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Sample records for fermented soybean foods

  1. Inhibition kinetics of lipid oxidation of model foods by using antioxidant extract of fermented soybeans.

    PubMed

    Wardhani, Dyah H; Fuciños, Pablo; Vázquez, José A; Pandiella, Severino S

    2013-08-15

    Fermentation by using Aspergillus oryzae has been reported to increase antioxidant activity of soybeans significantly. The effectiveness of the extract from fermented soybeans was studied in 3 model foods with different complexities, i.e., linoleic acid emulsion, sunflower oil emulsions and bulk sunflower oil. For the emulsion systems, oxidation at two different pH values (4.5 and 7) was also compared. A reparameterised logistic equation was used to describe and to predict the experimental data. In general, a good agreement between experimental trends and simulated data from the model was found. A crude antioxidant extract (5 mg/g) showed a comparable antioxidant activity to 0.26 mg/g of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in the linoleic acid emulsions. The extract exhibited a better capability to retard primary products in the linoleic acid systems than the secondary products. The opposite effect was observed in the bulk sunflower oil and its emulsion systems.

  2. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Isolated from Non-Salted Fermented Soybean Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kamada, Mayumi; Hase, Sumitaka; Fujii, Kazushi; Miyake, Masato; Sato, Kengo; Kimura, Keitarou; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the main component in the fermentation of soybeans. To investigate the genetics of the soybean-fermenting B. subtilis strains and its relationship with the productivity of extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA), we sequenced the whole genome of eight B. subtilis stains isolated from non-salted fermented soybean foods in Southeast Asia. Assembled nucleotide sequences were compared with those of a natto (fermented soybean food) starter strain B. subtilis BEST195 and the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis 168 that is incapable of γPGA production. Detected variants were investigated in terms of insertion sequences, biotin synthesis, production of subtilisin NAT, and regulatory genes for γPGA synthesis, which were related to fermentation process. Comparing genome sequences, we found that the strains that produce γPGA have a deletion in a protein that constitutes the flagellar basal body, and this deletion was not found in the non-producing strains. We further identified diversity in variants of the bio operon, which is responsible for the biotin auxotrophism of the natto starter strains. Phylogenetic analysis using multilocus sequencing typing revealed that the B. subtilis strains isolated from the non-salted fermented soybeans were not clustered together, while the natto-fermenting strains were tightly clustered; this analysis also suggested that the strain isolated from “Tua Nao” of Thailand traces a different evolutionary process from other strains. PMID:26505996

  3. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Isolated from Non-Salted Fermented Soybean Foods.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Mayumi; Hase, Sumitaka; Fujii, Kazushi; Miyake, Masato; Sato, Kengo; Kimura, Keitarou; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the main component in the fermentation of soybeans. To investigate the genetics of the soybean-fermenting B. subtilis strains and its relationship with the productivity of extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA), we sequenced the whole genome of eight B. subtilis stains isolated from non-salted fermented soybean foods in Southeast Asia. Assembled nucleotide sequences were compared with those of a natto (fermented soybean food) starter strain B. subtilis BEST195 and the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis 168 that is incapable of γPGA production. Detected variants were investigated in terms of insertion sequences, biotin synthesis, production of subtilisin NAT, and regulatory genes for γPGA synthesis, which were related to fermentation process. Comparing genome sequences, we found that the strains that produce γPGA have a deletion in a protein that constitutes the flagellar basal body, and this deletion was not found in the non-producing strains. We further identified diversity in variants of the bio operon, which is responsible for the biotin auxotrophism of the natto starter strains. Phylogenetic analysis using multilocus sequencing typing revealed that the B. subtilis strains isolated from the non-salted fermented soybeans were not clustered together, while the natto-fermenting strains were tightly clustered; this analysis also suggested that the strain isolated from "Tua Nao" of Thailand traces a different evolutionary process from other strains.

  4. Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 from traditional fermented soybean food inhibits Bacillus cereus growth and toxin-related genes.

    PubMed

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 isolated from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial efficacy and regulation of toxin gene expression in B. cereus by B. subtilis HJ18-4. Expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM) was downregulated by B. subtilis HJ18-4, which also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus. We also found that water extracts of soy product fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-4 significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus and toxin expression. These results indicate that B. subtilis HJ18-4 could be used as an antimicrobial agent to control B. cereus in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide an opportunity to develop an efficient biological control agent against B. cereus.

  5. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis.

  6. Bacillus paralicheniformis sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium was recovered from soybean-based fermented paste. It was isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean food product. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strain ...

  7. Bacillus glycinifermentans sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent isolates of a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium were recovered from soybean-based fermented foodstuffs. Two were isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean food product. Multilocus sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and 5 protein coding genes indi...

  8. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid (PGA)-Producing Bacillus Species Isolated from Kinema, Indian Fermented Soybean Food

    PubMed Central

    Chettri, Rajen; Bhutia, Meera O.; Tamang, Jyoti P.

    2016-01-01

    Kinema, an ethnic fermented, non-salted and sticky soybean food is consumed in the eastern part of India. The stickiness is one of the best qualities of good kinema preferred by consumers, which is due to the production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA). Average load of Bacillus in kinema was 107 cfu/g and of lactic acid bacteria was 103 cfu/g. Bacillus spp. were screened for PGA-production and isolates of lactic acid bacteria were also tested for degradation of PGA. Only Bacillus produced PGA, none of lactic acid bacteria produced PGA. PGA-producing Bacillus spp. were identified by phenotypic characterization and also by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. sonorensis. PMID:27446012

  9. Biogenic Amine Degradation by Bacillus Species Isolated from Traditional Fermented Soybean Food and Detection of Decarboxylase-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Seo, Bo Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2015-09-01

    Biogenic amines in some food products present considerable toxicological risks as potential human carcinogens when consumed in excess concentrations. In this study, we investigated the degradation of the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine and the presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine decarboxylases and amine oxidase in Bacillus species isolated from fermented soybean food. No expression of histidine and tyrosine decarboxylase genes (hdc and tydc) were detected in the Bacillus species isolated (B. subtilis HJ0-6, B. subtilis D'J53-4, and B. idriensis RD13-10), although substantial levels of amine oxidase gene (yobN) expression were observed. We also found that the three selected strains, as non-biogenic amineproducing bacteria, were significantly able to degrade the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine. These results indicated that the selected Bacillus species could be used as a starter culture for the control of biogenic amine accumulation and degradation in food. Our study findings also provided the basis for the development of potential biological control agents against these biogenic amines for use in the food preservation and food safety sectors.

  10. Acidification and starch behaviour during co-fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) into gari, an African fermented food.

    PubMed

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics.

  11. Characterization of antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by Bacillus sp. LM7 isolated from chungkookjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Jong Suk; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2016-03-16

    A wild-type microorganism exhibiting antimicrobial activities was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented soybean food Chungkookjang and identified as Bacillus sp. LM7. During its stationary growth phase, the microorganism secreted an antimicrobial substance, which we partially purified using a simple two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and heat treatment. The partially purified antimicrobial substance, Anti-LM7, was stable over a broad pH range (4.0-9.0) and at temperatures up to 80 °C for 30 min, and was resistant to most proteolytic enzymes and maintained its activity in 30% (v/v) organic solvents. Anti-LM7 inhibited the growth of a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, but it did not inhibit lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. Moreover, unlike commercially available nisin and polymyxin B, Anti-LM7 inhibited certain fungal strains. Lastly, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Anti-LM7 revealed that it contained eight lipopeptides belonging to two families: four bacillomycin D and four surfactin analogs. These Bacillus sp. LM7-produced heterogeneous lipopeptides exhibiting extremely high stability and a broad antimicrobial spectrum are likely to be closely related to the antimicrobial activity of Chungkookjang, and their identification presents an opportunity for application of the peptides in environmental bioremediation, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  12. Characterization of antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by Bacillus sp. LM7 isolated from chungkookjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Jong Suk; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2016-03-16

    A wild-type microorganism exhibiting antimicrobial activities was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented soybean food Chungkookjang and identified as Bacillus sp. LM7. During its stationary growth phase, the microorganism secreted an antimicrobial substance, which we partially purified using a simple two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and heat treatment. The partially purified antimicrobial substance, Anti-LM7, was stable over a broad pH range (4.0-9.0) and at temperatures up to 80 °C for 30 min, and was resistant to most proteolytic enzymes and maintained its activity in 30% (v/v) organic solvents. Anti-LM7 inhibited the growth of a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, but it did not inhibit lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. Moreover, unlike commercially available nisin and polymyxin B, Anti-LM7 inhibited certain fungal strains. Lastly, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Anti-LM7 revealed that it contained eight lipopeptides belonging to two families: four bacillomycin D and four surfactin analogs. These Bacillus sp. LM7-produced heterogeneous lipopeptides exhibiting extremely high stability and a broad antimicrobial spectrum are likely to be closely related to the antimicrobial activity of Chungkookjang, and their identification presents an opportunity for application of the peptides in environmental bioremediation, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. PMID:26803269

  13. Production of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) and soybean (Glycine max) seed based food formulations, 2: Effects of germination and fermentation on microbiological and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Ariahu, C C; Ukpabi, U; Mbajunwa, K O

    1999-01-01

    The effects of germination (G) and naturally fermented (F) on the bacterial flora, viscosities and moisture sorption isotherms of soybean (S) and African breadfruit (B) seed based food products were investigated. Bacillus, Enterobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, Proteus, Serratia and Staphylococcus species dominated in the nonfermented products. Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and yeast species dominated in the fermented products whose gruels also inhibited growth of coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus in challenge tests. Germination and fermentation resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decreases in cooked paste viscosities which is advantageous in increasing nutrient density. The monolayer moisture contents (g H2O/g solid) and surface areas for monolayer adsorption (m2/g solid) derived from BET model were 0.0422 and 148.1 (GFSB); 0.0428 and 150.4 (NGFSB); 0.0436 and 153.3 (NGNFSB); 0.0531 and 186.6 (GNFSB), respectively.

  14. Effect of heat treatment on total phenolic and anthocyanin contents as well as antioxidant activity of the extract from Aspergillus awamori-fermented black soybeans, a healthy food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ching; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2009-11-01

    Aspergillus awamori-fermented black soybeans, a healthy food ingredient, were subjected to heating at 40-100 degrees C for 30 min. After heat treatment, the methanol extract of the fermented black soybeans was examined for antioxidant activity including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrozyl radical-scavenging effect and the Fe(2+)-chelating ability. It was found that antioxidant activity exerted by the methanol extract was stable with heating at a temperature up to 80 degrees C for 30 min. The extract showed a reduced antioxidant activity after heating the fermented black soybeans at 100 degrees C for 30 min. However, it showed approximately 70% and 40%, respectively, of the original 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrozyl radical-scavenging effect and the Fe(2+)-chelating ability. Heating also reduced the total phenolic and anthocyanin content in the fermented black soybeans, but this reduction did not coincide closely with the reduction of antioxidant activity observed.

  15. Production of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) and soybean (Glycine max) seed based food formulations, 1: Effects of germination and fermentation on nutritional and organoleptic quality.

    PubMed

    Ariahu, C C; Ukpabi, U; Mbajunwa, K O

    1999-01-01

    Germination and fermentation were investigated as methods of improving the nutritional and organoleptic properties of soybean and African breadfruit seed based food formulations. Four products consisting of germinated-fermented soy-breadfruit seeds (GFSB), nongerminated-fermented soy-breadfruit seeds (NGFSB), germinated-nonfermented soy-breadfruit seeds (GNFSB) and nongerminated-nonfermented soy-breadfruit seeds (NGNFSB) were prepared. Phytic acid contents, in vitro protein digestibilities, protein efficiency ratios (PER), net protein ratios (NPR), flavor, appearance and overall acceptability were evaluated. Germination followed by natural lactic fermentation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the phytic acid by a factor of 11.6 in NGNFSB compared to reduction factors of 2.1 and 1.5 in GNFSB and NGFSB, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility (%), PER and NPR values of 73.4, 2.46 and 3.62 for GFSB; 71.1, 2.35 and 3.46 for NGFSB; 68.7, 2.16 and 3.41 for GNFSB were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the 64.7, 1.82 and 2.11 for NGNFSB. The mean sensory scores were 5.26-5.67 for GNFSB, 4.66-4.94 for NGNFSB, 4.33-4.80 for GFSB and 4.27-4.34 for NGFSB on a 7-point rating scale.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis strains applicable to natto (fermented soybean) production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-'-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 365 strains, including B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting n...

  17. Thrombus Degradation by Fibrinolytic Enzyme of Stenotrophomonas sp. Originated from Indonesian Soybean-Based Fermented Food on Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Nailufar, Florensia; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Suhartono, Maggy T

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate thrombus degrading effect of a fibrinolytic enzyme from food origin Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesia. Methods. Prior to animal study, the enzyme safety was tested using cell culture. The effect on expression of tissue plasminogen activator was also analysed in the cell culture. For in vivo studies, 25 Wistar rats were used: normal control, negative control, treatment groups with crude and semipurified enzyme given orally at 25 mg/kg, and positive control group which received Lumbrokinase at 25 mg/kg. Blood clot in the tail was induced by kappa carrageenan injection at 1 mg/kg BW. Results. Experiment with cell culture confirmed the enzyme safety at the concentration used and increased expression of tPA. Decreasing of thrombus was observed in the positive group down to 70.35 ± 23.11% of the negative control animals (100%). The thrombus observed in the crude enzyme treatment was down to 56.99 ± 15.95% and 71.5 ± 15.7% for semipurified enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy showed clearly that bood clots were found in the animals injected with kappa carrageenan; however, in the treatment and positive groups, the clot was much reduced. Conclusions. Oral treatment of enzyme from Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesian fermented food was capable of degrading thrombus induced in Wistar rats. PMID:27635131

  18. Thrombus Degradation by Fibrinolytic Enzyme of Stenotrophomonas sp. Originated from Indonesian Soybean-Based Fermented Food on Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tjandrawinata, Raymond R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate thrombus degrading effect of a fibrinolytic enzyme from food origin Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesia. Methods. Prior to animal study, the enzyme safety was tested using cell culture. The effect on expression of tissue plasminogen activator was also analysed in the cell culture. For in vivo studies, 25 Wistar rats were used: normal control, negative control, treatment groups with crude and semipurified enzyme given orally at 25 mg/kg, and positive control group which received Lumbrokinase at 25 mg/kg. Blood clot in the tail was induced by kappa carrageenan injection at 1 mg/kg BW. Results. Experiment with cell culture confirmed the enzyme safety at the concentration used and increased expression of tPA. Decreasing of thrombus was observed in the positive group down to 70.35 ± 23.11% of the negative control animals (100%). The thrombus observed in the crude enzyme treatment was down to 56.99 ± 15.95% and 71.5 ± 15.7% for semipurified enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy showed clearly that bood clots were found in the animals injected with kappa carrageenan; however, in the treatment and positive groups, the clot was much reduced. Conclusions. Oral treatment of enzyme from Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesian fermented food was capable of degrading thrombus induced in Wistar rats.

  19. Thrombus Degradation by Fibrinolytic Enzyme of Stenotrophomonas sp. Originated from Indonesian Soybean-Based Fermented Food on Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tjandrawinata, Raymond R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate thrombus degrading effect of a fibrinolytic enzyme from food origin Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesia. Methods. Prior to animal study, the enzyme safety was tested using cell culture. The effect on expression of tissue plasminogen activator was also analysed in the cell culture. For in vivo studies, 25 Wistar rats were used: normal control, negative control, treatment groups with crude and semipurified enzyme given orally at 25 mg/kg, and positive control group which received Lumbrokinase at 25 mg/kg. Blood clot in the tail was induced by kappa carrageenan injection at 1 mg/kg BW. Results. Experiment with cell culture confirmed the enzyme safety at the concentration used and increased expression of tPA. Decreasing of thrombus was observed in the positive group down to 70.35 ± 23.11% of the negative control animals (100%). The thrombus observed in the crude enzyme treatment was down to 56.99 ± 15.95% and 71.5 ± 15.7% for semipurified enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy showed clearly that bood clots were found in the animals injected with kappa carrageenan; however, in the treatment and positive groups, the clot was much reduced. Conclusions. Oral treatment of enzyme from Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesian fermented food was capable of degrading thrombus induced in Wistar rats. PMID:27635131

  20. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

  1. A comparison of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of sword beans and soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Han, Seon Su; Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Si Kyung

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of non-fermented or Bacillus subtilis-fermented soybeans and sword beans (red and white). The total flavonoid content in both sword bean types was higher (1.9-2.5-fold) than that in soybeans. The total phenolic content in fermented red sword beans was 2.5-fold greater than that in non-fermented red sword beans. HPLC profiles revealed that gallic acid, methyl gallate, and ellagic acid were major phenolic components of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans. DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power were higher in fermented red sword beans than in other beans. Non-fermented/fermented red sword beans had higher nitrite scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene and non-fermented/fermented soybeans. The hyaluronidase inhibitory activity of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans was higher (1.5-2.6-fold) than that of non-fermented/fermented soybeans. These results suggest that B. subtilis-fermented sword beans are potential natural antioxidant sources and anti-inflammatory agents for the food industry.

  2. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Growth and Toxin Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 in Fermented Soybean Products.

    PubMed

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Choi, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that has been isolated from contaminated fermented soybean food products and from the environment. B. cereus produces diarrheal and emetic toxins and has caused many outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, we investigated whether B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7, isolated from rice doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, shows antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and regulates its toxin gene expression. B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus and inhibited the expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM). We also found that addition of water extracts of soybean and buckwheat soksungjang (Korean fermented soybean paste made in a short time) fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 significantly reduced the growth and toxin expression of B. cereus. These results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 could be used to control B. cereus growth and toxin production in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of candidate biological control agents against B. cereus to improve the safety of fermented soybean food products.

  3. Fermentation of Soybean Meal Hydrolyzates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for Ethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Luján-Rhenals, Deivis E; Morawicki, Rubén O; Gbur, Edward E; Ricke, Steven C

    2015-07-01

    Most of the ethanol currently produced by fermentation is derived from sugar cane, corn, or beets. However, it makes good ecological and economic sense to use the carbohydrates contained in by-products and coproducts of the food processing industry for ethanol production. Soybean meal, a co-product of the production of soybean oil, has a relatively high carbohydrate content that could be a reasonable substrate for ethanol production after fermentable sugars are released via hydrolysis. In this research, the capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2233 and Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis NRRL B-4286 to produce ethanol was evaluated using soybean meal hydrolyzates as substrates for the fermentation. These substrates were produced from the dilute-acid hydrolysis of soybean meal at 135 °C for 45 min with 0, 0.5%, 1.25%, and 2% H2 SO4 and at 120 °C for 30 min with 1.25% H2 SO4 . Kinetic parameters of the fermentation were estimated using the logistic model. Ethanol production using S. cerevisiae was highest with the substrates obtained at 135 °C, 45 min, and 0.5% H2 SO4 and fermented for 8 h, 8 g/L (4 g ethanol/100 g fresh SBM), while Z. mobilis reached its maximum ethanol production, 9.2 g/L (4.6 g ethanol/100 g fresh SBM) in the first 20 h of fermentation with the same hydrolyzate.

  4. A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sein; Kim, Jong-Eun; Suk, Sujin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-gyu; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kim, Dae Eung; Lee, Miyeong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Jeon, Jong Eun; Cho, Dong Woon; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-01-01

    Skin hydration is one of the primary aims of beauty and anti-aging treatments. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) are major food crops, but can also be used as ingredients for the maintenance of skin health. We developed a natural product-based skin treatment using a barley and soybean formula (BS) incorporating yeast fermentation, and evaluated its skin hydration effects as a dietary supplement in a clinical study. Participants ingested a placebo- (n = 33) or BS- (3 g/day) containing drink (n = 32) for 8 weeks. A significant increase in hydration in the BS group as compared to the placebo group was observed on the faces of subjects after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in stratum corneum (SC) thickness were also observed on the face and forearm. BS enhanced hyaluronan (HA) and skin barrier function in vitro and reduced Hyal2 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). BS also recovered ultraviolet (UV) B-induced downregulation of HA in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BS has promising potential for development as a health functional food to enhance skin health. PMID:26388675

  5. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Seung-Hak; Kang, Suk-Ho; Park, Yong-Bae; Yoon, Mi-Hye; Lee, Jong-Bok; No, Wan-Seob; Kim, Jung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus contamination is a major food safety problem for Korean fermented soybean products, but few studies have assessed its potential to cause foodborne illness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of B. cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products. B. cereus was detected in 110 of 162 (67.9%) samples. The highest B. cereus frequency was observed in deonjang (68 of 93 samples, 73.1%) and cheonggukjang (18 of 25, 72.0%); however, nonhemolytic enterotoxin was detected only in 22 of 162 samples (13.6%). Although the tested B. cereus isolates showed diverse pulsotypes according to repetitive sequence-PCR banding patterns, they displayed similar antibiotic sensitivity spectra. The low frequency of enterotoxin detection suggests that the potential risk of B. cereus foodborne illness associated with Korean fermented soybean products is lower than generally presumed. However, considering the prevalence of B. cereus and the high content of fermented soybean products in the Korean diet, it is necessary to constantly monitor the level of contamination with B. cereus and its toxins in such Korean food products.

  6. Composition and safety analysis of Chinese traditional fermented soybean paste made by transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Yukui, Rui; Wenya, Wang; Hongxing, Zhang; Fusuo, Zhang; Yinhua, Jin; Jing, Guo

    2009-01-01

    The traditional Chinese soybean paste was produced by cooked transgenic soybean fermentation with the composition of moisture 53%, amino acid 0.84% (calculated by nitrogen), votive sugar 6.21% and total acid 1.66%. A number of microorganism species were isolated and identified, including fungi and bacteria, and the bacterium species Rhizopus oryzae Went and Prinsen Geerligs were dominant in transgenic soybean paste. The results showed that the transgenic soybean paste contain abundant amino acids and vitamins (vitamin A, 42.87 IU; vitamin B, 10.31 mg; vitamin B, 20.64 mg; nicotinamide, 2.54 mg; pantothenic acid, 0.63 mg; vitamin B, 6,847 microg; folic acid, 105 microg; vitamin B, 123.85 microg; and biotin, 56.34 microg). Pathogenic microorganisms were not be detected in the transgenic fermented soybean paste.

  7. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-01

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit. PMID:25203619

  8. Metabolomic assessment of fermentative capability of soybean starter treated with high pressure.

    PubMed

    Ko, Bong-Kuk; Kim, Ki Myong; Hong, Young-Shick; Lee, Cherl-Ho

    2010-08-11

    Meju, a brick of dried fermented soybean naturally inoculated with microorganisms, is a starter used for producing traditional Korean fermented soybean products such as soybean paste (doenjang) and soy sauce (ganjang). In order to reduce aging time during production of soybean paste and soy sauce, high pressure (HP) treatment was applied to the meju starter at 500 MPa of pressure for 10 min at 15 degrees C. Fermentative behaviors of normal and HP-treated meju were assessed and compared through physicochemical and (1)H NMR-based metabolomic analysis. All mejues were incubated for 3 weeks at 30 degrees C. At 1 week of incubation, total bacterial population decreased mainly due to a reduction of water content by spontaneous evaporation during the incubation period. As the incubation time increased, glutamate, proline, betain, choline, and phosphocholine levels increased in both normal and HP-treated mejues, indicating that microorganisms in the mejues synthesize these metabolites to endure intracellular hyperosmotic stress induced by the reduction in water content. Through 3 weeks of incubation, the amino-type nitrogen contents and neutral protease activities in HP-treated meju were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in normal meju, even though total bacterial content in HP-treated meju was 2 or 3 times lower. Moreover, marked increases in glycerol, acetate, tyrosine, and choline levels were observed in HP-treated meju compared to normal meju. In particular, higher levels of tyrosine in HP-treated meju were consistent with the increased neutral protease activities compared to normal meju, indicating an improvement in enzyme stability with HP treatment. These findings highlight a new or better understanding of the influence of the HP or physical treatments on fermentative products in food processing, such as those associated with soybean paste and soy sauce, regarding metabolic behaviors in fermentative starter induced by HP treatment. PMID:20681663

  9. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  10. Dietary supplementation with fermented soybeans suppresses intimal thickening.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kazunao; Ichise, Hideyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori; Urano, Tetsumei; Umemura, Kazuo

    2003-03-01

    Although soy foods have been consumed for more than 1000 y, it is only in the past 20 y that they have made inroads into Western diets. We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with natto extracts produced from fermented soybeans on intimal thickening of arteries after vessel endothelial denudation. Natto extracts include nattokinase, a potent fibrinolytic enzyme having four times greater fibrinolytic activity than plasmin. Intimal thickening was induced in the femoral arteries by intravenous infusion of rose bengal followed by focal irradiation with a transluminal green light. Dietary natto extract supplementation was started 3 wk before endothelial injury and continued for another 3 wk after. In ex vivo studies, euglobulin clot lysis times were measured 3 wk after the initial supplementation. Neointima formation and thickening were also initiated successfully. The intima media ratio 3 wk after endothelial injury was 0.15 +/- 0.03 in the control group. Dietary natto extract supplementation suppressed intimal thickening (0.06 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Natto extracts shortened euglobulin clot lysis time, suggesting that their thrombolytic activities were enhanced. These findings suggest that natto extracts, because of their thrombolytic activity, suppress intimal thickening after vascular injury as a result of the inhibition of mural thrombi formation.

  11. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    PubMed

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products.

  12. Bacillus glycinifermentans sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Dunlap, Christopher A; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-10-01

    Two independent isolates of a Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium were recovered from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean paste food product. Preliminary sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these strains were related most closely to Bacillus sonorensis KCTC-13918T and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13T. In phenotypic characterization, the novel strains were found to grow between 15 and 55 °C and to tolerate up to 8 % (w/v) NaCl. Furthermore, the strains grew in media of pH 5-10 (optimal growth at pH 7.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0.The isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown glycolipid. Draft genomes of the two strains were determined and in silico DNA-DNA hybridizations with their nearest neighbour (B. sonorensis KCTC-13918T) revealed 29.9 % relatedness for both strains. Phylogenomic analysis of the genomes was conducted with the core genome (799 genes) of all strains in the Bacillus subtilis group and the two strains formed a distinct monophyletic cluster. In addition, the strains differed from the two most closely related species in that they did not metabolize maltose, d-galactose, d-sorbitol or d-gluconic acid. The DNA G+C content was 45.9 mol%. Based upon the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, these strains represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus glycinifermentans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GO-13T ( = KACC 18425T = NRRL B-65291T). PMID:26297378

  13. Fermentation of soybean hulls to ethanol while retaining protein value

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan R; Wyman, Professor Charles E; John, Bardsley

    2009-01-01

    Soybean hulls were evaluated as a resource for production of ethanol by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, and no pretreatment of the hulls was found to be needed to realize high ethanol yields with S. cerevisiae D5A. The impact of cellulase, -glucosidase and pectinase dosages were determined at a 15% biomass loading, and ethanol concentrations of 25-30 g/L were routinely obtained, while under these conditions corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass produced 3-4 times lower ethanol yields. Removal of carbohydrates also concentrated the hull protein to over 25% w/w from the original roughly 10%. Analysis of the soybean hulls before and after fermentation showed similar amino acid profiles including an increase in the essential amino acids lysine and threonine in the residues. Thus, eliminating pretreatment should assure that the protein in the hulls is preserved, and conversion of the carbohydrates to ethanol with high yields produces a more concentrated and valuable co-product in addition to ethanol. The resulting upgraded feed product from soybean hulls would likely to be acceptable to monogastric as well as bovine livestock.

  14. Immunoreactivity reduction of soybean meal by fermentation, effect on amino acid composition and antigenicity of commercial soy products.

    PubMed

    Song, Y-S; Frias, J; Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Vidal-Valdeverde, C; de Mejia, E Gonzalez

    2008-05-15

    Food allergy has become a public health problem that continues to challenge both the consumer and the food industry. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reduction of immunoreactivity by natural and induced fermentation of soybean meal (SBM) with Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Saccharomyces cereviseae, and to assess the effect on amino acid concentration. Immunoreactivity of commercially available fermented soybean products and ingredients was also evaluated. ELISA and western blot were used to measure IgE immunoreactivity using plasma from soy sensitive individuals. Commercial soy products included tempeh, miso and yogurt. Fermented SBM showed reduced immunoreactivity to human plasma, particularly if proteins were <20kDa. S. cereviseae and naturally fermented SBM showed the highest reduction in IgE immunoreactivity, up to 89% and 88%, respectively, against human pooled plasma. When SBM was subjected to fermentation with different microorganisms, most of the total amino acids increased significantly (p<0.05) and only few of them suffered a decrease depending on the type of fermentation. All commercial soy containing products tested showed very low immunoreactivity. Thus, fermentation can decrease soy immunoreactivity and can be optimized to develop nutritious hypoallergenic soy products. However, the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be determined by human challenge studies.

  15. Functional genomics for food fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Smid, E J; Hugenholtz, J

    2010-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific and technological drivers of food fermentation research. In addition, a number of practical implications of the results of this development will be highlighted. The first part of the manuscript elaborates on the message that genome sequence information gives us an unprecedented view on the biodiversity of microbes in food fermentation. This information can be made applicable for tailoring relevant characteristics of food products through fermentation. The second part deals with the integration of genome sequence data into metabolic models and the use of these models for a number of topics that are relevant for food fermentation processes. The final part will be about metagenomics approaches to reveal the complexity and understand the functionality of undefined complex microbial consortia used in a diverse range of food fermentation processes.

  16. Comparison of Metabolites Variation and Antiobesity Effects of Fermented versus Nonfermented Mixtures of Cudrania tricuspidata, Lonicera caerulea, and Soybean According to Fermentation In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Ho; Jung, Eun Sung; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Seung Hyung; Lee, Sarah; Jo, Yang Hee; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We used ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to study the changes in metabolites in the mixture of Cudrania tricuspidata, Lonicera caerulea, and soybean (CLM) during fermentation. Additionally, the antiobesity effects of CLM and fermented-CLM (FCLM) were studied based on the analysis of plasma from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The levels of cyanidin and the glycosides of luteolin, quercetin, and cyanidin derived from L. caerulea were decreased, whereas the levels of luteolin and quercetin were increased during fermentation. Isoflavone glycosides and soyasaponins originating from the soybean were decreased, whereas their aglycones such as daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were increased. As for prenylated flavonoids from C. tricuspidata, these metabolites were decreased at the early stage of fermentation, and were increased at end of the fermentation. In terms of the functional food product, various metabolites derived from diverse natural products in CLM had complementary effects and demonstrated higher antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibition activities after fermentation; these activities were closely related to flavonoid aglycones including genistein, daidzein, glycitein, luteolin, and quercetin. In an in vivo experiment, several clinical parameters affected by HFD were improved by the administration of either CLM or FCLM, but there was a difference in the antiobesity effects. The levels of lysoPCs with C20:4, C16:0, and C22:6 were significantly attenuated by CLM administration, while the attenuated levels of lysoPCs with C20:4 and C18:2 were significantly restored by FCLM administration. These metabolites may explain the above-mentioned differences in antiobesity effects. Although only the changes in plasma lysophospholipids could not fully explain antiobesity effects between non-fermented and fermented plant mixtures from our results, we suggest that metabolomics approach could provide a way to reveal

  17. Comparison of Metabolites Variation and Antiobesity Effects of Fermented versus Nonfermented Mixtures of Cudrania tricuspidata, Lonicera caerulea, and Soybean According to Fermentation In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Ho; Jung, Eun Sung; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Seung Hyung; Lee, Sarah; Jo, Yang Hee; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We used ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to study the changes in metabolites in the mixture of Cudrania tricuspidata, Lonicera caerulea, and soybean (CLM) during fermentation. Additionally, the antiobesity effects of CLM and fermented-CLM (FCLM) were studied based on the analysis of plasma from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The levels of cyanidin and the glycosides of luteolin, quercetin, and cyanidin derived from L. caerulea were decreased, whereas the levels of luteolin and quercetin were increased during fermentation. Isoflavone glycosides and soyasaponins originating from the soybean were decreased, whereas their aglycones such as daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were increased. As for prenylated flavonoids from C. tricuspidata, these metabolites were decreased at the early stage of fermentation, and were increased at end of the fermentation. In terms of the functional food product, various metabolites derived from diverse natural products in CLM had complementary effects and demonstrated higher antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibition activities after fermentation; these activities were closely related to flavonoid aglycones including genistein, daidzein, glycitein, luteolin, and quercetin. In an in vivo experiment, several clinical parameters affected by HFD were improved by the administration of either CLM or FCLM, but there was a difference in the antiobesity effects. The levels of lysoPCs with C20:4, C16:0, and C22:6 were significantly attenuated by CLM administration, while the attenuated levels of lysoPCs with C20:4 and C18:2 were significantly restored by FCLM administration. These metabolites may explain the above-mentioned differences in antiobesity effects. Although only the changes in plasma lysophospholipids could not fully explain antiobesity effects between non-fermented and fermented plant mixtures from our results, we suggest that metabolomics approach could provide a way to reveal

  18. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  19. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  20. Incidence, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Toxin Profiles of Bacillus cereus sensu lato Isolated from Korean Fermented Soybean Products.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Kwang-Yeop; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hong-Seok; Choi, Da-Som; Choi, In-Soo; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Korean fermented soybean products, such as doenjang, kochujang, ssamjang, and cho-kochujang, can harbor foodborne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus sensu lato). The aim of this study was to characterize the toxin gene profiles, biochemical characteristics, and antibiotic resistance patterns of B. cereus sensu lato strains isolated from Korean fermented soybean products. Eighty-eight samples of Korean fermented soybean products purchased from retails in Seoul were tested. Thirteen of 26 doenjang samples, 13 of 23 kochujang samples, 16 of 30 ssamjang samples, and 5 of 9 cho-kochujang samples were positive for B. cereus sensu lato strains. The contamination level of all positive samples did not exceed 4 log CFU/g of food (maximum levels of Korea Food Code). Eighty-seven B. cereus sensu lato strains were isolated from 47 positive samples, and all isolates carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The detection rates of hblCDA, nheABC, cytK, and entFM enterotoxin genes among all isolates were 34.5%, 98.9%, 57.5%, and 100%, respectively. Fifteen strains (17.2%) harbored the emetic toxin gene. Most strains tested positive for salicin fermentation (62.1%), starch hydrolysis (66.7%), hemolysis (98.9%), motility test (100%), and lecithinase production (96.6%). The B. cereus sensu lato strains were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin, penicillin, cefepime, imipenem, and oxacillin. Although B. cereus sensu lato levels in Korean fermented soybean products did not exceed the maximum levels permitted in South Korea (<10(4) CFU/g), these results indicate that the bacterial isolates have the potential to cause diarrheal or emetic gastrointestinal diseases.

  1. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.

    PubMed

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Ostlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans.

  2. Occurrence of Toxigenic Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Doenjang, a Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Moon Cheol; Koo, Minseon

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and toxin profile of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in doenjang, a fermented soybean food, made using both traditional and commercial methods. The 51 doenjang samples tested were broadly contaminated with B. cereus; in contrast, only one sample was positive for B. thuringiensis. All B. cereus isolates from doenjang were positive for diarrheal toxin genes. The frequencies of nheABC and hblACD in traditional samples were 22.7 and 0%, respectively, whereas 5.1 and 5.1% of B. cereus isolates from commercial samples possessed nheABC and hblACD, respectively. The detection rate of ces gene was 10.8%. The predominant toxin profile among isolates from enterotoxigenic B. cereus in doenjang was profile 4 (entFM-bceT-cytK). The major enterotoxin genes in emetic B. cereus were cytK, entFM, and nheA genes. The B. thuringiensis isolate was of the diarrheagenic type. These results provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of the enterotoxigenic and emetic B. cereus groups in Korean fermented soybean products.

  3. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  4. Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Stephanie N.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods. PMID:25580813

  5. Biotechnology, fermentation, foods and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley, P.

    1981-02-01

    This article reviews the future of biotechnology in the food industry - the continuing development of methods for controlled fermentation and enzyme reaction, combined with the projected culturing of new and useful organisms through gene-splicing. At present, the largest enzyme market in the food industry is for glucose isomerase to convert glucose to high-fructose corn syrup.

  6. Ethanol extract of fermented soybean, Chungkookjang, inhibits the apoptosis of mouse spleen, and thymus cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Bok; Lee, Hye Sung; Kim, Sook Jin; Yoo, Hyung Jae; Hwang, Jae Sung; Chen, Gang; Youn, Hyun Joo

    2007-06-01

    Apoptosis is a step of the cell cycle which is important in the regulation of immune cell populations. Chungkookjang is a Korean traditional fermented soybean containing microorganisms, enzymes, and bioactive compounds which was used in the treatment of mouse spleen as well as thymus cells (CH1-fermented soybean containing barley, wormwood, and sea tangle; CH2-fermented soybean) and was found to exhibit substantially reduced small DNA fragmentation. An MTT assay showed that the treatment of CH1 and CH2 into the mouse splenocytes and thymocytes sharply increased their survival. Moreover, a FACS analysis also showed that CH1 and CH2 are effective at suppressing the apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes. The fermented soybean isoflavone concentrations, which are implicated in lowering breast and prostate cancers, lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and improving bone health, were determined using Capillary Electrophoresis-Electrochemical Detection (CE-ED). The amount of Daidzein in fermented soybean significantly increased by 44-fold dramatically, compared with those in unfermented soybean. In this study, we demonstrated that ethanol extracts of Chungkookjang promote the survival of the mouse spleen and thymus cells in culture by suppressing their apoptotic death. Future studies should investigate which genes are related to apoptosis of the immune cells.

  7. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

  8. Shuidouchi (Fermented Soybean) Fermented in Different Vessels Attenuates HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury.

    PubMed

    Suo, Huayi; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin; Kan, Jianquan

    2015-11-02

    Shuidouchi (Natto) is a fermented soy product showing in vivo gastric injury preventive effects. The treatment effects of Shuidouchi fermented in different vessels on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury mice through their antioxidant effect was determined. Shuidouchi contained isoflavones (daidzein and genistein), and GVFS (glass vessel fermented Shuidouchi) had the highest isoflavone levels among Shuidouchi samples fermented in different vessels. After treatment with GVFS, the gastric mucosal injury was reduced as compared to the control mice. The gastric secretion volume (0.47 mL) and pH of gastric juice (3.1) of GVFS treated gastric mucosal injury mice were close to those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. Shuidouchi could decrease serum motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas) level and increase somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) level, and GVFS showed the strongest effects. GVFS showed lower IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokine levels than other vessel fermented Shuidouchi samples, and these levels were higher than those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. GVFS also had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in gastric tissues than other Shuidouchi samples. Shuidouchi could raise IκB-α, EGF, EGFR, nNOS, eNOS, Mn-SOD, Gu/Zn-SOD, CAT mRNA expressions and reduce NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS expressions as compared to the control mice. GVFS showed the best treatment effects for gastric mucosal injuries, suggesting that glass vessels could be used for Shuidouchi fermentation in functional food manufacturing.

  9. Fermentation with Aspergillus awamori enhanced contents of amino nitrogen and total phenolics as well as the low-density lipoprotein oxidation inhibitory activity of black soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fei; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-04-27

    A solid fermentation was performed on black soybeans with Aspergillus awamori. The effects of fermentation on the contents of total phenolics and amino nitrogen and on the inhibitory effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation of black soybeans were examined. Results revealed that fermentation significantly enhanced the LDL oxidation inhibitory activity and total phenolics and amino nitrogen contents of black soybeans. The increased content of amino nitrogen was closely related to the enhanced LDL oxidation inhibitory activity of fermented black soybeans and its water extract. Fermentation temperature and length affected the LDL oxidation inhibitory effect exerted by the prepared fermented black soybeans. The A. awamori-fermented black soybean prepared at 30 °C for 3 days exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation. The bioactive principles related to the inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation in black soybeans, regardless of fermentation, could be most efficiently extracted with water rather than 80% methanol or 80% ethanol.

  10. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods.

  11. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  12. Role of Fermentation in Improving Nutritional Quality of Soybean Meal — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Runni; Chakraborty, Runu; Dutta, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM), a commonly used protein source for animal feed, contains anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oligosaccharides among others, which limit its utilization. Microbial fermentation using bacteria or fungi has the capability to improve nutritional value of SBM by altering the native composition. Both submerged and solid state fermentation processes can be used for this purpose. Bacterial and fungal fermentations result in degradation of various anti-nutritional factors, an increase in amount of small-sized peptides and improved content of both essential and non-essential amino acids. However, the resulting fermented products vary in levels of nutritional components as the two species used for fermentation differ in their metabolic activities. Compared to SBM, feeding non-ruminants with fermented SBM has several beneficial effects including increased average daily gain, improved growth performance, better protein digestibility, decreased immunological reactivity and undesirable morphological changes like absence of granulated pinocytotic vacuoles. PMID:26954129

  13. Bacillus paralicheniformis sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2015-10-01

    An isolate of a Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium was recovered from soybean-based fermented paste. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strain was most closely related to Bacillus sonorensis KCTC-13918T (99.5 % similarity) and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13T (99.4 %). In phenotypic characterization, the novel strain was found to grow at 15–60 °C and to tolerate up to 10 % (w/v) NaCl. Furthermore, the strain grew in media with pH 6–11 (optimal growth at pH 7.0–8.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (37.7 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (31.5 %). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. A draft genome sequence of the strain was completed and used for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenomic analysis of all published genomes of species in the B. licheniformis group revealed that strains belonging to B. licheniformis clustered into two distinct groups, with group 1 consisting of B. licheniformis DSM 13T and 11 other strains and group 2 consisting of KJ-16T and four other strains. The DNA G+C content of strain KJ-16T was 45.9 % (determined from the genome sequence). Strain KJ-16T and another strain from group 2 were subsequently characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach and compared with strains from group 1 and another closely related species of the genus Bacillus. Based upon the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, we conclude that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus paralicheniformis sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain KJ-16T ( = KACC 18426T = NRRL B-65293T). PMID:26296568

  14. Accurate determination of ochratoxin A in Korean fermented soybean paste by isotope dilution-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seonghee; Lee, Suyoung; Lee, Joonhee; Kim, Byungjoo

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a naturally occurring mycotoxin, has been frequently detected in doenjang, a traditional fermented soybean paste, when it is fermented under improper conditions. Reliable screening of OTA in traditional fermented soybean paste (doenjang) is a special food-safety issue in Korea. Our laboratory, the National Metrology Institute of Korea, established an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS) method as a higher-order reference method to be used for SI-traceable value-assignment of OTA in certified reference materials (CRMs). (13)C20-OTA was used as an internal standard. Sample preparation conditions and LC/MS measurement parameters were optimised for this purpose. The analytical method was validated by measuring samples fortified with OTA at various levels. Repeatability and reproducibility studies showed that the ID-LC/MS/MS method is reliable and reproducible within 2% relative standard deviation. The analytical method was applied to determine OTA in various commercial doenjang products and home-made doenjang products.

  15. Complete genome sequences and comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum strain 5-2 isolated from fermented soybean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Jian; Wang, Rui; Gong, Fu-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Luo, Yi-Yong; Li, Xiao-Ran

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is an important probiotic and is mostly isolated from fermented foods. We sequenced the genome of L. plantarum strain 5-2, which was derived from fermented soybean isolated from Yunnan province, China. The strain was determined to contain 3114 genes. Fourteen complete insertion sequence (IS) elements were found in 5-2 chromosome. There were 24 DNA replication proteins and 76 DNA repair proteins in the 5-2 genome. Consistent with the classification of L. plantarum as a facultative heterofermentative lactobacillus, the 5-2 genome encodes key enzymes required for the EMP (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas) and phosphoketolase (PK) pathways. Several components of the secretion machinery are found in the 5-2 genome, which was compared with L. plantarum ST-III, JDM1 and WCFS1. Most of the specific proteins in the four genomes appeared to be related to their prophage elements.

  16. Enhancing the antitumor cell proliferation and Cu(2+)-chelating effects of black soybeans through fermentation with Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fei; Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chou, Cheng-Chun; Lo, Yi-Chen

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, black soybeans were fermented with Aspergillus awamori at 30°C for 3 days. The effect of fermentation on the antiproliferative effect against human colon cancer cells, Caco-2 and HT-29 as well as Cu(2+)-chelating effect of black soybeans was investigated. It was found that the water, 80% methanol or 80% ethanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) antiproliferative and Cu(2+)-chelating effect than did the respective extract of non-fermented black soybeans. Generally, the methanol extract and the ethanol extract of fermented black soybeans exerted higher antiproliferative effect on both Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. While water extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest Cu(2+)-chelating effect among the various extracts examined. Taking into account of extraction yields further revealed that bioactive principles that exhibit Cu(2+)-chelating effect could be extracted to the largest extent with water as the extraction solvent. With same amount of sample, water extract obtained from fermented black soybeans possesses the highest Cu(2+)-chelating abilities.

  17. Chemical evidence and risks associated with soybean and rapeseed meal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sturaro, A; Rella, R; Parvoli, G; Ferrara, D; Doretti, L

    2003-08-01

    The storage and transport of cereals and foodstuffs present recurrent problems. They may be attacked by insects or, under certain conditions, they may undergo spontaneous fermentation. Insect attack is normally avoided by fumigants, while fermentation, which depends on parameters such as temperature and humidity, is more difficult to stop and can produce chemical compounds which irremediably modify the nutritional and compositional properties of foodstuff. This paper describes the main chemical compounds produced by fermentation and self-ignition of soybean and rapeseed meal. Reported cases occurred in a storage site and during transport by ship, respectively.

  18. Thermo-mechanical extrusion pretreatment for conversion of soybean hulls to fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Juhyun; Alavi, Sajid; Vadlani, Praveen; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent

    2011-08-01

    Thermo-mechanical extrusion pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass was investigated using soybean hulls as the substrate. The enzyme cocktail used to hydrolyze pretreated soybean hulls to fermentable sugars was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Structural changes in substrate and sugar yields from thermo-mechanical processing were compared with two traditional pretreatment methods that utilized dilute acid (1% sulfuric acid) and alkali (1% sodium hydroxide). Extrusion processing parameters (barrel temperature, in-barrel moisture, screw speed) and processing aids (starch, ethylene glycol) were studied with respect to reducing sugar and glucose yields. The conditions resulting in the highest cellulose to glucose conversion (95%) were screw speed 350rpm, maximum barrel temperature 80°C and in-barrel moisture content 40%wb. Compared with untreated soybean hulls, glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean hulls increased by 69.6%, 128.7% and 132.2%, respectively, when pretreated with dilute acid, alkali and extrusion.

  19. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups (“phylotypes”) may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  20. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Jyoti P; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups ("phylotypes") may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  1. Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods.

    PubMed

    Liener, I E

    1994-01-01

    There are a number of components present in soybeans that exert a negative impact on the nutritional quality of the protein. Among those factors that are destroyed by heat treatment are the protease inhibitors and lectins. Protease inhibitors exert their antinutritional effect by causing pancreatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia, which ultimately results in an inhibition of growth. The lectin, by virtue of its ability to bind to glycoprotein receptors on the epithelial cells lining the intestinal mucosa, inhibits growth by interfering with the absorption of nutrients. Of lesser significance are the antinutritional effects produced by relatively heat stable factors, such as goitrogens, tannins, phytoestrogens, flatus-producing oligosaccharides, phytate, and saponins. Other diverse but ill-defined factors appear to increase the requirements for vitamins A, B12, D, and E. The processing of soybeans under severe alkaline conditions leads to the formation of lysinoalanine, which has been shown to damage the kidneys of rats. This is not generally true, however, for edible soy protein that has been produced under milder alkaline conditions. Also meriting consideration is the allergenic response that may sometimes occur in humans, as well as calves and piglets, on dietary exposure to soybeans. PMID:8142044

  2. Survey of ethyl carbamate in fermented foods sold in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    PubMed

    Hasnip, Sarah; Crews, Colin; Potter, Nicholas; Christy, Julie; Chan, Danny; Bondu, Thomas; Matthews, Wendy; Walters, Barry; Patel, Krishna

    2007-04-01

    Results are presented of a survey of fermented foods and beverages sold in the United Kingdom for levels of ethyl carbamate (urethane) carried out to expand the range of food types sold in the United Kingdom for which data regarding ethyl carbamate are available. Samples were analyzed by in-house validated methods, which included measurement uncertainty estimates. The samples comprised 75 fermented liquids (beers, wines, fortified wines, spirits, liqueurs, soy sauces, and vinegars) and 25 fermented solid foods (cheeses, yogurts, soybean products, sauerkraut, yeast extract, olives, and Christmas pudding). Ethyl carbamate was not detected in the beers or the cider. Wines contained between 11 and 24 microg/kg and sake between 81 and 164 microg/kg. Fortified wines contained ethyl carbamate at levels between 14 and 60 microg/kg. Only two of five liqueurs contained ethyl carbamate. Most soy sauces and vinegars did not contain ethyl carbamate. No ethyl carbamate was detected in cheeses, yogurts, olives, or soybean-based products. Single samples of sauerkraut, yeast extract, and Christmas pudding contained low levels (29, 41, and 20 microg/kg ethyl carbamate, respectively).

