keir X X; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M D; Warren, Jason D; Crutch, Sebastian J</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (<span class="hlt">con</span>)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4194349','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4194349"><span>(<span class="hlt">Con</span>)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yong, Keir X.X.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M.D.; Warren, Jason D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (<span class="hlt">con</span>)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. PMID:24841985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3422096','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3422096"><span>Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, <span class="hlt">cons</span>, and costs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Epstein, Nancy E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, <span class="hlt">cons</span>, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596965"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Development of the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease <or=1 cm was achieved during primary surgery and disease was confined to the peritoneal cavity, IP chemotherapy should be given serious consideration, even at the expense of significantly increased, but manageable toxicity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26817345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26817345"><span>"Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>" of total hip arthroplasty with metaphyseal Proxima endoprosthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wraźen, Waldemar; Golec, Edward B; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Golec, Piotr; Jaworowski, Michał de Lubicz; Dudkiewicz, Zbigniew</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The authors present their own experience concerning total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. Proxima, a metaphyseal prosthesis, provides an innovative supplement to total hip arthroplasty. In this study, the authors present their own experience using Proxima in patients with hip osteoarthritis. This study was performed between 2008 to 2013 and comprised of 62 patients, of which 38 were male (61.3%) and 24 female (38.7%). All patients were operated on due to hip osteoarthritis using total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. The age of patients included into the study ranged from 23 years to 62 years with the mean age of 46 years. The authors paid close attention to the "pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>" of surgical techniques and assessed clinical and radiological results in both the short and long-term observation periods. The clinical evaluation was based on the Harris Hip Score and radiological assessment of fixation of the acetabular cup of the endoprosthesis was based on Pradhan's criteria. The endoprosthesis Proxima stem was positioned using the manufacturer's recommended method, evaluating the direction, scope and duration of the displacement in the marrow cavity of the proximal stump of the femur. According to the authors' analysis, the surgery gives good functional and radiological results both in the short- and long-term observation periods. The effectiveness depends on precise qualification for surgery, proper surgical techniques and specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femur stump. The most common reasons for primary and secondary dislocations of the metaphyseal endoprosthesis Proxima stem occur during the first three months post surgery. This is due to incorrect surgical techniques, which disregard the importance of specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femoral stump, which affects Proxima implantation, and cause deviations towards a varus or valgus orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1095442','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1095442"><span>Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-<span class="hlt">CON</span>-210</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.</p> <p>2013-09-10</p> <p>This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-<span class="hlt">CON</span>-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28818646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28818646"><span>Best Practice in Research: Consensus Statement on Ethnopharmacological Field Studies - <span class="hlt">Con</span>SEFS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heinrich, Michael; Lardos, Andreas; Leonti, Marco; Weckerle, Caroline; Willcox, Merlin</p> <p>2017-08-14</p> <p>Ethnopharmacological research aims at gathering information on local and traditional uses of plants and other natural substances. However, the approaches used and the methods employed vary, and while such a variability is desirable in terms of scientific diversity, research must adhere to well defined quality standards and reproducible methods OBJECTIVES: With <span class="hlt">Con</span>SEFS (the Consensus Statement on Ethnopharmacological Field Studies) we want to define best-practice in developing, conducting and reporting field studies focusing on local and traditional uses of medicinal and food plants, including studies using a historical approach. After first developing an initial draft the core group invited community-wide feedback from researchers both through a web-based consultation and a series of workshops at conferences during 2017. The consultation resulted in a large number of responses. Feedback was received via a weblink on the Journal of Ethnopharmacology's website (ca. 100 responses), other oral and written responses (ca. 50) and discussions with stakeholders at four conferences. The main outcome is a checklist, covering best practice for designing, implementing and recording ethnopharmacological field studies and historical studies. Prior to starting ethnopharmacological field research, it is essential that the authors are fully aware of the best practice in the field. For the first time in the field of ethnopharmacology a community-wide document defines guidelines for best practice on how to conduct and report such studies. It will need to be updated and further developed. While the feedback has been based on responses by many experienced researchers, there is a need to test it in practice by using it both in implementing and reporting field studies (or historical studies), and peer-review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000BAAA...44...81B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000BAAA...44...81B"><span>Perfiles de luminosidad en galaxias <span class="hlt">con</span> núcleo tipo Seyfert 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boris, N.; Rodriguez-Ardilla, A. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.</p> <p></p> <p>Presentamos imágenes CCD en los filtros BVI y Hα de una muestra de 10 galaxias Seyfert 1 y Narrow Line Seyfert 1. Recientes observaciones muestran que hay una diferencia significante en el índice espectral óptico entre NLS1s y Sy1 normales, siendo para las primeras del orden de 2. Otra característica importante es que la mayor parte de las NLS1s muestran tasas de FeII/Hβ mayores que las observadas en otras Sy1s. Desde el punto de vista fotométrico, estas galaxias no tienenningún tipo de estudio previo. Presentamos magnitudes totales, perfiles de luminosidad y mapas de color junto <span class="hlt">con</span> un detallado análisis de la formación estelar en estos objetos. Encontramos que la descomposición en bulbo + disco representa adecuadamente los perfiles de luminosidad de las galaxias de la muestra. Sin embargo, en todos los casos es necesario que el disco tenga un agujero en su centro. El radio de este agujero va desde los 3 a los 9 kpc. Si bien no tenemos aún una explicación para este hecho, los agujeros parecen estar asociados a anillos circumnucleares de alto oscurecimiento E(B-V) ~1. Los perfiles presentan también un fuerte gradiente de color, siendo notablemente más azules hacia la región nuclear. Los objetos de la muestra cubren todo el rango de tipos morfológicos, no obstante, no encontramos regiones de formación estelar en las regiones exteriores de las galaxias. La formación estelar está confinada a la región nuclear y se data en alrededor de 5 x 107 años.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.G33A..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.G33A..05M"><span>Strain Rate into South American Plate by SIRGAS-<span class="hlt">CON</span> Geodetic Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marotta, G. S.; Franca, G. S.; Monico, J. G.; Fuck, R. A.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>In this study were investigated the surface strain rates computed from the direction variations and velocity values estimated from the coordinates of the continuous monitoring geodetic network called SIRGAS-<span class="hlt">CON</span>. That investigation was done using points located in the South American plate. The determination of the strain rate was based on the Finite Element method using points defined by Delaunay triangulation (sub-networks). Each one of sub-networks was considered as an homogeneous solid body. Using these methods was possible to separate the strain from the plate movement. The results showed that there are differences of strain rate along the South American plate. From the results were suggest that near to the west board of the plate, the strain is more significant, as expected, because this region is near to one area where Nazca Plate subduct South American Plate. It was detected that the contraction region founded in this area coincides whit the region where occurs most of earthquakes of greater magnitude. Far from the board, there are some areas with anomalies of significant strain of extension and contraction that can be originated by differences of stress aligned with different geological composites. By the results, It may be concluded that large surface movements occur in regions with more heterogeneous geological structures and multiple event of rupture, that large earthquakes arising from large tectonic activity into South American Plate are concentrated in areas with contraction strain rates predominantly oriented towards northeast-southwest, that significant amounts of elastic strain can be accumulated over geological structures away from fault plate boundary and that the behavior of contractions and extensions are similar to that found by different researches involving geophysical studies. Dilation and principal components of strain rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3932546','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3932546"><span>Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relación <span class="hlt">con</span> Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó <span class="hlt">con</span> el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención. PMID:24575164</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20619868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20619868"><span>Molecular detection of pathogens in water--the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of molecular techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Girones, Rosina; Ferrús, Maria Antonia; Alonso, José Luis; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Calgua, Byron; Corrêa, Adriana de Abreu; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Carratala, Anna; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Pollution of water by sewage and run-off from farms produces a serious public health problem in many countries. Viruses, along with bacteria and protozoa in the intestine or in urine are shed and transported through the sewer system. Even in highly industrialized countries, pathogens, including viruses, are prevalent throughout the environment. Molecular methods are used to monitor viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens, and to track pathogen- and source-specific markers in the environment. Molecular techniques, specifically polymerase chain reaction-based methods, provide sensitive, rapid, and quantitative analytical tools with which to study such pathogens, including new or emerging strains. These techniques are used to evaluate the microbiological quality of food and water, and to assess the efficiency of virus removal in drinking and wastewater treatment plants. The range of methods available for the application of molecular techniques has increased, and the costs involved have fallen. These developments have allowed the potential standardization and automation of certain techniques. In some cases they facilitate the identification, genotyping, enumeration, viability assessment, and source-tracking of human and animal contamination. Additionally, recent improvements in detection technologies have allowed the simultaneous detection of multiple targets in a single assay. However, the molecular techniques available today and those under development require further refinement in order to be standardized and applicable to a diversity of matrices. Water disinfection treatments may have an effect on the viability of pathogens and the numbers obtained by molecular techniques may overestimate the quantification of infectious microorganisms. The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of pathogens in water are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23299236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23299236"><span>Operating on a suspicious lung mass without a preoperative tissue diagnosis: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sihoe, Alan D L; Hiranandani, Raj; Wong, Henry; Yeung, Enoch S L</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Patients with a suspicious lung mass sometimes receive surgery with no preoperative tissue diagnosis despite-and sometimes in lieu of-modern medical investigations. The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of doing so have rarely been studied. Pulmonary surgery was performed in 443 consecutive adult patients with a lung mass confirmed or suspected to be an early stage primary lung cancer. No diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively in 206 (46.5%) patients. Whether to take a core biopsy or wedge excision biopsy for frozen section assessment intraoperatively was decided at the surgeon's discretion. Patients without preoperative diagnosis were on average younger than those with a diagnosis (61 vs 66 years, P < 0.01), but were otherwise similar to those who had a preoperative diagnosis confirmed. In all patients operated on without a preoperative diagnosis, there was no mortality or major complication, and the perioperative minor morbidity rate was 9.7%. Among patients ultimately found to have lung cancer and who received a lobectomy, performing a frozen section intraoperatively did not increase mean operation time or morbidity. Among those patients with no preoperative tissue diagnosis, 97 (47.1%) proceeded to surgery without attempts at preoperative diagnosis, and 109 (52.9%), after attempts at preoperative diagnosis failed to yield a positive diagnosis. After surgery, benign disease was found in 16 (7.8%) patients without preoperative diagnosis. A significantly lower proportion of patients without preoperative diagnosis waited an interval of over 28 days between presentation and being accepted for thoracic surgery (42.2 vs 54.9%, P < 0.01). However, they were not more likely to have Stage I disease and did not have better recurrence-free survival rates on survival analysis. Proceeding to surgery without preoperative diagnosis in selected patients with a suspicious lung mass is safe and can potentially reduce the interval between presentation and surgical management. However, the shortened</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T43C2135W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T43C2135W"><span>40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of the Day Nui <span class="hlt">Con</span> Voi Metamorphic Complex, Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, C.; Lo, C.; Yeh, M.; Chung, S.; Lee, T.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The garnet bearing gneiss within the Day Nui <span class="hlt">Con</span> Voi (DNCV) Metamorphic Complex along the Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in North Vietnam, recorded a long tectonothermal history since the Indosinian orogeny. In-situ 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of biotite inclusions within garnet porphyroblasts and matrix biotites, combining with microstructural and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, deciphered the timing and duration of thermal events. Biotites from two matrix fabrics from different deformation events show approximately similar 40Ar/39Ar age ranges in 19-24Ma, depending grain size. These matrix biotite ages are best interpreted to record a rapid cooling event associating with the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ. Whereas, all biotite inclusions exhibit age zoning patterns with 40Ar/39Ar ages gradually increase from 17 Ma to more than 28 Ma according to their diffusion pathways. These age variations may have resultant from a combination effect of argon retention by garnet shielding, which provides a best recorder to the metamorphic event, and argon diffusion loss along the deformed cracks during the shearing event of the RRSZ. Diffusion modeling of these age zoning indicated that the total duration of argon diffusion loss may have lasted for nearly 9 Myr and argon diffusion may have occurred sometime around 24.5Ma. These results are generally in good agreement with previous interpretation, but provide better resolution of 40Ar/39Ar age data for deciphering the history of thermal event in the DNCV Metamorphic Complex and the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ in Vietnam, as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5583430','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5583430"><span>Exploring the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of mechanistic case diagrams for problem-based learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Mechanistic case diagram (MCD) was recommended for increasing the depth of understanding of disease, but with few articles on its specific methods. We address the experience of making MCD in the fullest depth to identify the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of using MCDs in such ways. Methods During problem-based learning, we gave guidelines of MCD for its mechanistic exploration from subcellular processes to clinical features, being laid out in as much detail as possible. To understand the students’ attitudes and depth of study using MCDs, we analyzed the results of a questionnaire in an open format about experiencing MCDs and examined the resulting products. Results Through the responses to questionnaire, we found several favorable outcomes, major of which was deeper insight and comprehensive understanding of disease facilitated by the process of making well-organized diagram. The main disadvantages of these guidelines were the feeling of too much workload and difficulty of finding mechanisms. Students gave suggestions to overcome these problems: cautious reading of comprehensive texts, additional guidance from staff about depth and focus of mechanisms, and cooperative group work. From the analysis of maps, we recognized there should be allowance of diversities in the appearance of maps and many hypothetical connections, which could be related to an insufficient understanding of mechanisms in nature. Conclusion The more detailed an MCD task is, the better students can become acquainted with deep knowledges. However, this advantage should be balanced by the results that there are many ensuing difficulties for the work and deliberate help plans should be prepared. PMID:28870018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509892"><span>The <span class="hlt">Con</span>NECT Framework: a model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Sly, Jamilia; Ashing, Kimlin; Fleisher, Linda; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Ford, Sabrina; Yi, Jean C; Lu, Qian; Meade, Cathy D; Menon, Usha; Gwede, Clement K</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Health disparities persist despite ongoing efforts. Given the United States' rapidly changing demography and socio-cultural diversity, a paradigm shift in behavioral medicine is needed to advance research and interventions focused on health equity. This paper introduces the <span class="hlt">Con</span>NECT Framework as a model to link the sciences of behavioral medicine and health equity with the goal of achieving equitable health and outcomes in the twenty-first century. We first evaluate the state of health equity efforts in behavioral medicine science and identify key opportunities to advance the field. We then discuss and present actionable recommendations related to <span class="hlt">Con</span>NECT's five broad and synergistic principles: (1) Integrating Context; (2) Fostering a Norm of Inclusion; (3) Ensuring Equitable Diffusion of Innovations; (4) Harnessing Communication Technology; and (5) Prioritizing Specialized Training. The framework holds significant promise for furthering health equity and ushering in a new and refreshing era of behavioral medicine science and practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMagR.266...16F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMagR.266...16F"><span>Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E.; Parella, Teodor</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The current Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LanB..48A.1415C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LanB..48A.1415C"><span>Nqrs Data for C10H12<span class="hlt">CoN</span>2NaO8 (Subst. No. 1263)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.