  3. Aglycone Isoflavones and Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Fermented Soybean Paste

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Sun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Surh, Jeonghee; Kang, Soon Ah; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Bioconversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones from glycoside-formed isoflavones by commercial lactic acid bacteria in fermented soybean paste was evaluated. Enterococcus faecium KCTC 13410 showed the most resistant capacity and Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3925 had a sensitive susceptibility at a high NaCl concentration (13.2%) in fermented soybean paste. Among the 5 strains tested, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 showed the highest relative ratio of aglycone-formed isoflavones to total isoflavones in fermented soybean paste. Production of exopolysaccarides (EPS) by lactic acid bacteria was compared using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium containing 1% sucrose at 37°C for 48 h. Among the 5 lactic acid bacteria, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KCTC 3929 were investigated to produce EPS. Based on the results concerning growing susceptibility and conversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones/EPS production, it is anticipated that Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 may be used for preparation of Cheonggukjang, which contains relative low NaCl content. PMID:27390728

  4. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety.

  5. Fermented functional foods based on probiotics and their biogenic metabolites.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Van Sinderen, Douwe

    2005-04-01

    The claimed health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interaction of ingested live microorganisms, bacteria or yeast with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as a result of ingestion of microbial metabolites produced during the fermentation process (biogenic effect). Although still far from fully understood, several probiotic mechanisms of action have been proposed, including competitive exclusion, competition for nutrients and/or stimulation of an immune response. The biogenic properties of fermented functional foods result from the microbial production of bioactive metabolites such as certain vitamins, bioactive peptides, organic acids or fatty acids during fermentation.

  6. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Aidoo, Kofi E; Nout, M J Rob; Sarkar, Prabir K

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages such as rice and palm wines, and condiments such as papads and soy sauce. Although several products are obtained by natural fermentation, the use of traditional starter cultures is widespread. This minireview focuses on the diversity and functionality of yeasts in these products, and on opportunities for research and development. PMID:16423068

  7. Microbe-microbe interactions in mixed culture food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Smid, Eddy J; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Most known natural and industrial food fermentation processes are driven by either simple or complex communities of microorganisms. Obviously, these fermenting microbes will not only interact with the fermentable substrate but also with each other. These microbe-microbe interactions are complex but thought to be crucial for obtaining the desired product characteristics. Microbial interactions are mediated through a variety of molecular and physiological mechanisms. Examples of interaction mechanisms which have an impact on the outcome of food fermentation processes will be discussed. Finally, the technological and scientific challenges associated with the production and propagation of complex mixed starter cultures are briefly addressed. Research on the composition and functionality of complex microbial consortia is gaining momentum and will open new avenues for controlling and improving food fermentation processes, and developing new applications for mixed cultures.

  8. Effect of fermentation conditions on L-lactic acid production from soybean straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Wenyu; Xiang, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Four types of straw, namely, soybean, wheat, corn, and rice, were investigated for use in lactic acid production. These straws were mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. After pretreatment with ammonia, the cellulose content increased, whereas the hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased. Analytical results also showed that the liquid enzymatic hydrolysates were primarily composed of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose. Preliminary experiments showed that a higher lactic acid concentration could be obtained from the wheat and soybean straw. However, soybean straw was chosen as the substrate for lactic acid production owing to its high protein content. The maximum lactic acid yield (0.8 g/g) and lactic acid productivity (0.61 g/(l/h)) were obtained with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 35 g/l at 30°C when using Lactobacillus casei (10% inoculum) for a 42 h fermentation period. Thus, the experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of using a soybean straw enzymatic hydrolysate as a substrate for lactic acid production. PMID:25152056

  9. Effect of fermentation conditions on L-lactic acid production from soybean straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Wenyu; Xiang, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Four types of straw, namely, soybean, wheat, corn, and rice, were investigated for use in lactic acid production. These straws were mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. After pretreatment with ammonia, the cellulose content increased, whereas the hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased. Analytical results also showed that the liquid enzymatic hydrolysates were primarily composed of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose. Preliminary experiments showed that a higher lactic acid concentration could be obtained from the wheat and soybean straw. However, soybean straw was chosen as the substrate for lactic acid production owing to its high protein content. The maximum lactic acid yield (0.8 g/g) and lactic acid productivity (0.61 g/(l/h)) were obtained with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 35 g/l at 30°C when using Lactobacillus casei (10% inoculum) for a 42 h fermentation period. Thus, the experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of using a soybean straw enzymatic hydrolysate as a substrate for lactic acid production.

  10. Functional Characterization of Bacterial Communities Responsible for Fermentation of Doenjang: A Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo Yong; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-01-01

    Doenjang samples were prepared in triplicate and their microbial abundance, bacterial communities, and metabolites throughout fermentation were analyzed to investigate the functional properties of microorganisms in doenjang. Viable bacterial cells were approximately three orders of magnitude higher than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria are more responsible for doenjang fermentation. Pyrosequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of bacterial communities and metabolites, respectively. Bacterial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that doenjang samples included Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Oceanobacillus, and Tetragenococcus. These genera were found either in doenjang-meju or solar salts, but not in both, suggesting two separate sources of bacteria. Bacillus and Enterococcus were dominant genera during the fermentation, but their abundances were not associated with metabolite changes, suggesting that they may not be major players in doenjang fermentation. Tetragenococcus was dominant in 108 day-doenjang samples, when lactate, acetate, putrescine, and tyramine increased quickly as glucose and fructose decreased, indicating that Tetragenococcus might be primarily responsible for organic acid and biogenic amine production. Lactobacillus was identified as a dominant group from the 179-day samples, associated with the increase of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the decrease of galactose, indicating a potential role for this genus as a major GABA producer during fermentation. The results of this study clarified the functional properties of major bacterial communities in the doenjang fermentation process, contributing to the production of safe and high-quality doenjang. PMID:27303399

  11. Functional Characterization of Bacterial Communities Responsible for Fermentation of Doenjang: A Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Paste

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo Yong; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-01-01

    Doenjang samples were prepared in triplicate and their microbial abundance, bacterial communities, and metabolites throughout fermentation were analyzed to investigate the functional properties of microorganisms in doenjang. Viable bacterial cells were approximately three orders of magnitude higher than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria are more responsible for doenjang fermentation. Pyrosequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of bacterial communities and metabolites, respectively. Bacterial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that doenjang samples included Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Oceanobacillus, and Tetragenococcus. These genera were found either in doenjang-meju or solar salts, but not in both, suggesting two separate sources of bacteria. Bacillus and Enterococcus were dominant genera during the fermentation, but their abundances were not associated with metabolite changes, suggesting that they may not be major players in doenjang fermentation. Tetragenococcus was dominant in 108 day-doenjang samples, when lactate, acetate, putrescine, and tyramine increased quickly as glucose and fructose decreased, indicating that Tetragenococcus might be primarily responsible for organic acid and biogenic amine production. Lactobacillus was identified as a dominant group from the 179-day samples, associated with the increase of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the decrease of galactose, indicating a potential role for this genus as a major GABA producer during fermentation. The results of this study clarified the functional properties of major bacterial communities in the doenjang fermentation process, contributing to the production of safe and high-quality doenjang. PMID:27303399

  12. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    PubMed Central

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Østlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans. PMID:24804070

  13. [Nutrition and bone health. Soybean and soy foods, and bone health].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Megumi; Shimizu, Hirotoshi

    2009-10-01

    Soybean and various types of soy products, such as natto, tofu, miso, and soy sauce, have long been consumed in Japan. Soybean, a rich source of plant proteins, contains a relatively high amount of calcium as well as being an important source of isoflavones, a group of substances whose chemical structure is similar to that of estrogen. Natto, fermented soybeans, contains vitamin K, which is involved in the activation of osteocalcin. For bone health and osteoporosis prevention in Japanese, it is thus beneficial to consume adequate amounts of soybean and soy products on a daily basis.

  14. [Determination of epoxidized soybean oil in bottled foods].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoko; Kanno, Shinji; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2006-12-01

    A determination method for epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) in bottled foods was developed and used to survey bottled foods on the Japanese market. The amount of sample required was decreased to 20 g and the standard addition method was adopted for the quantification, because lipid in foods interrupted the hydrolysis of ESBO. The recoveries were 87.1 and 98.9% and the determination limit was 5.0 microg/g for a 20 g sample, be cause lipid in foods interupted the hydrolysis of ESBO. The recoveries using the internal standard method varied widely, because hydrolysis of the internal standard, cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid ethyl ester, was affected more than that of ESBO by coexisting lipid in the sample. ESBO was not detected in any of the bottled baby food samples examined (14 samples), though it had been frequently detected in previous European surveys. This difference may be related to the low fat content and low fluidity of the bottled baby foods retailed in Japan. On the other hand, ESBO was detected at levels of 25.7-494.0 microg/g in liver paste, pasta sauce, Sungan in spicy oil, and spicy oil. These foods had higher fat content and higher fluidity. However, ESBO intake from these foods appears unlikely to exceed the TDI in the EU (1 mg/kg bw/day). PMID:17228787

  15. Enhancement of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of black soybeans by solid state fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715.

    PubMed

    Juan, Ming-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a solid state fermentation of black soybeans with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 was performed. The effect of fermentation on the changes of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability exerted by various solvent (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone) extracts of black soybeans was examined. It was found that fermentation enhanced the total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity of the black soybean extract. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The acetone extract and the methanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, respectively. Analysis of extraction yields showed that the active principle associated with the DPPH radical-scavenging effect was most efficiently extracted from black soybeans using water, regardless of fermentation. Water and methanol effectively extract the Fe(2+)-chelating principles from non-fermented and fermented black soybeans, respectively.

  16. Novel process of fermenting black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yogurt with dramatically reduced flatulence-causing oligosaccharides but enriched soy phytoalexins.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shengbao; Saw, Chin Lee; Lee, Yuan Kun; Huang, Dejian

    2008-11-12

    Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were germinated under fungal stress with food grade R. oligosporus for 3 days and were homogenized and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce soy yogurt. Fungal stress led to the generation of oxylipins [oxooctadecadienoic acids (KODES) isomers and their respective glyceryl esters] and glyceollins--a type of phytoalexins unique to soybeans. In soy yogurt, the concentrations of total KODES and total glyceollins were 0.678 mg/g (dry matter) and 0.953 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of other isoflavones (mainly genistein and daidzein and their derivatives) in soy yogurt remained largely unchanged after the processes compared with the control soy yogurt. Germination of black soybean under fungal stress for 3 days was sufficient to reduce stachyose and raffinose (which cause flatulence) by 92 and 80%, respectively. With a pH value of 4.42, a lactic acid content of 0.262%, and a maximum viable cell count of 2.1 x 10 (8) CFU/mL in the final soy yogurt, soy milk from germinated soybeans under fungal stress was concluded to be a suitable medium for yogurt-making. The resulting soy yogurt had significantly altered micronutrient profiles with significantly reduced oligosaccharides and enriched glyceollins.

  17. Novel process of fermenting black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yogurt with dramatically reduced flatulence-causing oligosaccharides but enriched soy phytoalexins.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shengbao; Saw, Chin Lee; Lee, Yuan Kun; Huang, Dejian

    2008-11-12

    Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were germinated under fungal stress with food grade R. oligosporus for 3 days and were homogenized and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce soy yogurt. Fungal stress led to the generation of oxylipins [oxooctadecadienoic acids (KODES) isomers and their respective glyceryl esters] and glyceollins--a type of phytoalexins unique to soybeans. In soy yogurt, the concentrations of total KODES and total glyceollins were 0.678 mg/g (dry matter) and 0.953 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of other isoflavones (mainly genistein and daidzein and their derivatives) in soy yogurt remained largely unchanged after the processes compared with the control soy yogurt. Germination of black soybean under fungal stress for 3 days was sufficient to reduce stachyose and raffinose (which cause flatulence) by 92 and 80%, respectively. With a pH value of 4.42, a lactic acid content of 0.262%, and a maximum viable cell count of 2.1 x 10 (8) CFU/mL in the final soy yogurt, soy milk from germinated soybeans under fungal stress was concluded to be a suitable medium for yogurt-making. The resulting soy yogurt had significantly altered micronutrient profiles with significantly reduced oligosaccharides and enriched glyceollins. PMID:18831591

  18. Quantifying the biases in metagenome mining for realistic assessment of microbial ecology of naturally fermented foods

    PubMed Central

    Keisam, Santosh; Romi, Wahengbam; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Cultivation-independent investigation of microbial ecology is biased by the DNA extraction methods used. We aimed to quantify those biases by comparative analysis of the metagenome mined from four diverse naturally fermented foods (bamboo shoot, milk, fish, soybean) using eight different DNA extraction methods with different cell lysis principles. Our findings revealed that the enzymatic lysis yielded higher eubacterial and yeast metagenomic DNA from the food matrices compared to the widely used chemical and mechanical lysis principles. Further analysis of the bacterial community structure by Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing revealed a high recovery of lactic acid bacteria by the enzymatic lysis in all food types. However, Bacillaceae, Acetobacteraceae, Clostridiaceae and Proteobacteria were more abundantly recovered when mechanical and chemical lysis principles were applied. The biases generated due to the differential recovery of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by different DNA extraction methods including DNA and PCR amplicons mix from different methods have been quantitatively demonstrated here. The different methods shared only 29.9–52.0% of the total OTUs recovered. Although similar comparative research has been performed on other ecological niches, this is the first in-depth investigation of quantifying the biases in metagenome mining from naturally fermented foods. PMID:27669673

  19. Safety assessment of genetically engineered food: detection and monitoring of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans.

    PubMed

    Shirai, N; Momma, K; Ozawa, S; Hashimoto, W; Kito, M; Utsumi, S; Murata, K

    1998-07-01

    A detection technique for the genetically engineered food, glyphosate-tolerant soybean (GTS), was designed. Commercial soybeans imported from North America were cultured in pots and genomic DNA was isolated from their leaves. To detect the genes, promoter and terminator, involved in the expression of glyphosate tolerance, PCR was done using the genomic DNA and chemically synthesized primers specific to the genes. DNAs with predicted sizes were amplified and confirmed by DNA sequencing to be the genes responsible for the expression of glyphosate tolerance. Glyphosate-tolerant soybeans were found to form approximately 1.1% of the commercial soybeans, when commercially available soybeans were cultivated and number of soybeans resistant to glyphosate was found. This level is somewhat lower than an estimated value announced officially on the basis of the cultivation area of the glyphosate-tolerant soybeans.

  20. Immunomodulatory Effects of Soybeans and Processed Soy Food Compounds.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Imai, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an immune response against both internal and external antigens in organisms, particularly in mammals, and includes both uncontrolled chronic and low-grade inflammations. Uncontrolled chronic inflammation often leads to severe diseases such as vascular disease, arthritis, cancer, diabete, allergy, and autoimmunity. On the other hand, low-grade inflammation is recognized as a relationship between obesity and risk of metabolic syndrome. Elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators is commonly observed in patients with uncontrolled or low-grade inflammation-associated diseases. Plants have been generated phytochemicals to overcome inflammations and infections through evolution. Phytochemicals belong to alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, and terpenoids. The consumption of soybeans plays a role in immune modulation through their components such as isoflavones, saponins, and anthocyanins. Recently, it was reported that the application of phytochemicals into patients with inflammatory diseases improves their symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify novel phytochemicals with immunomodulatory activities. This review introduces and discusses recent advances and patents regarding soybean or processed soy food compounds which exhibit immunomodulatory activity in immune diseases, particularly allergy, by mediating the suppression of inflammatory pathways.

  1. Fermentation--a traditional anti-diarrhoeal practice lost? The use of fermented foods in urban and rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Watson, F E; Ngesa, A; Onyang'o, J; Alnwick, D; Tomkins, A M

    1996-03-01

    Whereas modern dietary advice emphasizes the importance of freshly preparing food, many African communities leave food to ferment. Fermentation of cereals is a traditional method of reducing the microbial contamination of porridges. Beliefs and consumption patterns of fermented food were examined among mothers of children aged under five and health workers in a rural and urban community in Kenya. The majority (83%) of rural mothers reported that their families regularly consumed fermented food and over half (66%) gave their young children fermented food. In the urban area, fewer mothers (56%) reported that their families ate fermented food and only (40%) gave their children some kind of fermented food. Several reasons for the declining uses of fermented food were given including education by health workers that fermented foods were bad, declining production and availability, and substitution of traditional foods by commercial products such as soft drinks. Health educators need to consider that mothers may be missing out on a potentially useful means of preventing diarrhoea in their children.

  2. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits.

  3. Investigation of endogenous soybean food allergens by using a 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach.

    PubMed

    Rouquié, David; Capt, Annabelle; Eby, William H; Sekar, Vaithilingam; Hérouet-Guicheney, Corinne

    2010-12-01

    As part of the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) soybean, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses were performed with the isoxaflutole and glyphosate tolerant soybean FG72, its non-GM near-isogenic counterpart (Jack) and three commercial non-GM soybean lines. The objective was to compare the known endogenous human food allergens in seeds in the five different soybean lines in order to evaluate any potential unintended effect(s) of the genetic modification. In total, 37 protein spots representing five well known soybean food allergen groups were quantified in each genotype. Qualitatively, all the allergenic proteins were detected in the different genetic backgrounds. Quantitatively, among 37 protein spots, the levels of accumulation of three allergens were slightly lower in the GM soybean than in the non-GM counterparts. Specifically, while the levels of two of these three allergens fell within the normal range of variation observed in the four non-GM varieties, the level of the third allergen was slightly below the normal range. Overall, there was no significant increase in the level of allergens in FG72 soybean seeds. Therefore, the FG72 soybean can be considered as safe as its non-GM counterpart with regards to endogenous allergenicity. Additional research is needed to evaluate the biological variability in the levels of endogenous soybean allergens and the correlation between level of allergens and allergenic potential in order to improve the interpretation of these data in the safety assessment of GM soybean context.

  4. Poultry-beneficial solid-state Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 fermented soybean formulation.

    PubMed

    Chistyakov, Vladimir; Melnikov, Vyacheslav; Chikindas, Michael L; Khutsishvili, Maiko; Chagelishvili, Avtandil; Bren, Angelika; Kostina, Natalia; Cavera, Veronica; Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Birds were given a new formulation of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 solid-state fermented soybean that retained the spores of the aforementioned organism. Mass dynamics, feed flow rate and broiler performance were observed to evaluate the efficacy of the formulation. At each time point, the live mass was greater than that of the control group, reaching a difference of 7-8% by day 28. A difference of 5.3-8.8% was observed in feed conversion per kilogram live mass (1.97 kg in the controls as compared with 1.81-1.87 kg in experimental groups). This indicates a positive effect of the B. amyloliquefaciens B-1895 formulation on the live mass of broilers as well as on feed consumption.

  5. Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    PubMed Central

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna Austen; Østlie, Hilde Marit; Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in total amino acids throughout fermentation were attributed to cysteine in 100S and 90S; and methionine in 100S and 90SBS. A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed. Increases in free amino acids throughout fermentation were observed in glutamate (NFP and 75SBS), GABA and alanine (LFP). Lactic acid was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher in LFP than in NFP, and other organic acids detected were acetate and succinate. Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LFP than in NFP. Enzyme activities were higher in LFP at 0 h, but at 72 h, the enzyme activities were higher in NFP. Both fermentation processes improved nutritional quality through increased protein and amino acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h). PMID:25493196

  6. Comparative study of quality characteristics of meju, a Korean soybean fermentation starter, made by soybeans germinated under dark and light conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ung Kyu; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of whole soybean meju, a Koran soybean fermentation starter, made by germinated soybeans. The sprouting rates of soybeans under dark and light conditions after 24h were 25.6+/-1.2% and 20.5+/-1.5%, respectively and reaching to a level of 99.4+/-0.4% and 98.9+/-0.5%, respectively at 60h. The pH, moisture contents and amino-type nitrogen contents had no significant differences under dark and light conditions, however, the contents were significantly different as compared to control. Also there was a significant difference in the color change values of whole soybean meju under dark and light conditions. The compositions of total organic acids in MNG, MGD and MGL were noted to be 942.2+/-111.0, 1075+/-120.2 and 1019+/-108.1mg%, respectively. However, no significant differences were observed in free amino acid contents of MNG, MGD and MGL. It was observed that isoflavone contents were significantly differed in MGD and MGL as compared to MNG.

  7. South African rural community understanding of fermented foods preparation and usage

    PubMed Central

    Chelule, Paul K.; Mokgatle, Mathilda M.; Zungu, Lindiwe I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The benefits of fermented foods consumption have been demonstrated in a number of research reports. These qualities have been demonstrated, for example, to reduce childhood diseases such as diarrhea and malnutrition. Thus, fermented foods may be recommended for improving the health and nutritional quality of traditional African foods and regular inclusion of fermented foods as part of the daily diet would be desirable. Aims: Lack of knowledge and understanding toward fermented food preparation may limit their usage. This study explores the South African community's understanding of fermented foods preparation and usage. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews to determine the community's understanding and their perception of fermented foods preparation in the rural villages of Odi, in Gauteng Province between May and June 2012. The target population was the caregivers of children under 5 years, attending the hospital's antenatal clinic at the time of study. The information was transcribed, coded, and analyzed using NVivo software. Results: Most caregivers were aware of food fermentation process, and some of them could not clearly differentiate between fermented and unfermented foods. Although most participants knew what fermented foods were, there were misconceptions on how they were made. This was exemplified by the undesirable artifacts, labeled as ingredients, in the fermentation process. Conclusion: Caregivers demonstrated a fair knowledge of fermented foods but lack a standard preparation procedure for these foods. There is an urgent need to educate communities and conduct a health promotion campaign on the fermented foods and probiotics. PMID:27462624

  8. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    PubMed

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  9. Physicochemical Properties of Roasted Soybean Flour Bioconverted by Solid-State Fermentation Using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Ju; General, Thiyam; Lee, Sam-Pin

    2012-01-01

    To produce novel cheese-like fermented soybean, the solid-state fermentation of roasted soybean flour (RSF) was performed using 1.0% inoculum Bacillus subtilis HA and Lactobacillus plantarum, with the initial 60% substrate moisture for 10 hr at 42°C, resulting in pH 6.5, 0.82% acidity, 3.5% mucilage, 14.3 unit/g protease activity, 7.6 unit/g fibrinolytic activity, 216 mg% tyrosine content and 1.7×1010 CFU/g of viable cell counts. After the second lactic acid fermentation with 10∼30% skim milk powder, the fermented RSF resulted in an increase in acidity with 1.64∼1.99%, tyrosine content with 246∼308 mg% and protease activity in the range of 5.2∼17.5 unit/g and 0.966 water activity. Viable cell counts as probiotics indicated 1.6×108 CFU/g of B. subtilis and 7.3×1010 CFU/g of L. plantarum. The firmness of the first fermented RSF with 2,491 g·ømm−1 greatly decreased to 1,533 g·ømm−1 in the second fermented RSF, although firmness was slightly increased by adding a higher content of skim milk. The consistency of the second fermented RSF also decreased greatly from 55,640 to 3,264∼3,998 in the presence of 10∼30% skim milk. The effective hydrolysis of soy protein and skim milk protein in the fermented RSF was confirmed. Thus, the second fermented RSF with a sour taste and flavor showed similar textural properties to commercial soft cheese. PMID:24471061

  10. The genomics of microbial domestication in the fermented food environment.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, John G; Rinker, David C

    2015-12-01

    Shortly after the agricultural revolution, the domestication of bacteria, yeasts, and molds, played an essential role in enhancing the stability, quality, flavor, and texture of food products. These domestication events were probably the result of human food production practices that entailed the continual recycling of isolated microbial communities in the presence of abundant agricultural food sources. We suggest that within these novel agrarian food niches the metabolic requirements of those microbes became regular and predictable resulting in rapid genomic specialization through such mechanisms as pseudogenization, genome decay, interspecific hybridization, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer. The ultimate result was domesticated strains of microorganisms with enhanced fermentative capacities. PMID:26338497

  11. The genomics of microbial domestication in the fermented food environment.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, John G; Rinker, David C

    2015-12-01

    Shortly after the agricultural revolution, the domestication of bacteria, yeasts, and molds, played an essential role in enhancing the stability, quality, flavor, and texture of food products. These domestication events were probably the result of human food production practices that entailed the continual recycling of isolated microbial communities in the presence of abundant agricultural food sources. We suggest that within these novel agrarian food niches the metabolic requirements of those microbes became regular and predictable resulting in rapid genomic specialization through such mechanisms as pseudogenization, genome decay, interspecific hybridization, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer. The ultimate result was domesticated strains of microorganisms with enhanced fermentative capacities.

  12. Is lactate an undervalued functional component of fermented food products?

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signaling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26150815

  13. Effect of sequential bio-processing conditions on the content and composition of vitamin K2 and isoflavones in fermented soy food.

    PubMed

    Puri, Alka; Mir, Showkat Rasool; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2015-12-01

    In the present research, effect of sequential addition of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus on content and composition of vitamin K2 and isoflavones in fermented soy foods have been investigated. Initially, soybeans were fermented with B. bifidum; then this fermented mass was re-fermented with co-culture of B. subtilis and R. oligosporus. The evolved sequence of microbes inoculation tended towards significantly (p < 0.5) higher enzymes levels (126.16 ± 2.23 IU/mg lipase, 36.52 ± 1.25 IU/mg phytase and 8.52 ± 1.12 IU/mg β-glucosidase); maximum menaquinone-7 production (9.3 ± 1.27 μg/g); and isoflavone content (84.64 ± 1.97 % daidzein, 99.29 ± 0.86 % genistein, 96.42 ± 1.32 % glycitein) after 72 h of solid-state fermentation. The study showed that co-fermentation of soybean with different microbes in a particular sequence can enhance nutritional value batter than the mono-culture fermentation due to the positive correlation between enzymes (lipase, phytase, β-glucosidase) levels, menaquinone-7 and soy isoflavones content.

  14. A review on the fermentation of foods and the residues of pesticides-biotransformation of pesticides and effects on fermentation and food quality.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Jorge; López-Fernández, Olalla; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Residues of pesticides in food are influenced by processing such as fermentation. Reviewing the extensive literature showed that in most cases, this step leads to large reductions in original residue levels in the fermented food, with the formation of new pesticide by-products. The behavior of residues in fermentation can be rationalized in terms of the physical-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In addition, the presence of pesticides decrease the growth rate of fermentative microbiota (yeasts and bacterias), which provokes stuck and sluggish fermentations. These changes have in consequence repercussions on several aspects of food sensory quality (physical-chemical properties, polyphenolic content, and aromatic profile) of fermented food. The main aim of this review is to deal with all these topics to propose challenging needs in science-based quality management of pesticides residues in food.

  15. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 isozymes and ornithine decarboxylase activities by polysaccharides from soybeans fermented with Phellinus igniarius or Agrocybe cylindracea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Yun-Hee; Nam, Kyung-Soo

    2004-01-01

    Polysaccharides (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 microg ml(-1)) from soybeans and soybeans fermented with Phellinus igniarius or Agrocybe cylindracea inhibited cytochrome P450 1A1, cytochrome P450 1A2 and cytochrome P450 2B1 activities in rat liver microsomes. The polysaccharides (5, 10 and 25 microg ml(-1)) also suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity. The most potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450 isozymes and ornithine decarboxylase activities were the polysaccharides from soybeans fermented with Agrocybe cylindracea. PMID:15000485

  16. Ethyl carbamate levels in selected fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Canas, B J; Havery, D C; Robinson, L R; Sullivan, M P; Joe, F L; Diachenko, G W

    1989-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), also known as urethane, is an animal carcinogen and a by-product of fermentation. Because EC has been found in distilled spirits and wines, a variety of fermented foods and beverages were analyzed to assess its occurrence in other products. Previously described methods using a gas chromatograph-thermal energy analyzer with a nitrogen converter were modified for each matrix and gave recoveries of greater than 80%, with a limit of detection in the 1-2 micrograms/kg (ppb) range. A total of 152 test samples were analyzed; EC levels ranged from none found to 3 ppb in 15 cheeses, 6 teas, 12 yogurts, and 8 ciders; from none found to 13 ppb in 30 breads and 69 malt beverages; and from none found to 84 ppb in 12 soy sauces. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to confirm EC identity and to quantitate EC in selected food extracts. PMID:2592308

  17. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

    PubMed Central

    Polyorach, S.; Poungchompu, O.; Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Cherdthong, A.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM) supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg) were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate) on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a), potential degradability (a+b) and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM) linearly (p<0.01) increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b) and rate of degradation (c). In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials. PMID:26954119

  18. Food fermentation: a safety and nutritional assessment. Joint FAO/WHO Workshop on Assessment of Fermentation as a Household Technology for Improving Food Safety.

    PubMed Central

    Motarjemi, Y.; Nout, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment of the food-safety and nutritional aspects of lactic acid fermentation for the preparation of weaning food at the household level was carried out during a Joint FAO/WHO Workshop held in Pretoria, South Africa, in December 1995. In particular, lactic acid fermentation was evaluated as a part of food preparation processes involving other operations such as soaking, cooking, and the germination of cereal grains. The use of germinated cereals is of particular interest since they can be used to prepare semi-liquid porridges of high nutrient density. After reviewing the present state of knowledge concerning the antimicrobial effects of the lactic acid in fermented foods, and the nutritional benefits of fermentation and the use of germinated cereals, the Workshop made an inventory of gaps in current knowledge and priorities for further research. High priority areas for research include the following: the effect of lactic acid fermentation on viruses, parasites, certain bacteria, and mycotoxins; certain physiological and nutritional effects of the consumption of fermented foods; the characterization and optimization of fermentation processes and the development of appropriate fermentation starters; and risk mitigation using the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, the health education of food handlers, and efforts to change the consumer perception of fermented foods. PMID:9060215

  19. Fermentative Hydrogen Production From Food Waste Without Inocula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, S.; Fujisawa, A.; Mizuno, O.; Kameda, T.; Yoshioka, T.

    2008-02-01

    The kind of seed microorganisms and its growth conditions are important factors for the hydrogen fermentation. However, there are many kinds of bacteria in food waste, and it is necessary to know their behavior if it is used as a substrate. Therefore, hydrogen fermentation of food waste was investigated in the absence of inocula with an initial pH varying from 5 to 9 and in a temperature range between 22 to 50 °C. Hydrogen production occurred when the initial pH of the solution containing the food waste was adjusted to 7-9 and the temperature was adjusted to 22 or 35 °C (maximum production was 40 ml-H2/g-TS at an initial pH of 9 and a temperature of 35 °C). However, the hydrogen production stopped when the pH decreased due to the accumulation of organic acids. In the next step, the pH was controlled by the addition of a NaOH solution between 5.0 and 9.0. When the pH was controlled between 5.0-6.0, the hydrogen production increased to a maximum of 90 ml-H2/g-TS at a pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 35 °C; more than 4 times more than for the sample without pH adjustment, due to the acceleration of butyrate fermentation.

  20. Fungal hydrolysis in submerged fermentation for food waste treatment and fermentation feedstock preparation.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-01

    Potential of fungal hydrolysis in submerged fermentation by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae as a food waste treatment process and for preparation of fermentation feedstock has been investigated. By fungal hydrolysis, 80-90% of the initial amount of waste was reduced and degraded within 36-48 h into glucose, free amino nitrogen (FAN) and phosphate. Experiments revealed that 80-90% of starch can be converted into glucose and highest concentration of FAN obtained, when solid mashes of A. awamori and A. oryzae are successively added to fermentations at an interval of 24h. A maximal solid-to-liquid ratio of 43.2% (w/v) of food waste has been tested without a negative impact on releases of glucose, FAN and phosphate, and final concentrations of 143 g L(-1), 1.8 g L(-1) and 1.6 g L(-1) were obtained in the hydrolysate, respectively. Additionally, fungal hydrolysis as an alternative to conventional treatments for utilization of food waste is discussed.

  1. Solid-state fermentation of soybean residues for bioflocculant production in a pilot-scale bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Zulkeflee, Zufarzaana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    An innovative approach using soybean residues for the production of bioflocculants through solid-state fermentation was carried out in 4.5 L near-to-adiabatic bioreactors at pilot-scale level. An added inoculum of the strain Bacillus subtilis UPMB13 was tested in comparison with control reactors without any inoculation after the thermophilic phase of the fermentation. The flocculating performances of the extracted bioflocculants were tested on kaolin suspensions, and crude bioflocculants were obtained from 20 g of fermented substrate through ethanol precipitation. The production of bioflocculants was observed to be higher during the death phase of microbial growth. The bioflocculants were observed to be granular in nature and consisted of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxyl groups that aid in their flocculating performance. The results show the vast potential of the idea of using wastes to produce bioactive materials that can replace the current dependence on chemicals, for future prospect in water treatment applications. PMID:25259492

  2. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    PubMed

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species.

  3. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    PubMed

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. PMID:27012174

  4. Commercial bacterial starter cultures for fermented foods of the future.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2002-09-15

    Starter cultures for fermented foods are today developed mainly by design rather than by screening. The design principles are based on knowledge of bacterial metabolism and physiology as well as on the interaction with the food product. In the genomics era, we will obtain a wealth of data making design on a rational basis even simpler. The design tools available are food grade tools for genetic, metabolic and protein engineering and an increased use of laboratory automation and high throughput screening methods. The large body of new data will influence the future patterns of regulation. It is currently difficult to predict in what direction the future regulatory requirements will influence innovation in the food industry. It can either become a promoting force for the practical use of biotechnology to make better and safer products, or it can be limiting the use of starter cultures to a few strains with official approval. Successful cultures based on modern technology is expected to be launched in the areas of: probiotics, bioprotection, general improvement of yield and performance for the existing culture market and probably the introduction of cultures for fermenting other food products. A scientific basis for dramatic innovations that could transform the culture industry is currently being established.

  5. [A CASE OF NATTOU (FERMENTED-SOYBEAN)-INDUCED LATE-ONSET ANAPHYLAXIS FOLLOWING SCUBA DIVING].

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Katsuichirou; Horikawa, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    We here report a 34-years old male who had nattou-(fermented-soybean) induced late-onset anaphylaxis following SCUBA diving to about 20 m in the ocean off a small remote Japanese island (Kuroshima, Okinawa). He had eaten nattou for breakfast at 7:30 am. He traveled by boat to the dive site, dove twice and then ate lunch at 12:30 on the diving boat (no nattou at lunch). After lunch at 14:30 he dove again (third dive of the day) during which time itchiness started. Back on the diving boat, urticarial was noticed. At 15:30, while washing his diving gear at the diving shop near the harbor, he fainted. A physician arrived on the scene at 15:45. Chest sound was clear and SpO2 was 98%, and blood pressure was 60/- mmHg. Intra-venous hydrocortisone was given, however, his recovery was not satisfactory. Then he was transferred to the Yaeyama Hospital by helicopter at 17:45. The examination of diving computer analysis reveals no sign of increased residual nitrogen, denying the possibility of decompression syndrome. Prick to prick test shows a strongly positive response to nattou. Nattou-induced late-onset anaphylaxis following SCUBA diving was suspected.

  6. [A CASE OF NATTOU (FERMENTED-SOYBEAN)-INDUCED LATE-ONSET ANAPHYLAXIS FOLLOWING SCUBA DIVING].

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Katsuichirou; Horikawa, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    We here report a 34-years old male who had nattou-(fermented-soybean) induced late-onset anaphylaxis following SCUBA diving to about 20 m in the ocean off a small remote Japanese island (Kuroshima, Okinawa). He had eaten nattou for breakfast at 7:30 am. He traveled by boat to the dive site, dove twice and then ate lunch at 12:30 on the diving boat (no nattou at lunch). After lunch at 14:30 he dove again (third dive of the day) during which time itchiness started. Back on the diving boat, urticarial was noticed. At 15:30, while washing his diving gear at the diving shop near the harbor, he fainted. A physician arrived on the scene at 15:45. Chest sound was clear and SpO2 was 98%, and blood pressure was 60/- mmHg. Intra-venous hydrocortisone was given, however, his recovery was not satisfactory. Then he was transferred to the Yaeyama Hospital by helicopter at 17:45. The examination of diving computer analysis reveals no sign of increased residual nitrogen, denying the possibility of decompression syndrome. Prick to prick test shows a strongly positive response to nattou. Nattou-induced late-onset anaphylaxis following SCUBA diving was suspected. PMID:26380912

  7. Soybean bio-refinery platform: enzymatic process for production of soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate and fermentable sugar syrup.

    PubMed

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-10-01

    Soybean carbohydrate is often found to limit the use of protein in soy flour as food and animal feed due to its indigestibility to monogastric animal. In the current study, an enzymatic process was developed to produce not only soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate without indigestible carbohydrate but also soluble reducing sugar as potential fermentation feedstock. For increasing protein content in the product and maximizing protein recovery, the process was optimized to include the following steps: hydrolysis of soy flour using an Aspergillus niger enzyme system; separation of the solid and liquid by centrifugation (10 min at 7500×g); an optional step of washing to remove entrapped hydrolysate from the protein-rich wet solid stream by ethanol (at an ethanol-to-wet-solid ratio (v/w) of 10, resulting in a liquid phase of approximately 60 % ethanol); and a final precipitation of residual protein from the sugar-rich liquid stream by heat treatment (30 min at 95 °C). Starting from 100 g soy flour, this process would produce approximately 54 g soy protein concentrate with 70 % protein (or, including the optional solid wash, 43 g with 80 % protein), 9 g soy protein isolate with 89 % protein, and 280 ml syrup of 60 g/l reducing sugar. The amino acid composition of the soy protein concentrate produced was comparable to that of the starting soy flour. Enzymes produced by three fungal species, A. niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Aspergillus aculeatus, were also evaluated for effectiveness to use in this process. PMID:27207010

  8. Soybean bio-refinery platform: enzymatic process for production of soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate and fermentable sugar syrup.

    PubMed

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-10-01

    Soybean carbohydrate is often found to limit the use of protein in soy flour as food and animal feed due to its indigestibility to monogastric animal. In the current study, an enzymatic process was developed to produce not only soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate without indigestible carbohydrate but also soluble reducing sugar as potential fermentation feedstock. For increasing protein content in the product and maximizing protein recovery, the process was optimized to include the following steps: hydrolysis of soy flour using an Aspergillus niger enzyme system; separation of the solid and liquid by centrifugation (10 min at 7500×g); an optional step of washing to remove entrapped hydrolysate from the protein-rich wet solid stream by ethanol (at an ethanol-to-wet-solid ratio (v/w) of 10, resulting in a liquid phase of approximately 60 % ethanol); and a final precipitation of residual protein from the sugar-rich liquid stream by heat treatment (30 min at 95 °C). Starting from 100 g soy flour, this process would produce approximately 54 g soy protein concentrate with 70 % protein (or, including the optional solid wash, 43 g with 80 % protein), 9 g soy protein isolate with 89 % protein, and 280 ml syrup of 60 g/l reducing sugar. The amino acid composition of the soy protein concentrate produced was comparable to that of the starting soy flour. Enzymes produced by three fungal species, A. niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Aspergillus aculeatus, were also evaluated for effectiveness to use in this process.

  9. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Walter P

    2012-04-01

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with

  10. Soybean and Processed Soy Foods Ingredients, and Their Role in Cardiometabolic Risk Prevention.

    PubMed

    Imai, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    Soybeans contain various components with potential health benefits effects, but the impact of soy foods and processed soy foods on human health has gone progressively characterized. Soy foods are the traditional Asian diets; however because of their intended health benefits they have gone popular in Westerners, especially postmenopausal women. There are lots of biologically active soybean constituents that might lead to the possible health benefits of soy, and almost consideration has concentrated on the isoflavones, which have both hormonal and nonhormonal activities. The various other constituents of soybeans (saponins, soy protein or peptides, lecithin, and flavonoids) have differing biological activities. These include hormonal, immunological, bacteriological and digestive effects. This review is the broad assessment of the literature comprehensive the health effects of soy constituents that are of superlative interest. The health benefits of soy foods on four diseases-cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and diabetes-are the focus of the review.

  11. A Soybean Education Curriculum for Preschoolers: Introducing New Foods to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscarson, Renee A.; Branum, Judy

    1999-01-01

    Parents of 27 preschoolers completed pretests and 14 completed posttests assessing nutrition knowledge, food purchases, and children's food intake. Children who received snacks and soybean-related instruction found both soy and nonsoy snacks acceptable, compared to those who did not receive instruction. Home eating habits did not change. (SK)

  12. Evaluation of enzyme activity and fiber content of soybean cotyledon fiber and distiller's dried grains with solubles by solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengli; Lio, JunYi; Wang, Tong

    2012-05-01

    To increase the value of coproducts from corn ethanol fermentation and soybean aqueous processing, distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean cotyledon fiber were used as the substrates for solid state fermentation (SSF) to improve feed digestibility. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were chosen as they produce desirable enzymes and are widely used in SSF for feed. The results showed that the cellulase and xylanase activities were significantly increased after 7 days of fermentation, and cellulose and hemicellulose degradation was also greatly increased. When soybean fiber was used as SSF substrate, the maximum activities of the cellulase and xylanase were 10.3 and 84.2 IU/g substrate (dry weight basis) after SSF treatment, respectively. However, the enzyme activities were relatively low in DDGS, and the growth of the three fungi was poor. The fungi grew better when soybean cotyledon fiber was added to DDGS, and cellulase and xylanase activity increased with the increase of soybean fiber content. Porosity was identified as an important factor for SSF because the addition of inert soybean hull alone improved the fungi growth significantly. These data suggest that the nutritional value of DDGS and soybean cotyledon fiber as monogastric animal feed could be greatly enhanced by SSF treatment.

  13. Effect of Novel Starter Culture on Reduction of Biogenic Amines, Quality Improvement, and Sensory Properties of Doenjang, a Traditional Korean Soybean Fermented Sauce Variety.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Hae-Kyong; Yoo, Jung-Ah; Hong, Sung-Yong; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-08-01

    To select appropriate microorganisms as starter cultures for the reliable and reproducible fermentation of soybean fermented products of Korean Doenjang, various ratios of fungi (Aspergillus oryzae J, Mucor racemosus 15, M. racemosus 42) combined with Bacillus subtilis TKSP 24 were selected as either single, double, or multiple Meju strains for commercial mass production of Doenjang, followed by analysis of sensory characteristics. In the sensory evaluation, Doenjang BAM15-1 and BAM42-1, which were fermented with multiple strains (1:1:1), showed the highest sensory scores as compared to control. Based on sensory characteristics, 6 Doenjang samples were subjected to quantitative determination of amino acids, free sugars, and organic acids (volatile and nonvolatile) contents, followed by determination of biogenic amines. Total sweet taste amino acid contents were highest in BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 samples (333.7 and 295.8 mg/100 g, respectively) and similar that of control (391.1 mg/100 g). Samples BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed the relatively high volatile and nonvolatile organic acid contents (154.24, 192.26, and 71.31, 82.42 mg/100 g, respectively). In addition, BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed negligible biogenic amine formation, ranging from 0.00 to 1.02 and 0.00 to 3.92 mg/100 g, respectively. These findings indicate that determination of food components along with sensory and quality attributes using multiple microbial Meju strains as a starter culture may provide substantial results on improved quality fermented Doenjang products.

  14. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health.

    PubMed

    Parvez, S; Malik, K A; Ah Kang, S; Kim, H-Y

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid bacteria consumption include: (i) improving intestinal tract health; (ii) enhancing the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients; (iii) reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals; and (iv) reducing risk of certain cancers. The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying gut pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial compounds, competing for pathogen binding and receptor sites as well as for available nutrients and growth factors, stimulating immunomodulatory cells, and producing lactase. Selection criteria, efficacy, food and supplement sources and safety issues around probiotics are reviewed. Recent scientific investigation has supported the important role of probiotics as a part of a healthy diet for human as well as for animals and may be an avenue to provide a safe, cost effective, and 'natural' approach that adds a barrier against microbial infection. This paper presents a review of probiotics in health maintenance and disease prevention.

  15. Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-huan; Chen, Yi-sheng; Lee, Tzu-tai; Chang, Yu-chung; Yu, Bi

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215(T), was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced d-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215(T) had 98.74-99.60 % sequence similarity to the type strains of three species of the genus Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus farciminis BCRC 14043(T), Lactobacillus futsaii BCRC 80278(T) and Lactobacillus crustorum JCM 15951(T)). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215(T) was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that strain S215(T) had DNA related to the three type strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus (33-66 % relatedness). The DNA G+C content of strain S215(T) was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the d-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S215(T) ( = NBRC 109509(T) = BCRC 80582(T)).

  16. Mixed food waste as renewable feedstock in succinic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Mingji; Qi, Qingsheng; Gao, Cuijuan; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-11-01

    Mixed food waste, which was directly collected from restaurants without pretreatments, was used as a valuable feedstock in succinic acid (SA) fermentation in the present study. Commercial enzymes and crude enzymes produced from Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were separately used in hydrolysis of food waste, and their resultant hydrolysates were evaluated. For hydrolysis using the fungal mixture comprising A. awamori and A. oryzae, a nutrient-complete food waste hydrolysate was generated, which contained 31.9 g L(-1) glucose and 280 mg L(-1) free amino nitrogen. Approximately 80-90 % of the solid food waste was also diminished. In a 2.5 L fermentor, 29.9 g L(-1) SA was produced with an overall yield of 0.224 g g(-1) substrate using food waste hydrolysate and recombinant Escherichia coli. This is comparable to many similar studies using various wastes or by-products as substrates. Results of this study demonstrated the enormous potential of food waste as renewable resource in the production of bio-based chemicals and materials via microbial bioconversion.

  17. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal.

  18. [Using of a specialized fermented soy milk product on the basis of soybeans in cardiology practice].

    PubMed

    Siniavskiĭ, Iu A; Kraĭsman, V A; Suleĭmenova, Zh M

    2013-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the use of a specialized fermented milk product on the basis of soybeans in cardiology practice. 45 patients of both sexes (27 men and 18 women) aged 38 to 69 years (mean age 53.7 +/- 3.1 years) who underwent macrofocal myocardial infarction and abide in the acute period and the period of early rehabilitation have been observed. The data obtained by the comparison of the dynamics of clinical, laboratory and functional parameters in patients, strongly suggests the possibility of increasing the effectiveness of the basic treatment by anti-atherogenic diet with fermented soy drink, enriched with magnesium salts, water-soluble forms of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and selenium. 30-35 day inclusion of a fermented soy-based product in comprehensive treatment was accompanied by a marked lipid lowering effect, compared with the standard anti-atherogenic diet. Total cholesterol level in patients from the intervention group (n = 21) decreased by 36.3 per cent, thus reaching the standard level, the corresponding figure in the control group (n = 24) decreased by 24.7 per cent (the difference is statistically significant). Total number of rhythm and conduction disorders in patients receiving product was 1.43 per patient, while it reached 1.83 per patient on the basic therapy and a standard diet. The vast majority were beats, no cases of ventricular fibrillation and one case of atrioventricular block took place in patients from the experimental group. Paroxysmal and atrial fibrillation in the control group of patients were recorded 2 fold more often than in the main group. In addition, three cases of ventricular fibrillation were reported in patients from the control group. Early usage of soy drink 3 fold reduced the incidence of complications in the 10-14 day from the moment of macrofocal myocardial infarction. The frequency of angina attacks per week per patient more significantly reduced under nutritional support, compared with

  19. Effects of co-fermented Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues and soybean hulls by Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lai, L P; Lee, M T; Chen, C S; Yu, B; Lee, T T

    2015-12-01

    Soybean hulls are a by-product of soybean processing for oil and meal production; Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues (PESR) are by-products of the edible portion of the fruiting body enriched in bioactive metabolites. This study evaluated the effects of co-fermented PESR and soybean hulls with Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. The in vitro experimental results showed that xylananse and mannanase activity of solid-state fermented soybean hulls (100% SBH) and soybean hulls partially replaced with PESR (75:25, SHP) reached peak at day 12; solid-state fermentation (SSF) enhanced the total phenolic content and trolox equivalency in both products as well. Additionally, FSHP had higher xylotriose and mannobiose levels than fermented FSBH did. A total of 400 broilers (Ross 308) were assigned randomly into four groups receiving the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% fermented SBH (0.5% FSBH), 0.5% fermented SBHP (0.5% FSHP) and 1.0% fermented SBHP (1.0% FSHP) until 35 d of age, respectively. Results demonstrated that 0.5% FSHP addition increased body weight gain as compared with corresponding normal diet fed control in birds during entire experimental period. Compared with the control group, 0.5% FSHP group significantly increased the ratio of lactic acid bacteria to Clostridium perfringens in ceca as well as ileum villus height and jejunum villus height/crypt depth ratio of 35 d old birds. In conclusion, 0.5% FSHP supplementation in the diet could obtain not only improved body weight gain, but optimal intestinal morphology by exerting its bioactive metabolite properties when fed to broilers. PMID:26467005

  20. Effects of co-fermented Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues and soybean hulls by Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lai, L P; Lee, M T; Chen, C S; Yu, B; Lee, T T

    2015-12-01

    Soybean hulls are a by-product of soybean processing for oil and meal production; Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues (PESR) are by-products of the edible portion of the fruiting body enriched in bioactive metabolites. This study evaluated the effects of co-fermented PESR and soybean hulls with Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. The in vitro experimental results showed that xylananse and mannanase activity of solid-state fermented soybean hulls (100% SBH) and soybean hulls partially replaced with PESR (75:25, SHP) reached peak at day 12; solid-state fermentation (SSF) enhanced the total phenolic content and trolox equivalency in both products as well. Additionally, FSHP had higher xylotriose and mannobiose levels than fermented FSBH did. A total of 400 broilers (Ross 308) were assigned randomly into four groups receiving the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% fermented SBH (0.5% FSBH), 0.5% fermented SBHP (0.5% FSHP) and 1.0% fermented SBHP (1.0% FSHP) until 35 d of age, respectively. Results demonstrated that 0.5% FSHP addition increased body weight gain as compared with corresponding normal diet fed control in birds during entire experimental period. Compared with the control group, 0.5% FSHP group significantly increased the ratio of lactic acid bacteria to Clostridium perfringens in ceca as well as ileum villus height and jejunum villus height/crypt depth ratio of 35 d old birds. In conclusion, 0.5% FSHP supplementation in the diet could obtain not only improved body weight gain, but optimal intestinal morphology by exerting its bioactive metabolite properties when fed to broilers.

  1. Fermentation of soybean oil deodorizer distillate with Candida tropicalis to concentrate phytosterols and to produce sterols-rich yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoqun; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Lihua

    2014-03-01

    Phytosterols have been recovered from the deodorizer distillate produced in the final deodorization step of vegetable oil refining by various processes. The deodorizer distillate contains mainly free fatty acids (FFAs), phytosterols, and tocopherols. The presence of FFAs hinders recovery of phytosterols. In this study, fermentation of soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) with Candida tropicalis 1253 was carried out. FFAs were utilized as carbon source and converted into cellular components as the yeast cells grew. Phytosterols concentration in SODD increased from 15.2 to 28.43 % after fermentation. No significant loss of phytosterols was observed during the process. Microbial fermentation of SODD is a potential approach to concentrate phytosterols before the recovery of phytosterols from SODD. During SODD fermentation, sterols-rich yeast cells were produced and the content of total sterols was as high as 6.96 %, but its major sterol was not ergosterol, which is the major sterol encountered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Except ergosterol, other sterols synthesized in the cells need to be identified. PMID:24297326

  2. Contribution to the improvement of a porridge made with fermented maize: effect of selected foods and lemon on energy density, pH, viscosity and nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Ejigui, Jeanne; Desrosiers, Therese

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to use lemon and selected foods to improve the nutritional characteristics, quality and the nutrient content of a traditional complementary porridge made of lactic acid fermented yellow maize. Boiled egg yolk, roasted peanut paste, dry crayfish flour, roasted soybean flour and lemon juice were used as food additions. Amounts of food added were calculated on the basis of World Health Organization estimated energy needs from complementary foods of well-nourished children in developing countries, aged 9-11 months, at four servings per day and a low amount of breast milk energy. The pH and viscosity increased in porridges with food addition, but lemon juice contributed to lowering them. Energy and nutrient densities/100 g porridge improved with food addition regardless of the use of lemon juice. An increase in iron, zinc and calcium in vitro availability was observed (P < 0.05) with the addition of lemon juice.

  3. Identification of Acetobacter strains isolated from spoiled lactic acid fermented meat food for pets.

    PubMed

    Gosselé, F; Swings, J; Mossel, D A; de Ley, J

    1984-01-01

    Five Acetobacter isolates from lactic acid fermented meat food for pets were characterized by 177 morphological, physiological and biochemical traits. Four isolates were identified as A. pasteurianus, one as A. aceti. It is emphasized that access of such bacteria to lactic acid fermented foods should be avoided.

  4. Tea and soybean extracts in combination with milk fermentation inhibit growth and enterocyte adherence of selected foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Danyue; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the antibacterial and anti-adhesive properties of pure plant extracts (PPEs) of green tea (GT), black tea (BT) and soybean individually or in combination with milk. Fermented phenolic enriched-milk (fPEM) was prepared by combining PPEs with milk and fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of extracts was evaluated by broth-dilution and agar diffusion assay. Anti-adhesive property of extracts was evaluated in Caco-2 cell model. Results from antibacterial tests showed that PPEs exhibited a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect. Tea extracts were more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria while soybean extract exhibited similar effects against all pathogens tested. For fPEM, although total phenolic contents decreased compared with those in PPEs, growth inhibitory effect of fPEM containing tea extracts was greatly enhanced. All extracts showed significant inhibition against pathogen adhesion to Caco-2 cells. In particular, adhesion inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes was >89% when fPEM extracts were applied.

  5. Production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A using soybean curd residue cultivated with Bacillus subtilis in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, S; Hirai, M; Shoda, M

    2006-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS, which suppresses the growth of various plant pathogens in vitro by producing the lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A, was cultured using soybean curd residue, okara, a by-product of tofu manufacture in solid-state fermentation. After 4 days incubation, iturin A production reached 3,300 mg/kg wet solid material (14 g/kg dry solid material), which is approximately tenfold higher than that in submerged fermentation. When the okara product cultured with RB14-CS was introduced into soil infested with Rhizoctonia solani, which is a causal agent of damping-off of tomato, the disease occurrence was significantly suppressed. After 14 days, the number of RB14-CS cells remained in soil at the initial level, whereas almost no iturin A was detected in soil. As the okara cultured with RB14-CS exhibited functions of both plant disease suppression and nutritional effect on tomato seedlings, this product is expected to contribute to the recycling of the soybean curd residue. PMID:16575567

  6. Production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A using soybean curd residue cultivated with Bacillus subtilis in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, S; Hirai, M; Shoda, M

    2006-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS, which suppresses the growth of various plant pathogens in vitro by producing the lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A, was cultured using soybean curd residue, okara, a by-product of tofu manufacture in solid-state fermentation. After 4 days incubation, iturin A production reached 3,300 mg/kg wet solid material (14 g/kg dry solid material), which is approximately tenfold higher than that in submerged fermentation. When the okara product cultured with RB14-CS was introduced into soil infested with Rhizoctonia solani, which is a causal agent of damping-off of tomato, the disease occurrence was significantly suppressed. After 14 days, the number of RB14-CS cells remained in soil at the initial level, whereas almost no iturin A was detected in soil. As the okara cultured with RB14-CS exhibited functions of both plant disease suppression and nutritional effect on tomato seedlings, this product is expected to contribute to the recycling of the soybean curd residue.

  7. [Current approaches to the evaluation of genetically modified food products. Soybean 40-3-2 data].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Tutel'ian, V A; Petukhov, A I; Korolev, A A; Aksiuk, I N; Sorokina, E Iu

    1999-01-01

    Different methodological approaches were elaborated to evaluate quality and safety of genetically modified food products. The new engineering is proposed to rate medical, biological, genetic and technological advantage of these products. Using the same engineering, a complete analysis of the genetically modified soybean 40-3-2 ("Monsanto Co", USA) has been performed.

  8. Protective Effect of Fermented Soybean Dried Extracts against TPA-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hairless Mice Skin

    PubMed Central

    Georgetti, Sandra R.; Casagrande, Rúbia; Vicentini, Fabiana T. M. C.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Fonseca, Maria J. V.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties (polyphenol and genistein contents) of soybean extracts obtained by biotransformation and dried by spray dryer at different conditions and their in vivo ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced biochemical alterations in the skin of hairless mice. By comparing the obtained data with that of the well-known active soybean extract Isoflavin beta, we evaluated the influence of the fermentation and drying process in the extracts efficacy. The results demonstrated that inlet gas temperature and adjuvant concentration for the extract drying process have significantly affected the total polyphenol contents and, to a minor degree, the genistein contents. However, the effect of topical stimulus with TPA, an oxidative stress inducer, which caused significant depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase, with increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the skin of hairless mice, was significantly prevented by the soybean extracts treatment. These results indicate that the spray drying processing resulted in a product capable of limiting the oxidative stress with possible therapeutic applicability as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical forms. PMID:24073399

  9. Protective effect of fermented soybean dried extracts against TPA-induced oxidative stress in hairless mice skin.

    PubMed

    Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rúbia; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Baracat, Marcela M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties (polyphenol and genistein contents) of soybean extracts obtained by biotransformation and dried by spray dryer at different conditions and their in vivo ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced biochemical alterations in the skin of hairless mice. By comparing the obtained data with that of the well-known active soybean extract Isoflavin beta, we evaluated the influence of the fermentation and drying process in the extracts efficacy. The results demonstrated that inlet gas temperature and adjuvant concentration for the extract drying process have significantly affected the total polyphenol contents and, to a minor degree, the genistein contents. However, the effect of topical stimulus with TPA, an oxidative stress inducer, which caused significant depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase, with increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the skin of hairless mice, was significantly prevented by the soybean extracts treatment. These results indicate that the spray drying processing resulted in a product capable of limiting the oxidative stress with possible therapeutic applicability as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical forms. PMID:24073399

  10. All three subunits of soybean beta-conglycinin are potential food allergens.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kim, Won-Seok; Jang, Sungchan; Kerley, Monty S

    2009-02-11

    Soybeans are recognized as one of the "big 8" food allergens. IgE antibodies from soybean-sensitive patients recognize more than 15 soybean proteins. Among these proteins only the alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, but not the highly homologous alpha'- and beta-subunits, has been shown to be a major allergenic protein. The objective of this study was to examine if the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin can also serve as potential allergens. Immunoblot analysis using sera collected from soybean-allergic patients revealed the presence of IgE antibodies that recognized several soy proteins including 72, 70, 52, 34, and 21 kDa proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis of trypsin-digested 72, 70, and 52 kDa proteins indicated that these proteins were the alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin, respectively. Additionally, purified alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin were recognized by IgE antibodies present in the soybean-allergic patients. The IgE reactivity to the beta-subunit of beta-conglycinin was not abolished when this glycoprotein was either deglycosylated using glycosidases or expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli . The results suggest that in addition to the previously recognized alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin also are potential food allergens. PMID:19138084

  11. All three subunits of soybean beta-conglycinin are potential food allergens.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kim, Won-Seok; Jang, Sungchan; Kerley, Monty S

    2009-02-11

    Soybeans are recognized as one of the "big 8" food allergens. IgE antibodies from soybean-sensitive patients recognize more than 15 soybean proteins. Among these proteins only the alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, but not the highly homologous alpha'- and beta-subunits, has been shown to be a major allergenic protein. The objective of this study was to examine if the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin can also serve as potential allergens. Immunoblot analysis using sera collected from soybean-allergic patients revealed the presence of IgE antibodies that recognized several soy proteins including 72, 70, 52, 34, and 21 kDa proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis of trypsin-digested 72, 70, and 52 kDa proteins indicated that these proteins were the alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin, respectively. Additionally, purified alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin were recognized by IgE antibodies present in the soybean-allergic patients. The IgE reactivity to the beta-subunit of beta-conglycinin was not abolished when this glycoprotein was either deglycosylated using glycosidases or expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli . The results suggest that in addition to the previously recognized alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin also are potential food allergens.

  12. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, S. K.; Chang, K. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, K. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  13. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Kim, T H; Lee, S K; Chang, K H; Cho, S J; Lee, K W; An, B K

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  14. Soluble extract of soybean fermented with Aspergillus oryzae GB107 inhibits fat accumulation in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyoung-Ha; Suzuki, Yasuki; Yonekura, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Lee, Chan Ho; Kim, Sung Woo; Katoh, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fermented soybean (FS) extract on adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation using cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with FS and nonfermented soybean (NFS) extract during differentiation for 10 days in vitro. Oil red O staining was performed and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity was measured for analysis of fat accumulation. Expressions of adipogenic genes were measured. RESULTS Soluble extract of soybean fermented with Aspergillus oryzae GB107 contained higher levels of low-molecular-weight protein than conventional soybean protein did. FS extract (50 µg/ml) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes for 10 days in vitro. Significantly lower GPDH activity was observed in differentiated adipocytes treated with the FS extract than those treated with NFS extract. Treatment with FS extract resulted in decreased expression levels of leptin, adiponectin, and adipogenin genes, which are associated with adipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS This report is the first to demonstrate that the water-soluble extract from FS inhibits fat accumulation and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, the soybean extract fermented with A. oryzae GB107 could be used to control lipid accumulation in adipocytes. PMID:26244085

  15. Fermented and non-fermented soy food consumption and gastric cancer in Japanese and Korean populations: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongseon; Kang, Moonsu; Lee, Jung-Sug; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Soy food is known to contribute greatly to a reduction in the risk of gastric cancer (GC). However, both Japanese and Korean populations have high incidence rates of GC despite the consumption of a wide variety of soy foods. One primary reason is that they consume fermented rather than non-fermented soy foods. In order to assess the varying effects of fermented and non-fermented soy intake on GC risk in these populations, we conducted a meta-analysis of published reports. Twenty studies assessing the effect of the consumption of fermented soy food on GC risk were included, and 17 studies assessing the effect of the consumption of non-fermented soy food on GC risk were included. We found that a high intake of fermented soy foods was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.44, I(2) = 71.48), whereas an increased intake of non-fermented soy foods was significantly associated with a decreased risk of GC (overall summary OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.54-0.77, I(2) = 64.27). These findings show that a high level of consumption of non-fermented soy foods, rather than fermented soy foods, is important in reducing GC risk.

  16. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Herwig; Pronk, Jack T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generation sequencing lead to an increased interest in evolutionary engineering of desired phenotypes. We here discuss recent developments of strain selection protocols and how computational approaches can assist such experimental design. Furthermore the analysis of evolved phenotypes and possibilities with complex consortia are highlighted. Studies carried out with mainly yeast and lactic acid bacteria demonstrate the power of evolutionary engineering to deliver strains with novel phenotypes as well as insight into underlying mechanisms.

  17. Strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation for production of nattokinase functional food.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Xie, Yuchun; Yang, Liangrong; Li, Haojian; Xu, Lin; Liu, Huizhou

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a novel and integrated preparation technology for nattokinase functional food, including strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation. To rapidly screen a nattokinase-productive strain, PCR-based screening method was combined with fibrinolytic activity-based method, and a high productive strain, Bacillus subtilis LSSE-22, was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. Reduction of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) concentration may contribute to separation of nattokinase and reduction of late-onset anaphylaxis risk. Chickpeas were confirmed as the favorable substrate for enhancement of nattokinase production and reduction of γ-PGA yield. Using cracked chickpeas, the nattokinase activity reached 356.25 ± 17.18 FU/g (dry weight), which is much higher than previous reports. To further reduce γ-PGA concentration, ethanol fractional extraction and precipitation were applied for separation of nattokinase. By extraction with 50 % and precipitation with 75 % ethanol solution, 4,000.58 ± 192.98 FU/g of nattokinase powders were obtained, and the activity recovery reached 89 ± 1 %, while γ-PGA recovery was reduced to 21 ± 2 %. To improve the nattokinase stability at acidic pH condition, the nattokinase powders were encapsulated, and then coated with methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer. After encapsulation, the nattokinase was protected from being denatured under various acid conditions, and pH-responsible controlled release at simulated intestinal fluid was realized.

  18. MALDI based identification of soybean protein markers--possible analytical targets for allergen detection in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devreese, Bart

    2012-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is extensively used all over the world due to its nutritional qualities. However, soybean is included in the "big eight" list of food allergens. According to the EU directive 2007/68/EC, food products containing soybeans have to be labeled in order to protect the allergic consumers. Nevertheless, soybeans can still inadvertently be present in food products. The development of analytical methods for the detection of traces of allergens is important for the protection of allergic consumers. Mass spectrometry of marker proteolytical fragments of protein allergens is growingly recognized as a detection method in food control. However, quantification of soybean at the peptide level is hindered due to limited information regarding specific stable markers derived after proteolytic digestion. The aim of this study was to use MALDI-TOF/MS and MS/MS as a fast screening tool for the identification of stable soybean derived tryptic markers which were still identifiable even if the proteins were subjected to various changes at the molecular level through a number of reactions typically occurring during food processing (denaturation, the Maillard reaction and oxidation). The peptides (401)Val-Arg(410) from the G1 glycinin (Gly m 6) and the (518)Gln-Arg(528) from the α' chain of the β-conglycinin (Gly m 5) proved to be the most stable. These peptides hold potential to be used as targets for the development of new analytical methods for the detection of soybean protein traces in processed foods. PMID:22212959

  19. MALDI based identification of soybean protein markers--possible analytical targets for allergen detection in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devreese, Bart

    2012-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is extensively used all over the world due to its nutritional qualities. However, soybean is included in the "big eight" list of food allergens. According to the EU directive 2007/68/EC, food products containing soybeans have to be labeled in order to protect the allergic consumers. Nevertheless, soybeans can still inadvertently be present in food products. The development of analytical methods for the detection of traces of allergens is important for the protection of allergic consumers. Mass spectrometry of marker proteolytical fragments of protein allergens is growingly recognized as a detection method in food control. However, quantification of soybean at the peptide level is hindered due to limited information regarding specific stable markers derived after proteolytic digestion. The aim of this study was to use MALDI-TOF/MS and MS/MS as a fast screening tool for the identification of stable soybean derived tryptic markers which were still identifiable even if the proteins were subjected to various changes at the molecular level through a number of reactions typically occurring during food processing (denaturation, the Maillard reaction and oxidation). The peptides (401)Val-Arg(410) from the G1 glycinin (Gly m 6) and the (518)Gln-Arg(528) from the α' chain of the β-conglycinin (Gly m 5) proved to be the most stable. These peptides hold potential to be used as targets for the development of new analytical methods for the detection of soybean protein traces in processed foods.

  20. Characterization of the Production of Biogenic Amines and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in the Soybean Pastes Fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Yeun; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-04-01

    The production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been considered to be an attractive strategy. However, some LAB may produce biogenic amines (BA), which may be of concern from the safety viewpoint. The aim of the present study was to characterize the production of GABA and BA in the soybean pastes fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) FMB S46471 and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) GABA 100. After a ripening period of 90 days, the levels of BA (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine) and GABA in the fermented soybean were assessed by highperformance liquid chromatography. The soybean pastes fermented by A. oryzae and L. brevis showed a range of 7,130-11,592 mg/kg for GABA, 178-305 mg/kg for tyramine, 139-163 mg/kg for putrescine, 7.4-10.8 mg/kg for histamine, and 7.1-7.9 mg/kg for cadaverine, whereas the soybean pastes fermented by A. oryzae only showed a range of 30-1,671 mg/kg for GABA, 0.8-189 mg/kg for tyramine, 1.3-85 mg/kg for putrescine, up to 3.6 mg/kg for histamine, and 0.2-2.4 mg/kg for cadaverine. The results showed that the production of GABA was accompanied by the increase in the production of BA, even though the production levels of histamine and cadaverine were very low. This is the first study to simultaneously characterize the production of BA and GABA in GABA-enriched fermented soybean pastes, and warrants further study to minimize the production of BA while optimizing the production of GABA.

  1. Microbial Transformation of Bioactive Compounds and Production of ortho-Dihydroxyisoflavones and Glycitein from Natural Fermented Soybean Paste

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Changhyun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of remarkable interest in finding bioactive compounds from nutritional foods to replace synthetic compounds. In particular, ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein are of growing scientific interest owing to their attractive biological properties. In this study, 7,8-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 6,7-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone were characterized using microorganism screened from soybean Doenjang. Three ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein were structurally elucidated by 1H-NMR and GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, bacterial strains from soybean Doenjang with the capacity of biotransformation were screened. The bacterial strain, identified as Bacillus subtilis Roh-1, was shown to convert daidzein into ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein. Thus, this study has, for the first time, demonstrated that a bacterial strain had a substrate specificity for multiple modifications of the bioactive compounds. PMID:25513748

  2. Microbial transformation of bioactive compounds and production of ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein from natural fermented soybean paste.

    PubMed

    Roh, Changhyun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of remarkable interest in finding bioactive compounds from nutritional foods to replace synthetic compounds. In particular, ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein are of growing scientific interest owing to their attractive biological properties. In this study, 7,8-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 6,7-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone were characterized using microorganism screened from soybean Doenjang. Three ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein were structurally elucidated by 1H-NMR and GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, bacterial strains from soybean Doenjang with the capacity of biotransformation were screened. The bacterial strain, identified as Bacillus subtilis Roh-1, was shown to convert daidzein into ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein. Thus, this study has, for the first time, demonstrated that a bacterial strain had a substrate specificity for multiple modifications of the bioactive compounds. PMID:25513748

  3. The Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria-fermented Soybean Milk Products on Carrageenan-induced Tail Thrombosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    KAMIYA, Seitaro; OGASAWARA, Masayoshi; ARAKAWA, Masayuki; HAGIMORI, Masayori

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Lactic acid bacteria-fermented soybean milk products (FS-LAB) inhibit hepatic lipid accumulation and prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation. However, the therapeutic efficacy of FS-LAB against thrombosis has yet to be investigated. In this study, FS-LAB were administered subcutaneously into the tails of rats, with the subsequent intravenous administration of κ-carrageenan 12 hr after the initial injection. In general, administration of κ-carrageenan induces thrombosis. The length of the infarcted tail regions was significantly shorter in the rats administered a single-fold or double-fold concentration of the FS-LAB solution compared with the region in control rats. Therefore, FS-LAB exhibited significant antithrombotic effects. Our study is the first to characterize the properties of FS-LAB and, by testing their efficacy on an in vivo rat model of thrombosis, demonstrate the potency of their antithrombotic effect. PMID:24936368

  4. In vitro evaluation of celluloytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AMS1 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi) as an animal probiotic.

    PubMed

    Manhar, Ajay K; Saikia, Devabrata; Bashir, Yasir; Mech, Reba K; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Konwar, Bolin K; Mandal, Manabendra

    2015-04-01

    A microorganism showing probiotic attributes and hydrolyzing carboxymethylcellulose was isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi) and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and named as B. amyloliquefaciens AMS1. The potentiality of this isolate as probiotic was investigated in vitro and it showed gastrointestinal transit tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, cell aggregation and antimicrobial activity. The isolate was found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthens its candidature as a potential probiotic. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96 hours of incubation. This study explores the possibility of combining the cellulase degrading ability of a microbe with its probiotic attributes to enhance gut health of animal and digestibility of the feed.

  5. Application of state-of-art sequencing technologies to indigenous food fermentations.

    PubMed

    van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Vaughan, Elaine E; Vogel, Rudi F

    2013-04-01

    Fermented foods and beverages are an integral part of the human diet globally. Understanding the microbial interactions within these fermenting ecosystems is required to deliver safe products with desirable consumer properties, and moreover, maintenance of these traditions. Effective tools are required for documentation of cultures in traditional and artisanal fermented products, for sensory quality and safety improvements, in some cases for starter culture design for commercialization and potentially for supporting sustainable food systems. Here we trace the developments of sequence-based molecular technologies for investigating the diversity and functionality of microbiota in traditional or indigenous fermented foods and beverages. The opportunities of phylobiomics, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to enrich our knowledge of fermenting microbial ecosystems are presented.

  6. Next-generation approaches to the microbial ecology of food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Mills, David A

    2012-07-01

    Food fermentations have enhanced human health since the dawn of time and remain a prevalent means of food processing and preservation. Due to their cultural and nutritional importance, many of these foods have been studied in detail using molecular tools, leading to enhancements in quality and safety. Furthermore, recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology are revolutionizing the study of food microbial ecology, deepening insight into complex fermentation systems. This review provides insight into novel applications of select molecular techniques, particularly next-generation sequencing technology, for analysis of microbial communities in fermented foods. We present a guideline for integrated molecular analysis of food microbial ecology and a starting point for implementing next-generation analysis of food systems.

  7. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.

    PubMed

    Park, Kun-Young; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Lee, Young-Eun; Daily, James W

    2014-01-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB. PMID:24456350

  8. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.

    PubMed

    Park, Kun-Young; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Lee, Young-Eun; Daily, James W

    2014-01-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB.

  9. Ameliorative effects of Monascus pilosus-fermented black soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hong-Geun; Kang, Young-Rye; Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bong-Gun; Park, Sang-Hoon; Moon, Dae-In; Kim, Ok-Jin; Lee, In-Ae; Choi, Jongkeun; Lee, Ji-Ean; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Suh, Joo-Won

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antiobesity effects of Monascus pilosus-fermented black soybean (F-BS) in C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. F-BS (oral, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg per body weight, twice per day) ameliorated obesity by reducing body and liver weight increases, and regulating blood glucose and cholesterol levels in C57BL/6 mice fed a control or HFD with oral administration of F-BS for 12 weeks. F-BS suppressed the growth of epididymal, retroperitoneal, and perirenal fat pads by preventing increases in the adipocyte size. Moreover, the levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, and leptin were significantly lowered by F-BS administration in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that F-BS is a beneficial food supplement for preventing obesity, controlling blood glucose, and lowering cholesterol. Future research strategies should address the mechanisms that selectively regulate obesity, including hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia.

  10. Fermented foods, microbiota, and mental health: ancient practice meets nutritional psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purposeful application of fermentation in food and beverage preparation, as a means to provide palatability, nutritional value, preservative, and medicinal properties, is an ancient practice. Fermented foods and beverages continue to make a significant contribution to the overall patterns of traditional dietary practices. As our knowledge of the human microbiome increases, including its connection to mental health (for example, anxiety and depression), it is becoming increasingly clear that there are untold connections between our resident microbes and many aspects of physiology. Of relevance to this research are new findings concerning the ways in which fermentation alters dietary items pre-consumption, and in turn, the ways in which fermentation-enriched chemicals (for example, lactoferrin, bioactive peptides) and newly formed phytochemicals (for example, unique flavonoids) may act upon our own intestinal microbiota profile. Here, we argue that the consumption of fermented foods may be particularly relevant to the emerging research linking traditional dietary practices and positive mental health. The extent to which traditional dietary items may mitigate inflammation and oxidative stress may be controlled, at least to some degree, by microbiota. It is our contention that properly controlled fermentation may often amplify the specific nutrient and phytochemical content of foods, the ultimate value of which may associated with mental health; furthermore, we also argue that the microbes (for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria species) associated with fermented foods may also influence brain health via direct and indirect pathways. PMID:24422720

  11. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10⁶ cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here.

  12. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages

    PubMed Central

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics. PMID:26960543

  13. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics. PMID:26960543

  14. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects.

  15. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects. PMID:26974357

  16. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply; the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form, and as menaquinones (MK), a collection of isomers mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Though multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about ...

  17. Reduction of soybean meal non-starch polysaccharides and α-galactosides by solid-state fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria obtained from different environments.

    PubMed

    Opazo, Rafael; Ortúzar, Felipe; Navarrete, Paola; Espejo, Romilio; Romero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is an important protein source in animal feed. However, the levels of SBM inclusion are restricted in some animal species by the presence of antinutritional factors (ANFs), including non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and α-galactosides (GOSs). The aim of this study was to reduce the soybean meal NSPs and GOSs by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a combination of cellulolytic bacteria isolated from different environments (termites, earthworms, corn silage and bovine ruminal content). To analyse the key enzymatic activities, the isolates were grown in minimal media containing NSPs extracted from SBM. The selected bacterial strains belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Cohnella and Cellulosimicrobium. SSF resulted in a reduction of nearly 24% in the total NSPs, 83% of stachyose and 69% of raffinose and an increase in the protein content. These results suggest that cellulolytic bacteria-based SSF processing facilitates SBM nutritional improvement. In addition, the use of fermented SBM in animal diets can be recommended.

  18. Food use and health effects of soybean and sunflower oils.

    PubMed

    Meydani, S N; Lichtenstein, A H; White, P J; Goodnight, S H; Elson, C E; Woods, M; Gorbach, S L; Schaefer, E J

    1991-10-01

    This review provides a scientific assessment of current knowledge of health effects of soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO). SBO and SFO both contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (60.8 and 69%, respectively), with a PUFA:saturated fat ratio of 4.0 for SBO and 6.4 for SFO. SFO contains 69% C18:2n-6 and less than 0.1% C18:3n-3, while SBO contains 54% C18:2n-6 and 7.2% C18:3n-3. Thus, SFO and SBO each provide adequate amounts of C18:2n-6, but of the two, SBO provides C18:3n-3 with a C18:2n-6:C18:3n-3 ratio of 7.1. Epidemiological evidence has suggested an inverse relationship between the consumption of diets high in vegetable fat and blood pressure, although clinical findings have been inconclusive. Recent dietary guidelines suggest the desirability of decreasing consumption of total and saturated fat and cholesterol, an objective that can be achieved by substituting such oils as SFO and SBO for animal fats. Such changes have consistently resulted in decreased total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, which is thought to be favorable with respect to decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease. Also, decreases in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol have raised some concern. Use of vegetable oils such as SFO and SBO increases C18:2n-6, decreases C20:4n-6, and slightly elevated C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 in platelets, changes that slightly inhibit platelet generation of thromboxane and ex vivo aggregation. Whether chronic use of these oils will effectively block thrombosis at sites of vascular injury, inhibit pathologic platelet vascular interactions associated with atherosclerosis, or reduce the incidence of acute vascular occlusion in the coronary or cerebral circulation is uncertain. Linoleic acid is needed for normal immune response, and essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency impairs B and T cell-mediated responses. SBO and SFO can provide adequate linoleic acid for maintenance of the immune response. Excess linoleic acid has supported tumor

  19. Isolation and characterization of Pseudoalteromonas sp. from fermented Korean food, as an antagonist to Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Morya, V K; Choi, Wooyoung; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2014-02-01

    The microbial intervention for sustainable management of aquaculture, especially use of probiotics, is one of the most popular and practical approaches towards controlling pathogens. Vibrio harveyi is a well-known pathogenic bacterium, which is associated to a huge economic loss in the aquaculture system by causing vibriosis. The present study is crafted for screening and characterization of anti-Vibrio strains, which were isolated from various traditional fermented Korean foods. A total of 196 strains have been isolated from soybean paste (78 strains), red chili paste (49 strains), soy sauce (18 strains), jeotgal-a salted fish (34 strains), and the gazami crab-Portunus trituberculatus (17 strains). Fifteen strains showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of V. harveyi when subjected to coculture condition. Among the strains isolated, one has been identified as a significant anti-Vibrio strain. Further biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed it as Pseudoalteromonas aliena, which had been deposited at the Korean Culture Center of Microorganisms (KCCM), Korea and designated as KCCM 11207P. The culture supernatants did not have any antimicrobial properties either in pure or in coculture condition. The culture supernatant was not toxic when supplemented to the swimming crab, Zoea, and Artemia larvae in aquaculture system. The results were very encouraging and showed a significant reduction in accumulated mortality. Here, we reported that pathogenic vibriosis can be controlled by Pseudoalteromonas sp. under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The results indicated that the biotic treatment offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in crab aquaculture. PMID:23793257

  20. Assessment of bacterial diversity in selected Philippine fermented food products through PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Dalmacio, L M M; Angeles, A K J; Larcia, L L H; Balolong, M P; Estacio, R C

    2011-12-01

    The bacterial population in several Philippine fermented food preparations was assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA). Genomic DNA was isolated directly from alamang (fermented shrimp paste), burong isda (fermented fish and rice), burong hipon (fermented shrimp and rice), burong mustasa (fermented mustard leaves), tuba (sugar cane wine), suka (vinegar) and sinamak (spiced vinegar) using one of two protocols, namely - MoBio DNA Extraction Kit procedure and a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based method. Samples recalcitrant to both methods underwent enrichment in three culture broths prior to DNA isolation. Isolated DNA was amplified using nested primer pairs targeting the bacterial 16S rDNA. PCR products were subjected to DGGE to elucidate the bacterial diversity in each fermented food. 16S rDNA sequence analyses revealed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were dominant in the food samples. The LAB identified were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus pontis and Weissella cibaria. Identified AAB were Acetobacter pomorum, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Among these, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and W. cibaria are established probiotic bacteria, while L. panis and L. pontis are potential probiotic bacteria. This finding would increase the appeal and significance of local fermented foods to consumers. Furthermore, the majority of the identified bacteria in the study have not been reported before in culture-dependent studies of similar food preparations. As such, some of the bacterial 16S rDNA obtained were cloned to have an initial partial bacterial 16S rDNA library for Philippine fermented foods. PMID:22146687

  1. Effect of co-products of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans on ethanol production in dry-grind corn fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Jasreen K; Jung, Stephanie; Wang, Tong; Rosentrater, Kurt A; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2015-09-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) is an environmentally-friendly alternative to solvent and mechanical oil extraction methods, and can achieve ∼ 97% oil recovery from soybeans. The present study utilized soy skim (protein rich) and insoluble fiber (IF; carbohydrate rich), both co-products of EAEP, in dry-grind corn fermentation. The effects of adding soy skim and untreated IF (UIF), either separately or together, and adding pretreated IF (TIF), on ethanol production were investigated. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when UIF and skim were slurried together (corn-to-UIF ratio 1:0.16; skim-to-UIF ratio 6.5:1) and when fiber-hydrolyzing enzymes were added to corn fermentation. This modification to corn fermentation increased ethanol yield by 20%, ethanol production rate by 3%, and decreased fermentation time by 38 h compared to corn-only fermentation. An attempt was also made to utilize pentoses (from soy skim and IF) in integrated corn-soy fermentation slurry by an additional Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation step.

  2. The Biotechnology of Ugba, a Nigerian Traditional Fermented Food Condiment.

    PubMed

    Olasupo, Nurudeen A; Okorie, Chimezie P; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A

    2016-01-01

    Legumes and oil bean seeds used for the production of condiments in Africa are inedible in their natural state; they contain some anti-nutritional factors especially undigestible oligosaccharides and phytate. Fermentation impact desirable changes by reducing anti-nutritional factors and increasing digestibility. Ugba is an alkaline fermented African oil bean cotyledon (Pentaclethra macrophylla) produced by the Ibos and other ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. Seen as a family business in many homes, its preparation is in accordance with handed-down tradition from previous generations and serves as a cheap source of plant protein. Its consumption as a native salad is made possible by fermentation of the cotyledon for 2-5 days, but could also serve as a soup flavoring agent when fermentation last for 6-10 days. The fermentation process involved is usually natural with an attendant issue of product safety, quality and inconsistency. The production of this condiment is on a small scale and the equipment used are very rudimentary, devoid of good manufacturing procedures that call to question the issue of microbial safety. This paper therefore reviews the production process and the spectrum of microbial composition involved during fermentation. In addition, potential spoilage agents, nutritional and biochemical changes during production are examined. Furthermore, information that can support development of starter cultures for controlled fermentation process in order to guarantee microbiological safety, quality and improved shelf life are also discussed. PMID:27540371

  3. The Biotechnology of Ugba, a Nigerian Traditional Fermented Food Condiment

    PubMed Central

    Olasupo, Nurudeen A.; Okorie, Chimezie P.; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes and oil bean seeds used for the production of condiments in Africa are inedible in their natural state; they contain some anti-nutritional factors especially undigestible oligosaccharides and phytate. Fermentation impact desirable changes by reducing anti-nutritional factors and increasing digestibility. Ugba is an alkaline fermented African oil bean cotyledon (Pentaclethra macrophylla) produced by the Ibos and other ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. Seen as a family business in many homes, its preparation is in accordance with handed-down tradition from previous generations and serves as a cheap source of plant protein. Its consumption as a native salad is made possible by fermentation of the cotyledon for 2–5 days, but could also serve as a soup flavoring agent when fermentation last for 6–10 days. The fermentation process involved is usually natural with an attendant issue of product safety, quality and inconsistency. The production of this condiment is on a small scale and the equipment used are very rudimentary, devoid of good manufacturing procedures that call to question the issue of microbial safety. This paper therefore reviews the production process and the spectrum of microbial composition involved during fermentation. In addition, potential spoilage agents, nutritional and biochemical changes during production are examined. Furthermore, information that can support development of starter cultures for controlled fermentation process in order to guarantee microbiological safety, quality and improved shelf life are also discussed. PMID:27540371

  4. Development of a novel three-stage fermentation system converting food waste to hydrogen and methane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel three-stage (lactate-+photo-H(2)+CH(4)) fermentation system was developed, which converts food waste to H(2) and CH(4), with an emphasis on achieving high H(2) yield. The system begins by first fermenting food waste to lactate, rather than acetate and butyrate, using indigenous lactic acid bacteria. Lactate fermentation effluent was then centrifuged, and the supernatant was used for H(2) production by photo-fermentation, while the residue was used for CH(4) production by anaerobic digestion. Overall, via the three-stage fermentation system, 41% and 37% of the energy content in the food waste was converted to H(2) and CH(4), respectively, corresponding to the electrical energy yield of 1146 MJ/ton-food waste, which is 1.4 times higher value than that of previous two-stage dark (H(2)+CH(4)) fermentation system. The H(2) yield based on hexose input was 8.35 mol H(2)/mol hexose(added), the highest value ever reported from actual organic waste.

  5. Mindful Persistence: Literacies for Taking up and Sustaining Fermented-Food Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Christina; Kuznetsov, Stacey; Schmeckpeper, Sheri; Curry, Linda J.; Long, Elenore; Davis, Lauren; Koerner, Heidi; McQuarrie, Kimberly Butterfield

    2015-01-01

    Almost by definition, resisting the insidious convenience of the mainstream food supply requires persistence. This is especially true for food projects requiring fermentation--projects that unfold over days or weeks and require day-to-day science in kitchens where variables can be hard to control and where some degree of periodic failure is almost…

  6. Parameter estimation for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of food waste into ethanol using Matlab Simulink.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rebecca Anne

    2008-03-01

    The increase in waste disposal and energy costs has provided an incentive to convert carbohydrate-rich food waste streams into fuel. For example, dining halls and restaurants discard foods that require tipping fees for removal. An effective use of food waste may be the enzymatic hydrolysis of the waste to simple sugars and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. As these wastes have complex compositions which may change day-to-day, experiments were carried out to test fermentability of two different types of food waste at 27 degrees C using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (ATCC4124) and Genencor's STARGEN enzyme in batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments. A mathematical model of SSF based on experimentally matched rate equations for enzyme hydrolysis and yeast fermentation was developed in Matlab Simulink. Using Simulink parameter estimation 1.1.3, parameters for hydrolysis and fermentation were estimated through modified Michaelis-Menten and Monod-type equations with the aim of predicting changes in the levels of ethanol and glycerol from different initial concentrations of glucose, fructose, maltose, and starch. The model predictions and experimental observations agree reasonably well for the two food waste streams and a third validation dataset. The approach of using Simulink as a dynamic visual model for SSF represents a simple method which can be applied to a variety of biological pathways and may be very useful for systems approaches in metabolic engineering in the future.

  7. Parameter Estimation for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Food Waste Into Ethanol Using Matlab Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Rebecca Anne

    The increase in waste disposal and energy costs has provided an incentive to convert carbohydrate-rich food waste streams into fuel. For example, dining halls and restaurants discard foods that require tipping fees for removal. An effective use of food waste may be the enzymatic hydrolysis of the waste to simple sugars and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. As these wastes have complex compositions which may change day-to-day, experiments were carried out to test fermentability of two different types of food waste at 27° C using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (ATCC4124) and Genencor's STARGEN™ enzyme in batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments. A mathematical model of SSF based on experimentally matched rate equations for enzyme hydrolysis and yeast fermentation was developed in Matlab Simulink®. Using Simulink® parameter estimation 1.1.3, parameters for hydrolysis and fermentation were estimated through modified Michaelis-Menten and Monod-type equations with the aim of predicting changes in the levels of ethanol and glycerol from different initial concentrations of glucose, fructose, maltose, and starch. The model predictions and experimental observations agree reasonably well for the two food waste streams and a third validation dataset. The approach of using Simulink® as a dynamic visual model for SSF represents a simple method which can be applied to a variety of biological pathways and may be very useful for systems approaches in metabolic engineering in the future.

  8. Production of Biomass-Degrading Multienzyme Complexes under Solid-State Fermentation of Soybean Meal Using a Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Vitcosque, Gabriela L.; Fonseca, Rafael F.; Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane S.

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-degrading enzymes are one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels. This work evaluates the effects of operational conditions on biomass-degrading multienzyme production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger. The fungus was cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean meal, using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The effects of air flow rate, inlet air relative humidity, and initial substrate moisture content on multienzyme (FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase) production were evaluated using a statistical design methodology. Highest production of FPase (0.55 IU/g), endoglucanase (35.1 IU/g), and xylanase (47.7 IU/g) was achieved using an initial substrate moisture content of 84%, an inlet air humidity of 70%, and a flow rate of 24 mL/min. The enzymatic complex was then used to hydrolyze a lignocellulosic biomass, releasing 4.4 g/L of glucose after 36 hours of saccharification of 50 g/L pretreated sugar cane bagasse. These results demonstrate the potential application of enzymes produced under SSF, thus contributing to generate the necessary technological advances to increase the efficiency of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. PMID:23365723

  9. Production of Biomass-Degrading Multienzyme Complexes under Solid-State Fermentation of Soybean Meal Using a Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Vitcosque, Gabriela L; Fonseca, Rafael F; Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-degrading enzymes are one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels. This work evaluates the effects of operational conditions on biomass-degrading multienzyme production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger. The fungus was cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean meal, using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The effects of air flow rate, inlet air relative humidity, and initial substrate moisture content on multienzyme (FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase) production were evaluated using a statistical design methodology. Highest production of FPase (0.55 IU/g), endoglucanase (35.1 IU/g), and xylanase (47.7 IU/g) was achieved using an initial substrate moisture content of 84%, an inlet air humidity of 70%, and a flow rate of 24 mL/min. The enzymatic complex was then used to hydrolyze a lignocellulosic biomass, releasing 4.4 g/L of glucose after 36 hours of saccharification of 50 g/L pretreated sugar cane bagasse. These results demonstrate the potential application of enzymes produced under SSF, thus contributing to generate the necessary technological advances to increase the efficiency of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source.

  10. Analyses of bacterial communities in meju, a Korean traditional fermented soybean bricks, by cultivation-based and pyrosequencing methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yi-Seul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Kim, Soo-Jin; Park, In-Cheol; Ka, Jong-Ok; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of meju as a raw material used to make Korean soy sauce (ganjang) and soybean paste (doenjang), little is known about the bacterial diversity of Korean meju. In this study, the bacterial communities in meju were examined using both culture-dependent and independent methods in order to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial population. Analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the bacterial strains isolated from meju samples showed that the dominant species were related to members of the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus. The community DNAs extracted from nine different meju samples were analyzed by barcoded pyrosequencing method targeting of the V1 to V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 132,374 sequences, with an average read length of 468 bp, were assigned to several phyla, with Firmicutes (93.6%) representing the predominant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria (4.5%) and Bacteroidetes (0.8%). Other phyla accounted for less than 1% of the total bacterial sequences. Most of the Firmicutes were Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria, mainly represented by members of the genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc, whose ratio varied among different samples. In conclusion, this study indicated that the bacterial communities in meju were very diverse and a complex microbial consortium containing various microorganisms got involved in meju fermentation than we expected before.

  11. Kimchi and Other Widely Consumed Traditional Fermented Foods of Korea: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Shin, Han-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Different types of fermented foods such as chongkukjang, doenjang, ganjang, gochujang, and kimchi are plentifully available and widely consumed in north eastern Asian countries including Korea. Among them, kimchi is one of the most popular Korean traditional food. It is prepared by fermenting the baechu cabbage together with other vegetables and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with functional potential. Many types of ingredients are added to kimchi to enhance its taste, flavor, nutritional value, texture etc. A number of bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB are the dominant species in the fermentation process. The addition of other sub ingredients and formation of different by-products during fermentation eventually leads to eradication of putrefactive and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities, nutritional and nutraceutical potential of kimchi. Kimchi possesses anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, antiobesity, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, and antiaging properties. In the present review an attempt has been made to review the different types of fermented foods found in the Korean peninsula with detailed scientific research regarding preparation, processing, structure of the microecosystem, and health benefits of kimchi. PMID:27733844

  12. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases.

  13. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal.

  14. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal. PMID:27242144

  15. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability. PMID:23729852

  16. Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues.

    PubMed

    Choy, Sing Ying; Wang, Ke; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ben; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Horticultural waste was co-composted with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues individually to evaluate the effects of these easily available organic wastes in Singapore on the composting process and product quality. Each co-composting material was mixed with horticultural waste in the wet weight ratio of 1:1 and composted for 46 days. Results showed that all co-composting materials accelerated the degradation of total carbon and resulted in higher nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the final product compared with horticultural waste alone. Mixture with fruit peels achieved the fastest total carbon loss; however, did not reach the minimum required temperature for pathogen destruction. The end product was found to be the best source for K and had a higher pH that could be used for the remediation of acidic soil. Food waste resulted in the highest available nitrate (NO3-N) content in the end product, but caused high salt content, total coliforms, and slower total carbon loss initially. Soybean residues were found to be the best co-composting material to produce compost with high N, P, and K when compared with other materials due to the highest temperature, fastest total carbon loss, fastest reduction in C/N ratio, and best conservation of nutrients.

  17. Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues.

    PubMed

    Choy, Sing Ying; Wang, Ke; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ben; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Horticultural waste was co-composted with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues individually to evaluate the effects of these easily available organic wastes in Singapore on the composting process and product quality. Each co-composting material was mixed with horticultural waste in the wet weight ratio of 1:1 and composted for 46 days. Results showed that all co-composting materials accelerated the degradation of total carbon and resulted in higher nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the final product compared with horticultural waste alone. Mixture with fruit peels achieved the fastest total carbon loss; however, did not reach the minimum required temperature for pathogen destruction. The end product was found to be the best source for K and had a higher pH that could be used for the remediation of acidic soil. Food waste resulted in the highest available nitrate (NO3-N) content in the end product, but caused high salt content, total coliforms, and slower total carbon loss initially. Soybean residues were found to be the best co-composting material to produce compost with high N, P, and K when compared with other materials due to the highest temperature, fastest total carbon loss, fastest reduction in C/N ratio, and best conservation of nutrients. PMID:25650141

  18. Comparative study on the hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects of fermented paste (doenjang) prepared from soybean and brown rice mixed with rice bran or red ginseng marc in mice fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo Im; Rico, Catherine W; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-10-22

    The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  19. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang) Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Rico, Catherine W.; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities. PMID:25340370

  20. Controlled fermentation and preservation of UGBA -an indigenous Nigerian fermented food.

    PubMed

    Okorie, Chimezie Princewill; Olasupo, Nurudeen Ayoade

    2013-01-01

    Studies were carried out to screen various microbial isolates of UGBA obtained from both traditionally fermented and laboratory samples for some technical properties required for the fermentation of the product. The technical properties screened for were; ability to produce enzymes (amylase, protease and lipase) and bacteriocin production. Possible starter cultures were selected from the screened isolates for controlled fermentation of the product. Preservation of the product by dehydration method was also investigated. Various dehydrating temperatures were studied and the most appropriate temperature regime was adopted. The shelf- life of the dehydrated product was also determined. Proximate composition and the amino acid profile of both fresh samples and the dehydrated ones were also carried out so as to ensure that there is no significant nutrient lost during the process of dehydration. Rehydration of the preserved product was also examined. The following groups of organisms were isolated; Bacillus species, Proteus species, Staphylococcus species, Micrococcus species and Pseudomonas species. Bacillus species exhibited the highest potential for the fermentation of the product based on the result of the technical properties screened for. Two isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus lichenformis were particularly outstanding and were therefore selected as possible starter cultures. Controlled fermentation of UGBA using the selected organisms singly and as mixed culture produced samples that were similar to the ones produced by the traditional method. However, fermentation period was reduced from 72 hr to 48 hr using the two isolates as mixed culture for the fermentation process. The most appropriate temperature regime for dehydrating the product was found to be 50°C. Proximate analysis and amino acid profile assay of the products show that there is no significant difference between the preserved product and fresh sample. Shelf- life studies of the

  1. Batch dark fermentation from enzymatic hydrolyzed food waste for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Ye, Min; Zhu, Ai Jun; Zhao, Hong Ting; Li, Yong Feng

    2015-09-01

    A combination bioprocess of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and dark fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was developed. Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were utilized in SSF from food waste to generate glucoamylase and protease which were used to hydrolyze the food waste suspension to get the nutrients-rich (glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN)) hydrolysate. Both glucose and FAN increased with increasing of food waste mass ratio from 4% to 10% (w/v) and the highest glucose (36.9 g/L) and FAN (361.3mg/L) were observed at food waste mass ratio of 10%. The food waste hydrolysates were then used as the feedstock for dark fermentative hydrogen production by heat pretreated sludge. The best hydrogen yield of 39.14 ml H2/g food waste (219.91 ml H2/VSadded) was achieved at food waste mass ratio of 4%. The proposed combination bioprocess could effectively accelerate the hydrolysis rate, improve raw material utilization and enhance hydrogen yield.