</p> <p></p> <p>This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H12<span class="hlt">CoN</span>2NaO8 (Subst. No. 1263)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27003379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27003379"><span>Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E; Parella, Teodor</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The current Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28079948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28079948"><span>Induction of Antibodies Directed Against Branched Core O-Mannosyl Glycopeptides-Selectivity Complimentary to the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A Lectin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Jin; Grant, Oliver C; Pett, Christian; Stahl, Sabine; Woods, Robert J; Westerlind, Ulrika</p> <p>2017-03-08</p> <p>Mammalian protein O-mannosylation, initiated by attachment of α-mannopyranose to Ser or Thr residues, comprise a group of post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in muscle and brain development. Recent advances in glycoproteomics methodology and the "SimpleCell" strategy have enabled rapid identification of glycoproteins and specific glycosylation sites. Despite the enormous progress made, the biological impact of the mammalian O-mannosyl glycoproteome remains largely unknown to date. Tools are still needed to investigate the structure, role, and abundance of O-mannosyl glycans. Although O-mannosyl branching has been shown to be of relevance in integrin-dependent cell migration, and also plays a role in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, a broader understanding of the biological roles of branched O-mannosyl glycans is lacking in part due to the paucity of detection tools. In this work, a glycopeptide vaccine construct was synthesized and used to generate antibodies against branched O-mannosyl glycans. Glycopeptide microarray screening revealed high selectivity of the induced antibodies for branched glycan core structures presented on different peptide backbones, with no cross-reactivity observed with related linear glycans. For comparison, microarray screening of the mannose-binding lectin concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A), which is commonly used in glycoproteomics workflows to enrich tryptic O-mannosyl peptides, showed that the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A lectin did not recognize branched O-mannosyl glycans. The binding preference of <span class="hlt">Con</span>A for short linear O-mannosyl glycans was rationalized in terms of molecular structure using crystallographic data augmented by molecular modeling. The contrast between the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A binding specificity and that of the new antibodies indicates a novel role for the antibodies in studies of protein O-mannosylation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27259540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27259540"><span>Uni<span class="hlt">Con</span>3D: de novo protein structure prediction using united-residue conformational search via stepwise, probabilistic sampling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>Recent experimental studies have suggested that proteins fold via stepwise assembly of structural units named 'foldons' through the process of sequential stabilization. Alongside, latest developments on computational side based on probabilistic modeling have shown promising direction to perform de novo protein conformational sampling from continuous space. However, existing computational approaches for de novo protein structure prediction often randomly sample protein conformational space as opposed to experimentally suggested stepwise sampling. Here, we develop a novel generative, probabilistic model that simultaneously captures local structural preferences of backbone and side chain conformational space of polypeptide chains in a united-residue representation and performs experimentally motivated conditional conformational sampling via stepwise synthesis and assembly of foldon units that minimizes a composite physics and knowledge-based energy function for de novo protein structure prediction. The proposed method, Uni<span class="hlt">Con</span>3D, has been found to (i) sample lower energy conformations with higher accuracy than traditional random sampling in a small benchmark of 6 proteins; (ii) perform comparably with the top five automated methods on 30 difficult target domains from the 11th Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment and on 15 difficult target domains from the 10th CASP experiment; and (iii) outperform two state-of-the-art approaches and a baseline counterpart of Uni<span class="hlt">Con</span>3D that performs traditional random sampling for protein modeling aided by predicted residue-residue contacts on 45 targets from the 10th edition of CASP. Source code, executable versions, manuals and example data of Uni<span class="hlt">Con</span>3D for Linux and OSX are freely available to non-commercial users at http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/Uni<span class="hlt">Con</span>3D/ CONTACT: chengji@missouri.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130718','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130718"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Reg-R: Extrapolative recalibration of the empirical distribution of p-values to improve false discovery rate estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background False discovery rate (FDR) control is commonly accepted as the most appropriate error control in multiple hypothesis testing problems. The accuracy of FDR estimation depends on the accuracy of the estimation of p-values from each test and validity of the underlying assumptions of the distribution. However, in many practical testing problems such as in genomics, the p-values could be under-estimated or over-estimated for many known or unknown reasons. Consequently, FDR estimation would then be influenced and lose its veracity. Results We propose a new extrapolative method called Constrained Regression Recalibration (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Reg-R) to recalibrate the empirical p-values by modeling their distribution to improve the FDR estimates. Our <span class="hlt">Con</span>Reg-R method is based on the observation that accurately estimated p-values from true null hypotheses follow uniform distribution and the observed distribution of p-values is indeed a mixture of distributions of p-values from true null hypotheses and true alternative hypotheses. Hence, <span class="hlt">Con</span>Reg-R recalibrates the observed p-values so that they exhibit the properties of an ideal empirical p-value distribution. The proportion of true null hypotheses (π0) and FDR are estimated after the recalibration. Conclusions <span class="hlt">Con</span>Reg-R provides an efficient way to improve the FDR estimates. It only requires the p-values from the tests and avoids permutation of the original test data. We demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves FDR estimation on several gene expression datasets obtained from microarray and RNA-seq experiments. Reviewers The manuscript was reviewed by Prof. Vladimir Kuznetsov, Prof. Philippe Broet, and Prof. Hongfang Liu (nominated by Prof. Yuriy Gusev). PMID:21595983</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BAAA...46..117L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BAAA...46..117L"><span>Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías <span class="hlt">con</span> Dilatón de Cuerdas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landau, S. J.; Sisterna, P. D.; Vucetich, H.</p> <p></p> <p>Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías <span class="hlt">con</span> Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819071','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819071"><span>Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia <span class="hlt">con</span> seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados <span class="hlt">con</span> anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron <span class="hlt">con</span> crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, <span class="hlt">con</span> los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes <span class="hlt">con</span> encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721389"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Bind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lelieveld, Stefan H; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J J; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola</p> <p>2016-05-05</p> <p>Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce <span class="hlt">Con</span>Bind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. <span class="hlt">Con</span>Bind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that <span class="hlt">Con</span>Bind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28991290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28991290"><span>Trombosis primaria de la descendente anterior en un paciente <span class="hlt">con</span> síndrome de anticuerpos antifosfolípidos.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Acuña-Valerio, Jorge; Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio; Contreras-Villaseñor, Álvaro</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>El síndrome de anticuerpos antifosfolípidos es una situación clínica y bioquímica heterogénea. Presentamos el caso de un varón joven <span class="hlt">con</span> antecedente de tromboembolia venosa que se presentó en esta ocasión por dolor precordial, <span class="hlt">con</span> elevación del ST en el electrocardiograma. Fue llevado a sala de angiografía para realizar angioplastia primaria y se observó una oclusión total ostial de la descendente anterior. Se realizó aspiración manual del trombo. No se realizó angioplastia <span class="hlt">con</span> balón ni stent. En la angiografía de control a las 48 horas se observó ausencia de trombo y de placas aterosclerosas, lo cual se corroboró mediante ultrasonido intracoronario. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a heterogeneous clinical and biochemical entity. We present the case of a young male with history of venous thromboembolism. This time he presents because of chest ischemic pain associated with ST segment elevation. He was taken to the cath lab to perform a primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery was noted. Successful thrombus aspiration was performed. No stent was deployed. He was taken to the cath lab for a second look angiography and no atherosclerotic lesions were observed, which was confirmed by intravascular ultrasound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJP..132..320H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJP..132..320H"><span>Structures and electronic properties of Cum<span class="hlt">Con</span>-CO-H2O (m + n = 2 -7) clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huo, Peiying; Zhang, Xiurong; Zhu, Jun; Gao, Kun; Yu, Zhicheng</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The structures and electronic properties of Cum<span class="hlt">Con</span>-CO-H2O( m+n=2 -7) clusters have been systematically investigated using density functional theory. The results indicate that the ground-state structures of Cum<span class="hlt">Con</span>-CO-H2O clusters are obtained by adsorbing C atoms of CO and O atoms of H2O on different top sites of stable Cum<span class="hlt">Con</span> clusters. Cu2-CO-H2O, Cu4-CO-H2O, Cu3Co-CO-H2O, Cu4Co-CO-H2O and CuCo4-CO-H2O clusters have relatively stronger thermodynamic stabilities, while Cu2-CO-H2O, Cu4-CO-H2O and Cu6-CO-H2O clusters show stronger chemical stability. H2O molecule doping improves the activation of CO molecules. Mulliken charge and PDOS are also discussed to study the interaction of CO and Cu-Co clusters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183513"><span>[Malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami <span class="hlt">con</span> coinvolgimento della corteccia frontale e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici resistenti: un caso clinico].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gramaglia, Carla; Feggi, Alessandro; Vecchi, Camilla; Di Marco, Sarah; Venesia, Alessandra; Delicato, Claudia; Chieppa, Nunzia; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cantello, Roberto; Zeppegno, Patrizia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Descrivere il management di un paziente <span class="hlt">con</span> malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami (MBD) associata a lesioni frontali corticali, senza sintomi specifici al primo accesso in Pronto Soccorso, e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici atipici. Metodi. Descriviamo il caso di un paziente di 44 anni <span class="hlt">con</span> storia di abuso cronico di alcol, a cui è stata diagnosticata la MBD. Risultati. La risonanza magnetica ha evidenziato lesioni nello splenio e corpo del corpo calloso e lesioni bilaterali della corteccia frontale. Il paziente ha sviluppato sintomi psichiatrici atipici a insorgenza tardiva, che sono risultati essere resistenti alle terapie farmacologiche impostate. Discussione. Il caso che descriviamo sembra supportare le attuali, ma ancora scarse evidenze che descrivono il coinvolgimento corticale nella MBD, suggerendone l'associazione <span class="hlt">con</span> una prognosi peggiore. I sintomi psichiatrici possono risultare difficili da trattare a causa della resistenza alle terapie. Conclusione. Il coinvolgimento di psichiatri, radiologi e neurologi secondo un approccio di consultazione-liaison si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per la diagnosi e l'impostazione della terapia adeguata al paziente.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014era..conf50301H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014era..conf50301H"><span>CHILES <span class="hlt">Con</span> Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES <span class="hlt">Con</span> Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES <span class="hlt">Con</span> Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES <span class="hlt">Con</span> Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SRL....2450049Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SRL....2450049Z"><span>STRUCTURE STABILITY AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF Cum<span class="hlt">Con</span>CO (m+n=2-7) CLUSTERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Xiu-Rong; Huo, Pei-Ying; Yu, Zhi-Cheng</p> <p></p> <p>The structure stability and electronic properties of Cum<span class="hlt">Con</span>CO (m+n=2-7) clusters have been systematically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results indicate that the ground state structures of Cum<span class="hlt">Con</span>CO clusters obtained by adsorbing CO molecules on the top sites of stable Cum<span class="hlt">Con</span> clusters with C atoms and CO molecules have been activated during adsorption process. Cu2CO, CuCoCO, Cu3CoCO, Co4CO, Cu4CoCO and Cu3Co3CO clusters are stronger than other ground state clusters in thermodynamic stability. Cu2CO, Cu4CO and Cu6CO clusters show stronger chemical stability; Co2CO, Co4CO, Cu5CoCO, Cu3Co3CO, Cu2Co5CO and Co7CO clusters show better propensity to adsorb CO for these clusters have larger adsorption energies; Electronic states of Cu2Co3CO, CuCo4CO, Co5CO, Cu4Co3CO, Cu3Co4CO, CuCo6CO and Co7CO clusters are mainly influenced by those of 3d orbitals in Co and Cu atoms, the contribution to total magnetic moments of these clusters comes mainly from Co atoms and these clusters have high magnetism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4856970','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4856970"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Bind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce <span class="hlt">Con</span>Bind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. <span class="hlt">Con</span>Bind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that <span class="hlt">Con</span>Bind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5303577','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5303577"><span>Stellate Cell Activation and Imbalanced Expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 in Acute Autoimmune Liver Lesions Induced by <span class="hlt">Con</span>A in Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tu, Lei; Zhang, Jinping; Qian, Wei</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objective. To study the pathogenic feature of liver injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and dynamic expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 to reveal their role in liver injury induced by <span class="hlt">Con</span>A. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into control group and <span class="hlt">Con</span>A treatment group. <span class="hlt">Con</span>A (20 mg/kg) was injected through vena caudalis in <span class="hlt">Con</span>A treatment group; the controls received the same volume of saline injection. After injection for 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h, animals were terminated. Blood, liver, and spleen were harvested. Liver function and histopathology were studied. α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 were detected. Results. After <span class="hlt">Con</span>A injection, liver damage started to increase. Expression of α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 was significantly enhanced; all above indicators reached peak at 8 h; but from 24 h after <span class="hlt">Con</span>A injection, TGF-β3 expression began to decline, while the TGF-β1/TGF-β3 ratio at 48 h was significantly lower than control. Conclusion. (1) Autoimmune liver injury induced by <span class="hlt">Con</span>A showed time-based features, in which the most serious liver lesions happened at 8 h after <span class="hlt">Con</span>A injection. (2) Early activation of HSC and imbalance expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 existed in <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced acute autoimmune liver injury, which may be associated with liver dysfunction and the mechanisms of progression to fibrosis. PMID:28246592</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003cnam.conf...34M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003cnam.conf...34M"><span>Cálculos ab initio <span class="hlt">con</span> correlación electrónica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merchán Bonete, M.</p> <p></p> <p>Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación <span class="hlt">con</span> el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo <span class="hlt">con</span> el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42...49P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42...49P"><span>Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado <span class="hlt">con</span> cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.</p> <p></p> <p>El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción <span class="hlt">con</span> el campo gravitatorio y <span class="hlt">con</span> la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende <span class="hlt">con</span> ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste <span class="hlt">con</span> la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 μm y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650588','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650588"><span>Antidepressant-like effect of Canavalia brasiliensis (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Br) lectin in mice: evidence for the involvement of the glutamatergic system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rieger, Débora K; Costa, Ana Paula; Budni, Josiane; Moretti, Morgana; Barbosa, Sabrina Giovana Rocha; Nascimento, Kyria S; Teixeira, Edson H; Cavada, Benildo S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Leal, Rodrigo B</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Lectins recognize and reversibly bind to carbohydrates attached to proteins and lipids modulating a variety of signaling pathways. We previously showed that <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br, a lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds, produced an antidepressant-like effect in mice by modulating the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br blocked hippocampal neurotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid in vivo and by glutamate in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective activity of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br via glutamatergic system modulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like action displayed by <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br in the forced swimming test (FST). With the aim of verifying the involvement of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br (10 μg/site, i.c.v.), an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pretreatment with either NMDA (0.1 pmol/site) or D-serine (30 μg/site) was carried out. The results show that both treatments blocked the effect of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br. Furthermore, the coadministration of subeffective doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg, i.p.) or ketamine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.; NMDA receptor antagonist) and <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) caused a synergistic reduction in immobility time. In order to verify the dependence of the L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway, on the effect of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br in the FST, a pretreatment with the NO precursor, L-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p.), or the PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil (5 mg/kg, i.p.), was performed. Both drugs abolished the antidepressant-like action of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br. Finally, the administration of subeffective doses of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 30 pmol/site, i.c.v.) and <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. Taken together, the results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br in the FST involves NMDA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......360M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......360M"><span>Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) <span class="hlt">con</span> transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monrabal Capilla, Maria</p> <p></p> <p>Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, <span class="hlt">con</span> una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, <span class="hlt">con</span> un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, <span class="hlt">con</span> el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y <span class="hlt">con</span> un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......343M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......343M"><span>"Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado <span class="hlt">con</span> fibra de vidrio"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose</p> <p></p> <p> fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, <span class="hlt">con</span> el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero <span class="hlt">con</span> el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas <span class="hlt">con</span> el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y <span class="hlt">con</span> la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado <span class="hlt">con</span> un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado <span class="hlt">con</span> respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4600969','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4600969"><span>Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias <span class="hlt">con</span> pictogramas en población fumadora</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) <span class="hlt">con</span> pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores <span class="hlt">con</span> representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS <span class="hlt">con</span> pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian <span class="hlt">con</span> el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados <span class="hlt">con</span> el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias <span class="hlt">con</span> pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación <span class="hlt">con</span> 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS <span class="hlt">con</span> pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686769','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686769"><span>Assessment of Response to Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorder: A Consortium on Lithium Genetics (<span class="hlt">Con</span>LiGen) Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Manchia, Mirko; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Backlund, Lena; Banzato, Claudio EM.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bellivier, Frank; Bengesser, Susanne; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Bui, Elise; Calkin, Cynthia V.; Cheng, Andrew Tai Ann; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Scott; Czerski, Piotr M.; Dantas, Clarissa; Zompo, Maria Del; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Etain, Bruno; Falkai, Peter; Frisén, Louise; Frye, Mark A.; Fullerton, Jan; Gard, Sébastien; Garnham, Julie; Goes, Fernando S.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Heilbronner, Urs; Hoban, Rebecca; Hou, Liping; Jamain, Stéphane; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kelsoe, John R.; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Lavebratt, Catharina; Leboyer, Marion; Leckband, Susan G.; López Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Maj, Mario; Malafosse, Alain; Martinsson, Lina; Masui, Takuya; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mondimore, Frank; Monteleone, Palmiero; Nallet, Audrey; Neuner, Maria; Novák, Tomás; O’Donovan, Claire; Ösby, Urban; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Potash, James B.; Reich-Erkelenz, Daniela; Reif, Andreas; Reininghaus, Eva; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy A.; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Schalling, Martin; Schofield, Peter R.; Schubert, Oliver K.; Schweizer, Barbara; Seemüller, Florian; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Severino, Giovanni; Seymour, Lisa R.; Slaney, Claire; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Stamm, Thomas; Steele, Jo; Stopkova, Pavla; Tighe, Sarah K.; Tortorella, Alfonso; Turecki, Gustavo; Wray, Naomi R.; Wright, Adam; Zandi, Peter P.; Zilles, David; Bauer, Michael; Rietschel, Marcella; McMahon, Francis J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the “Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder” scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (<span class="hlt">Con</span>LiGen) study. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine <span class="hlt">Con</span>LiGen sites took part in a two-stage case-vignette rating procedure to examine inter-rater agreement [Kappa (κ)] and reliability [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)] of lithium response. Annotated first-round vignettes and rating guidelines were circulated to expert research clinicians for training purposes between the two stages. Further, we analyzed the distributional properties of the treatment response scores available for 1,308 patients using mixture modeling. Results Substantial and moderate agreement was shown across sites in the first and second sets of vignettes (κ = 0.66 and κ = 0.54, respectively), without significant improvement from training. However, definition of response using the A score as a quantitative trait and selecting cases with B criteria of 4 or less showed an improvement between the two stages (ICC1 = 0.71 and ICC2 = 0.75, respectively). Mixture modeling of score distribution indicated three subpopulations (full responders, partial responders, non responders). Conclusions We identified two definitions of lithium response, one dichotomous and the other continuous, with moderate to substantial inter-rater agreement and reliability. Accurate phenotypic measurement of lithium response is crucial for the ongoing <span class="hlt">Con</span>LiGen pharmacogenomic study. PMID:23840348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24283337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24283337"><span>Influence of parameter values and variances and algorithm architecture in <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Expo model on modeled exposures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arnold, Susan F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study evaluated the influence of parameter values and variances and model architecture on modeled exposures, and identified important data gaps that influence lack-of-knowledge-related uncertainty, using Consexpo 4.1 as an illustrative case study. Understanding the influential determinants in exposure estimates enables more informed and appropriate use of this model and the resulting exposure estimates. In exploring the influence of parameter placement in an algorithm and of the values and variances chosen to characterize the parameters within <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Expo, "sensitive" and "important" parameters were identified: product amount, weight fraction, exposure duration, exposure time, and ventilation rate were deemed "important," or "always sensitive." With this awareness, exposure assessors can strategically focus on acquiring the most robust estimates for these parameters. <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Expo relies predominantly on three algorithms to assess the default scenarios: inhalation vapors evaporation equation using the Langmuir mass transfer, the dermal instant application with diffusion through the skin, and the oral ingestion by direct uptake algorithm. These algorithms, which do not necessarily render health conservative estimates, account for 87, 89 and 59% of the inhalation, dermal and oral default scenario assessments,respectively, according them greater influence relative to the less frequently used algorithms. Default data provided in <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Expo may be useful to initiate assessments, but are insufficient for determining exposure acceptability or setting policy, as parameters defined by highly uncertain values produce biased estimates that may not be health conservative. Furthermore, this lack-of-knowledge uncertainty makes the magnitude of this bias uncertain. Significant data gaps persist for product amount, exposure time, and exposure duration. These "important" parameters exert influence in requiring broad values and variances to account for their uncertainty. Prioritizing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10219211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10219211"><span>The Inter<span class="hlt">Con</span> network: a program for education partnerships at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castro, G A; Bouldin, P A; Farver, D W; Maugans, L A; Sanders, L C; Booker, J</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center (UT-Houston) has created programs and activities to address the state's pressing needs in minority education. Through Inter<span class="hlt">Con</span>, a network of universities and K-12 schools, UT-Houston works with its partners to identify competitive candidates in the current pool of minority graduates with bachelor's degrees and to help them--along with their non-minority counterparts--progress in their education. Another objective is to expand the pool of minorities underrepresented in medicine who complete high school and go to college. In 1994 UT-Houston and Prairie View A&M University created a collaborative venture to provide new educational opportunities at UT-Houston for Prairie View's predominantly African American students. A three-track summer internship program--a result of that collaboration--has since been expanded to partnerships with other minority and majority universities throughout Texas. In 1998, for example, 108 undergraduate students from these universities (and 40 other universities nationwide) participated in research, professional, and administrative summer internships at UT-Houston. The Inter<span class="hlt">Con</span> network also has partnerships with K-12 schools. UT-Houston works with inner-city, suburban, and rural school districts to develop education models that can be transferred throughout the state. The partnerships deal with helping to teach basic academic skills and computer literacy, improve science-related instruction, meet demands for health promotion materials and information for school-initiated health and wellness programs, and develop distance-learning paradigms. UT-Houston views Inter<span class="hlt">Con</span> as a program helping Texas institutions to engage and adapt to the socioeconomic factors, demographic changes, and technology explosion that currently challenge public education.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5359249','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5359249"><span>Sophocarpine Protects Mice from <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-Induced Hepatitis via Inhibition of the IFN-Gamma/STAT1 Pathway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sang, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Cong-En; Liu, Shi-Jing; Shen, Hong-Hui; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xiao, Xiao-He</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Sophocarpine is the major pharmacologically active compound of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Radix Sophorae Subprostratae which has been used in treating hepatitis for years in China. It has been demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts an activity in immune modulation and significantly decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the protective effects of Sophocarpine in T cell-dependent immune hepatitis remained unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of Sophocarpine on Concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A)-induced hepatitis, an experimental model of T cell-mediated liver injury. BALB/C mice were pretreated with Sophocarpine or Bicyclol for five consecutive days. Thirty minutes after the final administration, the mice were injected with 15 mg⋅kg-1 of <span class="hlt">Con</span>A intravenously. The results indicated that pretreatment with Sophocarpine significantly ameliorated liver inflammation and injury as evidenced by both biochemical and histopathological observations. Moreover, in Sophocarpine-pretreated mice, liver messenger RNA expression levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, CXC chemokine ligand 10, and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were markedly reduced. Further studies revealed that Sophocarpine significantly downregulated the expression of T-bet via inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription1 (STAT1) activation and overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling1, inhibiting the activation of Th1 cells and the expression of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Altogether, these results suggest new opportunities to use Sophocarpine in the treatment of T cell-mediated liver disease. In summary, Sophocarpine could attenuate <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced liver injury, and the protective effect of Sophocarpine was associated with its inhibition effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathway. PMID:28377718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28377718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28377718"><span>Sophocarpine Protects Mice from <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-Induced Hepatitis via Inhibition of the IFN-Gamma/STAT1 Pathway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sang, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Cong-En; Liu, Shi-Jing; Shen, Hong-Hui; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xiao, Xiao-He</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Sophocarpine is the major pharmacologically active compound of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Radix Sophorae Subprostratae which has been used in treating hepatitis for years in China. It has been demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts an activity in immune modulation and significantly decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the protective effects of Sophocarpine in T cell-dependent immune hepatitis remained unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of Sophocarpine on Concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A)-induced hepatitis, an experimental model of T cell-mediated liver injury. BALB/C mice were pretreated with Sophocarpine or Bicyclol for five consecutive days. Thirty minutes after the final administration, the mice were injected with 15 mg⋅kg(-1) of <span class="hlt">Con</span>A intravenously. The results indicated that pretreatment with Sophocarpine significantly ameliorated liver inflammation and injury as evidenced by both biochemical and histopathological observations. Moreover, in Sophocarpine-pretreated mice, liver messenger RNA expression levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, CXC chemokine ligand 10, and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were markedly reduced. Further studies revealed that Sophocarpine significantly downregulated the expression of T-bet via inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription1 (STAT1) activation and overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling1, inhibiting the activation of Th1 cells and the expression of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Altogether, these results suggest new opportunities to use Sophocarpine in the treatment of T cell-mediated liver disease. In summary, Sophocarpine could attenuate <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced liver injury, and the protective effect of Sophocarpine was associated with its inhibition effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40...44C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40...44C"><span>Cámara CCD Directa <span class="hlt">con</span> el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cellone, S. A.</p> <p></p> <p>Se efectuaron algunas pruebas <span class="hlt">con</span> la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100031264&hterms=Antennas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DAntennas','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100031264&hterms=Antennas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DAntennas"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bagri, Durgadas S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper briefly describes pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100031264&hterms=science+papers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dscience%2Bpapers','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100031264&hterms=science+papers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dscience%2Bpapers"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bagri, Durgadas S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper briefly describes pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796041','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796041"><span>A signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor for detecting <span class="hlt">Con</span> A using phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride as signal probe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ou, Xin; Tan, Xingrong; Liu, Xiaofang; Lu, Qiyi; Chen, Shihong; Wei, Shaping</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>A novel signal-on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for detecting concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span> A) was fabricated with phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride (DexP-g-C3N4) as signal probe. In this construction strategy, the nanocomposites of three-dimensional graphene and gold nanoparticles (3D-GR-AuNPs) were used as matrix for high loading of glucose oxidase (GOx), which served as recognition element for bounding <span class="hlt">Con</span> A. <span class="hlt">Con</span> A further interacted with DexP-g-C3N4 through a specific carbohydrate-<span class="hlt">Con</span> A interaction to achieve a sandwiched scheme. With the increase of <span class="hlt">Con</span> A incubated onto the electrode, the ECL signal resulted from DexP-g-C3N4 would enhance, thus achieving a signal-on ECL biosensor for <span class="hlt">Con</span> A detection. Due to the integration of the virtues of 3D-GR-AuNPs and the excellent ECL performance of DexP-g-C3N4, the prepared biosensor exhibits a wide linear response range from 0.05 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 17 pg/mL (S/N=3).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2963432','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2963432"><span>Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina <span class="hlt">con</span> metodologías activas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña <span class="hlt">con</span> una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, <span class="hlt">con</span> abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28595836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28595836"><span><span class="hlt">CON</span>4EI: Selection of the reference chemicals for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adriaens, E; Alépée, N; Kandarova, H; Drzewieckac, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Verstraelen, S; Van Rompay, A R</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. In the past, several prospective and retrospective validation studies have taken place in the area of serious eye damage/eye irritation testing. Success in terms of complete replacement of the regulatory in vivo Draize rabbit eye test has not yet been achieved. A very important aspect to ensure development of successful alternative test methods and/or strategies for serious eye damage/eye irritation testing is the selection of appropriate reference chemicals. A set of 80 reference chemicals was selected for the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO <span class="hlt">CON</span>4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project, in collaboration with Cosmetics Europe, from the Draize Reference Database published by Cosmetics Europe based on key criteria that were set in their paper (e.g. balanced by important driver of classification and physical state). The most important goals of the <span class="hlt">CON</span>4EI project were to identify the performance of eight in vitro alternative tests in terms of driver of classification and to identify similarities/differences between the methods in order the build a successful testing strategy that can discriminate between all UN GHS categories. This paper provides background on selection of the test chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27648873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27648873"><span>A Recovery-Oriented Care Approach: Weighing the Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of a Newly Built Mental Health Facility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahern, Catherine Clark; Bieling, Peter; McKinnon, Margaret C; McNeely, Heather E; Langstaff, Karen</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The current study adopted a recovery-oriented care approach by emphasizing patients' perspectives and experiences regarding changes to a newly built mental health facility. The inpatient entrance, or "portal," intended to balance the aims of recovery-oriented care with minimizing risk. A mixed-methods study of the portal's pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> was conducted, according to four themes: (a) autonomy versus inconvenience; (b) safety and security versus stigma; (c) unit door versus portal operating costs; and (d) privacy versus community integration. Focus groups engaging with patients (N = 39) indicated that the design effectively supported recovery-oriented care. Patients did not find the portal to be stigmatizing or triggering and valued the safety and privacy it created, and visitors also generally had a positive experience. Survey responses (N = 101) from portal users were also positive about the new design. The study findings suggest that the pros outweighed the <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the new design. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 39-48.].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19580892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19580892"><span>Development of a novel DNA Syn<span class="hlt">Con</span> tetravalent dengue vaccine that elicits immune responses against four serotypes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramanathan, Mathura P; Kuo, Yuan-Chia; Selling, Bernard H; Li, Qianjun; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Kim, J Joseph; Weiner, David B</p> <p>2009-10-30</p> <p>The increased transmission and geographic spread of dengue fever (DF) and its most severe presentations, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), make it one of the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. Four distinct serotypes of dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of the mosquitoes. Currently there is no vaccine or antiviral drug against DV infections. Cross-protection between dengue virus serotypes is limited and antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) contributes significantly to the severity of the disease. The major challenge is to induce a broad durable immune response against all four serotypes of dengue virus simultaneously while avoiding the possible exacerbation of risk of developing the severe forms of disease through incomplete or modified responses. In order to address this worldwide concern, we present a synthetic consensus (Syn<span class="hlt">Con</span>) human codon optimized DNA vaccine that elicits immunity against all four dengue serotypes. We cloned consensus DIII domain of E protein from all serotypes and expressed them as a single open reading frame in a mammalian expression vector, called pDV-U-DIII (dengue-vaccine universal). In mice, this dengue-universal construct elicits significant level of anti-DIII antibody that neutralizes all four dengue subtypes and prevents cell death induced by dengue infection. This is the first Syn<span class="hlt">Con</span> DNA vaccine that provides tetravalent immunity against all four serotypes of dengue virus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.........9I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.........9I"><span>Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes <span class="hlt">con</span> impedimentos visuales en la UPR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria</p> <p></p> <p>Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, <span class="hlt">con</span> el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes <span class="hlt">con</span> impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas <span class="hlt">con</span> los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas <span class="hlt">con</span> los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada <span class="hlt">con</span> los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2843427','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2843427"><span>Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado <span class="hlt">con</span> el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>El estigma relacionado <span class="hlt">con</span> el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven <span class="hlt">con</span> la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado <span class="hlt">con</span> el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado <span class="hlt">con</span> el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos <span class="hlt">con</span> tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado <span class="hlt">con</span> el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento <span class="hlt">con</span> validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264397"><span>Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo <span class="hlt">con</span> hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, <span class="hlt">con</span> valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa <span class="hlt">con</span> una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó <span class="hlt">con</span> 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175515','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175515"><span>Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo <span class="hlt">con</span> hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, <span class="hlt">con</span> valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa <span class="hlt">con</span> una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó <span class="hlt">con</span> 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28901589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28901589"><span>The Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span> web-server: A user friendly web interface for state-of-the-art subcellular localization prediction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salvatore, M; Shu, N; Elofsson, A</p> <p>2017-09-13</p> <p>Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span> is a recently developed method that predicts the subcellular localisation of a protein. It combines predictions from four predictors using a Random Forest classifier. Here, we present the user-friendly web-interface implementation of Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span>. Starting from a protein sequence, the server rapidly predicts the subcellular localisations of an individual protein. Additionally, the server accepts the submission of sets of proteins either by uploading the files or programmatically by using command line WSDL API scripts. This makes Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span> ideal for proteome wide analyses allowing the user to scan a whole proteome in few days. From the web page, it is also possible to download pre-calculated predictions for several eukaryotic organisms. To evaluate the performance of Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span> we present a benchmark of LocTree3 and Sub<span class="hlt">Cons</span> using two recent mass-spectrometry based datasets of mouse and drosophila proteins. The server is available at http://subcons.bioinfo.se/ This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 The Protein Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26267064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26267064"><span>Quercetin Protects Mice from <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-Induced Hepatitis by Inhibiting HMGB1-TLR Expression and Down-Regulating the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Pathway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xi; Liu, Hong-chun; Yao, Qun-yan; Xu, Bei-li; Zhang, Shun-cai; Tu, Chuan-tao</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The dietary flavonoid quercetin has hepatoprotective effects. We analyzed the effects of quercetin on concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A)-induced hepatitis in mice and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Mice were administered quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before intravenous administration of <span class="hlt">Con</span>A. Quercetin pretreatment significantly reduced the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced elevations in plasma aminotransferase concentrations and liver necrosis, as well as reducing serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-4. Quercetin pretreatment also reduced expression of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in liver tissues. Quercetin pretreatment significantly inhibited degradation of inhibitory kappa B alpha and modulated <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced nuclear translocation in the liver of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65. These results demonstrate that quercetin protects against <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-mediated hepatitis in mice by attenuating the HMGB1-TLRs-NF-κB signaling pathway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4739729','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4739729"><span>A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and <span class="hlt">Con</span> Arguments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people’s attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and <span class="hlt">con</span>-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments’ polarity from an extreme <span class="hlt">con</span> to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and <span class="hlt">con</span>-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or <span class="hlt">con</span>-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the <span class="hlt">con</span>-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture. PMID:26840219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4356569','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4356569"><span>Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using <span class="hlt">Con</span>A (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before <span class="hlt">Con</span>A injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27527854','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27527854"><span>Hepatic NK cell-mediated hypersensitivity to <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced liver injury in mouse liver expressing hepatitis C virus polyprotein.