  2. Cheonggukjang, a soybean paste fermented with B. licheniformis-67 prevents weight gain and improves glycemic control in high fat diet induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joo-Hee; Pichiah, P.B.Tirupathi; Kim, Min-Jung; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of soybean paste—Cheonggukjang, fermented with poly gamma glutamic acid producing Bacillus licheniformis-67 in diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Forty male C57BL/6J mice aged 4 weeks were divided into four dietary groups; normal diet control, high fat diet control, high fat diet containing 30% of unfermented soybean and high fat diet containing 30% Cheonggukjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis-67. After 13 weeks of dietary intervention the mice were sacrificed; serum and tissue samples were examined. Serum and hepatic lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin, leptin level were lower (<0.05) along with the body weight and epididymal fat pad weight in the 30% Cheonggukjang supplemented group compared with the high fat diet control group. The expression level of lipid anabolic gene was significantly decreased; whereas the expression level of lipid catabolic genes were significantly increased in the 30% Cheonggukjang supplemented group compared to the high fat diet control group. Collectively, these results suggested that intake of Cheonggukjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis-67 significantly prevents obesity related parameters. PMID:27499576

  3. ROLE OF LEUCONOSTOC MESENTEROIDES IN LEAVENING THE BATTER OF IDLI, A FERMENTED FOOD OF INDIA.

    PubMed

    MUKHERJEE, S K; ALBURY, M N; PEDERSON, C S; VANVEEN, A G; STEINKRAUS, K H

    1965-03-01

    The fermentation of the batter of idli, a fermented food of India, was studied. The microorganisms responsible for the characteristic changes in the batter were isolated and identified. Although there is a sequential change in the bacterial flora, the predominant microorganism responsible for souring, as well as for gas production, was found to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In the later stages of fermentation, growth of Streptococcus faecalis and, still later, of Pediococcus cerevisiae becomes significant. The fermentation of idli demonstrates a leavening action caused by the activity of the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, L. mesenteroides. As far as is known, this is the first record of a leavening action produced exclusively by the activity of a lactic acid bacterium.

  4. ROLE OF LEUCONOSTOC MESENTEROIDES IN LEAVENING THE BATTER OF IDLI, A FERMENTED FOOD OF INDIA.

    PubMed

    MUKHERJEE, S K; ALBURY, M N; PEDERSON, C S; VANVEEN, A G; STEINKRAUS, K H

    1965-03-01

    The fermentation of the batter of idli, a fermented food of India, was studied. The microorganisms responsible for the characteristic changes in the batter were isolated and identified. Although there is a sequential change in the bacterial flora, the predominant microorganism responsible for souring, as well as for gas production, was found to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In the later stages of fermentation, growth of Streptococcus faecalis and, still later, of Pediococcus cerevisiae becomes significant. The fermentation of idli demonstrates a leavening action caused by the activity of the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, L. mesenteroides. As far as is known, this is the first record of a leavening action produced exclusively by the activity of a lactic acid bacterium. PMID:14325884

  5. Role of Leuconostoc mesenteroides in Leavening the Batter of Idli, a Fermented Food of India1

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, S. K.; Albury, M. N.; Pederson, C. S.; Van Veen, A. G.; Steinkraus, K. H.

    1965-01-01

    The fermentation of the batter of idli, a fermented food of India, was studied. The microorganisms responsible for the characteristic changes in the batter were isolated and identified. Although there is a sequential change in the bacterial flora, the predominant microorganism responsible for souring, as well as for gas production, was found to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In the later stages of fermentation, growth of Streptococcus faecalis and, still later, of Pediococcus cerevisiae becomes significant. The fermentation of idli demonstrates a leavening action caused by the activity of the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, L. mesenteroides. As far as is known, this is the first record of a leavening action produced exclusively by the activity of a lactic acid bacterium. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14325884

  6. Effect of processing, fermentation, and aging treatment to content and profile of phenolic compounds in soybean seed, soy curd and soy paste.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Seo, Su-Hyun; Ahn, Joung-Kuk; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2011-08-01

    This study reports the effect of processing, fermentation, and aging treatment on the content and profile of 43 phenolic compounds in soybean seeds, soy curd (tofu), and soy paste (ChungGukJang, CGJ). Mean content of phenolic compounds was ranked as soybean seed=CGJ aged for 3days (CGJ-3D)=CGJ aged for 6days (CGJ-6D)>tofu (P<0.0001). Low percent recovery (47.1%) of phenolic compounds in tofu was due to heating (boiling), leaching in water, filtering, coagulation, and whey exclusion during tofu making. Aging period did not affect the mean contents of 43 phenolic compounds in the CGJ, whereas it affected the phenolic acids contents in the CGJ (P<0.01). Benzoic, ferulic, chlorogenic, gentisic, protocatechuic, or β-Resorculic acid was major phenolic compounds in soybean seeds, tofu, CGJ-3D, or CGJ-6D. Especially, the CGJ-3D contained large amounts of isoflavone aglucons and phenolic acids compared to soybean seeds or tofu.

  7. Degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes of roundup-ready soybean during food processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Yuan; Ge, Yiqiang; Xu, Baoliang

    2005-12-28

    Roundup-Ready soybeans have been genetically modified to resist the effects of the herbicidal glyphosate and have become the most prevalent transgenic crop in the world. In this work, Roundup-Ready soybeans were used as raw material to study the effects of critical processing procedures such as grinding, cooking, blending, homogenization, sterilization, and spray-drying on the length of DNA fragments of an endogenous gene (lectin) and an exogenous gene (epsps) examined in material from three soybean foods of bean curd, soy milk, and soy powder and from samples taken during their processing. The results showed that various processing procedures caused degradations of both the endogenous and exogenous genes to different degrees. In the grinding procedure, endogenous gene DNA was degraded from 1883 to approximately 836 bp, and exogenous gene DNA was degraded from 1512 to approximately 408 bp. In the blending and squeeze-molding procedures, exogenous gene DNA was also degraded from about 408 to 190 bp, but there was no obvious action on the endogenous gene. After the endogenous and exogenous genes had been degraded to some degree, such as 836 and 408 bp, respectively, they were not evidently affected by cooking procedure at 100 degrees C for 15 min. However, the endogenous gene was further considerably degraded from around 836 to 162 bp in the sterilization procedure at 121 degrees C for 30 s. The effect of the homogenization step on endogenous and exogenous genes was similar to that of the cooking procedure. The coagulation procedure, principally a biochemical reaction, did not greatly affect the exogenous gene but did affect endogenous gene, reducing DNA size from about 836 to 407 bp. Furthermore, the spray-drying procedure, a process of physical shearing, high temperature, and sudden high pressure, distinctly caused degradation of both the lectin and epsps genes, rapidly decreasing the sizes from about 836 to 162 bp for the endogenous gene and from about 408 to 190

  8. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer from serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Zhengrong; Liu, Ronghui; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2016-03-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture for thousands of years, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this work, microorganism community of the fermented serofluid dish was investigated by the culture-independent method. The metagenomic data in this article contains the sequences of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA genes from 12 different serofluid dish samples. The metagenome comprised of 50,865 average raw reads with an average of 8,958,220 bp and G + C content is 45.62%. This is the first report on metagenomic data of fungal ITS from serofluid dish employing Illumina platform to profile the fungal communities of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP067411. PMID:26981389

  9. Cultivation-independent comprehensive investigations on bacterial communities in serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Zhengrong; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Yan; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2016-03-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this study, bacterial community of the fermented serofluid dish was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 49,589 average raw reads with an average 11,497,917 bp and G + C content is 52.46%. This is the first report on V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The metagenome sequence can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP065370. PMID:26981386

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Fang, Jun; Liu, Zhixiang; Tang, Junhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess based on solid state fermentation for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was carried out. The hydrogen production plant was assumed to be built in Hangzhou and designed for converting 3 ton food waste per day into hydrogen. The total capital cost (TCC) and the annual production cost (APC) were US$583092 and US$88298.1/year, respectively. The overall revenue after the tax was US$146473.6/year. The return on investment (ROI), payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) of the plant were 26.75%, 5 years and 24.07%, respectively. The results exhibited that the combined bioprocess for hydrogen production from food waste was feasible. This is an important study for attracting investment and industrialization interest for hydrogen production from food waste in the industrial scale.

  11. Synthesis of isoflavone aglycones and equol in soy milks fermented by food-related lactic acid bacteria and their effect on human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Mazzacane, Francesco; Rizzello, Carlo G; Vincentini, Olimpia; Silano, Marco; Giuliani, Giammaria; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-10-13

    One hundred and three strains of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from various food ecosystems, were assayed for β-glucosidase activity toward p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside substrate. Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMA24W and DPPMASL33, Lactobacillus fermentum DPPMA114, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DPPMAAZ1 showed the highest activities and were selected as the mixed starter to ferment various soy milk preparations, which mainly differed for chemical composition, protein dispersibility index, and size dimension. The soy milk made with organically farmed soybeans (OFS) was selected as the best preparation. All selected strains grew well in OFS soy milk, reaching almost the same values of cell density (ca. 8.5 log cfu/mL). After 96 h of fermentation with the selected mixed starter, OFS soy milk contained 57.0 μM daidzein, 140.3 μM genistein, 20.4 μM glycitein, and 37.3 μM equol. Fermented and nonfermented OFS soy milks were used for the in vitro assays on intestinal human Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented OFS soy milk markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells as induced by treatment with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (1000 U/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/mL), maintained the integrity of the tight junctions, even if subjected to negative stimulation by IFN-γ, and markedly inhibited the synthesis of IL-8, after treatment with interleukin-1β (2 ng/mL). As shown by using chemical standards, these effects were due to the concomitant activities of isoflavone aglycones and, especially, equol, which were synthesized in the fermented OFS soy milk preparation.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus isolated from naturally fermented dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Guo, Chenyi; Wu, Yarong; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Menghe, Bilige; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Heping

    2016-03-04

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the most widely used starter culture strains in industrial fermented dairy manufacture. It is also common in naturally fermented dairy foods made using traditional methods. The subsp. bulgaricus strains found in naturally fermented foods may be useful for improving current industrial starter cultures; however, little is known regarding its genetic diversity and population structure. Here, a collection of 298 L. delbrueckii strains from naturally fermented products in Mongolia, Russia, and West China was analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing based on eight conserved genes. The 251 confirmed subsp. bulgaricus strains produced 106 unique sequence types, the majority of which were assigned to five clonal complexes (CCs). The geographical distribution of CCs was uneven, with CC1 dominated by Mongolian and Russian isolates, and CC2-CC5 isolates exclusively from Xinjiang, China. Population structure analysis suggested six lineages, L1-L6, with various homologous recombination rates. Although L2-L5 were mainly restricted within specific regions, strains belonging to L1 and L6 were observed in diverse regions, suggesting historical transmission events. These results greatly enhance our knowledge of the population diversity of subsp. bulgaricus strains, and suggest that strains from CC1 and L4 may be useful as starter strains in industrial fermentation.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus isolated from naturally fermented dairy foods

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Guo, Chenyi; Wu, Yarong; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Menghe, Bilige; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the most widely used starter culture strains in industrial fermented dairy manufacture. It is also common in naturally fermented dairy foods made using traditional methods. The subsp. bulgaricus strains found in naturally fermented foods may be useful for improving current industrial starter cultures; however, little is known regarding its genetic diversity and population structure. Here, a collection of 298 L. delbrueckii strains from naturally fermented products in Mongolia, Russia, and West China was analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing based on eight conserved genes. The 251 confirmed subsp. bulgaricus strains produced 106 unique sequence types, the majority of which were assigned to five clonal complexes (CCs). The geographical distribution of CCs was uneven, with CC1 dominated by Mongolian and Russian isolates, and CC2–CC5 isolates exclusively from Xinjiang, China. Population structure analysis suggested six lineages, L1–L6, with various homologous recombination rates. Although L2–L5 were mainly restricted within specific regions, strains belonging to L1 and L6 were observed in diverse regions, suggesting historical transmission events. These results greatly enhance our knowledge of the population diversity of subsp. bulgaricus strains, and suggest that strains from CC1 and L4 may be useful as starter strains in industrial fermentation. PMID:26940047

  14. Characterization of soluble soybean polysaccharide film incorporated essential oil intended for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Shahidi Noghabi, Mostafa; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    This study examines the development of new bio-active polysaccharide-based bioplastics through casting and solvent-evaporation. Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) films incorporated with Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at various concentrations were prepared and characterized. The presence of ZEO and MEO improved polysaccharide interactions, reducing the films' water solubility and water vapor barrier properties, but did not markedly modify their moisture content or thickness. Differing amounts of ZEO or MEO had no significant effect on mechanical behavior, with the exception of 3% oil concentration, which decreased tensile strength and significantly increased elongation at break. DMTA curves revealed a single Tg, which may indicate the compatibility of essential oil and SSPS. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO can potentially be directly incorporated into SSPS to prepare active biodegradable films for food-packaging applications. PMID:23987454

  15. Characterization of soluble soybean polysaccharide film incorporated essential oil intended for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Shahidi Noghabi, Mostafa; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    This study examines the development of new bio-active polysaccharide-based bioplastics through casting and solvent-evaporation. Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) films incorporated with Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at various concentrations were prepared and characterized. The presence of ZEO and MEO improved polysaccharide interactions, reducing the films' water solubility and water vapor barrier properties, but did not markedly modify their moisture content or thickness. Differing amounts of ZEO or MEO had no significant effect on mechanical behavior, with the exception of 3% oil concentration, which decreased tensile strength and significantly increased elongation at break. DMTA curves revealed a single Tg, which may indicate the compatibility of essential oil and SSPS. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO can potentially be directly incorporated into SSPS to prepare active biodegradable films for food-packaging applications.

  16. Molecular identification and quantification of lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented dairy foods of Russia.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Wang, H M; Zha, M S; Qing, Y T; Bai, N; Ren, Y; Xi, X X; Liu, W J; Menghe, B L G; Zhang, H P

    2015-08-01

    Russian traditional fermented dairy foods have been consumed for thousands of years. However, little research has focused on exploiting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) resources and analyzing the LAB composition of Russian traditional fermented dairy foods. In the present study, we cultured LAB isolated from fermented mare and cow milks, sour cream, and cheese collected from Kalmykiya, Buryats, and Tuva regions of Russia. Seven lactobacillus species and the Bifidobacterium genus were quantified by quantitative PCR. The LAB counts in these samples ranged from 3.18 to 9.77 log cfu/mL (or per gram). In total, 599 LAB strains were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. The identified LAB belonged to 7 genera and 30 species by 16S rRNA and murE gene sequencing and multiplex PCR assay. The predominant LAB isolates were Lactobacillus helveticus (176 strains) and Lactobacillus plantarum (63 strains), which represented 39.9% of all isolates. The quantitative PCR results revealed that counts of 7 lactobacilli species and Bifidobacterium spp. of 30 fermented cow milk samples ranged from 1.19±0.34 (Lactobacillus helveticus in Tuva) to 8.09±0.71 (Lactobacillus acidophilus in Kalmykiya) log cfu/mL of fermented cow milk (mean ± standard error). The numbers of Bifidobacterium spp., Lb. plantarum, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. acidophilus revealed no significant difference between the 3 regions; nevertheless, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus exhibited different degrees of variation across 3 regions. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Russia have complex compositions of LAB species. The diversity of LAB might be related to the type of fermented dairy product, geographical origin, and manufacturing process.

  17. Molecular identification and quantification of lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented dairy foods of Russia.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Wang, H M; Zha, M S; Qing, Y T; Bai, N; Ren, Y; Xi, X X; Liu, W J; Menghe, B L G; Zhang, H P

    2015-08-01

    Russian traditional fermented dairy foods have been consumed for thousands of years. However, little research has focused on exploiting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) resources and analyzing the LAB composition of Russian traditional fermented dairy foods. In the present study, we cultured LAB isolated from fermented mare and cow milks, sour cream, and cheese collected from Kalmykiya, Buryats, and Tuva regions of Russia. Seven lactobacillus species and the Bifidobacterium genus were quantified by quantitative PCR. The LAB counts in these samples ranged from 3.18 to 9.77 log cfu/mL (or per gram). In total, 599 LAB strains were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. The identified LAB belonged to 7 genera and 30 species by 16S rRNA and murE gene sequencing and multiplex PCR assay. The predominant LAB isolates were Lactobacillus helveticus (176 strains) and Lactobacillus plantarum (63 strains), which represented 39.9% of all isolates. The quantitative PCR results revealed that counts of 7 lactobacilli species and Bifidobacterium spp. of 30 fermented cow milk samples ranged from 1.19±0.34 (Lactobacillus helveticus in Tuva) to 8.09±0.71 (Lactobacillus acidophilus in Kalmykiya) log cfu/mL of fermented cow milk (mean ± standard error). The numbers of Bifidobacterium spp., Lb. plantarum, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. acidophilus revealed no significant difference between the 3 regions; nevertheless, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus exhibited different degrees of variation across 3 regions. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Russia have complex compositions of LAB species. The diversity of LAB might be related to the type of fermented dairy product, geographical origin, and manufacturing process. PMID:26004836

  18. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate.

  19. Novel Production Protocol for Small-scale Manufacture of Probiotic Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Westerik, Nieke; Wacoo, Alex Paul; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco

    2016-01-01

    A novel dried bacterial consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106 is cultured in 1 L of milk. This fresh starter can be used for the production of fermented milk and other fermented foods either at home or at small-scale in rural settings. For the fresh starter, 1 L of milk is pasteurized in a pan that fits into a larger pan containing water, placed on a source of heat. In this water bath, the milk is heated and incubated at 85 °C for 30 min. Thereafter, the milk is cooled down to 45 °C, transferred to a vacuum flask, inoculated with the dried bacteria and left for at least 16 hr between 30 °C and 45 °C. For the purpose of frequent home production, the fresh starter is frozen into ice cubes, which can be used for the production of small volumes of up to 2 L of fermented milk. For the purpose of small-scale production in resource-poor countries, pasteurization of up to 100 L of milk is conducted in milk cans that are placed in a large sauce pan filled with water and heated on a fire at 85 °C for 30 min, and subsequently cooled to 45 °C. Next, the 100 L batch is inoculated with the 1 L freshly prepared starter mentioned before. To assure an effective fermentation at a temperature between 30 and 45 °C, the milk can is covered with a blanket for 12 hr. For the production of non-dairy fermented foods, the fresh starter is left in a cheese cloth for 12 hr, and the drained-off whey can be subsequently used for the inoculation of a wide range of food raw materials, including vegetables and cereal-based foods. PMID:27684196

  20. Novel Production Protocol for Small-scale Manufacture of Probiotic Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Westerik, Nieke; Wacoo, Alex Paul; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco

    2016-01-01

    A novel dried bacterial consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106 is cultured in 1 L of milk. This fresh starter can be used for the production of fermented milk and other fermented foods either at home or at small-scale in rural settings. For the fresh starter, 1 L of milk is pasteurized in a pan that fits into a larger pan containing water, placed on a source of heat. In this water bath, the milk is heated and incubated at 85 °C for 30 min. Thereafter, the milk is cooled down to 45 °C, transferred to a vacuum flask, inoculated with the dried bacteria and left for at least 16 hr between 30 °C and 45 °C. For the purpose of frequent home production, the fresh starter is frozen into ice cubes, which can be used for the production of small volumes of up to 2 L of fermented milk. For the purpose of small-scale production in resource-poor countries, pasteurization of up to 100 L of milk is conducted in milk cans that are placed in a large sauce pan filled with water and heated on a fire at 85 °C for 30 min, and subsequently cooled to 45 °C. Next, the 100 L batch is inoculated with the 1 L freshly prepared starter mentioned before. To assure an effective fermentation at a temperature between 30 and 45 °C, the milk can is covered with a blanket for 12 hr. For the production of non-dairy fermented foods, the fresh starter is left in a cheese cloth for 12 hr, and the drained-off whey can be subsequently used for the inoculation of a wide range of food raw materials, including vegetables and cereal-based foods.

  1. Reduction of soybean meal non-starch polysaccharides and α-galactosides by solid-state fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria obtained from different environments.

    PubMed

    Opazo, Rafael; Ortúzar, Felipe; Navarrete, Paola; Espejo, Romilio; Romero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is an important protein source in animal feed. However, the levels of SBM inclusion are restricted in some animal species by the presence of antinutritional factors (ANFs), including non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and α-galactosides (GOSs). The aim of this study was to reduce the soybean meal NSPs and GOSs by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a combination of cellulolytic bacteria isolated from different environments (termites, earthworms, corn silage and bovine ruminal content). To analyse the key enzymatic activities, the isolates were grown in minimal media containing NSPs extracted from SBM. The selected bacterial strains belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Cohnella and Cellulosimicrobium. SSF resulted in a reduction of nearly 24% in the total NSPs, 83% of stachyose and 69% of raffinose and an increase in the protein content. These results suggest that cellulolytic bacteria-based SSF processing facilitates SBM nutritional improvement. In addition, the use of fermented SBM in animal diets can be recommended. PMID:22984557

  2. Reduction of Soybean Meal Non-Starch Polysaccharides and α-Galactosides by Solid-State Fermentation Using Cellulolytic Bacteria Obtained from Different Environments

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Rafael; Ortúzar, Felipe; Navarrete, Paola; Espejo, Romilio; Romero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is an important protein source in animal feed. However, the levels of SBM inclusion are restricted in some animal species by the presence of antinutritional factors (ANFs), including non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and α-galactosides (GOSs). The aim of this study was to reduce the soybean meal NSPs and GOSs by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a combination of cellulolytic bacteria isolated from different environments (termites, earthworms, corn silage and bovine ruminal content). To analyse the key enzymatic activities, the isolates were grown in minimal media containing NSPs extracted from SBM. The selected bacterial strains belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Cohnella and Cellulosimicrobium. SSF resulted in a reduction of nearly 24% in the total NSPs, 83% of stachyose and 69% of raffinose and an increase in the protein content. These results suggest that cellulolytic bacteria-based SSF processing facilitates SBM nutritional improvement. In addition, the use of fermented SBM in animal diets can be recommended. PMID:22984557

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Milk by Lactobacillus casei Strains.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhijie; Chi, Yujie

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of fermented soybean milk (FSM) by Lactobacillus casei strains in vitro was investigated in this study. Effects of fermented soybean milk administration by gavage on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was also evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) rats and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Results showed that, CICC 20280 and CICC 23184 FSM showed high ACE inhibitory activity in vitro test and ACE inhibitory activity of CICC 23184 FSM was higher than CICC 20280 FSM. The bioactive substances of FSM were peptide and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Their contents in CICC 20280 FSM and CICC 23184 FSM were 3.97 ± 0.67 mg/ml (peptide), 1.71 ± 0.36 mg/ml (GABA) and 5.17 ± 0.22 mg/ml (peptide), 1.57 ± 0.21 mg/ml (GABA), respectively. Moreover, CICC 20280 and CICC 23184 FSM administration by gavage could effectively lower the blood pressure of SHR to a normal level, while there was no effect on blood pressure of WKY rats. This result indicated that the bioactive substances could play an antihypertensive role when the blood pressure was not within the normal levels (high levels). PMID:27139252

  4. Effects of household detergent on anaerobic fermentation of kitchen wastewater from food waste disposer.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Park, K Y; Khanal, S K; Lee, J W

    2013-01-15

    This study examines the effects of household detergent on anaerobic methane fermentation of wastewater from food waste disposers (FWDs). Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) demonstrated that methane production substantially decreased at a higher detergent concentration. The Gompertz three-parameter model fitted well with the ATA results, and both the extent of methane production (M) and methane production rate (R(m)) obtained from the model were strongly affected by the concentration of the detergent. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the detergent was 603 mg/L based on R(m). Results from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) analysis of microbial culture revealed that deterioration of methane fermentation was attributed to impaired structure of anaerobic microbial membrane due to detergent. This study suggests that wastewater from FWD could be used for methane production, but it is necessary to reduce the concentration of detergent prior to anaerobic fermentation.

  5. The effects of fermented soybean meal on immunophysiological and stress-related parameters in Holstein calves after weaning.

    PubMed

    Kim, M H; Yun, C H; Lee, C H; Ha, J K

    2012-09-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with fermented SBM (FSBM) on immunophysiological and stress-related parameters in Holstein calves after weaning. Eighteen Holstein calves were randomly assigned to receive either SBM or FSBM (5% of SBM was replaced with FSBM) calf starter and calves were weaned at 42 d of age. It was noted that FSBM contained a lower content of trypsin inhibitor but higher crude protein, amino acids, and small-sized peptides than those of SBM. The group fed FSBM calf starter significantly increased body weight gain and intakes of both feed and milk, when compared with those fed SBM calf starter at 4 wk of age. Calves fed the FSBM calf starter had significantly lower fecal scores than those fed the SBM calf starter during both pre- and postweaning periods. Calves also had better health scores when fed the FSBM calf starter than those fed SBM during the preweaning period. Weaning challenge significantly increased proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels at 1d postweaning (DPW). The TNF-α and IL-6 levels of the SBM group were significantly higher compared with those of the FSBM group at 3 DPW. Acute phase proteins (serum amyloid A and haptoglobin) in the serum were increased after weaning. Concentrations of serum amyloid A and haptoglobin in calves fed FSBM calf starter were significantly lower than those fed the SBM calf starter at 3 and 5 DPW, respectively. The concentration of cortisol was significantly lower in the FSBM group than that of the SBM group at 3 DPW. Weaning stress did not cause drastic changes in the total serum immunoglobulin levels and composition of peripheral lymphocytes. Our results indicate that FSBM may not only improve growth performance, feed intake, and health conditions during the preweaning period, but also alleviate stress responses, which was indicated by reduced induction of stress hormone, proinflammatory

  6. Inhibitory effects of Doenjang, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, on oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ye Rim; Won, Sae Bom; Chung, Young-Shin; Kwak, Chung Shil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Doenjang, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste has been reported to have an anti-obesity effect. Because adipose tissue is considered a major source of inflammatory signals, we investigated the protective effects of Doenjang and steamed soybean on oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat diet (LF), a high-fat diet (HF), or a high-fat containing Doenjang diet (DJ) or a high-fat containing steamed soybean diet (SS) for 11 weeks. RESULTS Mice fed a DJ diet showed significantly lower body and adipose tissue weights than those in the HF group. Although no significant differences in adipocyte size and number were observed among the HF diet-fed groups, consumption of Doenjang alleviated the incidence of crown-like structures in adipose tissue. Consistently, we observed significantly reduced mRNA levels of oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and p40phox), pro-inflammatory adipokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1), macrophage markers (CD68 and CD11c), and a fibrosis marker (transforming growth factor beta 1) by Doenjang consumption. Gene expression of anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin was significantly induced in the DJ group and the SS group compared to the HF group. The anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects observed in mice fed an SS diet were not as effective as those in mice fed a DJ diet, suggesting that the bioactive compounds produced during fermentation and aging may be involved in the observed health-beneficial effects of Doenjang. CONCLUSIONS Doenjang alleviated oxidative stress and restored the dysregulated expression of adipokine genes caused by excess adiposity. Therefore, Doenjang may ameliorate systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in obesity via inhibition of inflammatory signals of adipose tissue. PMID:26060534

  7. Evaluation of Safety of Iron-Fortified Soybean Sprouts, a Potential Component of Functional Food, in Rat.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Szaefer, Hanna; Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Ferritin-iron is currently considered as one of the most promising iron forms to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. We found that the cultivation of soybean seeds in a solution of ferrous sulfate results in material with extremely high iron content - 560.6 mg Fe/100 g of dry matter, while ferritin iron content was 420.5 mg/100 g dry matter. To assess the potential adverse effects of a preparation containing such a high concentration of iron, male and female Wistar rats were exposed via diet to 10, 30, 60 g soybean sprouts powder/kg feed for 90 days. There were no differences in final body weight and mean food consumption between controls and rats administered sprouts. No statistically significant differences in haematology and clinical chemistry parameters were found between controls and treated rats. Microscopic examination of 22 tissues did not reveal any pathology due to soybean sprouts intake. Long term administration of the test material did not cause oxidative damage to DNA and protein in the liver as evidenced by the unchanged basal levels of DNA damage as well as carbonyl groups content. Lipid peroxidation was slightly increased only in females. The activity of several antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was increased, which substantially enhanced the antioxidant status in the liver from the rats treated with soybean sprouts. Hence, the material tested can be recommended as a component of food supplements for individuals with iron deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26880214

  8. Menaquinones, Bacteria, and the Food Supply: The Relevance of Dairy and Fermented Food Products to Vitamin K Requirements123

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Barbara; Karl, J. Philip; Booth, Sarah L.; Boyaval, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form and as menaquinones (MKs), a collection of isoprenologues mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Although multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about the presence and distribution of MK in the food supply and the relative contribution of MK to total dietary vitamin K intake. Dairy products may be a predominant source of dietary MK in many regions of the world, and there is recent interest in enhancing the MK content of dairy products through identification and selection of MK-producing bacteria in dairy fermentations. This interest is increased by emerging evidence that current dietary recommendations based on the classic role of vitamin K as an enzyme cofactor for coagulation proteins may not be optimal for supporting vitamin K requirements in extrahepatic tissues and that MK may have unique bioactivity beyond that as an enzyme cofactor. Observational studies have reported favorable associations between MK intake and bone and cardiovascular health. Although randomized trials have provided some evidence to support the beneficial effects of MK on bone, the evidence to date is not definitive, and randomized trials have not yet examined MK intake in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Food production practices provide a means to enhance dietary MK availability and intake. However, parallel research is needed to optimize these production practices, develop comprehensive food MK content databases, and test hypotheses of unique beneficial physiological roles of MK beyond that achieved by phylloquinone. PMID:23858094

  9. Caregivers’ Knowledge and Use of Fermented Foods for Infant and Young Children Feeding in a Rural Community of Odi, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chelule, Paul K; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Zungu, Lindiwe I; Chaponda, Armelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to­wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers’ awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented foods by child caregivers attending a local antenatal clinic through focus group discussions. Results: Thirty three caregivers participated in the study; however 29 indicated their demographic profiles. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis included knowledge on fermented foods, perceived benefits of fermentation, varied views about fermentation and feeding practices. Fermented foods that caregivers, their families and community members consume include ting, fat cakes, dumplings, sorghum beer and mageu. Findings also showed that children consumed fermented foods in form of soft ting porridge; and yoghurt, marketed as Activia and Danone commercial brands. Also, caregivers were not comfortable feeding their children with fermented foods, indicating their limited knowledge on the nutri­tional value of these foods. Conclusion: It is critical to promote caregivers’ knowledge and use of fermented foods for feeding infants and young children in South African rural communities. PMID:25097837

  10. Intake of fermented soybeans, natto, is associated with reduced bone loss in postmenopausal women: Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Study.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yukihiro; Iki, Masayuki; Morita, Akemi; Kajita, Etsuko; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Kagawa, Yoshiko; Yoneshima, Hideo

    2006-05-01

    Japanese fermented soybeans (natto in Japanese), which contain a large amount of menaquinone-7, may help prevent the development of osteoporosis. We assessed the possibility of an association between habitual natto intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD change over time in healthy Japanese women who participated in a large representative cohort study (Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis Study: JPOS study). The BMD was measured at the spine, hip, and forearm in 944 women (20-79 y old) at baseline and at a follow-up conducted 3 y later. Dietary natto intake was assessed by a FFQ on both occasions. Additional covariates including age, height, weight, lifestyle factors, dietary calcium intake, and the intake of other soybean products, were also measured. The total hip BMD at baseline increased (P for trend = 0.0034) with increasing habitual natto intake in the postmenopausal women, although this was not the case at other skeletal sites. There were significant positive associations between natto intake and the rates of changes in BMD at the femoral neck (P < 0.0001) and at the distal third of the radius (P = 0.0002) in the postmenopausal women. The association in the femoral neck persisted even after adjusting for covariates. No significant association was observed between the intake of tofu or other soybean products and the rate of BMD change in the postmenopausal women. Natto intake may help prevent postmenopausal bone loss through the effects of menaquinone 7 or bioavailable isoflavones, which are more abundant in natto than in other soybean products.

  11. Soyfoods and soybean products: from traditional use to modern applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-I; Erh, Mei-Hui; Su, Nan-Wei; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Chou, Cheng-Chun; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2012-10-01

    Soybean products (soyfoods), reported as potential functional foods, are implicated in several health-enhancing properties, such as easing the symptoms of postmenopausal women, reducing the risk of osteoporosis, preventing cardiovascular disease, and antimutagenic effects. Isoflavone, for example, is one of the most important compounds abundantly found in soybean, mainly accounting for the health-enhancing properties as mentioned earlier. However, most biological activities of isoflavones are mainly attributed to their aglycone forms. It has also been demonstrated that isoflavone aglycones are absorbed faster and in greater amount than their glycosides in human intestines. Fortunately, deglycosylation of isoflavones can be achieved during fermentation process by several strains such as lactic acid bacteria, basidiomycetes, filamentous fungus, and Bacillus subtilis with their β-glucosidase activity. This article presents an overview of soybean's chemistry, application, state-of-the-art advances in soybean fermentation processing and products as well as their applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Different compounds, such as isoflavone, dietary fibers, and proteins which exhibit significant bioactivities, are summarized. The roles of different microorganisms in bioconversion and enhancement of bioactivities of fermented soybean are also discussed.

  12. Valorisation of food waste via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Hu, Yunzi; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-10-01

    Food waste recycling via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid (LA) fermentation has been investigated. Hydrolysates derived from mixed food waste and bakery waste were rich in glucose (80.0-100.2gL(-1)), fructose (7.6gL(-1)) and free amino nitrogen (947-1081mgL(-1)). In the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota, 94.0gL(-1) and 82.6gL(-1) of LA were produced with productivity of 2.61gL(-1)h(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1) for mixed food waste and bakery waste hydrolysate, respectively. The yield was 0.94gg(-1) for both hydrolysates. Similar results were obtained using food waste powder hydrolysate, in which 90.1gL(-1) of LA was produced with a yield and productivity of 0.92gg(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1). The results demonstrate the feasibility of an efficient bioconversion of food waste to LA and a decentralized approach of food waste recycling in urban area.

  13. Fermented Foods: Are They Tasty Medicines for Helicobacter pylori Associated Peptic Ulcer and Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed

    Nair, Mydhily R B; Chouhan, Deepak; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    More than a million people die every year due to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Helicobacter pylori infection in stomach is the most important reason for these diseases. Interestingly, only 10-20% of the H. pylori infected individuals suffer from these gastric diseases and rest of the infected individuals remain asymptomatic. The genotypes of H. pylori, host genetic background, lifestyle including smoking and diet may determine clinical outcomes. People from different geographical regions have different food habits, which also include several unique fermented products of plant and animal origins. When consumed raw, the fermented foods bring in fresh inocula of microbes to gastrointestinal tract and several strains of these microbes, like Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces are known probiotics. In vitro and in vivo experiments as well as clinical trials suggest that several probiotics have anti-H. pylori effects. Here we discuss the possibility of using natural probiotics present in traditional fermented food and beverages to obtain protection against H. pylori induced gastric diseases. PMID:27504109

  14. An experimental study on fermentative H₂ production from food waste as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Friargiu, M; Massi, E; Muntoni, A; Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Spiga, D

    2014-08-01

    Batch dark fermentation experiments were performed on food waste and mixtures of food waste and wastewater activated sludge to evaluate the influence of pH on biological H2 production and compare the process performance with and without inoculum addition. The effect of a preliminary thermal shock treatment of the inoculum was also investigated as a means to harvest the hydrogenogenic biomass. The best performance in terms of both H2 generation potential and process kinetics was observed at pH=6.5 under all experimental conditions (no inoculum, and untreated or thermally treated inoculum added). H2 production from food waste was found to be feasible even without inoculum addition, although thermal pre-treatment of the inoculum notably increased the maximum production and reduced the lag phase duration. The analysis of the fermentation products indicated that the biological hydrogen production could be mainly ascribed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type fermentation. However, the presence of additional metabolites in the digestate, including propionate and ethanol, also indicated that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, reducing substrate conversion into hydrogen. The plateau in H2 generation was found to mirror the condition at which soluble carbohydrates were depleted. Beyond this condition, homoacetogenesis probably started to play a role in the degradation process.

  15. Fermented Foods: Are They Tasty Medicines for Helicobacter pylori Associated Peptic Ulcer and Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Mydhily R. B.; Chouhan, Deepak; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    More than a million people die every year due to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Helicobacter pylori infection in stomach is the most important reason for these diseases. Interestingly, only 10–20% of the H. pylori infected individuals suffer from these gastric diseases and rest of the infected individuals remain asymptomatic. The genotypes of H. pylori, host genetic background, lifestyle including smoking and diet may determine clinical outcomes. People from different geographical regions have different food habits, which also include several unique fermented products of plant and animal origins. When consumed raw, the fermented foods bring in fresh inocula of microbes to gastrointestinal tract and several strains of these microbes, like Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces are known probiotics. In vitro and in vivo experiments as well as clinical trials suggest that several probiotics have anti-H. pylori effects. Here we discuss the possibility of using natural probiotics present in traditional fermented food and beverages to obtain protection against H. pylori induced gastric diseases. PMID:27504109

  16. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level. PMID

  17. Okara (soybean residue) biotransformation by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Vong, Weng Chan; Au Yang, Kai Ling Corrine; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-10-17

    Okara, or soybean residue, is a soy food processing by-product from the manufacture of soymilk and soybean curd (tofu). In this study, solid-state fermentation of okara was conducted over 5days using yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the changes in proximate composition, antioxidant capacity, non-volatiles and volatiles were investigated. Yeast metabolism of okara significantly increased the amounts of lipid, succinate and free amino acids and enhanced the antioxidant capacity. In particular, there was a marked increase in important umami tastants after fermentation, with 3-fold increase in succinate and a 20-fold increase in glutamate. The final fermented okara contained 3.37g succinate and 335mg glutamate/100g dry matter. Aldehydes and their derived acids in the fresh okara were catabolised by Y. lipolytica mainly to methyl ketones, leading to a reduced grassy off-odour and a slightly pungent, musty and cheese-like odour in the fermented okara. Amino acid-derived volatiles, such as 3-methylbutanal and 2-phenylethanol, were also produced. Overall, the okara fermented by Y. lipolytica had a greater amount of umami-tasting substances, a cheese-like odour, improved digestibility and enhanced antioxidant capacity. These changes highlight the potential of Yarrowia-fermented okara as a more nutritious, savoury food product or ingredient. Y. lipolytica was thus demonstrated to be suitable for the biovalorisation of this soy food processing by-product. PMID:27391864

  18. Okara (soybean residue) biotransformation by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Vong, Weng Chan; Au Yang, Kai Ling Corrine; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-10-17

    Okara, or soybean residue, is a soy food processing by-product from the manufacture of soymilk and soybean curd (tofu). In this study, solid-state fermentation of okara was conducted over 5days using yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the changes in proximate composition, antioxidant capacity, non-volatiles and volatiles were investigated. Yeast metabolism of okara significantly increased the amounts of lipid, succinate and free amino acids and enhanced the antioxidant capacity. In particular, there was a marked increase in important umami tastants after fermentation, with 3-fold increase in succinate and a 20-fold increase in glutamate. The final fermented okara contained 3.37g succinate and 335mg glutamate/100g dry matter. Aldehydes and their derived acids in the fresh okara were catabolised by Y. lipolytica mainly to methyl ketones, leading to a reduced grassy off-odour and a slightly pungent, musty and cheese-like odour in the fermented okara. Amino acid-derived volatiles, such as 3-methylbutanal and 2-phenylethanol, were also produced. Overall, the okara fermented by Y. lipolytica had a greater amount of umami-tasting substances, a cheese-like odour, improved digestibility and enhanced antioxidant capacity. These changes highlight the potential of Yarrowia-fermented okara as a more nutritious, savoury food product or ingredient. Y. lipolytica was thus demonstrated to be suitable for the biovalorisation of this soy food processing by-product.

  19. Supplementation of a Fermented Soybean Extract Reduces Body Mass and Prevents Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6J Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Aravinthan, Adithan; Park, Young Shik; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Seong, Su-Il; Hwang, Kwontack

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem that many countries face, mostly due to the consumption of a Westernized diet. In this present study we observed the effects of a soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1) containing 1-deoxynojirimycin against high fat diet-induced obesity. The results obtained from this study indicated that BTD-1 reduced body weight, regulated hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue, and also affected liver antioxidant enzymes and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that administration of BTD-1 affects obesity by inhibiting hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated stress; it also reduces lipid accumulation. Therefore, BTD-1 may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity and its related secondary complications. PMID:27752494

  20. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DC-4 screened from douchi, a traditional Chinese soybean food.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Ren-huai; Zhang, Yi-zheng

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DC-4, which produces a strongly fibrinolytic enzyme, was isolated from douchi, a traditional Chinese soybean-fermented food. A fibrinolytic enzyme (subtilisin DFE) was purified from the supernatant of B. amyloliquefaciens DC-4 culture broth and displayed thermophilic, hydrophilic and strong fibrinolytic activity. Subtilisin DFE was demonstrated to be homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis, and has molecular mass of 28000 Da and a pI of 8.0. The optimal reaction pH value and temperature were 9.0 and 48 degrees C, respectively. Subtilisin DFE not only hydrolyzed fibrin but also several synthetic substrates, particularly Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA, and phenylmethylsulfony fluoride can completely inhibit its fibrinolytic activity. These results indicated that subtilisin DFE is a subtilisin-family serine protease, similar to nattokinase from Bacillus natto. The first 24 amino acid residues of the N-terminal sequence of subtilisin DFE were AQSVPYGVSQIKAPALHSQGFTGS, which is identical to that of subtilisin K-54, and different from that of NK and CK. Results from subtilisin DFE gene sequence analysis showed that subtilisin DFE is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme.

  1. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  2. Characterization of some bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona; Stancu, Mihaela-Marilena; Pelinescu, Diana; Zamfir, Medana

    2014-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from different sources (dairy products, fruits, fresh and fermented vegetables, fermented cereals) were screened for antimicrobial activity against other bacteria, including potential pathogens and food spoiling bacteria. Six strains have been shown to produce bacteriocins: Lactococcus lactis 19.3, Lactobacillus plantarum 26.1, Enterococcus durans 41.2, isolated from dairy products and Lactobacillus amylolyticus P40 and P50, and Lactobacillus oris P49, isolated from bors. Among the six bacteriocins, there were both heat stable, low molecular mass polypeptides, with a broad inhibitory spectrum, probably belonging to class II bacteriocins, and heat labile, high molecular mass proteins, with a very narrow inhibitory spectrum, most probably belonging to class III bacteriocins. A synergistic effect of some bacteriocins mixtures was observed. We can conclude that fermented foods are still important sources of new functional LAB. Among the six characterized bacteriocins, there might be some novel compounds with interesting features. Moreover, the bacteriocin-producing strains isolated in our study may find applications as protective cultures.

  3. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM.

  4. Fermented soybeans, Chungkookjang, prevent hippocampal cell death and β-cell apoptosis by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines in gerbils with transient artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Moon, Bo Reum

    2015-01-01

    Since Chungkookjang, a short-term fermented soybean, is known to improve glucose metabolism and antioxidant activity, it may prevent the neurological symptoms and glucose disturbance induced by artery occlusion. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of traditional (TFC) and standardized Chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BLFC) against ischemia/reperfusion damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and against hyperglycemia after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Gerbils were subjected to either an occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 8 min to render them ischemic or a sham operation. Ischemic gerbils were fed either a 40% fat diet containing 10% of either cooked soybean (CSB), TFC, or BLFC for 28 days. Neuronal cell death and cytokine expression in the hippocampus, neurological deficit, serum cytokine levels, and glucose metabolism were measured. TFC and BLFC contained more isoflavonoid aglycones than CSB. Artery occlusion increased the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α as well as cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and induced severe neurological symptoms. CSB, TFC, and BLFC prevented the neuronal cell death and the symptoms such as dropped eyelid, bristling hair, reduced muscle tone and flexor reflex, and abnormal posture and walking patterns, and suppressed cytokine expressions. CSB was less effective than TFC and BLFC. Artery occlusion induced glucose intolerance due to decreased insulin secretion and β-cell mass. TFC and BLFC prevented the impairment of glucose metabolism by artery occlusion. Especially TFC and BLFC increased β-cell proliferation and suppressed the β-cell apoptosis by suppressing TNF-α and IL-1β which in turn decreased cleaved caspase-3 that caused apoptosis. In conclusion, TFC and BLFC may prevent and alleviate neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and neurological symptoms and poststroke hyperglycemia in gerbils with artery occlusion. This might be associated with

  5. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. PMID:25707598

  6. Fermented soybeans, Chungkookjang, prevent hippocampal cell death and β-cell apoptosis by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines in gerbils with transient artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Sunna; Moon, Bo Reum

    2016-02-01

    Since Chungkookjang, a short-term fermented soybean, is known to improve glucose metabolism and antioxidant activity, it may prevent the neurological symptoms and glucose disturbance induced by artery occlusion. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of traditional (TFC) and standardized Chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BLFC) against ischemia/reperfusion damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and against hyperglycemia after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Gerbils were subjected to either an occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 8 min to render them ischemic or a sham operation. Ischemic gerbils were fed either a 40% fat diet containing 10% of either cooked soybean (CSB), TFC, or BLFC for 28 days. Neuronal cell death and cytokine expression in the hippocampus, neurological deficit, serum cytokine levels, and glucose metabolism were measured. TFC and BLFC contained more isoflavonoid aglycones than CSB. Artery occlusion increased the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α as well as cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and induced severe neurological symptoms. CSB, TFC, and BLFC prevented the neuronal cell death and the symptoms such as dropped eyelid, bristling hair, reduced muscle tone and flexor reflex, and abnormal posture and walking patterns, and suppressed cytokine expressions. CSB was less effective than TFC and BLFC. Artery occlusion induced glucose intolerance due to decreased insulin secretion and β-cell mass. TFC and BLFC prevented the impairment of glucose metabolism by artery occlusion. Especially TFC and BLFC increased β-cell proliferation and suppressed the β-cell apoptosis by suppressing TNF-α and IL-1β which in turn decreased cleaved caspase-3 that caused apoptosis. In conclusion, TFC and BLFC may prevent and alleviate neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and neurological symptoms and poststroke hyperglycemia in gerbils with artery occlusion. This might be associated with

  7. Functional screening of antibiotic resistance genes from a representative metagenomic library of food fermenting microbiota.

    PubMed

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Zinno, Paola; Stirpe, Mariarita; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest. PMID:25243126

  8. Functional screening of antibiotic resistance genes from a representative metagenomic library of food fermenting microbiota.

    PubMed

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Zinno, Paola; Stirpe, Mariarita; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest.

  9. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting.

  10. Diversity of halophilic archaea in fermented foods and human intestines and their application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Seung

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are prokaryotic organisms distinct from bacteria in the structural and molecular biological sense, and these microorganisms are known to thrive mostly at extreme environments. In particular, most studies on halophilic archaea have been focused on environmental and ecological researches. However, new species of halophilic archaea are being isolated and identified from high salt-fermented foods consumed by humans, and it has been found that various types of halophilic archaea exist in food products by culture-independent molecular biological methods. In addition, even if the numbers are not quite high, DNAs of various halophilic archaea are being detected in human intestines and much interest is given to their possible roles. This review aims to summarize the types and characteristics of halophilic archaea reported to be present in foods and human intestines and to discuss their application as well.

  11. Analysis of bacterial communities of traditional fermented West African cereal foods using culture independent methods.

    PubMed

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Gasson, Michael J; Narbad, Arjan

    2011-01-31

    In this study, the microbial composition of kunu-zaki and ogi, two popular foods in Nigeria produced after natural, uncontrolled fermentation of cereals, was assessed by culture-independent molecular profiling methods. In particular, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the presence of diverse bacterial communities. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE fingerprints identified species related to Weissella confusa, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus amylolyticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bacillus spp. and Lactococcus lactis spp lactis from food samples obtained from northern and southern geographical locations. A more comprehensive analysis of 272 full-length 16S rRNA gene inserts revealed that 70% of them were assigned to the Lactobacillaceae family and 19% to the Streptococcaceae family. Interestingly, sequences associated with a particular food type were also identified. For example, L. plantarum, L. pantheris and L. vaccinostercus were found in ogi but not in kunu-zaki while W. confusa, Streptococcus lutetiensis and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus were found in kunu-zaki but not in ogi. Phylotypes corresponding to potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus were also detected highlighting the need for controlled fermentation processes.

  12. Multilocus sequence typing of Lactobacillus casei isolates from naturally fermented foods in China and Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Bao, Qiuhua; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Wenyi; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Sun, Zhihong

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium used in manufacturing of many fermented food products. To investigate the genetic diversity and population biology of this food-related bacterium, 224 Lb. casei isolates and 5 reference isolates were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among them, 224 Lb. casei isolates were isolated from homemade fermented foods, including naturally fermented dairy products, acidic gruel, and Sichuan pickles from 38 different regions in China and Mongolia. The MLST scheme was developed based on the analysis of 10 selected housekeeping genes (carB, clpX, dnaA, groEL, murE, pyrG, pheS, recA, rpoC, and uvrC). All 229 isolates could be allocated to 171 unique sequence types, including 25 clonal complexes and 71 singletons. The high index of association value (1.3524) and standardized index of association value (0.1503) indicate the formation of an underlying clonal population by all the isolates. However, split-decomposition, relative frequency of occurrence of recombination and mutation, and relative effect of recombination and mutation in the diversification values confirm that recombination may have occurred, and were more frequent than mutation during the evolution of Lb. casei. Results from Structure analyses (version 2.3; http://pritch.bsd.uchicago.edu/structure.html) demonstrated that there were 5 lineages in the Lb. casei isolates, and the overall relatedness built by minimum spanning tree showed no clear relationship between the clonal complexes with either the isolation sources or sampling locations of the isolates. Our newly developed MLST scheme of Lb. casei was an easy and valuable tool that, together with the construction of an MLST database, will contribute to further detailed studies on the evolution and population genetics of Lb. casei from various niches. PMID:27179867

  13. Genome analysis of lactic acid bacteria in food fermentations and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Nga, Been Hen

    2005-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are an important group of microorganisms, several of which are used in fermented food processes. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-invasive and non-colonising gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, the genome sequence of which has been established. A great deal is known about the genetics, vectors, gene expression systems and protein secretion apparatus of this bacterium. Recently, recombinant strains of L. lactis have been developed that might provide in vivo delivery of cytokines and specific antigens across mucosal surfaces to the immune system of animals.

  14. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  15. Solid-state fermentation of whole oats to yield a synbiotic food rich in lactic acid bacteria and prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Li, Dan; Zhang, XiQing; Shi, Yan; Wang, HaiKuan

    2015-08-01

    This study developed a synbiotic food through the fermentation of whole oat flour with Lactobacillus plantarum TK9 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis V9. The physicochemical properties, changes in ingredients and peptide molecular weight distributions were determined during the whole oat fermentation. The highest viable counts of the fermented oats were 2.85 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) (L. plantarum TK9) and 3.17 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) (Bif. animalis subsp. lactis V9), with the titratable acidity increased to 10.01 and 8.40 mL at the end of the fermentation. By comparing the nutrition compositions between the fermented and non-fermented oat flour, we found that there was almost no change in the soluble dietary fiber and β-glucan content. However, the amounts of free amino nitrogen increased from 110.84 to 154.62 mg per 100 g (L. plantarum TK9) and 82.16 to 104.83 mg per 100 g (Bif. animalis subsp. lactis V9). The levels of oat peptides with molecular weights less than 6000 Da increased by 4.4 and 5.96%, respectively. The results suggest that the fermented whole oat flour has good potential for application in the production of a novel synbiotic food rich in lactic acid bacteria and β-glucan prebiotics.

  16. Enhanced bioelectricity harvesting in microbial fuel cells treating food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho

    2015-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating the food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation were examined to enhance power generation and energy recovery. In batch mode, the maximum voltage production was 0.56 V and the power density reached 1540 mW/m(2). The maximum Coulombic efficiency (CEmax) and energy efficiency (EE) in the batch mode were calculated to be 88.8% and 18.8%, respectively. When the organic loading rate in sequencing batch mode varied from 0.75 to 6.2 g COD/L-d (under CEmax), the maximum power density reached 769.2 mW/m(2) in OLR of 3.1 g COD/L-d, whereas higher energy recovery (CE=52.6%, 0.346 Wh/g CODrem) was achieved at 1.51 g COD/L-d. The results demonstrate that readily biodegradable substrates in biohydrogen fermentation can be effectively used for the enhanced bioelectricity harvesting of MFCs and a MFC coupled with biohydrogen fermentation is of great benefit on higher electricity generation and energy efficiency.

  17. Antimicrobial and Safety Properties of Lactobacilli Isolated from two Cameroonian Traditional Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Kaktcham, Pierre Marie; Zambou, Ngoufack François; Tchouanguep, Félicité Mbiapo; El-Soda, Morsi; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus isolates from "Sha'a" (a maize - based fermented beverage) and "Kossam" (traditionally fermented cow milk) were selected in accordance with their antagonistic activities and tested for their bacteriocinogenic potential as well as safety properties. These isolates were preliminarily identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (62%), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (24%), Lactobacillus fermentum (10%) and Lactobacillus coprophilus (4%) based on phenotypic characteristics and rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting. Twelve (57.1%) out of the 21 strains tested were found to be bacteriocin producers, as revealed by the sensitivity of their antimicrobial substances to proteolytic enzymes (Trypsin, Proteinase K) and inhibition of other Lactobacillus spp. These bacteriocinogenic strains showed no positive haemolytic and gelatinase activities and proved to be sensitive to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and doxycyclin, but resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The bacteriocins showed a broad inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, several of which are classified as especially dangerous by the World Health Organization, as well as Multidrug-resistant strains. These include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovare Typhi, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella flexneri. These Lactobacillus strains are promising candidates for use as protective cultures in food fermentation. PMID:22396914

  18. Enhanced bioelectricity harvesting in microbial fuel cells treating food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho

    2015-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating the food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation were examined to enhance power generation and energy recovery. In batch mode, the maximum voltage production was 0.56 V and the power density reached 1540 mW/m(2). The maximum Coulombic efficiency (CEmax) and energy efficiency (EE) in the batch mode were calculated to be 88.8% and 18.8%, respectively. When the organic loading rate in sequencing batch mode varied from 0.75 to 6.2 g COD/L-d (under CEmax), the maximum power density reached 769.2 mW/m(2) in OLR of 3.1 g COD/L-d, whereas higher energy recovery (CE=52.6%, 0.346 Wh/g CODrem) was achieved at 1.51 g COD/L-d. The results demonstrate that readily biodegradable substrates in biohydrogen fermentation can be effectively used for the enhanced bioelectricity harvesting of MFCs and a MFC coupled with biohydrogen fermentation is of great benefit on higher electricity generation and energy efficiency. PMID:25723127

  19. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 109 CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties. PMID:26761827

  20. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Hee; Shin, Il-Seung; Hong, Sung-Moon; Kim, Cheol-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 10(9) CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties. PMID:26761827

  1. A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet.

    PubMed

    Sumi, H; Hamada, H; Tsushima, H; Mihara, H; Muraki, H

    1987-10-15

    A strong fibrinolytic activity was demonstrated in the vegetable cheese Natto, which is a typical soybean food eaten in Japan. The average activity was calculated at about 40 CU (plasmin units)/g wet weight. This novel fibrinolytic enzyme, named nattokinase, was easily extracted with saline. The mol. wt and pI were about 20,000 and 8.6, respectively. Nattokinase not only digested fibrin but also the plasmin substrate H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA (S-2251), which was more sensitive to the enzyme than other substrates tried. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate and 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl-o,o-dimethylphosphate strongly inhibited this fibrinolytic enzyme.

  2. Antioxidant activities of black and yellow soybeans against low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Rie; Ohmori, Reiko; Kiyose, Chikako; Momiyama, Yukihiko; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Kondo, Kazuo

    2005-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the daily intakes of soy foods were associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of black soybeans on low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in comparison to yellow soybeans. The extract from black soybean had a longer LDL oxidation lag time than that from yellow soybean (205 +/- 16 and 65 +/- 3 min, respectively). When both soybeans were divided into the seed coat and the mixture of the germ and cotyledon, the diluted extract solution from the black soybean seed coat prolonged the lag time significantly more than the original extract of the yellow soybean seed coat. On the other hand, antioxidant effects of the extract from the mixture of germs and cotyledons were similar in both soybeans. Regarding total polyphenol contents, the seed coat of black soybean had a higher polyphenol content than that of yellow soybean (29.0 +/- 0.56 and 0.45 +/- 0.02 mg/g, respectively). Interestingly, the mixture of the germ and cotyledon hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidase in both soybeans showed a stronger inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation than that before being hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidase. These results suggest that black soybeans may be more effective in inhibiting LDL oxidation than yellow soybeans because of total polyphenols contents in its seed coat. In addition, aglycones, which are rich in soybeans fermented or hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidase, may play a crucial role in the prevention of oxidation-related diseases. PMID:15913328

  3. Effects of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and extruded soybeans on performance, ruminal development, ruminal fermentation, and intestinal absorptive capability in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Xie, X X; Meng, Q X; Liu, P; Wu, H; Li, S R; Ren, L P; Li, X Z

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and extruded soybeans on performance, ruminal development, ruminal fermentation variables, and intestinal absorptive capability in Holstein male calves (n = 39). Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (13 calves per treatment): 1) milk replacer (MR), 2) one-half of the amount of MR in treatment 1, plus a mixture of 62.1% steam-flaked corn and 30.5% extruded soybeans provided ad libitum (HMCS), or 3) a mixture of 62.1% steam-flaked corn and 30.5% extruded soybeans provided ad libitum (CS). All the calves were started at 2 ± 1 d of age and studied for 150 d. Each 30 d was defined as 1 period. Dry matter intake and growth were measured daily and monthly, respectively. All calves were harvested at 150 d of age, after which rumen fluid was collected. Rumen and intestine samples were gathered. Calves fed MR exhibited greater BW (P = 0.001) and ADG (P < 0.001), compared with calves fed HMCS and CS from period 2 to 3; however, from period 4 to 5, CS calves had greater (P < 0.04) ADG than MR calves. The treatments did not differ in final BW (P = 0.72) and ADG (P = 0.20) from period 2 to 5. Compared with HMCS and MR calves, CS calves had the greatest DMI (P < 0.001) and the least feed efficiency (P < 0.001) from period 2 to 5. For ruminal fermentation parameters, CS calves had decreased (P = 0.04) rumen pH than MR calves. The NH3 concentrations were greater (P = 0.03) in calves fed HMCS than calves fed MR and CS. Total VFA concentrations were greatest in CS calves (P = 0.02). Calves fed CS had the greatest molar concentrations of propionate, butyrate, and valerate (P < 0.002), and calves fed HMCS had the greatest molar concentrations of isobutyrate (P = 0.001) and isovalerate (P = 0.001). The CS calves exhibited greater empty rumen weight (P = 0.001), papillae length (P < 0.001), papillae width (P < 0.001), rumen wall thickness (P = 0.012), and papillae density (P = 0.003). The greatest villus heights

  4. Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous fermented food products play an essential role in the diet of millions of Africans. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries. Numerous studies have described antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of LAB from different parts of the world. However, there is limited information on antimicrobial resistance profiles of LAB from Africa. The aim of this study was to characterize 33 LAB previously isolated from three different African indigenous fermented food products using (GTG)5-based rep-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and species-specific PCR techniques for differentiation of closely related species and further evaluate their antibiotic resistance profiles by the broth microdilution method and their haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates as indicators of safety traits among these bacteria. Results Using molecular biology based methods and selected phenotypic tests such as catalase reaction, CO2 production from glucose, colonies and cells morphology, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus ghanensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa. The bacteria were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin but resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. Variable sensitivity profiles to tetracycline and gentamicin was observed among the isolates with Lb. plantarum, Lb. salivarius, W. confusa (except strain SK9-5) and Lb. fermentum strains being susceptible to tetracycline whereas Pediococcus strains and Lb. ghanensis strains were resistant. For gentamicin, Leuc. pseudomesenteroides, Lb. ghanensis and Ped. acidilactici strains were resistant to 64 mg/L whereas some W. confusa

  5. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  6. Open fermentative production of fuel ethanol from food waste by an acid-tolerant mutant strain of Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Shui, Zongxia; Wang, Yanwei; Hu, Guoquan; He, Mingxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of present study was to develop a process for open ethanol fermentation from food waste using an acid-tolerant mutant of Zymomonas mobilis (ZMA7-2). The mutant showed strong tolerance to acid condition of food waste hydrolysate and high ethanol production performance. By optimizing fermentation parameters, ethanol fermentation with initial glucose concentration of 200 g/L, pH value around 4.0, inoculum size of 10% and without nutrient addition was considered as best conditions. Moreover, the potential of bench scales fermentation and cell reusability was also examined. The fermentation in bench scales (44 h) was faster than flask scale (48 h), and the maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol yield (99.78 g/L, 0.50 g/g) higher than that of flask scale (98.31 g/L, 0.49 g/g). In addition, the stable cell growth and ethanol production profile in five cycles successive fermentation was observed, indicating the mutant was suitable for industrial ethanol production.

  7. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  8. Migration of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates from twist closures into food and enforcement of the overall migration limit.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, G A; Jensen, L K; Fankhauser, A; Biedermann, S; Petersen, J H; Fabech, B

    2008-04-01

    Nineteen samples of food in glass jars with twist closures were collected by the national food inspectors at Danish food producers and a few importers, focusing on fatty food, such as vegetables in oil, herring in dressing or pickle, soft spreadable cheese, cream, dressings, peanut butter, sauces and infant food. The composition of the plasticizers in the gaskets was analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates were determined in the homogenized food samples. ESBO was the principal plasticizer in five of the gaskets; in 14 it was phthalates. ESBO was found in seven of the food samples at concentrations from 6 to 100 mg kg(-1). The highest levels (91-100 mg kg(-1)) were in oily foods such as garlic, chilli or olives in oil. Phthalates, i.e. di-iso-decylphthalate (DIDP) and di-iso-nonylphthalates (DINP), were found in seven samples at 6-173 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations (99-173 mg kg(-1)) were in products of garlic and tomatoes in oil and in fatty food products such as sauce béarnaise and peanut butter. For five of the samples the overall migration from unused lids to the official fatty food simulant olive oil was determined and compared with the legal limit of 60 mg kg(-1). The results ranged from 76 to 519 mg kg(-1) and as a consequence the products were withdrawn from the market. PMID:18348048

  9. Migration of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates from twist closures into food and enforcement of the overall migration limit.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, G A; Jensen, L K; Fankhauser, A; Biedermann, S; Petersen, J H; Fabech, B

    2008-04-01

    Nineteen samples of food in glass jars with twist closures were collected by the national food inspectors at Danish food producers and a few importers, focusing on fatty food, such as vegetables in oil, herring in dressing or pickle, soft spreadable cheese, cream, dressings, peanut butter, sauces and infant food. The composition of the plasticizers in the gaskets was analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates were determined in the homogenized food samples. ESBO was the principal plasticizer in five of the gaskets; in 14 it was phthalates. ESBO was found in seven of the food samples at concentrations from 6 to 100 mg kg(-1). The highest levels (91-100 mg kg(-1)) were in oily foods such as garlic, chilli or olives in oil. Phthalates, i.e. di-iso-decylphthalate (DIDP) and di-iso-nonylphthalates (DINP), were found in seven samples at 6-173 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations (99-173 mg kg(-1)) were in products of garlic and tomatoes in oil and in fatty food products such as sauce béarnaise and peanut butter. For five of the samples the overall migration from unused lids to the official fatty food simulant olive oil was determined and compared with the legal limit of 60 mg kg(-1). The results ranged from 76 to 519 mg kg(-1) and as a consequence the products were withdrawn from the market.

  10. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  11. Virulence and toxigenicity of coagulase-negative staphylococci in Nigerian traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Fowoyo, P T; Ogunbanwo, S T

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may render food unsafe, as the clinical isolates have been reported to exude virulent traits. A total of 255 CoNS isolates from 6 traditional fermented foods (nono, kunu, wara, iru, ogi, and kindirmo) from North Central Nigeria, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus kloosii, and Staphylococcus caprae, were investigated for virulence traits. The strains were examined for biofilm formation and production of hyaluronidase, DNase, TNase, haemolysins, and superantigenic toxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and TSST-1) using standard and genotypic methods. The analysis of virulence factors revealed the production of slime in 200 isolates (78.4%); α-haemolysin in 136 (53.3%); β-haemolysin in 43 (16.9%); DNase in 199 (78.0%); TNase in 29 (11.4%); hyaluronidase in 125 (49.0%); TSST-1 in 119 (46.7%); and enterotoxin-producing isolates SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED in 61 (23.9%), 19 (7.5%), 9 (3.5%), and 8 (3.1%), respectively. PCR analysis detected tsst-1, sea, seb, and sec genes. The ability of these microorganisms to exhibit virulence evokes the potential to cause disease especially under determinate conditions or in immune-compromised patients. The occurrence of CoNS in food should not be ignored nor their pathogenic potential considered as insignificant, rather safety measures should be taken to reduce or totally eliminate their occurrence in foods. PMID:27192326

  12. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of microbial community in soy-daddawa, a Nigerian fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment.

    PubMed

    Ezeokoli, Obinna T; Gupta, Arvind K; Mienie, Charlotte; Popoola, Temitope O S; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius C

    2016-03-01

    Soy-daddawa, a fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment, plays a significant role in the culinary practice of West Africa. It is essential to understand the microbial community of soy-daddawa for a successful starter culture application. This study investigated the microbial community structure of soy-daddawa samples collected from Nigerian markets, by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungi. Six bacterial and 16 fungal (nine yeasts and seven molds) operational taxonomic units (OTUs)/species were obtained at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic assignments revealed that bacterial OTUs belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and included species from the genera Atopostipes, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Nosocomiicoccus. Densitometric analysis of DGGE image/bands revealed that Bacillus spp. were the dominant OTU/species in terms of population numbers. Fungal OTUs belonged to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, and included species from the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, Dokmaia, Issatchenkia, Kodamaea, Lecythophora, Phoma, Pichia, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces and Starmerella. The majority of fungal species have not been previously reported in soy-daddawa. Potential opportunistic human pathogens such as Atopostipes suicloacalis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis, and Kodamaea ohmeri were detected. Variation in soy-daddawa microbial communities amongst samples and presence of potential opportunistic pathogens emphasises the need for starter culture employment and good handling practices in soy-daddawa processing.

  13. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the activities of serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the activities of lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase and total superoxide dismutase among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  14. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Yang, Dar-Yu; Ho, Shu-Peng; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Jung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Chang, Ming-Hong; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days); Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits. PMID:19698158

  15. Effect of ultrasonic extraction conditions on antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide originated from fermented soybean curd residue.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Yang, Yingnan; Hu, Xuansheng; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-07-15

    A crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPL) was extracted from fermented soybean curd residue by ultrasonic assisted extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min at 80 °C with 80 W and water to solid ratio of 10, and with this method 115.47 ± 2.95 mg/g of GLPL yield was obtained. Additionally, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of GLPL were investigated. The results showed that GLPL exhibited strong antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals, hydrogen oxide and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 0.23, 0.48 and 0.69 mg/mL, respectively. For immunomodulatory activities, GLPL was shown to strongly stimulate the proliferation of macrophages (158.02 ± 13.12%), the production of nitric oxide and phagocytosis (21.16 ± 1.65 μM), and, at 40.00 μg/mL, protected macrophage from Doxorubicin (DOX) (0.16 ± 0.003).

  16. Characterization of a novel galactan produced by Weissella confusa KR780676 from an acidic fermented food.

    PubMed

    Kavitake, Digambar; Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Singh, Sanjay Pratap; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2016-05-01

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain PUFSTM055 isolated from Idli batter (an Indian traditional cereal-legume based fermented food) was identified as Weissella confusa KR780676. The strain was shown to produce 17.2g/L (dry weight) of EPS in 2% sucrose supplemented MRS broth and the EPS was characterized. HPTLC analysis confirmed the presence of galactose monomers, indicating the homopolysaccharide nature of EPS. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the EPS was found to be a novel linear galactan containing α-(1→6)-linked galactose units. Scanning electron microscopy of the EPS revealed the presence of porous and spongy starch-like granules. Topographical examination of EPS by atomic force microscopy revealed that the EPS formed densely packed mesh-like structure with irregular spherical lumps. The EPS also showed high thermal stability with a degradation temperature of 287.5 °C and melting point at 274.65 °C. EPS was semi-crystalline with crystallinity index of 0.23 and showed 100% water solubility index. These characteristics of the EPS would make it a promising hydrocolloid for food industries as bio-thickeners, stabilizers and also as an encapsulating material for delivery of food bioactive compounds. This is the first study reporting the galactan compose of the EPS from lactic acid bacteria.

  17. Characterization of a novel galactan produced by Weissella confusa KR780676 from an acidic fermented food.

    PubMed

    Kavitake, Digambar; Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Singh, Sanjay Pratap; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2016-05-01

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain PUFSTM055 isolated from Idli batter (an Indian traditional cereal-legume based fermented food) was identified as Weissella confusa KR780676. The strain was shown to produce 17.2g/L (dry weight) of EPS in 2% sucrose supplemented MRS broth and the EPS was characterized. HPTLC analysis confirmed the presence of galactose monomers, indicating the homopolysaccharide nature of EPS. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the EPS was found to be a novel linear galactan containing α-(1→6)-linked galactose units. Scanning electron microscopy of the EPS revealed the presence of porous and spongy starch-like granules. Topographical examination of EPS by atomic force microscopy revealed that the EPS formed densely packed mesh-like structure with irregular spherical lumps. The EPS also showed high thermal stability with a degradation temperature of 287.5 °C and melting point at 274.65 °C. EPS was semi-crystalline with crystallinity index of 0.23 and showed 100% water solubility index. These characteristics of the EPS would make it a promising hydrocolloid for food industries as bio-thickeners, stabilizers and also as an encapsulating material for delivery of food bioactive compounds. This is the first study reporting the galactan compose of the EPS from lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26836614

  18. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-based Foods in West Africa: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of LAB starter cultures during cereal dough fermentation is a subject of increasing interest in efforts to standardise this step and guaranty product uniformity. However, their use by small-scale processing units or small agro-food industrial enterprises is still limited. This review aims to illustrate and discuss major issues that influence the use of LAB starter cultures during the processing of fermented cereal foods in West Africa. PMID:27073601

  19. Enhancement of nutritional value of finger millet-based food (Indian dosa) by co-fermentation with horse gram flour.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Bruntha Devi; Rajendran, Vijayabharathi; Sathyaseelan, Sathyabama; Bhat, Rajeev; Venkatesan, Brindha Priyadarisini

    2012-02-01

    Co-fermentation of finger millet with horse gram was carried out to produce inexpensive protein-rich food (dosa-an Indian breakfast food). Natural fermentation of finger millet-horse gram flour blend in different proportions (2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1) was performed for 24 h. Biochemical analysis showed reasonable drop in pH (6.6-4.2) and starch content (25.52%) with considerable augment in titratable acidity (0.168-1.046%), soluble proteins (1.1-fold) and free amino acids (2.6-fold) at 16 h. Lactic acid bacteria dominated yeast counts throughout the fermentation accompanied by a decrease in total soluble and reducing sugars. Total essential amino acids increased 1.1-fold at 16-h fermentation with protein containing 48.68% of essential amino acids over total amino acids. Lysine increased from 5.87 to 6.73 g of amino acid/100 g of total amino acids. Dosa, prepared from 16-h fermented batter, showed better sensory attributes for 4:1 ratio. The formulated new product might be used to overcome the protein-energy malnutrition problems. PMID:21696301

  20. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, S S; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality.

  1. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, S. S.; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality. PMID:27446050

  2. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, S S; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality. PMID:27446050

  3. Bacterial, SCFA and gas profiles of a range of food ingredients following in vitro fermentation by human colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Beards, Emma; Tuohy, Kieran; Gibson, Glenn

    2010-08-01

    It is now apparent that there is a strong link between health and nutrition and this can be seen clearly when we talk of obesity. The food industry is trying to capitalise on this by adapting high sugar/fat foods to become healthier alternatives. In confectionery food ingredients can be used for a range of purposes including sucrose replacement. Many of these ingredients may also evade digestion in the upper gut and be fermented by the gut microbiota upon entering the colon. This study was designed to screen a range of ingredients and their activities on the gut microbiota. In this study we screened a range of these ingredients in triplicate batch culture fermentations with known prebiotics as controls. Changes in bacteriology were monitored using FISH. SCFA were measured by GC and gas production was assessed during anaerobic batch fermentations. Bacterial enumeration showed significant increases (P < or = 0.05) in bifidobacteria and lactobacilli with polydextrose and most polyols with no significant increases in Clostridium histolyticum/perfringens. SCFA and gas formation indicated that the substrates added to the fermenters were being utilised by the gut microbiota. It therefore appears these ingredients exert some prebiotic activity in vitro. Further studies, particularly in human volunteers, are necessary.

  4. The relationship between fermented food intake and mortality risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort.

    PubMed

    Praagman, Jaike; Dalmeijer, Geertje W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Monique Verschuren, W M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Beulens, Joline W J

    2015-02-14

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between total and subtypes of bacterial fermented food intake (dairy products, cheese, vegetables and meat) and mortality due to all causes, total cancer and CVD. From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort, 34 409 Dutch men and women, aged 20-70 years who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline, were included. Baseline intakes of total and subtypes of fermented foods were measured with a validated FFQ. Data on the incidence and causes of death were obtained from the national mortality register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse mortality in relation to the quartiles of fermented food intake. After a mean follow-up of 15 (sd 2·5) years, 2436 deaths occurred (1216 from cancer and 727 from CVD). After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, education level, hypertension, smoking habit, BMI, and intakes of fruit, vegetables and alcohol, total fermented food intake was not found to be associated with mortality due to all causes (hazard ratio upper v. lowest quartile (HR(Q4 v. Q1)) 1·00, 95% CI 0·88, 1·13), cancer (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·02, 95% CI 0·86, 1·21) or CVD (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·04, 95 % CI 0·83, 1·30). Bacterial fermented foods mainly consisted of fermented dairy foods (78 %) and cheese (16%). None of the subtypes of fermented foods was consistently related to mortality, except for cheese which was moderately inversely associated with CVD mortality, and particularly stroke mortality (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 0·59, 95% CI 0·38, 0·92, P trend= 0·046). In conclusion, the present study provides no strong evidence that intake of fermented foods, particularly fermented dairy foods, is associated with mortality.

  5. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  6. Comparative genomics Lactobacillus reuteri from sourdough reveals adaptation of an intestinal symbiont to food fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xiaoxi B.; Gänzle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a dominant member of intestinal microbiota of vertebrates, and occurs in food fermentations. The stable presence of L. reuteri in sourdough provides the opportunity to study the adaptation of vertebrate symbionts to an extra-intestinal habitat. This study evaluated this adaptation by comparative genomics of 16 strains of L. reuteri. A core genome phylogenetic tree grouped L. reuteri into 5 clusters corresponding to the host-adapted lineages. The topology of a gene content tree, which includes accessory genes, differed from the core genome phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the differentiation of L. reuteri is shaped by gene loss or acquisition. About 10% of the core genome (124 core genes) were under positive selection. In lineage III sourdough isolates, 177 genes were under positive selection, mainly related to energy conversion and carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the competitiveness of L. reuteri in sourdough revealed that the competitivess of sourdough isolates was equal or higher when compared to rodent isolates. This study provides new insights into the adaptation of L. reuteri to food and intestinal habitats, suggesting that these two habitats exert different selective pressure related to growth rate and energy (carbohydrate) metabolism. PMID:26658825

  7. Birch pulp xylan works as a food hydrocolloid in acid milk gels and is fermented slowly in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Sibakov, Natalia; Hakala, Terhi K; Sözer, Nesli; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Aura, Anna-Marja

    2016-12-10

    The objective was to evaluate the potential of birch xylan as a food hydrocolloid and dietary fibre. High-molecular weight xylan was isolated from birch kraft pulp by alkaline extraction, and enzymatically hydrolysed. Fermentability of xylans was evaluated using an in vitro colon model and performance as a hydrocolloid was studied in low-fat acid milk gels (1.5% and 3% w/w). Texture of the gels and water holding capacity of xylans were compared with inulin, fructooligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide. Xylans showed slower fermentation rate by faecal microbiota than the references. Xylan-enriched acid milk gels (3% w/w) had improved water holding capacity (over 2-fold) and showed lower spontaneous syneresis, firmness and elasticity when compared to control (no hydrocolloids) or to references. In conclusion, birch xylan improved texture of low-fat acid milk gel applications, and the slow in vitro fermentation rate predicts lower incidence of intestinal discomfort in comparison to the commercial references.

  8. Effect of corn inclusion on soybean hull-based diet digestibility and growth performance in continuous culture fermenters and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Russell, J R; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted using soybean hull (SH) diets with increasing corn proportions to determine increasing corn inclusion effects on fermentation characteristics, diet digestibility, and feedlot performance. The hypothesis was that fiber digestibility would quadratically respond to starch proportion in the diet with a break point where starch inclusion improved fiber digestion and feedlot performance. Proportionately, the diets contained 100:0 (SH100), 90:10 (SH90), 80:20 (SH80), 60:40 (SH60), or 20:80 SH:corn (SH20). In Exp. 1, diets were randomly distributed over 24 continuous culture fermenters and fed for 7 d. In Exp. 2, forty steers (347 ± 29 kg BW) and 50 heifers (374 ± 24 kg BW) were blocked by gender, stratified by BW, and distributed across diets. Cattle were fed for 70 d with titanium dioxide included in the diet for the final 14 d and fecal samples collected to measure digestibility. Individual DMI was measured using GrowSafe Feed Intake system. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with diet evaluated as the fixed effect. In Exp. 1, NDF digestibility (NDFd) linearly decreased ( = 0.04) and ADF digestibility (ADFd) tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.09) as corn increased. Dry matter digestibility (DMd) was cubic ( = 0.01) and OM digestibility (OMd) was quadratic ( = 0.03), and among the 4 SH-based diets, DMd and OMd were greatest for SH90. Acetate:propionate ratio and pH were quadratic ( < 0.01) and greatest for SH80. In Exp. 2, ADG and G:F linearly increased ( < 0.01) as corn inclusion increased. Among the 4 SH-based diets, ADG was numerically greatest for SH80. There was no DMI difference ( ≥ 0.4) due to diet. As corn inclusion increased, DMd tended to linearly increase (P = 0.06), as did OMd ( = 0.05). Both NDFd and ADFd were quadratic ( = 0.04) and greatest for SH80. Overall, feedlot performance increased and fiber digestibility decreased as corn inclusion increased. However, based on continuous culture digestibility and

  9. Purification and Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus pumilus 2.g Isolated from Gembus, an Indonesian Fermented Food

    PubMed Central

    Afifah, Diana Nur; Sulchan, Muhammad; Syah, Dahrul; Yanti; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from gembus, an Indonesian fermented soybean cake, secretes several proteases that have strong fibrinolytic activities. A fibrinolytic enzyme with an apparent molecular weight of 20 kDa was purified from the culture supernatant of B. pumilus 2.g by sequential application of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic chromatography. The partially purified enzyme was stable between pH 5 and pH 9 and temperature of less than 60°C. Fibrinolytic activity was increased by 5 mM MgCl2 and 5 mM CaCl2 but inhibited by 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The partially purified enzyme quickly degraded the α and β chains of fibrinogen but was unable to degrade the γ chain. PMID:25320719

  10. Effects of Replacement of Soybean Meal by Fermented Cottonseed Meal on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Immune Function of Yellow-feathered Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tang, J. W.; Sun, H.; Yao, X. H.; Wu, Y. F.; Wang, X.; Feng, J.

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine the effects of partially replacing soybean meal (SBM) by solid-state fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and immune function of broilers. After inoculated with Bacillus subtilis BJ-1 for 48 h, the content of free gossypol in cottonseed meal was decreased from 0.82 to 0.21 g/kg. A total of 600, day-old male yellow-feathered broilers were randomly divided into four groups with three replicates of 50 chicks each. A corn-SBM based control diet was formulated and the experimental diets included 4, 8 or 12% FCSM, replacing SBM. Throughout the experiment, broilers fed 8% FCSM had higher (p<0.05) body weight gain than those fed 0, 4 and 12% FCSM. The feed intake in 8% FCSM group was superior (p<0.05) to other treatments from d 21 to 42. On d 21, the concentration of serum immunoglobin M in the 4% and 8% FCSM groups, as well as the content of complements (C3, C4) in 8% FCSM group were greater (p<0.05) than those in the SBM group. Besides, birds fed 8% FCSM had increased (p<0.05) serum immunoglobin M, immunoglobulin G and complement C4 levels on d 42 compared with bird fed control diet. No differences (p>0.05) were found between treatments regarding the serum biochemical parameters and the relative weights of immune organs. In conclusion, FCSM can be used in broiler diets at up to 12% of the total diet and an appropriate replacement of SBM with FCSM may improve growth performance and immunity in broilers. PMID:25049578

  11. Specific Oligopeptides in Fermented Soybean Extract Inhibit NF-κB-Dependent iNOS and Cytokine Induction by Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Wu, Hong Min; Lee, Chan Gyu; Sung, Dae Il; Song, Hye Jung; Matsui, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The ethanol extract of fermented soybean from Glycine max (chungkookjang, CHU) has been claimed to have chemopreventive and cytoprotective effects. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effect of CHU on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokine induction by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands treatment and attempted to identify the responsible active components. Nitric oxide (NO) content and iNOS levels in the media or RAW264.7 cells were measured using the Griess reagent and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. CHU treatment inhibited NO production and iNOS induction elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TLR4L) in a concentration-dependent manner. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 productions were also diminished. Peptidoglycans (TLR2/6L) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (TLR9L) from CHU inhibited iNOS induction, but not poly I:C (TLR3L) or loxoribine (TLF7L). The anti-inflammatory effect resulted from the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) through the inhibition of inhibitory-κB degradation. Of the representative components in CHU, specific oligopeptides (AFPG and GVAWWMY) had the ability to inhibit iNOS induction by LPS, whereas others failed to do so. Daidzein, an isoflavone used for comparative purposes, was active at a relatively higher concentration. In an animal model, oral administration of CHU to rats significantly diminished carrageenan-induced paw edema and iNOS induction. Our results demonstrate that CHU has anti-inflammatory effects against TLR ligands by inhibiting NF-κB activation, which may result from specific oligopeptide components in CHU. Since CHU is orally effective, dietary applications of CHU and/or the identified oligopeptides may be of use in the prevention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25184943

  12. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Nam, YoonYi; Jung, Harry; Karuppasamy, Sankarapandian; Lee, Jae-Yeon; Kang, Kyung-Don; Hwang, Kyo-Yeol; Seong, Su-Il

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of soy bean extract solution fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1E) in obese db/db mice. Eight-week-old male db/db mice were administered 33.3 mg/kg BTD-1E solution orally once a day for four weeks. The BTD-1E group showed significantly lower body weight compared with the db control group (P<0.05). The BTD-1E group showed significantly lower serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels compared with the db control group, respectively (P<0.05, P<0.01). The BTD-1E group showed significantly decreased liver weight relative to final body weight compared with the db control group (P<0.01). After four weeks of BTD-1E administration, lipid droplets in the liver were apparently decreased in the BTD-1E group compared to the db control group. In summary, our results suggest that BTD-1E has an anti-hyperlipidemic effect in the obese mouse model. PMID:22787486

  13. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2010-08-15

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products. In the present study, a total of 19 Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from afitin, iru and sonru, three spontaneously fermented African locust (Parkia biglobosa) bean based condiments produced in Benin, were investigated. The strains were isolated at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h fermentation time. By using phenotypic and genotypic methods all of the isolates could be identified as B. cereus sensu stricto. The isolates were grouped according to their PM13 PCR (random amplification of polymorphic DNA PCR) fingerprint and formed two major clusters, one of which contained eight strains isolated from afitin (cluster 1). Highly similar PM13 profiles were obtained for seven of the isolates, one from afitin, one from iru and five from sonru (cluster 2). Four of the isolates, one from afitin and three from sonru, did not form any particular cluster. The PM13 profiles of cluster 2 isolates were identical to those which are specific to emetic toxin producers. Cereulide production of these isolates was confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. This is the first report on cereulide producing B. cereus in African fermented foods. Occurrence of the opportunistic human pathogen B. cereus, which is able to produce emetic toxin in afitin, iru and sonru, could impose a health hazard. Interestingly, no reports on food poisoning from the consumption of the fermented condiments exist.

  14. Preparation of curcumin microemulsions with food-grade soybean oil/lecithin and their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chuan-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Yin; Chi, Ming-Hung; Shen, Chin-Min; Chen, Hwan-Wen; Yang, Wen-Jen; Lee, Mei-Hwa

    2014-07-01

    The choice of surfactants and cosurfactants for preparation of oral formulation in microemulsions is limited. In this report, a curcumin-encapsulated phospholipids-based microemulsion (ME) using food-grade ingredients soybean oil and soybean lecithin to replace ethyl oleate and purified lecithin from our previous study was established and compared. The results indicated soybean oil is superior to ethyl oleate as the oil phase in curcumin microemulsion, as proven by the broadened microemulsion region with increasing range of surfactant/soybean oil ratio (approx. 1:1-12:1). Further preparation of two formula with different particle sizes of formula A (30nm) and B (80nm) exhibited differential effects on the cytotoxicity of hepatocellular HepG2 cell lines. At 15μM of concentration, curcumin-ME in formula A with smaller particle size resulted in the lowest viability (approx. 5%), which might be explained by increasing intake of curcumin, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-ME is exclusively prominent on HepG2, not on HEK293, which showed over 80% of viability at 15μM. The results from this study might provide an innovative applied technique in the area of nutraceuticals and functional foods. PMID:24518344

  15. Preparation of curcumin microemulsions with food-grade soybean oil/lecithin and their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chuan-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Yin; Chi, Ming-Hung; Shen, Chin-Min; Chen, Hwan-Wen; Yang, Wen-Jen; Lee, Mei-Hwa

    2014-07-01

    The choice of surfactants and cosurfactants for preparation of oral formulation in microemulsions is limited. In this report, a curcumin-encapsulated phospholipids-based microemulsion (ME) using food-grade ingredients soybean oil and soybean lecithin to replace ethyl oleate and purified lecithin from our previous study was established and compared. The results indicated soybean oil is superior to ethyl oleate as the oil phase in curcumin microemulsion, as proven by the broadened microemulsion region with increasing range of surfactant/soybean oil ratio (approx. 1:1-12:1). Further preparation of two formula with different particle sizes of formula A (30nm) and B (80nm) exhibited differential effects on the cytotoxicity of hepatocellular HepG2 cell lines. At 15μM of concentration, curcumin-ME in formula A with smaller particle size resulted in the lowest viability (approx. 5%), which might be explained by increasing intake of curcumin, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-ME is exclusively prominent on HepG2, not on HEK293, which showed over 80% of viability at 15μM. The results from this study might provide an innovative applied technique in the area of nutraceuticals and functional foods.

  16. Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov., isolated from traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Mika; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Chaipitakchonlatarn, Winai; Malimas, Taweesak; Sugimoto, Masako; Yoshino, Mayumi; Kamakura, Yuki; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanaka, Naoto; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Three Lactobacillus-like strains, NB53T, NB446T and NB702, were isolated from traditional fermented food in Thailand. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these strains belong to the Lactobacillus plantarum group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the dnaK, rpoA, pheS and recA gene sequences indicated that these three strains were distantly related to known species present in the L. plantarum group. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related strains demonstrated that these strains represented two novel species; the novel strains could be differentiated based on chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, two novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. (NB53T) and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov. (NB446T and NB702), are proposed with the type strains NB53T ( = NBRC 107333T = BCC 38054T) and NB446T ( = NBRC 107235T = BCC 38191T), respectively.

  17. The positive effects of waste leachate addition on methane fermentation from food waste in batch trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanli; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of waste leachate (WL) addition on batch anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW), and to examine the influence of mixture ratio on the co-digestion process. The results showed that anaerobic digestion of FW was greatly enhanced by WL addition, as indicated by the higher methane yield, higher methane content, more volatile solids (VS) destruction, and higher stability. Although WL was rich in volatile fatty acids (VFA), its addition did not cause VFA inhibition. It was found that WL addition was beneficial to accelerate the start-up and shorten the long reaction time of the batch anaerobic process. The time to reach the peak methane yield was reduced by 1, 2, and 4 days with WL addition. The optimum FW to WL ratio was 77.9:22.1 with the highest methane yield (416 mL/g VS), the highest methane content (64.3%), the greatest VS removal (77.6%), and stable performance. These results confirmed the positive effects of WL addition on methane fermentation from FW.

  18. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with co-generation of biohydrogen.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Shikha; Sarkar, Omprakash; Swamy, Y V; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-01

    Fermentation experiments were designed to elucidate the functional role of the redox microenvironment on volatile fatty acid (VFA, short chain carboxylic acid) production and co-generation of biohydrogen (H2). Higher VFA productivity was observed at pH 10 operation (6.3g/l) followed by pH 9, pH 6, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 11 (3.5 g/l). High degree of acidification, good system buffering capacity along with co-generation of higher H2 production from food waste was also noticed at alkaline condition. Experiments illustrated the role of initial pH on carboxylic acids synthesis. Alkaline redox conditions assist solubilization of carbohydrates, protein and fats and also suppress the growth of methanogens. Among the carboxylic acids, acetate fraction was higher at alkaline condition than corresponding neutral or acidic operations. Integrated process of VFA production from waste with co-generation of H2 can be considered as a green and sustainable platform for value-addition.

  19. Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-11-17

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained between the types of digestion - quick and slow passage simulation. In the skim milk matrix the isolate was reduced to values below the detection limit of the enumeration technique by the end of the two digestions, in contrast to the Alheira matrix, for which isolate 120 showed a reduction of only ca. 1 log CFU/ml. The E. faecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture.

  20. Protein profile of mature soybean seeds and prepared soybean milk.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-10-01

    The soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is economically the most important bean in the world, providing a wide range of vegetable proteins. Soybean milk is a colloidal solution obtained as water extract from swelled and ground soybean seeds. Soybean proteins represent about 35-40% on a dry weight basis and they are receiving increasing attention with respect to their health effects. However, the soybean is a well-recognized allergenic food, and therefore, it is urgent to define its protein components responsible for the allergenicity in order to develop hypoallergenic soybean products for sensitive people. The main aim of this work was the characterization of seed and milk soybean proteome and their comparison in terms of protein content and specific proteins. Using a shotgun proteomics approach, 243 nonredundant proteins were identified in mature soybean seeds.

  1. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value.

  2. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value. PMID:26880215

  3. Probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains isolated from sorghum-based traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Poornachandra; Chennappa, G; Suraj, U; Nagaraja, H; Raj, A P Charith; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2015-06-01

    Sorghum-based traditional fermented food was screened for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species identification was done by 16s rRNA sequence analysis. The functional probiotic potential of the two Lactobacillus species viz., Lactobacillus plantarum (Lact. plantarum) and Lactobacillus pentosus (Lact. pentosus) was assessed by different standard parameters. The strains were tolerant to pH 2 for 1 h and resistant to methicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and norfloxacin. Two (Lact. plantarum COORG-3 and Lact. pentosus COORG-8) out of eight isolates recorded the cell surface hydrophobicity to be 59.12 and 64.06%, respectively. All the strains showed tolerance to artificial duodenum juice (pH 2) for 3 h, positive for bile salt hydrolase test and negative for haemolytic test. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of the strains Lact. pentosus COORG-4, Lact. plantarum COORG-1, Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-8 and Lact. plantarum COORG-3 showed good antibiofilm activity. Lact. pentosus COORG-8 exhibited 74% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-MTCC 7903 and Lact. plantarum COORG-7 showed 68% inhibition of biofilm against Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 7407. Three (Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-5 and Lact. pentosus COORG 8) out of eight isolates exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and five isolates (Lact. pentosus COORG 2, Lact. plantarum COORG 1, Lact. plantarum COORG 4, Lact. pentosus COORG 3 and Lact. plantarum COORG 6) are active against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis. The study also evaluated the cholesterol lowering property of the Lactobacillus strains using hen egg yolk as the cholesterol source. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was assimilated by 74.12 and 68.26% by Lact. plantarum COORG 4 and Lact. pentosus COORG 7

  4. Probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains isolated from sorghum-based traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Poornachandra; Chennappa, G; Suraj, U; Nagaraja, H; Raj, A P Charith; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2015-06-01

    Sorghum-based traditional fermented food was screened for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species identification was done by 16s rRNA sequence analysis. The functional probiotic potential of the two Lactobacillus species viz., Lactobacillus plantarum (Lact. plantarum) and Lactobacillus pentosus (Lact. pentosus) was assessed by different standard parameters. The strains were tolerant to pH 2 for 1 h and resistant to methicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and norfloxacin. Two (Lact. plantarum COORG-3 and Lact. pentosus COORG-8) out of eight isolates recorded the cell surface hydrophobicity to be 59.12 and 64.06%, respectively. All the strains showed tolerance to artificial duodenum juice (pH 2) for 3 h, positive for bile salt hydrolase test and negative for haemolytic test. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of the strains Lact. pentosus COORG-4, Lact. plantarum COORG-1, Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-8 and Lact. plantarum COORG-3 showed good antibiofilm activity. Lact. pentosus COORG-8 exhibited 74% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-MTCC 7903 and Lact. plantarum COORG-7 showed 68% inhibition of biofilm against Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 7407. Three (Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-5 and Lact. pentosus COORG 8) out of eight isolates exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and five isolates (Lact. pentosus COORG 2, Lact. plantarum COORG 1, Lact. plantarum COORG 4, Lact. pentosus COORG 3 and Lact. plantarum COORG 6) are active against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis. The study also evaluated the cholesterol lowering property of the Lactobacillus strains using hen egg yolk as the cholesterol source. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was assimilated by 74.12 and 68.26% by Lact. plantarum COORG 4 and Lact. pentosus COORG 7

  5. Susceptibility to tetracycline and erythromycin of Lactobacillus paracasei strains isolated from traditional Italian fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Comunian, Roberta; Daga, Elisabetta; Dupré, Ilaria; Paba, Antonio; Devirgiliis, Chiara; Piccioni, Valeria; Perozzi, Giuditta; Zonenschain, Daniela; Rebecchi, Annalisa; Morelli, Lorenzo; De Lorentiis, Angela; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2010-03-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of 197 isolates of Lactobacillus paracasei, isolated from Italian fermented products coming from different geographical areas, to tetracycline and erythromycin, two antimicrobials widely used in clinical and animal therapy. Isolation media were supplemented with antibiotics according to the microbiological breakpoints (BPs) defined by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Isolates were identified at the species level and were typed by rep-PCR using the (GTG)(5) primer. A total of 121 genotypically different strains were detected and their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the broth microdilution method. The presence of the genes ermB, ermC and tetL, tetM, tetS, tetW, in the phenotypically resistant isolates was investigated by PCR. Tetracycline induction of tetM expression on representative resistant strains, grown in medium either lacking or containing the antibiotic, was also analyzed by RT-PCR. Among the 121 tested strains, 77.7% were susceptible to tetracycline (MICor=1024 microg/ml) (Erm(R)). The tetM and ermB genes were the most frequently detected in the Tet(R) and/or Erm(R) strains. The tetM expression was induced by antibiotic addition to the growth medium. Our study confirmed that L. paracasei is quite sensitive to tetracycline and erythromycin, but the high level of resistance of Erm(R) strains suggested that acquired resistance took place. Further investigations are required to analyze whether the genes identified in L. paracasei isolates might be horizontally transferred to other species. Since "commensal" bacteria, which L. paracasei belongs to

  6. An integrated biohydrogen refinery: synergy of photofermentation, extractive fermentation and hydrothermal hydrolysis of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-09-01

    An Integrated Biohydrogen Refinery (IBHR) and experimental net energy analysis are reported. The IBHR converts biomass to electricity using hydrothermal hydrolysis, extractive biohydrogen fermentation and photobiological hydrogen fermentation for electricity generation in a fuel cell. An extractive fermentation, developed previously, is applied to waste-derived substrates following hydrothermal pre-treatment, achieving 83-99% biowaste destruction. The selective separation of organic acids from waste-fed fermentations provided suitable substrate for photofermentative hydrogen production, which enhanced the gross energy generation up to 11-fold. Therefore, electrodialysis provides the key link in an IBHR for 'waste to energy'. The IBHR compares favourably to 'renewables' (photovoltaics, on-shore wind, crop-derived biofuels) and also emerging biotechnological options (microbial electrolysis) and anaerobic digestion.

  7. Alleviation of harmful effect in stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation based on metabolic and side-product accumulation regulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Ma, Xiaoyu; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Stillage reflux fermentation in food waste ethanol fermentation could reduce sewage discharge but exert a harmful effect because of side-product accumulation. In this study, regulation methods based on metabolic regulation and side-product alleviation were conducted. Result demonstrated that controlling the proper oxidation-reduction potential value (-150mV to -250mV) could reduce the harmful effect, improve ethanol yield by 21%, and reduce fermentation time by 20%. The methods of adding calcium carbonate to adjust the accumulated lactic acid showed that ethanol yield increased by 17.3%, and fermentation time decreased by 20%. The accumulated glyceal also shows that these two methods can reduce the harmful effect. Fermentation time lasted for seven times without effect, and metabolic regulation had a better effect than side-product regulation.

  8. Alleviation of harmful effect in stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation based on metabolic and side-product accumulation regulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Ma, Xiaoyu; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Stillage reflux fermentation in food waste ethanol fermentation could reduce sewage discharge but exert a harmful effect because of side-product accumulation. In this study, regulation methods based on metabolic regulation and side-product alleviation were conducted. Result demonstrated that controlling the proper oxidation-reduction potential value (-150mV to -250mV) could reduce the harmful effect, improve ethanol yield by 21%, and reduce fermentation time by 20%. The methods of adding calcium carbonate to adjust the accumulated lactic acid showed that ethanol yield increased by 17.3%, and fermentation time decreased by 20%. The accumulated glyceal also shows that these two methods can reduce the harmful effect. Fermentation time lasted for seven times without effect, and metabolic regulation had a better effect than side-product regulation. PMID:27394991

  9. Effects of additional fermented food wastes on nitrogen removal enhancement and sludge characteristics in a sequential batch reactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-07-01

    In order to enhance nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater with a carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio as low as 2.2:1, external carbon source was prepared by short-term fermentation of food wastes and its effect was evaluated by experiments using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The addition of fermented food wastes, with carbohydrate (42.8 %) and organic acids (24.6 %) as the main organic carbon components, could enhance the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 25 % in contrast to the 20 % brought about by the addition of sodium acetate when the C/N ratio was equally adjusted to 6.6:1. The fermented food waste addition resulted in more efficient denitrification in the first anoxic stage of the SBR operation cycle than sodium acetate. In order to characterize the metabolic potential of microorganisms by utilizing different carbon sources, Biolog-ECO tests were conducted with activated sludge samples from the SBRs. As a result, in comparison with sodium acetate, the sludge sample by fermented food waste addition showed a greater average well color development (AWCD590), better utilization level of common carbon sources, and higher microbial diversity indexes. As a multi-organic mixture, fermented food wastes seem to be superior over mono-organic chemicals as an external carbon source.