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fu, Qiuxia; Yan, Shaoduo; Wang, Licui; Duan, Xiangguo; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yue; Wu, Tao; Wang, Xiaohui; An, Jie; Zhang, Yulong; Zhou, Qianqian; Zhan, Linsheng</p> <p>2016-08-04</p> <p>The role of hepatic NK cells in the pathogenesis of HCV-associated hepatic failure is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV on <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced immunological hepatic injury and the influence of HCV on hepatic NK cell activation in the liver after <span class="hlt">Con</span>A administration. An immunocompetent HCV mouse model that encodes the entire viral polyprotein in a liver-specific manner based on hydrodynamic injection and φC31o integrase was used to study the role of hepatic NK cells. Interestingly, the frequency of hepatic NK cells was reduced in HCV mice, whereas the levels of other intrahepatic lymphocytes remained unaltered. Next, we investigated whether the reduction in NK cells within HCV mouse livers might elicit an effect on immune-mediated liver injury. HCV mice were subjected to acute liver injury models upon <span class="hlt">Con</span>A administration. We observed that HCV mice developed more severe <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced immune-mediated hepatitis, which was dependent on the accumulated intrahepatic NK cells. Our results indicated that after the administration of <span class="hlt">Con</span>A, NK cells not only mediated liver injury through the production of immunoregulatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and perforin) with direct antiviral activity, but they also killed target cells directly through the TRAIL/DR5 and NKG2D/NKG2D ligand signaling pathway in HCV mice. Our findings suggest a critical role for NK cells in oversensitive liver injury during chronic HCV infection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22351318','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22351318"><span>Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> into the PHENIX refinement package</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Plumley, Joshua A.; Martin, Roger I.; Merz, Kenneth M. Jr; Westerhoff, Lance M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Semiempirical quantum-chemical X-ray macromolecular refinement using the program Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> integrated with PHENIX is described. Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein–ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840219"><span>A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and <span class="hlt">Con</span> Arguments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people's attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and <span class="hlt">con</span>-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments' polarity from an extreme <span class="hlt">con</span> to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and <span class="hlt">con</span>-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or <span class="hlt">con</span>-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the <span class="hlt">con</span>-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27715478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27715478"><span>In vitro evolution of chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers: Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>, and comprehensive selection strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lipi, Farhana; Chen, Suxiang; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Rakesh, Shilpa; Veedu, Rakesh N</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotide sequences that bind to a specific target molecule with high affinity and specificity through their ability to adopt 3-dimensional structure in solution. Aptamers have huge potential as targeted therapeutics, diagnostics, delivery agents and as biosensors. However, aptamers composed of natural nucleotide monomers are quickly degraded in vivo and show poor pharmacodynamic properties. To overcome this, chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers are developed by incorporating modified nucleotides after or during the selection process by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). This review will discuss the development of chemically-modified aptamers and provide the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>, and new insights on in vitro aptamer selection strategies by using chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5207382','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5207382"><span>In vitro evolution of chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers: Pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>, and comprehensive selection strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Suxiang; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Rakesh, Shilpa; Veedu, Rakesh N.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotide sequences that bind to a specific target molecule with high affinity and specificity through their ability to adopt 3-dimensional structure in solution. Aptamers have huge potential as targeted therapeutics, diagnostics, delivery agents and as biosensors. However, aptamers composed of natural nucleotide monomers are quickly degraded in vivo and show poor pharmacodynamic properties. To overcome this, chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers are developed by incorporating modified nucleotides after or during the selection process by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). This review will discuss the development of chemically-modified aptamers and provide the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>, and new insights on in vitro aptamer selection strategies by using chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries. PMID:27715478</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21646825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21646825"><span>Uptake of antioxidants by natural nutrition and supplementation: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> from the dermatological point of view.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lademann, J; Patzelt, A; Schanzer, S; Richter, H; Meinke, M C; Sterry, W; Zastrow, L; Doucet, O; Vergou, T; Darvin, M E</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the systemic and topical application of antioxidant substances are a subject of intense discussion among experts, with resulting confusion for consumers and producers. The objective of the present article is to clarify the various uncertainties relating to the use of antioxidant substances in dermatology. Whereas inappropriate application of antioxidant substances (concerning their concentration and composition) might induce harmful effects, the consumer will definitively benefit from physiological concentrations and compositions of antioxidants. The most suitable method is the consumption of natural antioxidants in the form of fruit and vegetables, for example. In addition, the skin, which also accumulates antioxidant substances, may profit from a sufficient antioxidative level, as damage induced by sun radiation in addition to skin aging is reduced. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSCHE..67...30A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSCHE..67...30A"><span>ON EFFECT OF HAZARD MAP ON <span class="hlt">CONS</span> CIOUSNESS OF FLOOD DISASTER PREVENSION OF RESIDENTS WHO EXPERIENCED FLOOD RECENTLY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asai, Koji; Koga, Syota; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, the effect of the flood hazard map distributed to the residents who experienced flood disasters recently and an effective method for improving consciousness of flood di saster prevention are discussed. The questionnaire surveys were conducted on the residents living in the middle basin of the Nishiki River, Iwakuni city, Yamaguchi Prefecture, before and after the distribution of the hazard map. It is found from this investigation that "knowledge", "att achment", and "crisis", are the main factors in the psychological process related to the flood prevention behavior. The effect of the distribution of the hazard map is judged from the probability of the flood prevention behavior. In addition, it is also found that "knowledge", "flood experiment of T0514", "crisis", "eff ectiveness", "load", and "easy reading of the hazard map", are keys to improve the <span class="hlt">cons</span> ciousness of flood di saster prevention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997BAAA...41...13G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997BAAA...41...13G"><span>Probabilidad de colisión de cometas periódicos <span class="hlt">con</span> partículas interplanetarias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gil Hutton, R.</p> <p></p> <p>Se presentan resultados sobre la probabilidad de colisión de cometas de corto período <span class="hlt">con</span> la población de partículas interplanetarias presentes en la región del cinturón de asteroides. Se encuentra que este proceso colisional afecta la evolución física de los cometas de manera no despreciable y puede ser el responsable de variaciones de brillo de tipo ``outburst". Se presentan resultados para algunos cometas en particular y se obtiene un límite inferior para el tamaño de los núcleos en función de la distribución de radios del cinturón de asteroides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...543A.155S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...543A.155S"><span>Nitrogen oxides and carbon chain oxides formed after ion irradiation of <span class="hlt">CO:N</span>2 ice mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sicilia, D.; Ioppolo, S.; Vindigni, T.; Baratta, G. A.; Palumbo, M. E.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Context. High CO depletion as well as depletion of N-bearing species is observed in dense pre-stellar cores. It is generally accepted that depleted species freeze out onto dust grains to form icy mantles and that these ices suffer energetic processing due to cosmic ion irradiation and ion-induced UV photons. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the chemical and structural effects induced by ion irradiation on different <span class="hlt">CO:N</span>2 mixtures at low temperature (16 K) to simulate the effects of cosmic ion irradiation of icy mantles. Methods: Different <span class="hlt">CO:N</span>2 mixtures and pure CO and pure N2 were irradiated with 200 keV H+ at 16 K. Infrared transmittance spectra of the samples were obtained in situ before and after irradiation. The samples were warmed up and spectra were taken at different temperatures. The residues left over on the substrate at room temperature were analysed ex situ by micro Raman spectroscopy. Results: Several new absorption features are present in the infrared spectra after irradiation, indicating that new species are formed. The most abundant are nitrogen oxides (such as NO, NO2 and N2O), carbon chain oxides (such as C2O, C3O and C3O2), carbon chains (such as C3 and C6), O3 and N3. A refractory residue is also formed after ion irradiation and is clearly detected by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions: We suggest that carbon chains and nitrogen oxides observed in the gas phase towards star-forming regions are formed in the solid phase after cosmic ion irradiation of icy grain mantles and are released into the gas phase after desorption of grain mantles. We expect that the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), thanks to its high sensitivity and resolution, will increase the number of nitrogen oxides and carbon chain oxides detected towards star-forming regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27044664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27044664"><span>Neuropeptide S reduces fear and avoidance of <span class="hlt">con</span>-specifics induced by social fear conditioning and social defeat, respectively.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zoicas, Iulia; Menon, Rohit; Neumann, Inga D</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Neuropeptide S (NPS) has anxiolytic effects and facilitates extinction of cued fear in rodents. Here, we investigated whether NPS reverses social fear and social avoidance induced by social fear conditioning (SFC) and acute social defeat (SD), respectively, in male CD1 mice. Our results revealed that intracerebroventricular NPS (icv; 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) reversed fear of unknown <span class="hlt">con</span>-specifics induced by SFC and dose-dependently reduced avoidance of known aggressive <span class="hlt">con</span>-specifics induced by SD. While 50 nmol of NPS completely reversed social avoidance and reinstated social preference, 10 nmol of NPS reduced social avoidance, but did not completely reinstate social preference in socially-defeated mice. Further, a lower dose (1 nmol/2 μl) of NPS facilitated the within-session extinction of cued fear, while a higher dose (10 nmol/2 μl) reduced the expression of cued fear. We could also confirm the anxiolytic effects of NPS (1, 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) on the elevated plus-maze (EPM), which were not accompanied by alterations in locomotor activity either on the EPM or in the home cage. Finally, we could show that icv infusion of the NPS receptor 1 antagonist D-Cys((t)Bu)(5)-NPS (10 nmol/2 μl) did not alter SFC-induced social fear, general anxiety and locomotor activity. Taken together, our study extends the potent anxiolytic profile of NPS to a social context by demonstrating the reduction of social fear and social avoidance, thus providing the framework for studies investigating the involvement of the NPS system in the regulation of different types of social behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27796660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27796660"><span>Responses of urban crows to <span class="hlt">con</span>- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bílá, Kateřina; Beránková, Jana; Veselý, Petr; Bugnyar, Thomas; Schwab, Christine</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Urban animals and birds in particular are able to cope with diverse novel threats in a city environment such as avoiding novel, unfamiliar predators. Predator avoidance often includes alarm signals that can be used also by hetero-specifics, which is mainly the case in mixed-species flocks. It can also occur when species do not form flocks but co-occur together. In this study we tested whether urban crows use alarm calls of conspecifics and hetero-specifics (jackdaws, Corvus monedula) differently in a predator and a non-predator context with partly novel and unfamiliar zoo animal species. Birds were tested at the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in the city of Vienna by playing back <span class="hlt">con</span>- and hetero-specific alarm calls and control stimuli (great tit song and no stimuli) at predator (wolf, polar bear) and non-predator (eland antelope and cranes, peccaries) enclosures. We recorded responses of crows as the percentage of birds flying away after hearing the playback (out of those present before the playback) and as the number of vocalizations given by the present birds. A significantly higher percentage of crows flew away after hearing either <span class="hlt">con</span>- or hetero-specific alarm calls, but it did not significantly differ between the predator and the non-predator context. Crows treated jackdaw calls just as crow calls, indicating that they make proper use of hetero-specific alarm calls. Responding similarly in both contexts may suggest that the crows were uncertain about the threat a particular zoo animal represents and were generally cautious. In the predator context, however, a high percentage of crows also flew away upon hearing the great tit control song which suggests that they may still evaluate those species which occasionally killed crows as more dangerous and respond to any conspicuous sound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24439525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24439525"><span>Health worker exposure risk during inhalation sedation with sevoflurane using the (Ana<span class="hlt">Con</span>Da®) anaesthetic conserving device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González-Rodríguez, R; Muñoz Martínez, A; Galan Serrano, J; Moral García, M V</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Occupational exposure to sevoflurane should not exceed 2 ppm. During inhalation sedation with sevoflurane using the anaesthetic conserving device (Ana<span class="hlt">Con</span>Da(®)) in the post-anaesthesia care unit, waste gases can be reduced by gas extraction systems or scavenging devices such as CONTRAfluran™. However, the efficacy of these methods has not been clearly established. To determine the safest scenario for healthcare workers during inhalation sedation with sevoflurane in the post-surgical intensive care unit. An experimental study on occupational exposure was conducted in a post-cardiothoracic care unit during March-August 2009. The measurements were performed in four post-cardiac surgery sedated adults in post-surgical intensive care unit and four nurses at the bedside, and at four points: scenario A, inhalation sedation without gas extraction system or contrafluran as a reference scenario; scenario B, applying a gas extraction system to the ventilator; scenario C, using contrafluran; and scenario 0, performing intravenous isolation sedation. Sevoflurane concentrations were measured in the nurses' breathing area during patient care, and at 1.5 and 8 m from the ventilator using diffusive passive monitor badges. All badges corresponding to the nurses' breathing area were below 2 ppm. Levels of sevoflurane detected using prevention systems were lower than that in the control situation. Only one determination over 2 ppm was found, corresponding to the monitor placed nearest the gas outlet of the ventilator in scenario A. Trace concentrations of sevoflurane were found in scenario 0 during intravenous sedation. Administration of sevoflurane through the Ana<span class="hlt">Con</span>Da(®) system during inhalation sedation in post-surgical intensive care units is safe for healthcare workers, but gas extraction systems or scavenging systems, such as CONTRAfluran™ should be used to reduce occupational exposure as much as possible. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimaci</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7148507','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7148507"><span>Preliminary laboratory study of plutonium-238 dissolution from Mound soil by means of the ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span> sup SM process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, K.A.; Heinrich, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Edgar, D.E. )</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p>The treatment of contaminated soil presents a significant technical problem. Soil-washing and chemical-extraction methods have proven to be effective for specific applications, but a process with more comprehensive treatment properties that is both cost-effective and environmentally propitious is needed. Bradtec, Inc., has developed a process, the ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} process, that has been tested on soil contaminated with plutonium. The process effectively extracted Pu-238 after three washes, reducing the contamination levels from approximately 20 Bq/g to 1.6--1.9 Bq/g and yielding a decontamination factor ranging from 11 to 13. By using four or more ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} washes or a continuous-flow process with ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} solvents on a pilot-scale test, a target decontamination level of 0.93 Bq/g might be achievable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10177661','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10177661"><span>Preliminary laboratory study of plutonium-238 dissolution from Mound soil by means of the ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, K.A.; Heinrich, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Edgar, D.E.