  10. Laccase and manganese peroxidase activities of Phellinus robustus and Ganoderma adspersum grown on food industry wastes in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Songulashvili, G; Elisashvili, V; Wasser, S; Nevo, E; Hadar, Y

    2006-09-01

    Phellinus robustus produced both laccase (700-4,000 U l(-1)) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) (1,000-11,300 U l(-1)) in fermentation of nine food wastes, whereas Ganoderma adspersum produced only laccase (600-34,000 U l(-1)). Glucose provided high laccase and MnP activity of P. robustus but repressed enzyme production by G. adspersum. Ammonium sulphate and ammonium tartrate increased the P. robustus laccase yield (3-fold), whereas the accumulation of MnP was not enhanced by additional nitrogen. PMID:16823599

  11. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  12. Presence of CP4-EPSPS component in roundup ready soybean-derived food products.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghong; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Changqing; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; Shen, Wenbiao; Huang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soya (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the traceability of transgenic components, especially protein residues, in different soya-related foodstuffs has become an important issue. In this report, transgenic components in commercial soya (including RRS) protein concentrates were firstly detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. The results illustrated the different degradation patterns of the cp4-epsps gene and corresponding protein in RRS-derived protein concentrates. Furthermore, western blot was applied to investigate the single factor of food processing and the matrix on the disintegration of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder and soya-derived foodstuffs, and trace the degradation patterns during the food production chain. Our results suggested that the exogenous full length of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder was distinctively sensitive to various heat treatments, including heat, microwave and autoclave (especially), and only one degradation fragment (23.4 kD) of CP4-EPSPS protein was apparently observed when autoclaving was applied. By tracing the protein degradation during RRS-related products, including tofu, tou-kan, and bean curd sheets, however, four degradation fragments (42.9, 38.2, 32.2 and 23.4 kD) were displayed, suggesting that both boiling and bittern adding procedures might have extensive effects on CP4-EPSPS protein degradation. Our results thus confirmed that the distinctive residues of the CP4-EPSPS component could be traced in RRS-related foodstuffs.

  13. Fermentation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

  14. Production of autoinducer-2 by aerobic endospore-forming bacteria isolated from the West African fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yang; Kando, Christine Kere; Thorsen, Line; Larsen, Nadja; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a quorum-sensing (QS) molecule which mediates interspecies signaling and affects various bacterial behaviors in food fermentation. Biosynthesis of AI-2 is controlled by S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase encoded by the luxS gene. The objective of this study was to investigate production of AI-2 by aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) isolated from the West African alkaline fermented seed products Mantchoua and Maari. The study included 13 AEB strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. altitudinis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. aryabhattai, B. safensis, Lysinibacillus macroides and Paenibacillus polymyxa. All the tested strains harbored the luxS gene and all strains except for P. polymyxa B314 were able to produce AI-2 during incubation in laboratory medium. Production of AI-2 by AEB was growth phase dependent, showing maximum activity at the late exponential phase. AI-2 was depleted from the culture medium at the beginning of the stationary growth phase, indicating that the tested AEB possess a functional AI-2 receptor that internalizes AI-2. This study provides the evidences of QS system in Bacillus spp. and L. macroides and new knowledge of AI-2 production by AEB. This knowledge contributes to the development of QS-based strategies for better control of alkaline fermentation. PMID:26449556

  15. Production of autoinducer-2 by aerobic endospore-forming bacteria isolated from the West African fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yang; Kando, Christine Kere; Thorsen, Line; Larsen, Nadja; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a quorum-sensing (QS) molecule which mediates interspecies signaling and affects various bacterial behaviors in food fermentation. Biosynthesis of AI-2 is controlled by S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase encoded by the luxS gene. The objective of this study was to investigate production of AI-2 by aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) isolated from the West African alkaline fermented seed products Mantchoua and Maari. The study included 13 AEB strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. altitudinis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. aryabhattai, B. safensis, Lysinibacillus macroides and Paenibacillus polymyxa. All the tested strains harbored the luxS gene and all strains except for P. polymyxa B314 were able to produce AI-2 during incubation in laboratory medium. Production of AI-2 by AEB was growth phase dependent, showing maximum activity at the late exponential phase. AI-2 was depleted from the culture medium at the beginning of the stationary growth phase, indicating that the tested AEB possess a functional AI-2 receptor that internalizes AI-2. This study provides the evidences of QS system in Bacillus spp. and L. macroides and new knowledge of AI-2 production by AEB. This knowledge contributes to the development of QS-based strategies for better control of alkaline fermentation.

  16. Birch pulp xylan works as a food hydrocolloid in acid milk gels and is fermented slowly in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Sibakov, Natalia; Hakala, Terhi K; Sözer, Nesli; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Aura, Anna-Marja

    2016-12-10

    The objective was to evaluate the potential of birch xylan as a food hydrocolloid and dietary fibre. High-molecular weight xylan was isolated from birch kraft pulp by alkaline extraction, and enzymatically hydrolysed. Fermentability of xylans was evaluated using an in vitro colon model and performance as a hydrocolloid was studied in low-fat acid milk gels (1.5% and 3% w/w). Texture of the gels and water holding capacity of xylans were compared with inulin, fructooligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide. Xylans showed slower fermentation rate by faecal microbiota than the references. Xylan-enriched acid milk gels (3% w/w) had improved water holding capacity (over 2-fold) and showed lower spontaneous syneresis, firmness and elasticity when compared to control (no hydrocolloids) or to references. In conclusion, birch xylan improved texture of low-fat acid milk gel applications, and the slow in vitro fermentation rate predicts lower incidence of intestinal discomfort in comparison to the commercial references. PMID:27577922

  17. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H{sub 2} production from food waste: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Co-digestion process finalized to bio-H{sub 2} production was tested in batch tests. • Slaughterhouse waste (SHW) and food waste (FW) were co-digested in different proportions. • The presence of SHW affected the H{sub 2} production from FW. • When SHW ranging between 50% and 70% the H{sub 2} production is improved. • SHW percentages above 70%, led to a depletion in H{sub 2} production. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H{sub 2} production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H{sub 2} production compared to that in FW only, reaching H{sub 2}-production yields of 145 and 109 ml gVS{sub 0}{sup -1}, respectively, which are 1.5–2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H{sub 2} production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process.

  18. Effects of milk components and food additives on survival of three bifidobacteria strains in fermented milk under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ziarno, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Background In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. Objective The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices. Design The viability of the bifidobacterial cells was examined after a 3-h incubation of fermented milk under simulated gastric juice conditions and then after 5-h incubation under simulated duodenum juice conditions. The Bifidobacterium strains tested differed in their sensitivity to the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal juices. Results Bifidobacterial cell viability in simulated intestinal juices was dependent on the strain used in our experiments, and product components acted protectively towards bifidobacterial cells and its dose. Conclusions Bifidobacterial cells introduced into the human gastrointestinal tract as food ingredients have a good chance of survival during intestinal transit and to reach the large intestine thanks to the protective properties of the food components and depending on the strain and composition of the food. PMID:26546945

  19. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice. PMID:27002546

  20. Effect of fermentation liquid from food waste as a carbon source for enhancing denitrification in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-02-01

    Food wastes were used for anaerobic fermentation to prepare carbon sources for enhancing nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. Under anaerobic conditions without pH adjustment, the fermentation liquid from food wastes (FLFW) with a high organic acid content was produced at room temperature (25 °C) and initial solid concentration of 13%. Using FLFW as the sole carbon source of artificial wastewater for biological treatment by sequence batch operation, maximized denitrification (with a denitrification rate of V(DN) = 12.89 mg/gVSS h and a denitrification potential of P(DN) = 0.174 gN/gCOD) could be achieved at a COD/TN ratio of 6. The readily biodegradable fraction in the FLFW was evaluated as 58.35%. By comparing FLFW with glucose and sodium acetate, two commonly used chemical carbon sources, FLFW showed a denitrification result similar to sodium acetate but much better than glucose in terms of total nitrogen removal, V(DN), P(DN), organic matter consumption rate (V(COD)) and heterotrophy anoxic yield coefficient (Y(H)). PMID:26408975

  1. Effect of fermentation liquid from food waste as a carbon source for enhancing denitrification in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-02-01

    Food wastes were used for anaerobic fermentation to prepare carbon sources for enhancing nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. Under anaerobic conditions without pH adjustment, the fermentation liquid from food wastes (FLFW) with a high organic acid content was produced at room temperature (25 °C) and initial solid concentration of 13%. Using FLFW as the sole carbon source of artificial wastewater for biological treatment by sequence batch operation, maximized denitrification (with a denitrification rate of V(DN) = 12.89 mg/gVSS h and a denitrification potential of P(DN) = 0.174 gN/gCOD) could be achieved at a COD/TN ratio of 6. The readily biodegradable fraction in the FLFW was evaluated as 58.35%. By comparing FLFW with glucose and sodium acetate, two commonly used chemical carbon sources, FLFW showed a denitrification result similar to sodium acetate but much better than glucose in terms of total nitrogen removal, V(DN), P(DN), organic matter consumption rate (V(COD)) and heterotrophy anoxic yield coefficient (Y(H)).

  2. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  3. Growth sensitivity in the epiphyseal growth plate, liver and muscle of SD rats is significantly enhanced by treatment with a fermented soybean product (cheonggukjang) through stimulation of growth hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Sik; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Young Ju; Kwak, Mun Hwa; Lee, Hong Gu; Kim, Hye Sung; Lee, Hee Seob; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2014-01-01

    Cheonggukjang (CKJ), a fermented soybean product, has been reported to have beneficial effects on various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and immune diseases. To investigate whether CKJ induces growth sensitivity in mammals, alterations of key parameters related to their growth were analyzed. Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats were treated with a high concentration of CKJ (H‑CKJ) or a low concentration of CKJ (L‑CKJ) for 10 days, and compared with vehicle-treated rats. The CKJ contained a high concentration of total flavonoids, phenolic compounds, daidzein and genistein, compared with the non-fermented soybean product. Body weight was higher in the H‑CKJ‑treated group compared with that in the vehicle‑ and L‑CKJ‑treated groups, whereas the weights of three organs (the brain, liver and kidney) were higher in the L‑CKJ‑treated group compared with the remaining two groups. However, no significant differences in femur length and weight were detected between the CKJ‑ and vehicle‑treated groups. The thickness of the epiphyseal growth plate in proximal femoral epiphysis was broadest in the H‑CKJ‑treated group compared with the vehicle- and L‑CKJ‑treated groups. Furthermore, the level of growth hormone (GH) was highest in the serum of the L‑CKJ‑treated group, although that of the H‑CKJ‑treated group was lower compared with that in the L‑CKJ group. Moreover, the expression levels of the GH receptor increased in the liver tissue, but not in the muscle tissue, of the L‑CKJ‑ and H‑CKJ‑treated groups. In the downstream signaling pathway of the GH receptor, the phosphorylation levels of Akt and Erk were differentially regulated between the liver and muscle. These results suggest that CKJ extract may enhance the sensitivity of the femur, liver and muscle epiphyseal growth plate in SD rats, through the upregulation of GH secretion.

  4. Hydrogen and methane production by co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste in the two-stage fermentation process: substrate conversion and energy yield.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyuan; Li, Ruying; Ji, Min; Han, Li

    2013-10-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to produce hydrogen and methane from waste activated sludge and food waste by two-stage mesophilic fermentation. Hydrogen and methane production, energy yield, soluble organic matters, volatile solid removal efficiency and carbon footprint were investigated during two-stage digestion at various food waste proportions. The highest energy yield reached 14.0 kJ/g-VS at the food waste proportion of 85%, with hydrogen and methane yields of 106.4 ml-H2/g-VS and 353.5 ml-CH4/g-VS respectively. The dominant VFA composition was butyrate for co-digestion and sole food waste fermentation, whereas acetate was dominate in VFA for sole waste activated sludge fermentation. The VS removal efficiencies of co-digestion were 10-77% higher than that of waste activated sludge fermentation. Only 0.1-3.2% of the COD in feedstock was converted into hydrogen, and 14.1-40.9% to methane, with the highest value of 40.9% in methane achieved at food waste proportion of 85%.

  5. Harnessing dark fermentative hydrogen from pretreated mixture of food waste and sewage sludge under sequencing batch mode.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Lee, Wontae; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Food waste and sewage sludge are the most abundant and problematic organic wastes in any society. Mixture of these two wastes may provide appropriate substrate condition for dark fermentative biohydrogen production based on synergistic mutual benefits. This work evaluates continuous hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge to verify mechanisms of performance improvement in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. Volatile solid concentration and mixing ratio of food waste and sludge were adjusted to 5 % and 80:20, respectively. Five different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 36, 42, 48, 72, and 108 h were tested using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors to find out optimal operating condition. Results show that the best performance was achieved at HRT 72 h, where the hydrogen yield, the hydrogen production rate, and hydrogen content were 62.0 mL H2/g VS, 1.0 L H2/L/day, and ~50 %, respectively. Sufficient solid retention time (143 h) and proper loading rate (8.2 g COD/L/day as carbohydrate) at HRT 72h led to the enhanced performance with better hydrogen production showing appropriate n-butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio of 2.6. Analytical result of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed that specific peaks associated with Clostridium sp. and Bacillus sp. were strongly related to enhanced hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge.

  6. [Usefulness of an immunoassay test TRAIT for detection of genetically modified Roundup ready soybean in food products].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Fonberg-Broczek, M; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, D; Badowski, P; Jedra, M

    2001-01-01

    The test based on immunoassay TRAIT Test for the specific detection of Roundup Ready Soybean was used for reference material in the form of dried powdered soy beans contained 0, 0.3, 1.25, 2.5% of genetically modified material, for soy beans declared as Roundup Ready and for soy products from Warsaw market. The detection limit was approximately 0.1% GMO on dry weight basis. Experiment was also carried out on heated soybeans. The positive results was obtained since temperature was under 65 degrees C during 15 minutes of heating grounded beans; above this temperature specific protein was not recognisable by the antibody. The TRAIT Test should be regarded as a qualitative method and could be recommended for screening purposes. Investigation demonstrated that above mentioned test was useful for detection of protein of genetically modified soybean in unprocessed products.

  7. Umami taste components and their sources in Asian foods.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is the inimitable taste of Asian foods. Several traditional and locally prepared foods and condiments of Asia are rich in umami. In this part of world, umami is found in fermented animal-based products such as fermented and dried seafood, and plant-based products from beans and grains, dry and fresh mushrooms, and tea. In Southeast Asia, the most preferred seasonings containing umami are fish and seafood sauces, and also soybean sauces. In the East Asian region, soybean sauces are the main source of umami substance in the routine cooking. In Japan, the material used to obtain umami in dashi, the stock added to almost every Japanese soups and boiled dishes, is konbu or dried bonito. This review introduces foods and seasonings containing naturally high amount of umami substances of both animal and plant sources from different countries in Asia. PMID:24915349

  8. Data on the application of Functional Data Analysis in food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bellido, M A; Romero-Gil, V; García-García, P; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2016-12-01

    This article refers to the paper "Assessment of table olive fermentation by functional data analysis" (Ruiz-Bellido et al., 2016) [1]. The dataset include pH, titratable acidity, yeast count and area values obtained during fermentation process (380 days) of Aloreña de Málaga olives subjected to five different fermentation systems: i) control of acidified cured olives, ii) highly acidified cured olives, iii) intermediate acidified cured olives, iv) control of traditional cracked olives, and v) traditional olives cracked after 72 h of exposure to air. Many of the Tables and Figures shown in this paper were deduced after application of Functional Data Analysis to raw data using a routine executed under R software for comparison among treatments by the transformation of raw data into smooth curves and the application of a new battery of statistical tools (functional pointwise estimation of the averages and standard deviations, maximum, minimum, first and second derivatives, functional regression, and functional F and t-tests). PMID:27689129

  9. Use of Schizosaccharomyces strains for wine fermentation-Effect on the wine composition and food safety.

    PubMed

    Mylona, A E; Del Fresno, J M; Palomero, F; Loira, I; Bañuelos, M A; Morata, A; Calderón, F; Benito, S; Suárez-Lepe, J A

    2016-09-01

    Schizosaccharomyces was initially considered as a spoilage yeast because of the production of undesirable metabolites such as acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, or acetaldehyde, but it currently seems to be of great value in enology.o ced Nevertheless, Schizosaccharomyces can reduce all of the malic acid in must, leading to malolactic fermentation. Malolactic fermentation is a highly complicated process in enology and leads to a higher concentration of biogenic amines, so the use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe can be an excellent tool for assuring wine safety. Schizosaccharomyces also has much more potential than only reducing the malic acid content, such as increasing the level of pyruvic acid and thus the vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanin content. Until now, few commercial strains have been available and little research on the selection of appropriate yeast strains with such potential has been conducted. In this study, selected and wild Sc. pombe strains were used along with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to ferment red grape must. The results showed significant differences in several parameters including non-volatile and volatile compounds, anthocyanins, biogenic amines and sensory parameters. PMID:27261767

  10. Use of Schizosaccharomyces strains for wine fermentation-Effect on the wine composition and food safety.

    PubMed

    Mylona, A E; Del Fresno, J M; Palomero, F; Loira, I; Bañuelos, M A; Morata, A; Calderón, F; Benito, S; Suárez-Lepe, J A

    2016-09-01

    Schizosaccharomyces was initially considered as a spoilage yeast because of the production of undesirable metabolites such as acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, or acetaldehyde, but it currently seems to be of great value in enology.o ced Nevertheless, Schizosaccharomyces can reduce all of the malic acid in must, leading to malolactic fermentation. Malolactic fermentation is a highly complicated process in enology and leads to a higher concentration of biogenic amines, so the use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe can be an excellent tool for assuring wine safety. Schizosaccharomyces also has much more potential than only reducing the malic acid content, such as increasing the level of pyruvic acid and thus the vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanin content. Until now, few commercial strains have been available and little research on the selection of appropriate yeast strains with such potential has been conducted. In this study, selected and wild Sc. pombe strains were used along with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to ferment red grape must. The results showed significant differences in several parameters including non-volatile and volatile compounds, anthocyanins, biogenic amines and sensory parameters.

  11. Migration of epoxidised soybean oil from PVC gaskets of commercial lids: simulation of migration under various conditions and screening of food products from Czech markets.

    PubMed

    Hanušová, Kristýna; Vrbík, Karel; Rajchl, Aleš; Dobiáš, Jaroslav; Sosnovcová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a large number of polyvinylchloride (PVC) lid gaskets exceed the existing migration limits for epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) and correct prediction of ESBO release into food therefore appears to be a difficult issue. ESBO migration from PVC gaskets of metal closures into food simulants and food products from the Czech market is evaluated during a survey in 2009 and subsequently one in 2012 to assess progress in lid manufacturing and official testing conditions. ESBO migration from lids into various food simulants was studied at various temperatures (25, 40 and 60°C) during storage times up to 12 months. ESBO released into food simulants or food products was transmethylated, derivatised and analysed by GC-MS. The levels of ESBO migration in foodstuffs in 2012 exceeded the specific migration limit (SML) in fewer products in comparison with the previous survey. However, most of the products were analysed at a time far from the expiry date and exceedance of the SML at the end of the product shelf life is not therefore excluded. More severe test conditions (60°C for 10 days) for specific migration given by the current European Union legislation (Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011) still seem to be insufficient for the simulation of ESBO migration during long-term storage. PMID:25685888

  12. Translating Soybean Genomics to Opportunities for Improved Human Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a major crop for food and fuel. While the vast majority of soybean meal is incorporated into the diet of livestock such as poultry and swine, the soybean oil is extremely valuable as a component of the human diet. Many soybean breeding efforts are targeted to improve agronomic traits suc...

  13. Protein and quality analyses of accessions from the USDA soybean germplasm collection for tofu production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-grade soybeans with large seed size, uniformity, clear hilum, and high 11S/7S ratio are favored by the food industry for making tofu. In order to search for soybean lines with desirable characteristics for making foods, twenty-two soybean lines were selected from the USDA-Soybean Germplasm Coll...

  14. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  15. Risk-based control of food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica in the Italian fermented sausages Cacciatore and Felino.

    PubMed

    Mataragas, M; Bellio, A; Rovetto, F; Astegiano, S; Decastelli, L; Cocolin, L

    2015-05-01

    Fermentation is the most important killing step during production of fermented meats to eliminate food-borne pathogens. The objective was to evaluate whether the food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica may survive during the production of two Italian fermented sausages. Sausage batter was inoculated with five strains of L. monocytogenes or S. enterica (ca. 10(5)-10(6) cfu/g) and their kinetic behavior was monitored during production. Both pathogens survived relatively well (in Cacciatore L. monocytogenes and S. enterica inactivation was ca. 0.38±0.23 and 1.10±0.24 log cfu/g, respectively; in Felino was ca. 0.39±0.25 and 1.62±0.38 log cfu/g, respectively) due to the conditions prevailing during production (slow dehydration rate, small reduction of water activity and fermentation temperature mainly below 20 °C during the first 48 h of fermentation). Quantitative analysis of data originating from challenge tests provide critical information on which combinations of the process parameters would potentially lead to better control of the pathogens. PMID:25612557

  16. Development of a Solid-State Fermentation System for Producing Bioethanol from Food Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu

    Liquid fermentation is the a conventional method of producing bioethanol. However, this method results in the formation of high concentrations waste after distillation and futher treatment requires more energy and is costly(large amounts of costly energy).Saccharification of dried raw garbage was tested for 12 types of Koji starters under the following optimum culture conditions: temperature of 30°C and initial moisture content of 50%.Among all the types, Aspergillus oryzae KBN650 had the highest saccharifying power. The ethanol-producing ability of the raw garbage was investigated for 72 strains of yeast, of which Saccharomyces cerevisiae A30 had the highest ethanol production(yield)under the following optimum conditions: 1 :1 ratio of dried garbage and saccharified garbage by weight, and initial moisture content of 60%. Thus, the solid-state fermentation system consisted of the following 4 processes: moisture control, saccharification, ethanol production and distillation. This system produced 0.6kg of ethanol from 9.6kg of garbage. Moreover the ethanol yield from all sugars was calculated to be 0.37.

  17. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for detecting major food allergens (peanut, soybean, and wheat) by using internal transcribed spacer region.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Takashi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Temmei, Yusuke; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Kato, Hisanori

    2009-01-01

    Allergen detection methods for peanut, soybean, and wheat were developed by designing PCR primer pairs for specific amplification of a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region reported for Arachis spp. for peanut, Glycine spp. for soybean, and Triticum and Aegilops spp. for wheat. The target species for detection included not only cultivated, but also wild and ancestor species, which were thought to be potentially allergenic. The ability of the resultant primer pairs to detect the target species was verified using genomic DNA extracted from A. hypogaea for peanut and G max for soybean; T. aestivum, T. turgidum, T. durum, T. aestivum-rye amphidiploid, T. monococcum, T. timopheevi, Ae. speltoides, and Ae. squarrosa for wheat. The LODs were 50-500 fg of target DNA, which were comparable to those of the most sensitive PCR methods previously reported. The results from the present work, as well as those from our previous work on buckwheat and kiwifruit, prove that the ITS region, for its high copy number and interspecific diversity, is particularly useful as the target of allergen detection methods.

  18. Lactic acid fermentation from food waste with indigenous microbiota: Effects of pH, temperature and high OLR.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jialing; Wang, Xiaochang; Hu, Yisong; Zhang, Yongmei; Li, Yuyou

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pH, temperature and high organic loading rate (OLR) on lactic acid production from food waste without extra inoculum addition were investigated in this study. Using batch experiments, the results showed that although the hydrolysis rate increased with pH adjustment, the lactic acid concentration and productivity were highest at pH 6. High temperatures were suitable for solubilization but seriously restricted the acidification processes. The highest lactic acid yield (0.46g/g-TS) and productivity (278.1mg/Lh) were obtained at 37°C and pH 6. In addition, the lactic acid concentration gradually increased with the increase in OLR, and the semi-continuous reactor could be stably operated at an OLR of 18g-TS/Ld. However, system instability, low lactic acid yield and a decrease in VS removal were noticed at high OLRs (22g-TS/Ld). The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the fermentation mixture were relatively low but slightly increased with OLR, and acetate was the predominant VFA component. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing, Lactobacillus from the raw food waste was found to selectively accumulate and become dominant in the semi-continuous reactor.

  19. Dietary management of acute diarrhoea in children: effect of fermented and amylase-digested weaning foods on intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Willumsen, J F; Darling, J C; Kitundu, J A; Kingamkono, R R; Msengi, A E; Mduma, B; Sullivan, K R; Tomkins, A M

    1997-03-01

    The effect of three dietary treatments on intestinal permeability during acute diarrhea was compared in 86 Tanzanian children 6-25 months of age admitted to Muhimbili Medical Center's Pediatric Diarrhea Treatment Unit in Dar es Salaam in 1992. 55 children (64%) had received foods other than breast milk during the first week of life. After rehydration, children were randomly assigned to receive a conventional low-energy density porridge (n = 33), a high-energy density amylase digested (AMD) porridge (n = 28), or AMD porridge followed by fermented amylase digested (FAD) porridge (n = 25). Lactulose/mannitol (L/M) permeability tests were performed at admission, after 3 days, and at 2 and 4 weeks after hospital discharge. Children with diarrhea had higher L/M ratios (geometric mean, 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-1.05) at admission than the 30 age-matched healthy controls (mean, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.12-0.17). The L/M ratio of study children fell over time and approached values recorded among healthy controls by the first follow-up visit. The change in L/M ratio between admission and day 3 of hospitalization was significantly greater in the FAD group (89%) than the conventional or AMD groups (44% and 75%, respectively). Dietary treatment and intestinal damage at admission explained 13.5% of the variation in this L/M ratio, while age at admission and age at weaning explained an additional 8.4%. These findings suggest that a porridge that has been both amylase digested and fermented effectively repairs mucosal damage through trophic effects on intestinal epithelium and should be administered to children with acute diarrhea to prevent malnutrition.

  20. [Transgenic technology and soybean quality improvement].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Jin, Hang-Xia; Gai, Jun-Yi; Yu, De-Yue

    2011-05-01

    Soybean is an important source of edible oil, protein and protein diet. The breeding process of high quality soybean can be accelerated via employment of transgenic technology, by which the key genes for soybean quality traits could be directly manipulated. Thus, various soybean varieties could be bred to fulfill different needs for specific consumers. Here, we reviewed the contribution of transgenic technology to improvement of soybean qualities in recent years. We also introduce some newly developed safe transgenic technologies and hope this information could relieve some concerns on the GM food.

  1. Safety evaluation of a proprietary food-grade, dried fermentate preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Glavits, R; Endres, John; Jensen, Gitte S; Clewell, Amy

    2012-01-01

    A safety evaluation was performed for EpiCor, a product produced by a proprietary fermentation process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies included the following assays: bacterial reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma cell mutagenicity, mitogenicity assay in human peripheral lymphocytes, and a cytochrome P450 ([CYP] CYP1A2 and CYP3A4) induction assessment as well as 14-day acute, 90-day subchronic, and 1-year chronic oral toxicity studies in rats. No evidence of genotoxicity or mitogenicity was seen in any of the in vitro or in vivo studies. The CYP assessment showed no interactions or inductions. No toxic clinical symptoms or histopathological lesions were observed in the acute, subchronic, or chronic oral toxicity studies in the rat. Results of the studies performed indicate that EpiCor does not possess genotoxic activity and has a low order of toxicity that is well tolerated when administered orally. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 1500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d for the 90-day study and 800 mg/kg bw/d for the 1 year study, for the highest doses tested.

  2. Possibility of breast cancer prevention: use of soy isoflavones and fermented soy beverage produced using probiotics.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Akimitsu; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kaga, Chiaki

    2015-05-13

    The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd), and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  3. Metagenomic approach reveals microbial diversity and predictive microbial metabolic pathways in Yucha, a traditional Li fermented food.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Xiaoru; Huo, Dongxue; Li, Wu; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Salinivibrio, Acinetobacter, Macrococcus, Kluyvera and Clostridium; this result was confirmed by q-PCR. PCoA based on Weighted UniFrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern for Yucha samples from different locations, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus saniviri and Staphylococcus sciuri represented OTUs according to the major identified markers. At the microbial functional level, it was observed that there was an enrichment of metabolic functional features, including amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, which implied that the microbial metabolism in the Yucha samples tended to be vigorous. Accordingly, we further investigated the correlation between the predominant microbes and metabolic functional features. Thirteen species of Lactobacillus (147 strains) were isolated, and Lactobacillus plantarum (60 isolates) and Lactobacillus pentosus (34 isolates) were isolated from every sample. PMID:27578483

  4. Thermotolerant bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from thai local fermented foods and their bacteriocin productivity.

    PubMed

    Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Arbsuwan, Nida; Apiraksakorn, Jirawan; Laopaiboon, Pattana; Kishida, Masao

    2011-03-01

    Twenty-one samples of Thai local fermented foods were screened for thermotolerant bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria. From 529 isolates of lactic acid bacteria, 121 isolates were able to inhibit the growth of certain bacterial strains. Of these 121 isolates, only 11 produced antibacterial agents that were capable of inhibiting the growth of multiple bacterial strains in a liquid medium. One strain (KKU 170) of these 11 isolates produced an antibacterial agent that could strongly inhibit the growth of selected strains of gram-positive bacteria including Listeria sp. The antibacterial agent produced by the strain KKU 170 was identified as a bacteriocin since it was inactivated by proteinase K treatment. The strain KKU 170 was identified as Pediococcus acidilactici by both biochemical tests and molecular biological techniques. Optimal production of bacteriocin by the strain KKU 170 was found in culture medium containing 0.2% glucose, at an initial culture pH of 6.5, and temperature of 45 ºC. The maximum bacteriocin activity (1600 AU ml(-1)) was reached at the late exponential phase of growth and displayed primary metabolite production. The partially purified bacteriocin of the strain KKU 170 was tolerant to heat treatment at 121 ºC for 30 min.

  5. Screening of indigenous oxalate degrading lactic acid bacteria from human faeces and South Indian fermented foods: assessment of probiotic potential.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Sivasamy; Sasikumar, Ponnusamy; Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M S; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria.

  6. Enhancement of acidogenic fermentation for volatile fatty acid production from food waste: Effect of redox potential and inoculum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yeer; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Chen, Ting

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of redox potential (ORP) and inoculum on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from food waste by acidogenic fermentation. Four experimental conditions with two ORP levels were tested: limited aeration conditions with ORP level of -100 to -200mV inoculating anaerobic sludge (LA+AnS) or aerobic sludge (LA+AeS), and anaerobic conditions with ORP level of -200 to -300mV inoculating anaerobic sludge with 2-bromoethanosulfophate (AN+BES) and without BES (AN). The maximal VFA yield (0.79g COD/g VS) was attained in LA+AnS reactor due to enhanced hydrolysis of substrates, especially proteins (degradation efficiency 78.3%). A higher frequency of phylum Firmicutes under limited aeration conditions (42.2-48.2%) was observed than that under anaerobic conditions (21.1%). The microbial community was more diverse in LA+AnS reactors than LA+AeS. We conclude that appropriate ORP level (from -100 to -200mV) and inoculum play essential roles in VFA production.

  7. Exploitation of fermented shrimp-shells hydrolysate as functional food: assessment of antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic and prebiotic activities.

    PubMed

    Halder, Suman Kumar; Adak, Atanu; Maity, Chiranjit; Jana, Arijit; Das, Arpan; Paul, Tanmay; Ghosh, Kuntal; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2013-11-01

    In the present study the bioactivities of chitooligosaccharides of fermented shrimp-shell hydrolysate (SSH) in respect to hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant and prebiotic activity were tested in male albino rat. Rats were treated with four different diets, viz., (i) cholesterol-rich (5%) basal diet (ChB), (ii) ChB+10% chitin, (iii) ChB+10% SSH and (iv) control group (without cholesterol). After 4 weeks of treatment, body mass index, liver weight, serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in groups (ii) and (iii) were decreased significantly than group (i). SSH supplementation significantly resists oxidative stress by reducing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and by increasing catalase, superoxide dismutase and free radical scavenging activity. The colonization of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium population in small and large intestine were more in group (iii) than other groups. Reduction of Clostridium perfringens population and non-significant changes of E. coli was also noted in SSH supplement group. Histological study revealed that the villus height and villus:crypt of the small intestine were increased significantly in SSH supplemented group (iii) without any diarrheal symptoms. The results demonstrated that the shrimp-shells hydrolysate has hypocholesterolemic effect, can resist lipid peroxidation and can influence the growth of health beneficial microbes, hence can be used as functional food for hypercholesterolemic patients.

  8. Integrated conversion of food waste diluted with sewage into volatile fatty acids through fermentation and electricity through a fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Arslan, Doga; Van Bogaert, Gilbert; Gallego, Yolanda Alvarez; De Wever, Heleen; Diels, Ludo; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, domestic wastewater was given a second life as dilution medium for concentrated organic waste streams, in particular artificial food waste. A two-step continuous process with first volatile fatty acid (VFA)/hydrogen production and second electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was employed. For primary treatment, bioreactors were optimized to produce hydrogen and VFAs. Hydrolysis of the solids and formation of fermentation products and hydrogen was monitored. In the second step, MFCs were operated batch-wise using the effluent rich in VFAs specifically acetic acid from the continuous reactor of the first step. The combined system was able to reduce the chemical oxygen demand load by 90%. The concentration of VFAs was also monitored regularly in the MFCs and showed a decreasing trend over time. Further, the anode potential changed from -500 to OmV vs. Ag/AgCl when the VFAs (especially acetate) were depleted in the system. On feeding the system again with the effluent, the anode potential recovered back to -500 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Thus, the overall aim of converting chemical energy into electrical energy was achieved with a columbic efficiency of 46% generating 65.33 mA/m2 at a specific cell potential of 148 mV.

  9. Inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme by subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) in natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshino, Masataka

    2012-06-01

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was inhibited by the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto, which ferments boiled soy beans to natto, a Japanese traditional food. Subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) produced by B. subtilis also inhibited ACE, and the inhibition was markedly stimulated by heat treatment of subtilisin at 120 °C for 15 min. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin was of a mixed type: the decrease in V(max) and the increase in K(m) value. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that heat treatment of subtilisin caused inactivation with fragmentation of the enzyme protein into small peptides. The inhibitory action of subtilisin was not due to an enzymatic action of protease, but may be ascribed to the potent ACE-inhibitory peptides such as LY and FY, amino acid sequences in subtilisin. HPLC-MS analysis of heat-inactivated subtilisin confirmed that LY and FY were liberated by fragmentation of the enzyme. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin and its degradation peptides such as LY and FY may participate in the suppression of blood pressure by ingestion of natto.

  10. Continuous fermentation of food waste leachate for the production of volatile fatty acids and potential as a denitrification carbon source.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hakchan; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Hwang, Seokhwan; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and pH on the continuous production of VFAs from food waste leachate using response surface analysis. The response surface approximations (R(2)=0.895, p<0.05) revealed that pH has a dominant effect on the specific VFA production (PTVFA) within the explored space (1-4-day HRT, pH 4.5-6.5). The estimated maximum PTVFA was 0.26g total VFAs/g CODf at 2.14-day HRT and pH 6.44, and the approximation was experimentally validated by running triplicate reactors under the estimated optimum conditions. The mixture of the filtrates recovered from these reactors was tested as a denitrification carbon source and demonstrated superior performance in terms of reaction rate and lag length relative to other chemicals, including acetate and methanol. The overall results provide helpful information for better design and control of continuous fermentation for producing waste-derived VFAs, an alternative carbon source for denitrification.

  11. Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M. S.; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria. PMID:24723820

  12. Enhancement of acidogenic fermentation for volatile fatty acid production from food waste: Effect of redox potential and inoculum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yeer; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Chen, Ting

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of redox potential (ORP) and inoculum on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from food waste by acidogenic fermentation. Four experimental conditions with two ORP levels were tested: limited aeration conditions with ORP level of -100 to -200mV inoculating anaerobic sludge (LA+AnS) or aerobic sludge (LA+AeS), and anaerobic conditions with ORP level of -200 to -300mV inoculating anaerobic sludge with 2-bromoethanosulfophate (AN+BES) and without BES (AN). The maximal VFA yield (0.79g COD/g VS) was attained in LA+AnS reactor due to enhanced hydrolysis of substrates, especially proteins (degradation efficiency 78.3%). A higher frequency of phylum Firmicutes under limited aeration conditions (42.2-48.2%) was observed than that under anaerobic conditions (21.1%). The microbial community was more diverse in LA+AnS reactors than LA+AeS. We conclude that appropriate ORP level (from -100 to -200mV) and inoculum play essential roles in VFA production. PMID:27343452

  13. Metagenomic approach reveals microbial diversity and predictive microbial metabolic pathways in Yucha, a traditional Li fermented food

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Xiaoru; Huo, Dongxue; Li, Wu; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Salinivibrio, Acinetobacter, Macrococcus, Kluyvera and Clostridium; this result was confirmed by q-PCR. PCoA based on Weighted UniFrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern for Yucha samples from different locations, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus saniviri and Staphylococcus sciuri represented OTUs according to the major identified markers. At the microbial functional level, it was observed that there was an enrichment of metabolic functional features, including amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, which implied that the microbial metabolism in the Yucha samples tended to be vigorous. Accordingly, we further investigated the correlation between the predominant microbes and metabolic functional features. Thirteen species of Lactobacillus (147 strains) were isolated, and Lactobacillus plantarum (60 isolates) and Lactobacillus pentosus (34 isolates) were isolated from every sample. PMID:27578483

  14. Quantitation and Enantiomeric Ratios of Aroma Compounds Formed by an Ehrlich Degradation of l-Isoleucine in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    The conversion of parent free amino acids into alcohols by an enzymatic deamination, decarboxylation, and reduction caused by microbial enzymes was first reported more than 100 years ago and is today known as the Ehrlich pathway. Because the chiral center at the carbon bearing the methyl group in l-isoleucine should not be prone to racemization during the reaction steps, the analysis of the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid as well as in the compounds formed by secondary reactions, such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutyl acetate, are an appropriate measure to follow the proposed degradation mechanism in the Ehrlich reaction. On the basis of a newly developed method for quantitation and chiral analysis, the enantiomers of the five metabolites were determined in a great number of fermented foods. Whereas 2-methylbutanol occurred as pure (S)-enantiomer in nearly all samples, a ratio of almost 1:1 of (S)- and (R)-2-methylbutanal was found. These data are not in agreement with the literature suggesting the formation of 2-methylbutanol by an enzymatic reduction of 2-methylbutanal. Also, the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanoic acid was closer to that in 2-methylbutanol than to that found in 2-methylbutanal, suggesting that also the acid is probably not formed by oxidation of the aldehyde as previously proposed. Additional model studies with (S)-2-methylbutanal did not show a racemization under the conditions of food production or during workup of the sample for volatile analysis. Therefore, the results establish that different mechanisms might be responsible for the formation of aldehydes and acids from the parent amino acids in the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:26717969

  15. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria, with the lowest microbial counts observed in L.3. The addition of freeze-dried FBF resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in total volatile basic nitrogen values and pH values but increases in lipid oxidation and color instability. Based on the criteria regarding microbiological and physicochemical parameters, the shelf life was 9 to 12 days for L.1, 12 to 15 days for L.2, and over 15 days for L.3, while the shelf-lives of the control and nisin treatments were 3 to 6 days, indicating that freeze-dried FBF could extend the shelf life by more than 3 days. Although the shelf life of L.1 was shorter than those of L.2 and L.3, the appearance of L.1 was much better than those of L.2 and L.3. Overall, treatment with 4 or 8% freeze-dried FBF could be improved if color and lipid oxidation could be improved by appropriate stabilizers, and a lower concentration (2%) of freeze-dried FBF has great potential as a natural and safe preservative in chilled pork patties.

  16. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria, with the lowest microbial counts observed in L.3. The addition of freeze-dried FBF resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in total volatile basic nitrogen values and pH values but increases in lipid oxidation and color instability. Based on the criteria regarding microbiological and physicochemical parameters, the shelf life was 9 to 12 days for L.1, 12 to 15 days for L.2, and over 15 days for L.3, while the shelf-lives of the control and nisin treatments were 3 to 6 days, indicating that freeze-dried FBF could extend the shelf life by more than 3 days. Although the shelf life of L.1 was shorter than those of L.2 and L.3, the appearance of L.1 was much better than those of L.2 and L.3. Overall, treatment with 4 or 8% freeze-dried FBF could be improved if color and lipid oxidation could be improved by appropriate stabilizers, and a lower concentration (2%) of freeze-dried FBF has great potential as a natural and safe preservative in chilled pork patties. PMID:24674438

  17. Quantitation and Enantiomeric Ratios of Aroma Compounds Formed by an Ehrlich Degradation of l-Isoleucine in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    The conversion of parent free amino acids into alcohols by an enzymatic deamination, decarboxylation, and reduction caused by microbial enzymes was first reported more than 100 years ago and is today known as the Ehrlich pathway. Because the chiral center at the carbon bearing the methyl group in l-isoleucine should not be prone to racemization during the reaction steps, the analysis of the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid as well as in the compounds formed by secondary reactions, such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutyl acetate, are an appropriate measure to follow the proposed degradation mechanism in the Ehrlich reaction. On the basis of a newly developed method for quantitation and chiral analysis, the enantiomers of the five metabolites were determined in a great number of fermented foods. Whereas 2-methylbutanol occurred as pure (S)-enantiomer in nearly all samples, a ratio of almost 1:1 of (S)- and (R)-2-methylbutanal was found. These data are not in agreement with the literature suggesting the formation of 2-methylbutanol by an enzymatic reduction of 2-methylbutanal. Also, the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanoic acid was closer to that in 2-methylbutanol than to that found in 2-methylbutanal, suggesting that also the acid is probably not formed by oxidation of the aldehyde as previously proposed. Additional model studies with (S)-2-methylbutanal did not show a racemization under the conditions of food production or during workup of the sample for volatile analysis. Therefore, the results establish that different mechanisms might be responsible for the formation of aldehydes and acids from the parent amino acids in the Ehrlich pathway.

  18. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake—probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior. PMID:27706095

  19. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  20. Antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and probiotic properties of wild lactobacilli from fermented food.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingchun; Zhang, Lanwei; Du, Ming; Yi, Huaxi; Guo, Chunfeng; Tuo, Yanfeng; Han, Xue; Li, Jingyan; Zhang, Lili; Yang, Lin

    2011-12-20

    Four lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus paracasei subp. paracasei M5-L, Lactobacillus rhamnosus J10-L, Lactobacillus casei Q8-L and L. rhamnosus GG (LGG), were systematically assessed for the production of antimicrobial substances active towards Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Agar-well assay showed that the four lactobacilli strains displayed strong antibacterial activity towards S. sonnei. The nature of antimicrobial substances was also investigated and shown to be dependent on the production of organic acids, in particular the lactic acid. Time-kill assay showed that the viability of the S. sonnei was decreased by 2.7-3.6logCFU/ml after contact with CFCS (cell-free culture supernatants) of four lactobacilli for 2h, which confirmed the result of the agar-well assay. Further analysis of the organic acid composition in the CFCS revealed that the content of lactic acid range from 227 to 293mM. In addition, the aggregations properties, adherence properties and tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions were also investigated in vitro tests. The result suggested that the M5-L, J10-L and Q8-L strains possess desirable antimicrobial activity towards S. sonnei and probiotic properties as LGG and could be potentially used as novel probiotic strains in the food industry. PMID:21466951

  1. Genetically engineered foods

    MedlinePlus

    Cotton, corn, and soybeans are the main GE crops grown in the United States. Most of these are used to make ingredients for ... drinks Corn starch used in soups and sauces Soybean, corn, and canola oils used in snack foods, ...

  2. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  3. High-throughput screening of a large collection of non-conventional yeasts reveals their potential for aroma formation in food fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gamero, Amparo; Quintilla, Raquel; Groenewald, Marizeth; Alkema, Wynand; Boekhout, Teun; Hazelwood, Lucie

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces yeast species are currently the most important yeasts involved in industrial-scale food fermentations. However, there are hundreds of other yeast species poorly studied that are highly promising for flavour development, some of which have also been identified in traditional food fermentations. This work explores natural yeast biodiversity in terms of aroma formation, with a particular focus on aromas relevant for industrial fermentations such as wine and beer. Several non-Saccharomyces species produce important aroma compounds such as fusel alcohols derived from the Ehrlich pathway, acetate esters and ethyl esters in significantly higher quantities than the well-known Saccharomyces species. These species are Starmera caribaea, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Saccharomycopsis vini and Ambrosiozyma monospora. Certain species revealed a strain-dependent flavour profile while other species were very homogenous in their flavour profiles. Finally, characterization of a selected number of yeast species using valine or leucine as sole nitrogen sources indicates that the mechanisms of regulation of the expression of the Ehrlich pathway exist amongst non-conventional yeast species. PMID:27554157

  4. High-throughput screening of a large collection of non-conventional yeasts reveals their potential for aroma formation in food fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gamero, Amparo; Quintilla, Raquel; Groenewald, Marizeth; Alkema, Wynand; Boekhout, Teun; Hazelwood, Lucie

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces yeast species are currently the most important yeasts involved in industrial-scale food fermentations. However, there are hundreds of other yeast species poorly studied that are highly promising for flavour development, some of which have also been identified in traditional food fermentations. This work explores natural yeast biodiversity in terms of aroma formation, with a particular focus on aromas relevant for industrial fermentations such as wine and beer. Several non-Saccharomyces species produce important aroma compounds such as fusel alcohols derived from the Ehrlich pathway, acetate esters and ethyl esters in significantly higher quantities than the well-known Saccharomyces species. These species are Starmera caribaea, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Saccharomycopsis vini and Ambrosiozyma monospora. Certain species revealed a strain-dependent flavour profile while other species were very homogenous in their flavour profiles. Finally, characterization of a selected number of yeast species using valine or leucine as sole nitrogen sources indicates that the mechanisms of regulation of the expression of the Ehrlich pathway exist amongst non-conventional yeast species.

  5. Effects of utilization of local food by-products as total mixed ration silage materials on fermentation quality and intake, digestibility, rumen condition and nitrogen availability in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yani, Srita; Ishida, Kyohei; Goda, Shuzo; Azumai, Shigeyoshi; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Okano, Kanji; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by-products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce cake and green tea waste) were obtained. Four types of TMR silage were used: control (C) containing roughage and commercial concentrate, T1:20% and T1:40% containing the five by-products replacing 20% and 40% of the commercial concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, and T2:40% containing three by-products (potato waste, noodle waste and soybean curd residue) replacing 40% of the commercial concentrate on a DM basis. The ingredients were mixed and preserved in oil drum silos for 4 months. The TMR silages showed 4.02-4.44% and 1.75-2.19% for pH and lactic acid contents, respectively. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient content were higher (P < 0.05) for T2:40% feeding than for C feeding. Urinary nitrogen excretion tended to be lower (P = 0.07) for T2:40% than for C. The results suggested 40% replacing of commercial concentrate by using the three food by-products can be most suitable for TMR silage.

  6. Effects of plant food potassium salts (citrate, galacturonate or tartrate) on acid-base status and digestive fermentations in rats.

    PubMed

    Sabboh, Houda; Coxam, Véronique; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Rémésy, Christian; Demigné, Christian

    2007-07-01

    Potassium (K) organic anion salts, such as potassium citrate or potassium malate in plant foods, may counteract low-grade metabolic acidosis induced by western diets, but little is known about the effect of other minor plant anions. Effects of K salts (chloride, citrate, galacturonate or tartrate) were thus studied on the mineral balance and digestive fermentations in groups of 6-week-old rats adapted to an acidogenic/5 % inulin diet. In all diet groups, substantial amounts of lactate and succinate were present in the caecum, besides SCFA. SCFA were poorly affected by K salts conditions. The KCl-supplemented diet elicited an accumulation of lactate in the caecum; whereas the lactate caecal pool was low in rats fed the potassium tartrate-supplemented (K TAR) diet. A fraction of tartrate (around 50 %) was recovered in urine of rats fed the K TAR diet. Potassium citrate and potassium galacturonate diets exerted a marked alkalinizing effect on urine pH and promoted a notable citraturia (around 0.5 micro mol/24 h). All the K organic anion salts counteracted Ca and Mg hyperexcretion in urine, especially potassium tartrate as to magnesuria. The present findings indicate that K salts of unabsorbed organic anions exert alkalinizing effects when metabolizable in the large intestine, even if K and finally available anions (likely SCFA) are not simultaneously bioavailable. Whether this observation is also relevant for a fraction of SCFA arising from dietary fibre breakdown (which represents the major organic anions absorbed in the digestive tract in man) deserves further investigation.

  7. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  8. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals.

  9. Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-cai, a traditional food made in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing

    2015-10-15

    We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-cai during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-cai was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-cai. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-cai; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum.