</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p>The treatment of contaminated soil presents a significant technical problem. Soil-washing and chemical-extraction methods have proven to be effective for specific applications, but a process with more comprehensive treatment properties that is both cost-effective and environmentally propitious is needed. Bradtec, Inc., has developed a process, the ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} process, that has been tested on soil contaminated with plutonium. The process effectively extracted Pu-238 after three washes, reducing the contamination levels from approximately 20 Bq/g to 1.6--1.9 Bq/g and yielding a decontamination factor ranging from 11 to 13. By using four or more ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} washes or a continuous-flow process with ACT*DE*<span class="hlt">CON</span>{sup SM} solvents on a pilot-scale test, a target decontamination level of 0.93 Bq/g might be achievable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2792720','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2792720"><span>Binding of NIR-<span class="hlt">con</span>PK and NIR-6T to Astrocytomas and Microglial Cells: Evidence for a Protein Related to TSPO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sexton, Michelle; Woodruff, Grace; Cudaback, Eiron; Kreitzer, Faith R.; Xu, Cong; Lin, Yi Hsing; Möller, Thomas; Bai, Mingfeng; Manning, H. Charles; Bornhop, Darryl; Stella, Nephi</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>PK 11195 and DAA1106 bind with high-affinity to the translocator protein (TSPO, formerly known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor). TSPO expression in glial cells increases in response to cytokines and pathological stimuli. Accordingly, [11C]-PK 11195 and [11C]-DAA1106 are recognized molecular imaging (MI) agents capable of monitoring changes in TSPO expression occurring in vivo and in response to various neuropathologies. Here we tested the pharmacological characteristics and TSPO-monitoring potential of two novel MI agents: NIR-<span class="hlt">con</span>PK and NIR-6T. NIR-<span class="hlt">con</span>PK is an analogue of PK 11195 conjugated to the near-infrared (NIR) emitting fluorophore: IRDye 800CW. NIR-6T is a DAA1106 analogue also conjugated to IRDye 800CW. We found that NIR-6T competed for [3H]-PK 11195 binding in astrocytoma cell homogenates with nanomolar affinity, but did not exhibit specific binding in intact astrocytoma cells in culture, indicating that NIR-6T is unlikely to constitute a useful MI agent for monitoring TSPO expression in intact cells. Conversely, we found that NIR-<span class="hlt">con</span>PK did not compete for [3H]-PK 11195 binding in astrocytoma cell homogenate, but exhibited specific binding in intact astrocytoma cells in culture with nanomolar affinity, suggesting that NIR-<span class="hlt">con</span>PK binds to a protein distinct, but related to, TSPO. Accordingly, treating intact astrocytoma cells and microglia in culture with cytokines led to significant changes in the amount of NIR-<span class="hlt">con</span>PK specific binding without corresponding change in TSPO expression. Remarkably, the cytokine-induced changes in the protein targeted by NIR-<span class="hlt">con</span>PK in intact microglia were selective, since IFN-γ (but not TNFα and TGFβ) increased the amount of NIR-<span class="hlt">con</span>PK specific binding in these cells. Together these results suggest that NIR-<span class="hlt">con</span>PK binds to a protein that is related to TSPO, and expressed by astrocytomas and microglia. Our results also suggest that the expression of this protein is increased by specific cytokines, and thus allows for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......418M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......418M"><span>Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion <span class="hlt">con</span> aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazon Hernandez, Rocio</p> <p></p> <p> panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire <span class="hlt">con</span> un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo <span class="hlt">con</span> el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, <span class="hlt">con</span> paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos <span class="hlt">con</span> las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT........95E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT........95E"><span>Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC <span class="hlt">con</span> Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel</p> <p></p> <p>Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores <span class="hlt">con</span> carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, <span class="hlt">con</span> la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808436"><span>Iron (FeSo4) bioavailability in obese subjects submitted to bariatric surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bueno, Luciana; Pizzo, Juliana C; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Dutra-de-Oliveira, José Eduardo; Dos Santos, José Ernesto; Barbosa Junior, Fernando</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objetivo: Obesos sometidos a cirugía bariátrica muestran la utilización de deterioro de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Evaluar la biodisponibilidad del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en los obesos por el consumo de suplemento nutricional que contiene múltiples nutrientes antes y después de seis meses de la cirugía bariátrica. Material y Métodos: El estudio incluyó a 14 voluntarios antes y después de la cirugía bariátrica que recibieron formulaciones que contienen múltiples nutrientes y medir las concentraciones séricas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en ayunas y cada 1 hora después de la ingestión de formulaciones, <span class="hlt">con</span> un total de cuatro horas. Resultados: Ferremia por el consumo de entre dos formulaciones de pre-y post-operatorios fueron: El ayuno 104.50 (70,00-363,00) mg / dl y 198.00 (38.00 a 617.00) mg / dl, 103.00 horas (63,00 a 305,00) mg / dl y 160.00 (11,00- 206,90) mg / dL, 2 horas 102.50 (62.00 a 150.00) mg / dL y 141.30 (10.00 a 412.20) mg / dl, 3 horas 97.00 (63.00 a 190.00) mg mg / dl y 153,00 (6,00 hasta 269,60) / dl , 4 horas 91,00 (58,00 a 163,00) mg / dl y 156.10 (40.00 a 250.50) mg / dl y no hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa entre los dos períodos para los niveles de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> suero. Los valores de la zona de las curvas en el suero fueron 453,50 ± 202,80 mg / dl / hora, p = 0,000 y 579,00 ± 380,30 mg / dl / hora, p = 0,007 y fue estadísticamente diferente entre los dos períodos. La biodisponibilidad del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en soluciones que contienen múltiples nutrientes se vio afectada antes y después de seis meses de la cirugía bariátrica. Conclusión: Se encontró que los niveles se redujeron ferremia <span class="hlt">con</span> la cirugía, que puede poner en peligro estos pacientes presentaron deficiencia de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21295130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21295130"><span>"Plantas <span class="hlt">con</span> madre": plants that teach and guide in the shamanic initiation process in the East-Central Peruvian Amazon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jauregui, X; Clavo, Z M; Jovel, E M; Pardo-de-Santayana, M</p> <p>2011-04-12</p> <p>We present and discuss a particular group of plants used by a diversity of healers in the initiation process and apprenticeship of traditional medicine, as practiced by Amazonian societies in East-Central Peru. Often, these plants are locally called plantas <span class="hlt">con</span> madre (plants with a mother), and are thought to guide initiates in the process of seeking sacred knowledge, learning about plant usage, and understanding traditional medicine practices. We illustrate the diversity of plants used in the apprenticeship and practice of traditional medicine, and nurture the discussion to better understand the terminology used by Indigenous healers to describe plant uses and their practices. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2008 with the participation of 29 curanderos (healers; 23 men, 6 women), 3 apprentices and 4 herbalists. The participants belonged to four ethnic groups: 17 Mestizos, 15 Shipibo-Konibo, 1 Ashaninka, and 1 Matsiguenga; a Spanish apprentice and an Italian herbalist were also included in the study. The field data were collected using semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and the witnessing of numerous healing sessions. Oral informed consent was obtained from each participant. We identified 55 plant species belonging to 26 botanical families, which are used in initiation processes and apprenticeships of traditional medicine. This group of plants is administered under strict conditions during training and healing sessions called dietas (shamanic diets), with the supervision of one or more maestros curanderos (master healers). We observed that during the shamanic diets, maestros curanderos administered plants depending on the teachings or tools he/she was passing on, and were based on a particular sequence during the initiation process: (I) purification and cleansing species; (II) sensitivity and intuition; (III) strengthening; and (IV) protection and defence. Traditional healers continue to be a primary source of health care for the majority</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808438"><span>Iron availability in an enteral feeding formulation by response surface methodology for mixtures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bueno, Luciana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objetivos: La terapia nutricional <span class="hlt">con</span> nutrición enterales se ha especializado en los últimos 2013s y estas formulaciones pueden sustituir a la dieta tradicional para aquellos pacientes que necesitan de infusiones de alimentación. El objetivo fue estudiar el efecto de los componentes de la formulación de nutrición enterales: fibra, calcio y triglicéridos de cadena media para optimizar una formulación para el <span class="hlt">hierro</span> dialisibilidad. Métodos: La herramienta utilizada fue el análisis de múltiples variables, utilizando modelos de superficie de respuesta para las mezclas. Los ingredientes usados en las formulaciones de la dieta se presentan en el diseño experimental elegido de acuerdo <span class="hlt">con</span> los módulos que se venden en dieta enteral estándar. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron la dependencia de la respuesta en la proporción de nutrientes que han sido manipulados en las mezclas preparadas en el diseño experimental. En el momento de obtener el contorno de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> dialisible se puede ver que la interacción fibra y calcio era el más sinérgico presentado para la formulación evaluada. Teniendo en cuenta los hechos analizados la mejor formulación de la dieta enteral optimizado para el <span class="hlt">hierro</span> dialisibilidad fue la proporción de 60% de fibra y 40% de calcio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4014119','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4014119"><span>Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> into the PHENIX refinement package</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Plumley, Joshua A.; Martin, Roger I.; Merz, Kenneth M.; Westerhoff, Lance M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein–ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography. PMID:24816093</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=visual+AND+impaired+AND+image&pg=4&id=EJ216211','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=visual+AND+impaired+AND+image&pg=4&id=EJ216211"><span>Media-Based Interactive Visual Image-Controlled (Vis-I-<span class="hlt">Con</span>) Instruction Delivery System for Instruction of Deaf and Hearing-Impaired.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fox, Raymond</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a programmable media-based microprocessor-controlled interactive instruction delivery system using super 8 film and addressable audiotape messages, the Vis-I-<span class="hlt">Con</span> system. (Author/PHR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24816093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24816093"><span>Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> into the PHENIX refinement package.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Plumley, Joshua A; Martin, Roger I; Merz, Kenneth M; Westerhoff, Lance M</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein-ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/Div<span class="hlt">Con</span> is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23624038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23624038"><span>Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (<span class="hlt">CONS</span>): a potential NLO material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dinakaran, Paul M; Kalainathan, S</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (<span class="hlt">CONS</span>) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6×2×3 mm(3)) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the <span class="hlt">CONS</span> confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the <span class="hlt">CONS</span> crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the <span class="hlt">CONS</span> crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcSpA.111..123D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcSpA.111..123D"><span>Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (<span class="hlt">CONS</span>): A potential NLO material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dinakaran, Paul M.; Kalainathan, S.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (<span class="hlt">CONS</span>) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6 × 2 × 3 mm3) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the <span class="hlt">CONS</span> confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the <span class="hlt">CONS</span> crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the <span class="hlt">CONS</span> crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24031279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24031279"><span>Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>d'Azevedo, P A; Secchi, C; Antunes, A L S; Sales, T; Silva, F M; Tranchesi, R; Pignatari, A C C</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26847412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26847412"><span>Studies on prevalence of biofilm associated genes and primary observation on sasX gene in clinical isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soumya, Kandammuriyil Radhakrishnan; Mathew, Shiji; Sugathan, Sheela; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, Edayileveettil Krishnankutty</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Coagulase negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>) are nosocomial pathogens that cause indwelling medical device associated infections due to its biofilm forming potential and multiple antibiotic resistance. The current study focused on species identification, antibiotic resistance profile and molecular basis of biofilm formation and attachment of <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> isolated from clinical samples. Along with this, molecular screening for mecA and newly identified surface colonization protein encoded by sasX gene was also conducted. S. epidermidis (n = 19, 47%) was identified as the most prevalent <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> species and very interestingly two biofilm forming, mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates were found to carry all the biofilm associated genes screened in this study, which indicates its potential to form the strong biofilm. Another novel observation of the study is the detection of sasX gene in one biofilm positive S. epidermidis isolate. The study also identified one doxycycline resistant mecA positive, multidrug resistant S. haemolyticus isolate. In conclusion, the study signifies the existence of multiple biofilm related genes, multidrug resistance and the presence of sasX gene among clinical isolates of <span class="hlt">CoNS</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3768475','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3768475"><span>Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>d’Azevedo, P.A.; Secchi, C.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Sales, T.; Silva, F.M.; Tranchesi, R.; Pignatari, A.C.C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant. PMID:24031279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23184091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23184091"><span>MicroRNA let-7a ameliorates <span class="hlt">con</span> A-induced hepatitis by inhibiting IL-6-dependent Th17 cell differentiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangmin; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Mengying; Suo, Qifeng; Lv, Kun</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In this study we explored the effects of microRNA let-7a on <span class="hlt">Con</span> A-induced hepatitis and its possible mechanisms involved. We demonstrated that IL-6 and IL-17 expression were significantly upregulated in the liver following <span class="hlt">Con</span> A treatment and IL-6 level was correlated with the IL-17 expression. To explore whether let-7a may have therapeutic effect on <span class="hlt">Con</span> A-induced hepatitis, mice was infected with a lentiviral vector containing the let-7a sequence 7 days before <span class="hlt">Con</span> A treatment. Significantly reduced Th17 cells and remarkably increased regulatory T cells frequency in the liver tissue were found as compared to control mice. It was accompanied by a significant decreased level of inflammatory cytokines as TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ in the serum, and an decreased level of Th17 lineage-specific genes such as Il17a, Il17f, Il21 and Il23r. let-7a was further found to inhibit Th17 differentiation by downregulating IL-6 secretion. It may represent as a novel therapeutic strategy in treating immune-mediated inflammatory hepatitis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5087992','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5087992"><span>Fragilidad y su asociación <span class="hlt">con</span> mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y dependencia funcional en mexicanos de 60 años o más</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de León González, Enrique Díaz; Pérez, Héctor Eloy Tamez; Hermosillo, Hugo Gutiérrez; Rodríguez, Javier Armando Cedillo; Torres, Gabriela</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fundamento y objetivo Determinar la asociación entre fragilidad y mortalidad, dependencia funcional, caídas y hospitalizaciones en el Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM). Sujetos y métodos Estudio prospectivo poblacional en México en el que se seleccionaron sujetos de 60 años o más, que fueron evaluados en las variables de fragilidad durante la primera vuelta del estudio en el año 2001 y que incluyó: dificultad para levantarse de una silla después de haber estado sentado(a) durante largo tiempo, pérdida de peso de 5 kilogramos o más en los últimos dos años y falta de energía. Los sujetos fueron catalogados como robustos, prefrágiles y frágiles cuando tenían cero, una o dos de las características anteriores, respectivamente. La mortalidad, hospitalizaciones, caídas y dependencia funcional fueron evaluadas en la segunda vuelta del estudio en el año 2003. Se calculó el riesgo relativo para cada una de las complicaciones, así como análisis multivariado <span class="hlt">con</span> regresión de Cox para el caso de mortalidad y regresión logística para el resto. Resultados Los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad se asociaron independientemente <span class="hlt">con</span> mortalidad, <span class="hlt">con</span> índices de riesgo ajustados de 1,61 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95%] 1,01-2,55) y 1,94 (IC 95% 1,20-3,13), respectivamente. Sólo el estado de fragilidad se asoció independientemente <span class="hlt">con</span> hospitalización y dependencia funcional, <span class="hlt">con</span> una razón de momios ajustada de 1,53 (IC 95% 1,13-2,07) y 3,07 (IC 95% 1,76-5,34), respectivamente. No hubo asociación entre los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad <span class="hlt">con</span> caídas. Conclusión El estado de fragilidad se asocia independientemente <span class="hlt">con</span> mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y disfuncionalidad en actividades básicas de la vida diaria en los siguientes dos años en población mexicana. PMID:21612803</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1413975','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1413975"><span>Analysis of cancer risk and BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence in the k<span class="hlt">Con</span>Fab familial breast cancer resource</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mann, Graham J; Thorne, Heather; Balleine, Rosemary L; Butow, Phyllis N; Clarke, Christine L; Edkins, Edward; Evans, Gerda M; Fereday, Sián; Haan, Eric; Gattas, Michael; Giles, Graham G; Goldblatt, Jack; Hopper, John L; Kirk, Judy; Leary, Jennifer A; Lindeman, Geoffrey; Niedermayr, Eveline; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Picken, Sandra; Pupo, Gulietta M; Saunders, Christobel; Scott, Clare L; Spurdle, Amanda B; Suthers, Graeme; Tucker, Kathy; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (k<span class="hlt">Con</span>Fab) is a multidisciplinary, collaborative framework for the investigation of familial breast cancer. Based in Australia, the primary aim of k<span class="hlt">Con</span>Fab is to facilitate high-quality research by amassing a large and comprehensive resource of epidemiological and clinical data with biospecimens from individuals at high risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer, and from their close relatives. Methods Epidemiological, family history and lifestyle data, as well as biospecimens, are collected from multiple-case breast cancer families ascertained through family cancer clinics in Australia and New Zealand. We used the Tyrer-Cuzick algorithms to assess the prospective risk of breast cancer in women in the k<span class="hlt">Con</span>Fab cohort who were unaffected with breast cancer at the time of enrolment in the study. Results Of k<span class="hlt">Con</span>Fab's first 822 families, 518 families had multiple cases of female breast cancer alone, 239 had cases of female breast and ovarian cancer, 37 had cases of female and male breast cancer, and 14 had both ovarian cancer as well as male and female breast cancer. Data are currently held for 11,422 people and germline DNAs for 7,389. Among the 812 families with at least one germline sample collected, the mean number of germline DNA samples collected per family is nine. Of the 747 families that have undergone some form of mutation screening, 229 (31%) carry a pathogenic or splice-site mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Germline DNAs and data are stored from 773 proven carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA1 mutations. k<span class="hlt">Con</span>Fab's fresh tissue bank includes 253 specimens of breast or ovarian tissue – both normal and malignant – including 126 from carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Conclusion These k<span class="hlt">Con</span>Fab resources are available to researchers anywhere in the world, who may apply to k<span class="hlt">Con</span>Fab for biospecimens and data for use in ethically approved, peer-reviewed projects. A high calculated risk</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4623611','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4623611"><span>Aspergilosis cervical <span class="hlt">con</span> diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse <span class="hlt">con</span> cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección <span class="hlt">con</span> pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente <span class="hlt">con</span> AI <span class="hlt">con</span> invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años <span class="hlt">con</span> diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento <span class="hlt">con</span> corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y <span class="hlt">con</span> el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23906891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23906891"><span>Use of a GnRH vaccine, Gona<span class="hlt">Con</span>, for prevention and treatment of adrenocortical disease (ACD) in domestic ferrets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Wagner, Robert A; Finkler, Mark</p> <p>2013-09-23</p> <p>Adrenocortical disease (ACD) is a common problem in surgically sterilized, middle-aged to old ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). The adrenal tissues of these ferrets develop hyperplasia, adenomas, or adenocarcinomas, which produce steroid hormones including estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione. Major clinical signs attributable to overproduction of these hormones are alopecia (hair loss) in both sexes and a swollen vulva in females. Pruritus, muscle atrophy, hind limb weakness, and sexual activity or aggression are also observed in both sexes. Males can develop prostatic cysts, prostatitis, and urethral obstruction. ACD is thought to be linked to continuous and increased LH secretion, due to lack of gonadal hormone feedback in neutered ferrets. This continuous elevated LH acts on adrenal cortex LH receptors, resulting in adrenal hyperplasia or adrenal tumor. This study investigated whether the immunocontraceptive vaccine Gona<span class="hlt">Con</span>, a GnRH vaccine developed to reduce the fertility of wildlife species and the spread of disease, could prevent or delay onset of ACD and treat alopecia in ferrets with existing ACD. Results showed that Gona<span class="hlt">Con</span> provided relief from ACD by causing production of antibodies to GnRH, probably suppressing production and/or release of LH. Treatment caused many ACD symptoms to disappear, allowing the ferrets to return to a normal life. The study also found that the probability of developing ACD was significantly reduced in ferrets treated with Gona<span class="hlt">Con</span> when young (1-3 years old) compared to untreated control animals. Gona<span class="hlt">Con</span> caused injection site reaction in some animals when administered as an intramuscular injection but caused few side effects when administered subcutaneously. Both intramuscular and subcutaneous vaccination resulted in similar levels of GnRH antibody titers. Subcutaneous vaccination with Gona<span class="hlt">Con</span> is thus recommended to prevent the onset of ACD and as a possible treatment for ACD-signs in domestic ferrets. Published</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001370','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001370"><span>Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 <span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops), Version 2.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJSEd..38.1841C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJSEd..38.1841C"><span>Balancing the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of GMOs: socio-scientific argumentation in pre-service teacher education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cinici, Ayhan</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This study investigates the role of the discursive process in the act of scientific knowledge building. Specifically, it links scientific knowledge building to risk perception of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). To this end, this study designed and implemented a three-stage argumentation programme giving pre-service teachers (PSTs) the opportunity to consider, discuss and construct shared decisions about GMOs. The study involved 101 third-year PSTs from two different classes, randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The study utilised both quantitative and qualitative methods. During the quantitative phase, researchers administered a pre- and post-intervention scale to measure both groups' risk perception of GMOs. During the qualitative phase, data were collected from the experimental group alone through individual and group reports and an open-ended questionnaire. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups' risk perception of GMOs. Qualitative analysis also revealed differences, for example, in PSTs' weighing of the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of scientific research demonstrating positive results of GMOs. In addition, PSTs' acceptance of GMOs increased. Consequently, this study suggests that developing familiarity with scientific enterprise may play an effective role in adopting a scientific perspective as well as a more balanced risk perception of GMOs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3704448','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3704448"><span>Virgin Caenorhabditis remanei females are attracted to a coital pheromone released by <span class="hlt">con</span>-specific copulating males</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Markert, Mathew; García, Luis René</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The gonochoristic soil nematode Caenorhabditis remanei strictly requires copulation for species propagation. Males of this species are sexually promiscuous with females of other species; therefore, we asked in this study whether virgin C. remanei females display evidence of mate choice. We digitally recorded and measured the locomotor behaviors of one or more virgin females in the presence of a single male on a 5 mm diameter mating lawn. We observed that initially only the male modifies his locomotor trajectory to another animal on the mating lawn; the virgin females showed no locomotor bias toward the mate-searching male. However, once a male started to copulate, females in the vicinity altered their movement trajectories toward the copulating couple. Newly inseminated females are refractive to the coital signal, but partially regain their attraction to copulating males after 24 h. We found only copulating males with an intact gonad can attract females, and that the coital signal can be broadcasted at least 1.5 mm through the air. Unlike males, which are also attracted to hetero-specific females, virgin C. remanei females will only crawl toward a copulating <span class="hlt">con</span>-specific male. We suggest that Caenorhabditis females use the coital signal as a pheromone to identify a vigorous male of their own species. PMID:24058874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26512704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26512704"><span>Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Current Assays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S B</p> <p>2015-10-23</p> <p>An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients' blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the assays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5560257','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5560257"><span>Implementing a Randomized Controlled Trial through a Community-Academia Partnered Participatory Research: Arte <span class="hlt">con</span> Salud research-informed intervention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Noboa-Ortega, Patricia; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; Feldman-Soler, Alana; Miranda-Díaz, Christine</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objective “Arte <span class="hlt">con</span> Salud” is an HIV/AIDS prevention intervention tailored for Puerto Rican women who have sex with men. The intervention curriculum was refined through a community-academic collaboration between Taller Salud, the UPR-Cayey Campus, and the UCC-School of Medicine, subsided in 2012–13 by PRCTRC. The collaboration has been crucial to validate the impact of using art as a tool to facilitate sexual negotiation skills and safer sexual practices among adult women have sex with men participating in HIV prevention education. Methods This article describes the vision, valley, victory phases endured to establish a community-academia partnership based on the CPPR framework as an effective mean to implement a randomized controlled trial intervention (RCT). We also discuss the barriers, outcomes, and lessons learned from this partnership. Results Some of the identified solutions include: setting goals to secure funding, regular meetings, and the inclusion of undergraduate level students to assist in the implementation of the intervention. These solutions helped to build trust among the community and academic partners. As a result of this collaboration, a total of 86 participants were enrolled and 5 competitive research grants have been submitted. Conclusion The community-academic collaboration was essential in order to build a solid research infrastructure that addresses the complexities of HIV prevention education among groups of Puerto Rican women. PMID:28622405</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28622405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28622405"><span>Implementing a Randomized Controlled Trial through a Community-Academia Partnered Participatory Research: Arte <span class="hlt">con</span> Salud Research-Informed Intervention.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noboa-Ortega, Patricia; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I; Feldman-Soler, Alana; Miranda-Díaz, Christine</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>"Arte <span class="hlt">con</span> Salud" is an HIV/AIDS prevention intervention tailored for Puerto Rican women who have sex with men. The intervention curriculum was refined through a community-academic collaboration between Taller Salud, the UPRCayey Campus, and the UCC-School of Medicine, subsided in 2012-13 by PRCTRC. The collaboration has been crucial to validate the impact of using art as a tool to facilitate sexual negotiation skills and safer sexual practices among adult women have sex with men participating in HIV prevention education. This article describes the vision, valley, victory phases endured to establish a community-academia partnership based on the CPPR framework as an effective mean to implement a randomized controlled trial intervention (RCT). We also discuss the barriers, outcomes, and lessons learned from this partnership. Some of the identified solutions include: setting goals to secure funding, regular meetings, and the inclusion of undergraduate level students to assist in the implementation of the intervention. These solutions helped to build trust among the community and academic partners. As a result of this collaboration, a total of 86 participants were enrolled and 5 competitive research grants have been submitted. The community-academic collaboration was essential in order to build a solid research infrastructure that addresses the complexities of HIV prevention education among groups of Puerto Rican women.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1218..445M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1218..445M"><span>Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the <span class="hlt">con</span> EDISON Grid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with <span class="hlt">Con</span> Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5452776','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5452776"><span>Magnetic Phase Transition in Ion-Irradiated Ultrathin <span class="hlt">CoN</span> Films via Magneto-Optic Faraday Effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Su, Chiung-Wu; Chang, Yen-Chu; Chang, Sheng-Chi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The magnetic properties of 1 nm thick in-plane anisotropic Co ultrathin film on ZnO(0001) were investigated through successive 500 eV nitrogen-ion sputtering. Magneto-optical Faraday effects were used to observe the evolution of the ion-irradiated sample in longitudinal and perpendicular magnetic fields. The ferromagnetic phase of the initial in-plane anisotropic fcc β-Co phase transformation to β-Co(N) phase was terminated at paramagnetic CoNx phase. In-plane anisotropy with weak out-of-plane anisotropy of the Co/ZnO sample was initially observed in the as-grown condition. In the sputtering process, the N+ ions induced simultaneous sputtering and doping. An abrupt spin reorientation behavior from in-plane to out-of-plane was found under prolonged sputtering condition. The existence of perpendicular anisotropy measured from the out-of-plane Faraday effect may be attributed to the co-existence of residual β-Co and Co4N exchange bonding force by the gradual depletion of <span class="hlt">Co-N</span> thickness. PMID:28788387</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25616193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25616193"><span>Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28133731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28133731"><span>The Use of Laser Microdissection in Forensic Sexual Assault Casework: Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> Compared to Standard Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura</p> <p>2017-01-30</p> <p>Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24794738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24794738"><span>Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of two different approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21687881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21687881"><span>Laboratory simulation of Kuiper belt object volatile ices under ionizing radiation: <span class="hlt">CO-N</span>2 ices as a case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Y S; Zhang, F; Kaiser, R I</p> <p>2011-09-21</p> <p>The exposure of icy Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) by ionizing radiation was simulated in this case of exposing carbon monoxide-nitrogen (<span class="hlt">CO-N</span>(2)) ices by energetic electrons. The radiation-induced chemical processing was monitored on-line and in situ via FTIR spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Besides the array of carbon oxides being reproduced as in neat irradiated carbon monoxide (CO) ices studied previously, the radiation exposure at 10 K resulted in the formation of nitrogen-bearing species of isocyanato radical (OCN), linear (l-NCN), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), plus diazirinone (N(2)CO). The infrared assignments of these species were further confirmed by isotopic shifts. The temporal evolution of individual species was found to fit in first-order reaction schemes, prepping up the underlying non-equilibrium chemistry on the formation of OCN, l-NCN, and NO radicals in particular. Also unique to the binary KBO model ices and viable for the future remote detection is diazirinone (N(2)CO) at 1860 cm(-1) (2ν(5)) formed at lower radiation exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G31A0801O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G31A0801O"><span>Evaluation of GO_<span class="hlt">CONS</span>_GCF_2_TIM and GOCO01S Geopotential Models in Venezuela and Caribbean Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orihuela, N. D.; Garcia, A. D.; Tabare, T.; Scientific Team Of Venezuelan; Caribbean Crustal Study From Satellital Data</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This paper shows two maps of the magnitude of the surface gravity vector (MSGV) of Venezuela and Caribbean region at 1:500.000 scale in the geographic window between the 0-20 north latitude and 74-58 western longitude (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2), that were generated from GOCE gravity gradients data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). The maps that are showed come from the combined global gravity field model GOCO01s [GOCO Consortium., 2010] and from the satellite-only global gravity field model GO_<span class="hlt">CONS</span>_GCF_2_TIM [Pail et al., 2010], both of 224 degree. The DEMs used for the evaluation of the MSGV are: Etopo2v2 [NGDC., 2006] and Etopo1 [Amante and Eakins, 2009] respectively. The data processing was done using: Shm2func [ICGEM., 2007]; Goce User Toolbox [ESA., 2009]; Gravsoft package [Tscherning et al., 1992] and Oasis Montaj (Geosoft). This research shows a review of observed gravity in the main geological provinces of the Venezuela and Caribbean region geography, revealing gravitational features important of the geological structures that are in Venezuelan and Caribbean subsurface.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26596682','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26596682"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wood, Lisa A</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are '<span class="hlt">con</span>-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26772924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26772924"><span>Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/<span class="hlt">Con</span> Debate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "<span class="hlt">con</span>" debate for such use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26589524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26589524"><span>Expected and Unexpected Consequences of the Affordable Care Act: The Impact on Patients and Surgeons-Pro and <span class="hlt">Con</span> Arguments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rudnicki, Marek; Armstrong, John H; Clark, Clancy; Marcus, Stuart G; Sacks, Lee; Moser, A James; Reid-Lombardo, K Marie</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), called the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or "ObamaCare" for short, was enacted in 2010. The Public Policy and Advocacy Committee of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract (SSAT) hosted a debate with an expert panel to discuss the ACA and its impact on surgical care after the first year of patient enrollment. The purpose of this debate was to focus on the impact of ACA on the public and surgeons. At the core of the ACA are insurance industry reforms and expanded coverage, with a goal of improved clinical outcomes and reduced costs of care. We have observed supportive and opposing views on ACA. Nonetheless, we will witness major shifts in health care delivery as well as restructuring of our relationship with payers, institutions, and patients. With the rapidly changing health care landscape, surgeons will become key members of health systems and will likely need to lead transition from solo-practice to integrated care systems. The full effects of the ACA remain unrealized, but its implementation has begun to change the map of the American health care system and will surely impact the practice of surgery. Herein, we provide a synopsis of the "pro" and "<span class="hlt">con</span>" arguments for the expected and unexpected consequences of the ACA on society and surgeons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21459155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21459155"><span>Document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports based on an extension of the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Text algorithm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chapman, Brian E; Lee, Sean; Kang, Hyunseok Peter; Chapman, Wendy W</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>In this paper we describe an application called peFinder for document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports. peFinder is based on a generalized version of the <span class="hlt">Con</span>Text algorithm, a simple text processing algorithm for identifying features in clinical report documents. peFinder was used to answer questions about the disease state (pulmonary emboli present or absent), the certainty state of the diagnosis (uncertainty present or absent), the temporal state of an identified pulmonary embolus (acute or chronic), and the technical quality state of the exam (diagnostic or not diagnostic). Gold standard answers for each question were determined from the consensus classifications of three human annotators. peFinder results were compared to naive Bayes' classifiers using unigrams and bigrams. The sensitivities (and positive predictive values) for peFinder were 0.98(0.83), 0.86(0.96), 0.94(0.93), and 0.60(0.90) for disease state, quality state, certainty state, and temporal state respectively, compared to 0.68(0.77), 0.67(0.87), 0.62(0.82), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using unigrams, and 0.75(0.79), 0.52(0.69), 0.59(0.84), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using bigrams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626661','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626661"><span>Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Current Assays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S. B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients’ blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of the assays. PMID:26512704</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1549832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1549832"><span>[Weighing pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Wit, W</p> <p>1992-03-15</p> <p>An adequate, high-quality animal health service is indispensable to animal production in the Netherlands. Modern intensive animal husbandry, with its high density of animals, needs a considerable input of knowledge, vaccines and drugs. The consumer expects healthy and especially safe products. These two goals are in seeming contradiction. Moreover, veterinary help, the necessary use of drugs, the supervision and control of AID (Agricultural Inspection Services) and RVV (Inspection Service for Meat and Meat Products) add to the already substantial costs of modern animal husbandry. From the point of view of integral quality control, the question is what changes are necessary to achieve a more effective health service. Goals for the future include: reducing the structural dependence on drugs and additives; substantially reducing the number of active substances used; increasing consumer confidence in animal products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1017994.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1017994.pdf"><span>Neo-<span class="hlt">Conned</span> University</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jones, Andee</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Censorship, says Australian political theorist John Keane (1991), can "echo within us, take up residence within ourselves, spying on us, a private amanuensis who reminds us never to go too far... It makes us zip our lips, tremble and think twice" (p. 39). It can also make us sick. The author states that this is her argument here: that,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://espanol.epa.gov/espanol/conozcanos','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://espanol.epa.gov/espanol/conozcanos"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>ózcanos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Principal de la EPA: información sobre el Administrador o la Administradora, los altos directivos; ubicaciones y direcciones de las oficinas; presupuesto, la planificación y los resultados de rendimiento</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/nsr/preconstruction-review-and-cons','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/nsr/preconstruction-review-and-cons"><span>Preconstruction Review and <span class="hlt">Cons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Astnm...1...27D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Astnm...1...27D"><span>Fotodensitometro realizzato <span class="hlt">con</span> microscopio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Giovanni, G.</p> <p>1989-02-01</p> <p>This work describes the chracteristics and use of a microphotometer suitable for the measure of photographic density of photos of stars. The optics is a normal microscope which projects the small photographic image of a star on the plate of a photodiode. This high sensitivity instrument is easy to build up.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ179395.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ179395.pdf"><span>The Classics, <span class="hlt">Con</span> Brio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hansen, James</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always ex-students of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=teleworking+AND+productivity&id=EJ284638','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=teleworking+AND+productivity&id=EJ284638"><span>Flexiplace: Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schiff, Frank W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Workers and employers must carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of new "work at home" (flexiplace) arrangements. Discussed are: advantages of flexiplace for workers, such as no commuting; advantages for employers, such as increased productivity; and arguments against, such as supervisory problems. (NW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27311799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27311799"><span>An approach to personalized cell therapy in chronic complete paraplegia: The Puerta de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> phase I/II clinical trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vaquero, Jesús; Zurita, Mercedes; Rico, Miguel A; Bonilla, Celia; Aguayo, Concepcion; Montilla, Jesús; Bustamante, Salvador; Carballido, Joaquin; Marin, Esperanza; Martinez, Francisco; Parajon, Avelino; Fernandez, Cecilia; Reina, Laura De</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Cell transplantation in patients suffering spinal cord injury (SCI) is in its initial stages, but currently there is confusion about the results because of the disparity in the techniques used, the route of administration, and the criteria for selecting patients. We conducted a clinical trial involving 12 patients with complete and chronic paraplegia (average time of chronicity, 13.86 years; SD, 9.36). The characteristics of SCI in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated for a personalized local administration of expanded autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) supported in autologous plasma, with the number of MSCs ranging from 100 × 10(6) to 230 × 10(6). An additional 30 × 10(6) MSCs were administered 3 months later by lumbar puncture into the subarachnoid space. Outcomes were evaluated at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery through clinical, urodynamic, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Cell transplantation is a safe procedure. All patients experienced improvement, primarily in sensitivity and sphincter control. Infralesional motor activity, according to clinical and neurophysiological studies, was obtained by more than 50% of the patients. Decreases in spasms and spasticity, and improved sexual function were also common findings. Clinical improvement seems to be dose-dependent but was not influenced by the chronicity of the SCI. Personalized cell therapy with MSCs is safe and leads to clear improvements in clinical aspects and quality of life for patients with complete and chronically established paraplegia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........23D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........23D"><span>Concepciones Alternativas de "Fotosintesis" en estudiantes Universitarios del curso basico de Biologia y posibles correcciones <span class="hlt">con</span> el Modelo Educativo MODEF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Jesus Roman, Sandra</p> <p></p> <p>Concepciones Alternativas de Fotosíntesis en estudiantes Universitariosdel curso básico de Biología y posibles correcciones <span class="hlt">con</span> el Modelo Educativo MODEF El modelo educativo para la enseñanza de Fotosíntesis (MODEF) se implantó para trabajar el problema de las concepciones alternativas (CA) en un curso de Biología General. Se evaluaron los resultados en cuanto al logro del aprendizaje significativo. La pregunta central de la investigación fue: ¿Cómo aporta el modelo educativo en la didáctica y comprensión del tema de fotosíntesis? Se efectuó una investigación acción <span class="hlt">con</span> una fase cuantitativa y una cualitativa. Para la fase cuantitativa se elaboró una prueba para determinar las concepciones alternativas, se validó y se sometió a los estudiantes que participaron en el estudio antes y después de ofrecer la unidad de metabolismo celular. Los participantes eran estudiantes de primer año de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en Bayamón (UPRB). Se llevó a cabo un análisis de consistencia interna de la prueba mediante el método Alfa de Cronbach. Se analizaron las contestaciones a cada pregunta mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado de contingencia, se efectuó la prueba de t y el coeficiente r de Pearson. La fase cualitativa incluyó la observación participativa de la investigadora- profesora, las reflexiones de los estudiantes y la información de las entrevistas semi-estructuradas que se realizaron a tres estudiantes del curso. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el Modelo de Wolcott. Se trabajaron diez CA de las cuales siete fueron corregidas mediante el Modelo MODEF. Las actividades más importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje incluyeron el trabajo de investigación o búsqueda de información para hacer una presentación digital, la elaboración de tablas, los mapas de conceptos, el uso de visuales o videos y las analogías para explicar conceptos o procesos. En conclusión: se recomienda el uso del Modelo MODEF para la discusión del tema de</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28801046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28801046"><span><span class="hlt">CON</span>4EI: Short Time Exposure (STE) test method for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adriaens, E; Willoughby, J A; Meyer, B R; Blakeman, L C; Alépée, N; Fochtman, P; Guest, R; Kandarova, H; Verstraelen, S; Van Rompay, A R</p> <p>2017-08-09</p> <p>Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although many in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, alone they are incapable of fully categorizing chemicals. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO <span class="hlt">CON</span>4EI consortium was developed to assess the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and establish an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One assay selected was the Short Time Exposure (STE) assay. This assay measures the viability of SIRC rabbit corneal cells after 5min exposure to 5% and 0.05% solutions of test material, and is capable of categorizing of Category 1 and No Category chemicals. The accuracy of the STE test method to identify Cat 1 chemicals was 61.3% with 23.7% sensitivity and 95.2% specificity. If non-soluble chemicals and unqualified results were excluded, the performance to identify Cat 1 chemicals remained similar (accuracy 62.2% with 22.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity). The accuracy of the STE test method to identify No Cat chemicals was 72.5% with 66.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Excluding highly volatile chemicals, non-surfactant solids and non-qualified results resulted in an important improvement of the performance of the STE test method (accuracy 96.2% with 81.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Furthermore, it seems that solids are more difficult to test in the STE, 71.4% of the solids resulted in unqualified results (solubility issues and/or high variation between independent runs) whereas for liquids 13.2% of the results were not qualified, supporting the restriction of the test method regarding the testing of solids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4138942','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4138942"><span>An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, <span class="hlt">cons</span> and tensions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriate therapeutic uses of these drugs with the risk of developing dependence. This article discusses pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of PDMP in reducing diversion of prescription opioids, without hampering access to those medications for those with genuine needs, and highlights tensions around PDMP implementation. Discussion PDMPs may help alleviate diversion, over-prescription and fraudulent prescribing/dispensing; prompt drug treatment referrals; avoid awkward drug urine test; and inform spatial changes in prescribing practices and help designing tailored interventions. Fear of legal retribution, privacy and data security, potential confusion about addiction and pseudo-addiction, and potential undue pressure of detecting misuse/diversion - are the major problems. There are tensions about unintended consequence of excessive regulatory enforcements, corresponding collateral damages particularly about inadequate prescribing for patients with genuine needs, and mandatory consultation requirements of PDMP. Summary In this era of information technology PDMP is likely to flourish and remain with us for a long time. A clear standard of practice against which physicians’ care will be judged may expedite the utilisation of PDMP. In addition, adequate training on addiction and pain management along with public awareness, point-of-supply data entry from pharmacy, point-of-care real-time access to data, increasing access to addiction treatment and appropriate regulatory enforcement preferably through</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4945642','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4945642"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4–6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> to using the informed basis set with developmental data. PMID:27471441</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27471441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27471441"><span>Pros and <span class="hlt">Cons</span> of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4-6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> to using the informed basis set with developmental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25127880','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25127880"><span>An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, <span class="hlt">cons</span> and tensions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Islam, M Mofizul; McRae, Ian S</p> <p>2014-08-16</p> <p>In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriate therapeutic uses of these drugs with the risk of developing dependence. This article discusses pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of PDMP in reducing diversion of prescription opioids, without hampering access to those medications for those with genuine needs, and highlights tensions around PDMP implementation. PDMPs may help alleviate diversion, over-prescription and fraudulent prescribing/dispensing; prompt drug treatment referrals; avoid awkward drug urine test; and inform spatial changes in prescribing practices and help designing tailored interventions. Fear of legal retribution, privacy and data security, potential confusion about addiction and pseudo-addiction, and potential undue pressure of detecting misuse/diversion - are the major problems. There are tensions about unintended consequence of excessive regulatory enforcements, corresponding collateral damages particularly about inadequate prescribing for patients with genuine needs, and mandatory consultation requirements of PDMP. In this era of information technology PDMP is likely to flourish and remain with us for a long time. A clear standard of practice against which physicians' care will be judged may expedite the utilisation of PDMP. In addition, adequate training on addiction and pain management along with public awareness, point-of-supply data entry from pharmacy, point-of-care real-time access to data, increasing access to addiction treatment and appropriate regulatory enforcement preferably through healthcare administration, together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27035150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27035150"><span>Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated <span class="hlt">Con</span>A-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40...20G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40...20G"><span>Obtención de velocidades radiales de precisión <span class="hlt">con</span> el espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Con</span> el fin de ser empleados como espectros de referencia, han sido obtenidos recientemente 80 espectrogramas de estrellas candidatas a patrones de velocidad radial de todos los tipos espectrales desde B0 a M5, <span class="hlt">con</span> una dispersión aproximada de 7 Å/mm. Se estudia la influencia de distintos factores (flexión, refracción atmosférica, etc.) en la determinación de velocidades radiales. Se analizan diferentes técnicas de reducción y medición de velocidades, su aplicación a estrellas de diferentes tipos espectrales y velocidades de rotación y se discute la precisión obtenible en cada caso.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28399705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28399705"><span>Biophysical insight reveals tannic acid as amyloid inducer and conformation transformer from amorphous to amyloid aggregates in Concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khan, Mohsin Vahid; Ishtikhar, Mohd; Siddiqui, Mohammad Khursheed; Zaman, Masihuz; Chandel, Tajalli Ilm; Majid, Nabeela; Ajmal, Mohd Rehan; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Shahein, Yasser E; Khan, Rizwan Hasan</p> <p>2017-04-27</p> <p>The aggregation phenomenon (amyloid and amorphous) is associated with several pathological complications in human, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington, Cataract diseases, and Diabetes mellitus type 2. In the present study we are offering evidence and breaking the general belief with regard to the polyphenols action as protein aggregate inhibitors. Herein we confirm that tannic acid (TA) is not only an amyloid inducer, but also it switches one type of conformation, ultimately morphology, into another. We ascertain based on our findings that aggregates are not rigid structures and the stability can be challenged under certain conditions. This study also confirms that unfolded and amorphous aggregates can serve as precursors of amyloids and TA interactions with unordered aggregates (amorphous) bringing orderliness in the conformation via amyloidosis. The shifting of unordered conformation toward orderliness is governed by the modulation in surface hydrophobic patches in Concanavalin A (<span class="hlt">Con</span>A). Hence, a degree of exposed hydrophobic cluster can be claimed as a strong parameter to detect and distinguish the native, amorphous and both types of amyloids. Turbidity and Rayleigh light scattering measurements followed similar pattern while Thioflavin T and 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate fluorescence assays of the binding with amorphous and amyloid followed an inverse relation. Electron microscopic studies revealed the morphological variation in the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A at 65°C as amorphous while the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A treated with TA followed by heat treatment at 65°C was defined as amyloid in nature. Interestingly for the first time we are reporting the slight agglutination activity by the <span class="hlt">Con</span>A amyloids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1951887','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1951887"><span>PmrA(<span class="hlt">Con</span>) Confers pmrHFIJKL-Dependent EGTA and Polymyxin Resistance on msbB Salmonella by Decorating Lipid A with Phosphoethanolamine▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Murray, Sean R.; Ernst, Robert K.; Bermudes, David; Miller, Samuel I.; Low, K. Brooks</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Mutations in pmrA were recombined into Salmonella strain ATCC 14028 msbB to determine if pmrA-regulated modifications of lipopolysaccharide could suppress msbB growth defects. A mutation that functions to constitutively activate pmrA [pmrA(<span class="hlt">Con</span>)] suppresses msbB growth defects on EGTA-containing media. Lipid A structural analysis showed that Salmonella msbB pmrA(<span class="hlt">Con</span>) strains, compared to Salmonella msbB strains, have increased amounts of palmitate and phosphoethanolamine but no aminoarabinose addition, suggesting that aminoarabinose is not incorporated into msbB lipid A. Surprisingly, loss-of-function mutations in the aminoarabinose biosynthetic genes restored EGTA and polymyxin sensitivity to Salmonella msbB pmrA(<span class="hlt">Con</span>) strains. These blocks in aminoarabinose biosynthesis also prevented lipid A phosphoethanolamine incorporation and reduced the levels of palmitate addition, indicating previously unknown roles for the aminoarabinose biosynthetic enzymes. Lipid A structural analysis of the EGTA- and polymyxin-resistant triple mutant msbB pmrA(<span class="hlt">Con</span>) pagP::Tn10, which contains phosphoethanolamine but no palmitoylated lipid A, suggests that phosphoethanolamine addition is sufficient to confer EGTA and polymyxin resistance on Salmonella msbB strains. Additionally, palmitoylated lipid A was observed only in wild-type Salmonella grown in the presence of salt in rich media. Thus, we correlate EGTA resistance and polymyxin resistance with phosphoethanolamine-decorated lipid A and demonstrate that the aminoarabinose biosynthetic proteins play an essential role in lipid A phosphoethanolamine addition and affect lipid A palmitate addition in Salmonella msbB strains. PMID:17449614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17449614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17449614"><span>pmrA(<span class="hlt">Con</span>) confers pmrHFIJKL-dependent EGTA and polymyxin resistance on msbB Salmonella by decorating lipid A with phosphoethanolamine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, Sean R; Ernst, Robert K; Bermudes, David; Miller, Samuel I; Low, K Brooks</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Mutations in pmrA were recombined into Salmonella strain ATCC 14028 msbB to determine if pmrA-regulated modifications of lipopolysaccharide could suppress msbB growth defects. A mutation that functions to constitutively activate pmrA [pmrA(<span class="hlt">Con</span>)] suppresses msbB growth defects on EGTA-containing media. Lipid A structural analysis showed that Salmonella msbB pmrA(<span class="hlt">Con</span>) strains, compared to Salmonella msbB strains, have increased amounts of palmitate and phosphoethanolamine but no aminoarabinose addition, suggesting that aminoarabinose is not incorporated into msbB lipid A. Surprisingly, loss-of-function mutations in the aminoarabinose biosynthetic genes restored EGTA and polymyxin sensitivity to Salmonella msbB pmrA(<span class="hlt">Con</span>) strains. These blocks in aminoarabinose biosynthesis also prevented lipid A phosphoethanolamine incorporation and reduced the levels of palmitate addition, indicating previously unknown roles for the aminoarabinose biosynthetic enzymes. Lipid A structural analysis of the EGTA- and polymyxin-resistant triple mutant msbB pmrA(<span class="hlt">Con</span>) pagP::Tn10, which contains phosphoethanolamine but no palmitoylated lipid A, suggests that phosphoethanolamine addition is sufficient to confer EGTA and polymyxin resistance on Salmonella msbB strains. Additionally, palmitoylated lipid A was observed only in wild-type Salmonella grown in the presence of salt in rich media. Thus, we correlate EGTA resistance and polymyxin resistance with phosphoethanolamine-decorated lipid A and demonstrate that the aminoarabinose biosynthetic proteins play an essential role in lipid A phosphoethanolamine addition and affect lipid A palmitate addition in Salmonella msbB strains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22781436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22781436"><span>Comparison of four probabilistic models (CARES(®), Calendex™, <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Expo, and SHEDS) to estimate aggregate residential exposures to pesticides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Young, Bruce M; Tulve, Nicolle S; Egeghy, Peter P; Driver, Jeffrey H; Zartarian, Valerie G; Johnston, Jason E; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; Evans, Jeffrey J; Smith, Luther A; Glen, Graham; Lunchick, Curt; Ross, John H; Xue, Jianping; Barnekow, David E</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Two deterministic models (US EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs Residential Standard Operating Procedures (OPP Residential SOPs) and Draft Protocol for Measuring Children's Non-Occupational Exposure to Pesticides by all Relevant Pathways (Draft Protocol)) and four probabilistic models (CARES(®), Calendex™, <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Expo, and SHEDS) were used to estimate aggregate residential exposures to pesticides. The route-specific exposure estimates for young children (2-5 years) generated by each model were compared to evaluate data inputs, algorithms, and underlying assumptions. Three indoor exposure scenarios were considered: crack and crevice, fogger, and flying insect killer. Dermal exposure estimates from the OPP Residential SOPs and the Draft Protocol were 4.75 and 2.37 mg/kg/day (crack and crevice scenario) and 0.73 and 0.36 mg/kg/day (fogger), respectively. The dermal exposure estimates (99th percentile) for the crack and crevice scenario were 16.52, 12.82, 3.57, and 3.30 mg/kg/day for CARES, Calendex, SHEDS, and <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Expo, respectively. Dermal exposure estimates for the fogger scenario from CARES and Calendex (1.50 and 1.47 mg/kg/day, respectively) were slightly higher than those from SHEDS and <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Expo (0.74 and 0.55 mg/kg/day, respectively). The <span class="hlt">Cons</span>Expo derived non-dietary ingestion estimates (99th percentile) under these two scenarios were higher than those from SHEDS, CARES, and Calendex. All models produced extremely low exposure estimates for the flying insect killer scenario. Using similar data inputs, the model estimates by route for these scenarios were consistent and comparable. Most of the models predicted exposures within a factor of 5 at the 50th and 99th percentiles. The differences identified are explained by activity assumptions, input distributions, and exposure algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40R..29B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40R..29B"><span>Distribución espacial de cúmulos y asociaciones estelares <span class="hlt">con</span> diferentes edades en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bica, E.; Clariá, J. J.; Dottori, H.; Santos, J. F. C.; Piatti, A. E.</p> <p></p> <p>Sobre la base de observaciones realizadas en Cerro Tololo y el Casleo, se presenta un catálogo <span class="hlt">con</span> fotometría UBV integrada de 504 cúmulos y 120 asociaciones estelares en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes. Se determinan edades en términos de los tipos SWB y se identifican 38 cúmulos tipo VII, muchos de los cuales pueden ser cúmulos globulares clásicos. El tamaño de las distribuciones espaciales crece uniformemente <span class="hlt">con</span> la edad (tipo SWB), en tanto que existe una diferencia en el cociente axial entre los grupos más jóvenes y más viejos que 30 millones de años, lo que implica una orientación aproximadamente de frente para los primeros y una posición inclinada ~ 45o para el segundo grupo. Las asimetrías en las distribuciones espaciales, juntamente <span class="hlt">con</span> la falta de coincidencia de los centroides de los diferentes grupos de edad, sugiere que el disco de la Nube Mayor de Magallanes fue severamente perturbado en el pasado.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1457518','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1457518"><span>Differences in [3H]-thymidine uptake of lymph node cells stimulated by <span class="hlt">Con</span> A and PHA in H-2 congenic mouse strains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bösze, Z; Mérei, J; Fachet, J</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The genetic control of the lymphocyte responsiveness to <span class="hlt">Con</span> A and PHA-P has been studied by using inbred, H-2 congenic mouse strains. Segregation studies were carried out on F1 and backcross mice of a high and a low responder strain. According to the results, there is a strong correlation between the responsiveness of lymph node cells to mitogens and H-2 haplotypes in different H-2 congenic strains of mice and in different backcross generations. High responsiveness to PHA-P is associated with H-2b, while low responsiveness with H-2a or H-2k haplotypes, but the correlation is the inverse in response to <span class="hlt">Con</span> A, in the parental strains and backcross mice as well. The magnitude of the responses to both <span class="hlt">Con</span> A and PHA-P was found to be intermediate in F1 heterozygotes of a low and high responder parental strain. The effect of other non H-2 genes on the responsiveness to these mitogens has also been demonstrated. PMID:468309</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17995800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17995800"><span>Feasibility of aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product (salsa <span class="hlt">con</span> queso) using a continuous flow microwave system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, P; Coronel, P; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product using a continuous flow microwave heating system can combine the advantages of an aseptic process along with those of microwave heating. Dielectric properties of 2 different brands of 1 such product (salsa <span class="hlt">con</span> queso) were measured under continuous flow conditions at a temperature range of 20 to 130 degrees C. At 915 MHz, the dielectric constant ranged from 58.7 at 20 degrees C to 41.3 at 130 degrees C with dielectric loss factor ranging from 41.0 at 20 degrees C to 145.5 at 130 degrees C. The loss tangent at 915 MHz ranged from 0.61 at 20 degrees C to 3.52 at 130 degrees C. The temperature profiles at the outlet during processing of salsa <span class="hlt">con</span> queso in a 5-kW microwave unit showed a narrow temperature distribution between the center and the wall of the tube. The study showed the feasibility of aseptic processing of salsa <span class="hlt">con</span> queso using a continuous flow microwave system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JChPh.128s4313L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JChPh.128s4313L"><span>Guided ion beam studies of the reactions of <span class="hlt">Con</span>+ (n=1-18) with N2: Cobalt cluster mononitride and dinitride bond energies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Fuyi; Li, Ming; Tan, Lin; Armentrout, P. B.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The reactions of <span class="hlt">Con</span>+ (n=1-18) with N2 are measured as a function of kinetic energy over a range of 0-15eV in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. A variety of Com+, ComN+, and ComN2+ (m⩽n) product ions are observed, all in endothermic processes, with collision-induced dissociation dominating the products for all clusters. Bond dissociation energies for both cobalt cluster nitrides and dinitrides are derived from threshold analysis of the energy dependence of the endothermic reactions using several different approaches. These values show only a mild dependence on cluster size over the range studied, although the Co13+-N bond energy is relatively weak. The bond energies of <span class="hlt">Con</span>+-N for larger clusters suggest that a reasonable value for the desorption energy of atomic nitrogen from bulk phase cobalt is 6.3±0.2eV, which is somewhat lower than the only available value in the literature, an estimate based on the enthalpy of formation of bulk cobalt nitride. The trends in the cobalt nitride thermochemistry are also compared to previously determined metal-metal bond energies, D0(<span class="hlt">Con</span>+-Co), and to D0(Fen+-N). Implications for catalytic ammonia production using cobalt versus iron are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27340745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27340745"><span>The pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of ecological risk assessment based on data from different levels of biological organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rohr, Jason R; Salice, Christopher J; Nisbet, Roger M</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is the process used to evaluate the safety of manufactured chemicals to the environment. Here we review the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of ERA across levels of biological organization, including suborganismal (e.g., biomarkers), individual, population, community, ecosystem and landscapes levels. Our review revealed that level of biological organization is often related negatively with ease at assessing cause-effect relationships, ease of high-throughput screening of large numbers of chemicals (it is especially easier for suborganismal endpoints), and uncertainty of the ERA because low levels of biological organization tend to have a large distance between their measurement (what is quantified) and assessment endpoints (what is to be protected). In contrast, level of biological organization is often related positively with sensitivity to important negative and positive feedbacks and context dependencies within biological systems, and ease at capturing recovery from adverse contaminant effects. Some endpoints did not show obvious trends across levels of biological organization, such as the use of vertebrate animals in chemical testing and ease at screening large numbers of species, and other factors lacked sufficient data across levels of biological organization, such as repeatability, variability, cost per study and cost per species of effects assessment, the latter of which might be a more defensible way to compare costs of ERAs than cost per study. To compensate for weaknesses of ERA at any particular level of biological organization, we also review mathematical modeling approaches commonly used to extrapolate effects across levels of organization. Finally, we provide recommendations for next generation ERA, submitting that if there is an ideal level of biological organization to conduct ERA, it will only emerge if ERA is approached simultaneously from the bottom of biological organization up as well as from the top down, all while employing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614644G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614644G"><span>A methodological approach to comparing pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> Cavallerizzo have been analysed within the frame of a PhD thesis by one of the authors. The present study focuses on the Cavallerizzo case study to discuss a methodological approach useful to comparing pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of delocalizing villages, aiming at properly considering socio-economic effects in addition to technical issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764970"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>-Current versus Counter-Current Dialysate Flow during CVVHD. A Comparative Study for Creatinine and Urea Removal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baldwin, Ian; Baldwin, Marie; Fealy, Nigel; Neri, Mauro; Garzotto, Francesco; Kim, Jeong Chul; Giuliani, Anna; Basso, Flavio; Nalesso, Federico; Brendolan, Alessandra; Ronco, Claudio</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dialysate fluid connection to the membrane in continuous dialysis may affect solute clearance. Although circuit connections are routinely made counter-current to blood flow in intermittent dialysis, no study has assessed the effect of this dialysate fluid flow direction on removal of small solutes creatinine and urea during treatment using continuous veno-venous haemodialysis (CVVHD). To assess if dialysate flow direction during CVVHD affects small solute removal. This ethics-approved study recruited a convenience sample of 26 adult ICU patients requiring continuous dialysis to assess urea and creatinine removal for <span class="hlt">con</span>-current vs. counter-current dialysate flow direction. The circuit was adjusted from continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration to CVVHD 20 min prior to sampling with no fluid removal. Blood (b) and spent dialysate fluid (f) were taken in both concurrent and counter-current fluid flow at 1 (T1) and 4 (T4) hours with a new treatment. Blood flow was 200 ml/min. Dialysate flow 33 ml/min. Removal of urea and creatinine was expressed as the diafiltrate/plasma concentration ratio: Uf/b and Cf/b respectively. Data lacking normal distribution are presented as median with 25th and 75th interquartile ranges (IQR), otherwise as mean with SD and assessed with the independent t test for paired data. p < 0.5 was considered significant. Fifteen male patients were included with a median (IQR) age of 67 years (52-75), and APACHE x0399;x0399; score 17 (14-19) with all patients meeting RIFLE criteria 'F'. At both times, the counter-current dialysate flow was associated with higher mean (SD) diafiltrate/plasma concentration ratios: T1 0.87 (0.16) vs. 0.77 (0.10), p = 0.006; T2 0.96 (0.16) vs. 0.76 (0.09), p < 0.001 for creatinine and T1 0.98 (0.09) vs. 0.81 (0.09), p < 0.001; T2 0.99 (0.07) vs. 0.82 (0.08), p < 0.001 for urea. Counter-current dialysate flow during CVVHD for ICU patients is associated with an approximately 20% increase in removal of small solutes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JPhy3...7..993B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JPhy3...7..993B"><span><span class="hlt">Cons</span>équences des nouvelles formes de commande sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bellomo, J. P.; Lebey, Th.; Peltier, Fr.; Oraison, J. M.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>Use of inverter drive for rotating machines speed control leads to the application of new stress on stator insulation materials. The integrity of these materials under such stresses has therefore to be studied. Thanks to specially equipped motor, the different voltage shapes have been identified. Very short rise time fronts, large overvoltages and high oscillation frequencies are obtained. These voltages are then reproduced on laboratory samples (Polyethylene Terephtalate). The main result is the existence of trapped surface charges related both to the rise front value and to the existence of polar mechanisms in the material bulk. The consequences of this surface charge existence on the reliability of a real system are then discussed. L'utilisation de nouvelles formes de commande pour les machines à courant alternatif se traduit par l'apparition d'un nouveau type de contraintes sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique. L'étude de leur comportement sous l'action de ce type de contraintes revêt un intérêt tout particulier pour la validation et la stabilité de ces systèmes dans le temps. Nous présentons, tout d'abord, ces différentes formes de tension identifiées à l'aide d'un moteur spécialement instrumenté. L'existence de fronts de tension très élevés, de surtensions importantes (jusqu'à 500V) et d'oscillations hautes fréquences (2MHz), est mise en évidence. La reproduction de ces contraintes en laboratoire sur des échantillons de polyesters (PolyÉthylène Térephthalate) permet alors de déterminer l'influence des formes de tension carrées sur les propriétés intrinsèques du matériau. Elle se traduit par l'existence d'une charge piégée en surface du diélectrique. Cette charge superficielle est associée, d'une part à l'existence de phénomènes de relaxation dans les matériaux étudiés et d'autre part à la valeur des fronts de tension appliqués. Pour finir, les <span class="hlt">cons</span>équences possibles de l'existence de ces charges superficielles</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H12D..03N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H12D..03N"><span>Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS <span class="hlt">Con</span>Hab Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Hab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from <1 to 400 ng g-1 wet tissue. PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, DDT and its degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5218817','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5218817"><span>Relación Entre el Tamaño Condilar y la Asimetría Facial Transversal en Individuos <span class="hlt">con</span> Hiperplasia Condilar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Alister, Juan Pablo; Uribe, Francisca; Navarro, Pablo; Olate, Gabriela; de Moraes, Márcio</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>La asimetría facial es una patología de compromiso funcional y estético que puede estar generado por hiperplasia condilar; el objetivo de esta investigación es determinar la influencia del tamaño condilar en la asimetría facial. Doce sujetos fueron estudiados mediante el análisis de tomografía computadorizada cone beam; todos los pacientes presentaron cintigrama óseo que determino la presencia de hiperplasia condilar activa; el análisis se realizo en un software del sistema de captura modelo Pax Zenith, marca Vatech (Korea 2011), utilizando 90 kV y 120 mA; se obtuvo mediciones de la distancia antero-posterior, superior-inferior y medio-lateral de la cabeza del cóndilo, relacionándose <span class="hlt">con</span> la posición del cóndilo <span class="hlt">con</span> la línea mediana facial y la posición de puntos faciales entre incisivos centrales superior e inferior así como <span class="hlt">con</span> el mentón. Los resultados mostraron un promedio de desvío de mentón de 6,5 mm considerando un cóndilo hiperplásico <span class="hlt">con</span> un tamaño de 2,7 mm mas que los cóndilos normales. El desvío de incisivo central inferior determinó que por cada 1 mm de desvío dentario existe 2,2 mm de desvío de mentón. El cóndilo hiperplásico fue de mayor tamaño y se posiciono casi 2 mm mas hacia lateral que los cóndilos no hiperplásicos. Es posible concluir que el cóndilo hiperplásico presenta clara influencia en la asimetría facial transversa y es posible estimar una relación de tamaño condilar <span class="hlt">con</span> grado de asimetría facial. PMID:28066127</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000580','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000580"><span>Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-based Operations (STBO): Results of Piloted Simulations and Implications for Concepts of Operation (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Bakowski, Deborah L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The results offour piloted medium-fidelity simulations investigating flight deck surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) will be reviewed. In these flight deck STBO simulations, commercial transport pilots were given taxi clearances with time and/or speed components and required to taxi to the departing runway or an intermediate traffic intersection. Under a variety of concept of operations (<span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops) and flight deck information conditions, pilots' ability to taxi in compliance with the required time of arrival (RTA) at the designated airport location was measured. <span class="hlt">Con</span>Ops and flight deck information conditions explored included: Availability of taxi clearance speed and elapsed time information; Intermediate RTAs at intermediate time constraint points (e.g., intersection traffic flow points); STBO taxi clearances via ATC voice speed commands or datal ink; and, Availability of flight deck display algorithms to reduce STBO RTA error. Flight Deck Implications. Pilot RTA conformance for STBO clearances, in the form of ATC taxi clearances with associated speed requirements, was found to be relatively poor, unless the pilot is required to follow a precise speed and acceleration/deceleration profile. However, following such a precise speed profile results in inordinate head-down tracking of current ground speed, leading to potentially unsafe operations. Mitigating these results, and providing good taxi RTA performance without the associated safety issues, is a flight deck avionics or electronic flight bag (EFB) solution. Such a solution enables pilots to meet the taxi route RTA without moment-by-moment tracking of ground speed. An avionics or EFB "error-nulling" algorithm allows the pilot to view the STBO information when the pilot determines it is necessary and when workload alloys, thus enabling the pilot to spread his/her attention appropriately and strategically on aircraft separation airport navigation, and the many other flight deck tasks concurrently required</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27747481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27747481"><span><span class="hlt">Con</span>Br, A Lectin Purified from the Seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis, Protects Against Ischemia in Organotypic Culture of Rat Hippocampus: Potential Implication of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rieger, D K; Navarro, E; Buendia, I; Parada, E; González-Lafuente, L; Leon, R; Costa, A P; Heinrich, I A; Nascimento, K S; Cavada, B S; Lopez, M G; Egea, J; Leal, R B</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Lectins are proteins that bind cellular glycans and can modulate various neuronal functions. We have evaluated the neuroprotective effect of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br, a lectin purified from the seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis in a model of rat organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHCs) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD for 15 min followed by 24 h re-oxygenation significantly increased cell death, caused mitochondrial depolarization and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CA1 region of OHCs. <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br (0.1 μg/mL) added during the re-oxygenation period counteracted cell death, mitochondrial depolarization and overproduction of ROS induced by OGD. Moreover, <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br restored the levels of Akt and ERK1 phosphorylation that were reduced by OGD. Modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) by <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br was evaluated in isolated hippocampal neurons loaded with the fluorescent calcium dye Fluo-4/AM. <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br (0.1 and 1 µg/mL) reduced by 25-30 % the Ca(2+) increment induced by 70 mM K(+). A sub effective concentration of <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br (0.01 µg/mL) together with a sub effective concentration of the L-type calcium channel antagonist nifedipine (0.3 µM) conferred a synergic neuroprotective effect in OHCs subjected to OGD. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br provides OHCs neuroprotection against OGD. The mechanism was not fully addressed but it may involve modulation of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels by <span class="hlt">Con</span>Br.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4110956','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4110956"><span>The beliefs about pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of drinking and intention to change among hazardous and moderate alcohol users: a population-based cross-sectional study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Helgason, Asgeir R.; Ahacic, Kozma</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Fundamental to supporting hazardous alcohol users are the rationales for reducing alcohol intake highlighted by the users themselves. This study analyses the relative importance of beliefs about pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of drinking in relation to having an intention to reduce intake among both hazardous and moderate alcohol users. Methods: Intention to change was assessed in a representative sample of Stockholm’s population (n = 4278, response rate 56.5%). Alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test measure. A decisional balance inventory was used to examine various beliefs about the pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span> of drinking, which covered affect changes, social gains and losses, and possible adverse effects. Independent correlations were determined by logistic regression using a backward exclusion procedure (P > 0.05). Results: Higher ratings of importance were generally related to intent, whether or not the contrast was with having no intent or already having made a reduction. This was especially true for hazardous users. Only two beliefs were independently correlated with change among hazardous users: ‘Drinking could get me addicted’ and ‘Drinking makes me more relaxed/less tense’ (pseudo-R2 < 0.1). Among moderate users, there was no uniform pattern in the relationships. Conclusions: Unexpectedly, hazardous users with an intent to change rated pro arguments as more important than those with no intent to change. Of the investigated pros and <span class="hlt">cons</span>, only a few were independently related to intention to change drinking behaviour. These arguments provide interesting topics in consultations. Little support was found for any rational decision making behind the intention to reduce alcohol intake. PMID:24567291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40...31P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40...31P"><span>Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco <span class="hlt">con</span> apariencia globular</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.</p> <p></p> <p>Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos <span class="hlt">con</span> apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia <span class="hlt">con</span> apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste <span class="hlt">con</span> los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26242312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26242312"><span>Development of a heptaplex PCR assay for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> with simultaneous detection of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okolie, Charles Emeka; Wooldridge, Karl G; Turner, David P J; Cockayne, Alan; James, Richard</p> <p>2015-08-05</p> <p>Staphylococcal toxicity and antibiotic resistance (STAAR) have been menacing public health. Although vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) is currently not as widespread as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), genome evolution of MRSA into VRSA, including strains engineered within the same patient under anti-staphylococcal therapy, may build up to future public health concern. To further complicate diagnosis, infection control and anti-microbial chemotherapy, non-sterile sites such as the nares and the skin could contain both S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (<span class="hlt">CoNS</span>), either of which could harbour mecA the gene driving staphylococcal methicillin-resistance and required for MRSA-VRSA evolution. A new heptaplex PCR assay has been developed which simultaneously detects seven markers for: i) eubacteria (16S rRNA), ii) Staphylococcus genus (tuf), iii) Staphylococcus aureus (spa), iv) <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> (cns), v) Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl), vi) methicillin resistance (mecA), and vii) vancomycin resistance (vanA). Following successful validation using 255 reference bacterial strains, applicability to analyse clinical samples was evaluated by direct amplification in spiked blood cultures (n = 89) which returned 100 % specificity, negative and positive predictive values. The new assay has LoD of 1.0x10(3) CFU/mL for the 16S rRNA marker and 1.0x10(4) CFU/mL for six other markers and completes cycling in less than one hour. The speed, sensitivity (100 %), NPV (100 %) and PPV (100 %) suggest the new heptaplex PCR assay could be easily integrated into a routine diagnostic microbiology workflow. Detection of the cns marker allows for unique identification of <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> in mono-microbial and in poly-microbial samples containing mixtures of <span class="hlt">CoNS</span> and S. aureus without recourse to the conventional elimination approach which is ambiguous. In addition to the SA-CoNS differential diagnostic essence of the new assay, inclusion of vanA primers will allow</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='re