  10. Optimization of fermentation parameters to study the behavior of selected lactic cultures on soy solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Olmos, A; Bru, E; Garro, M S

    2015-03-01

    The use of solid fermentation substrate (SSF) has been appreciated by the demand for natural and healthy products. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria play a leading role in the production of novel functional foods and their behavior is practically unknown in these systems. Soy is an excellent substrate for the production of functional foods for their low cost and nutritional value. The aim of this work was to optimize different parameters involved in solid state fermentation (SSF) using selected lactic cultures to improve soybean substrate as a possible strategy for the elaboration of new soy food with enhanced functional and nutritional properties. Soy flour and selected lactic cultures were used under different conditions to optimize the soy SSF. The measured responses were bacterial growth, free amino acids and β-glucosidase activity, which were analyzed by applying response surface methodology. Based on the proposed statistical model, different fermentation conditions were raised by varying the moisture content (50-80%) of the soy substrate and temperature of incubation (31-43°C). The effect of inoculum amount was also investigated. These studies demonstrated the ability of selected strains (Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Bifidobacterium longum) to grow with strain-dependent behavior on the SSF system. β-Glucosidase activity was evident in both strains and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei was able to increase the free amino acids at the end of fermentation under assayed conditions. The used statistical model has allowed the optimization of fermentation parameters on soy SSF by selected lactic strains. Besides, the possibility to work with lower initial bacterial amounts to obtain results with significant technological impact was demonstrated.

  11. Optimization of fermentation parameters to study the behavior of selected lactic cultures on soy solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Olmos, A; Bru, E; Garro, M S

    2015-03-01

    The use of solid fermentation substrate (SSF) has been appreciated by the demand for natural and healthy products. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria play a leading role in the production of novel functional foods and their behavior is practically unknown in these systems. Soy is an excellent substrate for the production of functional foods for their low cost and nutritional value. The aim of this work was to optimize different parameters involved in solid state fermentation (SSF) using selected lactic cultures to improve soybean substrate as a possible strategy for the elaboration of new soy food with enhanced functional and nutritional properties. Soy flour and selected lactic cultures were used under different conditions to optimize the soy SSF. The measured responses were bacterial growth, free amino acids and β-glucosidase activity, which were analyzed by applying response surface methodology. Based on the proposed statistical model, different fermentation conditions were raised by varying the moisture content (50-80%) of the soy substrate and temperature of incubation (31-43°C). The effect of inoculum amount was also investigated. These studies demonstrated the ability of selected strains (Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Bifidobacterium longum) to grow with strain-dependent behavior on the SSF system. β-Glucosidase activity was evident in both strains and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei was able to increase the free amino acids at the end of fermentation under assayed conditions. The used statistical model has allowed the optimization of fermentation parameters on soy SSF by selected lactic strains. Besides, the possibility to work with lower initial bacterial amounts to obtain results with significant technological impact was demonstrated. PMID:25498472

  12. Development and acceptability of a novel milk-free soybean-maize-sorghum ready-to-use therapeutic food (SMS-RUTF) based on industrial extrusion cooking process.

    PubMed

    Owino, Victor O; Irena, Abel H; Dibari, Filippo; Collins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Peanut milk-based ready-to-use therapeutic food (P-RUTF) primarily used to treat severe acute malnutrition at community setting is expensive. We developed an alternative milk-free soybean-maize-sorghum-based RUTF (SMS-RUTF) using locally grown ingredients that have the potential to support local economy and reduce the cost of RUTF. We describe the production process and results of acceptability of the new product. Acceptability and tolerance of SMS-RUTF was compared with P-RUTF among 45 children aged 4-11 years old based on a cross-over design. Each child consumed 250 g RUTF for 10 days followed by a five-day washout period and a subsequent 10-day period on the second RUTF. The SMS-RUTF was as acceptable as the P-RUTF among normal children aged 4-11 years of age with no associated adverse effects. SMS-RUTF was stable for at least 12 months without detectable microbiological or chemical deterioration. The major challenge encountered in SMS-RUTF development was the difficulty to accurately determine key nutrient composition due to its high oil content. Use of diversified locally available ingredients to produce RUTF is feasible. The SMS-RUTF meets expected standards and is acceptable to children aged 4-11 months old. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SMS-RUTF is required.

  13. Migration analysis of epoxidized soybean oil and other plasticizers in commercial lids for food packaging by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Ferrer, C; Jimenez, A; Garrigos, M C

    2010-10-01

    A modification of the method of Castle et al. (J. Chromatogr. 1988: 437:274-280) for the analysis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) is proposed to simplify the analysis and reduce the time and consumption of reagents. The proposed modifications, particularly the elimination of the internal standard, resulted in a simpler, faster and more economical method. A complete analytical validation, including evaluation of the main analytical parameters, such as detection and quantification limits, linearity, working range, precision, accuracy and selectivity, was carried out. The data demonstrated the suitability of the proposed method for the determination of ESBO in polymer matrices. A specific migration study for ESBO in different food simulants (fat and aqueous) was carried out by applying the method to poly(vinyl chloride) materials prepared with known amounts of ESBO, as well as some commercial lids. High levels of migration of ESBO into fat simulants were found. In the case of commercial lids, in addition to ESBO, some other plasticizers such as citrates, adipates and sebacates were found and quantified to establish their migration under different conditions of use.

  14. Reduction of Phytate in Soy Drink by Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Expressing Phytases From Bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Plant-based food products can be modified by fermentation to improve flavour and the concentration of some biologically active compounds, but also to increase the mineral availability by eliminating anti-nutrient substances such as phytates. The objective of this study was to develop a fermented soybean drink with improved nutritional quality and source of probiotic bacteria by including as starter for fermentation Lactobacillus casei strains modified to produce phytase enzymes from bifidobacteria. The L. casei strains showed a good adaptation to develop in the soy drink but they needed the addition of external carbohydrates to give rise to an efficient acidification. The strain expressing the Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum phytase was able to degrade more than 90 % phytate during product fermentation, whereas expression of Bifidobacterium longum spp. infantis phytase only led to 65 % hydrolysis. In both cases, accumulation of myo-inositol triphosphates was observed. In addition, the hydrolysis of phytate in soy drink fermented with the L. casei strain expressing the B. pseudocatenulatum phytase resulted in phytate/mineral ratios for Fe (0.35) and Zn (2.4), which were below the critical values for reduced mineral bioavailability in humans. This investigation showed the ability of modified L. casei to produce enzymes with technological relevance in the design of new functional foods.

  15. Phenotypic and molecular antibiotic resistance profile of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from different traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Valenzuela, Antonio; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2013-02-01

    A collection of 55 enterococci (41 Enterococcus faecium and 14 E. faecalis strains) isolated from various traditional fermented foodstuffs of both animal and vegetable origins, and water was evaluated for resistance against 15 antibiotics. Lower incidence of resistance was observed with gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin and teicoplanin. However, a high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected for rifampicin (12 out of 14 of isolates), ciprofloxacin (9/14), and quinupristin/dalfopristin (8/14) in E. faecalis strains. Enterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to rifampicin (25/41), ciprofloxacin (23/41), erythromycin (18/41), levofloxacin (16/41), and nitrofurantoin (15/41). One Enterococcus faecalis and two E. faecium strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC>16 μg/mL). Among 55 isolates, 27 (19 E. faecium and eight E. faecalis) were resistant to at least three antibiotics. High level of multidrug resistance to clinically important antibiotics was detected in E. faecalis strains (57% of E. faecalis versus 46% of E. faecium), which showed resistance to six to seven antibiotics, especially those isolated from foods of animal origin. So, it is necessary to re-evaluate the use of therapeutic antibiotics in stock farms at both regional and international levels due to the high number of multiple resistant (MR) bacteria. Fifty-six MR E. faecalis and E. faecium strains selected from this and previous studies (Valenzuela et al., 2008, 2010) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for antibiotic resistance genes, revealing the presence of tet(L), tet(M), ermB, cat, efrA, efrB, mphA, or msrA/B genes. The ABC Multidrug Efflux Pump EfrAB was detected in 96% of E. faecalis strains and also in 13% of E. faecium strains; this is the first report describing EfrAB in this enterococcal species. The efflux pump-associated msrA/B gene was detected in 66.66% of E. faecium strains, but not in E. faecalis strains.

  16. Enhancement of volatile fatty acid production by co-fermentation of food waste and excess sludge without pH control: The mechanism and microbial community analyses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Lian; Guo, Wan-Qian; Zheng, He-Shan; Luo, Hai-Chao; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Yin, Ren-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-09-01

    The study provided a cost-effective and high-efficiency volatile fatty acid (VFA) production strategy by co-fermentation of food waste (FW) and excess sludge (ES) without artificial pH control. VFA production of 867.42mg COD/g-VS was obtained under the optimized condition: FW/ES 5, solid retention time 7d, organic loading rate 9g VS/L-d and temperature 40°C. Mechanism exploration revealed that the holistic biodegradability of substrate was greatly enhanced, and proper pH range (5.2-6.4) was formed by the high buffering capacity of the co-fermentation system itself, which effectively enhanced hydrolysis yield (63.04%) and acidification yield (83.46%) and inhibited methanogenesis. Moreover, microbial community analysis manifested that co-fermentation raised the relative abundances of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria including Clostridium, Sporanaerobacter, Tissierella and Bacillus, but suppressed the methanogen Anaerolineae, which also facilitated high VFA production. These results were of great guiding significance aiming for VFA recovery from FW and ES in large-scale. PMID:27289056

  17. Selection and characterization of Cheonggukjang (fast fermented soybean paste)-originated bacterial strains with a high level of S-adenosyl-L-methionine production and probiotics efficacy.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Hong, Jiyoung; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Yi, Sung-Hun; Lee, Myung-Ki

    2014-11-01

    This study was executed to develop probiotics producing S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a methyl group donor in the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate methylation reaction in animal cells. SAMe is an essential substance in the synthesis, activation, and metabolism of hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and cell membranes of animals. SAMe is also known as a nutritional supplement for improving human brain function. In this study, SAMe-producing strains were identified in six kinds of Cheonggukjang, and strains with excellent SAMe production were identified, with one strain in the Enterococcus genus and six strains in the Bacillus genus. Strains with a large amount of SAMe production included lactic acid bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and Enterococcus sanguinicola, as well as various strains in the Bacillus genus. The SAMe-overproducing strains showed antibacterial activity against some harmful microbes, in addition to weak acid resistance and strong bile resistance, indicating characteristics of probiotics. Cheonggukjang-originated beneficial bacterial strains overproducing SAMe may be commercially useful for manufacturing SAMe-rich foods.

  18. Antidiabetic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fermented by Cheonggukjang in KK-A(y) Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Young; Park, So-Lim; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Yi, Sung-Hun; Nam, Young-Do; Lim, Seong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Antidiabetic effects of Morinda citrifolia (aka Noni) fermented by Cheonggukjang (fast-fermented soybean paste) were evaluated using a T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) murine model. Six-week-old KK-Ay/TaJcl mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1) the diabetic control (DC) group, provided with a normal mouse diet; (2) the positive control (PC) group, provided with a functional health food diet; (3) the M. citrifolia (MC) group, provided with an MC-based diet; (4) the fermented M. citrifolia (FMC) group, provided with an FMC-based diet. Over a testing period of 90 days, food and water intake decreased significantly in the FMC and PC groups compared with the DC group. Blood glucose levels in the FMC group were 211.60-252.20 mg/dL after 90 days, while those in the control group were over 400 mg/dL after 20 days. In addition, FMC supplementation reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and significantly decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Furthermore, a fermented M. citrifolia 70% ethanolic extract (FMCE) activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR-) γ and stimulated glucose uptake via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cultured C2C12 cells. These results suggest that FMC can be employed as a functional health food for T2DM management.

  19. Antidiabetic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fermented by Cheonggukjang in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Young; Park, So-Lim; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Yi, Sung-Hun; Nam, Young-Do; Lim, Seong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Antidiabetic effects of Morinda citrifolia (aka Noni) fermented by Cheonggukjang (fast-fermented soybean paste) were evaluated using a T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) murine model. Six-week-old KK-Ay/TaJcl mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1) the diabetic control (DC) group, provided with a normal mouse diet; (2) the positive control (PC) group, provided with a functional health food diet; (3) the M. citrifolia (MC) group, provided with an MC-based diet; (4) the fermented M. citrifolia (FMC) group, provided with an FMC-based diet. Over a testing period of 90 days, food and water intake decreased significantly in the FMC and PC groups compared with the DC group. Blood glucose levels in the FMC group were 211.60–252.20 mg/dL after 90 days, while those in the control group were over 400 mg/dL after 20 days. In addition, FMC supplementation reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and significantly decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Furthermore, a fermented M. citrifolia 70% ethanolic extract (FMCE) activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR-) γ and stimulated glucose uptake via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cultured C2C12 cells. These results suggest that FMC can be employed as a functional health food for T2DM management. PMID:22969823

  20. Influence of soybean meal and sorghum grain supplementation on intake, digesta kinetics, ruminal fermentation, site and extent of digestion and microbial protein synthesis in beef steers grazing blue grama rangeland.

    PubMed

    Krysl, L J; Branine, M E; Cheema, A U; Funk, M A; Galyean, M L

    1989-11-01

    Six beef steers (British x Brahman) cannulated at the rumen, duodenum and ileum (avg wt 334 kg) and three mature steers (British x British) cannulated at the esophagus were used in a replicated 3 x 3 latin square design and fed no supplement (C), .5 kg soybean meal (SBM) or .5 kg steam-flaked sorghum grain (SFS).head-1.d-1 (DM basis) while grazing blue grama rangeland. Periods of the latin square included a minimum of 14 d for adaptation and 11 d for esophageal masticate collection and digesta sampling. In September, October and November, respectively, forage collected by esophageally cannulated steers averaged 74.5, 88.8 and 71.0% grasses; 2.06, 1.53 and 1.77% N and 68.3, (P greater than .10) by treatment, but total N intake was greater (P less than .05) for SBM vs C and SFS treatments. No differences (P greater than .10) were detected among treatments in OM, NDF, ADF and N digestibilities in the rumen, small intestine or hindgut, but total tract OM digestibility was greater (P less than .10) for SBM and SFS than for C, and total tract N digestibility was greater (P less than .10) for SBM than for C or SFS. Duodenal ammonia N flow was greater (P less than .05) when SBM was fed that when SFS and C were fed, but microbial N and non-ammonia, non-microbial N flows and microbial efficiency were not altered by treatment. Likewise, ileal N flow was not affected (P greater than .10) by treatment. Particulate passage rate, gastrointestinal mean retention time, forage in vitro OM disappearance and in situ rate of forage NDF digestion also were not affected (P greater than .10) by treatments. Ruminal fluid volume was greater (P less than .05) for SFS vs SBM and C treatments, but no differences were noted in fluid dilution rate. Ruminal fluid ammonia concentration was greater (P less than .05) when SBM was fed than when SFS and C were fed (13.5, 9.9 and 8.7 mg/dl, respectively), whereas pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P greater than .10). Proportion of

  1. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-05-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line. PMID:27407213

  2. Solid phase microbial fuel cell (SMFC) for harnessing bioelectricity from composite food waste fermentation: influence of electrode assembly and buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S Venkata; Chandrasekhar, K

    2011-07-01

    Solid phase microbial fuel cells (SMFC; graphite electrodes; open-air cathode) were designed to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity production by stabilizing composite canteen based food waste. The performance was evaluated with three variable electrode-membrane assemblies. Experimental data depicted feasibility of bioelectricity generation from solid state fermentation of food waste. Distance between the electrodes and presence of proton exchange membrane (PEM) showed significant influence on the power yields. SMFC-B (anode placed 5 cm from cathode-PEM) depicted good power output (463 mV; 170.81 mW/m(2)) followed by SMFC-C (anode placed 5 cm from cathode; without PEM; 398 mV; 53.41 mW/m(2)). SMFC-A (PEM sandwiched between electrodes) recorded lowest performance (258 mV; 41.8 mW/m(2)). Sodium carbonate amendment documented marked improvement in power yields due to improvement in the system buffering capacity. SMFCs operation also documented good substrate degradation (COD, 76%) along with bio-ethanol production. The operation of SMFC mimicked solid-sate fermentation which might lead to sustainable solid waste management practices.

  3. Characterization of three Bacillus cereus strains involved in a major outbreak of food poisoning after consumption of fermented black beans (Douchi) in Yunan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoping; Bester, Kai; Liao, Bin; Yang, Zushun; Jiang, Rongrong; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    2014-10-01

    Three Bacillus cereus strains isolated from an outbreak of food poisoning caused by the consumption of fermented black beans (douchi) containing B. cereus is described. The outbreak involved 139 persons who had nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The strains were isolated from vomit and the unprepared douchi. Two of the strains produced the emetic toxin cereulide, as evidenced by polymerase chain reaction analysis for the presence of the nonribosomal synthetase cluster responsible for the synthesis of cereulide and by chemical analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These two strains belong to genetic group III of B. cereus, and multiple locus sequence typing revealed that the type was ST26, as a major part of B. cereus emetic strains. One of these strains produced significantly more cereulide at 37°C than the type cereulide producer (F4810/72), and it was also able to produce the toxin at 40°C and 42°C. The third strain belongs to genetic group IV, and it is a new multiple locus sequence type closely related to strains that are cytotoxic and enterotoxigenic. It possesses genes for hemolysin BL, nonhemolytic enterotoxin, and cytotoxin K2; however, it varies from the majority of strains possessing genes for hemolysin BL by not being hemolytic. Thus, two B. cereus strains producing the emetic toxin cereulide and a strain producing enterotoxins might have been involved in this food-poisoning incident caused by the consumption of a natural fermented food. The ability of one of the strains to produce cereulide at ≥37°C makes it possible that it is produced in the human gut in addition to occurring in the food.

  4. Developing host-plant resistance for hemipteran soybean pests: lessons from soybean aphid and stink bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is one of the world’s leading agricultural crops with multiple uses, including human food, animal feed, edible oil, biofuel, industrial products, cosmetics, etc. In soybean production, United States is the leading country with 33% of world’s total production of 251.5 million Metric tons. How...

  5. Illumina sequencing-based analyses of bacterial communities during short-chain fatty-acid production from food waste and sewage sludge fermentation at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weixiao; Chen, Hong; Yan, ShuHai; Su, Jianqiang

    2014-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be produced by primary and waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation. The yield and product spectrum distribution of SCFAs can be significantly affected by different initial pH values. However, most studies have focused on the physical and chemical aspects of SCFA production by waste activated sludge fermentation at different pH values. Information on the bacterial community structures during acidogenic fermentation is limited. In this study, comparisons of the bacterial communities during the co-substrate fermentation of food wastes and sewage sludge at different pH values were performed using the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing method. The results showed that different pH environments harbored a characteristic bacterial community, including sequences related to Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Mitsuokella, Treponema, Clostridium, and Ureibacillus. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units in the different pH environments were those related to carbohydrate-degrading bacteria, which are associated with constituents of co-substrate fermentation. Further analyses showed that during organic matter fermentation, a core microbiota composed of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes existed. Comparison analyses revealed that the bacterial community during fermentation was significantly affected by the pH, and that the diverse product distribution was related to the shift in bacterial communities.

  6. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  7. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India.

    PubMed

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  8. Improved production of propionic acid driven by hydrolyzed liquid containing high concentration of l-lactic acid from co-fermentation of food waste and sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Ma, Li; Lai, Sizhou; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of improved production propionic acid-enriched volatile fatty acid (VFA) from high concentration (Cs) of food waste and waste activated sludge (WAS) via lactic acid pathway by using of Propionibacterium acidipropionici. It was observed that production of l-lactate overwhelmed to d-lactate at first stage, which improved from 3.21 to 35.45gCOD/L with increase of substrate Cs. However, kinetic model analysis indicated that P. acidipropionici growth rate μmax was decreased with increase of l-lactate concentration, which explained second stage free cell fermentation of propionic acid was inhibited when fed by first stage liquid from R-40, R-55 and R-70. Then, the fibrous bed bioreactor was employed to eliminate the feed inhibition. The maximal percentage of propionic acid (68.3%) and production (16.31gCOD/L) was obtained by feeding liquid of R-55, which was improved by 3.33 folds compared to the free cell fermentation. PMID:27614154

  9. A novel real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method for the detection and quantification of lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae in the dairy and other food industries.

    PubMed

    Martín, M C; Martínez, N; del Rio, B; Ladero, V; Fernández, M; Alvarez, M A

    2010-03-01

    The presence of lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms is routinely assessed to determine the hygienic quality of water and foods, particularly dairy products. This paper reports the use of lacZ-specific primers in an SYBR green I-based real-time PCR method for the easy and rapid detection of coliforms in dairy products. A large number of bacterial species were assayed to establish the specificity of the method. The sensitivity of the method was assessed using artificially contaminated cheeses. The limit of detection was 1 coliform cell in cheese samples enriched for 8h in a culture medium. The entire procedure, including sample processing, enrichment, DNA extraction, and real-time PCR amplification, can be completed within 10 to 12h, making it a single-day assay. PMID:20172205

  10. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains.

    PubMed

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Łukasz; Costantini, Antonella; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Arneborg, Nils; Cocolin, Luca; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-07-16

    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Millerozyma farinosa, Candida glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces nepalensis) were screened for phytase production on solid and liquid media. 95% were able to grow in the presence of phytate as sole phosphate source, P. kudriavzevii being the best growing species. A phytase coding gene of P. kudriavzevii (PHYPk) was identified and its expression was studied during growth by RT-qPCR. The expression level of PHYPk was significantly higher in phytate-medium, compared to phosphate-medium. In phytate-medium expression was seen in the lag phase. Significant differences in gene expression were detected among the strains as well as between the media. A correlation was found between the PHYPk expression and phytase extracellular activity. PMID:25910031

  11. In vitro evaluation of the probiotic and functional potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from fermented food and human intestine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dayong; Li, Chang; Qin, Yanqing; Yin, Ronglan; Du, Shouwen; Ye, Fei; Liu, Cunxia; Liu, Hongfeng; Wang, Maopeng; Li, Yi; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiao; Tian, Mingyao; Jin, Ningyi

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the functional and probiotic characteristics of eight indigenous Lactobacillus strains in vitro. The selected lactobacilli include strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. All strains tolerated both pH 2 for 3 h and 1% bile salt for 24 h. The strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 were the most adhesive strains producing the highest quantity of EPS. Although a wide variation in the ability of the eight strains to deplete cholesterol and nitrite, antagonize pathogens, scavenge free radical, and stimulate innate immune response were observed, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 showed the widest range of these useful traits. Taken together, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 exhibited the best probiotic properties with the potential for use in the production of probiotic fermented foods.

  12. Hypocholesterolemic activity of monascus fermented product in the absence of monacolins with partial purification for functional food applications.

    PubMed

    Ajdari, Zahra; Abd Ghani, Maaruf; Khan Ayob, Mohd; Bayat, Saadi; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Ajdari, Daniel; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP) has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE) was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42%) and decreased the TC (53.3%), LDL-C (47%), and TG (50.7%) levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1%) in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds. PMID:24701147

  13. Fermentation characteristics and microorganism composition of total mixed ration silage with local food by-products in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Cai, Yimin; Hirakubo, Tomomi; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Matsuyama, Hiroki

    2011-04-01

    Total mixed ration (TMR) silage in different seasons was prepared with apple refuse, orchardgrass hay, orchardgrass silage, corn silage and a commercial compound feed in Tohoku, Japan, and with tofu cake, brewers' grains, tall fescue hay, Sudangrass hay, timothy hay, alfalfa hay and a commercial compound feed in Shikoku, Japan, respectively, and their fermentation quality and microorganism composition were evaluated. In Tohoku, the TMR silage in spring, autumn and winter displayed poor quality, with pH value above 4.7, and the harmful microorganisms such as escherichia, yeasts and molds were detected even after 60 days of ensiling; but the TMR silage in summer was well preserved and the escherichia were too few to count after 7 days of ensiling. In Shikoku, the TMR silage in all seasons was well preserved, with low pH, high lactic acid contents, and escherichia, yeasts and molds were consistently at or below the detectable numbers after 7 days of ensiling. The results showed that the TMR silage could not produce sufficient lactic acid to improve silage quality under low-temperature conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop preparation techniques of promoting the lactic acid fermentation for TMR silage in cold seasons.

  14. Purification and characterization of a strong fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese natto, a popular soybean fermented food in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujita, M; Nomura, K; Hong, K; Ito, Y; Asada, A; Nishimuro, S

    1993-12-30

    A strong fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) was purified from the vegetable cheese natto. Nattokinase was extracted from natto with saline and isolated by sequential use of hydrophobic chromatography on Butyl-Toyopearl, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Toyopearl, and gel-filtration on Sephadex G-50. The isolated protein gave a single sharp band on SDS-PAGE either before or after reduction. The sequence, as determined by automated Edman degradation of the uncleaved molecule and its enzymatically derived peptide, consisted of a total 275 amino acid residues (M.W = 27,728) and exhibited a high homology with the subtilisins. The purified nattokinase digested not only fibrin but also several synthetic substrates. Among the synthetic substrates, the most sensitive substrate was Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA for subtilisin. PMSF inhibited both the fibrinolytic activity and the amidolytic activity. The results indicate that nattokinase is a subtilisin-like serine protease.

  15. A systematic, comparative study on the beneficial health components and antioxidant activities of commercially fermented soy products marketed in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study are to systematically assess the bioactive substances and overall antioxidant capacities of commercially fermented soy products and to find the relationships between the presence of beneficial components in different types of soybean fermented products. The results show that phenolic profiles increased significantly after fermentation as compared with raw yellow soybeans. Among all the samples, the douchi and fermented black bean sauce had the highest detected antioxidant profiles. Even though the total isoflavone content was reduced in fermented soybean products (794.84 μg/g on average) as compared with raw yellow soybeans (3477.6 μg/g), there was an obvious trend of conversion of the glucoside form in raw soybeans into the aglycone-form isoflavones in the fermented soybean products. The highest daidzein and genistein values were found in the "Yangfan" black bean douchi, i.e. 860.3 μg/g and 1025.9 μg/g, respectively. The amounts of essential amino acids also were improved in most fermented soybean products. The douchi and black bean fermented products are recommended for consumption due to their abundant bioactive substances.

  16. [Soybean allergens and hypoallergenic germplasm enhancement].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Zhu, You-Lin; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2006-08-01

    Food allergy is a public sanitary problem which has received attention worldwide. It is becoming an increasingly interesting problem to decrease the concentration of allergens for improvement of the food security. Soybean allergens in seeds are composing of storage proteins, structure proteins, and disease-related proteins. Among them, Gly m Bd 28K, Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K are the major allergens located in 7S conglycinin fragments. By recognizing allergens' physicochemical property, hypersensitivity and gene structure, certain progresses had been made to reduce the concentration of allergens in soybean through food processing, traditional breeding and genetic engineering. The paper reviewed the sorts and characters of soybean allergens, the physicochemical property of the three immunodominant allergens and their gene structures. Progress in developing hypoallergenic cultivars was also discussed.

  17. The composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean seeds is equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

    PubMed

    Padgette, S R; Taylor, N B; Nida, D L; Bailey, M R; MacDonald, J; Holden, L R; Fuchs, R L

    1996-03-01

    One important aspect of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops destined for food and feed uses is the characterization of the consumed portion of the crop. One crop currently under development, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS), was modified by the addition of a glyphosate-tolerance gene to a commercial soybean cultivar. The composition of seeds and selected processing fractions from two GTS lines, designated 40-3-2 and 61-67-1, was compared with that of the parental soybean cultivar, A5403. Nutrients measured in the soybean seeds included macronutrients by proximate analyses (protein, fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrates), amino acids and fatty acids. Antinutrients measured in either the seed or toasted meal were trypsin inhibitor, lectins, isoflavones, stachyose, raffinose and phytate. Proximate analyses were also performed on batches of defatted toasted meal, defatted nontoasted meal, protein isolate, and protein concentrate prepared from GTS and control soybean seeds. In addition, refined, bleached, deodorized oil was made, along with crude soybean lecithin, from GTS and control soybeans. The analytical results demonstrated the GTS lines are equivalent to the parental, conventional soybean cultivar.

  18. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products. PMID:25575046

  19. Chemical evaluation of multimixes formulated from some local staples for use as complementary foods in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nnam, N M

    2000-01-01

    The nutrient compositions of eight multimixes formulated for use as complementary foods from processed soybeans, cowpeas, maize, sorghum, yams, cocoyams, plantains and sweet potatoes were examined. The foods were processed by sprouting, cooking and fermentation. The samples were separately dried and milled to fine flours. A ratio of 65% cereal, 30% legume and 5% starchy staple (65:30:5) calculated on a protein basis was used to formulate the multimixes. The blends were chemically analyzed using standard procedures. The mixtures containing soybeans had higher protein, lipid, energy, crude fiber and calcium levels but lower carbohydrate content than those mixtures without soybean. The protein and energy levels of the multimixes were higher than those of some commercial infant foods (Cerelac, Farex and Nestrum) in Nigeria but were comparable to that of 'soy-ogi'. The multimixes contained fair quantities of calcium and phosphorus and an adequate amount of some of the essential amino acids. Methionine was the most limiting amino acid in all the mixtures. Blending cowpeas with maize produced a higher protein score than blending cowpeas or soybeans with sorghum. The cowpea/maize/sweet potato mixture had the highest protein score. PMID:11030479

  20. Chemical evaluation of multimixes formulated from some local staples for use as complementary foods in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nnam, N M

    2000-01-01

    The nutrient compositions of eight multimixes formulated for use as complementary foods from processed soybeans, cowpeas, maize, sorghum, yams, cocoyams, plantains and sweet potatoes were examined. The foods were processed by sprouting, cooking and fermentation. The samples were separately dried and milled to fine flours. A ratio of 65% cereal, 30% legume and 5% starchy staple (65:30:5) calculated on a protein basis was used to formulate the multimixes. The blends were chemically analyzed using standard procedures. The mixtures containing soybeans had higher protein, lipid, energy, crude fiber and calcium levels but lower carbohydrate content than those mixtures without soybean. The protein and energy levels of the multimixes were higher than those of some commercial infant foods (Cerelac, Farex and Nestrum) in Nigeria but were comparable to that of 'soy-ogi'. The multimixes contained fair quantities of calcium and phosphorus and an adequate amount of some of the essential amino acids. Methionine was the most limiting amino acid in all the mixtures. Blending cowpeas with maize produced a higher protein score than blending cowpeas or soybeans with sorghum. The cowpea/maize/sweet potato mixture had the highest protein score.

  1. Breakdown of food waste by anaerobic fermentation and non-oxygen producing photosynthesis using a photosynthetic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Mekjinda, N; Ritchie, R J

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of food waste are produced by restaurants, hotels, etc generating problems in its collection, processing and disposal. Disposal as garbage increases the organic matter in landfills and leachates. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris (CGA 009) easily broke down food waste. R. palustris produces H2 under anaerobic conditions and digests a very wide range of organic compounds. R. palustris reduced BOD by ≈70% and COD by ≈33%, starch, ammonia, nitrate, was removed but had little effect on reducing sugar or the total phosphorus, lipid, protein, total solid in a 7-day incubation. R. palustris produced a maximum of 80ml H2/g COD/day. A two-stage anaerobic digestion using yeast as the first stage, followed by a R. palustris digestion was tested but production of H2 was low.

  2. Breakdown of food waste by anaerobic fermentation and non-oxygen producing photosynthesis using a photosynthetic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Mekjinda, N; Ritchie, R J

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of food waste are produced by restaurants, hotels, etc generating problems in its collection, processing and disposal. Disposal as garbage increases the organic matter in landfills and leachates. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris (CGA 009) easily broke down food waste. R. palustris produces H2 under anaerobic conditions and digests a very wide range of organic compounds. R. palustris reduced BOD by ≈70% and COD by ≈33%, starch, ammonia, nitrate, was removed but had little effect on reducing sugar or the total phosphorus, lipid, protein, total solid in a 7-day incubation. R. palustris produced a maximum of 80ml H2/g COD/day. A two-stage anaerobic digestion using yeast as the first stage, followed by a R. palustris digestion was tested but production of H2 was low. PMID:25465509

  3. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  4. Rapid detection and quantification of tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdc) and its expression in gram-positive bacteria associated with fermented foods using PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Sandra; Gatto, Veronica; Sembeni, Silvia; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna; Belletti, Nicoletta; Gardini, Fausto; Bover-Cid, Sara

    2008-01-01

    In this study, PCR-based procedures were developed to detect the occurrence and quantify the expression of the tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdc) in gram-positive bacteria associated with fermented foods. Consensus primers were used in conventional and reverse transcription PCR to analyze a collection of 87 pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci. All enterococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains and 1 of 10 Staphylococcus xylosus strains produced amplification products with the primers DEC5 and DEC3 in accordance with results of the screening plate method and with previously reported result obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography. No amplicons were obtained for tyramine-negative strains, confirming the high specificity of these new primers. A novel quantitative real-time PCR assay was successfully applied to quantify tdc and its transcript in pure cultures and in meat and meat products. This assay allowed estimation of the influence of different variables (pH, temperature, and NaCl concentration) on the tdc expression of the tyraminogenic strain Enterococcus faecalis EF37 after 72 h of growth in M17 medium. Data obtained suggest that stressful conditions could induce greater tyrosine decarboxylase activity. The culture-independent PCR procedures developed here may be used for reliable and fast detection and quantification of bacterial tyraminogenic activity without the limitations of conventional techniques.

  5. Cloning and Expression of Plantaricin W Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum U10 Isolate from "Tempoyak" Indonesian Fermented Food as Immunity Protein in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Lages, Aksar Chair; Mustopa, Apon Zaenal; Sukmarini, Linda; Suharsono

    2015-10-01

    Plantaricins, one of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, are already known to have activities against several pathogenic bacterium. L. plantarum U10 isolated from "tempoyak," an Indonesian fermented food, produced one kind of plantaricin designated as plantaricin W (plnW). The plnW is suggested as a putative membrane location of protein and has similar conserved motif which is important as immunity to bacteriocin itself. Thus, due to study about this plantaricin, several constructs have been cloned and protein was analyzed in Lactococcus lactis. In this study, plnW gene was successfully cloned into vector NICE system pNZ8148 and created the transformant named L. lactis NZ3900 pNZ8148-WU10. PlnW protein was 25.3 kDa in size. The concentration of expressed protein was significantly increased by 10 ng/mL nisin induction. Furthermore, PlnW exhibited protease activity with value of 2.22 ± 0.05 U/mL and specific activity about 1.65 ± 0.03 U/mg protein with 50 ng/mL nisin induction. Immunity study showed that the PlnW had immunity activity especially against plantaricin and rendered L. lactis recombinant an immunity broadly to other bacteriocins such as pediocin, fermentcin, and acidocin. PMID:26276444

  6. Rapid detection and quantification of tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdc) and its expression in gram-positive bacteria associated with fermented foods using PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Sandra; Gatto, Veronica; Sembeni, Silvia; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna; Belletti, Nicoletta; Gardini, Fausto; Bover-Cid, Sara

    2008-01-01

    In this study, PCR-based procedures were developed to detect the occurrence and quantify the expression of the tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdc) in gram-positive bacteria associated with fermented foods. Consensus primers were used in conventional and reverse transcription PCR to analyze a collection of 87 pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci. All enterococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains and 1 of 10 Staphylococcus xylosus strains produced amplification products with the primers DEC5 and DEC3 in accordance with results of the screening plate method and with previously reported result obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography. No amplicons were obtained for tyramine-negative strains, confirming the high specificity of these new primers. A novel quantitative real-time PCR assay was successfully applied to quantify tdc and its transcript in pure cultures and in meat and meat products. This assay allowed estimation of the influence of different variables (pH, temperature, and NaCl concentration) on the tdc expression of the tyraminogenic strain Enterococcus faecalis EF37 after 72 h of growth in M17 medium. Data obtained suggest that stressful conditions could induce greater tyrosine decarboxylase activity. The culture-independent PCR procedures developed here may be used for reliable and fast detection and quantification of bacterial tyraminogenic activity without the limitations of conventional techniques. PMID:18236668

  7. Management of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented sausages using the Food Safety Objective concept underpinned by stochastic modeling and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mataragas, M; Alessandria, V; Rantsiou, K; Cocolin, L

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, a demonstration is made on how the risk from the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented sausages can be managed using the concept of Food Safety Objective (FSO) aided by stochastic modeling (Bayesian analysis and Monte Carlo simulation) and meta-analysis. For this purpose, the ICMSF equation was used, which combines the initial level (H0) of the hazard and its subsequent reduction (ΣR) and/or increase (ΣI) along the production chain. Each element of the equation was described by a distribution to investigate the effect not only of the level of the hazard, but also the effect of the accompanying variability. The distribution of each element was determined by Bayesian modeling (H0) and meta-analysis (ΣR and ΣI). The output was a normal distribution N(-5.36, 2.56) (log cfu/g) from which the percentage of the non-conforming products, i.e. the fraction above the FSO of 2 log cfu/g, was estimated at 0.202%. Different control measures were examined such as lowering initial L. monocytogenes level and inclusion of an additional killing step along the process resulting in reduction of the non-conforming products from 0.195% to 0.003% based on the mean and/or square-root change of the normal distribution, and 0.001%, respectively.

  8. Cloning and Expression of Plantaricin W Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum U10 Isolate from "Tempoyak" Indonesian Fermented Food as Immunity Protein in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Lages, Aksar Chair; Mustopa, Apon Zaenal; Sukmarini, Linda; Suharsono

    2015-10-01

    Plantaricins, one of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, are already known to have activities against several pathogenic bacterium. L. plantarum U10 isolated from "tempoyak," an Indonesian fermented food, produced one kind of plantaricin designated as plantaricin W (plnW). The plnW is suggested as a putative membrane location of protein and has similar conserved motif which is important as immunity to bacteriocin itself. Thus, due to study about this plantaricin, several constructs have been cloned and protein was analyzed in Lactococcus lactis. In this study, plnW gene was successfully cloned into vector NICE system pNZ8148 and created the transformant named L. lactis NZ3900 pNZ8148-WU10. PlnW protein was 25.3 kDa in size. The concentration of expressed protein was significantly increased by 10 ng/mL nisin induction. Furthermore, PlnW exhibited protease activity with value of 2.22 ± 0.05 U/mL and specific activity about 1.65 ± 0.03 U/mg protein with 50 ng/mL nisin induction. Immunity study showed that the PlnW had immunity activity especially against plantaricin and rendered L. lactis recombinant an immunity broadly to other bacteriocins such as pediocin, fermentcin, and acidocin.

  9. Qualitative detection of class IIa bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria from traditional Chinese fermented food using a YGNGV-motif-based assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Lanwei; Yi, Huaxi; Shi, John; Xue, Chaohui; Li, Hongbo; Jiao, Yuehua; Shigwedha, Nditange; Du, Ming; Han, Xue

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, a YGNGV-motif-based assay was developed and applied. Given that there is an increasing demand for natural preservatives, we set out to obtain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that produce bacteriocins against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We here isolated 123 LAB strains from 5 types of traditional Chinese fermented food and screened them for the production of bacteriocins using the agar well diffusion assay (AWDA). Then, to acquire LAB producing class IIa bacteriocins, we used a YGNGV-motif-based assay that was based on 14 degenerate primers matching all class IIa bacteriocin-encoding genes currently deposited in NCBI. Eight of the LAB strains identified by AWDA could inhibit Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; 5 of these were YGNGV-amplicon positive. Among these 5 isolates, amplicons from 2 strains (Y31 and Y33) matched class IIa bacteriocin genes. Strain Y31 demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity and the best match to a class IIa bacteriocin gene in NCBI, and was identified as Enterococcus faecium. The bacteriocin from Enterococcus avium Y33 was 100% identical to enterocin P. Both of these strains produced bacteriocins with strong antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis, hence these bacteriocins hold promise as potential bio-preservatives in the food industry. These findings also indicated that the YGNGV-motif-based assay used in this study could identify novel class IIa bacteriocinogenic LAB, rapidly and specifically, saving time and labour by by-passing multiple separation and purification steps.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-01-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage’s quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (p<0.05). The treatment with seasonings did not cause color or texture defects in the products whereas the sausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l’Eclairagea* (redness) value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages. PMID:26954136

  11. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-08-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage's quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (p<0.05). The treatment with seasonings did not cause color or texture defects in the products whereas the sausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l'Eclairagea* (redness) value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages. PMID:26954136

  12. Application of the biorefinery concept to produce L-lactic acid from the soybean vinasse at laboratory and pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Karp, Susan G; Igashiyama, Adriana H; Siqueira, Paula F; Carvalho, Júlio C; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Coral, Jefferson; Tholozan, Jean-Luc; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos R

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid is a product that finds several applications in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The main objective of this work was the development of a bioprocess to produce L(+)-lactic acid using soybean vinasse as substrate. Among ten strains, Lactobacillus agilis LPB 56 was selected for fermentation, due to its ability to metabolize the complex oligosaccharides. Fermentation was conducted without need for supplementary inorganic nitrogen sources or yeast extract. Kinetic and yield parameters determined at laboratory scale were 0.864 and 0.0162 for YP/S and YX/S, 0.0145 g/L h (rx), 1.32 g/L h (rs) and 1.13 g/L h (rp). The use of vinasse enriched with soybean molasses provided higher lactic acid concentration (138 g/L), the best proportion of inoculum being 25% (v/v). After scale-up to a pilot plant, kinetic and yield parameters were 0.849 and 0.0353 for YP/S and YX/S, 0.0278 g/L h (rx), 0.915 g/L h (rs) and 0.863 g/L h (rp). PMID:20933391

  13. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 Isolated from Batter of Dosa, a South Indian Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 was isolated from dosa batter and identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species level identification was done by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. The probiotic potential of strain LD1 was assessed by different standard parameters. Cell surface hydrophobicity was recorded to be 62% with SAT value <0.007 M. Seventy-eight percent of viable count was found after treatment with simulated gastric juice containing pepsin (pH 2.0). Bile salt tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity were also demonstrated by strain LD1. The culture supernatant was able to inhibit food-borne as well as clinical pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, urogenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. Strain LD1 was found to be sensitive to most of the antibiotics used in the study. Since strain has been isolated from food source that is most typical of Southern India, it would be safe for further consumption in probiotic products. PMID:24676724

  14. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 Isolated from Batter of Dosa, a South Indian Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 was isolated from dosa batter and identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species level identification was done by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. The probiotic potential of strain LD1 was assessed by different standard parameters. Cell surface hydrophobicity was recorded to be 62% with SAT value <0.007 M. Seventy-eight percent of viable count was found after treatment with simulated gastric juice containing pepsin (pH 2.0). Bile salt tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity were also demonstrated by strain LD1. The culture supernatant was able to inhibit food-borne as well as clinical pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, urogenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. Strain LD1 was found to be sensitive to most of the antibiotics used in the study. Since strain has been isolated from food source that is most typical of Southern India, it would be safe for further consumption in probiotic products.

  15. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting

  16. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting

  17. Fermentation of seeds of Teff (Eragrostis teff), grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures: aspects of nutrition and food safety.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Yirgalem; Gorton, Lo; Solomon, Theodoros; Akalu, Girma

    2004-03-10

    Fermentation of pure teff (Eragrostis teff), pure grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures, 9:1 and 8:2 (teff/grass-pea) has been done at two temperatures (room temperature and 35 degrees C) in duplicate using the strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, for bacterial fermentation, and Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus in succession for solid-state fungal fermentation as inocula. In addition, the natural or spontaneous and back-slopping methods of bacterial fermentation have been done on the above four substrate groups. The pH and essential amino acid profiles of the different fermentation processes were compared. The back-slopping in teff at a temperature of 35 degrees C gave the sharpest pH drop. All fermentations done at 35 degrees C showed a steeper slope in their pH versus time plot compared to their room temperature counterpart. Fungal fermentation gave an improved amino acid profile for the essential ones in all of the substrate groups, except in pure grass-pea. Fermented teff/grass-pea (8:2) in this fungal fermentation has been found to be quite comparable in essential amino acid profile to an ideal reference protein recommended for children of 2-5 years of age. None of the bacterial fermentations produced a net change in their essential amino acid profile in any of the substrate groups investigated. Solid state fungal fermentation on pure grass-pea using the fungal strains R. oligosporous and A. oryzae in succession has shown that the neurotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in grass-pea has been removed by 80% on average for the high-toxin variety and by up to 97% for the low-toxin variety as determined by an improved chromatographic method with bioelectrochemical detection coupled on-line with refractive index detection.

  18. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  19. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  20. Hydrolysis of soybean protein improves iron bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is an important trace metal element in human body. Iron deficiency affects human health, especially pregnant women and children. Soybean protein is a popular food in Asia and can contain a high amount of iron (145.70±0.74 ug/g); however, it is usually reported as an inhibitor of iron absorption...

  1. Hydrogen fermentation of food waste by alkali-shock pretreatment: microbial community analysis and limitation of continuous operation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sujin; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Moon, Chungman; Kang, Won-Seok; Kwak, Seung-Shin; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2015-06-01

    In the study, at first, batch tests were performed to investigate the effect of alkali-shock on H2 production from food waste (FW). After alkali-pretreatment of FW at pH 9.0-13.0, the FW was cultivated under mesophilic condition at pH 6.0 for 30 h without external inoculum addition. The amount of H2 production from FW pretreated at pH 11.0 and 12.0 was higher than that achieved in other pretreatment pH. The main metabolite was butyrate, and Clostridium were dominant at pH 11.0 and 12.0. Meanwhile, lactate was the main metabolite with Enterococcus and Streptococcus being the dominant genus at other pretreatment pH. When the batch process was switched to a continuous mode, H2 production was significantly dropped due to the increased activity of H2-consumers. The reliability of alkali-pretreatment at pH 11.0 was proven by repeating the scale-up batch process, recording 1.57±0.11 mol H2/mol hexose(added) (17±2LH2/kg FW) and 4.39±0.32LH2/L/d.

  2. Isolation and characterization of lactobacilli from human faeces and indigenous fermented foods for their potential application as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Hemanti; Jariwala, Ruchi; Bagchi, Tamishraha

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to select Lactobacillus strains from various sources on the basis of their probiotic attributes, such as acid and bile tolerance, binding to intestinal cells, and antimicrobial activity. Twelve isolates were obtained from human and food sources and were evaluated against standard probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Isolates were also studied for their antibiotic susceptibility. Isolate Lactobacillus fermentum GPI-6 showed the best survival profile at 0.3% and 1% bile salt, as compared with LGG. Isolates Lactobacillus plantarum GRI-2 and Lactobacillus salivarius GPI-4 showed no reduction in survival rate at pH 2.5. As expected, isolates showed strain-specific differences when comparing various attributes. Isolates GPI-4, GPI-7, and FA-5 showed better adhesion to HT-29, while isolate GPI-4 adhered better to Caco-2 cells than did LGG. However, when studying their ability to compete with Escherichia coli O26:H11, isolates GPI-6 and GPI-7 significantly inhibited E. coli adhesion to both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells compared with LGG. In conclusion, isolates GPI-4, GPI-7, and FA-5 showed excellent binding ability and antagonistic activity and better tolerance to acidic pH (pH 2.5) and to different bile salt concentrations in comparison with LGG, and hence, they could be considered as potential probiotic candidates. PMID:26928011

  3. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  4. Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1973-01-01

    Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

  5. [A 104-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Tada, Yukie; Fukumori, Nobutaka; Tayama, Kuniaki; Ando, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yano, Norio; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ogata, Akio

    2008-08-01

    A chronic feeding study to evaluate the safety of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GM soybeans) was conducted using F344 DuCrj rats. The rats were fed diet containing GM soybeans or Non-GM soybeans at the concentration of 30% in basal diet. Non-GM soybeans were a closely related strain to the GM soybeans. These two diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level. In this study, the influence of GM soybeans in rats was compared with that of the Non-GM soybeans, and furthermore, to assess the effect of soybeans themselves, the groups of rats fed GM and Non-GM soybeans were compared with a group fed commercial diet (CE-2). General conditions were observed daily and body weight and food consumption were recorded. At the termination (104 weeks), animals were subjected to hematology, serum biochemistry, and pathological examinations. There were several differences in animal growth, food intake, organ weights and histological findings between the rats fed the GM and/or Non-GM soybeans and the rats fed CE-2. However, body weight and food intake were similar for the rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. Gross necropsy findings, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, and organ weights showed no meaningful difference between rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. In pathological observation, there was neither an increase in incidence nor any specific type of nonneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in the GM soybeans group in each sex. These results indicate that long-term intake of GM soybeans at the level of 30% in diet has no apparent adverse effect in rats.

  6. Characterization of the fan1 locus in soybean line A5 and development of molecular assays for high-throughput genotyping of FAD3 genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is one of the most important oil crops in the world, and reduced linolenic acid content of soybean oil will provide increased stability of the oil to consumers and food manufacturers and limit the amount of trans-fat to be used in the processed foods. The linolenic content in soybean seeds i...

  7. 21 CFR 573.450 - Fermented ammoniated condensed whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.450 Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. (a) Identity. The product is... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fermented ammoniated condensed whey....

  8. 21 CFR 573.450 - Fermented ammoniated condensed whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.450 Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. (a) Identity. The product is... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fermented ammoniated condensed whey....

  9. Food Sources of Important Nutrients (for Vegetarians)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soybeans Some dark green, leafy greens Beans Eggs Protein Protein is found in most plant foods as well ... foods. Your body will make its own complete protein if a variety of foods and enough calories ...

  10. Fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Crickenberger, R.G.; Henderson, H.E.; Reddy, C.A.

    1981-04-01

    Four feeding trials were conducted to evaluate fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein supplement for finishing cattle fed corn silage or corn - corn silage diets. Feed efficiencies and daily gains with protein treatments were noted. The trials indicate that fermented ammoniated condensed whey is comparable to soybean meal as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle. (Refs. 18).

  11. Mutations in SACPD-C result in a range of elevated stearic acid concentration in soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil has a wide variety of uses, and stearic acid, which is a relatively minor component of soybean oil is increasingly desired for both industrial and food applications. New soybean mutants containing high levels of the saturated fatty acid stearate in seeds were recently identified from a c...

  12. Quantitative trait locus analysis of seed sulfur containing amino acids in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a major source of plant protein for humans and livestock. Low levels of sulfur containing amino acids (cysteine and methionine) in soybean protein is the main limitation of soybean meal as animal food. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate Q...

  13. Production of fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by fermentation of chickpeas, with the evaluation of the anticoagulant and antioxidant properties of chickpeas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yewei; Lin, Xing; Kong, Peng; Liu, Huizhou

    2011-04-27

    To develop safe and cheap thrombolytic agents, a fibrinolytic enzyme productive strain of LSSE-62 was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. This strain was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis showed that this fibrinolytic enzyme was identical to subtilisin DJ-4. Chickpeas were used as the substrate for fibrinolytic enzyme production from B. amyloliquefaciens in solid-state fermentation. Under the optimized conditions (34 °C and 50% initial moisture content), the fibrinolytic activity of fermented chickpeas reached 39.28 fibrin degradation units (FU)/g. Additionally, the fermented chickpeas showed anticoagulant activity, and the purified anticoagulant component showed higher anticoagulant activity than heparin sodium. After fermentation, the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents increased by 222 and 71%, respectively, and then the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This study provided a novel method for the preparation of multifunctional food of chickpeas or raw materials for the preparation of functional food additives and potential drugs.

  14. Food Applications and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  15. Comparative study of quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with soybeans germinated under dark and light conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kwon, O-Jun; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  16. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  17. Soybean irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an important crop and a major component of the agricultural economy in the Missouri Bootheel and throughout Missouri. USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported that in 2012, 960 thousand acres of soybeans were harvested in Southeast Missouri (Butler, Cape Girardeau, ...

  18. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    PubMed

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P < 0.05) from their initial levels to 2930, 2422, and 1573 mg/mL after 30 d of fermentation for PRF, PSF, and CF fish pastes, respectively, of which, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, lysine, and leucine were the major amino acids (>100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P < 0.05) during fermentation, following the order of PRF > PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (<25 ppm) were produced in all samples. Sensory panel evaluation showed that PRF fish pastes had desirable aroma and taste. The douchi-inoculated fermentation could be a novel technique for expanding the utilization, consumption, and the economic values of silver carp meats. Practical Application: Douchi, a fermented soybean product, is a traditional food flavoring ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to

  19. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    PubMed

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P < 0.05) from their initial levels to 2930, 2422, and 1573 mg/mL after 30 d of fermentation for PRF, PSF, and CF fish pastes, respectively, of which, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, lysine, and leucine were the major amino acids (>100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P < 0.05) during fermentation, following the order of PRF > PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (<25 ppm) were produced in all samples. Sensory panel evaluation showed that PRF fish pastes had desirable aroma and taste. The douchi-inoculated fermentation could be a novel technique for expanding the utilization, consumption, and the economic values of silver carp meats. Practical Application: Douchi, a fermented soybean product, is a traditional food flavoring ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to

  20. [A 52-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Tada, Yukie; Fukumori, Nobutaka; Tayama, Kuniaki; Ando, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yano, Norio; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ogata, Akio; Kamimura, Hisashi

    2007-06-01

    A chronic feeding study to evaluate the safety of the genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GM soybeans) was conducted using rats. F344 DuCrj rats were fed diet containing GM soybeans or Non-GM soybeans at the concentration of 30% in basal diet. Non-GM soybeans were closely related strain of GM soybeans. These two diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level. In this study, the influence of GM soybeans on rats was compared with that of the Non-GM soybeans, and furthermore, to assess the effect of soybeans themselves, the groups of rats fed GM and Non-GM soybeans were compared with a group fed commercial diet (CE-2). General conditions were observed daily and body weight and food consumption were recorded. At the intermediate examination (26 weeks), and at the termination (52 weeks), animals were subjected to hematology, serum biochemistry, and pathological examination. There were several differences in animal growth, food intake, serum biochemical parameters and histological findings between the rats fed the GM and/or Non-GM soybeans and the rats fed CE-2. However, body weight and food intake were similar for the rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. Gross necropsy findings, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, organ weights, and pathological findings showed no meaningful difference between rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. These results indicate that long-term intake of GM soybeans at the level of 30% in diet has no apparent adverse effect in rats.

  1. Genetic modification removes an immunodominant allergen from soybean.

    PubMed

    Herman, Eliot M; Helm, Ricki M; Jung, Rudolf; Kinney, Anthony J

    2003-05-01

    The increasing use of soybean (Glycine max) products in processed foods poses a potential threat to soybean-sensitive food-allergic individuals. In vitro assays on soybean seed proteins with sera from soybean-sensitive individuals have immunoglobulin E reactivity to abundant storage proteins and a few less-abundant seed proteins. One of these low abundance proteins, Gly m Bd 30 K, also referred to as P34, is in fact a major (i.e. immunodominant) soybean allergen. Although a member of the papain protease superfamily, Gly m Bd 30 K has a glycine in the conserved catalytic cysteine position found in all other cysteine proteases. Transgene-induced gene silencing was used to prevent the accumulation of Gly m Bd 30 K protein in soybean seeds. The Gly m Bd 30 K-silenced plants and their seeds lacked any compositional, developmental, structural, or ultrastructural phenotypic differences when compared with control plants. Proteomic analysis of extracts from transgenic seed detected the suppression of Gly m Bd 30 K-related peptides but no other significant changes in polypeptide pattern. The lack of a collateral alteration of any other seed protein in the Gly m Bd 30 K-silenced seeds supports the presumption that the protein does not have a role in seed protein processing and maturation. These data provide evidence for substantial equivalence of composition of transgenic and non-transgenic seed eliminating one of the dominant allergens of soybean seeds. PMID:12746509

  2. Selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry for online monitoring of submerged fermentations: a case study of sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; Vercammen, Joeri; Wuyts, Roel; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-01-28

    Selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) has recently gained interest as an alternative method to traditional GC-MS for the detection of targeted volatile sample compounds, due to its ease of use, its speed and sensitivity, and its potential for real-time quantification. The feasibility of this technique was demonstrated using the case of the production of ethanol during sourdough fermentation. The potential of SIFT-MS as an online monitoring device for food fermentations was further demonstrated by the detection of acetoin in certain sourdough fermentations. This allowed discrimination between sourdough fermentation processes and illustrated the importance of real-time monitoring of food fermentations.

  3. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  4. Worldwide Distribution of Soybean-Cyst Nematode and Its Economic Importance

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Soybean-cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) was first reported from Japan in 1915. It has since been reported from Korea (1936), Manchuria (1938), the United States (USA) (1954), and Egypt (1968). It is of major concern to soybean producers only in Japan and the USA. Soybean was a major crop in the Orient by 1915 but it was grown very little elsewhere. Since that time its cultivation has spread, and in 1974 there were 37.6 million ha with a production of 51.7 billion kg. As soybean cultivation has spread, the soybean-cyst nematode has been more widely found. Soybean is one of the major food sources for feeding the increasing world population. Soybean-cyst nematodes have been spreading rapidly in recent years and are a major threat to this very important crop. PMID:19305568

  5. Commercialization of a novel fermentation concept.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar-Shaw, Kiran; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation is the core of biotechnology where current methodologies span across technologies based on the use of either solid or liquid substrates. Traditionally, solid substrate fermentation technologies have been the widely practiced in the Far East to manufacture fermented foods such as soya sauce, sake etc. The Western World briefly used solid substrate fermentation for the manufacture of antibiotics and enzymes but rapidly replaced this technology with submerged fermentation which proved to be a superior technology in terms of automation, containment and large volume fermentation. Biocon India developed its enzyme technology based on solid substrate fermentation as a low-cost, low-energy option for the production of specialty enzymes. However, the limitations of applying solid substrate fermentation to more sophisticated biotechnology products as well as large volume fermentations were recognized by Biocon India as early as 1990 and the company embarked on a 8 year research and development program to develop a novel bioreactor capable of conducting solid substrate fermentation with comparable levels of automation and containment as those practiced by submerged fermentation. In addition, the novel technology enabled fed-batch fermentation, in situ extraction and other enabling features that will be discussed in this article. The novel bioreactor was christened the "PlaFractor" (pronounced play-fractor). The next level of research on this novel technology is now focused on addressing large volume fermentation. This article traces the evolution of Biocon India's original solid substrate fermentation to the PlaFractor technology and provides details of the scale-up and commercialization processes that were involved therein. What is also apparent in the article is Biocon India's commercially focused research programs and the perceived need to be globally competitive through low costs of innovation that address, at all times, processes and technologies that

  6. Heat and mass transfer effects in static solid-substrate fermentations: Design of fermentation chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, B.L.; Shuler, M.L.

    1983-04-01

    An experimental device was constructed to allow nearly simultaneous measurements to be made on temperature and gas composition at different depths in a solid-substrate fermentation bed. The time-dependent values of temperature, mol % O/sub 2/ and mol % CO/sub 2/ were measured at five positions in beds 6.35 cm (2.5 in.) deep. With a tempeh fermentation (Rhiopus oligosporus growing on soybeans) the temperature gradient could be as steep as 3/sup 0/C/cm during active mold growth and concentration of CO/sub 2/ could reach 21 vol. % in the bottom layer.

  7. Gel-free proteomic analysis of soybean root proteins affected by calcium under flooding stress

    PubMed Central

    Oh, MyeongWon; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits reduced growth under flooding conditions. To better understand the flooding-responsive mechanisms of soybean, the effect of exogenous calcium on flooding-stressed soybeans was analyzed using proteomic technique. An increase in exogenous calcium levels enhanced soybean root elongation and suppressed the cell death of root tip under flooding stress. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-day-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress without or with calcium for 2 days and analyzed using gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis/posttranslational modification, hormone/cell wall metabolisms, and DNA synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, their reductions were recovered by calcium treatment. Development, lipid metabolism, and signaling-related proteins were increased in soybean roots when calcium was supplied under flooding stress. Fermentation and glycolysis-related proteins were increased in response to flooding; however, these proteins were not affected by calcium supplementation. Furthermore, urease and copper chaperone proteins exhibited similar profiles in 4-day-old untreated soybeans and 4-day-old soybeans exposed to flooding for 2 days in the presence of calcium. These results suggest that calcium might affect the cell wall/hormone metabolisms, protein degradation/synthesis, and DNA synthesis in soybean roots under flooding stress. PMID:25368623

  8. Effect of germination on bioactive compounds of soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germination is the practice of soaking, draining, and keeping seeds until they produce sprouts. The increasing interest in functional and healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated soybean flour in the manufacture of foods for human consumption. It is well known that germination induce...

  9. Food preparation with mucoralean fungi: A potential biosafety issue?

    PubMed

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Scherlach, Kirstin; Figge, Marian; Hertweck, Christian; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Menken, Steph B J; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-03-01

    Mucorales have been used for production of fermented food in Asia and Africa since time immemorial. Particularly Rhizopus species are rapidly growing, active producers of lipases and proteases and occur naturally during the first stages of soybean fermentation. Two biosafety issues have been raised in recent literature: (1) pathogenicity, Rhizopus species being prevalent opportunists causing erosive infections in severely compromised patients, and (2) toxicity, strains harbouring endosymbiotic Burkholderia producing toxic secondary metabolites. At the molecular level, based on different gene markers, species identity was found between strains used for food processing and clinical strains. In this study, we screened for bacterial symbionts in 64 Rhizopus strains by light microscopy, 16S rRNA sequencing, and HPLC. Seven strains (11 %) carried bacteria identified as Burkholderia rhizoxinica and Burkholderia endofungorum, and an unknown Burkholderia species. The Burkholderia isolates proved to be able to produce toxic rhizoxins. Strains with endosymbionts originated from food, soil, and a clinical source, and thus their presence could not be linked to particular habitats. The presence of Burkholderia in Rhizopus producing toxins could not be excluded as a potential risk for human health. In contrast, given the type of diseases caused by Rhizopus species, we regard the practical risk of infection via the food industry as negligible.

  10. Selection of soybean pods by the stink bugs, Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii.

    PubMed

    Molina, Gonzalo A R; Trumper, Eduardo V

    2012-01-01

    Different biological parameters of the stink bugs, Nezara viridula L. and Piezodorus guildinii Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are affected by the developmental stage of the soybean (Glycine max Merrill) pods they feed on. These effects of the soybean on the stink bugs could represent a selection pressure leading to the ability of these species to discriminate the phenological stage of soybean pods, and, therefore, to exhibit feeding preferences. We designed three studies: (1) Distant detection of soybean pods through an olfactometer; (2) Free choice tests to evaluate preferences for soybean pods of different developmental stages; (3) No choice tests to study effects of soybean pod development on feeding time and number of probes. Stink bugs showed no differential response to olfactometer arms with or without soybean pods, suggesting an inability to detect soybean volatiles. Free choice tests showed no species effects on pods selection, but significant differences among fifth instar nymphs, adult male, and adult females. Fifth instar nymphs fed more frequently on soybean pods of advanced development stages compared to female adults, despite previous evidence showing poor development of stink bugs fed pods of the same stage. No choice tests showed significant effects of stink bug species, stink bug stage and sex, and soybean pod phenology. N. viridula expressed shorter feeding times and higher numbers of probes than P. guildinii. The highest numbers of probes of both species were observed when they were fed soybean pods in early phenological stages. When placed in direct contact with food, fifth instar nymphs prefered to feed on more developed pods, despite these pods being suboptimal food items. These results suggest that for the ecological time framework of soybean-stink bugs coexistence, around thirty-five years in Argentina, the selection pressure was not enough for stink bugs to evolve food preferences that match their performance on soybean pods of

  11. Selection of Soybean Pods by the Stink Bugs, Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Gonzalo A. R.; Trumper, Eduardo V.

    2012-01-01

    Different biological parameters of the stink bugs, Nezara viridula L. and Piezodorus guildinii Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are affected by the developmental stage of the soybean (Glycine max Merrill) pods they feed on. These effects of the soybean on the stink bugs could represent a selection pressure leading to the ability of these species to discriminate the phenological stage of soybean pods, and, therefore, to exhibit feeding preferences. We designed three studies: (1) Distant detection of soybean pods through an olfactometer; (2) Free choice tests to evaluate preferences for soybean pods of different developmental stages; (3) No choice tests to study effects of soybean pod development on feeding time and number of probes. Stink bugs showed no differential response to olfactometer arms with or without soybean pods, suggesting an inability to detect soybean volatiles. Free choice tests showed no species effects on pods selection, but significant differences among fifth instar nymphs, adult male, and adult females. Fifth instar nymphs fed more frequently on soybean pods of advanced development stages compared to female adults, despite previous evidence showing poor development of stink bugs fed pods of the same stage. No choice tests showed significant effects of stink bug species, stink bug stage and sex, and soybean pod phenology. N. viridula expressed shorter feeding times and higher numbers of probes than P. guildinii. The highest numbers of probes of both species were observed when they were fed soybean pods in early phenological stages. When placed in direct contact with food, fifth instar nymphs prefered to feed on more developed pods, despite these pods being suboptimal food items. These results suggest that for the ecological time framework of soybean-stink bugs coexistence, around thirty-five years in Argentina, the selection pressure was not enough for stink bugs to evolve food preferences that match their performance on soybean pods of

  12. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean.

  13. Survival and bioactivities of selected probiotic lactobacilli in yogurt fermentation and cold storage: New insights for developing a bi-functional dairy food.

    PubMed

    Rutella, Giuseppina Sefora; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Solieri, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    In previous work, we demonstrated that two probiotic strains, namely Lactobacillus casei PRA205 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PRA331, produce fermented milks with potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Here, we tested these strains for the survivability and the release of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides in yogurt fermentation and cold storage. For these purposes three yogurt batches were compared: one prepared using yogurt starters alone (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus 1932 and Streptococcus thermophilus 99), and the remaining two containing either PRA205 or PRA331 in addition to yogurt starters. Despite the lower viable counts at the fermentation end compared to PRA331, PRA205 overcame PRA331 in survivability during refrigerated storage for 28 days, leading to viable counts (>10(8) CFU/g) higher than the minimum therapeutic threshold (10(6) CFU/g). Analyses of in vitro ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions revealed that yogurt supplemented with PRA205 displays higher amounts of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides than that produced with PRA331 at the end of fermentation and over storage. Two ACE-inhibitory peptides, Valine-Proline-Proline (VPP) and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP), were identified and quantified. This study demonstrated that L. casei PRA205 could be used as adjunct culture for producing bi-functional yogurt enriched in bioactive peptides and in viable cells, which bring health benefits to the host as probiotics. PMID:27554146

  14. Survival and bioactivities of selected probiotic lactobacilli in yogurt fermentation and cold storage: New insights for developing a bi-functional dairy food.

    PubMed

    Rutella, Giuseppina Sefora; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Solieri, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    In previous work, we demonstrated that two probiotic strains, namely Lactobacillus casei PRA205 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PRA331, produce fermented milks with potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Here, we tested these strains for the survivability and the release of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides in yogurt fermentation and cold storage. For these purposes three yogurt batches were compared: one prepared using yogurt starters alone (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus 1932 and Streptococcus thermophilus 99), and the remaining two containing either PRA205 or PRA331 in addition to yogurt starters. Despite the lower viable counts at the fermentation end compared to PRA331, PRA205 overcame PRA331 in survivability during refrigerated storage for 28 days, leading to viable counts (>10(8) CFU/g) higher than the minimum therapeutic threshold (10(6) CFU/g). Analyses of in vitro ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions revealed that yogurt supplemented with PRA205 displays higher amounts of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides than that produced with PRA331 at the end of fermentation and over storage. Two ACE-inhibitory peptides, Valine-Proline-Proline (VPP) and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP), were identified and quantified. This study demonstrated that L. casei PRA205 could be used as adjunct culture for producing bi-functional yogurt enriched in bioactive peptides and in viable cells, which bring health benefits to the host as probiotics.

  15. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Ruminal Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

  17. Bioactive Proteins and Peptides from Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Agyei, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Dietary proteins from soybeans have been shown to offer health benefits in vivo and/or in vitro either as intact proteins or in partially digested forms also called bioactive peptides. Upon oral administration and absorption, soy-derived bioactive peptides may induce several physiological responses such as antioxidative, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anticancer and immunomodulatory effects. There has therefore been a mounting research interest in the therapeutic potential of soy protein hydrolysates and their subsequent incorporation in functional foods and 'Food for Specified Health Uses' (FOSHU) related products where their biological activities may assist in the promotion of good health or in the control and prevention of diseases. This mini review discusses relevant patents and gives an overview on bioactive proteins and peptides obtainable from soybeans. Processes for the production and formulation of these peptides are given, together with specific examples of their therapeutic potential and possible areas of application.

  18. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermented food condiments.

    PubMed

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H

    2008-06-10

    The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean (Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producers was also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar. Using RPLA, enterotoxin production was detected for three isolates of B. cereus in broth and all B. cereus (9) in fermented seeds. Using BDEVIA, enterotoxin production was detected in broth as well as in fermented seeds for all B. cereus isolates. None of the isolates belonging to the other Bacillus species was able to produce enterotoxins either by RPLA or BDEVIA. Nhe genes were detected in all B. cereus while Hbl and CytK genes were detected respectively in five and six B. cereus strains. A weak presence of Hbl (A, D) and CytK genes was detected in two isolates of B. subtilis and one of B. licheniformis but results were inconsistent, especially for Hbl genes. The emetic specific gene fragment EM1 was not detected in any of the isolates studied.

  19. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  20. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  1. Soybean aphid and soybean cyst nematode interactions in the field and effects on soybean yield.

    PubMed

    Hong, S C; MacGuidwin, A; Gratton, C

    2011-10-01

    How above- and belowground plant pests interact with each other and how these interactions affect productivity is a relatively understudied aspect of crop production. Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a root parasite of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is the most threatening pathogen in soybean production and soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, an aboveground phloem-feeding insect that appeared in North America in 2000, is the key aboveground herbivore of soybean in the midwestern United States. Now, both soybean aphid and soybean cyst nematode co-occur in soybean-growing areas in the Upper Midwest. The objectives of this study were to examine aphid colonization patterns and population growth on soybean across a natural gradient of nematode density (range, approximately 900 and 27,000 eggs per 100 cm3 soil), and to investigate the effect of this pest complex on soybean productivity. Alate (winged) soybean aphid colonization of soybean was negatively correlated to soybean cyst nematode egg density (r = -0.363, P = 0.0095) at the end of July, at the onset of peak alate colonization. However, both a manipulative cage study and openly colonized plants showed that soybean cyst nematode density below ground was unrelated to variation in aphid population growth (r approximately -0.01). Based on regression analyses, soybean aphids and cyst nematodes had independent effects on soybean yield through effects on different yield components. High soybean cyst nematode density was associated with a decline in soybean yield (kg ha(-1)), whereas increasing soybean aphid density (both alate and apterous) significantly decreased seed weight (g 100 seeds(-1)).

  2. Chemical composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean 40-3-2 grown in Europe remains equivalent with that of conventional soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Harrigan, George G; Ridley, William P; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Sorbet, Roy; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Schneider, Ronald W

    2007-07-25

    The composition of glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready) soybean 40-3-2 was compared with that of conventional soybean grown in Romania in 2005 as part of a comparative safety assessment program. Samples were collected from replicated field trials, and compositional analyses were performed to measure proximates (moisture, fat, ash, protein, and carbohydrates by calculation), fiber, amino acids, fatty acids, isoflavones, raffinose, stachyose, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, and lectin in grain as well as proximates and fiber in forage. The mean values for all biochemical components assessed for Roundup Ready soybean 40-30-2 were similar to those of the conventional control and were within the published range observed for commercial soybean. The compositional profile of Roundup Ready soybean 40-3-2 was also compared to that of conventional soybean varieties grown in Romania by calculating a 99% tolerance interval to describe compositional variability in the population of traditional soybean varieties already on the marketplace. These comparisons, together with the history of the safe use of soybean as a common component of animal feed and human food, lead to the conclusion that Roundup Ready soybean 40-3-2 is compositionally equivalent to and as safe and nutritious as conventional soybean varieties grown commercially.

  3. Koji--where East meets West in fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Tramper, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Almost all biotechnological processes originate from traditional food fermentations, i.e. the many indigenous processes that can be found already in the written history of thousands of years ago. We still consume many of these fermented foods and beverages on a daily basis today. The evolution of these traditional processes, in particular since the 19th century, stimulated and influenced the development of modern biotechnological processes. In return, the development of modern biotechnology and related advanced techniques will no doubt improve the process, the product quality and the safety of our favourite fermented foods and beverages. In this article, we describe the relationship between these traditional food fermentations and modern biotechnology. Using Koji and its derived product soy sauce as examples, we address the mutual influences that will provide us with a better future concerning the quality, safety and nutritional effect of many fermented food products.

  4. Creating Conventional Soybeans with the High Oleic Acid Seed Oil Trait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commodity soybeans are poised to undergo a revolutionary change. Major shifts in market expectations for the nutritional quality of the oil, brought about in part through food labeling requirements and the suitability for biodiesel, are driving the commodity soybean to embrace new seed compositiona...

  5. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  6. Effect of Black Soybean Koji Extract on Glucose Utilization and Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hou, Chien-Wen; Chi, Yu-Wei; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation and the extent of subsequent fat accumulation are closely related to the occurrence and progression of diseases such as insulin resistance and obesity. Black soybean koji (BSK) is produced by the fermentation of black soybean with Aspergilllus awamori. Previous study indicated that BSK extract has antioxidative and multifunctional bioactivities, however, the role of BSK in the regulation of energy metabolism is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of glucose utilization on insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipogenesis-related protein expression in differentiated adipocytes with BSK treatment. Cytoxicity assay revealed that BSK did not adversely affect cell viability at levels up to 200 μg/mL. The potential for glucose utilization was increased by increased glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), GLUT4 and protein kinase B (AKT) protein expression in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 cells in response to BSK treatment. Simultaneously, BSK inhibited lipid droplet accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The inhibitory effect of adipogenesis was associated with downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) level and upregulated Acrp30 protein expression. Our results suggest that BSK extract could improve glucose uptake by modulating GLUT1 and GLUT4 expression in a 3T3-L1 insulin-resistance cell model. In addition, BSK suppressed differentiation and lipid accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which may suggest its potential for food supplementation to prevent obesity and related metabolic abnormalities. PMID:24821545

  7. Relationships between soybean shoot nitrogen components and soybean aphid populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defining the relationships between soybean (Glycine max [L.] merr.) shoot nitrogen (N) components and soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) populations will increase understanding of the biology of this important insect pest. In this 2-year field study, caged soybean plants were infested with so...

  8. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Stacey, Gary

    2016-07-12

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  9. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Gary

    2010-03-24

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  10. Doenjang, a Korean fermented soy food, exerts antiobesity and antioxidative activities in overweight subjects with the PPAR-γ2 C1431T polymorphism: 12-week, double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cha, Youn-Soo; Park, Yongsoon; Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo-Wan; Park, Kungmin; Kim, Yeonsoo; Lee, Haeng-Shin

    2014-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity and antioxidant effects of supplementation with doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, in overweight Koreans with the PPAR-γ2 C1431T polymorphism. Sixty overweight subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 9.8 g/day of doenjang or placebo for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric and metabolic parameters, along with abdominal fat distribution and PPAR-γ2 polymorphisms, were measured. Fifty-one subjects completed the study, doenjang (n=26) and placebo (n=25) groups. Relative frequencies of the PPAR-γ2 genotypes CC, TC, and TT were 70% (n=41), 25.9% (15), and 3.4% (2), whereas those of the PPAR-γ2 alleles C and T were 81.6% and 18.4%. Visceral fat area (VFA) was significantly decreased by doenjang supplementation in subjects with a mutant T allele of PPAR-γ2 compared to those with a C allele after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Plasma free fatty acid, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were also significantly increased in the doenjang group. Doenjang pills significantly activated radical clearance capacity (ORAC and DNA tail length) in subjects with the C allele. The catalase (CAT) activity was increased twofold in the doenjang-treated group with the C allele, but this phenomenon was reversed in those with the T allele. Doenjang-treated subjects tended to have low dietary carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared with those given placebo. We found that doenjang supplementation decreased visceral fat accumulation and aging most effectively in subjects with PPAR-γ polymorphisms. This study suggests that doenjang has antiobesity and antioxidative effects in overweight individuals with mutant alleles of PPAR-γ2. PMID:24456362

  11. Production of Fungal Mycelial Protein in Submerged Culture of Soybean Whey

    PubMed Central

    Falanghe, Helcio; Smith, A. K.; Rackis, J. J.

    1964-01-01

    Various soybean whey media were tested as substrate for seven species of fungi in submerged culture. Very little mycelial growth was obtained with Morchella hybrida, Collybia velutipes, Cantharellus cibarius, and Xylaria polymorpha. Agaricus campestris failed to grow. Tricholoma nudum and Boletus indecisus showed the greatest rate of growth and production of mycelial protein and the best utilization of soybean whey solids, with much shorter incubation times compared with those of the other species. T. nudum developed as spheres having diameters of about 5 to 8 mm, instead of the usual slurry or yeastlike form, in the presence of added ammonium acetate. B. indecisus always developed as spheres. Mycelial yields and production of protein by T. nudum greatly decreased with the addition of more than 1% glucose to soybean whey, whereas with B. indecisus the yield of protein almost doubled when up to 3% glucose was added. The effect of minerals on mycelial growth was determined. With soybean whey concentrated to 50%, the rate of mycelial growth of T. nudum was nearly doubled, but protein content of mycelia was greatly reduced. Mycelial growth and yield of protein of B. indecisus grown in concentrated whey were increased greatly. About 4 to 6 g of mycelial protein per liter can be obtained from fermentation in soybean whey, depending upon the medium used. Utilization of soybean whey by fungal fermentation may have economic value in whey disposal and in the production of products of high protein content. PMID:14199023

  12. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids.

  13. Effects of fermentation substrate conditions on corn-soy co-fermentation for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linxing; Lee, Show-Ling; Wang, Tong; de Moura, Juliana M L N; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2012-09-01

    Soy skim, a protein-rich liquid co-product from the aqueous extraction of soybeans, was co-fermented with corn to produce ethanol. Effects of soy skim addition level, type of skim, corn particle size, water-to-solids ratio, and urea on co-fermentation were determined. The addition of 20-100% skim increased the fermentation rate by 18-27% and shortened the fermentation time by 5-7h without affecting ethanol yield. Finely ground corn or high water-to-solids ratio (≥ 3.0) in the mash gave higher fermentation rates, but did not increase the ethanol yield. When the water was completely replaced with soy skim, the addition of urea became unnecessary. Soy skim retentate that was concentrated by nanofiltration increased fermentation rate by 25%. The highest level of skim addition resulted in a finished beer with 16% solids, 47% protein (dwb) containing 3.6% lysine, and an ethanol yield of 39 g/100g dry corn.

  14. Expanding Omics Resources for Improvement of Soybean Seed Composition Traits.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Juhi; Patil, Gunvant B; Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Vuong, Tri D; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Food resources of the modern world are strained due to the increasing population. There is an urgent need for innovative methods and approaches to augment food production. Legume seeds are major resources of human food and animal feed with their unique nutrient compositions including oil, protein, carbohydrates, and other beneficial nutrients. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) together with "omics" technologies have considerably strengthened soybean research. The availability of well annotated soybean genome sequence along with hundreds of identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with different seed traits can be used for gene discovery and molecular marker development for breeding applications. Despite the remarkable progress in these technologies, the analysis and mining of existing seed genomics data are still challenging due to the complexity of genetic inheritance, metabolic partitioning, and developmental regulations. Integration of "omics tools" is an effective strategy to discover key regulators of various seed traits. In this review, recent advances in "omics" approaches and their use in soybean seed trait investigations are presented along with the available databases and technological platforms and their applicability in the improvement of soybean. This article also highlights the use of modern breeding approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic selection (GS), and marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) for developing superior cultivars. A catalog of available important resources for major seed composition traits, such as seed oil, protein, carbohydrates, and yield traits are provided to improve the knowledge base and future utilization of this information in the soybean crop improvement programs.

  15. Novel technology development through thermal drying of encapsulated Kluyveromyces marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose in lactose fermentation and its evaluation for food production.

    PubMed

    Papapostolou, Harris; Servetas, Yiannis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-12-01

    A novel technology development based on the production of a low-cost starter culture for ripening of cheeses and baking is reported in the present study. The starter culture comprises thermally dried cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus encapsulated in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose. For production of a low-cost and effective biocatalyst, whey was used as raw material for biomass production and thermal drying methods (convective, conventional, and vacuum) were applied and evaluated at drying temperatures ranging from 35 to 60 °C. The effect of drying temperature of biocatalysts on fermentability of lactose and whey was evaluated. Storage stability and suitability of biocatalysts as a commercial starter cultures was also assessed and evaluated. All thermally dried biocatalysts were found to be active in lactose and whey fermentation. In all cases, there was sugar conversion ranging from 92 to 100 %, ethanol concentration of up to 1.47 % (v/v), and lactic acid concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 5.5 g/l. However, convective drying of the encapsulated cells of K. marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose was faster and a more effective drying method while drying at 42 °C appear to be the best drying temperature in terms of cell activity, ethanol, and lactic acid formation. Storage of the biocatalysts for 3 months at 4 °C proved maintenance of its activity even though fermentation times increased by 50-100 % compared with the fresh dried ones.

  16. Novel technology development through thermal drying of encapsulated Kluyveromyces marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose in lactose fermentation and its evaluation for food production.

    PubMed

    Papapostolou, Harris; Servetas, Yiannis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-12-01

    A novel technology development based on the production of a low-cost starter culture for ripening of cheeses and baking is reported in the present study. The starter culture comprises thermally dried cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus encapsulated in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose. For production of a low-cost and effective biocatalyst, whey was used as raw material for biomass production and thermal drying methods (convective, conventional, and vacuum) were applied and evaluated at drying temperatures ranging from 35 to 60 °C. The effect of drying temperature of biocatalysts on fermentability of lactose and whey was evaluated. Storage stability and suitability of biocatalysts as a commercial starter cultures was also assessed and evaluated. All thermally dried biocatalysts were found to be active in lactose and whey fermentation. In all cases, there was sugar conversion ranging from 92 to 100 %, ethanol concentration of up to 1.47 % (v/v), and lactic acid concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 5.5 g/l. However, convective drying of the encapsulated cells of K. marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose was faster and a more effective drying method while drying at 42 °C appear to be the best drying temperature in terms of cell activity, ethanol, and lactic acid formation. Storage of the biocatalysts for 3 months at 4 °C proved maintenance of its activity even though fermentation times increased by 50-100 % compared with the fresh dried ones. PMID:23111921

  17. Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars.

  18. The integral and extrinsic bioactive proteins in the aqueous extracted soybean oil bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-10-01

    Soybean oil bodies (OBs), naturally pre-emulsified soybean oil, have been examined by many researchers owing to their great potential utilizations in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. This study was the first time to confirm that lectin, Gly m Bd 28K (Bd 28K, one soybean allergenic protein), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI), and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) were not contained in the extracted soybean OBs even by neutral pH aqueous extraction. It was clarified that the well-known Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), another soybean allergenic protein, was strongly bound to soybean OBs through a disulfide bond with 24 kDa oleosin. One steroleosin isoform (41 kDa) and two caleosin isoforms (27 kDa, 29 kDa), the integral bioactive proteins, were confirmed for the first time in soybean OBs, and a considerable amount of calcium, necessary for the biological activities of caleosin, was strongly bound to OBs. Unexpectedly, it was found that 24 kDa and 18 kDa oleosins could be hydrolyzed by an unknown soybean endoprotease in the extracted soybean OBs, which might give some hints for improving the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybean free oil.

  19. Inhibition of DNA polymerase λ and associated inflammatory activities of extracts from steamed germinated soybeans.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors from more than 50 plant food materials, we found that the extract from steamed germinated soybeans (Glycine max L.) inhibited human pol λ activity. Among the three processed soybean samples tested (boiled soybeans, steamed soybeans, and steamed germinated soybeans), both the hot water extract and organic solvent extract from the steamed germinated soybeans had the strongest pol λ inhibition. We previously isolated two glucosyl compounds, a cerebroside (glucosyl ceramide, AS-1-4, compound ) and a steroidal glycoside (eleutheroside A, compound ), from dried soybean, and these compounds were prevalent in the extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans as pol inhibitors. The hot water and organic solvent extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans and compounds and selectively inhibited the activity of eukaryotic pol λ in vitro but did not influence the activities of other eukaryotic pols, including those from the A-family (pol γ), B-family (pols α, δ, and ε), and Y-family (pols η, ι, and κ), and also showed no effect on the activity of pol β, which is of the same family (X) as pol λ. The tendency for in vitro pol λ inhibition by these extracts and compounds showed a positive correlation with the in vivo suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in mouse ear. These results suggest that steamed germinated soybeans, especially the glucosyl compound components, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  20. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible. PMID:26963815

  1. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J.; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M.; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A.; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible. PMID:26963815

  2. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.

    PubMed

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis S; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noèl; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-05-15

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis.

  3. Sunflowers versus soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.D.C.

    1980-10-01

    While both soybeans and sunflowers provide oil and protein, sunflowers offer the higher potential yield of oil per hectare. Research to modify vegetable oils to improve their fuel properties is suggested, particularly on improving the characteristics of the oil as a fuel for diesel engines.

  4. Role of EfrAB efflux pump in biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from traditional fermented foods and the effect of EDTA as EfrAB inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Valenzuela, Antonio Sánchez; Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-12-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from various traditional fermented foods of both animal and vegetable origins have shown multidrug resistance to several antibiotics and tolerance to biocides. Reduced susceptibility was intra and inter-species dependent and was due to specific and unspecific mechanisms such as efflux pumps. EfrAB, a heterodimeric ABC transporter efflux pump, was detected in 100% of multidrug resistant (MDR) E. faecalis strains and only in 12% of MDR E. faecium strains. EfrAB expression was induced by half of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. However, expression of efrA and efrB genes was highly dependent on the strain tested and on the antimicrobial used. Our results indicated that 3 mM EDTA highly reduced the MICs of almost all drugs tested. Nevertheless, the higher reductions (>8 folds) were obtained with gentamicin, streptomycin, chlorhexidine and triclosan. Reductions of MICs were correlated with down-regulation of EfrAB expression (10-140 folds) in all three MDR enterococci strains. This is the first report describing the role of EfrAB in the efflux of antibiotics and biocides which reflect also the importance of EfrAB in multidrug resistance in enterococci. EDTA used at low concentration as food preservative could be one of the best choices to prevent spread of multidrug resistant enterococci throughout food chain by decreasing EfrAB expression. EfrAB could be an attractive target not only in enterococci present in food matrix but also those causing infections as well by using EDTA as therapeutic agent in combination with low doses of antibiotics.

  5. Identifying physiological gains in the historic Midwest soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yields in the US have steadily increased throughout the past century due to advances made in breeding and management practices. Despite these historical gains, world food production must increase by 50% by 2030 to meet population demands according to the UN, raising the question of whether t...

  6. Yield gaps and yield relationships in US soybean production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of yield gaps (YG) (potential yield – farmer yield) provides some indication of the prospects for increasing crop yield to meet the food demands of future populations. Quantile regression analysis was applied to county soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yields (1971 – 2011) from Kentuc...

  7. Preparation of microemulsions with soybean oil-based surfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emulsions are widely applied in food, cosmeceutical and medicinal formulations. Smaller and highly stable droplets of emulsions are important for their application. This research reports that by using soybean oil-based surfactants, the higher stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were obtained via an ul...

  8. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  9. Mutagenic safety and fatty liver improvement of nanonized black soybeans in senescence-accelerated prone-8 mice.

    PubMed

    Liao, J-W; Hong, L-Z; Wang, M-F; Tsai, S-C; Lin, Y-J; Chan, Y-C

    2010-06-01

    Nanotechnology, as a new enabling technology, has the potential to revolutionize food systems. However, much attention has been focused on nanoparticle foods due to their potential physiological properties. This study was aimed to evaluate the mutagenic safety and fatty liver improvement of black soybean in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8). The mutagenic activity of black soybeans was investigated using the Ames test (Salmonella Typhimurium TA98, 100, 102, and 1535). Furthermore, senescence-accelerated prone-8 mice (SAMP8) have been reported to display spontaneous fatty liver. Male SAMP8 mice were divided into control and supplemented with 10% micronized or nanonized black soybeans diet and fed for 12 wk. The results revealed that the Ames test of micronized and nanonized black soybeans exhibited no mutagenicity. Administration of black soybeans to mice showed no effects on food intake and body and organ weights. The nanonized black soybean group had a lower degree of spontaneous fatty liver, alanine aminotransferase, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations, and had enhanced superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities of livers when compared with the SAMP8 control and micronized black soybean groups. The mice fed with black soybeans had significantly lower triglyceride concentrations than the SAMP8 control group. The results of this study suggest that nanonized black soybeans have no side effects and, moreover, may minimize liver lesions in SAMP8 mice.

  10. Molecular Soybean-Pathogen Interactions.

    PubMed

    Whitham, Steven A; Qi, Mingsheng; Innes, Roger W; Ma, Wenbo; Lopes-Caitar, Valéria; Hewezi, Tarek

    2016-08-01

    Soybean hosts a wide variety of pathogens that cause significant yield losses. The importance of soybean as a major oilseed crop has led to research focused on its interactions with pathogens, such as Soybean mosaic virus, Pseudomonas syringae, Phytophthora sojae, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, and Heterodera glycines. Pioneering work on soybean's interactions with these organisms, which represent the five major pathogen groups (viruses, bacteria, oomycetes, fungi, and nematodes), has contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence and immunity. These mechanisms involve conserved and unique features that validate the need for research in both soybean and homologous model systems. In this review, we discuss identification of effectors and their functions as well as resistance gene-mediated recognition and signaling. We also point out areas in which model systems and recent advances in resources and tools have provided opportunities to gain deeper insights into soybean-pathogen interactions. PMID:27359370

  11. Irradiating of Bulk Soybeans: Influence on Their Functional and Sensory Properties for Soyfood Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chia, Chiew-Ling; Wilson, Lester A.; Boylston, Terri; Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Soybeans were chosen for lunar and planetary missions, where soybeans will be supplied in bulk or grown locally, due to their nutritive value and ability to produce oil and protein for further food applications. However, soybeans must be processed into foods prior to consumption. Radiation that soybeans would be exposed to during bulk storage prior to and during a Mars mission may influence their germination and functional properties. The influence of radiation includes the affect of surface pasteurization to ensure the astronauts safety from food-borne illnesses (HACCP, CCP), and the affect of the amount of radiation the soybeans receive during a Mars mission. Decreases in the amount of natural antioxidants free radical formation, and oxidation-induced changes in the soybean will influence the nutritional value, texture, color, and aroma of soyfoods. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pasteurization and sterilization surface radiation on whole soybeans using gamma and electron beam radiation. The influence of 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30kGy on microbial load, germination rate, ease of processing, and quality of soymilk and tofu were determined. Surface radiation of whole dry soybeans using electron beam or gamma rays from 1-30kGy did provide microbial safety for the astronauts. However, the lower dose levels had surviving yeasts and molds. These doses caused oxidative changes that resulted in soymilk and tofu with rancid aromas. GC-MS of the aroma compounds using SPME Headspace confirmed the presence of lipid oxidation compounds. Soybean germination ability was reduced as radiation dosage increased. While lower doses may reduce these problems, the ability to insure microbial safety of bulk soybeans will be lost. Counter measures could include vacuum packaging, nitrogen flushing, added antioxidants, and radiating under freezing conditions. Doses below 1kGy need to be investigated further to determine the influence of the radiation encountered

  12. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  13. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F.; Mueller, André N.; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  14. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F; Mueller, André N; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

    2015-04-01

    Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food. PMID:25300190

  16. Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

    2015-04-01

    Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food.

  17. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  18. Effect of partial replacement of different defatted oil seed cakes as substrate in biosynthesis of bacitracin in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Farzana, Kalsoom; Shah, Syed Nisar Hussain; Butt, Farooq Bashir; Khan, Jamshaid Ali

    2007-07-01

    The present study was conducted to ascertain the effect of partial replacement of different defatted oil seed cakes as substrate i.e. sunflower meal, rice hulls and soybean meal, in biosynthesis of Bacitracin in Solid-State Fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis on laboratory scale. In solid-state fermentation, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice hulls and their different combinations were used. The antibiotic activity was determined at various intervals and recorded 48 hours gave maximum yield, 4375 i.u/gm when only soybean was used. However, maximum titre 4820 i.u / gm of antibiotic were obtained when wheat bran and soybean meal was in ratio of 1:3. The raw material for its production is readily available and cheap such as soybean meal, sunflower meal and wheat bran. Thus development of this technology in our country would result in utilizing our own resources in Pakistan.

  19. Combined effect of enterocin AS-48 and high hydrostatic pressure to control food-borne pathogens inoculated in low acid fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Ananou, Samir; Garriga, Margarita; Jofré, Anna; Aymerich, Teresa; Gálvez, Antonio; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva

    2010-04-01

    The single and combined effects of enterocin AS-48 and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonellaenterica, and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in fuet (a low acid fermented sausage) during ripening and storage at 7 degrees C or at room temperature. AS-48 (148 AU g(-1)) caused a drastic 5.5 log cfu g(-1) decrease in L. monocytogenes (P<0.001) and a significant (P<0.01) inhibition (1.79 logs) for Salmonella at the end of ripening (10 d). After pressurization (400 MPa) and storage Listeria counts remained below 5 cfu g(-1) in all fuets containing AS-48 (pressurized or not). HHP alone had no anti-Listeria effect. HHP treatment significantly reduced Salmonella counts, with lowest levels in pressurized fuets with AS-48. S. aureus showed similar growth for all treatments and storage conditions. These results indicate that AS-48 can be applied alone to control L. monocytogenes and combined with HHP treatment to control Salmonella in fuets.

  20. Enhancement of Rhamnolipid Production in Residual Soybean Oil by an Isolated Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, C. J. B.; França, F. P.; Sérvulo, E. F. C.; Resende, M. M.; Cardoso, V. L.

    In the present work, the production of rhamnolipid from residual soybean oil (RSO) from food frying facilities was studied using a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of contaminated lagoon, isolated from a hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The optimization of RSO, amonium nitrate, and brewery residual yeast concentrations was accomplished by a central composite experimental design and surface response analysis. The experiments were performed in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50mL of mineral medium, at 170 rpm and 30±1°C, for a 48-h fermentation period. Rhamnolipid production has been monitored by measurements of surface tension, rhamnose concentration, and emulsifying activity. The best-planned results, located on the central point, have corresponded to 22g/L of RSO, 5.625 g/ L of NH4NO3' and 11.5 g/L of brewery yeast. At the maximum point the values for rhamnose and emulsifying index were 2.2g/L and 100%, respectively.

  1. Sensory quality of soymilk and tofu from soybeans lacking lipoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aijun; Smyth, Heather; Chaliha, Mridusmita; James, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation of unsaturated lipids by lipoxygenases in soybeans causes undesirable flavors in soy foods. Using a traditional and a nontraditional soy food user group, we examined the cultural difference in perceiving the sensory characteristics of soymilk and tofu produced from soybeans with or without lipoxygenases (Lx123). The two groups described the samples using similar terms. The traditional users preferred the control soy milk and lipoxygenase-free tofu while the nontraditional users preferred the lipoxygenase-free soymilk with no preference for tofu. In a separate study, a trained descriptive taste panel compared the odor of soymilk and tofu from control soybeans or those lacking lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-2 (Lx12) or all three isomers (Lx123). The rancid/grassy odor was rated the lowest in Lx123 products, followed by Lx12 products with the control products given the highest rating. The Lx12 and Lx123 products were also sweeter and less bitter than the controls. Taken together, our results demonstrated that soybeans lacking lipoxygenases can produce soy foods with less undesirable aromas and are therefore likely more acceptable to the consumers. PMID:27004110

  2. Quantitative trait loci underlying seed sugars content in MD96-5722 by spencer recombinant inbred line population of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose are important soluble sugars in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds, and soybean seeds with higher sucrose and lower raffinose and stachyose are desirable. Therefore, optimizing sugars biosynthesis is a major goal for soy food industry. The objective of this stud...

  3. Beta-conglycinin and gut histology of sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-GM soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is reported that the soybean protein (Beta-conglycinin) might cause inflammation of the distal intestine and stimulate endogenous cholecystokinin release that suppresses food intake in fish. We are studying the effects of meals made from new strains of non-GMO soybeans with high protein and redu...

  4. Mid-oleic/ultra low linolenic acid soybean oil - a healthful new alternative to hydrogenated oils for frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the frying stability of mid-oleic/ultra low linolenic acid soybean oil (MO/ULLSBO) and the storage stability of food fried in it, tortilla chips were fried in MO/ULLSBO, soybean oil (SBO), hydrogenated SBO (HSBO) and ultra low linolenic SBO (ULLSBO). Intermittent batch frying tests wer...

  5. Soyasaponin Bh, a Triterpene Saponin Containing a Unique Hemiacetal-Functional Five-Membered Ring from Glycine max (Soybeans)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merill) and soy-based food products are major dietary sources of saponins. An oleanane triterpenoid saponin, soyasaponin Bh (1) containing a unique five-membered ring with a hemiacetal functionality together with seven known saponins were isolated from soybeans. Their struct...

  6. The genetic architecture of seed composition in soybean is refined by genome-wide association scans across multiple populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil and meal are major contributors to world-wide food production. Consequently, the genetic basis for soybean seed composition has been intensely studied using family-based mapping. Population-based mapping approaches, in the form of genome-wide association (GWA) scans, have been able to re...

  7. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tavvs M; Macrae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays.

  8. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Tavvs M.; Macrae, Ian V.; Koch, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  9. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  10. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  11. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  12. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production.

  13. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. PMID:26538176

  14. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  15. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsielleae and other facultative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ochuba, G U; von Riesen, V L

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebsiella oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carrageenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and Pectobacterium (38%). Pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  16. Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in foods

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio

    1995-02-01

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds were determined in foods. Statistical treatment of the data for 13 sampled from 20 families living in suburban Tokyo (Saitama prefecture) indicated that the foods were contaminated by water pollution and/or substances introduced by the process of food production. Butter and margarine were contaminated by chlorinated ethylene, ethane, and related compounds released by dry cleaning and other operations. Soybean sprouts and tofu (soybean curd) contained chloroform and related trihalomethanes absorbed during the production process. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Soybean aphids making their summer appearance early

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two small, soft-bodied insects have begun showing up in South Dakota soybean. One is the soybean aphid, and the other is a mealybug. Soybean aphids are yellow to yellow/green and are usually found feeding on the underside of leaves. Incidence of soybean aphid has been a bit higher than typical fo...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE