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Sample records for fermented yacon smallanthus

  1. Comparison of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) Tuber with Commercialized Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) in Terms of Physiology, Fermentation Products and Intestinal Microbial Communities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    UTAMI, Ni Wayan Arya; SONE, Teruo; TANAKA, Michiko; NAKATSU, Cindy H; SAITO, Akihiko; ASANO, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    The yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber was examined with regard to its prebiotic effects compared with commercialized fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). A feed containing 10% yacon tuber, which is equivalent to 5% commercialized FOS in terms of the amount of fructo-oligosaccharides (GF2, GF3 and GF4), was administrated to rats for 28 days. The yacon diet changed the intestinal microbial communities beginning in the first week, resulting in a twofold greater concentration of cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The SCFA composition differed, but the cecal pH in rats fed yacon tuber was equal to that in rats fed FOS. Serum triglycerides were lower in rats fed yacon compared with rats fed FOS and the control diet. Cecal size was greater with the yacon tuber diet compared with the control diet. The abundant fermentation in the intestines created a selective environment for the intestinal microbiota, which included Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Bifidobacterium animalis and Barnesiella spp. according to identification with culture-independent analysis, 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE combined with cloning and sequencing. Barnesiella spp. and B. pseudolongum were only found in the rats fed the yacon diet, while L. acidophilus and B. animalis were found in abundance in rats fed both the yacon and FOS diets. The genus Barnesiella has not previously been reported to be associated with yacon or FOS fermentation. We concluded that the physiological and microbiological effects of the yacon tuber were different from those of FOS. Differences in cecal size, blood triglycerides and microbial community profiles including their metabolites (SCFAs) between the yacon tuber and FOS were shown to be more greatly affected by the yacon tuber rather than FOS. PMID:24936376

  2. Comparison of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) Tuber with Commercialized Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) in Terms of Physiology, Fermentation Products and Intestinal Microbial Communities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Utami, Ni Wayan Arya; Sone, Teruo; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Saito, Akihiko; Asano, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    The yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber was examined with regard to its prebiotic effects compared with commercialized fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). A feed containing 10% yacon tuber, which is equivalent to 5% commercialized FOS in terms of the amount of fructo-oligosaccharides (GF2, GF3 and GF4), was administrated to rats for 28 days. The yacon diet changed the intestinal microbial communities beginning in the first week, resulting in a twofold greater concentration of cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The SCFA composition differed, but the cecal pH in rats fed yacon tuber was equal to that in rats fed FOS. Serum triglycerides were lower in rats fed yacon compared with rats fed FOS and the control diet. Cecal size was greater with the yacon tuber diet compared with the control diet. The abundant fermentation in the intestines created a selective environment for the intestinal microbiota, which included Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Bifidobacterium animalis and Barnesiella spp. according to identification with culture-independent analysis, 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE combined with cloning and sequencing. Barnesiella spp. and B. pseudolongum were only found in the rats fed the yacon diet, while L. acidophilus and B. animalis were found in abundance in rats fed both the yacon and FOS diets. The genus Barnesiella has not previously been reported to be associated with yacon or FOS fermentation. We concluded that the physiological and microbiological effects of the yacon tuber were different from those of FOS. Differences in cecal size, blood triglycerides and microbial community profiles including their metabolites (SCFAs) between the yacon tuber and FOS were shown to be more greatly affected by the yacon tuber rather than FOS.

  3. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius): a functional food.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Grethel Teresa Choque; Tamashiro, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha; Maróstica Junior, Mário Roberto; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2013-09-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is an Andean tuberous root that is regarded as a functional food given that it contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin and phenolic compounds. The consumption of FOS and inulin improves the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, enhances mineral absorption and gastrointestinal metabolism and plays a role in the regulation of serum cholesterol. Furthermore, the literature reports that the consumption of these prebiotics promotes a positive modulation of the immune system, improving resistance to infections and allergic reactions. Certain studies have demonstrated the potential of yacon as an alternative food source for those patients with conditions that require dietary changes. This review intends to describe the potential of yacon as a prebiotic and its cultivation and industrial processing for human consumption.

  4. Polyphenol oxidase from yacon roots (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Neves, Valdir Augusto; da Silva, Maraiza Aparecida

    2007-03-21

    Polyphenol oxidase (E.C. 1.14.18.1) (PPO) extracted from yacon roots (Smallanthus sonchifolius) was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and separation on Sephadex G-100. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 45 490+/-3500 Da and Km values of 0.23, 1.14, 1.34, and 5.0 mM for the substrates caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol, respectively. When assayed with resorcinol, DL-DOPA, pyrogallol, protocatechuic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and cinnamic acids, catechin, and quercetin, the PPO showed no activity. The optimum pH varied from 5.0 to 6.6, depending on substrate. PPO activity was inhibited by various phenolic and nonphenolic compounds. p-Coumaric and cinnamic acids showed competitive inhibition, with Ki values of 0.017 and 0.011 mM, respectively, using chlorogenic acid as substrate. Heat inactivation from 60 to 90 degrees C showed the enzyme to be relatively stable at 60-70 degrees C, with progressive inactivation when incubated at 80 and 90 degrees C. The Ea (apparent activation energy) for inactivation was 93.69 kJ mol-1. Sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose, and trehalose at high concentrations appeared to protect yacon PPO against thermal inactivation at 75 and 80 degrees C.

  5. Andean yacon root (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. Endl) fructooligosaccharides as a potential novel source of prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Romina; Campos, David; Noratto, Giuliana; Chirinos, Rosana; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2003-08-27

    The ability of three known probiotic strains (two lactobacilli and one bifidobacterium) to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from yacon roots (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. Endl) was compared to commercial FOS in this study. Results indicate that Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL-1910, Lactobacillus plantarum NRRL B-4496, and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 15696 were able to ferment yacon root FOS. FOS consumption apparently depended on the degree of polymerization and the initial FOS composition. L. plantarum NRRL B-4496 and L. acidophilus NRRL B-1910 completely utilized 1-kestose molecules, while B. bifidum was able to utilize 1-kestose molecules as well as molecules with a higher degree of polymerization.

  6. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) as a Food Supplement: Health-Promoting Benefits of Fructooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Brunno F R; de Moura, Nelci A; Almeida, Ana P S; Dias, Marcos C; Sivieri, Kátia; Barbisan, Luís F

    2016-07-21

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to the Andean regions of South America, is an abundant source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). This comprehensive review of the literature addressed the role of yacon supplementation in promoting health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. According to several preclinical and clinical trials, FOS intake favors the growth of health-promoting bacteria while reducing pathogenic bacteria populations. Moreover, the endproducts of FOS fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), act as substrates or signaling molecules in the regulation of the immune response, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. As a result, glycemic levels, body weight and colon cancer risk can be reduced. Based on these findings, most studies reviewed concluded that due to their functional properties, yacon roots may be effectively used as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat chronic diseases.

  7. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) as a Food Supplement: Health-Promoting Benefits of Fructooligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Brunno F. R.; de Moura, Nelci A.; Almeida, Ana P. S.; Dias, Marcos C.; Sivieri, Kátia; Barbisan, Luís F.

    2016-01-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to the Andean regions of South America, is an abundant source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). This comprehensive review of the literature addressed the role of yacon supplementation in promoting health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. According to several preclinical and clinical trials, FOS intake favors the growth of health-promoting bacteria while reducing pathogenic bacteria populations. Moreover, the endproducts of FOS fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), act as substrates or signaling molecules in the regulation of the immune response, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. As a result, glycemic levels, body weight and colon cancer risk can be reduced. Based on these findings, most studies reviewed concluded that due to their functional properties, yacon roots may be effectively used as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat chronic diseases. PMID:27455312

  8. Yacon roots (Smallanthus sonchifolius) improve oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Habib, Natalia C; Serra-Barcellona, Carolina; Honoré, Stella M; Genta, Susana B; Sánchez, Sara S

    2015-08-01

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae (yacon) roots are a natural product recognized by the traditional medicine to treat diabetes-related problems. There are no reports concerning the potential of yacon roots to reduce oxidative stress and ameliorate diabetes complications in diabetic animals. This work analyzes the in vivo antioxidant activity and beneficial effects of yacon roots, using a model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Lipid peroxidation and other indicators of oxidative stress were determined in liver and kidney homogenates from non-diabetic rats, untreated diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated orally with yacon flour (340 mg fructooligosaccharide/kg/d) as a diet supplement for 90 d. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney, and blood at the end of the experimental period. Yacon supplementation to diabetic rats produced a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels in both liver (-30.97%) and kidney (-19.15%). Hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly lower in diabetic-treated rats (-13.46 and -64.33%, respectively) compared with diabetic controls. Similar results were observed in kidney. The treatment of diabetic rats produced an increase of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione levels in liver (172.50 and 35.91%, respectively) and kidney (177.78 and 57.76%, respectively). Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels and liver fatty acid composition, which were altered in diabetic rats, reverted back to nearly normal with yacon treatment. These results indicate that yacon root flour is a potential diet supplement with high in vivo antioxidant activity.

  9. Oligofructans content and yield of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) cultivated in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson (Asteraceae), also known as yacon, is an herbaceous tropical species native to the high mountains of Andes. It has been introduced to several countries, including Japan and Brazil. We are attempting to acclimatize yacon to Mississippi as a poten...

  10. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius): a food with multiple functions.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Paula, Hudsara Aparecida; Abranches, Monise Viana; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods are the focus of many studies worldwide. This is justified by the effects they have on public health and thus interest in elucidation of the mechanisms involved in their actions. The present review aims to broaden the discussions of the functional properties attributed to yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), considered a food with multiple functions since it possesses bioactive compounds (antimicrobial, antioxidant, and probiotic substances) that exert beneficial effects on the body. Although some studies have already demonstrated several of these functions, clinical evidence is scarce, making it necessary that more studies are conducted in this area. Still, since the availability of this food in the market is relatively new, its popularity depends on publications aimed at consumer education and development of new products by the food industry.

  11. Caffeic acid derivatives in the roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Makiko; Yan, Xiaojun; Ono, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Nagata, Tadahiro; Nakanishi, Tateo

    2003-01-29

    Five caffeic acid derivatives were found in the roots of yacon, Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae, as the major water-soluble phenolic compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. Two of these were chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, common phenolic compounds in plants of the family Asteraceae. Three were esters of caffeic acid with the hydroxy groups of aldaric acid, derived from hexose. The structure of the aldaric moiety was determined by hydrolysis and comparison of NMR spectra with those of standard aldaric acids. The compounds were novel caffeic acid esters of altraric acid: 2,4- or 3,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, 2,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, and 2,3,5- or 2,4,5-tricaffeoylaltraric acid.

  12. Extraction and identification of antioxidants in the roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Yan, X; Suzuki, M; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M; Sada, Y; Nakanishi, T; Nagata, T

    1999-11-01

    Yacon, Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae, an important economic species grown for its juicy tuberous root, is potentially beneficial in the diet to diabetics. The antioxidative activity of yacon root was studied by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Antioxidants were extracted by methanol and isolated and purified by gel permeation chromatography and preparative reverse-phase HPLC. Two of the major antioxidants were identified as chlorogenic acid and tryptophan by NMR and mass spectrometry.

  13. Protective effects of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) intake on experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Nelci A; Caetano, Brunno F R; Sivieri, Kátia; Urbano, Luis H; Cabello, Claudio; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-08-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a tuberous root native to the Andean region of South America, contains high concentration of fructans with potential for colon cancer prevention. This study investigated the potential beneficial of yacon intake on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in male Wistar rats. After 4 weeks of DMH-initiation, groups were fed basal diet (G1 and G6) or basal diet containing dried extract of yacon root at 0.5% (G2), 1.0% (G3 and G5) or a synbiotic formulation (G4) (1.0% yacon plus Lactobacillus casei at 2.5 × 10(10)CFU per g diet) for 13 weeks. At week 20, a significant reduction in number and multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and in number of invasive adenocarcinomas was observed in the groups orally treated with 1.0% yacon (G3) or the synbiotic formulation (G4) (0.05yacon (G3) or the synbiotic formulation (G4). Therefore, the findings this study indicate that yacon and yacon plus L. casei intake may reduce the development of chemically-induced colon cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products.

  15. Purification and identification of antimicrobial sesquiterpene lactones from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fengqiu; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Kodama, Osamu

    2003-10-01

    The extraction of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson; Asteraceae] leaves and chromatographic separation yielded two new antibacterial melampolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, 8beta-tigloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester and 8beta-methacryloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester, as well as the four known melampolides, sonchifolin, uvedalin, enhydrin and fluctuanin. The newly identified compound, 8beta-methacryloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester, exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Pyricularia oryzae, while 8beta-tigloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester showed lower activity. Fluctuanin exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against B. subtilis among these six sesquiterpene lactones.

  16. New acyclic diterpenic acids from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves.

    PubMed

    Mercado, María I; Coll Aráoz, María V; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A N

    2010-11-01

    Two new acyclic diterpenoids, smaditerpenic acid E (1a) and F (2a), along with nineteen melampolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, six of them not previously reported in yacon, were isolated from the methylene chloride leaf rinse extract. Their structures were elucidated from 1D and 2D NMR experiments and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

  17. Investigation of phenolic acids in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves and tubers.

    PubMed

    Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Andrensek, Samo; Valentová, Katerina; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2003-10-17

    Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) screening of crude extracts of dried leaves and tubers of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) and products of acid hydrolysis of tubers on the silica gel HPTLC plates using the developing solvents ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (85:10:15, v/v/v) and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-formic acid (20:19:1, v/v/v) proved the presence of chlorogenic, caffeic and ferulic acid. These phenolic acids were isolated from the crude extract of yacon leaves by preparative TLC, and identified after elution by HPLC/MS, as well as by direct injection of the crude extract into the HPLC/MS system. Acid hydrolysis of tubers released the increased amount of phenolic acids (e.g. caffeic acid and ferulic acid), flavonoid quercetin and an unidentified flavonoid, which was detected by TLC analysis. Ferulic acid, isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid and still an unidentified derivative of chlorogenic acid (Mr = 562) as constituents of yacon leaves and ferulic acid as constituent of yacon tubers are reported here for the first time. These acids gave significant contribution to the radical scavenging activity detected directly on the TLC plate sprayed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

  18. Health properties of oca (Oxalis tuberosa) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Jimenez, María Eugenia; Rossi, Analia; Sammán, Norma

    2015-10-01

    Andean roots and tubers are underexploited crops; many contain compounds beneficial to health, so a greater knowledge of their properties is important for encouraging their consumption. The aim of this work was to study the content of bioactive compounds of yacon and oca and their effect on intestinal health using as a model rats of the Wistar strain. Two varieties of ocas (Overa and Rosada) and yacon, which contain significant amounts of fructooligosaccharides and phenolic compounds, were chosen. Rats of the Wistar strain were fed for two months with diets containing these foods in amounts sufficient to provide 8% of fiber. A significant decrease in pH values and an increment in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts in the cecum of rats fed with inulin, oca Rosada and Overa were observed; there was no significant decrease in enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts. The cecum antioxidant activity was incremented in rats fed with the experimental foods with respect to the control diets. The components of dietary fiber and phenolic compound contents in yacon and oca produce effects that contribute to the intestinal health of the experimental animals.

  19. Characterization of a water soluble, hyperbranched arabinogalactan from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) roots.

    PubMed

    Castro, Alejandra; Vilaplana, Francisco; Nilsson, Lars

    2017-05-15

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl.) roots are largely grown in Andean countries and have attracted recent interest due to their antioxidant and prebiotic effects. Yacon is typically consumed as a fruit due to its sweet taste and juiciness. The macromolecular properties of an aqueous extract of yacon are investigated using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to UV, multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detection. The method allows for determination of molar mass and size over the size distribution. Three major populations were found of which one strongly dominates in concentration. Through collection of fractions from AF4, carbohydrate composition and glycosidic linkage analysis for the dominating population was performed. The results show that the dominating population consists of a highly branched arabinogalactan (type 2) with a molar mass of approximately 1-2·10(5)g/mol, a hydrodynamic radius of approximately 6-10nm and a relatively high apparent density (approx. 70-150kg/m(3)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius)-derived fructooligosaccharides improves the immune parameters in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Grethel T Choque; Thomé, Rodolfo; Gabriel, Dirce L; Tamashiro, Wirla M S C; Pastore, Glaucia M

    2012-11-01

    Owing to its high contents of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), the yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) root is used in traditional Andean medicine as a substitute for cane sugar in diabetes and for obesity prevention. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that regular consumption of yacon works to improve the immune system. BALB/c mice were fed with the AIN-93 diet supplemented with 5% commercial FOS or either 3% or 5% yacon FOS for 30 consecutive days. Animals in the control group were fed with nonsupplemented ration. Food intake; weight gain; serum levels of IgA, IgM, and IgG; levels of fecal IgA, production of nitric oxide by peritoneal macrophages, frequencies of T and B lymphocytes in the spleen and peripheral blood, T-cell proliferation, and cytokine production were evaluated in all groups. No significant differences were observed in food intake and weight gain when the experimental and control groups were compared. Also, serum levels of IgA, IgM, and IgG; nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages; frequencies of T and B lymphocytes in the spleen and peripheral blood; T-cell proliferation; and production of interleukin (IL)-4, interferon-γ, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α did not differ in the different groups. The intake of FOS, however, led to a significant reduction of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in macrophage cultures and elevation of the levels of fecal IgA. Together, these results indicate that the daily consumption of yacon does not exert negative effects on the immune system, helps to preserve an anti-inflammatory state in phagocytic cells, and improves mucosal immunity, possibly preventing the risks associated with autoimmune and metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of three different solid-phase microextraction fibres for analysis of essential oils in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves.

    PubMed

    Adam, M; Juklová, M; Bajer, T; Eisner, A; Ventura, K

    2005-08-19

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure based on three commercialised fibers (100 microm polydimethylsiloxane, 65 microm polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene and 50/30 microm divinylbenzene-Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane) is presented for the determination of a selected essential oils in dried leaves of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius). The extraction performances of these compounds were compared using fibers with one, two and three coatings. The optimal experimental procedures for the adsorption and desorption of target compounds were determined. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as sample weight, sorption and desorption time and temperature were optimised and discussed. Finally, the optimised procedures were applied successfully for the determination of these compounds in various yacon species. The relative concentration factors of three characteristic components of yacon were measured for relative evaluation of the fiber efficiency. Main essential oils were isolated from dried yacon leaves by appropriate solid-phase microextraction fiber and semi-quantitative analysis of the target volatiles was conducted by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) using a capillary column. Three compounds--beta-pinene, caryophylene and y-cadinene were found as the predominant essential oils. Its relative content was important for specification of yacon varieties. Solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography enabled a rapid and simple determination of relative content of essential oils in yacon.

  2. Characterization of the microbial diversity in yacon spontaneous fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Reina, L. D.; Pérez-Díaz, I. M.; Breidt, F.; Azcarate-Peril, M. A.; Medina, E.; Butz, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) content of yacon makes this root an attractive alternative for the supplementation of a variety of food products. The preservation of yacon by fermentation has been proposed as an alternative to increase the probiotic content of the root concomitantly with its shelf life. Thus the fermented yacon could have significant functional content. The objective of this research was to characterize the biochemistry and microbiology of spontaneous yacon fermentation and define the viability of the proposed process. The biochemical analysis of spontaneous heterolactic fermentation of yacon showed a progressive drop in pH with increased lactic and acetic acids, and the production of mannitol during fermentation. The microbial ecology of yacon fermentation was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacterial cell counts revealed a dominance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) over yeasts, which were also present during fermentation. Results showed that the heterofermentative LAB were primarily Leuconostoc species, which dominated the fermentation. The fermentation of yacon by Leuconostoc spp. is thus presented as a viable method to achieve long term preservation of this root. PMID:25777679

  3. Prebiotic effects of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl), a source of fructooligosaccharides and phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Campos, David; Betalleluz-Pallardel, Indira; Chirinos, Rosana; Aguilar-Galvez, Ana; Noratto, Giuliana; Pedreschi, Romina

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-five different yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl) accessions were evaluated as potential alternative sources of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and phenolic type natural antioxidants. FOS, total phenolics (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) contents in the ranges of 6.4-65g/100g of dry mater (DM), 7.9-30.8mg chlorogenic acid (CAE)/g of DM and 23-136μmol trolox equivalente (TE)/g DM were found. Accession AJC 5189 sparked attention for its high FOS content while DPA 07011 for its high TPC and AC. In addition, the prebiotic effect of yacon FOS was tested in vivo with a guinea pig model. A diet rich in yacon FOS promoted the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, resulting in high levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecal material and enhancement of cell density and crypt formation in caecum tissue, being indicative of colon health benefits. This study allowed identification of yacon cultivars rich in FOS, AC and/or FOS and AC for nutraceutical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dependence of fructooligosaccharide content on activity of fructooligosaccharide-metabolizing enzymes in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuberous roots during storage.

    PubMed

    Narai-Kanayama, A; Tokita, N; Aso, K

    2007-08-01

    Tuberous roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) accumulate about 10%, on a fresh weight basis, of inulin-type fructooligosacharides (FOSs), known as a food ingredient with various healthy benefits. However, we have a great difficulty to ensure these benefits because FOSs with a lower degree of polymerization (DP) decreased remarkably, and fructose increased when the tuberous roots were stored after harvesting even under previously recommended storage conditions of low temperature with high humidity. In the present study, to elucidate the involvement of FOS-metabolizing enzymes in FOS reduction during storage at 90% relative humidity and 8 degrees C, we extracted a crude protein from yacon tuberous roots and measured the activities of invertase (beta-fructofuranosidase, EC 3.2.1.26), sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST, EC 2.4.1.99), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT, EC 2.4.1.100), and fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH, EC 3.2.1.80). The enzyme activities acting on sucrose, both invertase and 1-SST, were weakened after storage for a month. In addition, the activity of 1-FEH acting on short FOSs such as 1-kestose (GF(2)) and 1-nystose (GF(3)) was higher than that of 1-FFT. These results suggest that the continuous decline in FOSs of low DP during storage was dependent mainly on the 1-FEH activity. On the other hand, FOSs with a DP of >or= 9 only slightly decreased in stored yacon tuberous roots during storage, though distinct 1-FEH activity was observed in vitro toward a high-DP inulin-type substrate, indicating that highly polymerized FOSs content was unlikely to be closely connected with the 1-FEH activity.

  5. Hypolipidemic effect of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) roots on diabetic rats: biochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Habib, Natalia C; Honoré, Stella Maris; Genta, Susana B; Sánchez, Sara S

    2011-10-15

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are sugars found naturally at high concentrations in the storage roots of yacon. This study was designed to analyze the beneficial effects of subchronic oral consumption of yacon root flour as a diet supplement in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. The experiments were carried out using yacon flour tablets containing the desired level of FOS (340 or 6800mg FOS/kg body weight/day). Yacon flour is a natural product obtained by a simple process of dehydration of yacon roots without added preservatives or chemicals. The administration of FOS-rich yacon flour to diabetic rats for 90days did not significantly alter the body weight of animals throughout the experimental period. Interestingly, a significant decrease in fasting plasma triacylglycerol and very low-density lipoprotein levels were observed. In addition, the treatment was able to protect the diabetic rats of the postprandial peak of plasma triacylglycerol. Yacon-supplemented rats showed an increased insulin-positive pancreatic cell mass distributed in small cell clusters within the exocrine parenchyma, but can only observe a slight increase in fasting plasma insulin levels. Glucagon like peptide-1 content in the cecum was significantly higher in diabetic rats treated with a diet supplemented with yacon flour compared with untreated diabetic animals, accompanied by an important cecal tissue enlargement. All these findings lead us to suggest that this incretin could be an effective mediator of the lipid lowering effects of FOS present in yacon flour. In conclusion, yacon root flour is a natural product rich in FOS that could be well positioned as a nutraceutical product since the present results demonstrate its beneficial effects on diabetes-associated hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) on colonic transit time in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Geyer, M; Manrique, I; Degen, L; Beglinger, C

    2008-01-01

    Yacon is a root crop which contains high amounts of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yacon syrup on colon transit time in healthy volunteers. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study yacon was administered to 16 healthy individuals (8 males, 8 females) in a dose of 20 g daily (equal to 6.4 g FOS) in a 2-week crossover design. Each period was interrupted by a 2-week wash-out phase. Transit time was assessed by a radio-opaque marker technique. Transit time (mean +/- SEM) through the gastrointestinal tract was significantly decreased from 59.7 +/- 4.3 to 38.4 +/- 4.2 h (p < 0.001). Yacon was well tolerated with an excellent side effect profile. Bloating is not an uncommon side effect observed with FOS, but bloating-related disturbances were not significantly more often reported with yacon compared to placebo. Stool frequency increased from 1.1 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.2 times per day and the consistency showed a tendency for softer stools as assessed by a numerical depicted stool protocol. Neither parameter did, however, reach statistical significance. Yacon markedly accelerates colonic transit in healthy individuals. Further studies are needed in constipated patients to confirm these preliminary data. Due to the low caloric content of yacon, the root could be a useful treatment in constipated diabetics or obese patients. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Study of the effect exerted by fructo-oligosaccharides from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) root flour in an intestinal infection model with Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Velez, Eva; Castillo, Natalia; Mesón, Oscar; Grau, Alfredo; Bibas Bonet, María E; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    Beneficial effects of prebiotics like inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) have been proven in health and nutrition. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), an Andean crop, contains FOS (50–70% of its dry weight) and, therefore, is considered a prebiotic. Commercial FOS can upregulate total secretory IgA (S-IgA) in infant mice, prevent infection with Salmonella in swine or enhance immune response for Salmonella vaccine in a mouse model. Previously, we found that administration of yacon root flour regulates gut microbiota balance and has immunomodulatory effects without inflammatory responses. The aim of the present paper is to analyse if yacon prevents enteric infection caused by a strain of Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in a mouse model. BALB/c mice were supplemented with yacon flour (45 d), challenged with S. Typhimurium and killed to study pathogen translocation, total and specific IgA production by ELISA, presence of IgA and other cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and clustor of differentiation 206 (CD206) receptors positive cells by immunofluorescence and histological changes. Yacon flour administration had a protective effect from 15 to 30 d of treatment. We found a peak of total S-IgA production without translocation of the pathogen for these periods. At 30 d, there was an increase in IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory proteins-1aþ cells and expression of the receptors CD206 and TLR4. Yacon flour did not have incidence in pathogen-specific S-IgA production. Longer periods (45 d) of administration had no protective effect. Therefore, yacon can prevent enteric infection caused by S. Typhimurium when given up to 30 d; this effect would be mediated by enhancing non-specific immunity, such as total S-IgA, that improves the immunological intestinal barrier.

  8. Improvement of biochemical parameters in type 1 diabetic rats after the roots aqueous extract of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.& Endl.)] treatment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gilberto Ornelas; Braga, Camila Pereira; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) (Poepp.& Endl.) on clinical parameters under diabetic conditions. The aqueous extract of yacon tuberous roots (YRAE; 0.76 g fructan kg⁻¹ body weight) was prepared at the moment of each administration. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8): control group (C); group that received YRAE (Y); untreated diabetic group (DM1); and diabetic group treated with YRAE (Y-DM1). The diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (60 mg kg⁻¹ body weight). The animals from Y2 and Y-DM1 received YRAE by gavage, at 7-day intervals, for 30 days. The aqueous extract of yacon roots decreased (p<0.05) the water and food intake in diabetic rats (Y-DM1). YRAE treatment reduced (p<0.05) glycaemia, total cholesterol, VLDL-c, LDL-c and triacylglycerol levels in diabetic rats (YRAE). HDL, urea and creatinine levels did not differ (p>0.05) between the Y and Y-DM1 groups. YRAE normalised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, when comparing DM1 and Y-DM1 rats, but had no effect on lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH). In conclusion, YRAE was sufficient for controlling water and food consumption, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia, and promote the reduction of the ALT, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect in rats with STZ-induced DM1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant Effects of Herbal Tea Leaves from Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) on Multiple Free Radical and Reducing Power Assays, Especially on Different Superoxide Anion Radical Generation Systems.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Shintaro; Ueda, Yuto; Fukuhara, Kumiko; Kamamuta, Yuki; Matsuda, Yasushi; Murata, Tatsuro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kabata, Kiyotaka; Ono, Masateru; Igoshi, Keiji; Yasuda, Shin

    2015-11-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a native Andean plant, has been cultivated as a crop and locally used as a traditional folk medicine for the people suffering from diabetes and digestive/renal disorders. However, the medicinal properties of this plant and its processed foods have not been completely established. This study investigates the potent antioxidative effects of herbal tea leaves from yacon in different free radical models and a ferric reducing model. A hot-water extract exhibited the highest yield of total polyphenol and scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical among four extracts prepared with hot water, methanol, ethanol, and ethylacetate. In addition, a higher reducing power of the hot-water extract was similarly demonstrated among these extracts. Varying concentrations of the hot-water extract resulted in different scavenging activities in four synthetic free radical models: DPPH radical (EC50 28.1 μg/mL), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical (EC50 23.7 μg/mL), galvinoxyl radical (EC50 3.06 μg/mL), and chlorpromazine cation radical (EC50 475 μg/mL). The yacon tea-leaf extract further demonstrated superoxide anion (O2(-)) radical scavenging effects in the phenazine methosulfate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium (EC50 64.5 μg/mL) and xanthine oxidase assay systems (EC50 20.7 μg/mL). Subsequently, incubating human neutrophilic cells in the presence of the tea-leaf extract could suppress the cellular O2(-) radical generation (IC50 65.7 μg/mL) in a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated cell model. These results support yacon tea leaves may be a good source of natural antioxidants for preventing O2(-) radical-mediated disorders. Yacon has been considered to be a potent alternative food source for patients who require a dietary cure in regional area, while the leaf part has been provided and consumed as an herbal tea in local markets. We demonstrated here potent antioxidative effects of the tea

  10. Characterization of the microbial diversity in yacon spontaneous fermentation at 20 °C.

    PubMed

    Reina, L D; Pérez-Díaz, I M; Breidt, F; Azcarate-Peril, M A; Medina, E; Butz, N

    2015-06-16

    The prebiotic fructooligosaccharide content of yacon makes this root an attractive alternative for the supplementation of a variety of food products. The preservation of yacon by fermentation has been proposed as an alternative to increase the probiotic content of the root concomitantly with its shelf life. Thus the fermented yacon could have significant functional content. The objective of this research was to characterize the biochemistry and microbiology of spontaneous yacon fermentation with 2% NaCl and define the viability of the proposed process. The biochemical analysis of spontaneous heterolactic fermentation of yacon showed a progressive drop in pH with increased lactic and acetic acids, and the production of mannitol during fermentation. The microbial ecology of yacon fermentation was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacterial cell counts revealed a dominance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) over yeasts, which were also present during the first 2 days of the fermentation. Results showed that the heterofermentative LAB were primarily Leuconostoc species, thus it presents a viable method to achieve long term preservation of this root.

  11. Yacon diet (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) improves hepatic insulin resistance via reducing Trb3 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Audrey Nguyen, M T; Kudoh, A; Watanabe, T

    2013-05-27

    Yacon is a perennial plant forming a clump of >20 big, edible underground tubers. Yacon, which originates from South America, has become increasingly popular in the Japanese diet for tubers have a lower caloric value and a high fiber content. Recent studies have suggested that yacon feeding ameliorates diabetes as indicated by reduced blood glucose. We fed male Zucker fa/fa rats for 5 weeks with isocaloric normal chow diet containing from 6.5% control aroid or 6.5% yacon. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study. Body weight was comparable between yacon- and aroid-fed rats. In the basal state, yacon feeding had an effect to lower fasting glucose levels from 184.1±4.1 to 167.8±2.7 mg dl(-1) (P<0.01), as well as basal hepatic glucose output (HGO) from 9.9±0.4 to 7.4 ± 0.2 mg kg(-1) per min (P<0.01). During the clamp studies, the glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia was increased by 12.3% in yacon-fed rat. The insulin suppression of HGO was also increased in yacon-fed rats compared with control rats (85.3±2.4% vs 77.0±3.0%; P<0.05), whereas the glucose disposal rate was not different between the two groups. Consistent with the clamp data, the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was significantly enhanced in liver but not in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, tribbles 3 (Trb3) expression, which is a negative regulator of Akt activity, was markedly reduced in the liver of yacon-fed rats compared with control rats. These results indicate that the effect of yacon feeding to reduce blood glucose is likely due to its beneficial effects on hepatic insulin sensitivity in the insulin resistant state.

  12. Yacon diet (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) improves hepatic insulin resistance via reducing Trb3 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, H; Audrey Nguyen, M T; Kudoh, A; Watanabe, T

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Yacon is a perennial plant forming a clump of >20 big, edible underground tubers. Yacon, which originates from South America, has become increasingly popular in the Japanese diet for tubers have a lower caloric value and a high fiber content. Recent studies have suggested that yacon feeding ameliorates diabetes as indicated by reduced blood glucose. Methods: We fed male Zucker fa/fa rats for 5 weeks with isocaloric normal chow diet containing from 6.5% control aroid or 6.5% yacon. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study. Results: Body weight was comparable between yacon- and aroid-fed rats. In the basal state, yacon feeding had an effect to lower fasting glucose levels from 184.1±4.1 to 167.8±2.7 mg dl−1 (P<0.01), as well as basal hepatic glucose output (HGO) from 9.9±0.4 to 7.4 ± 0.2 mg kg−1 per min (P<0.01). During the clamp studies, the glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia was increased by 12.3% in yacon-fed rat. The insulin suppression of HGO was also increased in yacon-fed rats compared with control rats (85.3±2.4% vs 77.0±3.0% P<0.05), whereas the glucose disposal rate was not different between the two groups. Consistent with the clamp data, the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was significantly enhanced in liver but not in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, tribbles 3 (Trb3) expression, which is a negative regulator of Akt activity, was markedly reduced in the liver of yacon-fed rats compared with control rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that the effect of yacon feeding to reduce blood glucose is likely due to its beneficial effects on hepatic insulin sensitivity in the insulin resistant state. PMID:23712282

  13. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: in vivo safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Katerina; Stejskal, David; Bartek, Josef; Dvorácková, Svatava; Kren, Vladimír; Ulrichová, Jitka; Simánek, Vilím

    2008-03-01

    Yacon and maca are native Andean crops with growing popularity as food supplements often in combination with other components, e.g. silymarin. There are however no published data on their toxicity and safety in humans. The aim of our randomized placebo-controlled 90-day study was to evaluate the effects of yacon and maca in combination with silymarin on plasma and lipoprotein lipids, serum glucose and safety parameters in patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome. No adverse effects were found in volunteers using silymarin (0.8 g/day), silymarin+yacon (0.8+2.4 g/day) and silymarin+maca (0.6+0.2 g/day). A moderate AST level and diastolic blood pressure increase was found in volunteers using maca (0.6 g/day). In conclusion, the combination silymarin+yacon appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of diseases with a proatherogenic lipoprotein profile and liver steatosis. The effect of maca on AST level and blood pressure must be considered when using high doses of maca powder. This effect could be reversed by supplementation with silymarin.

  14. Subchronic 4-month oral toxicity study of dried Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) roots as a diet supplement in rats.

    PubMed

    Genta, Susana B; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Grau, Alfredo; Sánchez, Sara S

    2005-11-01

    Yacon roots are a rich source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and have a long use tradition as food in the Andean region. However, there are no published reports regarding their toxicology and use safety. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of subchronic (4-months) oral consumption of dried yacon root flour as a diet supplement using normal Wistar rats. Two daily intake levels were used, equivalent to 340 mg and 6800 mgFOS/body weight, respectively. Yacon administered as a diet supplement was well tolerated and did not produce any negative response, toxicity or adverse nutritional effect at both intake levels used. Yacon root consumption showed no hypoglycemic activity in normal rats and resulted in significantly reduced post-prandial serum triacylglycerol levels in both doses assayed. Conversely, serum cholesterol reduction was not statistically significant. Cecal hypertrophy was observed in rats fed only the high dose. Our results indicating lack of toxicity and a certain beneficial metabolic activity in normal rats warrant further experiments with normal subjects and patients suffering metabolic disorders. They should also be considered when establishing the regulatory framework of this natural product by national health authorities and international trade agencies.

  15. Characterization of the microbial diversity in yacon spontaneous fermentation at 20 ºC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prebiotic fructooligosaccharide content of yaconmakes this root an attractive alternative for the supplementation of a variety of food products. The preservation of yacon by fermentation has been proposed as an alternative to increase the probiotic content of the root concomitantlywith its shelf...

  16. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) and Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014 reduce the early phases of colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva Almeida, Ana Paula; Avi, Camilla Martins; Barbisan, Luís Fernando; de Moura, Nelci Antunes; Caetano, Brunno Felipe Ramos; Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Sivieri, Kátia

    2015-08-01

    The modifying effects of aqueous yacon extract (AYE) and Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014 against colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in male Wistar rats were investigated. Animals were allocated into five groups: G1: untreated group; G2: DMH-treated group; G3: DMH+L. acidophilus-treated group; G4: DMH+AYE-treated group; G5: DMH+L. acidophilus and AYE-treated group. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in leukocyte DNA damage and in colonic cell proliferation was observed after the first DMH administration in G3 (probiotic), G4 (prebiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups. In this moment, a significant increase (p<0.05) in colonic apoptosis was also observed in G3 (probiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups. In special, at five months after DMH administrations, a significant reduction (p<0.05) in ACF development was observed in G3 (probiotic), G4 (prebiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups. Incidence of colon tumors was lower at five months in G4 (prebiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups but not in eight months after DMH administrations. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the oral treatments have potential effects as a chemopreventive agent against colon carcinogenesis on an early stage of tumor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) Leaf Extract Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Klinsmann Carolo; Bueno, Bianca Guerra; Pereira, Luana Ferreira; Francisqueti, Fabiane Valentini; Braz, Mariana Gobbo; Bincoleto, Lahis Fernandes; da Silva, Lilian Xavier; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia A; Nakamune, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Corrêa, Camila Renata

    2017-01-01

    The effects of hydroethanolic extract of Yacon leaves (HEYL) on antioxidant, glycemic, and inflammatory biomarkers were tested in diabetic rats. Outcome parameters included glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (HAC) in serum and IL-6, HAC, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in soleus. The rats (10/group) were divided as follows: C, controls; C + Y, HEYL treated; DM, diabetic controls; and DM + Y, diabetic rats treated with HEYL. Diabetes mellitus was induced by administration of streptozotocin. C + Y and DM + Y groups received 100 mg/kg HEYL daily via gavage for 30 d. Hyperglycemia was improved in the DM + Y versus DM group. Insulin was reduced in DM versus C group. DM rats had higher IL-6 and MDA and lower HAC in the soleus muscle. HEYL treatment decreased IL-6 and MDA and increased HAC in DM rats. DM + Y rats had the highest CAT activity versus the other groups; GPx was higher in C + Y and DM + Y versus their respective controls. The apparent benefit of HEYL may be mediated via improving glucoregulation and ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation, particularly in diabetic rats.

  18. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) Leaf Extract Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Klinsmann Carolo; Pereira, Luana Ferreira; Braz, Mariana Gobbo; Bincoleto, Lahis Fernandes; da Silva, Lilian Xavier; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia A.; Nakamune, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato; Chen, C.-Y. Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of hydroethanolic extract of Yacon leaves (HEYL) on antioxidant, glycemic, and inflammatory biomarkers were tested in diabetic rats. Outcome parameters included glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (HAC) in serum and IL-6, HAC, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in soleus. The rats (10/group) were divided as follows: C, controls; C + Y, HEYL treated; DM, diabetic controls; and DM + Y, diabetic rats treated with HEYL. Diabetes mellitus was induced by administration of streptozotocin. C + Y and DM + Y groups received 100 mg/kg HEYL daily via gavage for 30 d. Hyperglycemia was improved in the DM + Y versus DM group. Insulin was reduced in DM versus C group. DM rats had higher IL-6 and MDA and lower HAC in the soleus muscle. HEYL treatment decreased IL-6 and MDA and increased HAC in DM rats. DM + Y rats had the highest CAT activity versus the other groups; GPx was higher in C + Y and DM + Y versus their respective controls. The apparent benefit of HEYL may be mediated via improving glucoregulation and ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation, particularly in diabetic rats. PMID:28808475

  19. Iron bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with fortified rice by Ultra Rice technology with or without addition of yacon flour (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Vaz Tostes, Maria das Graças; Silveira, Carlos Mário M; Bordalo, Lívia A; Rodrigues, Fabiana C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia S D; Costa, Neuza Maria B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate iron (Fe) bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (FP) by Ultra Rice (UR) technology with or without addition of yacon flour as a source of 7.5% of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Diets were supplied with 12 mg iron/kg from the following sources: ferrous sulfate (FS - control diet), fortified rice with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (Ultra Rice) (UR diet), ferrous sulfate + yacon flour (FS + Y diet) or Ultra Rice + yacon flour (UR + Y diet). Blood samples were collected at the end of depletion and repletion stages for determination of hemoglobin concentration and calculation of the relative biological value (RBV). Also, the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) (acetic, propionic and butyric acids) from animals' stools and caecum weight were determined. The UR diet showed high iron bioavailability (RBV = 84.7%). However, the addition of yacon flour in the diet containing fortified rice (UR + Y diet) decreased RBV (63.1%) significantly below the other three groups (p < 0.05). Groups that received yacon flour showed higher acetic acid values compared to those who did not. In conclusion, fortified UR with micronized ferric pyrophosphate showed high iron bioavailability but the addition of yacon flour at 7.5% FOS reduced iron bioavailability despite increased caecum weight and SCFA concentration.

  20. Effects of fructans-containing yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp and Endl.) flour on caecum mucosal morphometry, calcium and magnesium balance, and bone calcium retention in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Alexandre R; Colli, Célia; Alvares, Eliana P; Filisetti, Tullia M C C

    2007-04-01

    Yacon roots have been considered a functional food due to the high levels of fructans they contains. In the present study, Ca and Mg balance, bone mass and strength, and caecum mucosal morphometry were evaluated. Growing male Wistar rats (n 24) were fed ad libitum control diets or diets supplemented with yacon flour (5 or 7.5 % fructooligosaccharides) for 27 d. Mineral balance was evaluated in three periods of 5 d (starting on the 4th, 10th and 16th days). After the rats were killled, the bones were removed and bone mineral density was measured. Ca analyses were performed on left femurs and tibias and biomechanical testing on right femurs. The caecum was removed and tissue samples were collected for histological analysis. Caecal histology changed noticeably in rats fed yacon flour: there was an increase in the depth and number of total and bifurcated crypts as well. Yacon flour consumption significantly (P < 0.05) resulted in a positive Ca and Mg balance, leading to higher values of bone mineral retention and biomechanical properties (peak load and stiffness) when compared to the control group. The positive effects on mineral intestinal absorption, bone mass and biomechanical properties showed an important role of yacon roots in the maintenance of healthy bones. The increased number of bifurcating crypts might be related to the higher mineral absorption caused by the enlargement of the absorbing surface in the large intestine of the animals.

  1. Application of multi-block analysis and mixture design with process variable for development of chocolate cake containing yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) and maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    PubMed

    Tormena, Marcela Marta Lazaretti; de Medeiros, Luana Tabalipa; de Lima, Patrícia Casarin; Possebon, Gabriela; Fuchs, Renata Hernandez Barros; Bona, Evandro

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a chocolate cake formulation was developed with partial substitution of wheat flour by yacon and maca flour. A simplex-centroid design was applied to determine the proportions of the three flours, and the amount of water was included as a process variable at three distinct levels. According to the overall acceptability of the cakes, the tasters were separated into two groups using k-means. After segmentation, regression models were constructed for overall acceptability of each group; R(2)adjusted values of 92.5% for group 1 and 98.9% for group 2 were obtained. Using the sequential simplex method an optimized formulation was determined for group 1 (0.49 kgwheat kg(-1)total flour , 0.37 kgyacon kg(-1)total flour , 0.14 kgmaca kg(-1)total flour and 140.0 mL of water) and another for group 2 (0.35 kgwheat kg(-1)total flour , 0.65 kgyacon kg(-1)total flour and 120.0 mL of water). In addition to these formulations, a third formulation was proposed with a greater maca proportion (0.32 kgmaca kg(-1)total flour ), which does not significantly alter the overall acceptability of both groups. The three optimized formulations and two control formulations were evaluated through free-choice profiling. The data were evaluated using the multi-block method common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA). It was observed that a greater proportion of maca intensified brownness and burnt aroma and taste, whereas a larger proportion of yacon produced a better appearance, softness, sweetness and chocolate flavor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A Case of Anaphylaxis After the Ingestion of Yacon

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, You Eun; Kang, Min Kyu; Ma, Jeong Eun; Lee, Gi Dong; Cho, Yu Ji; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deok; Hwang, Young Sil

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening systemic allergic reaction, often with an explosive onset; the symptoms range from mild flushing to upper respiratory obstruction, with or without vascular collapse. Foods are common offending allergens and remain the leading cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most surveys. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a plant native to the Andes region, where its root is cultivated and consumed mainly as food. Unlike most edible roots, yacon contains large amounts of ructooligosaccharides. Traditionally, yacon tubers have been used as a source of natural sweetener and syrup for people suffering from various disorders. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed syncope and generalized urticaria after ingesting yacon roots. The patient had positive skin prick and intradermal tests to yacon extract. An open food challenge test was performed to confirm food anaphylaxis and was positive 10 minutes after the consumption of yacon roots. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon roots. PMID:20358031

  3. A case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, You Eun; Kang, Min Kyu; Ma, Jeong Eun; Lee, Gi Dong; Cho, Yu Ji; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deok; Hwang, Young Sil; Jeong, Yi Yeong

    2010-04-01

    Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening systemic allergic reaction, often with an explosive onset; the symptoms range from mild flushing to upper respiratory obstruction, with or without vascular collapse. Foods are common offending allergens and remain the leading cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most surveys. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a plant native to the Andes region, where its root is cultivated and consumed mainly as food. Unlike most edible roots, yacon contains large amounts of ructooligosaccharides. Traditionally, yacon tubers have been used as a source of natural sweetener and syrup for people suffering from various disorders. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed syncope and generalized urticaria after ingesting yacon roots. The patient had positive skin prick and intradermal tests to yacon extract. An open food challenge test was performed to confirm food anaphylaxis and was positive 10 minutes after the consumption of yacon roots. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon roots.

  4. The biological and chemical variability of yacon.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Katerina; Lebeda, Ales; Dolezalová, Ivana; Jirovský, David; Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Kosina, Pavel; Gasmanová, Nikol; Dziechciarková, Marta; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2006-02-22

    This paper focuses on the biological and chemical variability of four yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) accessions cultivated under field conditions. Significant variations in tuber shape, weight, content of oligofructans, as well as in leaf isozymes, phenolics, and relative DNA contents were found. Accessions 6 and 88 were the most productive (up to 3.01 and 3.74 kg/plant); accession 48 was the most balanced from the yield aspect in three vegetative periods. A significantly higher content of beta-(2-->1) oligofructans was noted in accessions 48 and 88 as compared to 6 and 60. No difference in sucrose, glucose, and fructose level was observed. Only accession 6 exhibited separate acid phosphatase and esterase isoforms. Accessions 6 and 60 had the highest content of phenolics, and accession 88 had the lowest relative DNA content. Large yacon intraspecific variation may be useful in future detailed research as a good background for breeding, growing, and utilization in industrial processing.

  5. Coniochaeta ligniaria: antifungal activity of the cryptic endophytic fungus associated with autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Few studies have addressed the presence and bioactivity of endophytic fungi living in plantlets growing under in vitro conditions. We isolated a fungus UM 109 from autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon). The species was identified as Coniochaeta ligniaria using ...

  6. Three novel compounds from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying-Kun; Kang, Ting-Guo; Dou, De-Qiang; Liang, Li; Dong, Feng

    2008-01-01

    Three novel compounds, together with five known ingredients, octacosanol, 3',4',5-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, isorhamnetin, and ent-kaurane-3beta,16beta,17-triol, were obtained from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), and their structures were elucidated as ent-kaurane-3beta,16beta,17,18-tertol (1), 3R,7E-9-butoxyl-megastigma-3-ol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and 3S,5R,6Z-megastigma-6-en-3,5,8,9-tertol (3) on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  7. Anti-diabetes constituents in leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zheng; He, Fan; Kang, Ting-Guo; Dou, De-Qiang; Gai, Kuo; Shi, Yu-Yuan; Kim, Young-Ho; Dong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of smallanthaditerpenic acids A, B, C and D previously isolated from leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) on alpha-glucosidase were examined and their IC50 were determined to be 0.48 mg/mL, 0.59 mg/mL, 1.00 mg/mL, and 1.17 mg/mL respectively. In addition, a rapid, reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C in yacon leaves was established, and the variation in their contents in leaves from plants cultivated in different places and collected at different times of the year were compared. The established analytical method for determining smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid presented good results and could be used as a method for the quality control of S. sonchifolius leaves.

  8. New Sesquiterpene Lactone Dimer, Uvedafolin, Extracted from Eight Yacon Leaf Varieties (Smallanthus sonchifolius): Cytotoxicity in HeLa, HL-60, and Murine B16-F10 Melanoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Kitai, Yurika; Hayashi, Kana; Otsuka, Moe; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Senoo, Tatsuya; Ishii, Tomohiko; Sakane, Genta; Sugiura, Makoto; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2015-12-23

    Uvedafolin, 1, a new sesquiterpene lactone dimer, was isolated from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius with five related compounds, 2-6, and their cytotoxicity was assessed against three tumor cell lines (HeLa, HL-60, B16-F10 melanoma). The stereostructure of 1 was newly elucidated by ESI-TOF-MS, 1D/2D NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Dimers 1 and 2 had the most effective IC50 values, 0.2-1.9 μM, against the three tumor cell lines when compared with monomers 3-6 (IC50 values 0.7-9.9 μM) and etoposide (IC50 values 0.8-114 μM). The ester linkages of two sets of monomers, uvedalin, 5, and sonchifolin, 6, for 1, and enhydrin, 4, and sonchifolin, 6, for 2, as well as the acetyl group at the C-9 position, were essential for the high cytotoxicity. Dimers 1 and 2 would have potential as anticancer agents.

  9. Protective effect of yacon leaves decoction against early nephropathy in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Stella M; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Genta, Susana B; Sánchez, Sara S

    2012-05-01

    Nephropathy is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Prevention of this complication has a major relevance. Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) leaves have been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We examined the beneficial effects of yacon leaves decoction on diabetic nephropathy and explored the possible underlying action mechanism. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were orally administered 10% yacon leaves water decoction (70mg dry extract/kg body weight) once a day for 4weeks. Biochemical parameters in blood and urine were analyzed and immunohistochemistry staining, western immunoblotting and qRT-PCR were assessed. Yacon decoction significantly decreased high blood glucose level in diabetic rats and improved insulin production. Diabetic-dependent alterations in urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, kidney hypertrophy and basement membrane thickening were attenuated by yacon decoction. These findings were associated with a marked decrease in TGF-β1/Smad2/3 signaling. The expression of molecular markers of diabetic nephropathy such as collagen IV, laminin-1, fibronectin and collagen III were also diminished in the yacon-treated group compared to control diabetic group. These results suggest that yacon leaves decoction is a protective agent against renal damage in diabetic nephropathy, whose action can be mediated by TGF-β/Smads signals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Smallanthus sonchifolius and Lepidium meyenii - prospective Andean crops for the prevention of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Katerina; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2003-12-01

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) and Lepidium meyenii (maca) were the traditional crops of the original population of Peru where they are also still used in folk medicine. These plants are little known in Europe and Northern America although at least yacon can be cultivated in the climatic conditions of these regions. This article deals with the botany and the composition, the structure of main constituents, biological activity of these plants and the cultivation of yacon in the Czech Republic. The potential of yacon tubers to treat hyperglycemia, kidney problems and for skin rejuvenation and the antihyperglycemic and cytoprotective activity of its leaves seems to be related mostly to its oligofructan and phenolic content, respectively. Maca alkaloids, steroids, glucosinolates, isothicyanates and macamides are probably responsible for its aptitude to act as a fertility enhancer, aphrodisiac, adaptogen, immunostimulant, anabolic and to influence hormonal balance. Yacon and maca are already on the European market as prospective functional foods and dietary supplements, mainly for use in certain risk groups of the population, e.g. seniors, diabetics, postmenopausal women etc.

  11. Antioxidant activities and quali-quantitative analysis of different Smallanthus sonchifolius [(Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson] landrace extracts.

    PubMed

    Russo, D; Malafronte, N; Frescura, D; Imbrenda, G; Faraone, I; Milella, L; Fernandez, E; De Tommasi, N

    2015-01-01

    Five landraces of Smallanthus sonchifolius [(Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson], known as yacon, were investigated in total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of ethanol extracts (EEs) and decoction extracts (DEs). The results demonstrated that DEs are rich in phenolic acids as caffeic acid, while the EEs show an higher amount of flavonoids, as luteolin 3',7-O-diglucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucoside. These flavonoid glycosides were identified for the first time in yacon extracts, together with apigenin and luteolin. The phytochemical profile explains the different antioxidant activities shown in our study. The landraces PER6-DE and PER4-DE showed the highest radical-scavenging activity and reducing power related to their polyphenolic contents. Results also show that yacon can be considered an important source of bioactive compounds with significant differences among the analysed landraces.

  12. Hypoglycaemic effects of tea extracts and ent-kaurenoic acid from Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    PubMed

    Raga, Dennis D; Alimboyoguen, Agnes B; del Fierro, Ramon S; Ragasa, Consolacion Y

    2010-11-01

    Hypoglycaemic activity was observed in normoglycaemic mice orally administered with the aqueous Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf tea extract, alloxan-induced diabetic mice orally administered with ent-kaurenoic acid (1), and normoglycaemic mice intraperitoneally administered with 1 from S. sonchifolius leaves. A single dose administration of 50 mg kg(-1) BW yacon leaf tea extract demonstrated immediate but relatively short hypoglycaemic activity, with significant effects observed during 1-2 h. Similarly, administration with 100 mg kg(-1) BW yacon leaf tea extract obtained by heavy stirring in hot water demonstrated a more potent activity compared to the positive control at 1.5-2.0 h. Oral administration of 1 did not affect the blood glucose level of the alloxan-induced diabetic mice, but a single intraperitonial injection of 10 mg kg(-1) BW in normoglycaemic mice had consistent percent blood glucose reduction persisting from 1 to 2 h observation periods.

  13. [Constituents relating to anti-oxidative and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities in Yacon aerial part extract].

    PubMed

    Terada, Sumio; Ito, Kikuo; Yoshimura, Akira; Noguchi, Naoto; Ishida, Takashi

    2006-08-01

    Hot water extract of the aerial part of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolia, Compositae) showed potent free radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate. The most potent antioxidative activity focused on the 50% MeOH-eluted fraction on DIAION HP-20 column chromatography. The structure of the major component in the fraction was identified as 2,3,5-tricaffeoylaltraric acid (TCAA) based on spectroscopic evidence. The antioxidative activity of TCAA is superior to that of natural antioxidants such as (+/-)-catechin, alpha-tocopherol, and ellagic acid, and TCAA also showed selective maltase-inhibitory activity (IC(50) 49 microg/ml). As the hypoglycemic activity of Yacon extract was described in a previous report, the present results showing that the aerial part of Yacon has strong antioxidative activity may encourage its potential use as a food supplement to prevent type II diabetes.

  14. A mixture of extracts from Peruvian plants (black maca and yacon) improves sperm count and reduced glycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of two extracts from Peruvian plants given alone or in a mixture on sperm count and glycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Normal or diabetic mice were divided in groups receiving vehicle, black maca (Lepidium meyenii), yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) or three mixtures of extracts black maca/yacon (90/10, 50/50 and 10/90%). Normal or diabetic mice were treated for 7 d with each extract, mixture or vehicle. Glycemia, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal and vas deferens sperm counts in mice and polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity in each extract were assessed. Black maca (BM), yacon and the mixture of extracts reduced glucose levels in diabetic mice. Non-diabetic mice treated with BM and yacon showed higher DSP than those treated with vehicle (p < 0.05). Diabetic mice treated with BM, yacon and the mixture maca/yacon increased DSP, and sperm count in vas deferens and epididymis with respect to non-diabetic and diabetic mice treated with vehicle (p < 0.05). Yacon has 3.05 times higher polyphenol content than in maca, and this was associated with higher antioxidant activity. The combination of two extracts improved glycemic levels and male reproductive function in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin increased 1.43 times the liver weight that was reversed with the assessed plants extracts. In summary, streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in reduction in sperm counts and liver damage. These effects could be reduced with BM, yacon and the BM+yacon mixture.

  15. Antibacterial and synergistic effects of Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus under light intensity.

    PubMed

    Joung, Hee; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shin, Dong-Young; Chun, Soon-Sil; Yu, Young-Beob; Shin, Dong-Won

    2010-04-01

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) is a perennial plant mostly cultivated in South America, primarily for use of the tubers as a food crop and the leaves as fodder for livestock. The antibacterial activities of the methanol extract of yacon leaves (S. sonchifolius) and its n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were evaluated against 6 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 1 standard methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain by using the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay in the presence and absence of light. No activity was detected when the two methods were performed without light; however, under illumination at 4000 lux, the n-hexane fraction of yacon (HFY) had a MIC of 15.6 microg/ml. HFYL, prepared by exposure of HFY to 4000 lux for 18 h, was more effective than HFY in terms of antimicrobial activity against the 6 MRSA strains and 1 standard MSSA strain. HFYL mixed with ampicillin or oxacillin showed a synergistic effect with all fractional inhibitory concentrations values being below 0.5. The present study demonstrates the enhancement and antimicrobial activity of yacon leaves against MRSA in the presence of light.

  16. Radical scavenging and anti-lipoperoxidative activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Katerina; Sersen, Frantisek; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2005-07-13

    Radical scavenging and anti-lipoperoxidative effects of two organic fractions and two aqueous extracts from the leaves of a neglected Andean crop-yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl., Asteraceae) were determined using various in vitro models. The extracts' total phenolic content was 10.7-24.6%. They exhibited DPPH (IC50 16.14-33.39 microg/mL) and HO* scavenging activities (4.49-6.51 mg/mL). The extracts did not scavenge phenylglyoxylic ketyl radicals, but they retarded their formation. In the xanthine/xanthine oxidase superoxide radical generating system, the extracts' activities were 26.10-37.67 superoxide dismutase equivalents/mg. As one of the extracts displayed xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, the effect of the extracts on a nonenzymatically generated superoxide was determined (IC50 7.36-21.01 microg/mL). The extracts inhibited t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of microsomal and mitochondrial membranes (IC50 22.15-465.3 microg/mL). These results make yacon leaves a good candidate for use as a food supplement in the prevention of chronic diseases involving oxidative stress.

  17. Renal toxicity caused by oral use of medicinal plants: the yacon example.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; de Paula, Daniela Aparecida Chagas; Rocha, Bruno Alves; Franco, João José; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira; Da Costa, Fernando Batista

    2011-01-27

    Yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae] is an Andean species that has traditionally been used as an anti-diabetic herb in several countries around the world, including Brazil. Its hypoglycaemic action has recently been demonstrated in normal and diabetic rats. However, studies about the safety of prolonged oral consumption of yacon leaf extracts are lacking. Thus, this work was undertaken to evaluate the repeated-dose toxicity of three extracts from yacon leaves: the aqueous extract (AE) prepared as a tea infusion; the leaf-rinse extract (LRE), which is rich in sesquiterpene lactones (STLs); and a polar extract from leaves without trichomes, or polar extract (PE), which lacks STLs but is rich in chlorogenic acids (CGAs). The major classes of the compounds were confirmed in each extract by IR spectra and HPLC-UV-DAD profiling as well as comparison to standard compounds. The toxicity of each extract was evaluated in a repeated-dose toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. The PE was rich in CGAs, but we did not detect any STLs. The AE and LRE showed the presence of STLs. The polar extract caused alterations in some biochemical parameters, but the animals did not show signs of behavioural toxicity or serious lesions in organs. Alterations of specific biochemical parameters in the blood (creatinine 7.0 mg/dL, glucose 212.0 mg/dL, albumin 2.8 g/dL) of rats treated with AE (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and LRE (10 and 100 mg/kg) pointed to renal damage, which was confirmed by histological analysis of the kidneys. The renal damage was associated with increased blood glucose levels after prolonged oral administration of the AE. This observation suggested that the hypoglycaemic effect observed after treatment for 30 days in an earlier study is reversible and was likely the result of renal injury caused by the toxicity of yacon. Because STLs were detected in both AE and LRE, there is strong evidence that these terpenoids are the main toxic

  18. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    PubMed

    Valentova, Katerina; Cvak, Ladislav; Muck, Alexandr; Ulrichova, Jitka; Simanek, Vilim

    2003-01-01

    Yacon ( Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) is a native Andean plant, cultivated for its tubers throughout South America. The leaves are used in folk medicine as a medicinal tea for hypoglycemia. This paper describes the antioxidant activity of various extracts from S. sonchifolius leaves for their content of phenolic components. The dried leaves were extracted in several ways. Two fractions were selected for their high content of phenolic compounds and analyzed by RP-HPLC. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was tested in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine/XOD superoxide radical scavenging assays, as inhibition of lipoperoxidation of subcellular membranes and as protective activity against oxidative injury of rat hepatocytes in primary cultures. The presence of protocatechuic (2.5 and 0.12 mg/g), chlorogenic (9.9 and 1.7 mg/g), caffeic (14.7 and 0.09 mg/g) and ferulic (traces) acids were determined in the two fractions. Both fractions showed potent antioxidant activity in DPPH (IC(50) = 16.1 +/- 3.4 and 24.3 +/- 2.7 mg/ml) and xanthine/XOD superoxide radical scavenging (42.0 +/- 20.3 and 34.3 +/- 11.4 SOD equivalents (U/mg)) tests, they inhibited the lipoperoxidation of rat liver subcellular membranes and they protected rat hepatocytes against oxidative injury. Our results may predetermine the use of S. sonchifolius leaves in human diet as a potential remedy in the prevention of chronic diseases caused by radicals, e. g., arteriosclerosis.

  19. Inulin-Type Oligosaccharides Extracted from Yacon Produce Antidepressant-Like Effects in Behavioral Models of Depression.

    PubMed

    An, Lei; Yang, Ji-Chu; Yin, Hang; Xue, Rui; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Yu Chen; Zhang, You-Zhi; Yang, Ming

    2016-12-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a traditional food in the Andean diet, is attracting global attention for its medicinal properties, which are mainly because of its high content of non-digestible oligosaccharides. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of inulin-type oligosaccharides extracted from yacon (YOs) in behavioral models of depression. Behavioral despair models in mice including the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) were used to determine the effects of acute YOs administration. The locomotor activity was also explored to eliminate any false-positive activity. In addition, to further investigate the antidepressant-like effects of subchronic YOs administration, the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm in rats was performed. The results demonstrated that YOs (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment significantly reduced the immobility time in the mouse TST and FST in a U-shaped, dose-dependent manner, and showed no stimulatory effect on the locomotor activity. Furthermore, subchronic YOs (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment significantly reversed the escape deficits in LH rats, including an increased number of escape failures and prolonged escape latency. These findings suggest that the inulin-type oligosaccharides extracted from yacon may be a prospective natural source for antidepressants. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Melampolides from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius and their inhibitory activity of lps-induced nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong Su; Lee, Seon A; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Min Hee; Hwang, Ji Sang; Park, Jeong Sook; Oh, Ki-Wan; Han, Kun; Lee, Myung Koo; Lee, Heesoon; Kim, Wook; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2008-02-01

    Two new melampolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, 8beta-epoxyangeloyloxy-9alpha-ethoxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (1) and 8beta-angeloyloxy-9alpha-ethoxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (2), were isolated from the leaves of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolia (POEPP. et ENDL.) H. Robinson] along with eleven known melampolides, allo-schkuhriolide (3), enhydrin (4), polymatin A (5), fluctuanin (6), 8beta-angeloyloxy-9alpha-acetoxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (7), 8beta-angeloyloxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (8), 8beta-methacryloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester (9), uvedalin (10), polymatin B (11), 8beta-tigloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester (12), and sonchifolin (13). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. All isolates were evaluated for inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells.

  1. The effect of Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf extracts on rat hepatic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Valentová, K; Moncion, A; de Waziers, I; Ulrichová, J

    2004-03-01

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), originating from South America, has become popular in Japan and in New Zealand for its tubers which contain beta-1,2-oligofructans as the main saccharides. The plant is also successfully cultivated in Central Europe in the Czech Republic in particular. Its aerial part is used in Japan and in Brazil as a component in medicinal teas; while aqueous leaf extracts have been studied for their hypoglycemic activity in normal and diabetic rats. We have already demonstrated the high content of phenolic compounds in yacon leaf extracts and their in vitro antioxidant activity. In this paper, we present the effects of two organic fractions and two aqueous extracts from the leaves of S. sonchifolius on rat hepatocyte viability, on oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH) and allyl alcohol (AA), and on glucose metabolism and their insulin-like effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA. All the extracts tested exhibited strong protective effect against oxidative damage to rat hepatocyte primary cultures in concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 microg/ml, reduced hepatic glucose production via gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis at 1000 microg/ml. Moreover, the effects of the organic fractions (200 and 250 microg/ml) and to a lesser extent, the tea infusion (500 microg/ml) on rat CYP2B and CYP2E mRNA expression, were comparable to those observed with insulin. The combination of radical scavenging, cytoprotective and anti-hyperglycemic activity predetermine S. sonchifolius leaves for use in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases involving oxidative stress, particularly diabetes.

  2. Flower structure and developmental stages of the capitulum of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae): reproductive implications.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, M S; Mercado, M I; Coll Aráoz, M V; Zannier, M L; Grau, A; Ponessa, G I

    2017-03-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) is an ancient andean crop that has numerous dietary and medicinal properties. Morphological and anatomical features and developmental changes of the capitulum were studied. A ray floret is a pistillate, female flower, while a disc floret is a staminate male flower, and the former opens before the latter, being pseudanthium protogynous. The capitulum presents interesting attributes for pollinators such as flower structure, nectaries and pollenkitt. Gynoecial nectaries were found on undeveloped ovary in the disc floret, but not in the ray floret. Glandular trichomes were observed on the abaxial epidermis of corolla in the ray floret, but not in the disc floret. Capitulum development was divided into eight stages. Stigma receptivity varied with these stages. Pollen viability was low (15%). In accordance with low viability, pollen grains exhibit diverse sizes and shapes, reduction in length of spines, and abnormal protoplasm. Examination of ovary development in the ray floret showed that a mature ovule was formed, but fertilization did not occur. In advanced developmental stages, the capitulum showed proliferation of the endothelium, degeneration of the embryo sac, and all harvested cypselae had aborted seeds. Problems found in pollen viability and aborted cypselae could be the result of a history of vegetative propagation in the domestication process.

  3. A new sesquiterpene lactone from yacon leaves.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Win Aung, Khin Khin; Ran, Xiao-Ku; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Dou, De-Qiang; Dong, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The chemical constituents of 60% EtOH extract of yacon leaves were separated to yield a new compound, together with four known compounds, which were isolated for the first time from yacon. The new compound was characterised and named as chlorodalin (1) on the basis of NMR (1D and 2D), HR-MS and other spectral methods. The cytotoxic activities of 1-5 were evaluated on two human tumour cell lines and the new compound showed significant cytotoxic activity.

  4. Safety assessment of aqueous extract from leaf Smallanthus sonchifolius and its main active lactone, enhydrin.

    PubMed

    Barcellona, Carolina Serra; Cabrera, Wilfredo Marcelino; Honoré, Stella Maris; Mercado, María Inés; Sánchez, Sara Serafina; Genta, Susana Beatriz

    2012-11-21

    Leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson (yacon) have been used since pre-Columbian times in the Andean region to prepare medicinal herbal tea with beneficial health properties. However, there are still disagreements about the safe use. This work was carried out to evaluate the toxicity profile of both, 10% decoction of yacon leaves and their major active lactone, enhydrin. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed with Hep-G2, COS1, CHO-K1 and Vero cell lines using a test of metabolic competence based upon assessment of mitochondrial performance. In vivo toxicity study was performed in adult Wistar rats. In the acute oral toxicity each group of rats was orally given a single dose of 10% decoction or enhydrin. General condition, behavior and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days post treatment. In subchronic toxicity studies, both products were given orally for 90 days to rats. Body weight and food intakes were observed weekly. Hematological, clinical chemistry parameters and organ weight were determined in all animals at the end of the experimental period. Cell viability decreased in a concentration dependent fashion when cells were incubated with 2-200 μg of 10% decoction and 0.015-7.5 μg of enhydrin. In acute study in rats, there were no deaths or signs of toxicity observed after oral administration of single doses of 10% decoction or enhydrin at any dose level up to the highest dose tested (14.0 g/kg and 0.32 g/kg, respectively). In subchronic studies in rats, both products administered orally for 90 days at daily doses of 0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 g 10% decoction/kg and 0.4, 0.8 and 8.0 mg enhydrin/kg, did not caused haematological, biochemical and histological alterations. The results presented in this paper lead us to the conclusion that the use of 10% decoction and enhydrin is safe in rat at doses in which it is demonstrated the hypoglycaemic effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical constituents of Papulaspora immersa, an endophyte from Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae), and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Margareth Borges Coutinho; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; Barros, Francisco Washington Araújo; Odorico de Moraes, Manoel; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Pessoa, Cláudia; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2010-12-01

    Papulaspora immersa H. H. Hotson was isolated from roots and leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Rob. (Asteraceae), traditionally known as Yacon. The fungus was cultured in rice, and, from the AcOEt fraction, 14 compounds were isolated. Among them, (22E,24R)-8,14-epoxyergosta-4,22-diene-3,6-dione (4), 2,3-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-c-1,c-4,8-triol (10), and the chromone papulasporin (13) were new secondary metabolites. The spectral data of the known natural products were compared with the literature data, and their structures were established as the (24R)-stigmast-4-en-3-one (1), 24-methylenecycloartan-3β-ol (2), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), (-)-(3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein (5), (-)-(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (6), 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (7), (-)-(4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-α-tetralone (8), naphthalene-1,8-diol (9), 6,7,8-trihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (11), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (12), and tyrosol (14). Compound 4 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines MDA-MB435 (melanoma), HCT-8 (colon), SF295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), with IC₅₀ values of 3.3, 14.7, 5.0 and 1.6 μM, respectively. Strong synergistic effects were also observed with compound 5 and some of the isolated steroidal compounds.

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Fernandez, Eloy C.; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙−) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. PMID:26263984

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles.

    PubMed

    Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandez, Eloy C; Milella, Luigi

    2015-07-31

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙-) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  8. Yacon flour and Bifidobacterium longum modulate bone health in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fabiana Carvalho; Castro, Adriano Simões Barbosa; Rodrigues, Vívian Carolina; Fernandes, Sérgio Antônio; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; de Oliveira, Tânia Toledo; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2012-07-01

    Yacon flour has been considered a food with prebiotic potential because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides, which allows for its use in formulating synbiotic foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon flour and probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum) on the modulation of variables related to bone health. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control, yacon flour, diet+B. longum, and yacon flour+B. longum. After euthanasia, the bones were removed for analysis of biomechanical properties (thickness, length, and strength of fracture) and mineral content (Ca, Mg, and P); the cecum was removed for analysis of the microbiota and short-chain fatty acids. Tibia Ca, P, and Mg content was significantly (P<.05) higher in groups fed diet+B. longum, yacon flour+B. longum than in the control group. An increase in fracture strength was observed in the yacon flour (8.1%), diet+B. longum (8.6%), and yacon flour+B. longum (14.6%) in comparison to the control group. Total anaerobe and weight of the cecum were higher (P<.05) in rats consuming the yacon flour diet compared with the other groups. Cecal concentration of propionate was higher in all experimental groups compared with the control (P<.05). Yacon flour in combination with B. longum helped increase the concentration of minerals in bones, an important factor in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis.

  9. DMA thermal analysis of yacon tuberous roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blahovec, J.; Lahodová, M.; Kindl, M.; Fernández, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Specimens prepared from yacon roots in first two weeks after harvest were tested by dynamic mechanical analysis thermal analysis at temperatures between 30 and 90°C. No differences between different parts of roots were proved. There were indicated some differences in the test parameters that were caused by short time storage of the roots. One source of the differences was loss of water during the roots storage. The measured modulus increased during short time storage. Detailed study of changes of the modulus during the specimen dynamic mechanical analysis test provided information about different development of the storage and loss moduli during the specimen heating. The observed results can be caused by changes in cellular membranes observed earlier during vegetable heating, and by composition changes due to less stable components of yacon like inulin.

  10. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time.

  11. The spermatogenic effect of yacon extract and its constituents and their inhibition effect of testosterone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sook; Han, Kun

    2013-03-01

    We screened the pharmacological effects of a 50% ethanol extract of Yacon tubers and leaves on spermatogenesis in rats. As a result, we found that Yacon tuber extracts increased sperm number and serum testosterone level in rats. It has been reported that the crude extract of Yacon tubers and leaves contain phenolic acids, such as, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid by HPLC/MS analysis. We were interested in the contributions made by phenolic acid, particularly chlorogenic acid of Yacon tuber extract to the spermatogenic activity. After administering Yacon tuber extract or chlorogenic acid to rats for 5 weeks, numbers of sperm in epididymis were increased by 34% and 20%, respectively. We also administered ferulic acid, which has been reported to be a metabolite of chlorogenic acid and a constituent of Yacon tuber extract to investigate its spermatogenic activity in rats. Yacon tuber extract and ferulic acid increased sperm numbers by 43% and 37%, respectively. And, Yacon tuber extract, and chlorogenic acid showed significantly inhibition effect of testoeterone degradation in rat liver homogenate. We considered that the spermatogenic effect of Yacon tuber extract might be related to phenolic compounds and their inhibitory effect of testosterone degradation. Yacon showed the possibility as ameliorable agents of infertility by sperm deficiency and late onset hypogonadism syndrome with low level of testosterone.

  12. The Spermatogenic Effect of Yacon Extract and Its Constituents and Their Inhibition Effect of Testosterone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Sook; Han, Kun

    2013-01-01

    We screened the pharmacological effects of a 50% ethanol extract of Yacon tubers and leaves on spermatogenesis in rats. As a result, we found that Yacon tuber extracts increased sperm number and serum testosterone level in rats. It has been reported that the crude extract of Yacon tubers and leaves contain phenolic acids, such as, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid by HPLC/MS analysis. We were interested in the contributions made by phenolic acid, particularly chlorogenic acid of Yacon tuber extract to the spermatogenic activity. After administering Yacon tuber extract or chlorogenic acid to rats for 5 weeks, numbers of sperm in epididymis were increased by 34% and 20%, respectively. We also administered ferulic acid, which has been reported to be a metabolite of chlorogenic acid and a constituent of Yacon tuber extract to investigate its spermatogenic activity in rats. Yacon tuber extract and ferulic acid increased sperm numbers by 43% and 37%, respectively. And, Yacon tuber extract, and chlorogenic acid showed significantly inhibition effect of testoeterone degradation in rat liver homogenate. We considered that the spermatogenic effect of Yacon tuber extract might be related to phenolic compounds and their inhibitory effect of testosterone degradation. Yacon showed the possibility as ameliorable agents of infertility by sperm deficiency and late onset hypogonadism syndrome with low level of testosterone. PMID:24009874

  13. Exploitation of Nontraditional Corp, Yacon, in Breast Cancer Prevention Using Preclinical Rat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    yacon accounts for, at least in part, the inhibitory effect of yacon on mammary carcinogenesis, which may be associated its effect on obesity that...acceptable for the clinic patients and general population in aditional to benefit to obesity , diabetes II and cadiovascular diseases. W81XWH-09-1-0428...Additional Task completed during extended period. To determine the effect of dietary yacon on high-fat diet induced obesity in mice and on associated

  14. Genetic diversity of yacon accessions using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, R M; Menine, F; Júnior, E Marques; Oliveira, F L; Soares, T C B

    2017-04-13

    Yacon cultivation has been intensified and the investigations of this crop have increased at the scientific, agricultural, and social levels because the roots of yacon show beneficial properties for human health, such as reducing cholesterol and glucose blood levels. Since the investigations involving yacon are very recent, there is little information available in terms of the genetic characterization of the cultivated genotypes. In view of the lack of information on the accessions cultivated in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, this pioneering study aimed to characterize 60 accessions cultivated in the state using ISSR yacon markers with emphasis on identifying the genetic diversity among the materials. The 20 ISSR primers used produced a total of 82 fragments, 39.6% of which presented polymorphism. The number of fragments per primer ranged from 1 to 10. The dissimilarity values ranged from 0 to 0.54 according to the Jaccard coefficient. A dendrogram was generated in which the accessions were divided into 3 groups; group 1 contained 58 individuals and groups 2 and 3 had only one individual in each group. The clustering of 58 accessions in a single group shows the low diversity in the materials examined. This low diversity indicates that new genotypes must be introduced in order to promote increased variability, which would minimize the adverse effects caused by biotic and abiotic factors.

  15. Consumption effect of a synbiotic beverage made from soy and yacon extracts containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 on the intestinal polyamine concentrations in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Marla Simone Jovenasso; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio; Pauly-Silveira, Nadiége Dourado; Pinto, Roseli Aparecida; Roselino, Mariana Nougalli; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone; Quilles, Marcela Bassi; de Abreu Glória, Maria Beatriz; Cavallini, Daniela Cardoso Umbelino

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a synbiotic beverage made from soy and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) extracts containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 on healthy elderly individuals' intestinal polyamine concentrations. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial has been conducted with twenty-nine volunteers (over 65years of age) who either had a daily intake of 150mL of synbiotic (synbiotic group - S) or placebo (placebo group - P) beverages. Both had the same nutrient composition, except that a probiotic culture was added to the synbiotic beverage. Total experiment time was 8weeks, which was divided into 3 consecutive phases: a prefeeding period (2weeks), followed by a feeding period (4weeks) and a postfeeding period (2weeks). Stool samples were collected at 3 time periods. Fecal concentrations of polyamines, putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD) and spermidine (SPD) that were obtained during the synbiotic and placebo consumption period were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those found during the pre-consumption baseline level period. No significant differences in the number of bifidobacteria, clostridia, or enterobacteria were observed in any of the two groups at the three time periods. Similarly, no significant effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) was induced by the synbiotic or placebo beverages consumption. The results herein indicate that both the synbiotic and the placebo beverage consumption have increased polyamines levels, which are often reduced in elderly individuals, without influencing inflammatory responses. In addition, both placebo and synbiotic beverages seems to contribute by maintaining increased polyamines levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Yacon syrup: beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance in humans.

    PubMed

    Genta, Susana; Cabrera, Wilfredo; Habib, Natalia; Pons, Juan; Carillo, Iván Manrique; Grau, Alfredo; Sánchez, Sara

    2009-04-01

    Syrup obtained from yacon roots could be well positioned as a nutraceutical product due to its high fructooligosaccharides content. We examined the beneficial effects and tolerance of yacon syrup on human health. Obese and slightly dyslipidemic pre-menopausal women were studied over a 120-day period in a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment. We used two doses of yacon syrup, 0.29 g and 0.14 g fructooligosaccharides/kg/day. At the start and end of the study, anthropometric measurements, blood glucose, calcium, lipid and insulin concentrations and Homeostasis Model Assessment index were determined. The recommended daily consumption of yacon syrup with no undesirable gastrointestinal effects is 0.14 g fructooligosaccharides/kg. Daily intake of yacon syrup produced a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference and body mass index. Additionally, decrease in fasting serum insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment index was observed. The consumption of yacon syrup increased defecation frequency and satiety sensation. Fasting glucose and serum lipids were not affected by syrup treatment and the only positive effect was found in serum LDL-cholesterol levels. Yacon syrup is a good source of fructooligosaccharides and its long-term consumption produced beneficial health effects on obese pre-menopausal women with insulin resistance.

  17. Smallanthus macroscyphus: a new source of antidiabetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Serra-Barcellona, Carolina; Coll Aráoz, Maria V; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Habib, Natalia C; Honoré, Stella M; Catalán, César A N; Grau, Alfredo; Genta, Susana B; Sánchez, Sara S

    2014-02-25

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the in vivo hypoglycaemic effects of both decoction of Smallanthus macroscyphus leaves and pure crystalline polymatin A isolated from its leaves. Phytochemical analysis of the leaf decoction showed that its major constituents were caffeic, chlorogenic and three dicaffeoilquinic acids, together with the sesquiterpene lactone polymatin A. Oral glucose tolerance test in normal rats was performed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and to choose the minimum effective dose of the decoction and polymatin A. They have effective hypoglycemic activity at the minimum dose of 140 mg dry extract and 14 mg crystalline powder/kg body weight, respectively, and were selected for the following experiments. Oral administration of a single-dose of decoction produced a moderate lowering effect in fasting glycemia of normal rats, whereas polymatin A had no significant effect. We also assessed the effect of a single-dose on post-prandial blood glucose, resulting in an inhibition of the hyperglycemic peak after sucrose overload. Daily administration of decoction or polymatin A for 4 weeks produced an effective glycemic control in diabetic animals, with a decrease in urinary glucose excretion and a significant reduction in the HbA1c levels. Although there were no significant increases in plasma insulin levels, both treatments improved the fasting blood glucose/insulin ratio. In vivo acute toxicity studies were performed in adult Wistar rats. There were no deaths or signs of toxicity observed after oral administration of decoction or polymatin A at any dose level up to the highest dose tested (14.0 and 2.8 g/kg, respectively). The results presented here strongly support the notion that S. macroscyphus represents a new source of antidiabetic compounds that could help to manage diabetes more efficiently and safely.

  18. Hypoglycemic effect of the water extract of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) leaves in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Aybar, M J; Sánchez Riera, A N; Grau, A; Sánchez, S S

    2001-02-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of the water extract of the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) was examined in normal, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Ten-percent yacon decoction produced a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels in normal rats when administered by intraperitoneal injection or gastric tube. In a glucose tolerance test, a single administration of 10% yacon decoction lowered the plasma glucose levels in normal rats. In contrast, a single oral or intraperitoneal administration of yacon decoction produced no effect on the plasma glucose levels of STZ-induced diabetic rats. However, the administration of 2% yacon tea ad libitum instead of water for 30 days produced a significant hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats. After 30 days of tea administration, diabetic rats showed improved body (plasma glucose, plasma insulin levels, body weight) and renal parameters (kidney weight, kidney to body weight ratio, creatinine clearance, urinary albumin excretion) in comparison with the diabetic controls. Our results suggest that yacon water extract produces an increase in plasma insulin concentration.

  19. Concentration and Purification of Yacon
(Smallanthus sonchifolius) Root Fructooligosaccharides
Using Membrane Technology.

    PubMed

    Alles, Maria Julia Ledur; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata

    2015-06-01

    Yacon is a perennial plant originating from the Andean region whose roots have been receiving increased attention due to their high content of prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Apart from many health benefits, FOS have interesting characteristics as food ingredients, so are used as sugar substitute, and their extraction from yacon roots may be an alternative to commercially available FOS. This work evaluates membrane technology for concentration and purification of FOS from yacon root extract, combining ultrafiltration (UF) with nanofiltration (NF), with and without the use of discontinuous diafiltration (DF). After UF, 63.75% of the saccharides from the initial feed were recovered in total permeate. DF did not largely influence FOS retention during NF (it increased from 68.78% without DF to 70.48% with DF), but decreased glucose and fructose retentions, from 40.63 to 31.61% and 25.64 to 18.69%, respectively, which was desirable, allowing greater purification of FOS in the retentate. The yield of total saccharides in the final retentate after combined UF and NF processes was 50.89% and of FOS was 51.85%, with 19.75% purity. The results indicate that the combined UF and NF is a promising technique for concentrating yacon saccharides, but more diafiltration steps are required for the improvement of FOS purity.

  20. Hydroethanolic extract of Smallanthus sonchifolius leaves improves hyperglycemia of streptozotocin induced neonatal diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Silmara; da Rocha, Bruno Ambrosio; Oliveira de Melo, Juliana; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of hydroethanolic extract of yacon on the hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in neonatal rats. Wistar rats aged two days old received an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (160 mg/kg); after seven weeks, glycosuria was determined and animals with glucose levels above 250 mg/dL were included in the study. Groups of diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated orally with yacon extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Tests were made for phytochemical characterization, glucose tolerance and toxicity. The results showed that treatment with the extract reduced the glucose levels of fed diabetic rats and did not change the glucose levels of fasting diabetic and normal rats. Additionally, also it was observed that treatment with the extract reduced blood glucose levels of diabetic rats during the oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. There was no change in body weight, liver enzymes or mortality with yacon extract treatment. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and gallic acid. The data suggest that yacon extract reduces hyperglycemia, possibly by improving insulin sensibility through its phytochemicals constituents (phenolic compounds). Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentration and Purification of Yacon
(Smallanthus sonchifolius) Root Fructooligosaccharides
Using Membrane Technology

    PubMed Central

    Tessaro, Isabel Cristina; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata

    2015-01-01

    Summary Yacon is a perennial plant originating from the Andean region whose roots have been receiving increased attention due to their high content of prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Apart from many health benefits, FOS have interesting characteristics as food ingredients, so are used as sugar substitute, and their extraction from yacon roots may be an alternative to commercially available FOS. This work evaluates membrane technology for concentration and purification of FOS from yacon root extract, combining ultrafiltration (UF) with nanofiltration (NF), with and without the use of discontinuous diafiltration (DF). After UF, 63.75% of the saccharides from the initial feed were recovered in total permeate. DF did not largely influence FOS retention during NF (it increased from 68.78% without DF to 70.48% with DF), but decreased glucose and fructose retentions, from 40.63 to 31.61% and 25.64 to 18.69%, respectively, which was desirable, allowing greater purification of FOS in the retentate. The yield of total saccharides in the final retentate after combined UF and NF processes was 50.89% and of FOS was 51.85%, with 19.75% purity. The results indicate that the combined UF and NF is a promising technique for concentrating yacon saccharides, but more diafiltration steps are required for the improvement of FOS purity. PMID:27904348

  2. Yacon syrup: Food applications and impact on satiety in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Silva, Maria de Fátima; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Ferreira Carioca, Antônio Augusto; Silveira Adriano, Lia; Pinto, Claudia Oliveira; Pinto de Abreu, Fernando Antonio; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Araújo, Idila Maria; Dos Santos Garruti, Deborah; Ferreira Pontes, Dorasilvia

    2017-10-01

    Syrup obtained from yacon roots could be well positioned as a nutritional product due to its high fructooligosaccharides (FOS) content. Considering this, we examined the potential food applications of yacon syrup, using the focal group methodology, and its sensorial acceptability when incorporated in yogurt. The beneficial effects of the consumption of yacon syrup were studied over a 2-week period in a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment (namely Test A) and other consistent of only one day of yacon syrup consumption (namely Test B) were also evaluated. The doses of yacon syrup for both experiments were 8.74g of FOS/day. Energy intake, hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption were assessed with analogue scales at the end of each test. The results indicate that the yogurt was the food most suggested by the focus group, and the average of the scores given to the attributes when the yacon syrup was incorporated into a yogurt were: 7.78 for appearance; 7.72 for aroma; 7.02 for flavor and 6.96 for overall acceptability, corresponding to "like very much" and "like moderately". Furthermore, the results indicate that yacon syrup has a positive effect on appetite and its effect was dependent on gender and period of intervention, being statistically significant (P<0.05) in women, after 2-week period. These findings suggested that increasing FOS intake could help to increase satiety, and consequently, be helpful in the management of type 2-diabetes or control of the current high prevalence of overweight or obesity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Yacon effects in immune response and nutritional status of iron and zinc in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Tostes, Maria das Graças; Viana, Mirelle Lomar; Grancieri, Mariana; Luz, Tereza Cecília dos Santos; Paula, Heberth de; Pedrosa, Rogério Graça; Costa, Neuza Maria Brunoro

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon flour on iron and zinc nutritional status and immune response biomarkers in preschool children. Preschool children ages 2 to 5 y were selected from two nurseries and were placed into a control group (n = 58) or a yacon group (n = 59). The yacon group received yacon flour in preparations for 18 wk at a quantity to provide 0.14 g of fructooligosaccharides/kg of body weight daily. Anthropometric parameters were measured before and after the intervention and dietary intake was measured during the intervention. To assess iron and zinc status, erythrograms, serum iron, ferritin, and plasma, and erythrocyte zinc were evaluated. Systemic immune response was assessed by the biomarkers interleukin IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α). Intestinal immune response was analyzed by secretory IgA (sIgA) levels before and after the intervention. Statistical significance was evaluated using the paired t test (α = 5%). Before and after the study, the children presented a high prevalence of overweight and an inadequate dietary intake of zinc and fiber. The yacon group presented with lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Erythrocyte zinc was reduced in both groups at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Yacon intake increased the serum levels of IL-4 and fecal sIgA (P < 0.05). The control group had lower serum TNF-α after the study period (P < 0.05). Yacon improved intestinal immune response but demonstrated no effect on the nutritional status of iron and zinc in preschool children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemopreventive activity of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) from yacon against TPA-induced Raji cells deformation.

    PubMed

    Siriwan, D; Miyawaki, C; Miyamoto, T; Naruse, T; Okazaki, K; Tamura, H

    2011-05-15

    Yacon is a medicinal plant used as a traditional medicine by the natives in South America. In Japan, it becomes popular as a health food. Sesquiterpene Lactones (SLs) from yacon leaves were investigated and the active SLs such as enhydrin, uvedalin and sonchifolin, bearing alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone and epoxides as the active functional groups, were identified by 1H-6000 MHz-NMR. Chemopreventive and cytotoxic activities were determined using different primary screening methods. In this study, all tested SLs strongly inhibited TPA-induced deformed of Raji cells. The IC50 values of yacon SLs from anti-deforming assay were 0.04-0.4 microM. Interestingly, yacon SLs showed more potential of chemo preventive activity than both curcumin and parthenolide. However, the cytotoxicity on Raji cells was observed at high concentration of yacon SLs. The degree of anti-deformation was ranked in order: enhydrin >uvedalin >sonchifolin >parthenolide >curcumin. As according to structure-activity relationship, the high activities of enhydrin, uvedalin and sonchifolin may be due to the 2-methyl-2-butenoate and its epoxide moiety.

  5. Yacon-Based Product in the Modulation of Intestinal Constipation.

    PubMed

    de Souza Lima Sant'Anna, Mônica; Rodrigues, Vivian Carolina; Araújo, Tatiane Ferreira; de Oliveira, Tânia Toledo; do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Maria; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of a yacon-based product (YBP) on constipation in adults, including the elderly. Forty-eight individuals were recruited and divided into equal intervention groups named the test and control groups. The YBP (test) and the control (maltodextrin) were dissolved in commercial orange juice. The volunteers for the YBP/test group consumed, on a daily basis, orange juice containing 10 g fructooligosaccharide (FOS)/inulin per day. The control group consumed, on a daily basis, orange juice containing 25 g of maltodextrin. The study had a span of 30 days. We evaluated the participants' frequency of evacuation, consistency of the feces, constipation score, abdominal symptoms (flatulence, pain, and abdominal strain), and effects upon the microbiota, pH, lactate, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) of the feces. The study showed an increased number of evacuations after the consumption of the YBP as well as an improvement in the consistency of the feces and a reduction in the constipation score. After 30 days of intervention, the group that consumed the YBP showed higher counts of Bifidobacterium, lower Clostridium and enterobacteria counts, and lower fecal pH. In relation to SCFAs, no significant change was found after the intervention. However, the lactate concentration was higher in the test group when compared to the post-treatment control group. The YBP was effective in improving constipation symptoms; not only was its functional characteristic in reducing constipation symptoms evident but it also demonstrated usefulness as a potential therapy.

  6. Hypoglycemic activity of leaf organic extracts from Smallanthus sonchifolius: Constituents of the most active fractions.

    PubMed

    Genta, Susana B; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Mercado, María I; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A; Sánchez, Sara S

    2010-04-29

    The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of five organic extracts and enhydrin obtained from yacon leaves. The main constituents of the most active fraction were identified. Five organic extracts and pure crystalline enhydrin were administered to normoglycemic, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, and serum insulin levels were estimated and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for the evaluation of hypoglycemic activity and dose optimization of each extract. We found that the methanol, butanol and chloroform extracts showed effective hypoglycemic activity at minimum doses of 50, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight, respectively, and were selected for further experiments. Oral administration of a single-dose of each extract produced a slight lowering effect in the fasting blood glucose level of normal healthy rats, whereas each extract tempered significantly the hyperglycemic peak after food ingestion. Daily administration of each extract for 8 weeks produced an effective glycemic control in diabetic animals with an increase in the plasma insulin level. Phytochemical analysis of the most active fraction, the butanol extract, showed that caffeic, chlorogenic and three dicaffeoilquinic acids were significant components. Additionally, enhydrin, the major sesquiterpene lactone of yacon leaves, was also effective to reduce post-prandial glucose and useful in the treatment of diabetic animals (minimum dose: 0.8mg/kg body weight). The results presented here strongly support the notion that the phenolic compounds above as well as enhydrin are important hypoglycemic principles of yacon leaves that could ameliorate the diabetic state. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Complete genome sequence of yacon necrotic mottle virus, a novel putative member of the genus Badnavirus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Young-Kee; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Seo, Jang-Kyun

    2015-04-01

    The complete genome sequence of a previously undescribed virus isolated from a yacon plant exhibiting necrotic mottle, chlorosis, stunting, and leaf malformation symptoms in Gyeongju, Korea, was determined. The genome of this virus consists of one circular double-stranded DNA of 7661 bp in size. The genome contained four open reading frames (ORFs 1 to 4) on the plus strand that potentially encode proteins of 26, 32, 234, and 25 kDa. Protein BLAST analysis showed that ORF3, which is the largest ORF, has 45 % amino acid sequence identity (with 89 % coverage) to the ORF3 of fig badnavirus 1 (FBV-1), a recently identified badnavirus. Phylogenetic analysis provided further evidence that the virus identified in this study is probably a member of a new species in the genus Badnavirus. The name yacon necrotic mottle virus (YNMoV) is proposed for this new virus.

  8. Studies on chemical constituents of the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon): structures of two new diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Dou, De-Qiang; Tian, Fang; Qiu, Ying-Kun; Xiang, Zheng; Xu, Bi Xia; Kang, Ting Guo; Dong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The extract from the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) was found to show potent anti-diabetic activity. Two new diterpenes, named ent-kaurane-3beta,16beta,17, 19-tetrol (1) and ent-kaurane-16beta,17,18,19-tetrol (2), were isolated from the extract, together with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  9. Seasonal Dynamics of the Flower Head Infestation of Smallanthus maculatus by Two Nonfrugivorous Tephritids

    PubMed Central

    Dzul-Cauich, José F.; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Rico-Gray, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of the capitula infested by Dictyotrypeta sp. and Rhynencina spilogaster (Steyskal) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated throughout the flowering cycle of their host plant the sunflower, Smallanthus maculatus (Cavanilles) Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). In central Veracruz, Mexico, along 16 consecutive weeks, a total of 1,017 mature capitula were collected, recording the presence and abundance of immature stages (larvae and pupae) and their related parasitoids. Both fly species were present throughout the entire season, with overall infestation of 51.5% of the capitula examined. However, Dictyotrypeta sp. infested 11.3%, representing about one-fifth of them, and R. spilogaster was most abundant infesting four times as many capitula (42.9%), whereas both species were found together in only 2.6% of the capitula examined. Based on the temporal occurrence of larvae and pupae into flower heads as well as their associated parasitoids and times of emergence, Dictyotrypeta sp. had two yearly generations, and it seems that the second generation could enter a seasonal diapause; in contrast, R. spilogaster was a univoltine species that entered diapause that lasted until the next year. PMID:25368091

  10. Seasonal dynamics of the flower head infestation of Smallanthus maculatus by two nonfrugivorous tephritids.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Cauich, José F; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Rico-Gray, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of the capitula infested by Dictyotrypeta sp. and Rhynencina spilogaster (Steyskal) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated throughout the flowering cycle of their host plant the sunflower, Smallanthus maculatus (Cavanilles) Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). In central Veracruz, Mexico, along 16 consecutive weeks, a total of 1,017 mature capitula were collected, recording the presence and abundance of immature stages (larvae and pupae) and their related parasitoids. Both fly species were present throughout the entire season, with overall infestation of 51.5% of the capitula examined. However, Dictyotrypeta sp. infested 11.3%, representing about one-fifth of them, and R. spilogaster was most abundant infesting four times as many capitula (42.9%), whereas both species were found together in only 2.6% of the capitula examined. Based on the temporal occurrence of larvae and pupae into flower heads as well as their associated parasitoids and times of emergence, Dictyotrypeta sp. had two yearly generations, and it seems that the second generation could enter a seasonal diapause; in contrast, R. spilogaster was a univoltine species that entered diapause that lasted until the next year. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Polymatin A from Smallanthus macroscyphus leaves: A safe and promising antidiabetic compound.

    PubMed

    Serra-Barcellona, Carolina; Honoré, Stella M; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Habib, Natalia C; Genta, Susana B; Sánchez, Sara S

    2016-11-01

    Smallanthus macroscyphus is an herb native to South America whose leaves are a source of antidiabetic compounds, although complete information about their safe use is not available yet. This study was developed to evaluate the toxicity profile of both 10% decoction and the sesquiterpene lactone polymatin A from S. macroscyphus leaves through in vitro cytotoxicity assays and in vivo subchronic oral toxicity. Cell viability of Hep-G2, COS1, CHO-K1 and Vero cell lines decreased in a concentration-dependent manner when cells were incubated with 0.4-200 μg ml(-1) of dry extract or 0.12-60 μg ml(-1) of polymatin A. In subchronic studies, decoction was orally administered to Wistar rats for 90 days at daily doses of 70, 140 and 280 mg kg(-1) of dry extract, whereas polymatin A was administered in the same way at doses of 7, 14 and 28 mg kg(-1) . No toxicity signs or deaths were observed. There were no changes in the behavior, body or organ weights, hematological, biochemical or urine parameters of the rats. No histopathological lesions were observed in the examined organs. The results indicate that the 10% decoction and polymatin A from S. macroscyphus leaves may be considered as non-toxic substances at a wide range of doses, including the effective hypoglycemic dose. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  13. Trypanocidal Activity of Smallanthus sonchifolius: Identification of Active Sesquiterpene Lactones by Bioassay-Guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Frank, F. M.; Ulloa, J.; Cazorla, S. I.; Maravilla, G.; Malchiodi, E. L.; Grau, A.; Martino, V.; Catalán, C.; Muschietti, L. V.

    2013-01-01

    In order to find novel plant-derived biologically active compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, we isolated, from the organic extract of Smallanthus sonchifolius, the sesquiterpene lactones enhydrin (1), uvedalin (2), and polymatin B (3) by bioassay-guided fractionation technique. These compounds showed a significant trypanocidal activity against the epimastigote forms of the parasite with IC50 values of 0.84 μM (1), 1.09 μM (2), and 4.90 μM (3). After a 24 h treatment with 10 μg/mL of enhydrin or uvedalin, parasites were not able to recover their replication rate. Compounds 1 and 2 showed IC50 values of 33.4 μM and 25.0 μM against T. cruzi trypomastigotes, while polymatin B was not active. When the three compounds were tested against the intracellular forms of T. cruzi, they were able to inhibit the amastigote replication with IC50 of 5.17 μM, 3.34 μM, and 9.02 μM for 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated in Vero cells obtaining CC50 values of 46.5 μM (1), 46.8 μM (2), and 147.3 μM (3) and the selectivity index calculated. According to these results, enhydrin and uvedalin might have potentials as agents against Chagas disease and could serve as lead molecules to develop new drugs. PMID:23840260

  14. The effect of yacon (Samallanthus sonchifolius) ethanol extract on cell proliferation and migration of C6 glioma cells stimulated with fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Pa; Choi, Nan Hee; Kim, Jin Teak; Park, In-Sik

    2015-06-01

    Yacon (Samallanthus sonchifolius), a common edible plant grown throughout the world, is well known for its antidiabetic properties. It is also known to have several other pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects. To date, the effect of yacon on gliomas has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of yacon on the migration and proliferation of C6 glioma cells stimulated by fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cell growth and proliferation were determined by evaluating cell viability using an EZ-Cytox Cell Viability Assay Kit. FBS-induced migration of C6 glioma cells was evaluated by performing the scratch wound healing assay and the Boyden chamber assay. We also used western blot analysis to determine the expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a major regulator of migration and proliferation of glioma cells. Matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 9 and TIMP-1 levels were measured by performing reverse transcription PCR. Yacon (300 µg/mL) reduced both the FBS-induced proliferation of C6 glioma cells and the dose-dependent migration of the FBS-stimulated C6 cells. FBS-stimulated C6 glioma cells treated with yacon (200 and 300 µg/mL) showed reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and inhibition of MMP 9 expression compared to those shown by the untreated FBS-stimulated C6 cells. In contrast, yacon (200 and 300 µg/mL) induced TIMP-1 expression. On the basis of these results, we suggest that yacon may exert an anti-cancer effect on FBS-stimulated C6 glioma cells by inhibiting their proliferation and migration. The most likely mechanism for this is down-regulation of ERK1/2 and MMP9 and up-regulation of TIMP-1 expression levels.

  15. The effect of yacon (Samallanthus sonchifolius) ethanol extract on cell proliferation and migration of C6 glioma cells stimulated with fetal bovine serum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Pa; Choi, Nan Hee; Kim, Jin Teak

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Yacon (Samallanthus sonchifolius), a common edible plant grown throughout the world, is well known for its antidiabetic properties. It is also known to have several other pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects. To date, the effect of yacon on gliomas has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of yacon on the migration and proliferation of C6 glioma cells stimulated by fetal bovine serum (FBS). MATERIALS/METHODS Cell growth and proliferation were determined by evaluating cell viability using an EZ-Cytox Cell Viability Assay Kit. FBS-induced migration of C6 glioma cells was evaluated by performing the scratch wound healing assay and the Boyden chamber assay. We also used western blot analysis to determine the expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a major regulator of migration and proliferation of glioma cells. Matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 9 and TIMP-1 levels were measured by performing reverse transcription PCR. RESULTS Yacon (300 µg/mL) reduced both the FBS-induced proliferation of C6 glioma cells and the dose-dependent migration of the FBS-stimulated C6 cells. FBS-stimulated C6 glioma cells treated with yacon (200 and 300 µg/mL) showed reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and inhibition of MMP 9 expression compared to those shown by the untreated FBS-stimulated C6 cells. In contrast, yacon (200 and 300 µg/mL) induced TIMP-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of these results, we suggest that yacon may exert an anti-cancer effect on FBS-stimulated C6 glioma cells by inhibiting their proliferation and migration. The most likely mechanism for this is down-regulation of ERK1/2 and MMP9 and up-regulation of TIMP-1 expression levels. PMID:26060537

  16. Effect of epoxides and α-methylene-γ-lactone skeleton of sesquiterpenes from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves on caspase-dependent apoptosis and NF-κB inhibition in human cercival cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Siriwan, Dalad; Naruse, Takayuki; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of enhydrin (1), uvedalin (2) and sonchifolin (3) in cervical cancer cells. We have found that SLs 1-3 in doses in range of 0.22-10 μM inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both a dose- and time-dependent fashion. A significant cell death induction was supported by morphological studies. The apoptotic effect is associated with caspase-3/7 activation and NF-кB inhibition. Interestingly, enhydrin possessing two epoxide units was found to be the most cytotoxic compound. Therefore it can be assumed that number of epoxides and existence of α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety are essential for the acceleration of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The chromatographic analysis of oligosaccharides and preparation of 1-kestose and nystose in yacon.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Lian, Hong-Yu; Si, Chuan-Ling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Nian; Chen, Jing; Ding, Li-Na; Yao, Qiang; Zhang, Yongmin

    2012-05-01

    The thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the crude oligosaccharides extracted from yacon revealed the presence of glucose, fructose, sucrose, 1-kestose and nystose. The qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out on oligosaccharides by high pressure liquid chromatography and the results showed that the contents of d-glucose, fructose, sucrose, 1-kestose, nystose and 1-fructofuranosyl nystose in oligosaccharides were 38.30%, 16.44%, 14.58%, 12.29%, 12.17%, 6.20%, respectively. The content of the fructooligosaccharides in oligosaccharides was 30.66%. The crude oligosaccharides were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. The two fractions obtained from crude oligosaccharides were 1-kestose and nystose, which were identified by mass spectra. The yield of 1-kestose and nystose were 10.36% and 9.73%, respectively. The purity of 1-kestose was 82.9% and of nystose was 73.6%.

  18. Torrefaction of Yacon and Jerusalem Artichoke Stems as a Contribution to the Alternative Production of Inulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselý, V.; Sobek, J.; Hanika, J.; Punčochář, M.

    Recommendable torrefaction conditions were specified on the grounds of GT and DTA curves for the specimen of crushed stems of Yacon and Jerusalem artichoke. The impact of the size of crushed stems particle on the torrefaction process was monitored. The stem crushing process was optimized based on the results. We tested the effect of torrefaction performed on pellets made of raw material and wood chips, of which the pellets were made afterwards. It has been unambiguously proven that it was sensible to pelletize torrefied chips, otherwise the pellets were losing their coherence and crumbled. We calculated the fuel calorific value and its dependence on the residence time in the reactor. The economic benefit of torrefaction is that the power necessary for evaporation and leaching artichoke cuttings in water is obtained by combusting torrefied crushed stems.

  19. Single cell protein production from yacon extract using a highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant of the marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Hai; Zhang, Tong; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Chi, Zhe; Li, Jing; Wang, Xiang-Hong

    2010-06-01

    The intracellular protein in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant can be easily released when they are incubated both in the low-osmolarity water and at the non-permissive temperature (usually 37 degrees C). After the mutant was grown in the yacon extract for 45 h, the crude protein content in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant Z114 was 59.1% and over 61% of the total protein could be released from the cells treated at 37 degrees C. The mutant cells grown in the yacon extract still contained high level of essential amino acids and other nutrients. This means that the yacon extract could be used as the medium for growth of the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant which contained high content of crude protein.

  20. Comparative evaluation of polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and yacon as inhibitors of α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Chen, Li-Jing; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wan-Xiao; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of diabetes has increased considerably, and become the third serious chronic disease following cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Though acarbose, metformin, and 1-deoxynojirimycin have good efficacy for clinical application as hypoglycemic drugs, their expensive costs and some degree of side effects have limited their clinical application. Recently, increasing attention has concentrated on the polysaccharides from natural plant and animal sources for diabetes. In order to illustrate the pharmaceutical activity of polysaccharides as natural hypoglycemic agents, polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and Yacon were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase. Polysaccharides were extracted and purified from Astragalus, Oyster mushroom, and Yacon with hot water at 90 °C for 3 h, respectively. The total sugar content of the polysaccharide was determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was measured by the glucose oxidase method. The results exhibited that the inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase were in decreasing order, Astragalus > oyster mushroom > Yacon. The α-glucosidase inhibition percentage of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were over 40% at the polysaccharide concentration of 0.4 mg·mL(-1). The IC50 of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were 0.28 and 0.424 mg·mL(-1), respectively. The information obtained from this work is beneficial for the use polysaccharides as a dietary supplement for health foods and therapeutics for diabetes. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fermented Vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  2. Freeze-dried powdered yacon: effects of FOS on serum glucose, lipids and intestinal transit in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Scheid, M M A; Genaro, P S; Moreno, Y M F; Pastore, G M

    2014-10-01

    Freeze-dried powdered yacon (FDY) can be considered a prebiotic product due to its fructooligosaccharides (FOS) content. The effect of 9 weeks of daily intake of FDY containing 7.4 g of FOS on glucose, lipid metabolism and intestinal transit in a group of elderly people was investigated. Seventy-two elderly (mean age 67.11 ± 6.11) men and women were studied for 9 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. They were randomly assigned to the supplement group (which received 7.4 g of FOS as FDY) or the control group. At the beginning and end of the study, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling, clinical analyses and dietary intake were assessed. A daily intake of FDY containing 7.4 g of FOS for 9 weeks was associated with a mean decrease in serum glucose (p = 0.013), but supplementation did not reduce serum lipids in the study group. The administered dose did not adversely affect intestinal transit. It did not cause bloating, flatulence or intestinal discomfort. Freeze-dried powdered yacon is a good source of FOS, and daily consumption can have a favourable effect on serum glucose in the elderly. It is also practical, easy and safe to use and store.

  3. Cucumber fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  4. Molecularly imprinted nanomicrospheres as matrix solid-phase dispersant combined with gas chromatography for determination of four phosphorothioate pesticides in carrot and yacon.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mengchun; Hu, Nana; Shu, Shaohua; Wang, Mo

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, rapid, and selective method for sample pretreatment, namely, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD) coupled with gas chromatography (GC), was developed for the rapid isolation of four phosphorothioate organophosphorus pesticides (tolclofos-methyl, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and parathion-methyl) from carrot and yacon samples. New molecularly imprinted polymer nanomicrospheres were synthesized by using typical structural analogue tolclofos-methyl as a dummy template via surface grafting polymerization on nanosilica. Then, these four pesticides in carrot and yacon were extracted and adsorbed using the imprinted nanomicrospheres and further determined by gas chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of four pesticides was obtained in a range of 0.05-17.0 ng·g(-1) with R varying from 0.9971 to 0.9996, and the detection limit of the method was 0.012~0.026 ng·g(-1) in carrot and yacon samples. The recovery rates at two spiked levels were in the range of 85.4-105.6% with RSD ≤9.6%. The presented MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD for allowing the extraction, dispersion, and homogenization in two steps and the advantages of MIPs for high affinity and selectivity towards four phosphorothioate pesticides, which could be applied to the determination of pesticide residues in complicated vegetal samples.

  5. Molecularly Imprinted Nanomicrospheres as Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersant Combined with Gas Chromatography for Determination of Four Phosphorothioate Pesticides in Carrot and Yacon

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mengchun; Hu, Nana; Shu, Shaohua; Wang, Mo

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, rapid, and selective method for sample pretreatment, namely, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD) coupled with gas chromatography (GC), was developed for the rapid isolation of four phosphorothioate organophosphorus pesticides (tolclofos-methyl, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and parathion-methyl) from carrot and yacon samples. New molecularly imprinted polymer nanomicrospheres were synthesized by using typical structural analogue tolclofos-methyl as a dummy template via surface grafting polymerization on nanosilica. Then, these four pesticides in carrot and yacon were extracted and adsorbed using the imprinted nanomicrospheres and further determined by gas chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of four pesticides was obtained in a range of 0.05–17.0 ng·g−1 with R varying from 0.9971 to 0.9996, and the detection limit of the method was 0.012~0.026 ng·g−1 in carrot and yacon samples. The recovery rates at two spiked levels were in the range of 85.4–105.6% with RSD ≤9.6%. The presented MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD for allowing the extraction, dispersion, and homogenization in two steps and the advantages of MIPs for high affinity and selectivity towards four phosphorothioate pesticides, which could be applied to the determination of pesticide residues in complicated vegetal samples. PMID:25954569

  6. Quantitative determination of enhydrin in leaf rinse extracts and in glandular trichomes of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Karin; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2005-01-01

    A simple, reliable and rapid reversed-phase HPLC-PAD procedure for the characterisation and quantitative determination of the anti-diabetic sesquiterpene lactone enhydrin (1) from Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón) has been evaluated and validated. The approach focused on the analysis of various leaf rinse extracts, as well as the glandular trichomes of intact leaves, in which 1 was the major compound detected. The best sample preparation of a rinse extract yielded 0.67 mg/mL of 1, whilst a rapid rinse of a small piece of one dried leaf gave 0.09 mg/mL of 1; the highest concentration obtained from a glandular extract was 0.07 mg/mL. The dried leaves of S. sonchifolius were found to contain a total of 0.97% of 1.

  7. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  10. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  11. [Prebiotic inulin/oligofructose in Yacón root (Smallanthus sonchifolius), phytochemistry and standardization as basis for clinical and pre-clinical research].

    PubMed

    Alvarez F, Pedro P; Jurado T, Bertha; Calixto C, María; Incio V, Nelly; Silva A, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Experiments have demonstrated that the association between inulin and oligofructose can prevent colitis by modifying the intestinal microflora by acting as a prebiotic. It has also been found that this association is naturally present in the roots of the Yacón root (Smallanthus sonchifolius) making phytochemical and standardization studies well worth pursuing. These studies could contribute to the safe use of improved strains of Yacón, to significant savings in health resources, and to promoting additional clinical and pre-clinical research. So far, studies have been made on organically cultivated Yacón in the coast, on varieties adapted from those cultivated in the Andes. The aim is to promote consumption of Yacón in the sectors of society that need it most. To determine the general chemical composition of the Yacón tuberous root cultivated in the coast by means of a phytochemical screening, as well as standardizing its inulin content in order to contribute knowledge on its conditions of use. The roots harvested in the Lima Botanical Garden of the National Health Institute were used to prepare aqueous extracts through decoction and juice for the phytochemical screening with conventional reagents. The aqueous extracts were standardized for insulin content by using a fructose standard method and a validated analytical technique. The samples were read in a TU-1810S Split Beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The trials confirmed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and carbohydrates. The standardization found values of 7,8% inulin in the hydrolyzed extract and of 7, 01% in the non-hydrolyzed extract. The extracts of the Yacón roots were screened and standardized Ander known cultivation conditions. The possibilities of its use are being considered due to its prebiotic properties. These properties are considered useful in treating certain types of colitis by stimulating the growth of the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium

  12. Fermentation broth degassification

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, E.W.; Seals, M.T.

    1990-08-28

    This paper discusses an improvement in an apparatus for continuous pressurized fermentation with high air circulation. It is of the type employing a pressurizable fermenter equipped with agitator means, sparging means including gas delivery and distribution means, nutrient supply means, bottom located harvesting part means and a throttle valve means associated therewith, and control means. The improvement comprises associating with the fermenter a degassing apparatus.

  13. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  14. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    PubMed

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  16. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATE FERMENTATION FOOD PRESERVATION NISIN BACTERIA FOOD SAFETY CULTURE...nisin fermentate was also determined in real food. 2.1 BAC Activity Assay All of the BAC producing bacteria were screened with the procedures...prepared, and evaluated in shake flasks for efficacy of the selected bacteria to utilize different substrates for BAC production during fermentation

  17. Fermented milk for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-04-18

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance. To investigate whether fermented milk or similar products produced by lactobacilli fermentation of milk proteins has any blood pressure lowering effect in humans when compared to no treatment or placebo. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), English language databases, including MEDLINE (1966-2011), EMBASE (1974-2011), Cochrane Complementary Medicine Trials Register, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985-2011), Food science and technology abstracts (1969-2011). Randomised controlled trials; cross over and parallel studies evaluating the effect on blood pressure of fermented milk in humans with an intervention period of 4 weeks or longer. Data was extracted individually by two authors, afterwards agreement had to be obtained before imputation in the review. A modest overall effect of fermented milk on SBP was found (MD -2.45; 95% CI -4.30 to -0.60), no effect was evident on DBP (MD -0.67; 95% CI -1.48, 0.14). The review does not support an effect of fermented milk on blood pressure. Despite the positive effect on SBP the authors conclude, for several reasons, that fermented milk has no effect on blood pressure. The effect found was very modest and only on SBP, the included studies were very heterogeneous and several with weak methodology. Finally, sensitivity and subgroup analyses could not reproduce the antihypertensive effect. The results do not give notion to the use of fermented milk as treatment for hypertension or as a lifestyle intervention for pre-hypertension nor would it influence population blood pressure.

  18. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  19. Fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1982-11-16

    An improved fermentation process is disclosed for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases. One is a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and the other is a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using ''water load balancing'' (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  20. Improved fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  1. Tapé Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Djien, Ko Swan

    1972-01-01

    Microorganisms isolated from ragi, originally obtained from Indonesia, were selected for their ability to convert steamed glutinous rice into tapé, an Indonesian fermented food. A mixture of Chlamydomucor oryzae and Endomycopsis fibuliger had good fermentation characteristics. Prepared starters, produced by growing pure cultures on rice and drying them, were as active as pure cultures grown for 4 days on Difco mycological agar slants at 30 C. PMID:16349926

  2. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  3. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  4. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  5. Fermentative production of curdlan.

    PubMed

    Saudagar, Parag S; Singhal, Rekha S

    2004-01-01

    Curdlan was produced by pure culture fermentation using Agrobacterium radiobacter NCIM 2443. Three different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, maltose) were selected for study. Sucrose was found to be the most efficient. Utilization of sugar during the course of fermentation was studied, and the data were correlated to the production of curdlan. Curdlan mimics a secondary metabolite, in that its synthesis is associated with the poststationary growth phase of nitrogen-depleted batch culture. This was inferred from the results obtained from utilization of nitrogen. Regulation of pH at 6.1 +/- 0.3 resulted in an increased yield of curdlan from 2.48 to 4.8 g/L, and the corresponding increase in succinoglucan production was from 1.78 to 2.8 g/L. An attempt was made to increase curdlan production by the addition of the uridine nucleotides UMP and UDP-glucose to the fermentation broth. It was found that UDP-glucose at 0.8 microg/mL and UMP at 0.6 microg/mL served as precursors for curdlan and succinoglucan production when added after 18 h of nitrogen depletion in the fermentation broth.

  6. L-lysine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are the basic bioelements of proteins, which are the most important macromolecules for the functions of humans and animals. Out of the 20 L-amino acids, ecumenically found in most of living organisms, L-lysine is one of the 9 amino acids which are essential for human and animal nutrition. L-lysine is useful as medicament, chemical agent, food material (food industry) and feed additive (animal food). Its demand has been steadily increasing in recent years and several hundred thousands tones of L-lysine (about 800,000 tones/year) are annually produced worldwide almost by microbial fermentation. The stereospecificity of amino acids (the L isomer) makes the fermentation advantageous compared with synthetic processes. Mutant auxotrophic or resistant to certain chemicals strains of so-called gram positive coryneform bacteria are generally used, including the genera Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium, united to the genus. The significance of Research and Development increased rapidly since the discovery of fermentative amino acid production in the fifties (S. Kinoshita et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Enzyme Chemistry 2:464-468 (1957)), leading to innovative fermentation processes which replaced the classical manufacturing methods of L-lysine like acid hydrolysis. L-Lysine is separated and purified by suitable downstream processes involving classical separation or extraction methods (ultrafiltration or centrifugation, separation or ion exchange extraction, crystallization, drying) and is sold as a powder. Alternatively, spray dried pellets or liquid fermentation broth can be used as animal feed supplement. On behalf of today's strong competition in amino acid industry, Biotechnology companies are continuously aiming in innovative research developments and use complex management concepts and business strategies, towards gaining market leadership in the field of amino acid production.

  7. [Genetic algorithm for fermentation kinetics of submerged fermentation by Morchella].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Piao, Meizi; Sun, Yonghai

    2008-08-01

    Fermentation kinetics is important for optimizing control and up-scaling fermentation process. We studied submerged fermentation kinetics of Morchella. Applying the genetic Algorithm in the Matlab software platform, we compared suitability of the Monod and Logistic models, both are commonly used in process of fungal growth, to describe Morchella growth kinetics. Meanwhile, we evaluated parameters involved in the models for Morchella growth, EPS production and substrate consumption. The results indicated that Logistic model fit better with the experimental data. The average error of this model was 5.8%. This kinetics model can be useful for optimizing and up-scaling fungal fermentation process.

  8. Carbohydrates for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dietmar

    2006-01-01

    Biomass accumulated by the photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide is the only renewable carbon source, and hence, the only renewable raw material for the chemical industry. Carbohydrates are the main constituents of biomass and occur as cell wall and storage carbohydrates, transportation carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Cellulose, hemicelluloses and starch in particular as well as pectin, inulin and saccharose to a smaller extent are the most abundant carbohydrates. Glucose is the most important monosaccharide and monomer of polysaccharides in natural carbohydrates. Thus, it is the most abundant organic compound on earth. Production of pulp from wood cellulose, applications of starch for paper making as well as uses of glucose and saccharose for fermentation are the most important chemical and technical uses of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates used as fermentation feedstock are essential for the chemical industry. Their importance is steadily growing due to the increasing implementation of biotechnological processes.

  9. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  10. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaalita, W.S.; Pinder, K.L.; Lo, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  11. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose.

    PubMed

    Kisaalita, W S; Pinder, K L; Lo, K V

    1987-07-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO(2) and H(2)) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced, and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  12. Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations.

    PubMed

    Marcó, Mariángeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures.

  13. Health Benefits of Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Şanlier, Nevin; GÖkcen, Büşra BaŞar; Sezgİn, Aybüke Ceyhun

    2017-09-25

    In the past, the beneficial effects of fermented foods on health were unknown, and so people primarily used fermentation to preserve foods, enhance shelf life, and improve flavour. Fermented foods became an important part of the diet in many cultures, and over time fermentation has been associated with many health benefits. Because of this, the fermentation process and the resulting fermented products have recently attracted scientific interest. In addition, microorganisms contributing to the fermentation process have recently been associated with many health benefits, and so these microorganisms have become another focus of attention. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been some of the most studied microorganisms. During fermentation, these bacteria synthesize vitamins and minerals, produce biologically active peptides with enzymes such as proteinase and peptidase, and remove some non-nutrients. Compounds known as biologically active peptides, which are produced by the bacteria responsible for fermentation, are also well known for their health benefits. Among these peptides, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a blood pressure lowering effect, exopolysaccharides exhibit prebiotic properties, bacteriocins show anti-microbial effects, sphingolipids have anti-carcinogenic and anti-microbial properties, and bioactive peptides exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, opioid antagonist, anti-allergenic, and blood pressure lowering effects. As a result, fermented foods provide many health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic activity. However, some studies have shown no relationship between fermented foods and health benefits. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the health effects of fermented foods.

  14. Recombinant zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  15. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.

    1996-05-07

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 2 figs.

  16. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Min Zhang; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.

    1998-03-10

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  17. Pentose fermentation by recombinant Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Newman, M.M.; McMillan, J.D.

    1998-01-27

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  18. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  19. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark; Mohagheghi, Ali; Newman, Mildred M.; McMillan, James D.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  20. Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Marcó, Mariángeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures. PMID:23275866

  1. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  2. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  3. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation.

    PubMed

    Minier, M; Goma, G

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction, The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dedecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used-1 pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to (1) increase the interfacial area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, (2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35 degrees C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot-in classical process- completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion.

  5. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.I.C.; Dalal, R.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a process for preparing and isolating a mutant strain of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. The mutant strain is able to ferment hexose and pentose carbohydrates to produce ethanol and acetic acid in gram ratios of at least about 8:1. The process includes the steps of: 1.) exposing Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum cells to a mutagenic agent sufficient to effect mutation of the cells; 2.) culturing the mutated cells in a growth medium containing minimal carbon sources and pyruvate for a predetermined time period; 3.) enriching the growth medium with at least one antibiotic, the antibiotic killing the actively growing cells in the medium without substantially affecting the non-actively growing cells; and 4.) isolating a mutant Clostridium thermosaccharolyticium strain from the non-actively growing cells via the inability to utilize pyruvate as a carbon source.

  6. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

  7. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  8. Optimal design of airlift fermenters

    SciTech Connect

    Moresi, M.

    1981-11-01

    In this article a modeling of a draft-tube airlift fermenter (ALF) based on perfect back-mixing of liquid and plugflow for gas bubbles has been carried out to optimize the design and operation of fermentation units at different working capacities. With reference to a whey fermentation by yeasts the economic optimization has led to a slim ALF with an aspect ratio of about 15. As far as power expended per unit of oxygen transfer is concerned, the responses of the model are highly influenced by kLa. However, a safer use of the model has been suggested in order to assess the feasibility of the fermentation process under study. (Refs. 39).

  9. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  10. Fermentation studies on extracts of beet

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Beet juice was found to have a high level of contaminating microorganisms. Elimination of these microorganisms from the beet juice before fermentation was an essential step if high fermentation efficiencies were to be achieved. Continuous fermentation of fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice provided higher fermenter productivities than rapid batch fermentation. Under New Zealand farming conditions, it is estimated that 4000 litres of ethanol per hectare could be produced on a nation-wide basis.

  11. Fermentations with new recombinant organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bothast, R.J.; Nichols, N.N.; Dien, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    US fuel ethanol production in 1998 exceeded the record production of 1.4 billion gallons set in 1995. Most of this ethanol was produced from over 550 million bushels of corn. Expanding fuel ethanol production will require developing lower-cost feedstocks, and only lignocellulosic feedstocks are available in sufficient quantities to substitute for corn starch. Major technical hurdles to converting lignocellulose to ethanol include the lack of low-cost efficient enzymes for saccharification of biomass to fermentable sugars and the development of microorganisms for the fermentation of these mixed sugars. To date, the most successful research approaches to develop novel biocatalysts that will efficiently ferment mixed sugar syrups include isolation of novel yeasts that ferment xylose, genetic engineering of Escherichia coli and other gram negative bacteria for ethanol production, and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for pentose utilization. The authors have evaluated the fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzates by the various strains developed. E. coli K011, E. coli SL40, E. coli FBR3, Zymomonas CP4 (pZB5), and Saccharomyces 1400 (pLNH32) fermented corn fiber hydrolyzates to ethanol in the range of 21--34 g/L with yields ranging from 0.41 to 0.50 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. Progress with new recombinant microorganisms has been rapid and will continue with the eventual development of organisms suitable for commercial ethanol production. Each research approach holds considerable promise, with the possibility existing that different industrially hardened strains may find separate applications in the fermentation of specific feedstocks.

  12. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  13. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  14. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  15. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  16. Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K.

    1991-12-31

    In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

  17. Solar fermentation and distillation process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.M.

    1984-06-19

    A solar fermentation process and distillation system for the manufacture of ethanol product suitable for blending with motor gasoline or as a substitute fuel for gasoline. Fermentation of starches or sugars is carried out in situ in solar collector tubes. The raw beer product emanating from the solar tubes is purified into a high quality ethanol fuel product by passing the beer product through a series of distillation columns whose internal reboil vapor is generated in whole or in substantial part through direct application of solar heat energy. The use of solar energy as heating source in the fermentation and distillation steps markedly reduces the need for external utilities such as steam and fuel to run the plant thereby greatly reducing the operating costs of the plant.

  18. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  19. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  20. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  1. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  2. Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1984-01-01

    Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

  3. Fermentation of raffinose by lactose-fermenting strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and by sucrose-fermenting strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, G; Luke, R K; Richmond, M H

    1978-01-01

    Introduction of plasmids carrying the lacY gene (lactose permease gene) into Yersinia enterocolitica results in cells being able to ferment both lactose and raffinose. Transfer of such plasmids into Escherichia coli C600 (lacY) confers ability to ferment lactose but not raffinose. Derivatives of C600 that ferment both lactose and sucrose (Lac+ Scr+ strains) are able to ferment raffinose, but do not grow well on raffinose minimal medium. Fermentation of raffinose by Lac+ strains of Y. enterocolitica, and by Lac+ Scr+ strains of E. coli, is explained in terms of transport of raffinose via the lac permease and subsequent breakdown catalyzed by invertase. PMID:344338

  4. Bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of non-ruminants: influence of fermented feeds and fermentable carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Niba, A T; Beal, J D; Kudi, A C; Brooks, P H

    2009-10-01

    The search for alternatives to in-feed antibiotics in animal nutrition has highlighted the role dietary modulation can play in improving gut health. Current antibiotic replacement strategies have involved the use of microbes beneficial to health (probiotics) or fermentable carbohydrates (prebiotics) or both (synbiotics). The present review recognises the contribution of fermented feeds and fermentable carbohydrates in improving the gut environment in non-ruminants. It proposes the screening of probiotic bacteria for the production of fermented feeds and supplementation of these feeds with fermentable carbohydrates prior to feeding animals. It is suggested that the term 'fermbiotics' should be used to describe this intervention strategy.

  5. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-03

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit.

  6. Chemicals from biomass by fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    The status of fermentation processing is reviewed in terms of the various types of products-antibiotics, commodity chemicals, and genetically engineered proteins. The contribution of biomass to the manufacture of these products is addressed in terms of technical requirements, cost, and environmental considerations.

  7. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  8. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles.

  9. Health Benefits of Fiber Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Agro, Nicole C; Eliasson, Åsa M; Mialki, Kaley L; Olivera, Joseph D; Rusch, Carley T; Young, Carly N

    2017-02-01

    Although fiber is well recognized for its effect on laxation, increasing evidence supports the role of fiber in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the health benefits of fiber and its fermentation, and describe how the products of fermentation may influence disease risk and treatment. Higher fiber intakes are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Fiber may also have a role in lowering blood pressure and in preventing obesity by limiting weight gain. Fiber is effective in managing blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, useful for weight loss, and may provide therapeutic adjunctive roles in kidney and liver disease. In addition, higher fiber diets are not contraindicated in inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome and may provide some benefit. Common to the associations with disease reduction is fermentation of fiber and its potential to modulate microbiota and its activities and inflammation, specifically the production of anti-inflammatory short chain fatty acids, primarily from saccharolytic fermentation, versus the deleterious products of proteolytic activity. Because fiber intake is inversely associated with all-cause mortality, mechanisms by which fiber may reduce chronic disease risk and provide therapeutic benefit to those with chronic disease need further elucidation and large, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm causality.Teaching Points• Strong evidence supports the association between higher fiber diets and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer.• Higher fiber intakes are associated with lower body weight and body mass index, and some types of fiber may facilitate weight loss.• Fiber is recommended as an adjunctive medical nutritional therapy for type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and certain liver diseases.• Fermentation and the resulting shifts in

  10. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same manner...

  11. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same manner...

  12. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same manner...

  13. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same manner...

  14. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same manner...

  15. Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.

    PubMed

    Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

    2003-02-15

    Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time.

  16. Metagenomics insights into food fermentations.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Francesca; Parente, Eugenio; Ercolini, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    This review describes the recent advances in the study of food microbial ecology, with a focus on food fermentations. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies have been widely applied to the study of food microbial consortia and the different applications of HTS technologies were exploited in order to monitor microbial dynamics in food fermentative processes. Phylobiomics was the most explored application in the past decade. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, although still underexploited, promise to uncover the functionality of complex microbial consortia. The new knowledge acquired will help to understand how to make a profitable use of microbial genetic resources and modulate key activities of beneficial microbes in order to ensure process efficiency, product quality and safety. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to build and test a pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system will be procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system will then be used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by clostridium ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in continuous stirred tank reactor and immobilized cell reactors. The minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors. Retention times of a few seconds are expected to result from these experiments. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Ultrafiltration of hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Desiriani, Ria; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Hemicelulosic material is often used as the main substrate to obtain high-value products such as xylose. The five carbon sugar, xylose, could be further processed by fermentation to produce xylitol. However, not only the hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth contains xylitol, but also metabolite products, residual substances, biomass and mineral salts. Therefore, in order to obtain the end products, various separation processes are required to separate and purify the desired product from the fermentation broth. One of the most promising downstream processing methods of fermentation broth clarification is ultrafiltration due to its potential for energy saving and higher purity. In addition, ultrafiltration membrane has a high performance in separating inhibitory components in the fermentation broth. This paper assesses the influence of operating conditions; including trans-membrane pressure, velocity, pH of the fermentation broth solutions, and also to the xylitol concentration in the product. The challenges of the ultrafiltration process will be pointed out.

  19. Acetone-butanol fermentation of marine macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Huesemann, Michael H; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay; Gill, Gary A; Roesijadi, Guri

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to subject mannitol, either as a sole carbon source or in combination with glucose, and aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., containing mannitol and laminarin, to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pilot-scale semisolid fermentation of straw.

    PubMed

    Grant, G A; Han, Y W; Anderson, A W

    1978-03-01

    Semisolid fermentation of ryegrass straw to increase its animal feed value was successfully performed on a pilot scale. The pilot plant, which could handle 100 kg of straw per batch, was designed so that all major operations could take place in one vessel. The straw was hydrolyzed at 121 degrees C for 30 min with 0.5 N H2SO4 (7:3 liquid:solid), treated with ammonia to raise the pH to 5.0, inoculated with Candida utilis, and fermented in a semisolid state (70% moisture). During fermentation the straw was held stationary with air blown up through it. Batch fermentation times were 12 to 29 h. Semisolid fermentation did not require agitation and supported abundant growth at 20 to 40 degrees C even at near zero oxygen tensions. Fermentation increased the protein content, crude fat content, and in vitro rumen digestibility of the straw.

  1. Promising ethanologens for xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; Newman, M.

    1995-12-31

    An economical biomass-to-ethanol process depends on the efficient conversion of both its cellulose and hemicellulose components. On a dry weight basis, the typical feedstock contains approx 25-50% (w/w) glucose, 10-30% (w/w) xylose, 15-30% (w/w) lignin, and 1-5% (w/w) of other minor pentose and hexose sugars. Although many microorganisms can ferment the glucose component in cellulose to ethanol, conversion of pentose sugars in the hemicellulose fraction, particularly xylose, has been hindered by the lack of a suitable biocatalyst. Despite the development of recombinant strains with improved fermentation performance, increased ethanol yields and concentrations and shorter fermentation times are key targets that have yet to be achieved from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Our objective is to develop biocatalysts for the rapid and efficient conversion of xylose by engineering key metabolic pathways in selected organisms. To identify promising biocatalysts for these efforts, we have surveyed several industrial microorganisms according to several primary traits considered to be essential, as well as a number of secondary traits considered to be desirable, in a commercial biomass-to-ethanol process.

  2. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  3. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Jyoti P; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  4. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  5. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  6. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Glassner, David A.; Jain, Mahendra K.; Datta, Rathin

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  7. New developments in oxidative fermentation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, O; Moonmangmee, D; Toyama, H; Yamada, M; Shinagawa, E; Matsushita, K

    2003-02-01

    Oxidative fermentations have been well established for a long time, especially in vinegar and in L-sorbose production. Recently, information on the enzyme systems involved in these oxidative fermentations has accumulated and new developments are possible based on these findings. We have recently isolated several thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria, which also seem to be useful for new developments in oxidative fermentation. Two different types of membrane-bound enzymes, quinoproteins and flavoproteins, are involved in oxidative fermentation, and sometimes work with the same substrate but produce different oxidation products. Recently, there have been new developments in two different oxidative fermentations, D-gluconate and D-sorbitol oxidations. Flavoproteins, D-gluconate dehydrogenase, and D-sorbitol dehydrogenase were isolated almost 2 decades ago, while the enzyme involved in the same oxidation reaction for D-gluconate and D-sorbitol has been recently isolated and shown to be a quinoprotein. Thus, these flavoproteins and a quinoprotein have been re-assessed for the oxidation reaction. Flavoprotein D-gluconate dehydrogenase and D-sorbitol dehydrogenase were shown to produce 2-keto- D-gluconate and D-fructose, respectively, whereas the quinoprotein was shown to produce 5-keto- D-gluconate and L-sorbose from D-gluconate and D-sorbitol, respectively. In addition to the quinoproteins described above, a new quinoprotein for quinate oxidation has been recently isolated from Gluconobacter strains. The quinate dehydrogenase is also a membrane-bound quinoprotein that produces 3-dehydroquinate. This enzyme can be useful for the production of shikimate, which is a convenient salvage synthesis system for many antibiotics, herbicides, and aromatic amino acids synthesis. In order to reduce energy costs of oxidative fermentation in industry, several thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria that can grow up to 40 degrees C have been isolated. Of such isolated strains, some

  8. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  9. Fermentation performance of lager yeast in high gravity beer fermentations with different sugar supplementations.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongjie; Xu, Huaide; Feng, Li; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-11-01

    The effects of glucose, sucrose and maltose supplementations on the fermentation performance and stress tolerance of lager yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) during high gravity (18°P) and very high gravity (24°P) fermentations were studied. Results showed that throughout 18°P wort fermentation, fermentation performance of lager yeast was significantly improved by glucose or sucrose supplementation, compared with maltose supplementation, especially for sucrose supplementation increasing wort fermentability and ethanol production by 6% and 8%, respectively. However, in the later stage of 24°P wort fermentation, fermentation performance of lager yeast was dramatically improved by maltose supplementation, which increased wort fermentability and ethanol production by 14% and 10%, respectively, compared with sucrose supplementation. Furthermore, higher HSP12 expression level and more intracellular trehalose accumulation in yeast cells were observed by maltose supplementation with increase of the wort gravity from 18°P to 24°P, indicating higher stress response of yeast cells. The excretion of Gly and Ala, and the absorption of Pro in the later stage of fermentation were promoted by maltose supplementation. In addition, with increase of the wort gravity from 18°P to 24°P, higher alcohols level was decreased with maltose supplementation, while esters formation was increased significantly with glucose supplementation. This study suggested that the choice of optimal fermentable sugars maintaining better fermentation performance of lager yeast should be based on not only strain specificity, but also wort gravity.

  10. Volatile fatty acids productions by mesophilic and thermophilic sludge fermentation: Biological responses to fermentation temperature.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiuxiao; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) productions, as well as hydrolases activities, microbial communities, and homoacetogens, of mesophilic and thermophilic sludge anaerobic fermentation were investigated to reveal the microbial responses to different fermentation temperatures. Thermophilic fermentation led to 10-fold more accumulation of VFAs compared to mesophilic fermentation. α-glucosidase and protease had much higher activities in thermophilic reactor, especially protease. Illumina sequencing manifested that raising fermentation temperature increased the abundances of Clostridiaceae, Microthrixaceae and Thermotogaceae, which could facilitate either hydrolysis or acidification. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that under thermophilic condition the relative abundance of homoacetogens increased in batch tests and reached higher level at stable fermentation, whereas under mesophilic condition it only increased slightly in batch tests. Therefore, higher fermentation temperature increased the activities of key hydrolases, raised the proportions of bacteria involved in hydrolysis and acidification, and promoted the relative abundance of homoacetogens, which all resulted in higher VFAs production.

  11. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  12. Butanol production by fermentation: efficient bioreactors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Energy security, environmental concerns, and business opportunities in the emerging bio-economy have generated strong interest in the production of n-butanol by fermentation. Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE or solvent) batch fermentation process is product limiting because butanol even at low concentra...

  13. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  14. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  15. Anaerobic fermentations of cellulose to methane

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, H.D. Jr.; Odom, M.

    1981-01-01

    A review with 54 references is presented. Subjects discussed include cellulose degradation in the presence of high sulfate, interspecies H transfer, cellulose fermentation to CH4 and CO2, cellulose fermentation in the rumen, interaction between primary and ancillary microorganisms, and H metabolism in desulfovibrio.

  16. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38 degrees C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  17. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  18. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  19. Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

  20. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system is nearing completion. All non-explosion proof components will be housed separately in a gas-monitored plexiglas cabinet. A gas-monitoring system has been designed to ensure the safety of the operations in case of small or large accidental gas releases. Preliminary experiments investigating the effects of high pressure on Clostridium 1jungdahlii have shown that growth and CO uptake are not negatively affected and CO uptake by an increased total pressure of 100 psig at a syngas partial pressure of 10 psig.

  1. Ultrasound technology for food fermentation applications.

    PubMed

    Ojha, K Shikha; Mason, Timothy J; O'Donnell, Colm P; Kerry, Joseph P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation processes involve the participation of enzymes and organic catalysts, generated by range of microorganisms to produce chemical transformations. Ultrasound can be used in such processes to either monitor the progress of fermentation or to influence its progress. High frequency ultrasound (>2MHz) has been extensively reported as a tool for the measurement of the changes in chemical composition during fermentation providing real time information on reaction progress. Low frequency ultrasound (20-50kHz) can influence the course of fermentation by improving mass transfer and cell permeability leading to improved process efficiency and production rates. It can also be used to eliminate micro-organisms which might otherwise hinder the process. This review summarises key applications of high and low frequency ultrasound in food fermentation applications.

  2. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  3. Functional compounds in fermented buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Yasunori; Nakatsugawa, Hiroki; Ichida, Daiki; Maejima, Mayumi; Aoyagi, Yasuo; Maoka, Takashi; Etoh, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Fermented buckwheat sprouts (FBS) are used as multifunctional foods. Their production process includes fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. The major strains were found to include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus in an investigation of the lactic acid bacteria. We searched for the functional components, and nicotianamine (NA) and 2″-hydroxynicotianamine (HNA) were identified as angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. NA and HNA increased during fermentation. Indole-3-ethanol was identified as an antioxidant (a SOD active substance), and may have been generated from tryptophan during fermentation because it was not contained in green buckwheat juice. A safety test demonstrated that FBS contained were safe functional food components, showing negative results in buckwheat allergy tests. Any buckwheat allergy substances might have been degraded during the fermentation process.

  4. Low investment approach to alcohol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bungay, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper suggests attitudes for designing a low investment fuel alcohol plant instead of providing a specific blueprint, noting that the criteria for an agro-industrial complex can be applied rather than those of a modern chemical plant. In the case of fermenter design, for example, alternative approaches suggested are, the use of open-vat fermenters, tower fermentation maintaining high concentrations of organisms, combined fermentation and storage and use of 12 ft diameter plastic sewer pipe buried in the ground for an inexpensive and well-insulated fermenter. Instead of 3 or more distillation columns, the proposed plant would have only one, producing 85% alcohol, plus a tank or column for a drying agent to remove the remaining water. A direct fired still using biomass residues or coal could be designed to avoid the major expense of a large power plant to generate process steam.

  5. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume. PMID:23734158

  6. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica in fermented sausages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, R.; Janković, V.; Baltić, B.; Ivanović, J.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of food, among them meat, can be the cause of food-borne diseases, and infections are commonly caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, verotoxic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. All these bacteria, depending on a number of factors, including animal species, geographical origin, climatic factors, methods of animal breeding and meat production, could cause disease. Here, we summarise results on production of different groups of sausages produced with or without added starter culture, and contaminated with Y.enterocolitica (control sausages were not contaminated). During the ripening, changes in the microbiological status of the fermented sausages and their physical and chemical properties were monitored. For all tests, standard methods were used. In these fermented sausages, the number of Y. enterocolitica decreased during ripening. The number of Y. enterocolitica was statistically significantly lower in sausages with added starter culture on all days of the study Zoonotic pathogens in meat should be controlled through the complete production chain, from the farms to consumers, in order to reduce the probability of disease in humans. However, the necessary controls in the production chain are not the same for all bacteria.

  8. Recent advances to improve fermentative butanol production: genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Butanol has recently attracted attention as an alternative biofuel because of its various advantages over other biofuels. Many researchers have focused on butanol fermentation with renewable and sustainable resources, especially lignocellulosic materials, which has provided significant progress in butanol fermentation. However, there are still some drawbacks in butanol fermentation in terms of low butanol concentration and productivity, high cost of feedstock and product inhibition, which makes butanol fermentation less competitive than the production of other biofuels. These hurdles are being resolved in several ways. Genetic engineering is now available for improving butanol yield and butanol ratio through overexpression, knock out/down, and insertion of genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolic pathway of butanol fermentation. In addition, there are also many strategies to improve fermentation technology, such as multi-stage continuous fermentation, continuous fermentation integrated with immobilization and cell recycling, and the inclusion of additional organic acids or electron carriers to change metabolic flux. This review focuses on the most recent advances in butanol fermentation especially from the perspectives of genetic engineering and fermentation technology. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological util...

  10. Process for enhanced fermentation of xylose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.

    1987-05-05

    A process is described for producing an enhanced ethanol yield by aerobically fermenting D-xylose in a fermentation medium with Pachysolen tannophilus having deposit accession numbers. The improvement comprises adding glucose to the fermentation medium after the fermentation has commenced and during the carrying forth of the fermentation with the adding being continuously or at intervals during each 24 hours of the carrying forth of the fermentation and being of an amount of the glucose providing a glucose concentration not exceeding one percent by weight of the fermentation medium until substantially all D-xylose is consumed.

  11. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    2016-12-02

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  12. Liquid sourdough fermentation: industrial application perspectives.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, P; Ciati, R; Leporati, A; Paese, M

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough fermentation is considered to play a key role to get improved flavour, texture, nutritional and shelf-life properties of bakery products. Since few years Barilla R&D has been focusing on liquid sourdough fermentation which may deserve several advantages with respect to traditional processes. The results showed that the micro-biota of sourdough markedly influences flavour and texture of bakery products. Particular attention has been paid to lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Selected lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were tested in sourdough liquid fermentation as single strain or in association. The parameters of fermentations were optimized and standardized to set up a laboratory plant liquid fermentation. Only a few strains of lactic acid bacteria were found to be suitable for liquid fermentation alone or in association with yeasts. Fermentations were carried out at pilot plant and an industrial technology was developed. This work describes the results found for the organoleptic profile of an industrial bread started with liquid sourdough with respect to bakers' yeast bread without sourdough addition.

  13. Transcription profiling of sparkling wine second fermentation.

    PubMed

    Penacho, Vanessa; Valero, Eva; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2012-02-01

    There is a specific set of stress factors that yeast cells must overcome under second fermentation conditions, during the production of sparkling wines by the traditional (Champenoise) method. Some of them are the same as those of the primary fermentation of still wines, although perhaps with a different intensity (high ethanol concentration, low pH, nitrogen starvation) while others are more specific to second fermentation (low temperature, CO(2) overpressure). The transcription profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during primary wine fermentation has been studied by several research groups, but this is the first report on yeast transcriptome under second fermentation conditions. Our results indicate that the main pathways affected by these particular conditions are related to aerobic respiration, but genes related to vacuolar and peroxisomal functions were also highlighted in this study. A parallelism between the transcription profile of wine yeast during primary and second fermentation is appreciated, with ethanol appearing as the main factor driving gene transcription during second fermentation. Low temperature seems to also influence yeast transcription profile under these particular winemaking conditions.

  14. Biomass fermentation to augment biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2010-01-01

    A combination of a lab scale biological phosphorus removal sequencing batch reactor (called mother reactor) and a side-stream biomass fermenter was setup. It was found that when fermented biomass was recirculated back into the mother reactor as volatile fatty acid (VFA) supplement, the phosphate concentration in the effluent decreased from 6 in the control reactor to 4.5 mgL(-1) in the effluent from mother reactor. The addition of the fermentation effluent into the mother reactor increased the phosphate and ammonium loads and resulted in deterioration of nitrification. Phosphorus removal and nitrification improved when the fermented biomass was separated from the liquid phase using an up-flow system, followed by the addition of MgO to the supernatant to precipitate phosphate and ammonium. Phosphorus removal was further improved by delaying the time of VFA addition into mother reactor during the anaerobic period as soon as denitrification ceased. Biomass fermentation was found to generate 157 mg VFA-COD by fermenting 1g of biomass at a solids retention time of 5d. Acetate (78% of generated COD) and propionic acid (10%) were the major components of the produced VFA. It was concluded that biomass fermentation to augment a biological nutrient removal process can be effective if generated phosphate and ammonia are removed, e.g. through struvite precipitation.

  15. Relevance of protein fermentation to gut health.

    PubMed

    Windey, Karen; De Preter, Vicky; Verbeke, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that carbohydrate fermentation results in beneficial effects for the host because of the generation of short chain fatty acids, whereas protein fermentation is considered detrimental for the host's health. Protein fermentation mainly occurs in the distal colon, when carbohydrates get depleted and results in the production of potentially toxic metabolites such as ammonia, amines, phenols and sulfides. However, the effectivity of these metabolites has been established mainly in in vitro studies. In addition, some important bowel diseases such as colorectal cancer (CRC) and ulcerative colitis appear most often in the distal colon, which is the primary site of protein fermentation. Finally, epidemiological studies revealed that diets rich in meat are associated with the prevalence of CRC, as is the case in Western society. Importantly, meat intake not only increases fermentation of proteins but also induces increased intake of fat, heme and heterocyclic amines, which may also play a role in the development of CRC. Despite these indications, the relationship between gut health and protein fermentation has not been thoroughly investigated. In this review, the existing evidence about the potential toxicity of protein fermentation from in vitro animal and human studies will be summarized.

  16. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentation. In electrodialysis fermentation, the amount of produced lactic acid was 82.2 g/liter, which was about 5.5 times greater than that produced in non-pH-controlled fermentation. It was concluded that these good results were obtained on account of alleviating the lactic acid inhibitory effect by electrodialysis fermentation. However, the fouling of anion-exchange membranes by cells was observed in electrodialysis fermentation. PMID:16347129

  17. Influence of nitrogen sources on ethanol fermentation in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Mao, Zhonggui; Zhang, Chengming; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hongjian; Tang, Lei

    2012-09-01

    An integrated ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to resolve wastewater pollution in cassava ethanol production. In the integrated system, wastewater originating from ethanol distillation was treated by two-stage anaerobic digestion and then used in medium for the next batch of ethanol fermentation. Ammonium and other components in the effluent promoted yeast growth and fermentation rate but did not increase the yield of ethanol. Fermentations with the effluent as the nitrogen source showed higher growth and ethanol production rates (0.215 h(-1) and 1.276 g/L/h, respectively) than urea that resulted in corresponding rates of 0.176 h(-1) and 0.985 g/L/h, respectively. Results indicated that anaerobic digestion effluent can be used as nitrogen source for the ethanol fermentation instead of urea in the ethanol-methane fermentation system.

  18. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  19. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1986-07-01

    Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

  20. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  1. Optimization of fermentation conditions for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, L.; Geiger, E.

    1984-12-01

    The quantitative effects of carbohydrate levels, degree of initial saccharification, glucoamylase dosage, temperature, and fermentation time were investigated using a Box-Wilson central composite design protocol. With Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 4126, it was found that the use of a partially saccharified starch substrate markedly increased yields and attainable alcohol levels. Balancing the degree of initial saccharification with the level of glucoamylase used to complete hydrolysis was found necessary to obtain optimum yields. The temperature optimum was found to be 36 degrees C. The regression equations obtained were used to model the fermentation in order to determine optimum fermentation conditions. 11 references.

  2. Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toldrá, Fidel

    Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

  3. [The research progress of succinic acid fermentation strains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2007-07-01

    The potential of succinic acid as an important chemical intermediates had been realized and fermentation is one of the best ways to make it possible in economical aspect. Fermentation organism is the key part of the fermentation method. The updated research developments of fermentation organisms and the fermentation characteristics and problems of them were reviewed and analyzed in this paper. Finally,the development future of fermenation organism was forecasted.

  4. GLYOXYLATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS ALLANTOICUS

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, R. C.; Drucker, H.; Wolfe, R. S.

    1964-01-01

    Valentine, R. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana), H. Drucker, and R. S. Wolfe. Glyoxylate fermentation by Streptococcus allantoicus. J. Bacteriol. 87:241–246. 1964.—Extracts of Streptococcus allantoicus were found to degrade glyoxylate, yielding tartronic semialdehyde and CO2. Tartronic semialdehyde was prepared chemically, and its properties were compared with the enzymatic product: reduction by sodium borohydride yielded glycerate; heating at 100 C yielded glycolaldehyde and CO2; autoxidation yielded mesoxalic semialdehyde; periodate oxidation yielded glyoxylate and a compound presumed to be formate. Tartronic semialdehyde reductase was present in extracts of S. allantoicus and in a species of Pseudomonas grown on allantoin. A scheme for the synthesis of acetate from glyoxylate by S. allantoicus is discussed. PMID:14151040

  5. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  6. Pervaporation of ethanol from lignocellulosic fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Gaykawad, Sushil S; Zha, Ying; Punt, Peter J; van Groenestijn, Johan W; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-02-01

    Pervaporation can be applied in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrophobic pervaporation, using a commercial PDMS membrane, was employed to concentrate the ethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this. Pervaporation carried out with three different lignocellulosic fermentation broths reduced the membrane performance by 17-20% as compared to a base case containing only 3 wt.% ethanol in water. The membrane fouling caused by these fermentation broths was irreversible. Solutions containing model lignocellulosic components were tested during pervaporation at the same conditions. A total flux decrease of 12-15%, as compared to the base case, was observed for each component except for furfural. Catechol was found to be most fouling component whereas furfural permeated through the membrane and increased the total flux. The membrane selectivity increased in the presence of fermentation broth but remained unchanged for all selected components.

  7. Microbial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentations.

    PubMed

    Beckner, M; Ivey, M L; Phister, T G

    2011-10-01

    Microbial contamination is a pervasive problem in any ethanol fermentation system. These infections can at minimum affect the efficiency of the fermentation and at their worse lead to stuck fermentations causing plants to shut down for cleaning before beginning anew. These delays can result in costly loss of time as well as lead to an increased cost of the final product. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common bacterial contaminants found in ethanol production facilities and have been linked to decreased ethanol production during fermentation. Lactobacillus sp. generally predominant as these bacteria are well adapted for survival under high ethanol, low pH and low oxygen conditions found during fermentation. It has been generally accepted that lactobacilli cause inhibition of Saccharomyces sp. and limit ethanol production through two basic methods; either production of lactic and acetic acids or through competition for nutrients. However, a number of researchers have demonstrated that these mechanisms may not completely account for the amount of loss observed and have suggested other means by which bacteria can inhibit yeast growth and ethanol production. While LAB are the primary contaminates of concern in industrial ethanol fermentations, wild yeast may also affect the productivity of these fermentations. Though many yeast species have the ability to thrive in a fermentation environment, Dekkera bruxellensis has been repeatedly targeted and cited as one of the main contaminant yeasts in ethanol production. Though widely studied for its detrimental effects on wine, the specific species-species interactions between D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae are still poorly understood.

  8. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38/sup 0/C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  9. The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn.

    PubMed

    Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Cornelius, Beatrice; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-10-01

    Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn were subjected to the process of nixtamalization, using two concentrations of lime (0.5 or 1.0%), milled, made into a dough (50% moisture) and fermented spontaneously for 72 h. A control sample was prepared without alkaline treatment. pH and titratable acidity of the dough were measured. Aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (PCA), deMan, Rogossa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), respectively. The identity of lactobacilli present was established at the species level using API 50 CHL. The pH of all the fermenting systems decreased with fermentation time with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Lactic acid bacteria in numbers of 1.6 x 10(9), 2.3 x 10(9) and 1.8 x 10(9) cfu/g, respectively yeasts and molds, and numbers of 8.0 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(5) cfu/g, respectively were observed in the control and the two nixtamalized (0.5% and 1.0% lime) samples after 48 h of fermentation. Lactobacilli identified in the fermenting nixtamalized corn dough were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus cellobiosus as well as Pediococcus spp. The study demonstrates that nixtamalized corn though alkaline in nature can be subjected to spontaneous fermentation to produce a sour product.

  10. Fermentative Production of Cysteine by Pantoea ananatis

    PubMed Central

    Takumi, Kazuhiro; Ziyatdinov, Mikhail Kharisovich; Samsonov, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cysteine is a commercially important amino acid; however, it lacks an efficient fermentative production method. Due to its cytotoxicity, intracellular cysteine levels are stringently controlled via several regulatory modes. Managing its toxic effects as well as understanding and deregulating the complexities of regulation are crucial for establishing the fermentative production of cysteine. The regulatory modes include feedback inhibition of key metabolic enzymes, degradation, efflux pumps, and the transcriptional regulation of biosynthetic genes by a master cysteine regulator, CysB. These processes have been extensively studied using Escherichia coli for overproducing cysteine by fermentation. In this study, we genetically engineered Pantoea ananatis, an emerging host for the fermentative production of bio-based materials, to identify key factors required for cysteine production. According to this and our previous studies, we identified a major cysteine desulfhydrase gene, ccdA (formerly PAJ_0331), involved in cysteine degradation, and the cysteine efflux pump genes cefA and cefB (formerly PAJ_3026 and PAJ_p0018, respectively), which may be responsible for downregulating the intracellular cysteine level. Our findings revealed that ccdA deletion and cefA and cefB overexpression are crucial factors for establishing fermentative cysteine production in P. ananatis and for obtaining a higher cysteine yield when combined with genes in the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of cysteine production in P. ananatis, which has fundamental implications for establishing overproduction in this microbe. IMPORTANCE The efficient production of cysteine is a major challenge in the amino acid fermentation industry. In this study, we identified cysteine efflux pumps and degradation pathways as essential elements and genetically engineered Pantoea ananatis, an emerging host for the fermentative production of bio-based materials, to

  11. Nutritional Guidelines and Fermented Food Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Victoria; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito

    2017-01-01

    This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world’s economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review them but check their traditional and cultural value, and if they are still lacking to be classed as a category on different national food guides. For understanding the inconsistencies in claims of concerning fermented foods among various regulatory systems, each legal system should be considered unique. Fermented foods and beverages have long been a part of the human diet, and with further supplementation of probiotic microbes, in some cases, they offer nutritional and health attributes worthy of recommendation of regular consumption. Despite the impact of fermented foods and beverages on gastro-intestinal wellbeing and diseases, their many health benefits or recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in world food guidelines. In general, the approach of the legal systems is broadly consistent and their structures may be presented under different formats. African traditional fermented products are briefly mentioned enhancing some recorded adverse effects. Knowing the general benefits of traditional and supplemented fermented foods, they should be a daily item on most national food guides. PMID:28783111

  12. Nutritional Guidelines and Fermented Food Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Bell, Victoria; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito

    2017-08-07

    This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world's economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review them but check their traditional and cultural value, and if they are still lacking to be classed as a category on different national food guides. For understanding the inconsistencies in claims of concerning fermented foods among various regulatory systems, each legal system should be considered unique. Fermented foods and beverages have long been a part of the human diet, and with further supplementation of probiotic microbes, in some cases, they offer nutritional and health attributes worthy of recommendation of regular consumption. Despite the impact of fermented foods and beverages on gastro-intestinal wellbeing and diseases, their many health benefits or recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in world food guidelines. In general, the approach of the legal systems is broadly consistent and their structures may be presented under different formats. African traditional fermented products are briefly mentioned enhancing some recorded adverse effects. Knowing the general benefits of traditional and supplemented fermented foods, they should be a daily item on most national food guides.

  13. Maloalcoholic fermentation by immobilized Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Guo, L Y; Tsay, S S

    1989-11-01

    Cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe TMB 1138, which are capable of metabolizing-malate, was immobilized in calcium alginate gel to carry out maloalcoholic fermentation. Four milliliters of cell suspension containing about 2.0 X 10(7) cells were entrapped in 16 ml of sodium alginate solution in order to prepare 2% Na-alginate (w/v) gel bead. After activation by incubating at 28 degrees C for 24 h in grape juice, 300 beads of immobilized cells were inoculated into the fermentation medium. After fermentation was proceeded at 25 or 28 degrees C for 24 h by shaking, it could metabolize L-malate completely and the total acidity was also reduced. Under the same condition for batch fermentation, it was found that the utilization of L-malic acid was over 97% for the first 7 days in fermentation medium, 85% for the first 4 days in grape juice and 87% for the first 4 days in wine. Furthermore, for the continuous fermentation in wine, the conversion of L-malic acid reached 92% in 24 h and could be maintained at 75% in the following 9 days.

  14. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  15. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial diversity and their roles in the vinegar fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Li, Pan; Feng, Feng; Luo, Li-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Vinegar is one of the oldest acetic acid-diluted solution products in the world. It is produced from any fermentable sugary substrate by various fermentation methods. The final vinegar products possess unique functions, which are endowed with many kinds of compounds formed in the fermentation process. The quality of vinegar is determined by many factors, especially by the raw materials and microbial diversity involved in vinegar fermentation. Given that metabolic products from the fermenting strains are directly related to the quality of the final products of vinegar, the microbial diversity and features of the dominant strains involved in different fermentation stages should be analyzed to improve the strains and stabilize fermentation. Moreover, although numerous microbiological studies have been conducted to examine the process of vinegar fermentation, knowledge about microbial diversity and their roles involved in fermentation is still fragmentary and not systematic enough. Therefore, in this review, the dominant microorganism species involved in the stages of alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation of dissimilar vinegars were summarized. We also summarized various physicochemical properties and crucial compounds in disparate types of vinegar. Furthermore, the merits and drawbacks of vital fermentation methods were generalized. Finally, we described in detail the relationships among microbial diversity, raw materials, fermentation methods, physicochemical properties, compounds, functionality, and final quality of vinegar. The integration of this information can provide us a detailed map about the microbial diversity and function involved in vinegar fermentation.

  17. Characteristics of some fermentative bacteria from a thermophilic methane-producing fermenter

    SciTech Connect

    Varel, V.H.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria from a 55/sup 0/C methane-producing beef waste fermenter were enumerated, isolated, and characterized. Direct microscopic bacterial counts were 5.2-6.8 X 10/sup 10/ per g fermenter effluent. Using a nonselective roll-tube medium which contained 40% fermenter effluent, 8.5-14.1% of microscopic count was culturable. Deletion of fermenter effluent significantly reduced the viable count. Sixty-four randomly picked strains were characterized. All were pleomorphic, gram-negative, anaerobic rods, many of which were difficult to grow in liquid media. The strains were divided into 5 major groups based on glucose fermentation, hydrogen sulfide production, starch hydrolysis, fermentation products, and morphology. Glucose was fermented by 75% of the isolates, 76% utilized starch, 25% produced hydrogen sulfide, 76% produced hydrogen, 37% produced indole, 21% hydrolyzed gelatin, and 13% were sporeformers. Ethanol, lactate, formate, acetate, and hydrogen were common fermentation products. Twenty-four representative strains had 1-12 flagella. Growth was observed between 35 and 73/sup 0/C. These studies indicate that species diversity among the isolated organisms was low. 38 references, 3 tables.

  18. Batch and fed-batch fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis using starch industry wastewater as fermentation substrate.

    PubMed

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Valéro, José R; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2010-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki biopesticide was produced in batch and fed-batch fermentation modes using starch industry wastewater as sole substrate. Fed-batch fermentation with two intermittent feeds (at 10 and 20 h) during the fermentation of 72 h gave the maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (1,672.6 mg/L) and entomotoxicity (Tx) (18.5 x 10(6) SBU/mL) in fermented broth which were significantly higher than maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (511.0 mg/L) and Tx (15.8 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in batch process. However, fed-batch fermentation with three intermittent feeds (at 10, 20 and 34 h) of the fermentation resulted in the formation of asporogenous variant (Spo-) from 36 h to the end of fermentation (72 h) which resulted in a significant decrease in spore and delta-endotoxin concentration and finally the Tx value. Tx of suspended pellets (27.4 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in fed-batch fermentation with two feeds was the highest value as compared to other cases.

  19. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

  1. Improved fermentation performance in an expanded ectopic fermentation system inoculated with thermophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Zhu, Changxiong; Geng, Bing; Liu, Xue; Ye, Jing; Tian, Yunlong; Peng, Xiawei

    2015-12-01

    Previous research showed that ectopic fermentation system (EFS) inoculated with thermophilic bacteria is an excellent alternative for cow wastewater treatment. In this study, the effects of thermophilic bacterial consortium on the efficiency and quality of the fermentation process in EFS were evaluated by measuring physicochemical and environmental factors and the changes in organic matter composition. In parallel, the microbial communities correlated with fermentation performance were identified. Inoculation of EFS with thermophilic bacterial consortium led to higher temperatures, increased wastewater requirements for continuous fermentation, and improved quality of the litters in terms of physicochemical factors, security test, functional group analysis, and bacterial community composition. The relationship between the transformation of organic component and the dominant bacteria species indicated that environmental factors contributed to strain growth, which subsequently promoted the fermentation process. The results highlight the great potential of EFS model for wide application in cow wastewater treatment and re-utilization as bio-fertilizer.

  2. Enhydrin Regulates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Rats by Inhibition of α-Glucosidase Activity.

    PubMed

    Serra-Barcellona, C; Habib, N C; Honoré, S M; Sánchez, S S; Genta, S B

    2017-06-01

    During the last few years, numerous attempts were made to identify effective α-glucosidase inhibitors from natural sources in order to develop new alternatives for diabetes management. Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) leaves were found to be effective in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia. Enhydrin, a constituent of yacon leaves, was noted for its significant hypoglycemic properties in diabetic rats. These properties were also demonstrated for yacon leaves decoction, which is rich in phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid and its derivatives. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of yacon leaves decoction and the isolated compound enhydrin to inhibit α-glucosidase enzyme, a possible mechanism of the above antihyperglycemic effect. In vitro assays showed that both 10% decoction and enhydrin significantly inhibited the activity of the yeast α-glucosidase enzyme in a dose-dependent manner, IC50 values being 50.40 and 134.17 μg/ml, respectively. In vivo experiments showed a rapid decrease in the hyperglycemic peak after sucrose load (2 g/kg body weight) in normal rats treated with the 10% decoction (140 mg/kg) and enhydrin (0.8 mg/kg). Both treatments caused a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats after sucrose load compared to diabetic control. These results suggest that both products assayed could be effective in the management of postprandial hyperglycemia through inhibition of α-glucosidase in the small intestine.

  3. Lysine Fermentation: History and Genome Breeding.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masato

    2016-11-11

    Lysine fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum was developed in 1958 by Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd. (current Kyowa Hakko Bio Co. Ltd.) and is the second oldest amino acid fermentation process after glutamate fermentation. The fundamental mechanism of lysine production, discovered in the early stages of the process's history, gave birth to the concept known as "metabolic regulatory fermentation," which is now widely applied to metabolite production. After the development of rational metabolic engineering, research on lysine production first highlighted the need for engineering of the central metabolism from the viewpoints of precursor supply and NADPH regeneration. Furthermore, the existence of active export systems for amino acids was first demonstrated for lysine in C. glutamicum, and this discovery has resulted in the current recognition of such exporters as an important consideration in metabolite production. Lysine fermentation is also notable as the first process to which genomics was successfully applied to improve amino acid production. The first global "genome breeding" strategy was developed using a lysine producer as a model; this has since led to new lysine producers that are more efficient than classical industrial producers. These advances in strain development technology, combined with recent systems-level approaches, have almost achieved the optimization of entire cellular systems as cell factories for lysine production. In parallel, the continuous improvement of the process has resulted not only in fermentation processes with reduced load on downstream processing but also in commercialization of various product forms according to their intended uses. Nowadays lysine fermentation underpins a giant lysine demand of more than 2 million metric tons per year.

  4. Microbial community dynamics during fermentation of doenjang-meju, traditional Korean fermented soybean.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-08-18

    Bacterial and fungal community dynamics, along with viable plate counts and water content, were investigated in the exterior and interior regions of doenjang-meju, traditional Korean fermented soybean, during its fermentation process. Measurement of viable cells showed that the meju molding equipment might be an important source of bacterial cells (mostly Bacillus) during doenjang-meju fermentation, whereas fungi might be mostly derived from the fermentation environment including incubation shelves, air, and rice straws. Community analysis using rRNA-targeted pyrosequencing revealed that Bacillus among bacteria and Mucor among fungi were predominant in both the exterior and interior regions of doenjang-meju during the early fermentation period. Bacteria such as Ignatzschineria, Myroides, Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, and Clostridium and fungi such as Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Monascus, Fusarium, and eventually Aspergillus were mainly detected as the fermentation progressed. Bacillus, an aerobic bacterial group, was predominant in the exterior regions during the entire fermentation period, while anaerobic, facultative anaerobic, and microaerobic bacteria including Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Myroides, and Ignatzschineria were much more abundant in the interior regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) also indicated that the bacterial communities in the exterior and interior regions were clearly differentiated, suggesting that aeration might be an important factor in determining the bacterial communities during doenjang-meju fermentation. However, PCA showed that fungal communities were not separated in the exterior and interior regions and Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the major fungal taxa had significantly positive (Mucor and Geotrichum) or negative (Aspergillus) correlations with the water content during doenjang-meju fermentation, indicating that water content might be a significant factor in determining the fungal

  5. Defective quiescence entry promotes the fermentation performance of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    Oomuro, Mayu; Kato, Taku; Zhou, Yan; Watanabe, Daisuke; Motoyama, Yasuo; Yamagishi, Hiromi; Akao, Takeshi; Aizawa, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    One of the key processes in making beer is fermentation. In the fermentation process, brewer's yeast plays an essential role in both the production of ethanol and the flavor profile of beer. Therefore, the mechanism of ethanol fermentation by of brewer's yeast is attracting much attention. The high ethanol productivity of sake yeast has provided a good basis from which to investigate the factors that regulate the fermentation rates of brewer's yeast. Recent studies found that the elevated fermentation rate of sake Saccharomyces cerevisiae species is closely related to a defective transition from vegetative growth to the quiescent (G0) state. In the present study, to clarify the relationship between the fermentation rate of brewer's yeast and entry into G0, we constructed two types of mutant of the bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70: a RIM15 gene disruptant that was defective in entry into G0; and a CLN3ΔPEST mutant, in which the G1 cyclin Cln3p accumulated at high levels. Both strains exhibited higher fermentation rates under high-maltose medium or high-gravity wort conditions (20° Plato) as compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, G1 arrest and/or G0 entry were defective in both the RIM15 disruptant and the CLN3ΔPEST mutant as compared with the wild-type strain. Taken together, these results indicate that regulation of the G0/G1 transition might govern the fermentation rate of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast in high-gravity wort.

  6. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Costilow, R. N.; Anderson, T. E.; Bell, T. A.

    1964-01-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  7. Yeast Biodiversity from DOQ Priorat Uninoculated Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Beatriz; García-Fernández, David; González, Beatriz; Izidoro, Iara; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Climate, soil, and grape varieties are the primary characteristics of terroir and lead to the definition of various appellations of origin. However, the microbiota associated with grapes are also affected by these conditions and can leave a footprint in a wine that will be part of the characteristics of terroir. Thus, a description of the yeast microbiota within a vineyard is of interest not only to provide a better understanding of the winemaking process, but also to understand the source of microorganisms that maintain a microbial footprint in wine from the examined vineyard. In this study, two typical grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, have been sampled from four different vineyards in the DOQ Priorat winegrowing region. Afterward, eight spontaneous alcoholic fermentations containing only grapes from one sampling point and of one variety were conducted at laboratory scale. The fermentation kinetics and yeast population dynamics within each fermentation experiment were evaluated. Yeast identification was performed by RFLP-PCR of the 5.8S-ITS region and by sequencing D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene of the isolates. The fermentation kinetics did not indicate clear differences between the two varieties of grapes or among vineyards. Approximately 1,400 isolates were identified, exhibiting high species richness in some fermentations. Of all the isolates studied, approximately 60% belong to the genus Hanseniaspora, 16% to Saccharomyces, and 11% to Candida. Other minor genera, such as Hansenula, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomycodes, and Zygosaccharomyces, were also found. The distribution of the identified yeast throughout the fermentation process was studied, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be present mainly at the end of the fermentation process, while Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated primarily during the first days of fermentation in three of the eight spontaneous fermentations. This work highlights the complexity and diversity of the vineyard

  8. Yeast Biodiversity from DOQ Priorat Uninoculated Fermentations.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Beatriz; García-Fernández, David; González, Beatriz; Izidoro, Iara; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Climate, soil, and grape varieties are the primary characteristics of terroir and lead to the definition of various appellations of origin. However, the microbiota associated with grapes are also affected by these conditions and can leave a footprint in a wine that will be part of the characteristics of terroir. Thus, a description of the yeast microbiota within a vineyard is of interest not only to provide a better understanding of the winemaking process, but also to understand the source of microorganisms that maintain a microbial footprint in wine from the examined vineyard. In this study, two typical grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, have been sampled from four different vineyards in the DOQ Priorat winegrowing region. Afterward, eight spontaneous alcoholic fermentations containing only grapes from one sampling point and of one variety were conducted at laboratory scale. The fermentation kinetics and yeast population dynamics within each fermentation experiment were evaluated. Yeast identification was performed by RFLP-PCR of the 5.8S-ITS region and by sequencing D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene of the isolates. The fermentation kinetics did not indicate clear differences between the two varieties of grapes or among vineyards. Approximately 1,400 isolates were identified, exhibiting high species richness in some fermentations. Of all the isolates studied, approximately 60% belong to the genus Hanseniaspora, 16% to Saccharomyces, and 11% to Candida. Other minor genera, such as Hansenula, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomycodes, and Zygosaccharomyces, were also found. The distribution of the identified yeast throughout the fermentation process was studied, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be present mainly at the end of the fermentation process, while Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated primarily during the first days of fermentation in three of the eight spontaneous fermentations. This work highlights the complexity and diversity of the vineyard

  9. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  10. Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains

    SciTech Connect

    Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

  11. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J D

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  12. One hundred years of clostridial butanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyeon Gi; Jang, Yu-Sin; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Binkley, Robert; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-02-01

    Butanol has been widely used as an important industrial solvent and feedstock for chemical production. Also, its superior fuel properties compared with ethanol make butanol a good substitute for gasoline. Butanol can be efficiently produced by the genus Clostridium through the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, one of the oldest industrial fermentation processes. Butanol production via industrial fermentation has recently gained renewed interests as a potential solution to increasing pressure of climate change and environmental problems by moving away from fossil fuel consumption and moving toward renewable raw materials. Great advances over the last 100 years are now reviving interest in bio-based butanol production. However, several challenges to industrial production of butanol still need to be overcome, such as overall cost competitiveness and development of higher performance strains with greater butanol tolerance. This minireview revisits the past 100 years of remarkable achievements made in fermentation technologies, product recovery processes, and strain development in clostridial butanol fermentation through overcoming major technical hurdles. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Fermentation of 6-Deoxyhexoses by Bacillus macerans†

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Paul J.

    1984-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions Bacillus macerans ATCC 7068 fermented 6-deoxyhexoses (l-rhamnose, l-fucose, and d-fucose) to a mixture of 1,2-propanediol (PD), acetone, H2, CO2, and ethanol. The final PD concentration was proportional to the amount of l-rhamnose fermented (∼0.9 mol of PD per mol of rhamnose). PD was not produced from hexoses (e.g., d-glucose or l-mannose), despite active fermentation of these substrates. Relative to the fermentation of d-glucose, the fermentation of l-rhamnose was accompanied by a twofold reduction in yield of H2, CO2, and cell mass. Exposure of cell extracts to l-rhamnose resulted in the transient appearance of an aldehyde intermediate. Cell extracts contained a pyridine nucleotide-linked lactaldehyde reductase activity which converted synthetic d- or l-lactaldehyde to PD. The data suggest an Embden-Meyerhof pathway for 6-deoxyhexose catabolism, with the formation of lactaldehyde by a conventional aldolase cleavage reaction and subsequent reduction to PD. PMID:16346466

  14. Continuous membrane fermentor separator for ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of ethanol on yeast growth and ethanol production has been studied using the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-Y-2034 under anaerobic conditions. Batch and continuous fermentation data were fitted to a kinetic model. The integration of continuous fermentation and separation of ethanol in the same unit has been proposed. Pervaporation with ethanol selective silicone rubber hollow fiber membranes was considered for separation. A laboratory scale Continuous Membrane Fermentor Separator (CMFS) unit utilizing a shell and tube configuration was designed and fabricated. Two types of continuous fermentation experiments were carried out: fermentation with dead membranes as the reference and fermentation with live membranes through which ethanol was continuously removed by pervaporation from the fermentor. Performance of the CMFS results in higher yeast cell densities, reduction of ethanol inhibition, longer residence time of substrate, more glucose consumption, and recovery of clean and concentrated ethanol. A mathematical model was developed and used to determine the effects of design and operation parameters of the CMFS, including dilution rate, dimensionless membrane volume, substrate concentration, membrane properties, etc. Computer simulation results indicated that the CMFS could provide significant improvements not only in ethanol productivity but also in glucose consumption for highly concentrated substrate when the dimensionless membrane volume and/or permeability of ethanol was increased.

  15. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for fermentation and anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its cloning sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting the ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Extractive microbial fermentation in cloud point system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhilong; Dai, Zewen

    2010-05-05

    Extractive microbial fermentation of organic compounds in liquid-liquid two-phase systems is a potential strategy to overcome the limitations of microbial fermentation in an aqueous solution, such as low substrate solubility, substrate/product inhibition and product further degradation. A conventional aqueous-organic solvent two-phase system is inaccessible to extractive fermentation of a relatively high polar bioproduct as the confliction between the biocompatibility and the extraction ability of the corresponding organic solvent. An exploitation of cloud point system as a novel medium engineering method for extractive microbial fermentation is reviewed in present work. The relationship between phase separation of nonionic surfactant aqueous solution forming cloud point system and its corresponding biocompatibility to microorganisms, and the relationship between solubilization and bioavailability of organic compounds in a cloud point system are discussed. Paradigms of extractive microbial fermentation in cloud point system are highlighted with some cases in our lab. The downstream processing for nonionic surfactant recovery and product separation with microemulsion extraction is also presented.

  17. Inhibition of cellulase by fermentation products

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, M.

    1984-12-01

    Cellulosic materials are important resources for the production of fuels and chemicals. One of the processes designed to utilize cellulosic materials is enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation to final products. It was shown that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is effective in the production of ethanol from cellulose. The acceleration of the rate of cellulose degradation in SSF was caused by less inhibition of cellulase by ethanol than by glucose and/or cellobiose. In order to apply the SSF method effectively to the production of substances derived from glucose by fermentation, several conditions should be satisfied. One of them is the coincidence of conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hydrolyzate, such as pH and temperature. The second condition is that the inhibition of cellulase by the final product is less than that by glucose and/or cellobiose. There has been a comprehensive review and some reports on inhibition of cellulase by saccharides such as glucose, cellobiose, xylose, lactose, maltose, metals, and some chemicals such as dyes, detergents, halogenated compounds, and phenolic compounds. In this communication, the inhibition of cellulase by several substances derived by fermentation of glucose is reported. 7 references.

  18. Fermentation of corn starch to ethanol with genetically engineered yeast.

    PubMed

    Inlow, D; McRae, J; Ben-Bassat, A

    1988-07-05

    Expression of the glucoamylase gene from Aspergillus awamori by laboratory and distiller's strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed them to ferment soluble starch. Approximately 95% of the carbohydrates in the starch were utilized. Glycerol production was significantly decreased when soluble starch was used instead of glucose. Ethanol yield on soluble starch was higher than that on glucose. The rate of starch fermentation was directly related to the level of glucoamylase activity. Strains with higher levels of glucoamylase expression fermented starch faster. The decline in starch fermentation rates toward the end of the fermentation was associated with accumulation of disaccharides and limit dextrins, poor substrates for glucoamylase. The buildup of these products in continuous fermentations inhibited glucoamylase activity and complete utilization of the starch. Under these conditions maltose-fermenting strains had a significant advantage over nonfermenting strains. The synthesis and secretion of glucoamylase showed no deleterious effects on cell growth rates, fermetation rates, and fermentation products.

  19. Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.; Coleman, R.

    1995-11-07

    A method is described for converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains. 2 figs.

  20. Generalised additive modelling approach to the fermentation process of glutamate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Bo; Li, Yun; Pan, Feng; Shi, Zhong-Ping

    2011-03-01

    In this work, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used for the first time to model the fermentation of glutamate (Glu). It was found that three fermentation parameters fermentation time (T), dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) could capture 97% variance of the production of Glu during the fermentation process through a GAM model calibrated using online data from 15 fermentation experiments. This model was applied to investigate the individual and combined effects of T, DO and OUR on the production of Glu. The conditions to optimize the fermentation process were proposed based on the simulation study from this model. Results suggested that the production of Glu can reach a high level by controlling concentration levels of DO and OUR to the proposed optimization conditions during the fermentation process. The GAM approach therefore provides an alternative way to model and optimize the fermentation process of Glu. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycerol Production by Fermenting Yeast Cells Is Essential for Optimal Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  2. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  3. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Altay, Filiz; Karbancıoglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage.

  4. Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2013-09-16

    Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and fructose using standard broth under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Most Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were superior to other species in ethanol production. The best ethanol producing S. cerevisiae strains, and strains of the species Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia fabianii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were tested for production of flavor compounds during fermentation of masau fruit juice. Significant differences in the production of ethanol and other volatile compounds during fermentation of masau juice were observed among and within the four tested species. Alcohols and esters were the major volatiles detected in the fermented juice. Trace amounts of organic acids and carbonyl compounds were detected. Ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were produced in highest amounts as compared to the other volatile compounds. S. cerevisiae strains produced higher amounts of ethanol and flavor compounds as compared to the other species, especially fatty acid ethyl esters that provide the major aroma impact of freshly fermented wines. The developed library of characteristics can help in the design of mixtures of strains to obtain a specific melange of product functionalities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enamel microhardness and fluoride uptake underneath fermenting and non-fermenting artificial plaque.

    PubMed

    Turtola, L O

    1977-09-01

    Washed cells of Streptococcus sanguis were used to form artificial plaque on the surface of bovine enamel and incubated underneath buffer solutions, initial pH 6, for 36 h at 37 degrees C. The decrease in the microhardness of the enamel surface under fermenting "plaque" could be prevented with fluoride. Enamel under a fermenting "plaque" took up significantly more (P less than 0.0u) fluoride than enamel under a non-fermenting "plaque" (initial F- in buffer: 10 parts/10(6)). The artificial plaque did not accumulate fluoride. Within fermenting "plaques/, the pH decreased significantly more without flouride (P less than 0.01) than with fluoride. Fluoride combined with sucrose more than negated the softening of the enamel caused by sucrose fermentation, i.e. it increased the hardness above the original values. The diffusion of fluoride through the fermenting artificial plaque was more rapid than through a non-fermenting plaque. These findings suggest that caries-conducive circumstances may promote fluoride uptake by enamel compared with non-caries-conducive circumstances.

  6. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  7. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  8. Yeast Interactions in Inoculated Wine Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Maurizio; Capece, Angela; Comitini, Francesca; Canonico, Laura; Siesto, Gabriella; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The use of selected starter culture is widely diffused in winemaking. In pure fermentation, the ability of inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae to suppress the wild microflora is one of the most important feature determining the starter ability to dominate the process. Since the wine is the result of the interaction of several yeast species and strains, many studies are available on the effect of mixed cultures on the final wine quality. In mixed fermentation the interactions between the different yeasts composing the starter culture can led the stability of the final product and the analytical and aromatic profile. In the present review, we will discuss the recent developments regarding yeast interactions in pure and in mixed fermentation, focusing on the influence of interactions on growth and dominance in the process. PMID:27148235

  9. PYRUVATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS1

    PubMed Central

    Deibel, R. H.; Niven, C. F.

    1964-01-01

    Deibel, R. H. (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), and C. F. Niven, Jr. Pyruvate fermentation by Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 88:4–10. 1964.—Streptococcus faecalis, as opposed to S. faecium, utilizes pyruvate as an energy source for growth. The fermentation is adaptive, as demonstrated by growth experiments in a casein-hydrolysate medium and the fermentation of pyruvate by cell suspensions. The principal products of pyruvate catabolism were acetoin, CO2, and lactic, acetic, and formic acids, although carbon recoveries were low due to the formation of slime. End-product analyses suggested that both the phosphoroclastic and dismutation systems were active in pyruvate breakdown. Studies with cell-free extracts indicated a thiamine diphosphate requirement for active pyruvate catabolism. The involvement of lipoic acid in the phosphoroclastic system was investigated, and, although inconclusive results were obtained, no association of this cofactor with phosphoroclastic activity could be made. PMID:14197905

  10. Kinetics of ethanol inhibition in alcohol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Luong, J H

    1985-03-01

    The inhibitory effect of ethanol on yeast growth and fermentation has been studied for the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC No. 4126 under anaerobic batch conditions. The results obtained reveal that there is no striking difference between the response of growth and ethanol fermentation. Two kinetic models are also proposed to describe the kinetic pattern of ethanol inhibition on the specific rates of growth and ethanol fermentation: microi/micro0 = 1 - (P/Pm)alpha (for growth) nui/nu0 = 1 - (P/P'm)beta (for ethanol production). The maximum allowable ethanol concentration above which cells do not grow was predicted to be 112 g/L. The ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 115 g/L ethanol. The proposed models appear to accurately represent the experimental data obtained in this study and the literature data.

  11. Kinetics of ethanol inhibition in alcohol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, J.H.T.

    1985-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of ethanol on yeast growth and fermentation has been studied for the strain Saccharo-myces cerevisiae ATCC No. 4126 under anaerobic batch conditions. The results obtained reveal that there is no striking difference between the response of growth and ethanol fermentation. Two kinetic models are also proposed to describe the kinetic pattern of ethanol inhibition on the specific rates of growth and ethanol fermentation. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration above which cells do not grow was predicted to be 112 g/L. The ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 115 g/L ethanol. The proposed models appear to accurately represent the experimental data obtained in this study and the literature data.

  12. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural... fermentation but the density of the juice may not be reduced below 22 degrees Brix. However, if the juice...

  13. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural... fermentation but the density of the juice may not be reduced below 22 degrees Brix. However, if the juice...

  14. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural... fermentation but the density of the juice may not be reduced below 22 degrees Brix. However, if the juice...

  15. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural... fermentation but the density of the juice may not be reduced below 22 degrees Brix. However, if the juice...

  16. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural... fermentation but the density of the juice may not be reduced below 22 degrees Brix. However, if the juice...

  17. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  18. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  19. Volatile Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus paracasei During Oat Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Mi; Oh, Jieun; Hurh, Byung-Serk; Jeong, Gwi-Hwa; Shin, Young-Keum; Kim, Young-Suk

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the profiles of volatile compounds produced by Lactobacillus paracasei during oat fermentation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with headspace solid-phase microextraction method. A total of 60 compounds, including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, furan derivatives, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur-containing compounds, terpenes, and other compounds, were identified in fermented oat. Lipid oxidation products such as 2-pentylfuran, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, and nonanal were found to be the main contributors to oat samples fermented by L. paracasei with the level of 2-pentylfuran being the highest. In addition, the contents of ketones, alcohols, acids, and furan derivatives in the oat samples consistently increased with the fermentation time. On the other hand, the contents of degradation products of amino acids, such as 3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde, acetophenone, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, decreased in oat samples during fermentation. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to discriminate the fermented oat samples according to different fermentation times. The fermented oats were clearly differentiated on PCA plots. The initial fermentation stage was mainly affected by aldehydes, whereas the later samples of fermented oats were strongly associated with acids, alcohols, furan derivatives, and ketones. The application of PCA to data of the volatile profiles revealed that the oat samples fermented by L. paracasei could be distinguished according to fermentation time. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed...

  1. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed...

  2. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed...

  3. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed...

  4. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed...

  5. Liquefaction, Saccharification, and Fermentation of Ammoniated Corn to ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of non-fermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the...

  6. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

    1981-01-01

    The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

  7. Studies on the interaction of fermentation and microfiltration operations: erythromycin recovery from Saccharopolyspora erythraea fermentation broths.

    PubMed

    Davies, J L; Baganz, F; Ison, A P; Lye, G J

    2000-08-20

    Changes in fermentation media not only affect the performance of the fermentation itself (with regard to the kinetics of biomass and product formation and the yields obtained) but also the initial product-recovery operations downstream of the fermentor. In this work, microfiltration experiments to remove Saccharopolyspora erythraea biomass from fermentation broth and to recover erythromycin were carried out using two fundamentally different media; a soluble complex medium (SCM) and an oil-based process medium (OBM). Small-scale batch fermentations of 14-L working volume were carried out in triplicate using both media. Broth samples were taken from each fermentation at regular intervals from the end of the exponential-growth phase onwards. These were then processed using a Minitan II (acrylic), tangential crossflow-filtration module, fitted with a single 60 cm(2) Durapore hydrophilic 0.2 microm membrane, operated in concentration mode. The OBM fermentations produced higher titers of erythromycin but required longer fermentation times due to increased lag phases and slower maximum-growth rates. The OBM also increased the loading on the membrane; at maximum product titers residual oil concentrations of 3 g. L(-1), antifoam concentrations of 2 g. L(-1) and flour concentrations estimated at approximately 10 g/L(-1) were typical. It was found that both the permeate flux and erythromycin transmission were affected by the choice of medium. The OBM had significantly lower values for both parameters (12.8 Lm(-2) h(-1) and 89.6% respectively) than the SCM (35.9 Lm(-2) h(-1) and 96.7% respectively) when the fermentations were harvested at maximum erythromycin titers. Transmission of erythromycin stayed approximately constant as a function of fermentation time for both media, however, for the OBM the permeate flux decreased with time which correlated with an increase in broth viscosity. The relatively poor microfiltration performance of the OBM medium was, however, offset by

  8. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  9. Fermentation exhaust gas analysis using mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, B.; Brix, Fastert, H.; Gbewonyo, K.; Hunt, G.; Jain, D.

    1985-11-01

    A Perkin Elmer MGA-1200 mass spectrometer has been coupled with a mini-computer and a sampling manifold to analyze up to 8 components in the exhaust gases of fermentors. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen are typically analyzed, but ethanol for yeast fermentations can also be tested by heating the line from the fermentor to the sampling manifold. Specifications, operation, and performance of the system are described. The system has been used for process control, the study of fermentation kinetics, and process development. 8 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  10. Characteristics of traditional Chinese shanlan wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongsheng; Luo, Xianqun; Wang, Xinguang

    2014-02-01

    Shanlan rice wine is made by a unique method by removing the saccharified liquid from wine mash constantly since it appeared during saccharification and fermentation. The objective of this study is to find the advantages of this technique of wine making by analyzing data of shanlan wine fermentation. Since the liquid was removed, the mash (rice) bed was fluffier than immersed in the saccharified liquid, under ambient condition constantly and it is favorable for starch degradation. This technique made shanlan rice wine tasted sweet and slightly acidic, lower content of alcohol and higher alcohol than in other non-distilled rice wines.

  11. Third Generation Biofuels via Direct Cellulose Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Carere, Carlo R.; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a system in which cellulase production, substrate hydrolysis, and fermentation are accomplished in a single process step by cellulolytic microorganisms. CBP offers the potential for lower biofuel production costs due to simpler feedstock processing, lower energy inputs, and higher conversion efficiencies than separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, and is an economically attractive near-term goal for “third generation” biofuel production. In this review article, production of third generation biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will be addressed in respect to the metabolism of cellulolytic bacteria and the development of strategies to increase biofuel yields through metabolic engineering. PMID:19325807

  12. Recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Kurzrock, Tanja; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Succinic acid is of high interest as bio-feedstock for the chemical industry. It is a precursor for a variety of many other chemicals, e.g. 1,4-butandiol, tetrahydrofuran, biodegradable polymers and fumaric acid. Besides optimized production strains and fermentation processes it is indispensable to develop cost-saving and energy-effective downstream processes to compete with the current petrochemical production process. Various methods such as precipitation, sorption and ion exchange, electrodialysis, and liquid-liquid extraction have been investigated for the recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broth and are reviewed critically here.

  13. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of bacterial community and metabolites profiles in Korean traditional seafood fermentation: a flatfish-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community and metabolites were analyzed in a flatfish jeotgal, a Korean fermented seafood. Inverse relationship of pH and 16S rRNA gene copy number was identified during fermentation. Lactobacillus was the predominant bacterial genus. Increase of Firmicutes was a common characteristic shared by other fermented seafood. Fructose, glucose, and maltose were the major metabolites.

  14. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  15. Modification of the acetaldehyde concentration during alcoholic fermentation and effects on fermentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Roustan, Jean Louis; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie

    2002-01-01

    We studied the kinetic effects of increasing the residual acetaldehyde concentration during alcoholic fermentation, especially during the stationary phase. We added this compound via pulse or continuous injections. The yeast response depended on the amount of acetaldehyde added: high concentrations inhibited fermentation while low concentrations led to stimulation. When regular small additions were made, up to 100 mM acetaldehyde could be added and this caused a very significant drop in the fermentation duration. We also modulated the acetaldehyde concentration by modifying the alcohol dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction. Two approaches were tested (i) adding aldehydes (propanal and furfural) that competitively inhibited the reduction of acetaldehyde and (ii) adding electron acceptors that reduced the quantity of NADH available. Several possible mechanisms responsible for (i) the impact of acetaldehyde on fermentation kinetics and (ii) the modulation of the residual acetaldehyde concentration are discussed.

  16. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-08-29

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Jandačka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

  18. Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Tanaka, Shuzo

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, growing attention has been devoted to the conversion of biomass into fuel ethanol, considered the cleanest liquid fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Significant advances have been made towards the technology of ethanol fermentation. This review provides practical examples and gives a broad overview of the current status of ethanol fermentation including biomass resources, microorganisms, and technology. Also, the promising prospects of ethanol fermentation are especially introduced. The prospects included are fermentation technology converting xylose to ethanol, cellulase enzyme utilized in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, immobilization of the microorganism in large systems, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, and sugar conversion into ethanol.

  19. Ethanol production from xylose by enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.C.; Hsiao, H.Y.; Ueng, P.P.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Repetitive enzymic isomerization of xylose followed by yeast fermentation of xylulose, and simultaneous enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation were proven to be methods capable of converting xylose to ethanol. The fermentation product, ethanol, xylitol, or glycerol, has little inhibitory or deactivation effect on the activity of isomerase. In a comparison of the ability of yeasts to ferment xylulose to ethanol, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was found to be superior to industrial bakers' yeast. Under optimal conditions (pH 6, temperature 30/sup 0/C), a final ethanol concentration of 6.3 wt.% was obtained from simulated hemicellulose hydrolysate using a simultaneous fermentation process. The ethanol yield was over 80% of the theoretical value.

  20. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, Diane D.; Grohmann, Karel; Wyman, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  1. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

    1992-03-31

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. 2 figs.

  2. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body’s H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  3. Monitoring alcoholic fermentation: an untargeted approach.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, António César Silva; Monforte, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Carla Silva; Martins, Rosa; Fairbairn, Samantha; Bauer, Florian F

    2014-07-16

    This work describes the utility and efficiency of a metabolic profiling pipeline that relies on an unsupervised and untargeted approach applied to a HS-SPME/GC-MS data. This noninvasive and high throughput methodology enables "real time" monitoring of the metabolic changes inherent to the biochemical dynamics of a perturbed complex biological system and the extraction of molecular candidates that are latter validated on its biochemical context. To evaluate the efficiency of the pipeline five different fermentations, carried on a synthetic media and whose perturbation was the nitrogen source, were performed in 5 and 500 mL. The smaller volume fermentations were monitored online by HS-SPME/GC-MS, allowing to obtain metabolic profiles and molecular candidates time expression. Nontarget analysis was applied using MS data in two ways: (i) one dimension (1D), where the total ion chromatogram per sample was used, (ii) two dimensions (2D), where the integrity time vs m/z per sample was used. Results indicate that the 2D procedure captured the relevant information more efficiently than the 1D. It was also seen that although there were differences in the fermentation performance in different scales, the metabolic pathways responsible for production of metabolites that impact the quality of the volatile fraction was unaffected, so the proposed pipeline is suitable for the study of different fermentation systems that can undergo subsequent sensory validation on a larger scale.

  4. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    PubMed

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The study was conducted utilizing a 2(3) central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g(-1)), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L(-1). These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L(-1)), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L(-1) and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  5. Degradation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during yeast fermentation.

    PubMed

    Akıllıoglu, Halise Gül; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2011-12-01

    5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) may occur in malt in high quantities depending on roasting conditions. However, the HMF content of different types of beers is relatively low, indicating its potential for degradation during fermentation. This study investigates the degradation kinetics of HMF in wort during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results indicated that HMF decreased exponentially as fermentation progressed. The first-order degradation rate of HMF was 0.693 × 10(-2) and 1.397 × 10(-2)min(-1) for wort and sweet wort, respectively, indicating that sugar enhances the activity of yeasts. In wort, HMF was converted into hydroxymethyl furfuryl alcohol by yeasts with a high yield (79-84% conversion). Glucose and fructose were utilised more rapidly by the yeasts in dark roasted malt than in pale malt (p<0.05). The conversion of HMF into hydroxymethyl furfuryl alcohol seems to be a primary activity of yeast cells, and presence of sugars in the fermentation medium increases this activity.

  6. New fermentation route cuts energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-08

    Alcon Biotechnology has built a containerized continuous-fermentation demonstration unit and claims a steam consumption of under 20 lb/gallon of alcohol. Crawford and Russell (Stamford, Conn.) is offering this new power-alcohol technology in the U.S. which is designed for a range of feeds including cane and beet sugar juice, molasses and cereal grains.

  7. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    López-Garzón, Camilo S; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylic acids such as citric, lactic, succinic and itaconic acids are useful products and are obtained on large scale by fermentation. This review describes the options for recovering these and other fermentative carboxylic acids. After cell removal, often a primary recovery step is performed, using liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, precipitation or conventional electrodialysis. If the carboxylate is formed rather than the carboxylic acid, the recovery process involves a step for removing the cation of the formed carboxylate. Then, bipolar electrodialysis and thermal methods for salt splitting can prevent that waste inorganic salts are co-produced. Final carboxylic acid purification requires either distillation or crystallization, usually involving evaporation of water. Process steps can often be combined synergistically. In-situ removal of carboxylic acid by extraction during fermentation is the most popular approach. Recovery of the extractant can easily lead to waste inorganic salt formation, which counteracts the advantage of the in-situ removal. For industrial production, various recovery principles and configurations are used, because the fermentation conditions and physical properties of specific carboxylic acids differ.

  8. Fermentation and oxygen transfer in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The need for high rate oxygen transfer in microgravity for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) environment offers a number of difficulties and challenges. The use of a phase separated bioreactor appears to provide a way of overcoming these problems resulting in a system capable of providing high cell densities with rapid fermentation rates. Some of the key design elements are discussed.

  9. Role of water activity in ethanol fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.P.; Greenfield, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    A separate role for water activity in the conversion of sugars to ethanol by two strains of yeast is identified. During fermentation of both single and mixed sugar substrates, the water activity was shown to remain constant during the logarithmic growth phase. This is despite the changes in concentration of substrates and production, the constancy reflecting the fact that the greater influence of ethanol on the solution activity is counterbalanced, in the early stages of the fermentation, by its low yield. The end of the log phase of growth coincides with the start of a period of gradually decreasing water activity. For the more ethanol-tolerant strain UQM66Y, growth was found to cease at a constant value of water activity while that for the less tolerant strain UQM70Y depended on both ethanol concentration and water activity. It is argued that water activity is a more appropriate variable than ethanol concentration for describing some of the nonspecific inhibitory effects apparent in ethanol fermentations. A straightforward method for the calculation of water activity during such fermentations based on the use of solution osmolarity is presented.

  10. Plasmid fermentation process for DNA immunization applications.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid DNA for immunization applications must be of the highest purity and quality. The ability of downstream purification to efficiently produce a pure final product is directly influenced by the performance of the upstream fermentation process. While several clinical manufacturing facilities already have validated fermentation processes in place to manufacture plasmid DNA for use in humans, a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale fermentation process can be valuable for in-house production of plasmid DNA for use in animal efficacy studies. This chapter describes a simple fed-batch fermentation process for producing bacterial cell paste enriched with high-quality plasmid DNA. A constant feeding strategy results in a medium cell density culture with continuously increasing plasmid amplification towards the end of the process. Cell banking and seed culture preparation protocols, which can dramatically influence final product yield and quality, are also described. These protocols are suitable for production of research-grade plasmid DNA at the 100 mg-to-1.5 g scale from a typical 10 L laboratory benchtop fermentor.

  11. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-02-08

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production.

  12. Yeast communities in a natural tequila fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lachance, M A

    1995-08-01

    Fresh and cooked agave, Drosophila spp., processing equipment, agave molasses, agave extract, and fermenting must at a traditional tequila distillery (Herradura, Amatitan, Jalisco, México) were studied to gain insight on the origin of yeasts involved in a natural tequila fermentations. Five yeast communities were identified. (1) Fresh agave contained a diverse mycobiota dominated by Clavispora lusitaniae and an endemic species, Metschnikowia agaveae. (2) Drosophila spp. from around or inside the distillery yielded typical fruit yeasts, in particular Hanseniaspora spp., Pichia kluyveri, and Candida krusei. (3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe prevailed in molasses. (4) Cooked agave and extract had a considerable diversity of species, but included Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5) Fermenting juice underwent a gradual reduction in yeast heterogeneity. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora spp. progressively ceded the way to S. cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Candida milleri, and Brettanomyces spp. With the exception of Pichia membranaefaciens, which was shared by all communities, little overlap existed. That separation was even more manifest when species were divided into distinguishable biotypes based on morphology or physiology. It is concluded that crushing equipment and must holding tanks are the main source of significant inoculum for the fermentation process. Drosophila species appear to serve as internal vectors. Proximity to fruit trees probably contributes to maintaining a substantial Drosophila community, but the yeasts found in the distillery exhibit very little similarity to those found in adjacent vegetation. Interactions involving killer toxins had no apparent direct effects on the yeast community structure.

  13. Removing Biostatic Agents From Fermentation Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide inexpensive solvent. Inexpensive process proposed for removing such poisons as furfural and related compounds from fermentation baths of biomass hydrolysates. New process based on use of liquid carbon dioxide as extraction solvent. Liquid CO2 preferable to such other liquid solvents as ether or methylene chloride.

  14. Fermentation alcohol: better to convert to fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorella, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    Production of gasoline from fermentative ethanol offers many advantages over distillation to alcohol and blending to gasohol. A 70% process energy saving is possible and a superior liquid fuel is produced. The conversion of ethanol to gasoline was demonstrated under a wide variety of process conditions and the results were verified by pilot-plant tests.

  15. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the synthesis of ethanol and related fermentation products are regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its coding sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase and have recently cloned the ldh gene. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Fermentation process for production of xanthan

    SciTech Connect

    Wernau, W.C.

    1981-08-04

    Xanthomonas polymers used in displacement of oil from partially depleted reservoirs are produced in higher concentrations and yields by the gradual addition of a source of assimilable carbon, preferably glucose, to the aqueous nutrient medium during the course of a Xanthomonas fermentation. The cost factors involved in secondary and tertiary oil recovery and the competitive use of diluted Xanthomonas whole broths in such recovery dictate increasing the fermentation concentration of the Xanthomonas polymers. Reduced shipping costs, broth storage facilities, and handling costs are some of the benefits derived. Furthermore, reduced volumes of solvent are needed for recovery when initial broth concentrations are high in those processes where Xanthomonas gums are recovered for oil recovery applications. Increasing the fermentation yield of a desired microbial product is accomplished by adding or feeding a nutrient or nutrients during the course of the fermentation cycle. The addition of glucose solution is started immediately after inoculation. The glucose is fed at an exponentially increasing rate up to 24 hr after inoculation and thereafter at a constant rate. Other nutrients may be fed with the source of assimilable carbon. (Also related to US 11/30/78 Appl. 964,951). 4 claims.

  17. Fermentation process for production of Xanthan

    SciTech Connect

    Wernau, W.C.

    1981-08-04

    Xanthomonas polymers used in displacement of oil from partially depleted reservoirs are produced in higher concentrations and yields by the gradual addition of a source of assimilable carbon, preferably glucose, to the aqueous nutrient medium during the course of a Xanthomonas fermentation. The cost factors involved in secondary and tertiary oil recovery and the competitive use of diluted Xanthomonas whole broths in such recovery dictate increasing the fermentation concentration of the Xanthomonas polymers. Reduced shipping costs, broth storage facilities, and handling costs are some of the benefits derived. Furthermore, reduced volumes of solvent are needed for recovery when initial broth concentrations are high in those processes where Xanthomonas gums are recovered for oil recovery applications. Increasing the fermentation yield of a desired microbial product is accomplished by adding or feeding a nutrient or nutrients during the course of the fermentation cycle. The addition of glucose solution is started immediately after inoculation. The glucose is fed at an exponentially increasing rate up to 24 hr after inoculation and thereafter at a constant rate. Other nutrients may be fed with the source of assimilable carbon. (Also related to US 11/30/78 Appl. 964,951). 4 claims.

  18. Removing Biostatic Agents From Fermentation Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide inexpensive solvent. Inexpensive process proposed for removing such poisons as furfural and related compounds from fermentation baths of biomass hydrolysates. New process based on use of liquid carbon dioxide as extraction solvent. Liquid CO2 preferable to such other liquid solvents as ether or methylene chloride.

  19. Biotechnology, fermentation, foods and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley, P.

    1981-02-01

    This article reviews the future of biotechnology in the food industry - the continuing development of methods for controlled fermentation and enzyme reaction, combined with the projected culturing of new and useful organisms through gene-splicing. At present, the largest enzyme market in the food industry is for glucose isomerase to convert glucose to high-fructose corn syrup.

  20. Ruminal fermentation of propylene glycol and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Tjandrakusuma, Siska; Rasmussen, Mark A; Reilly, Peter J

    2007-08-22

    Bovine rumen fluid was fermented anaerobically with 25 mM R-propylene glycol, S-propylene glycol, or glycerol added. After 24 h, all of the propylene glycol enantiomers and approximately 80% of the glycerol were metabolized. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and caproate concentrations, in decreasing order, all increased with incubation time. Addition of any of the three substrates somewhat decreased acetate formation, while addition of either propylene glycol increased propionate formation but decreased that of butyrate. R- and S-propylene glycol did not differ significantly in either their rates of disappearance or the products formed when they were added to the fermentation medium. Fermentations of rumen fluid containing propylene glycol emitted the sulfur-containing gases 1-propanethiol, 1-(methylthio)propane, methylthiirane, 2,4-dimethylthiophene, 1-(methylthio)-1-propanethiol, dipropyl disulfide, 1-(propylthio)-1-propanethiol, dipropyl trisulfide, 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2-ethyl-1,3-dithiane, and 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trithiane. Metabolic pathways that yield each of these gases are proposed. The sulfur-containing gases produced during propylene glycol fermentation in the rumen may contribute to the toxic effects seen in cattle when high doses are administered for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds.

  2. Functional Characterization of Bacterial Communities Responsible for Fermentation of Doenjang: A Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo Yong; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-01-01

    Doenjang samples were prepared in triplicate and their microbial abundance, bacterial communities, and metabolites throughout fermentation were analyzed to investigate the functional properties of microorganisms in doenjang. Viable bacterial cells were approximately three orders of magnitude higher than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria are more responsible for doenjang fermentation. Pyrosequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of bacterial communities and metabolites, respectively. Bacterial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that doenjang samples included Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Oceanobacillus, and Tetragenococcus. These genera were found either in doenjang-meju or solar salts, but not in both, suggesting two separate sources of bacteria. Bacillus and Enterococcus were dominant genera during the fermentation, but their abundances were not associated with metabolite changes, suggesting that they may not be major players in doenjang fermentation. Tetragenococcus was dominant in 108 day-doenjang samples, when lactate, acetate, putrescine, and tyramine increased quickly as glucose and fructose decreased, indicating that Tetragenococcus might be primarily responsible for organic acid and biogenic amine production. Lactobacillus was identified as a dominant group from the 179-day samples, associated with the increase of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the decrease of galactose, indicating a potential role for this genus as a major GABA producer during fermentation. The results of this study clarified the functional properties of major bacterial communities in the doenjang fermentation process, contributing to the production of safe and high-quality doenjang.

  3. Effects of fermentation substrate conditions on corn-soy co-fermentation for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linxing; Lee, Show-Ling; Wang, Tong; de Moura, Juliana M L N; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2012-09-01

    Soy skim, a protein-rich liquid co-product from the aqueous extraction of soybeans, was co-fermented with corn to produce ethanol. Effects of soy skim addition level, type of skim, corn particle size, water-to-solids ratio, and urea on co-fermentation were determined. The addition of 20-100% skim increased the fermentation rate by 18-27% and shortened the fermentation time by 5-7h without affecting ethanol yield. Finely ground corn or high water-to-solids ratio (≥ 3.0) in the mash gave higher fermentation rates, but did not increase the ethanol yield. When the water was completely replaced with soy skim, the addition of urea became unnecessary. Soy skim retentate that was concentrated by nanofiltration increased fermentation rate by 25%. The highest level of skim addition resulted in a finished beer with 16% solids, 47% protein (dwb) containing 3.6% lysine, and an ethanol yield of 39 g/100g dry corn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional Characterization of Bacterial Communities Responsible for Fermentation of Doenjang: A Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Paste

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo Yong; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-01-01

    Doenjang samples were prepared in triplicate and their microbial abundance, bacterial communities, and metabolites throughout fermentation were analyzed to investigate the functional properties of microorganisms in doenjang. Viable bacterial cells were approximately three orders of magnitude higher than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria are more responsible for doenjang fermentation. Pyrosequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of bacterial communities and metabolites, respectively. Bacterial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that doenjang samples included Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Oceanobacillus, and Tetragenococcus. These genera were found either in doenjang-meju or solar salts, but not in both, suggesting two separate sources of bacteria. Bacillus and Enterococcus were dominant genera during the fermentation, but their abundances were not associated with metabolite changes, suggesting that they may not be major players in doenjang fermentation. Tetragenococcus was dominant in 108 day-doenjang samples, when lactate, acetate, putrescine, and tyramine increased quickly as glucose and fructose decreased, indicating that Tetragenococcus might be primarily responsible for organic acid and biogenic amine production. Lactobacillus was identified as a dominant group from the 179-day samples, associated with the increase of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the decrease of galactose, indicating a potential role for this genus as a major GABA producer during fermentation. The results of this study clarified the functional properties of major bacterial communities in the doenjang fermentation process, contributing to the production of safe and high-quality doenjang. PMID:27303399

  5. Xylulose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and xylose-fermenting yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Yu, S; Jeppsson, H; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

    1995-12-01

    Xylulose fermentation by four strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two strains of xylose-fermenting yeasts, Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 and Candida shehatae NJ 23, was compared using a mineral medium at a cell concentration of 10 g (dry weight)/l. When xylulose was the sole carbon source and fermentation was anaerobic, S. cerevisiae ATCC 24860 and CBS 8066 showed a substrate consumption rate of 0.035 g g cells-1 h-1 compared with 0.833 gg cells-1 h-1 for glucose. Bakers' yeast and S. cerevisiae isolate 3 consumed xylulose at a much lower rate although they fermented glucose as rapidly as the ATCC and the CBS strains. While P. stipitis CBS 6054 consumed both xylulose and glucose very slowly under anaerobic conditions, C. shehatae NJ 23 fermented xylulose at a rate of 0.345 gg cells-1 h-1, compared with 0.575 gg cells-1 h-1 for glucose. For all six strains, the addition of glucose to the xylulose medium did not enhance the consumption of xylulose, but increased the cell biomass concentrations. When fermentation was performed under oxygen-limited conditions, less xylulose was consumed by S. cerevisiae ATCC 24860 and C. shehatae NJ 23, and 50%- 65% of the assimilated carbon could not be accounted for in the products determined.

  6. New fermentation technique for complete digestion of soybean protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Ok; Park, Mi Hwa; Choi, Yung Hyun; Ha, Yeong Lae; Ryu, Chung Ho

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new fermentation method in order to improve the digestion of soybean protein, and to promote normal fermentation of soybean. A proximate composition, such as moisture, pH, and reducing sugar, of fermented soybeans by the new fermentation was similar to those of controls. Neutral protease activity, the most important factor for fermented soybean products, was the highest, having about 636 U/g at 54 h fermentation. The content of total free amino acid was almost 3-18 times higher than controls. The three-step fermented soybeans can be used as a functional food ingredient for human consumption, with higher protein digestibility.

  7. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives

  8. Ethanol fermentation kinetics in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation system with a pervaporation membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyan; Tang, Xiaoyu; Xiao, Zeyi; Zhou, Yihui; Jiang, Yue; Fu, Shengwei

    2012-06-01

    The kinetics of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pervaporation membrane bioreactor. Three sequential 500-h cycles of CCCF experiments were carried out. A glucose volumetric consumption of 3.8 g L(-1) h(-1) and ethanol volumetric productivity of 1.39 g L(-1) h(-1) were obtained in the third cycle, with a specific glucose utilization rate of 0.32 h(-1) and ethanol yield rate of 0.13 h(-1). The prolonged fermentation time and good fermentation performance indicate that the CCCF would be a feasible and promising fermentation process technology.

  9. Acoustical experiment of yogurt fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, H; Mizutani, K; Ohbuchi, T; Nakamura, T

    2006-12-22

    One of the important factors through food manufacturing is hygienic management. Thus, food manufactures prove their hygienic activities by taking certifications like a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). This concept also applies to food monitoring. Acoustical measurements have advantage for other measurement in food monitoring because they make it possible to measure with noncontact and nondestructive. We tried to monitor lactic fermentation of yogurt by a probing sensor using a pair of acoustic transducers. Temperature of the solution changes by the reaction heat of fermentation. Consequently the sound velocity propagated through the solution also changes depending on the temperature. At the same time, the solution change its phase from liquid to gel. The transducers usage in the solution indicates the change of the temperature as the change of the phase difference between two transducers. The acoustic method has advantages of nondestructive measurement that reduces contamination of food product by measuring instrument. The sensor was inserted into milk with lactic acid bacterial stain of 19 degrees C and monitored phase retardation of propagated acoustic wave and its temperature with thermocouples in the mild. The monitoring result of fermentation from milk to Caspian Sea yogurt by the acoustic transducers with the frequency of 3.7 MHz started to show gradient change in temperature caused by reaction heat of fermentation but stop the gradient change at the end although the temperature still change. The gradient change stopped its change because of phase change from liquid to gel. The present method will be able to measure indirectly by setting transducers outside of the measuring object. This noncontact sensing method will have great advantage of reduces risk of food contamination from measuring instrument because the measurement probes are set out of fermentation reactor or food containers. Our proposed method will contribute to the

  10. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. I. Digestibility, fermentation parameters, and microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Ramos, S; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio and type of forage in the diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the dietary differences found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained F:C ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 with either alfalfa hay or grass hay as the forage. Microbial growth was determined in both systems using (15)N as a microbial marker. Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those observed in sheep by changing F:C ratio on pH; neutral detergent fiber digestibility; total volatile fatty acid concentrations; molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and caproate; and amylase activity. In contrast, Rusitec fermenters did not reproduce the dietary differences found in sheep for NH(3)-N and lactate concentrations, dry matter (DM) digestibility, proportions of isobutyrate and valerate, carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities, and microbial growth and its efficiency. Regarding the effect of the type of forage in the diet, Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those found in sheep for most determined parameters, with the exception of pH, DM digestibility, butyrate proportion, and carboxymethylcellulase activity. Minimum pH and maximal volatile fatty acid concentrations were reached at 2h and at 6 to 8h postfeeding in sheep and fermenters, respectively, indicating that feed fermentation was slower in fermenters compared with that in sheep. There were differences between systems in the magnitude of most determined parameters. In general, fermenters showed lower lactate concentrations, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, acetate:propionate ratios, and enzymatic activities. On the contrary, fermenters showed greater NH(3)-N concentrations, DM digestibility, and proportions of propionate

  11. Influence of the timing of nitrogen additions during synthetic grape must fermentations on fermentation kinetics and nitrogen consumption.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Gemma; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Rozès, Nicolas; Mas, Albert; Guillamón, José M

    2005-02-23

    Nitrogen deficiencies in grape musts are one of the main causes of stuck or sluggish wine fermentations. In the present study, we have supplemented nitrogen-deficient fermentations with a mixture of ammonium and amino acids at various stages throughout the alcoholic fermentation. The timing of the nitrogen additions influenced the biomass yield, the fermentation performance, the patterns of ammonium and amino acid consumption, and the production of secondary metabolites. These nitrogen additions induced a nitrogen-repressed situation in the cells, and this situation determined which nitrogen sources were selected. Glutamine and tryptophan were the main amino acids consumed in all the fermentations. Ammonium is the preferred nitrogen source for biomass production but was hardly consumed when it was added in the final stages of the fermentation. The higher ammonium consumption in some fermentations correlated with a greater synthesis of glycerol, acetate, and acetaldehyde but with a lower synthesis of higher alcohols.

  12. Increased flavour diversity of Chardonnay wines by spontaneous fermentation and co-fermentation with Hanseniaspora vineae.

    PubMed

    Medina, K; Boido, E; Fariña, L; Gioia, O; Gomez, M E; Barquet, M; Gaggero, C; Dellacassa, E; Carrau, F

    2013-12-01

    Discovery, characterisation and use of novel yeast strains for winemaking is increasingly regarded as a way for improving quality and to provide variation, including subtle characteristic differences in fine wines. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of a native apiculate strain, selected from grapes, Hanseniaspora vineae (H. vineae) 02/5A. Fermentations were done in triplicate, working with 225 L oak barrels, using a Chardonnay grape must. Three yeast fermentation strategies were compared: conventional inoculation with a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, ALG 804, sequential inoculation with H. vineae and then strain ALG 804 and spontaneous fermentation. Yeast strain identification was performed during fermentation, in which the apiculate strain was found to be active, until 9% of alcohol in volume, for the co-fermentation and the spontaneous fermentation was completed by three native S. cerevisiae strains. Basic winemaking parameters and some key chemical analysis, such as concentration of glycerol, biogenic amines, organic acids, and aroma compounds were analysed. Sensory analysis was done using a trained panel and further evaluated with professional winemakers. Sequential inoculation with H. vineae followed by S. cerevisiae resulted in relatively dry wines, with increased aroma and flavour diversity compared with wines resulting from inoculation with S. cerevisiae alone. Wines produced from sequential inoculations were considered, by a winemaker's panel, to have an increased palate length and body. Characteristics of wines derived from sequential inoculation could be explained due to significant increases in glycerol and acetyl and ethyl ester flavour compounds and relative decreases in alcohols and fatty acids. Aroma sensory analysis of wine character and flavour, attributed to winemaking using H. vineae, indicated a significant increase in fruit intensity described as banana, pear, apple, citric fruits and guava. GC analysis of the

  13. Physiological and fermentation properties of Bacillus coagulans and a mutant lacking fermentative lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Yue; Rhee, Mun Su; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans, a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, grows optimally at 50-55 °C and produces lactic acid as the primary fermentation product from both hexoses and pentoses. The amount of fungal cellulases required for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 55 °C was previously reported to be three to four times lower than for SSF at the optimum growth temperature for Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 35 °C. An ethanologenic B. coagulans is expected to lower the cellulase loading and production cost of cellulosic ethanol due to SSF at 55 °C. As a first step towards developing B. coagulans as an ethanologenic microbial biocatalyst, activity of the primary fermentation enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase was removed by mutation (strain Suy27). Strain Suy27 produced ethanol as the main fermentation product from glucose during growth at pH 7.0 (0.33 g ethanol per g glucose fermented). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acting in series contributed to about 55% of the ethanol produced by this mutant while pyruvate formate lyase and ADH were responsible for the remainder. Due to the absence of PDH activity in B. coagulans during fermentative growth at pH 5.0, the l-ldh mutant failed to grow anaerobically at pH 5.0. Strain Suy27-13, a derivative of the l-ldh mutant strain Suy27, that produced PDH activity during anaerobic growth at pH 5.0 grew at this pH and also produced ethanol as the fermentation product (0.39 g per g glucose). These results show that construction of an ethanologenic B. coagulans requires optimal expression of PDH activity in addition to the removal of the LDH activity to support growth and ethanol production.

  14. Fermentation of five sucrose isomers by human dental plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, J; Sato, T; Hoshino, E; Noda, T; Takahashi, N

    2003-01-01

    Sucrose has five structural isomers: palatinose, trehalulose, turanose, maltulose and leucrose. Although these isomers have been reported to be noncariogenic disaccharides, which cannot be utilized by mutans streptococci, there is no information about their fermentability by other bacteria in dental plaque. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these isomers were fermented by predominant bacteria in human dental plaque. Clinical bacterial isolates obtained from dental plaque from 3 children aged 22 months to 50 months (146 strains) were inoculated into 3 ml of peptone-yeast extract (PY medium) containing glucose for 1 day, then an aliquot of 20 microl of culture medium was inoculated into 1 ml of PY medium containing 1% (w/v) of the respective test carbohydrates. After incubation for 1 day, the pH values and the optical density at 660 nm of the cultures were measured. Fermentation ability was measured by pH or=0.5. Of the clinical isolates, 33% fermented palatinose, and 69% of these were Actinomyces species. All of the palatinose-fermenting bacterial strains fermented trehalulose, 25% fermented turanose, 70% fermented maltulose and 23% fermented leucrose. We therefore conclude that, in human dental plaque, there are significant numbers of bacteria that are able to ferment sucrose isomers.

  15. High throughput biotechnology in traditional fermented food industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Xu, Rong-man; Song, Jia; Wang, Wei-min

    2010-11-01

    Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry.

  16. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  17. Sugaring-out extraction of acetoin from fermentation broth by coupling with fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Ma, Lin-Hui; Wang, Zhuang-Fei; Guan, Wen-Tian; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2017-03-01

    Acetoin is a natural flavor and an important bio-based chemical which could be separated from fermentation broth by solvent extraction, salting-out extraction or recovered in the form of derivatives. In this work, a novel method named as sugaring-out extraction coupled with fermentation was tried in the acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis DL01. The effects of six solvents on bacterial growth and the distribution of acetoin and glucose in different solvent-glucose systems were explored. The operation parameters such as standing time, glucose concentration, and volume ratio of ethyl acetate to fermentation broth were determined. In a system composed of fermentation broth, glucose (100%, m/v) and two-fold volume of ethyl acetate, nearly 100% glucose was distributed into bottom phase, and 61.2% acetoin into top phase without coloring matters and organic acids. The top phase was treated by vacuum distillation to remove solvent and purify acetoin, while the bottom phase was used as carbon source to produce acetoin in the next batch of fermentation.

  18. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  19. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk

    PubMed Central

    Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

  20. Dynamics of the yeast transcriptome during wine fermentation reveals a novel fermentation stress response

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Virginia D.; Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Erasmus, Daniel; van der Merwe, George K.; Brumm, Jochen; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Bryan, Jennifer; van Vuuren, Hennie J. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, genome-wide expression analyses were used to study the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to stress throughout a 15-day wine fermentation. Forty per cent of the yeast genome significantly changed expression levels to mediate long-term adaptation to fermenting grape must. Among the genes that changed expression levels, a group of 223 genes was identified, which was designated as fermentation stress response (FSR) genes that were dramatically induced at various points during fermentation. FSR genes sustain high levels of induction up to the final time point and exhibited changes in expression levels ranging from four- to 80-fold. The FSR is novel; 62% of the genes involved have not been implicated in global stress responses and 28% of the FSR genes have no functional annotation. Genes involved in respiratory metabolism and gluconeogenesis were expressed during fermentation despite the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Ethanol, rather than nutrient depletion, seems to be responsible for entry of yeast cells into the stationary phase. PMID:18215224

  1. An innovative consecutive batch fermentation process for very high gravity ethanol fermentation with self-flocculating yeast.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Zhao, X Q; Ge, X M; Bai, F W

    2009-10-01

    An innovative consecutive batch fermentation process was developed for very high gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentation with the self-flocculating yeast under high biomass concentration conditions. On the one hand, the high biomass concentration significantly shortened the time required to complete the VHG fermentation and the duration of yeast cells suffering from strong ethanol inhibition, preventing them from losing viability and making them suitable for being repeatedly used in the process. On the other hand, the separation of yeast cells from the fermentation broth by sedimentation instead of centrifugation, making the process economically more competitive. The VHG medium composed of 255 g L(-1) glucose and 6.75 g L(-1) each of yeast extract and peptone was fed into the fermentation system for nine consecutive batch fermentations, which were completed within 8-14 h with an average ethanol concentration of 15% (v/v) and ethanol yield of 0.464, 90.8% of its theoretical value of 0.511. The average ethanol productivity that was calculated with the inclusion of the downstream time for the yeast flocs to settle from the fermentation broth and the supernatant to be removed from the fermentation system was 8.2 g L(-1) h(-1), much higher than those previously reported for VHG ethanol fermentation and regular ethanol fermentation with ethanol concentration around 12% (v/v) as well.

  2. Rapid discrimination of strain-dependent fermentation characteristics among Lactobacillus strains by NMR-based metabolomics of fermented vegetable juice.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Satoru; Saito, Katsuichi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Kikuchi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics to discriminate strain-dependent fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are important microorganisms for fermented food production. To evaluate the discrimination capability, six type strains of Lactobacillus species and six additional L. brevis strains were used focusing on i) the difference between homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species and ii) strain-dependent characteristics within L. brevis. Based on the differences in the metabolite profiles of fermented vegetable juices, non-targeted principal component analysis (PCA) clearly separated the samples into those inoculated with homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species. The separation was primarily explained by the different levels of dominant metabolites (lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol). Orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis, based on a regions-of-interest (ROIs) approach, revealed the contribution of low-abundance metabolites: acetoin, phenyllactic acid, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, glycerophosphocholine, and succinic acid for homolactic fermentation; and ornithine, tyramine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) for heterolactic fermentation. Furthermore, ROIs-based PCA of seven L. brevis strains separated their strain-dependent fermentation characteristics primarily based on their ability to utilize sucrose and citric acid, and convert glutamic acid and tyrosine into GABA and tyramine, respectively. In conclusion, NMR metabolomics successfully discriminated the fermentation characteristics of the tested strains and provided further information on metabolites responsible for these characteristics, which may impact the taste, aroma, and functional properties of fermented foods.

  3. Rapid discrimination of strain-dependent fermentation characteristics among Lactobacillus strains by NMR-based metabolomics of fermented vegetable juice

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Toshihide; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Kikuchi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics to discriminate strain-dependent fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are important microorganisms for fermented food production. To evaluate the discrimination capability, six type strains of Lactobacillus species and six additional L. brevis strains were used focusing on i) the difference between homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species and ii) strain-dependent characteristics within L. brevis. Based on the differences in the metabolite profiles of fermented vegetable juices, non-targeted principal component analysis (PCA) clearly separated the samples into those inoculated with homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species. The separation was primarily explained by the different levels of dominant metabolites (lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol). Orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis, based on a regions-of-interest (ROIs) approach, revealed the contribution of low-abundance metabolites: acetoin, phenyllactic acid, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, glycerophosphocholine, and succinic acid for homolactic fermentation; and ornithine, tyramine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) for heterolactic fermentation. Furthermore, ROIs-based PCA of seven L. brevis strains separated their strain-dependent fermentation characteristics primarily based on their ability to utilize sucrose and citric acid, and convert glutamic acid and tyrosine into GABA and tyramine, respectively. In conclusion, NMR metabolomics successfully discriminated the fermentation characteristics of the tested strains and provided further information on metabolites responsible for these characteristics, which may impact the taste, aroma, and functional properties of fermented foods. PMID:28759594

  4. Foam and its mitigation in fermentation systems.

    PubMed

    Junker, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Key aspects of foaming and its mitigation in fermentation systems are presented. Foam properties and behavior, conditions that affect foaming, and consequences of foaming are discussed, followed by methods to detect and prevent foam, both without and with the use of antifoam, and their implications. Antifoams were catalogued according to their class (e.g., polyalkylene glycols, silicone emulsions, etc.) to facilitate recognition of antifoams possessing similar base compositions. Relatively few published studies directly comparing antifoams experimentally are available, but those reports found only partially identify clear benefits/disadvantages of any one antifoam type. Consequently, desired characteristics, trends in antifoam application, and chemical types of antifoams are evaluated on the basis of a thorough review of available literature reports describing a specific antifoam's usage. Finally, examples of specific foaming situations taken from both the literature and from actual experience in an industrial fermentation pilot plant are examined for their agreement with expected behavior.

  5. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93 wt % of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  7. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  8. Mixed fermentation for natural product drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Robin K

    2009-05-01

    Natural products continue to play a major role in drug discovery and development. However, chemical redundancy is an ongoing problem. Genomic studies indicate that certain groups of bacteria and fungi have dozens of secondary metabolite pathways that are not expressed under standard laboratory growth conditions. One approach to more fully access the metabolic potential of cultivatable microbes is mixed fermentation, where the presence of neighboring microbes may induce secondary metabolite synthesis. Research to date indicates that mixed fermentation can result in increased antibiotic activity in crude extracts, increased yields of previously described metabolites, increased yields of previously undetected metabolites, analogues of known metabolites resulting from combined pathways and, importantly, induction of previously unexpressed pathways for bioactive constituents.

  9. Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernández-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

    Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

  10. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  11. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1991-03-21

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35{degrees}C to about 40{degrees}C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol.

  12. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1991-03-21

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35[degrees]C to about 40[degrees]C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol.

  13. Immobilized yeast cell systems for continuous fermentation applications.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Pieter J; De Schutter, David P; Delvaux, Filip; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2006-10-01

    In several yeast-related industries, continuous fermentation systems offer important economical advantages in comparison with traditional systems. Fermentation rates are significantly improved, especially when continuous fermentation is combined with cell immobilization techniques to increase the yeast concentration in the fermentor. Hence the technique holds a great promise for the efficient production of fermented beverages, such as beer, wine and cider as well as bio-ethanol. However, there are some important pitfalls, and few industrial-scale continuous systems have been implemented. Here, we first review the various cell immobilization techniques and reactor setups. Then, the impact of immobilization on cell physiology and fermentation performance is discussed. In a last part, we focus on the practical use of continuous fermentation and cell immobilization systems for beer production.

  14. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups (“phylotypes”) may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  15. Mathematical model of sugar uptake in fermenting yeasted dough.

    PubMed

    Loveday, S M; Winger, R J

    2007-07-25

    Fermentation prior to freezing significantly reduces the shelf life of frozen dough, measured as a decline in proofing power. Changes during fermentation caused by yeast metabolism have previously been described empirically on a dough weight basis and have not been mathematically modeled. In this work, yeast metabolites were quantified in fermenting dough and their concentrations were estimated in the aqueous environment around yeast cells. The osmotic pressure in the aqueous phase increases by 23% during 3 h of fermentation, which depresses the freezing point by 1 degrees C. The rise in osmotic pressure and the accumulation of ethanol may affect phase equilibria in the dough, baking properties, and the shelf life of frozen dough. Predictive modeling equations fitted sugar concentration data accurately. It was found that the preference of baker's yeast for glucose over fructose was stronger in fermenting dough than in liquid fermentations. The usefulness of the model in industrial bakery formulation work was demonstrated.

  16. Comparison of bifidogenic growth stimulation activities of fermented whey prototypes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Gi-Seong

    2013-12-01

    Fermented whey solution presenting bifidogenic growth stimulation (BGS) activity was processed as prototypes such as sterilized fermented whey (SFW), spray-dried fermented whey (SDFW), and freeze-dried fermented whey (FDFW) and their BGS activities were compared. In optical density (OD600) test, the BGS activity of three prototypes, which showed similar activities, were significantly different with non-fermented whey solution adjusted to pH 4.5 as a control (P<0.05). In viable cell count test, SDFW had the most positive influence than other prototypes on the BGS activity even though the difference was not significant. However, the activities of all prototypes were significantly different than the negative control (no addition). These results indicate that the processed prototypes of fermented whey solution show BGS activities and might be commercialized, with further evidences, in animal or human studies.

  17. Lactic acid fermentation in cell-recycle membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, B; Swaminathan, T

    2006-02-01

    Traditional lactic acid fermentation suffers from low productivity and low product purity. Cell-recycle fermentation has become one of the methods to obtain high cell density, which results in higher productivity. Lactic acid fermentation was investigated in a cell-recycle membrane bioreactor at higher substrate concentrations of 100 and 120 g/dm3. A maximum cell density of 145 g/dm3 and a maximum productivity of 34 g/(dm3.h) were achieved in cell-recycle fermentation. In spite of complete consumption of substrate, there was a continuous increase in cell density in cell-recycle fermentation. Control of cell density in cell-recycle fermentation was attempted by cell bleeding and reduction in yeast extract concentration.

  18. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsielleae and other facultative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ochuba, G U; von Riesen, V L

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebsiella oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carrageenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and Pectobacterium (38%). Pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  19. A review of traditional fermented foods and beverages of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gadaga, T H; Mutukumira, A N; Narvhus, J A; Feresu, S B

    1999-12-01

    Several traditional fermented foods and beverages are produced at household level in Zimbabwe. These include fermented maize porridges (mutwiwa and ilambazi lokubilisa) fermented milk products (mukaka wakakoralamasi and hodzeko) non-alcoholic cereal-based beverages (mahewu, tobwa and mangisi) alcoholic beverages from sorghum or millet malt (doroluthwala and chikokivana) distilled spirits (kachasu) and fermented fruit mashes (makumbi). There are many regional variations to the preparation of each fermented product. Research into the processing technologies of these foods is still in its infancy. It is, therefore, important that the microbiology and biochemistry of these products, as well as their technologies be studied and documented in order to preserve them for future generations. This article reviews the available information regarding traditional fermented foods in Zimbabwe and makes recommendations for potential research areas.

  20. [The antihypertensive effect of fermented milks].

    PubMed

    Domínguez González, Karina N; Cruz Guerrero, Alma E; Márquez, Humberto González; Gómez Ruiz, Lorena C; García-Garibay, Mariano; Rodríguez Serrano, Gabriela M

    2014-01-01

    There is a great variety of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria that present health-promoting properties. Milk proteins are hydrolyzed by the proteolytic system of these microorganisms producing peptides which may also perform other functions in vivo. These peptides are encrypted within the primary structure of proteins and can be released through food processing, either by milk fermentation or enzymatic hydrolysis during gastrointestinal transit. They perform different activities, since they act in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune and nervous systems. Bioactive peptides that have an antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effect on the cardiovascular system can reduce the risk factors for chronic disease manifestation and help improve human health. Most studied bioactive peptides are those which exert an antihypertensive effect by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, the study of these peptides has focused on the implementation of tests to prove that they have an effect on health. This paper focuses on the production of ACEinhibitory antihypertensive peptides from fermented milks, its history, production and in vivo tests on rats and humans, on which its hypotensive effect has been shown. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    PubMed

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  2. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-06-09

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  3. Metabolic engineering for improved microbial pentose fermentation.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sara; Murray, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Global concern over the depletion of fossil fuel reserves, and the detrimental impact that combustion of these materials has on the environment, is focusing attention on initiatives to create sustainable approaches for the production and use of biofuels from various biomass substrates. The development of a low-cost, safe and eco-friendly process for the utilization of renewable resources to generate value-added products with biotechnological potential as well as robust microorganisms capable of efficient fermentation of all types of sugars are essential to underpin the economic production of biofuels from biomass feedstocks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most established fermentation yeast used in large scale bioconversion strategies, does not however metabolise the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose and bioengineering is required for introduction of efficient pentose metabolic pathways and pentose sugar transport proteins for bioconversion of these substrates. Our approach provided a basis for future experiments that may ultimately lead to the development of industrial S. cerevisiae strains engineered to express pentose metabolising proteins from thermophilic fungi living on decaying plant material and here we expand our original article and discuss the strategies implemented to improve pentose fermentation.

  4. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sreeramulu, G; Zhu, Y; Knol, W

    2000-06-01

    Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the "tea fungus" and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the fermentation and remained fairly constant thereafter. The counts of acetic acid-producing bacteria and yeasts in the broth increased up to 4 days of fermentation and decreased afterward. The antimicrobial activity of Kombucha was investigated against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermis, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Helicobacterpylori, and Listeria monocytogenes were found to be sensitive to Kombucha. According to the literature on Kombucha, acetic acid is considered to be responsible for the inhibitory effect toward a number of microbes tested, and this is also valid in the present study. However, in this study, Kombucha proved to exert antimicrobial activities against E. coli, Sh. sonnei, Sal. typhimurium, Sal. enteritidis, and Cm. jejuni, even at neutral pH and after thermal denaturation. This finding suggests the presence of antimicrobial compounds other than acetic acid and large proteins in Kombucha.

  5. Amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentation - a review.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gopal; Altaf, Md; Naveena, B J; Venkateshwar, M; Kumar, E Vijay

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid, an enigmatic chemical has wide applications in food, pharmaceutical, leather, textile industries and as chemical feed stock. Novel applications in synthesis of biodegradable plastics have increased the demand for lactic acid. Microbial fermentations are preferred over chemical synthesis of lactic acid due to various factors. Refined sugars, though costly, are the choice substrates for lactic acid production using Lactobacillus sps. Complex natural starchy raw materials used for production of lactic acid involve pretreatment by gelatinization and liquefaction followed by enzymatic saccharification to glucose and subsequent conversion of glucose to lactic acid by Lactobacillus fermentation. Direct conversion of starchy biomass to lactic acid by bacteria possessing both amylolytic and lactic acid producing character will eliminate the two step process to make it economical. Very few amylolytic lactic acid bacteria with high potential to produce lactic acid at high substrate concentrations are reported till date. In this view, a search has been made for various amylolytic LAB involved in production of lactic acid and utilization of cheaply available renewable agricultural starchy biomass. Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 is an efficient and widely studied amylolytic lactic acid producing bacteria capable of utilizing inexpensive carbon and nitrogen substrates with high lactic acid production efficiency. This is the first review on amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentations till date.

  6. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

  7. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    PubMed Central

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  8. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  9. Metabolic engineering for improved microbial pentose fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Global concern over the depletion of fossil fuel reserves, and the detrimental impact that combustion of these materials has on the environment, is focusing attention on initiatives to create sustainable approaches for the production and use of biofuels from various biomass substrates. The development of a low-cost, safe and eco-friendly process for the utilization of renewable resources to generate value-added products with biotechnological potential as well as robust microorganisms capable of efficient fermentation of all types of sugars are essential to underpin the economic production of biofuels from biomass feedstocks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most established fermentation yeast used in large scale bioconversion strategies, does not however metabolise the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose and bioengineering is required for introduction of efficient pentose metabolic pathways and pentose sugar transport proteins for bioconversion of these substrates. Our approach provided a basis for future experiments that may ultimately lead to the development of industrial S. cerevisiae strains engineered to express pentose metabolising proteins from thermophilic fungi living on decaying plant material and here we expand our original article and discuss the strategies implemented to improve pentose fermentation. PMID:21468211

  10. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal. PMID:27279425

  11. Fermentation alcohol: better to convert to fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorella, P.L.

    1982-08-01

    In the conversion of farm products to liquid fuel by fermentation, large energy savings are possible if distillation to anhydrous alcohol for gasohol blending is replaced by gasoline production with a Mobil zeolite catalyst. Simple fermentation yields a roughly 10 wt% alcohol beer product. Conventional distillation to produce anhydrous alcohol requires 32.6 M Btu/gal of ethanol. Even the most efficient steam reuse methods require at least 21 M Btu/gal. Thus, distillation energy requirements are a major fraction (28 to 43 percent) of the energy content (75.6 M Btu/ gal) of the final alcohol product. Use of the fermentation beer in a gasoline production process would be far more energy efficient, using only 11.1 M Btu/gal of alcohol processed. Also, a more desirable liquid fuel would be produced. Distillation savings more than offset conversion costs, but a small portion of the alcohol feed is converted to lower value LPG gas, and gasoline price must be incremented correspondingly. The upgrading of ethanol to gasoline results in a 10% increase in cost per Btu for the liquid fuel. It must be decided if this increase is justified by downstream savings in using the superior fuel and by the large production energy savings.

  12. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank.

  13. Citric acid fermentation in whey permeate

    SciTech Connect

    Somkuti, G.A.; Bencivengo, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acid-whey permeate was used for the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger. The fermentation proceeded in 2 phases: a growth phase when citric acid was not accumulated, followed by an acidogenic phase when citric acid accumulated and mold growth was greatly reduced. Optimal production of citric acid occurred after 8-12 days at 30 degrees. Maximum citric acid yields were influenced by the initial lactose concentration and reached 10 g/l when the lactose concentration in the acid-whey permeate was adjusted to 15%. MeOH at 2-4% markedly increased the production of citric acid. Fermentation of acid-whey permeate by a mutant strain (A. niger 599-3) was more reproducible, and yields of citric acid were substantially improved. The amount of citric acid produced by A. niger 599-3 was 18-23 g/l after 12-14 days, depending on the lactose content of the whey permeate. Throughout the fermentation, galactose was apparently co-metabolized with glucose.

  14. Development of yeasts for xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.; Yang, V.; Marks, J.; Amartey, S.; Kenealy, W.R.; Cho, J.Y.; Dahn, K.; Davis, B.P.

    1993-12-31

    Xylose is an abundant sugar in hardwoods and agricultural residues. Its use is essential for any economical conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. Only a few yeasts ferment xylose effectively. Our results show that the best strains are Candida shehatae ATCC 2984 and Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. Wild type strains of C. shehatae ATCC 22984 will produce 56 g/L of ethanol from xylose within 48 h in a fed batch fermentation. We have obtained improved mutants of P.stipitis by selecting for growth on L-xylose and L-arabinose. Mutant strains produce up to 55% more ethanol than the parent and exhibit higher specific fermentation rates. We have also developed an effective transformation system that enables the introduction and expression of heterologous DNA on integrating and autonomous vectors. The transformation system for P. stipitis is based on its URA3 gene as a selectable marker and an autonomous replication sequence (ARS) which we isolated from the parent. We are using integrating and ARS vectors to metabolically engineer P. stipitis by altering the regulation and expression of key enzymes. As model systems we are examining the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) that are present in limiting amounts or induced only under non-growth conditions.

  15. Simultaneous saccharification: fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, D.J.; Emert, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, an ethanol production process has been developed which utilizes Trichoderma reesei cellulase and Candida brassicae IFO 1664 in the simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) of cellulose to ethanol. The direct production of ethanol from cellulose in an SSF process alleviates the problem of end production inhibition. Glucose does not accumulate in this system, but rather is fermented to ethanol immediately following saccharification. The result is an increase in yield of 25% or greater as compared with separate processes of saccharification and fermentation. An alternative organisms which might be used in place of yeasts in ethanol production processes is Zymomonas mobilis. The optimum temperature for hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulases is 50/sup 0/C. Since this hydrolysis is the rate limiting step in the SSF process, it is advantageous to utilize the most temperature tolerant ethanol producer available. Candida brassicae is currently the organism of choice due to its ability to produce ethanol efficiently at 40/sup 0/C. This investigation reports on the screening of Zymomonas strains and evaluating the feasibility of utilizing the most temperature tolerant strain in place of C. brassicae in SSF.

  16. Mass spectrometer monitoring of a yeast fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, J.C.; Perley, C.R.; Cooney, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    A flow-through membrane based mass spectrometer is employed for the purpose of monitoring and controlling fermentations. A sample stream in either the gaseous or liquid phase can be continuously passed through the interface, with a fraction of the volatile compounds transferred into the spectrometer. For the monitoring of alcohol fermentation employing bakers' yeast, a water-saturated carrier gas (N/sub 2/) is bubbled through the fermentation broth and readings taken at 15 min intervals to measure EtOH and CO/sub 2/ at m (ion peak mass) = 31 and m = 44, respectively. In experiments in which cell growth was followed using both optical density and base addition., essentially all CO/sub 2/ was in the volatile dissolved form at pH=4.5 so that the mass spectometer current at m = 44 provided approximately a measurement of CO/sub 2/ production rate. For the much less volatile dissolved EtOH, only a small fraction of the EtOH was acquired by the carrier gas, with the result that the m = 31 current provided a measurement of dissolved EtOH concentration. The EtOH signal was approximately an integral of the EtOH production rate.

  17. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure and crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.; Robinson, S.

    1981-05-01

    Research on the feasibility of fermenting manure crop residue mixtures to methane, and on factors affecting the rate and extent of methane production is summarized. Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and alkaline pretreatment on the rate and extent of hydrolysis of manure straw mixtures. The effects of mixing duration and vacuum fermenters on methane production rates from anaerobically fermented beef cattle wastes were also determined.

  18. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  19. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60 degrees C and 85 degrees C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  20. Improvement of fermented Chinese cabbage characteristics by selected starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Yi, Huaxi; Zhang, Lanwei; Huang, Weiwei; Zhang, Yingchun; Zhang, Lili; Du, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Traditional fermented vegetables have inconsistent quality and high nitrite content, whereas a commercial starter culture could overcome these problems. A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria strains were screened from 2 homemade naturally fermented Chinese cabbages. Fermented characters of single starter or mixed cultures were examined, including acidification, growth rate, and nitrite depletion ability in the fermented culture. As a result, the combined starter culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii IWQ and Lactobacillus paracasei J21) was selected. The fermented Chinese cabbage resulted from this mixed starter culture had higher sugar content residue (30.5 mg/mL for mixed culture and 22 mg/mL for control). And the titratable acid of the cabbage fermented by the mixed starter was 110°T, which was twice higher than that of control sample. The selected starter culture also had a better texture and sensory qualities than that the starter cultures from a local fermented Chinese cabbage plant, especially for its significantly lower nitrite content (3.00 mg/kg for mixed culture and 4.49 mg/kg for control). The findings of this study form a database for further studies on the development of starter cultures for fermented cabbage production and could replaced the local plant starter culture. LABs were screened from traditional fermented food. The fermented characteristics of selected LABs were better than that of starter cultures from a local Chinese cabbage plant. Selected LAB can decrease nitrite content in fermented cabbage. The Chinese cabbage fermented by the selected LAB had the good flavor and texture. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Sansonetti, S; Hobley, T J; Calabrò, V; Villadsen, J; Sin, G

    2011-08-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22g L(-1) were found from whey containing ca. 44g L(-1) lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h. The experimental data could be explained by means of a simple knowledge-driven biochemically structured model that was built on bioenergetics principles applied to the metabolic pathways through which lactose is converted into major products. Use of the model showed that the observed concentrations of ethanol, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the metabolic coefficients within a physically meaningful range thereby providing valuable and reliable insight into fermentation processes.

  2. Effect of mixing during fermentation in yogurt manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Ezkauriatza, E J; Galarza-González, M G; Uribe-Bujanda, A I; Ríos-Licea, M; López-Pacheco, F; Hernández-Brenes, C M; Alvarez, M M

    2008-12-01

    In traditional yogurt manufacturing, the yogurt is not agitated during fermentation. However, stirring could be beneficial, particularly for improving heat and mass transport across the fermentation tank. In this contribution, we studied the effect of low-speed agitation during fermentation on process time, acidity profile, and microbial dynamics during yogurt fermentation in 2 laboratory-scale fermenters (3 and 5 L) with different heat-transfer characteristics. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were used as fermenting bacteria. Curves of pH, lactic acid concentration, lactose concentration, and bacterial population profiles during fermentation are presented for static and low-agitation conditions during fermentation. At low-inoculum conditions, agitation reduced the processing time by shortening the lag phase. However, mixing did not modify the duration or the shape of the pH profiles during the exponential phase. In fermentors with poor heat-transfer characteristics, important differences in microbial dynamics were observed between the agitated and nonagitated fermentation experiments; that is, agitation significantly increased the observable specific growth rate and the final microbial count of L. bulgaricus.

  3. Use of a continuous multistage bioreactor to mimic winemaking fermentation.

    PubMed

    Clement, T; Perez, M; Mouret, J R; Sablayrolles, J M; Camarasa, C

    2011-10-17

    Continuous fermentation set-ups are of great interest for studying the physiology of microorganisms. In winemaking conditions, yeasts go through a growth phase and a stationary phase during which more than half of the sugar is fermented. A comprehensive study of wine-yeast physiology must therefore include yeasts in a non-growing phase. This condition is impossible to achieve within a chemostat, which led us to design a multi-stage fermentation device. In this study, we evaluated the ability of such a device to reproduce, in a series of steady states, the conditions of batch fermentation. Two-stage and four-stage fermentations were carried out with two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main characteristics of the fermentation process (biomass growth, by-product content of the medium) were compared with those observed in batch mode at the same stage of fermentation, which was defined by glucose uptake. The four-stage configuration showed a better ability to reproduce batch fermentation characteristics than the two-stage set-up. It also allowed to uncouple the variations of environmental parameters and proved to be a promising tool to gain new insights into yeast metabolism during alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tow steps biohydrogen production: biomass pretreatment and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Yang, H. H.; Guo, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigated the pretreatment of cornstalk and integrated dark-photo fermentation for hydrogen production. Five parameters of the pretreatment experiments, including NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase, were optimized through the L25 (5≙5) orthogonal test. The optimal NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase were 0.5wt%, 115 °C, 3 h, 0.08g/g cornstalk, 0.08g/g cornstalk, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, 0.31g glucose/g cornstalk was obtained. The two-step fermentation consisted of dark fermentation and photo fermentation. The pretreated cornstalk was used as the substrate for dark fermentation, with cow dung as the inoculum. Then the effluents of dark fermentation were employed as the substrate for photo fermentation by photosynthetic bacteria. H2 yield of dark fermentation was 116.7 mL/g cornstalk, with H2 concentration of 41%. After photo fermentation, the total H2 yield increased to 294 mL/g cornstalk.

  5. Stability of high cell density brewery fermentations during serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Pieter J; Dekoninck, Tinne M L; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Saerens, Sofie M G; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2009-11-01

    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the decreased yeast net growth observed in these high cell density brewery fermentations can adversely affect the physiological stability throughout subsequent yeast generations. Therefore, different O(2) conditions (wort aeration and yeast preoxygenation) were applied to high cell density fermentation and eight generations of fermentations were evaluated together with conventional fermentations. Freshly propagated high cell density populations adapted faster to the fermentative conditions than normal cell density populations. Preoxygenating the yeast was essential for the yeast physiological and beer flavor compound stability of high cell density fermentations during serial repitching. In contrast, the use of non-preoxygenated yeast resulted in inadequate growth which caused (1) insufficient yield of biomass to repitch all eight generations, (2) a 10% decrease in viability, (3) a moderate increase of yeast age, (4) and a dramatic increase of the unwanted flavor compounds acetaldehyde and total diacetyl during the sequence of fermentations. Therefore, to achieve sustainable high cell density fermentations throughout the economical valuable process of serial repitching, adequate yeast growth is essential.

  6. Investigating the proteins released by yeasts in synthetic wine fermentations.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Talitha T; Divol, Benoit

    2014-02-03

    Proteins from various biological sources previously identified in wine play important roles in the functioning and survival of their producers and may exhibit oenological properties. Yeasts contribute significantly to the protein pool during and after alcoholic fermentation. While the extracellular proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main wine yeast species, have been characterised, those of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain restricted to a few enzymes. A more comprehensive insight into all proteins released during fermentation could improve our understanding of how yeasts survive and interact in mixed culture fermentations. This study aimed to characterise the exo-proteome of Saccharomyces and selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in pure and mixed cultures in a wine-like medium. While S. cerevisiae completed the fermentation rapidly, Metschnikowia pulcherrima hardly fermented and Lachancea thermotolerans fermented slowly but steadily. In sequential fermentations, the kinetics resembled those of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts for a period before switching to that of S. cerevisiae. Identification of the proteins present in wine at the end of fermentation using mass fingerprinting revealed the large diversity of proteins secreted and the influence of yeast interactions therein. The fermentation kinetics observed could partially be explained by the extent of the contribution of the different yeast to the protein content.

  7. Yeast Diversity and Persistence in Botrytis-Affected Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Mills, David A.; Johannsen, Eric A.; Cocolin, Luca

    2002-01-01

    Culture-dependent and -independent methods were used to examine the yeast diversity present in botrytis-affected (“botrytized”) wine fermentations carried out at high (∼30°C) and ambient (∼20°C) temperatures. Fermentations at both temperatures possessed similar populations of Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Metschnikowia, Kluyveromyces, and Candida species. However, higher populations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts persisted in ambient-temperature fermentations, with Candida and, to a lesser extent, Kluyveromyces species remaining long after the fermentation was dominated by Saccharomyces. In general, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of yeast ribosomal DNA or rRNA amplified from the fermentation samples correlated well with the plating data. The direct molecular methods also revealed a Hanseniaspora osmophila population not identified in the plating analysis. rRNA analysis also indicated a large population (>106 cells per ml) of a nonculturable Candida strain in the high-temperature fermentation. Monoculture analysis of the Candida isolate indicated an extreme fructophilic phenotype and correlated with an increased glucose/fructose ratio in fermentations containing higher populations of Candida. Analysis of wine fermentation microbial ecology by using both culture-dependent and -independent methods reveals the complexity of yeast interactions enriched during spontaneous fermentations. PMID:12324335

  8. Fermentation and pathogen control: a risk assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Adams, Martin; Mitchell, Robert

    2002-11-15

    Food fermentation has a long tradition of improving the safety, shelf life and acceptability of foods. Although fermented foods generally enjoy a well-founded reputation for safety, some notable outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with fermented foods have occurred. Microbiological risk assessment (MRA), as it has emerged in recent years, provides the scientific basis for the control and management of risk. Aspects of fermented food processes are discussed under the various stages of risk assessment and data are presented that would inform more detailed risk assessments.

  9. Thiosulfate as a metabolic product: the bacterial fermentation of taurine.

    PubMed

    Denger, K; Laue, H; Cook, A M

    1997-10-01

    Thiosulfate (S2O32-) is a natural product that is widely utilized in natural ecosystems as an electron sink or as an electron donor. However, the major biological source(s) of this thiosulfate is unknown. We present the first report that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate), the major mammalian solute, is subject to fermentation. This bacterial fermentation was found to be catalyzed by a new isolate, strain GKNTAU, a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, motile rod that formed subterminal spores. Thiosulfate was a quantitative fermentation product. The other fermentation products were ammonia and acetate, and all could be formed by cell-free extracts.

  10. Inhibition of alcoholic fermentation by substrate and ethanol. [Candida pseudotropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Maulin, H.B.; Galzy, P.

    1980-11-01

    The effect of ethanol and sugars on rates of fermentation was studied. A strain of Candida pseudotropicalis was used. The specific rate of fermentation was determined by using the Warburg manometer. The effect of ethanol was formulated as an exponential function of ethanol concentration, but the empirical constant was different when glucose or lactose was used as a substrate. The effects of both ethanol and substrate were formulated. It was demonstrated that when lactose and glucose were present in the medium with a small amount of alcohol, a synergistic effect on the rate of fermentation appeared. This phenomenon considerably limits the rate of fermentation.

  11. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  12. Single Zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, M.; Chou, Y.C.; Picataggio, S.K.; Finkelstein, M.

    1998-12-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol. 6 figs.

  13. Single zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Picataggio, Stephen K.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol.

  14. High-strength fermentable wastewater reclamation through a sequential process of anaerobic fermentation followed by microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenqiang; Chen, Taojing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Minghong; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the sequential process of anaerobic fermentation followed by microalgae cultivation was evaluated from both nutrient and energy recovery standpoints. The effects of different fermentation type on the biogas generation, broth metabolites' composition, algal growth and nutrients' utilization, and energy conversion efficiencies for the whole processes were discussed. When the fermentation was designed to produce hydrogen-dominating biogas, the total energy conversion efficiency (TECE) of the sequential process was higher than that of the methane fermentation one. With the production of hydrogen in anaerobic fermentation, more organic carbon metabolites were left in the broth to support better algal growth with more efficient incorporation of ammonia nitrogen. By applying the sequential process, the heat value conversion efficiency (HVCE) for the wastewater could reach 41.2%, if methane was avoided in the fermentation biogas. The removal efficiencies of organic metabolites and NH4(+)-N in the better case were 100% and 98.3%, respectively.

  15. Similarity of rpoB gene sequences of sucrose-fermenting and non-fermenting Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains.

    PubMed

    Hirata, R; Pacheco, L G; Soares, S C; Santos, L S; Moreira, L O; Sabbadini, P S; Santos, C S; Miyoshi, A; Azevedo, V A; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L

    2011-03-01

    During the last decades, the majority of Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates were shown to be capable to metabolize sucrose, sometimes leading to erroneous identification as a non-diphtheric Corynebacterium species. The sequencing of the polymorphic region of the RNA polymerase beta subunit-encoding gene (rpoB) is an important taxonomic tool for identification of corynebacteria. The present study aimed to investigate the rpoB gene polymorphic features of sucrose-fermenting and non sucrose-fermenting strains. The results showed that sucrose-fermenting strains presented rpoB gene polymorphic regions with more than 98% similarity with the sequences deposited in the gene bank corresponding to non sucrose-fermenting strains. Data indicate that sucrose-fermenting isolates may act as a variant of C. diphtheriae biotype mitis. In addition we alert that sucrose-fermenting strains should not be discarded as contaminants mainly in countries where the possibility of isolation of this variant is higher.

  16. Effect of Fermentation Temperature on the Volatile Composition of Kimchi.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Pil; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Young Ho; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-17

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermentation temperature on the volatile composition in Kimchi. Kimchi was fermented at 2 temperature conditions (4 and 20 °C). Volatile compounds of Kimchi samples were analyzed during the fermentation periods using the dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The optimum ripening time for the Kimchi fermented at 4 °C was 35 d, and that of 20 °C was 2 d. The pH at the optimum ripening time was 4.97 and 4.41, and the titratable acidity was 0.59% and 0.76% for the Kimchi fermented at 4 and 20 °C, respectively. Forty different types of volatile compounds, including alcohol, aldehyde, ester, and sulfur compounds, were identified. The Kimchi fermented at 20 °C produced greater amounts of volatile compounds than that at 4 °C. The amounts of most volatiles increased as the fermentation time increased, but those of aldehydes decreased rapidly during both 4 and 20 °C fermentation. Organic acids, ester, and nitriles were detected only in Kimchi fermented at 20 °C. The amounts of dimethyl disulfide, methyl-2-propenyl disulfide, and di-2-propenyl disulfide produced from the Kimchi fermented at 20 °C were more than 2-times of those at 4 °C. Therefore, it is concluded that the strong pungent odor of Kimchi fermented at 20° C is probably due to the high amount of organic acids (low pH) and sulfur compounds (dimethyl disulfide, methyl-2-propenyl disulfide, and di-2-propenyl disulfide) between the 2 Kimchi.

  17. Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  18. Changes in antioxidant activities and physicochemical properties of Kapi, a fermented shrimp paste, during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Faithong, Nandhsha; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-10-01

    Changes in chemical composition, physical properties and antioxidant activities of Kapi were monitored during fermentation for 12 months. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2 - azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging activity as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) gradually increased as the fermentation time increased, particularly during the first 8 months (P < 0.05). Thereafter, the decreases in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were observed (P < 0.05), whereas FRAP remained constant (P > 0.05). The continuous increases in ammonia nitrogen, formaldehyde nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents were noticeable within the first 8 months (P < 0.05), indicating the formation of peptides and free amino acids via the hydrolysis of protein by both microbial and indigenous proteases. Browning intensity most likely caused by the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were concomitantly observed throughout fermentation, as evidenced by the decreases in lightness (L*-value), but the increases in redness (a*-value) and yellowness (b*-value). Low level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in Kapi was found during 12 months. Antioxidant activities of Kapi were more likely governed by the low molecular weight peptides, amino acids as well as Maillard reaction products generated during fermentation.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of fermented and non-fermented Sophora flavescens: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The roots of Sophora flavescens (Leguminosae) have been used in East Asian countries as an herbal medicine and a food ingredient for thousands of years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of S. flavescens fermentation on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. Methods EIU was induced in rats via a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immediately after the LPS inoculation, fermented and non-fermented extracts of S. flavescens (FSE and NFSE, respectively) were administered orally, and the aqueous humor was collected from both eyes 24 hours later. The anti-inflammatory effects of FSE and NFSE were examined in terms of regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The regulation of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) levels and polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) infiltration by FSE and NFSE were also examined. Results Treatment with FSE significantly inhibited LPS-induced increases in IL-1β and TNF-α production and the expression of iNOS, ICAM-1 and COX-2. Moreover, FSE suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation, and reduced both MDA levels and infiltration by PMN. Conclusion These results indicate that solid state fermentation may enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of S. flavescens. PMID:22026927

  20. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    PubMed

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products.

  1. Controlled fermentation and preservation of UGBA -an indigenous Nigerian fermented food.

    PubMed

    Okorie, Chimezie Princewill; Olasupo, Nurudeen Ayoade

    2013-01-01

    Studies were carried out to screen various microbial isolates of UGBA obtained from both traditionally fermented and laboratory samples for some technical properties required for the fermentation of the product. The technical properties screened for were; ability to produce enzymes (amylase, protease and lipase) and bacteriocin production. Possible starter cultures were selected from the screened isolates for controlled fermentation of the product. Preservation of the product by dehydration method was also investigated. Various dehydrating temperatures were studied and the most appropriate temperature regime was adopted. The shelf- life of the dehydrated product was also determined. Proximate composition and the amino acid profile of both fresh samples and the dehydrated ones were also carried out so as to ensure that there is no significant nutrient lost during the process of dehydration. Rehydration of the preserved product was also examined. The following groups of organisms were isolated; Bacillus species, Proteus species, Staphylococcus species, Micrococcus species and Pseudomonas species. Bacillus species exhibited the highest potential for the fermentation of the product based on the result of the technical properties screened for. Two isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus lichenformis were particularly outstanding and were therefore selected as possible starter cultures. Controlled fermentation of UGBA using the selected organisms singly and as mixed culture produced samples that were similar to the ones produced by the traditional method. However, fermentation period was reduced from 72 hr to 48 hr using the two isolates as mixed culture for the fermentation process. The most appropriate temperature regime for dehydrating the product was found to be 50°C. Proximate analysis and amino acid profile assay of the products show that there is no significant difference between the preserved product and fresh sample. Shelf- life studies of the

  2. Alkaline-fermented foods: a review with emphasis on pidan fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Fung, D Y

    1996-01-01

    Alkaline-fermented foods constitute a group of less-known food products that are widely consumed in Southeast Asia and African countries. They can be made from different raw ingredients. For instance, Japanese natto, Thai thua-nao, and kinema are made from cooked soybeans, dawadawa from African locust beans, ogiri from melon seeds, ugba from African oil beans, kawal from fresh legale leaves, owoh from cotton seeds, and pidan from fresh poultry eggs. In alkaline-fermented foods, the protein of the raw materials is broken down into amino acids and peptides; ammonia is released during the fermentation, raising the pH of the final products and giving the food a strong ammoniacal smell. Most alkaline fermentations are achieved spontaneously by mixed bacteria cultures, principally dominated by Bacillus subtilis. In other cases, pure cultures can be used. For example, Japanese natto is inoculated with a pure culture of B. subtilis var natto. Pidan is a special example of alkaline fermentation. Instead of using microorganisms, pidan is made using an alkali-treated fermentation. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is produced from the reaction of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), water (H2O), and calcium oxide (CaO) of pickle or coating mud. NaOH penetrates into the eggs, causing the physicochemical changes, color changes, and gelation. The appearance of pidan differs from fresh eggs in that the white becomes a semitransparent tea-brown color, and the yolk is solid or semisolid with a dark-green color. The nutritional value of pidan is slightly decreased compared with fresh eggs, but pidan has an extremely long shelf life and a pleasant, fragrant taste that is preferred by most people in Southeast Asian countries. In a small-scale laboratory study conducted by the authors, B. subtilis was not found in pidan. Four Staphylococcus spp. (S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, and S. warneri) and two strains of Bacillus spp. (B. cereus and B. macerans) were isolated from pidan. Staphylococcus

  3. Saccharification and ethanol fermentation of apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Weathers, P.J.; McConville, F.X.; Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    Apple pomace (the pulp residue from pressing apple juice) is an abundant waste product and presents an expensive disposal problem. A typical (50,000 gal. juice/day) apple juice company in central Massachusetts produces 100 tons of pomace per day. Some of it is used as pig feed, but it is poor quality feed because of its low protein content. Most of the pomace is hauled away (at a cost of $4/ton) and landfilled (at a cost of $10/ton). If 5% (w/w) conversion of pomace to ethanol could be achieved, the need for this company to purchase No. 6 fuel oil (1000 gal/day) for cooking during processing would be eliminated. Our approach was to saccharify the pomace enzymatically, and then to carry out a yeast fermentation on the hydrolysate. We chose to use enzymatic hydrolysis instead of dilute acid hydrolysis in order to minimize pH control problems both in the fermentation phase and in the residue. The only chemical studies have concerned small subfractions of apple material: for example, cell walls have been analyzed but they constitute only 1 to 2% of the fresh weight of the apple (about 15 to 30% of the pomace fraction). Therefore, our major problems were: (1) to optimize hydrolysis by enzyme mixtures, using weight loss and ultimate ethanol production as optimization criteria; (2) to optimize ethanol production from the hydrolysate by judicious choice of yeast strains and fermentation conditions; and (3) achieve these optimizations consistent with minimum processing cost and energy input. We have obtained up to 5.1% (w/w) of ethanol without saccharification. We show here that hydrolysis with high levels of enzyme can enhance ethanol yield by up to 27%, to a maximum level of 6% (w/w); however, enzyme treament may be cost-effective only a low levels, for improvement of residue compaction. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Xylose fermentation: Analysis, modelling, and design

    SciTech Connect

    Slininger, P.J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation is a means of utilizing xylose-rich industrial wastes, but an optimized bioprocess is lacking. Pachysolen tannophilus NRRL Y-7124 was the first yeast discovered capable of significant ethanol production from xylose and has served as a model for studies of other yeasts mediating this conversion. However, a comparative evaluation of strains led the authors to focus on Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 as the yeast with highest potential for application. Given 150 g/l xylose in complex medium, strain Y-7124 functioned optimally at 25-26C pH 4-7 to accumulate 56 g/l ethanol with negligible xylitol production. Dissolved oxygen concentration was critical to cell growth; and in order to measure it accurately, a colorimetric assay was developed to allow calibration of electrodes based on oxygen solubility in media of varying composition. Specific growth rate was a Monod function of limiting substrate concentration (oxygen and/or xylose). Both specific ethanol productivity and oxygen uptake rate were growth-associated, but only the former was maintenance-associated. Both growth and fermentation were inhibited by high xylose and ethanol concentrations. Carbon and cofactor balances supported modelling xylose metabolism as a combination of four processes: assimilation, pentose phosphate oxidation, respiration, and ethanolic fermentation. A mathematical model describing the stoichiometry and kinetics was constructed, and its predictive capacity was confirmed by comparing simulated and experimental batch cultures. Consideration of example processes indicated that this model constitutes an important tool for designing the optimum bioprocess for utilizing xylose-rich wastes.

  5. Fermentation and Electrohydrogenic Approaches to Hydrogen Production (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, P. C.; Thammannagowda, S.; Magnusson, L.; Logan, B.

    2010-06-01

    This work describes the development of a waste biomass fermentation process using cellulose-degrading bacteria for hydrogen production. This process is then integrated with an electrohydrogenesis process via the development of a microbial electrolysis cell reactor, during which fermentation waste effluent is further converted to hydrogen to increase the total output of hydrogen from biomass.

  6. Carbohydrate utilization and the lager yeast transcriptome during brewery fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Brian R; Boulton, Chris A; Box, Wendy G; Graham, Neil S; Lawrence, Stephen J; Linforth, Robert S T; Smart, Katherine A

    2008-08-01

    The fermentable carbohydrate composition of wort and the manner in which it is utilized by yeast during brewery fermentation have a direct influence on fermentation efficiency and quality of the final product. In this study the response of a brewing yeast strain to changes in wort fermentable carbohydrate concentration and composition during full-scale (3275 hl) brewery fermentation was investigated by measuring transcriptome changes with the aid of oligonucleotide-based DNA arrays. Up to 74% of the detectable genes showed a significant (pfermentation and the majority of these genes showed transient or prolonged peaks in expression following the exhaustion of the monosaccharides from the wort. Transcriptional activity of many genes was consistent with their known responses to glucose de/repression under laboratory conditions, despite the presence of di- and trisaccharide sugars in the wort. In a number of cases the transcriptional response of genes was not consistent with their known responses to glucose, suggesting a degree of complexity during brewery fermentation which cannot be replicated in small-scale wort fermentations or in laboratory experiments involving defined media.

  7. How-to-Do-It: A Simple Demonstration of Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurkiewicz, William J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple demonstration of fermentation. The materials needed, the basic experimental set-up, and various projects are outlined. Included are a diagram of an apparatus for measuring carbon dioxide production and a table showing typical results of the effect of pH on fermentation. (RT)

  8. Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qixing; Feng, Lei; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Chen, Haihong; Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-03-01

    Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured. A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity. The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing bacteriophage endolysins reduce Lactobacillus contamination during fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Lactobacillus species are the predominant contaminants that decrease the profitability of biofuel production by reducing ethanol yields and causing “stuck” fermentations, which i...

  10. Recovery of butanol from fermentation broth by pervaporation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butanol can be produced by fermentation from corn, molasses or lignocellulosic biomass for use as a chemical or superior biofuel. However, butanol’s production is hampered by its toxicity to the microbial culture that produces it. In fermentation broths, final butanol concentrations typically range ...

  11. Effect of fermentation and drying on cocoa polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Barbara; Schoubben, Aurélie; Guarnaccia, Davide; Pinelli, Filippo; Della Vecchia, Mirco; Ricci, Maurizio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Blasi, Paolo

    2015-11-18

    Cocoa seed polyphenols have demonstrated interesting beneficial effects in humans. Most polyphenols contained in fresh seeds are chemically modified during fermentation, drying, and cocoa powder or chocolate production. The improvement of these procedures to obtain a high-polyphenol-content cocoa is highly desirable. To this aim, a field investigation on the effect of fermentation and natural drying on fine flavor National cocoa (cacao Nacional) was performed. Cocoa seeds were fermented for 6 days and, every day, samples were sun-dried and analyzed for polyphenol content and antioxidant power. During the first 2 days of fermentation, Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP tests evidenced a significant reduction of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, respectively. Changes during the following days of fermentation were less significant. Epicatechin, the most studied member of the catechin family, followed a similar pathway of degradation. Data confirmed the high impact of fermentation and drying on cocoa seed polyphenols. Fermentation and drying are, on the one hand, necessary to obtain cocoa flavor and palatability but, on the other hand, are responsible for greatly compromising polyphenol content. To obtain high-polyphenol-content cocoa, the existing fermentation, drying, and manufacturing protocols should be scientifically reviewed to understand and modify the critical steps.

  12. Yogurt Fermentation in the Presence of Starch-Lipid Composite

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effect of Starch-lipid composites (SLC) on the fermentation of set-style yogurt was investigated by incorporating 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% of SLC into the yogurt mix. The fermentation was performed at 40 deg C and its process was monitored with an optical microscope. It was found that SLC acce...

  13. Reducing fermentable sugar losses in stored sweet sorgum

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Bryan, W.L.; Clayton, J.E.

    1983-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide at 3000 ppm was shown to preserve chopped sweet sorgum in ambient storage for 2 months. Juice from the preserved sorgum was treated with lime, the precipitate removed, and fermented to ethanol without a reduction in fermentation rate or yield. Sulfur dioxide at 4000 ppm preserved the chopped sorgum for over 4 months.

  14. How-to-Do-It: A Simple Demonstration of Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurkiewicz, William J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple demonstration of fermentation. The materials needed, the basic experimental set-up, and various projects are outlined. Included are a diagram of an apparatus for measuring carbon dioxide production and a table showing typical results of the effect of pH on fermentation. (RT)

  15. Optimization of batch alcoholic fermentation of glucose syrup substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.L.

    1981-08-01

    The quantitative effects of substrate concentration, yeast concentration, and nutrient supplementation on ethanol content, fermentation time, and ethanol productivity were investigated in a Box-Wilson central composite design experiment, consisting of five levels of each variable. High substrate concentration, up to 30 degrees Brix, resulted in higher ethanol content (i.e., up to 15.7% w/v or 19.6% v/v) but longer fermentation time and hence lower ethanol productivity. Increasing yeast concentration, on the other hand, resulted in shorter fermentation time and higher ethanol productivity. Higher levels of nutrient supplementation generally led to shorter fermentation time and higher productivity. The highest ethanol productivity of about 21 g ethanol h was obtained at low substrate concentration (i.e., 12 degrees Brix), low alcohol content (i.e., 6% by weight), high yeast concentration (i.e., 4.4%), and high supplementation of yeast extract (i.e., 2.8%). Productivity of this magnitude is substantially higher than that of the traditional batch fermentation or fed-batch fermentation. It is comparable to the results of continuous fermentation but lower than those of vacuum fermentation. Optimal conditions for maximal ethanol productivity can be established by a multiple regression analysis technique and by plotting the contours of constant response to conform to the constraints of individual operations. (Refs. 12).

  16. Bacillus paralicheniformis sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An isolate of a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium was recovered from soybean-based fermented paste. It was isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean food product. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strain ...

  17. Polyamine content of ordinary foodstuffs and various fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, A; Sugi, E; Koizumi, Y; Yanagida, F; Udaka, S

    1997-09-01

    Soybeans, tea leaves, and mushrooms were conspicuously rich in spermidine, while oranges contained a large amount of putrescine. Among the fermented foods, soy sauces were rich in putrescine and histamine, while Japanese sake contained plenty of agmatine. These polyamines are thought to be produced from amino acids during fermentation with amino acid decarboxylases formed by the micro-organisms.

  18. Improvement of dry fractionation ethanol fermentation by partial germ supplementation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanol fermentation of dry fractionated grits (corn endosperm pieces) containing different levels of germ was studied using the dry grind process. Partial removal of germ fraction allows for marketing the germ fraction and potentially more efficient fermentation. Grits obtained from a dry milling p...

  19. Effects of lactic acid bacteria contamination on lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Slower fermentation rates, mixed sugar compositions, and lower sugar concentrations may make lignocellulosic fermentations more susceptible to contamination by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which is a common and costly problem to the corn-based fuel ethanol industry. To examine the effects of LAB con...

  20. Recent advances in microbial fermentation for dairy and health

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Elke; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour. Lactic acid bacteria can produce a number of bioactive metabolites during fermentation, such as bacteriocins, biogenic amines, exopolysaccharides, and proteolytically released peptides, among others. Prebiotics are added to food fermentations to improve the performance of probiotics. It has also been found that prebiotics fermented in the gut can have benefits that go beyond helping probiotic growth. Studies are now looking at how the fermentation of prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides can help in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis, obesity, and colorectal cancer. The potential to prevent or even treat disease through the fermentation of food is a medically and commercially attractive goal and is showing increasing promise. However, the stringent regulation of probiotics is beginning to detrimentally affect the field and limit their application. PMID:28649371

  1. Bacillus glycinifermentans sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two independent isolates of a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium were recovered from soybean-based fermented foodstuffs. Two were isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean food product. Multilocus sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and 5 protein coding genes indi...

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

    2015-04-01

    Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food.

  3. In vitro digestibility of bacillus fermented soya bean.

    PubMed

    Kiers, J L; Van Laeken, A E; Rombouts, F M; Nout, M J

    2000-09-25

    Bacillus fermented legume products include among others dawadawa and soumbala made from African locust bean, and natto and kinema made from soya bean. Bacillus subtilis is the dominant species involved in the fermentation. During Bacillus fermentation for 48 h of autoclaved soya bean the quantity of soluble and dialyzable matter increased from 22% and 6% up to 65% and 40%, respectively. Protein and carbohydrate degradation during fermentation of soya bean with several Bacillus spp. was investigated and appeared to be substantial during the first 18 h of fermentation resulting in the release of high levels of peptides and oligosaccharides. In vitro digestibility was increased from 29% up to 33-43% after Bacillus fermentation for 48 h. It was shown that Bacillus spp. were able to degrade soya bean macromolecules to a large extent resulting in water-soluble low molecular weight compounds. In vitro digestion of Bacillus fermented soya bean using gastrointestinal enzymes only slightly increased the amount of dialyzable matter, which clearly demonstrated the beneficial effect of Bacillus fermentation on food nutrient availability.

  4. Fermentation broth components influence droplet coalescence and hinder advanced biofuel recovery during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Heeres, Arjan S; Schroën, Karin; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-08-01

    Developments in synthetic biology enabled the microbial production of long chain hydrocarbons, which can be used as advanced biofuels in aviation or transportation. Currently, these fuels are not economically competitive due to their production costs. The current process offers room for improvement: by utilizing lignocellulosic feedstock, increasing microbial yields, and using cheaper process technology. Gravity separation is an example of the latter, for which droplet growth by coalescence is crucial. The aim of this study was to study the effect of fermentation broth components on droplet coalescence. Droplet coalescence was measured using two setups: a microfluidic chip and regular laboratory scale stirred vessel (2 L). Some fermentation broth components had a large impact on droplet coalescence. Especially components present in hydrolysed cellulosic biomass and mannoproteins from the yeast cell wall retard coalescence. To achieve a technically feasible gravity separation that can be integrated with the fermentation, the negative effects of these components on coalescence should be minimized. This could be achieved by redesign of the fermentation medium or adjusting the fermentation conditions, aiming to minimize the release of surface active components by the microorganisms. This way, another step can be made towards economically feasible advanced biofuel production. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs Licence, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  5. Microgravity and its implication for fermentation biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Klaus, D M

    1998-09-01

    Fermentation processes are highly dependent upon physical and chemical environmental parameters, many of which are influenced by gravity. Extending biotechnology into the realm of space flight provides researchers with an opportunity to investigate the role that gravity plays in natural growth processes. Physical factors governing cell sedimentation, nutrient mixing and byproduct dispersion are altered in the absence of the constant sedimenting force of gravity. In addition, space flight has also been shown to give rise to a wide variety of indirect consequences associated with the physiology of the organisms themselves.

  6. Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

    2011-10-01

    Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

  7. The Microbial Diversity of Traditional Spontaneously Fermented Lambic Beer

    PubMed Central

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D.; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration. PMID:24748344

  8. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond.

    PubMed

    Marco, Maria L; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J; Cotter, Paul D; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic properties. It is increasingly understood that fermented foods can also have enhanced nutritional and functional properties due to transformation of substrates and formation of bioactive or bioavailable end-products. Many fermented foods also contain living microorganisms of which some are genetically similar to strains used as probiotics. Although only a limited number of clinical studies on fermented foods have been performed, there is evidence that these foods provide health benefits well-beyond the starting food materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Table Olive Fermentation Using Starter Cultures with Multifunctional Potential.

    PubMed

    Bonatsou, Stamatoula; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2017-05-28

    Table olives are one of the most popular plant-derived fermented products. Their enhanced nutritional value due to the presence of phenolic compounds and monounsaturated fatty acids makes olives an important food commodity of the Mediterranean diet. However, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is mainly craft-based and empirically driven by the autochthonous microbiota of the olives depending on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, leading to a spontaneous process and a final product of variable quality. The use of microorganisms previously isolated from olive fermentations and studied for their probiotic potential and technological characteristics as starter cultures may contribute to the reduction of spoilage risk resulting in a controlled fermentation process. This review focuses on the importance of the development and implementation of multifunctional starter cultures related to olives with desirable probiotic and technological characteristics for possible application on table olive fermentation with the main purpose being the production of a health promoting and sensory improved functional food.

  10. The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer.

    PubMed

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration.

  11. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  12. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, C.E.

    1999-02-09

    A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

  13. In vitro ruminal fermentation of organic acids common in forage.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J B; Van Soest, P J

    1984-01-01

    Mixed rumen bacteria from cows fed either timothy hay or a 60% concentrate were incubated with 7.5 mM citrate, trans-aconitate, malate, malonate, quinate, and shikimate. Citrate, trans-aconitate, and malate were fermented at faster rates than malonate, quinate, and shikimate. Acetate was the primary fermentation product for all six acids. Quinate and shikimate fermentations gave rist to butyrate, whereas malate and malonate produced significant amounts of propionic acid. High-pressure liquid chromatography of fermentation products from trans-aconitate incubations revealed a compound that was subsequently identified as tricarballylate. As much as 40% of the trans-aconitate acid was converted to tricarballylate, and tricarballylate was fermented slowly. The slow rate of tricarballylate metabolism by mixed rumen bacteria and its potential as a magnesium chelator suggest that tricarballylate formation could be an important factor in the hypomagnesemia that leads to grass tetany. PMID:6696413

  14. Residual Antibiotics Disrupt Meat Fermentation and Increase Risk of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldgaard, Jette; Cohn, Marianne T.; Casey, Pat G.; Hill, Colin; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fermented sausages, although presumed safe for consumption, sometimes cause serious bacterial infections in humans that may be deadly. Not much is known about why and when this is the case. We tested the hypothesis that residual veterinary antibiotics in meat can disrupt the fermentation process, giving pathogenic bacteria a chance to survive and multiply. We found that six commercially available starter cultures were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics, namely, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and erythromycin. In meat, statutorily tolerable levels of oxytetracycline and erythromycin inhibited fermentation performance of three and five of the six starter cultures, respectively. In model sausages, the disruption of meat fermentation enhanced survival of the pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium compared to successful fermentations. Our work reveals an overlooked risk associated with the presence of veterinary drugs in meat. PMID:22930338

  15. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, C.E.

    1991-03-20

    This invention is comprised of a method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  16. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 109 CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties. PMID:26761827

  17. Characterization of anaerobic fermentative growth of Bacillus subtilis: identification of fermentation end products and genes required for growth.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, M M; Dailly, Y P; Zuber, P; Clark, D P

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis can grow anaerobically by respiration with nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. In the absence of external electron acceptors, it grows by fermentation. Identification of fermentation products by using in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance scans of whole cultures indicated that B. subtilis grows by mixed acid-butanediol fermentation but that no formate is produced. An ace mutant that lacks pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was unable to grow anaerobically and produced hardly any fermentation product. These results suggest that PDH is involved in most or all acetyl coenzyme A production in B. subtilis under anaerobic conditions, unlike Escherichia coli, which uses pyruvate formate lyase. Nitrate respiration was previously shown to require the ResDE two-component signal transduction system and an anaerobic gene regulator, FNR. Also required are respiratory nitrate reductase, encoded by the narGHJI operon, and moaA, involved in biosynthesis of a molybdopterin cofactor of nitrate reductase. The resD and resDE mutations were shown to moderately affect fermentation, but nitrate reductase activity and fnr are dispensable for fermentative growth. A search for genes involved in fermentation indicated that ftsH is required, and is also needed to a lesser extent for nitrate respiration. These results show that nitrate respiration and fermentation of B. subtilis are governed by divergent regulatory pathways. PMID:9352926

  18. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  19. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Hee; Shin, Il-Seung; Hong, Sung-Moon; Kim, Cheol-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 10(9) CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties.

  20. Recovery of actinorhodin from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Güzeltunç, E; Ulgen, K O

    2001-04-20

    In the present work, a new method of purification for actinorhodin was developed using an expanded bed chromatography technique in which antibiotic capture, feedstock clarification, centrifugation, dialysis and concentration are done in one step. The cation-exchanger (P-11) resulted in 26% adsorption and 2% recovery whereas the anion-exchanger (DE-52) resulted in 99% adsorption and 56% recovery of adsorbed antibiotic using methanol buffer and 2 M NH4Cl as eluting agent. Streamline DEAE anion-exchanger, which is especially designed for EBA applications, yields 82% adsorption and 50% elution of actinorhodin fed into the chromatography column directly from the fermentation broth. Isocratic elution resulted in extremely efficient yield compared to linear gradient elution, i.e. 13.5-fold more recovery in the column with an aspect ratio (L:D) of 4. Expansion by 150% of settled bed resulted in the best recovery of actinorhodin among 100 and 200% expansions. A comparison of breakthrough profiles in packed and expanded bed adsorption showed that the performance of the expanded bed is better (by 33%) at allowing more volume of the fermentation broth to pass through the chromatography column.

  1. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan

    2014-12-01

    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.

  2. Food fermentations: microorganisms with technological beneficial use.

    PubMed

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh; Frisvad, Jens C; Gerds, Monica L; Hammes, Walter P; Harnett, James; Huys, Geert; Laulund, Svend; Ouwehand, Arthur; Powell, Ian B; Prajapati, Jashbhai B; Seto, Yasuyuki; Ter Schure, Eelko; Van Boven, Aart; Vankerckhoven, Vanessa; Zgoda, Annabelle; Tuijtelaars, Sandra; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2012-03-15

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on "the history of use", "traditional food", or "general recognition of safety". Authoritative lists of microorganisms with a documented use in food have therefore come into high demand. One such list was published in 2002 as a result of a joint project between the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the European Food and Feed Cultures Association (EFFCA). The "2002 IDF inventory" has become a de facto reference for food cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables, legumes, cereals, beverages, and vinegar). We have also reviewed and updated the taxonomy of the microorganisms used in food fermentations in order to bring the taxonomy in agreement with the current standing in nomenclature.

  3. Chitooligosaccharides as novel ingredients of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Vela Gurovic, M S; Dello Staffolo, M; Montero, M; Debbaudt, A; Albertengo, L; Rodríguez, M S

    2015-11-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COSs) have been clinically evaluated for their immunostimulating effects after oral intake. Similar to dietary supplements, prebiotics and biopreservatives, these water-soluble bioactives are easily incorporated into dairy products and beverages. Notwithstanding, the use of COS in fermented foods would be limited by its antimicrobial properties. In order to study the interaction with yoghurts as a model of fermented food, the effects of COS on chemical composition, viability, morphology and metabolism of lactic acid bacteria, fatty acid profiles and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were assessed over 28 days and after chemical digestion. There were no significant differences between the nutritional composition of controls and yoghurts supplemented with concentrations up to 0.1% w/w of COS. However, the acidification of milk decreased at 0.5% (p < 0.05) and the formation of yoghurt failed at 3.0%, without affecting viable counts. Lipid hydrolysis of yoghurts supplemented with 0.1% COS was not affected by chemical digestion. No significant differences were found between CLA percentages of controls and supplemented yoghurts after digestion. Although the nutritional composition, fatty acids and viable counts were not significantly modified after COS supplementation, the present study shows that COS diminishes bacterial acidification at concentrations higher than 0.1%, thus limiting the amounts that could be added to yoghurt.

  4. Economic evaluation of the acetone - butanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, T.G.; Morevra, A.R.

    1980-12-01

    The economics of producing acetone and 1-butanol via fermentation have been examined for a 45 X 10 to the power of 6 kg of solvents/year plant. For a molasses substrate, the total annual production costs were about $24.4 million vs. a total annual income of $36 million, with about $20 million total required capital. Molasses cost of about $24.4 million/year was critical to these economics. Liquid whey was next evaluated as an alternative feed. Whey feed saved about $11 million annually in feed costs and yielded about $7 million net additional annual revenues from protein sale. These primary differences gave an annual gross profit of about $15 million for the whey case and resulted in a discounted cash flow rate of return of 29%. It is concluded that waste based acetone-butanol production via fermentation deserves further attention in view of the attractive whey-based economics and the excellent potential of butanol as a fuel extender, especially for diesohol blending.

  5. Enhancing fermentative hydrogen production from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that fermentative hydrogen production from organic-rich feedstock could be enhanced by supplementing with waste materials such as cattle manure that could provide nutritional needs, buffering capacity, and native hydrogen-producing organisms. This hypothesis was tested in batch reactors fed with sucrose blended with cattle manure run at 25 degrees C without any nutrient supplements, pH adjustments, buffering, or gas-sparging. Hydrogen production rates in these reactors ranged 16-30 mL H(2)/g DeltaCOD-day, while hydrogen content in the biogases ranged 50-59%. Compared to literature studies conducted at higher temperatures, hydrogen yields found in this study at 25 degrees C were higher in the range of 3.8-4.7 mol H(2)/mol sucrose added, with higher positive net energy yields (>14 kJ/L). This study demonstrated that cattle manure as a supplement could not only provide hydrogen-producing seed, nutritional needs, and buffering capacity, but also increase hydrogen yield by approximately 10%, improving the economic viability of fermentative biohydrogen production from sugary wastes.

  6. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey.

    PubMed

    Skryplonek, Katarzyna; Jasińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bacteria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all samples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  7. Upgrading syngas fermentation effluent using Clostridium kluyveri in a continuous fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gildemyn, Sylvia; Molitor, Bastian; Usack, Joseph G; Nguyen, Mytien; Rabaey, Korneel; Angenent, Largus T

    2017-01-01

    The product of current syngas fermentation systems is an ethanol/acetic acid mixture and the goal is to maximize ethanol recovery. However, ethanol currently has a relatively low market value and its separation from the fermentation broth is energy intensive. We can circumvent these disadvantages of ethanol production by converting the dilute ethanol/acetic acid mixture into products with longer carbon backbones, which are of higher value and are more easily extracted than ethanol. Chain elongation, which is the bioprocess in which ethanol is used to elongate short-chain carboxylic acids to medium-chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs), has been studied with pure cultures and open cultures of microbial consortia (microbiomes) with several different substrates. While upgrading syngas fermentation effluent has been studied with open cultures, to our knowledge, no study exists that has performed this with pure cultures. Here, pure cultures of Clostridium kluyveri were used in continuous bioreactors to convert ethanol/acetic acid mixtures into MCCAs. Besides changing the operating conditions in regards to substrate loading rates and composition, the effect of in-line product extraction, pH, and the use of real syngas fermentation effluent on production rates were tested. Increasing the organic loading rates resulted in proportionally higher production rates of n-caproic acid, which were up to 40 mM day(-1) (4.64 g L(-1) day(-1)) at carbon conversion efficiencies of 90% or higher. The production rates were similar for bioreactors with and without in-line product extraction. Furthermore, a lower ethanol/acetic acid ratio (3:1 instead of 10:1) enabled faster and more efficient n-caproic acid production. In addition, n-caprylic acid production was observed for the first time with C. kluyveri (up to 2.19 ± 0.34 mM in batch). Finally, the use of real effluent from syngas fermentation, without added yeast extract, but with added defined growth factors, did maintain similar

  8. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Walter P

    2012-04-01

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with

  9. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2017-01-01

    Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S(0) ) (known to result in increased H2 S in wine); fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples). Only S(0) led to increased H2 S production. Fenbuconazole (≥0.2 mg L(-1) ) resulted in a decreased fermentation rate and increased residual sugar. An interactive effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and fenbuconazole was observed such that increasing the YAN concentration alleviated the negative effects of fenbuconazole on fermentation kinetics. Cidermakers should be aware that residual fenbuconazole (as low as 0.2 mg L(-1) ) in apple juice may lead to stuck fermentation, especially when the YAN concentration is below 250 mg L(-1) . These results indicate that fermentation problems attributed to low YAN may be caused or exacerbated by additional factors such as fungicide residues, which have a greater impact on fermentation performance under low YAN conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Autochthonous yeasts associated with mature pineapple fruits, freshly crushed juice and their ferments; and the chemical changes during natural fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chanprasartsuk, On-ong; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit; Sanguandeekul, Romanee; Fleet, Graham H

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated autochthonous yeasts and their functions in the spontaneous fermentation of freshly crushed pineapple juice samples collected from two different areas of both Thailand and Australia. Hanseniaspora uvarum and Pichia guilliermondii were the main yeast species observed on the fruit skins of Thai samples, and also in the fresh juice and ferments of all samples from both countries. P. guilliermondii was consistently present as the dominant species during the early stage of the fermentation, whereas H. uvarum became more prevalent towards the end of the six-day fermentation period, with populations increasing from an initial level of approximately 5 log CFU/mL to approximately 8 log CFU/mL at the end of fermentation. The ethanol levels in samples from both regions of Thailand were maximal at 2 days of fermentation, reaching approximately 1 to 2% (v/v) but then declined thereafter. In contrast, in the Australian samples ethanol levels continued to increase over the entire six-day fermentation period and reached approximately 3 to 4% (v/v). A significant decrease in citric acid and increase in lactic acid levels were observed throughout the fermentation period in the samples from Thailand, but not in those from Australia where the different acid contents (and pH) were relatively stable. The other wine yeasts and, in particular, Saccharomyces yeasts, were not found in any of sampled fermentation systems that is apparently different from the other fruit juices. These findings suggested that the freshly crushed pineapple juice may possibly have some effects on the other autochthonous yeasts having important role in alcoholic fermentation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incubation of selected fermentable fibres with feline faecal inoculum: correlations between in vitro fermentation characteristics and end products.

    PubMed

    Rochus, Kristel; Bosch, Guido; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Velde, Hannelore; Depauw, Sarah; Xu, Jia; Fievez, Veerle; Van de Wiele, Tom; Hendriks, Wouter Hendrikus; Paul Jules Janssens, Geert; Hesta, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations. Cumulative gas production was measured over 72 h, fermentation end products were analysed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-incubation, and quantification of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and bacteroides in fermentation liquids were performed at 4 and 48 h of incubation. Partial Pearson correlations, corrected for inoculum, were calculated to assess the interdependency of the fermentation characteristics of the soluble fibre substrates. Butyric and valeric acid concentrations increased with higher fermentation rates, whereas acetic acid declined. Concentrations of butyric acid (highest in fructans) and propionic acid were inversely correlated with protein fermentation end products at several time points, whereas concentrations of acetic acid (highest in citrus pectin) were positively correlated with these products at most time points. Remarkably, a lack of clear relationship between the counts of bacterial groups and their typically associated products after 4 h of incubation was observed. Data from this experiment suggest that differences in fibre fermentation rate in feline faecal inocula coincide with typical changes in the profile of bacterial fermentation products. The observed higher concentrations of propionic and butyric acid as a result of fibre fermentation could possibly have beneficial effects on intestinal health, and may be confounded with a concurrent decrease in the production of putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, supplementing guar gum or fructans to a feline diet might be more advantageous compared with citrus pectin. However, in vivo research is warranted to confirm these conclusions in domestic cats.

  12. Prediction of problematic wine fermentations using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Román, R César; Hernández, O Gonzalo; Urtubia, U Alejandra

    2011-11-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used for the recognition of non-linear patterns, a characteristic of bioprocesses like wine production. In this work, ANNs were tested to predict problems of wine fermentation. A database of about 20,000 data from industrial fermentations of Cabernet Sauvignon and 33 variables was used. Two different ways of inputting data into the model were studied, by points and by fermentation. Additionally, different sub-cases were studied by varying the predictor variables (total sugar, alcohol, glycerol, density, organic acids and nitrogen compounds) and the time of fermentation (72, 96 and 256 h). The input of data by fermentations gave better results than the input of data by points. In fact, it was possible to predict 100% of normal and problematic fermentations using three predictor variables: sugars, density and alcohol at 72 h (3 days). Overall, ANNs were capable of obtaining 80% of prediction using only one predictor variable at 72 h; however, it is recommended to add more fermentations to confirm this promising result.

  13. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis. PMID:28419110

  14. Determining the impacts of fermentative bacteria on wollastonite dissolution kinetics.

    PubMed

    Salek, S S; Kleerebezem, R; Jonkers, H M; Voncken, J H L; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-03-01

    Silicate minerals can be a source of calcium and alkalinity, enabling CO2 sequestration in the form of carbonates. For this to occur, the mineral needs to be first dissolved in an acidifying process such as the biological process of anaerobic fermentation. In the present study, the main factors which govern the dissolution process of an alkaline silicate mineral (wollastonite, CaSiO3) in an anaerobic fermentation process were determined. Wollastonite dissolution kinetics was measured in a series of chemical batch experiments in order to be able to estimate the required amount of alkaline silicate that can neutralize the acidifying fermentation process. An anaerobic fermentation of glucose with wollastonite as the neutralizing agent was consequently performed in a fed-batch reactor. Results of this experiment were compared with an abiotic (control) fed-batch reactor in which the fermentation products (i.e. organic acids and alcohols) were externally supplied to the system at comparable rates and proportions, in order to provide chemical conditions similar to those during the biotic (fermentation) experiment. This procedure enabled us to determine whether dissolution of wollastonite was solely enhanced by production of organic acids or whether there were other impacts that fermentative bacteria could have on the mineral dissolution rate. The established pH profiles, which were the direct indicator of the dissolution rate, were comparable in both experiments suggesting that the mineral dissolution rate was mostly influenced by the quantity of the organic acids produced.

  15. Inactivation of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus during oyster fermentation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Jina; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Changsun

    2014-12-01

    Fermented seafood is popular in Asian countries. This study examined the survival of feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) during oyster fermentation. Oysters spiked with FCV and MNV were fermented with 5% or 10% salt at 18 °C for 15 days, and MNV and FCV titers, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations, pH, and enzymatic activity were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 days post-fermentation (DPF). Reductions in MNV and FCV were greater in 5% NaCl-supplemented oysters than in 10% NaCl-supplemented oysters. In 5% NaCl oysters, MNV and FCV titers significantly decreased by 1.60 log and 3.01 log, respectively, at 15 DPF. Populations of LAB increased from 3.62 log10 colony-forming units/g at 0 DPF to 8.77 log10 colony-forming units/g at 15 DPF during oyster fermentation supplemented with 5% NaCl supplementation, and the pH decreased gradually from 5.38 at 0 DPF to 4.17 at 15 DPF. During oyster fermentation, α-amylase, proteinase, and lipase were produced at higher levels in 5% salted oysters than in 10% salted oysters (P < 0.01). We concluded that many of the antimicrobial factors produced in fermented oysters could contribute to a reduction in foodborne viruses.

  16. Hypolipidemic effect of lactobacillus ferment as a functional food supplement.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Bae, S H; Kang, D H; Suh, H J

    2006-12-01

    The Lactobacillus ferment used in this study was composed of Lactobacillus fermented wheat, barley and kefir grains. Fermentation increased the CFU of lactic acid bacteria with a reduction in pH value and in the contents of dietary fi ber and glucan. Male SD rats were fed a high fat diet with or without 10% Lactobacillus ferment for 4 weeks. In the Lactic-F group (group fed high-fat diet with Lactobacillus ferment) there was a significantly reduced increase of body weight compared with the HF-control (group fed high-fat diet without Lactobacillus ferment). The food efficiency ratio (FER) tended to be decreased in the Lactic-F group, but there was no significant difference between the Lactic-F and HF-control groups. The perirenal and the epididymal fat weights in the normal dietary group (control) and in the Lactic-F group were significantly lower than those of the HF-control. The serum HDL-cholesterol and the total cholesterol in the Lactic-F group were similar to the control group, and were significantly different from those of the HF-control. These results indicated that the Lactobacillus ferment is a functional material having antiobesity effects, with use as a supplement in functional, health-favoring food.

  17. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia
salmonea-Fermented Grains

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7% of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis) of adenosine (0.92–1.96 µg/g), ergosterol (24.53–30.12 µg/g), ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 µg/g) and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 µg/g). In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 µg/g). White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects. PMID:27904408

  18. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL(-1), respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulation and optimization of continuous extractive fermentation with recycle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Rofiqah, Umi; Airlangga, Bramantyo

    2017-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is continuous fermentation method which is believed to be able to substitute conventional fermentation method (batch). The recovery system and ethanol refinery will be easier. Continuous process of fermentation will make the productivity increase although the unconverted sugar in continuous fermentation is still in high concentration. In order to make this process more efficient, the recycle process was used. Increasing recycle flow will enhance the probability of sugar to be re-fermented. However, this will make ethanol enter fermentation column. As a result, the accumulated ethanol will inhibit the growth of microorganism. This research aims to find optimum conditions of solvent to broth ratio (S:B) and recycle flow to fresh feed ratio in order to produce the best yield and productivity. This study employed optimization by Hooke Jeeves method using Matlab 7.8 software. The result indicated that optimum condition occured in S: B=2.615 and R: F=1.495 with yield = 50.2439 %.

  1. The impact of yeast fermentation on dough matrix properties.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Jayaram, Vinay B; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-08-01

    Most studies on dough properties are performed on yeastless dough to exclude the complicating, time-dependent effect of yeast. Baker's yeast, however, impacts dough matrix properties during fermentation, probably through the production of primary (CO2 and ethanol) and secondary (glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid) metabolites. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the changes in yeasted dough behavior introduced by fermentation, by investigating the impact of yeast fermentation on Farinograph dough consistency, dough spread, Kieffer rig dough extensibility and gluten agglomeration behavior in a fermented dough-batter gluten starch separation system. Results show that fermentation leads to a dough with less flow and lower extensibility that breaks more easily under stress and strain. The dough showed less elastic and more plastic deformation behavior. Gluten agglomerates were smaller for yeasted dough than for the unyeasted control. These changes probably have to be attributed to metabolites generated during fermentation. Indeed, organic acids and also ethanol in concentrations produced by yeast were previously shown to have similar effects in yeastless dough. These findings imply the high importance of yeast fermentation metabolites on dough matrix properties in industrial bread production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Induction of simultaneous and sequential malolactic fermentation in durian wine.

    PubMed

    Taniasuri, Fransisca; Lee, Pin-Rou; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-08-02

    This study represented for the first time the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) induced by Oenococcus oeni and its inoculation strategies (simultaneous vs. sequential) on the fermentation performance as well as aroma compound profile of durian wine. There was no negative impact of simultaneous inoculation of O. oeni and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth and fermentation kinetics of S. cerevisiae as compared to sequential fermentation. Simultaneous MLF did not lead to an excessive increase in volatile acidity as compared to sequential MLF. The kinetic changes of organic acids (i.e. malic, lactic, succinic, acetic and α-ketoglutaric acids) varied with simultaneous and sequential MLF relative to yeast alone. MLF, regardless of inoculation mode, resulted in higher production of fermentation-derived volatiles as compared to control (alcoholic fermentation only), including esters, volatile fatty acids, and terpenes, except for higher alcohols. Most indigenous volatile sulphur compounds in durian were decreased to trace levels with little differences among the control, simultaneous and sequential MLF. Among the different wines, the wine with simultaneous MLF had higher concentrations of terpenes and acetate esters while sequential MLF had increased concentrations of medium- and long-chain ethyl esters. Relative to alcoholic fermentation only, both simultaneous and sequential MLF reduced acetaldehyde substantially with sequential MLF being more effective. These findings illustrate that MLF is an effective and novel way of modulating the volatile and aroma compound profile of durian wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcriptome during Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

  4. Critical factors in chitin production by fermentation of shrimp biowaste.

    PubMed

    Rao, M S; Muñoz, J; Stevens, W F

    2000-12-01

    Factors affecting Lactobacillus fermentation of shrimp waste for chitin and protein liquor production were determined. The objective of the fermentation is medium conditioning by Lactobacillus through production of proteases and lowering of the pH. The efficiency was tested by conducting fermentation of biowaste in 1-1 beakers with or without pH adjustment using different acids. Addition of 5% glucose to the biowaste supported the growth of lactic acid bacteria and led to better fermentation. Among four acids tested to control pH at the start and during fermentation, acetic acid and citric acid proved to be the most effective. In biowaste fermented with 6.7% L. plantarum inoculum, 5% glucose, and pH 6.0 adjusted with acetic acid, 75% deproteination and 86% demineralization was achieved. Replacement of acetic acid by citric acid gave 88% deproteination and 90% demineralization. The fermentation carried out in the presence of acetic acid resulted in a protein fraction that smelled good and a clean chitin fraction.

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of the Viral Communities in Fermented Foods▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Abell, Guy C. J.; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Viruses are recognized as the most abundant biological components on Earth, and they regulate the structure of microbial communities in many environments. In soil and marine environments, microorganism-infecting phages are the most common type of virus. Although several types of bacteriophage have been isolated from fermented foods, little is known about the overall viral assemblages (viromes) of these environments. In this study, metagenomic analyses were performed on the uncultivated viral communities from three fermented foods, fermented shrimp, kimchi, and sauerkraut. Using a high-throughput pyrosequencing technique, a total of 81,831, 70,591 and 69,464 viral sequences were obtained from fermented shrimp, kimchi and sauerkraut, respectively. Moreover, 37 to 50% of these sequences showed no significant hit against sequences in public databases. There were some discrepancies between the prediction of bacteriophages hosts via homology comparison and bacterial distribution, as determined from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These discrepancies likely reflect the fact that the viral genomes of fermented foods are poorly represented in public databases. Double-stranded DNA viral communities were amplified from fermented foods by using a linker-amplified shotgun library. These communities were dominated by bacteriophages belonging to the viral order Caudovirales (i.e., Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae). This study indicates that fermented foods contain less complex viral communities than many other environmental habitats, such as seawater, human feces, marine sediment, and soil. PMID:21183634

  6. Mathematical models of ABE fermentation: review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayank, Rahul; Ranjan, Amrita; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2013-12-01

    Among different liquid biofuels that have emerged in the recent past, biobutanol produced via fermentation processes is of special interest due to very similar properties to that of gasoline. For an effective design, scale-up, and optimization of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process, it is necessary to have insight into the micro- and macro-mechanisms of the process. The mathematical models for ABE fermentation are efficient tools for this purpose, which have evolved from simple stoichiometric fermentation equations in the 1980s to the recent sophisticated and elaborate kinetic models based on metabolic pathways. In this article, we have reviewed the literature published in the area of mathematical modeling of the ABE fermentation. We have tried to present an analysis of these models in terms of their potency in describing the overall physiology of the process, design features, mode of operation along with comparison and validation with experimental results. In addition, we have also highlighted important facets of these models such as metabolic pathways, basic kinetics of different metabolites, biomass growth, inhibition modeling and other additional features such as cell retention and immobilized cultures. Our review also covers the mathematical modeling of the downstream processing of ABE fermentation, i.e. recovery and purification of solvents through flash distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, and pervaporation. We believe that this review will be a useful source of information and analysis on mathematical models for ABE fermentation for both the appropriate scientific and engineering communities.

  7. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome during bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation.

  8. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient.

  9. Immobilized yeast bioreactor systems for continuous beer fermentation

    PubMed

    Tata; Bower; Bromberg; Duncombe; Fehring; Lau; Ryder; Stassi

    1999-01-01

    Two different types of immobilized yeast bioreactors were examined for continuous fermentation of high-gravity worts. One of these is a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) that employs porous glass beads for yeast immobilization. The second system is a loop reactor containing a porous silicon carbide cartridge (SCCR) for immobilizing the yeast cells. Although there was some residual fermentable sugar in the SCCR system product, nearly complete attenuation of the wort sugars was achieved in either of the systems when operated as a two-stage process. Fermentation could be completed in these systems in only half the time required for a conventional batch process. Both the systems showed similar kinetics of extract consumption, and therefore similar volumetric productivity. As compared to the batch fermentation, total fusel alcohols were lower; total esters, while variable, were generally higher. The yeast biomass production was similar to that in a conventional fermentation process. As would be expected in an accelerated fermentation system, the levels of vicinal diketones (VDKs) were higher. To remove the VDKs, the young beer was heat-treated to convert the VDK precursors and processed through a packed bed immobilized yeast bioreactor for VDK assimilation. The finished product from the FBR system was found to be quite acceptable from a flavor perspective, albeit different from the product from a conventional batch process. Significantly shortened fermentation times demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for beer production.

  10. Fermented pig liquid feed: nutritional, safety and regulatory aspects.

    PubMed

    Plumed-Ferrer, C; von Wright, A

    2009-02-01

    Fermented liquid feed has been lately much investigated in order to compensate the use of antibiotics in pig production. The fermentation process has been claimed to be the reason of the benefits associated with this type of feeding. However, contradictory results have been obtained in feeding trials due to the variable conditions in each experiment. This review focuses on the different factors that would ensure a proper fermentation with all its beneficial effects. In particular, while fermenting a liquid diet with lactic acid bacteria has been shown to improve the quality of feed and to be beneficial to the health of the animals, spontaneously fermented liquid feed appears to be unsafe for the pigs and eventually affects the consumers' safety. Consequently, the use of specific starters or inoculants to ensure the proper fermentation could be a practical solution. The regulatory status of fermented liquid feed in the EU is still unclear, but the use of specific inoculants could be considered as a special case of microbial feed additives.

  11. Chemical characterization of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jong-Ho; Kim, Youngshik; Oh, Jun-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the chemical properties of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacterial species. Tomato juice was prepared from fresh tomatoes and heated at 100 degrees C prior to fermentation. Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium infantis were inoculated in tomato juice and kept at 35 to 37 degrees C for up to 6 h. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) was added to tomato juice prior to fermentation. The analyses for brix, total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, color, and lycopene content were conducted to characterize tomato juices fermented with bifidobacterial species. Heat treatment of tomato juice did not cause any significant changes in brix, pH, and TTA. Only the redness of tomato juice was significantly increased, as the heating time increased to 30 min. The tomato juices fermented with B. breve and B. longum exhibited significant decreases in pH (3.51 and 3.80, respectively) and significant increases in TTA (13.50 and 12.50, respectively) (P < 0.05). B. infantis did not cause any significant change in the chemical properties of tomato juice. The addition of FOS further improved the fermentation of tomato juice by bifidobacterial species. The lycopene contents of tomato juice were significantly increased from 88 to 113 microg/g by heat treatment at 100 degrees C (P < 0.05), however did not exhibit any significant change after fermentation with bifidobacterial species.

  12. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  13. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (p<0.05). Color evaluation showed that the L value decreased whereas the a and b values increased significantly with the amount of red pepper added (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, yoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt.

  14. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia
salmonea-Fermented Grains.

    PubMed

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-06-01

    Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7% of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis) of adenosine (0.92-1.96 µg/g), ergosterol (24.53-30.12 µg/g), ergothioneine (2.16-3.18 µg/g) and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20-2.45 µg/g). In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 µg/g). White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects.

  15. The Biotechnology of Ugba, a Nigerian Traditional Fermented Food Condiment

    PubMed Central

    Olasupo, Nurudeen A.; Okorie, Chimezie P.; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes and oil bean seeds used for the production of condiments in Africa are inedible in their natural state; they contain some anti-nutritional factors especially undigestible oligosaccharides and phytate. Fermentation impact desirable changes by reducing anti-nutritional factors and increasing digestibility. Ugba is an alkaline fermented African oil bean cotyledon (Pentaclethra macrophylla) produced by the Ibos and other ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. Seen as a family business in many homes, its preparation is in accordance with handed-down tradition from previous generations and serves as a cheap source of plant protein. Its consumption as a native salad is made possible by fermentation of the cotyledon for 2–5 days, but could also serve as a soup flavoring agent when fermentation last for 6–10 days. The fermentation process involved is usually natural with an attendant issue of product safety, quality and inconsistency. The production of this condiment is on a small scale and the equipment used are very rudimentary, devoid of good manufacturing procedures that call to question the issue of microbial safety. This paper therefore reviews the production process and the spectrum of microbial composition involved during fermentation. In addition, potential spoilage agents, nutritional and biochemical changes during production are examined. Furthermore, information that can support development of starter cultures for controlled fermentation process in order to guarantee microbiological safety, quality and improved shelf life are also discussed. PMID:27540371

  16. Complex media from processing of agricultural crops for microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2005-09-01

    This mini-review describes the concept of the green biorefinery and lists a number of suitable agricultural by-products, which can be used for production of bioenergy and/or biochemicals. A process, in which one possible agricultural by-product from the green crop drying industry, brown juice, is converted to a basic, universal fermentation medium by lactic acid fermentation, is outlined. The resulting all-round fermentation medium can be used for the production of many useful fermentation products when added a carbohydrate source, which could possibly be another agricultural by-product. Two examples of such products-polylactic acid and L-lysine-are given. A cost calculation shows that this fermentation medium can be produced at a very low cost approximately 1.7 Euro cent/kg, when taking into account that the green crop industry has expenses amounting to 270,000 Euro/year for disposal of the brown juice. A newly built lysine factory in Esbjerg, Denmark, can benefit from this process by buying a low price medium for the fermentation process instead of more expensive traditional fermentation liquids such as corn steep liquor.

  17. The Biotechnology of Ugba, a Nigerian Traditional Fermented Food Condiment.

    PubMed

    Olasupo, Nurudeen A; Okorie, Chimezie P; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A

    2016-01-01

    Legumes and oil bean seeds used for the production of condiments in Africa are inedible in their natural state; they contain some anti-nutritional factors especially undigestible oligosaccharides and phytate. Fermentation impact desirable changes by reducing anti-nutritional factors and increasing digestibility. Ugba is an alkaline fermented African oil bean cotyledon (Pentaclethra macrophylla) produced by the Ibos and other ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. Seen as a family business in many homes, its preparation is in accordance with handed-down tradition from previous generations and serves as a cheap source of plant protein. Its consumption as a native salad is made possible by fermentation of the cotyledon for 2-5 days, but could also serve as a soup flavoring agent when fermentation last for 6-10 days. The fermentation process involved is usually natural with an attendant issue of product safety, quality and inconsistency. The production of this condiment is on a small scale and the equipment used are very rudimentary, devoid of good manufacturing procedures that call to question the issue of microbial safety. This paper therefore reviews the production process and the spectrum of microbial composition involved during fermentation. In addition, potential spoilage agents, nutritional and biochemical changes during production are examined. Furthermore, information that can support development of starter cultures for controlled fermentation process in order to guarantee microbiological safety, quality and improved shelf life are also discussed.

  18. Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of ammoniated corn to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Frank; Kim, Tae Hyun; Abbas, Charles A; Hicks, Kevin B

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of nonfermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the added ammonia nitrogen in ammonia treated corn (approximately 1 g per kg corn) may satisfy the yeast nutritional requirement for free amino nitrogen (FAN). In this study, procedures for ammoniation, liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation at two scales (12-L and 50-mL) were used to determine the fermentation rate, final ethanol concentration, and ethanol yield from starch in ammoniated or nonammoniated corn. The maximum achievable ethanol concentration at 50 h fermentation time was lower with ammoniated corn than with nonammoniated corn. The extra nitrogen in ammoniated corn satisfied some of the yeast requirements for FAN, thereby reducing the requirement for corn steep liquor. Based upon these results, ammoniation of corn does not appear to have a positive impact on the fermentability of corn to ethanol. Ammoniation may still be cost effective, if the advantages in terms of improved separations outweigh the disadvantages in terms of decreased fermentability.

  19. Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, A L; Tengerdy, R P; Murphy, V G

    1985-01-01

    Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at 0.12 L/h/g; substrate thickness of 1 to 2 cm; and duration of three days. Technical parameters for this optimized fermentation were: degree of substance utilization, 27.2%; protein yield/substrate, 0.09 g; biomass yield/bioconverted substrate, 0.40 g; degree of bioconversion of total available sugars in the substrate, 60.5%; specific efficiency of bioconversion, 70.8%; and overall efficiency of biomass production from substrate, 42.7%. Mixed culturing of Candida utilis further increased biomass production by 20%. The best mode of fermentation was a semicontinuous fed-batch fermentation where one-half of the fermented material was removed at three-day intervals and replaced by fresh substrate. In this mode, protein production was 20% higher than in batch mode, protein productivity was maintained over 12 days, and sporulation was prevented.

  20. Fermentation of cottonseed and other feedstuffs in cattle rumen fluid.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ian C; Ames, Michael L; Rasmussen, Mark A; Reilly, Peter J

    2002-04-10

    Bovine rumen fluid was fermented anaerobically over 48 h with cottonseed, corn, alfalfa, or a mixture of these substrates in anaerobic mineral buffer. Samples taken at different incubation times were derivatized with n-butanol and subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. No unusual fermentation end-products from the cottonseed substrate were detected. Cottonseed supported rumen fermentation at levels comparable to those of the other substrates. Major components were usually found in the decreasing order of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate, although acetate and propionate concentrations decreased late in the alfalfa and mixed-feed fermentations, eventually allowing butyrate concentrations to exceed those of propionate. As expected, lactate was produced in high concentrations when corn was fermented. The minor components 2-methylpropionate, 2- and 3-methylbutyrate, phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, and caproate also accumulated, with their relative concentrations varying with the substrate. Succinate was produced in substantial amounts only when corn and alfalfa were fermented; it did not accumulate when cottonseed was the substrate. Samples containing cottonseed were derivatized and subjected to reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, revealing that gossypol concentrations did not change during fermentation.

  1. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  2. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (p<0.05). Color evaluation showed that the L value decreased whereas the a and b values increased significantly with the amount of red pepper added (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, yoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt. PMID:26761278

  3. THE EFFECT OF KILLED BACTERIA ON THE SERUM FERMENTS AND ANTIFERMENT : STUDIES ON FERMENT ACTION. XXVII.

    PubMed

    Jobling, J W; Petersen, W; Eggstein, A A

    1915-11-01

    1. The intravenous injection of killed organisms is followed by the mobilization of a non-specific protease and lipase; the rapidity and extent of this reaction depend upon the toxicity of the organism and on the resistance of the organism to proteolysis. 2. The temperature and leucocytic curve bear no relation to the ferment changes. 3. The serum antiferment is usually increased after the injection. 4. Of the organisms studied, the typhoid bacilli produced the most marked ferment changes, and the tubercle bacilli the least. 5. The toxicity of the dried organisms cannot depend wholly upon proteolysis in vivo, but must depend in part on the preformed toxic substances liberated on lysis. 6. Serum protease should not be considered as the sole exciter of intoxication through the production of protein split products; it seems possible that its function may in part be one of detoxication.

  4. Inhibitory activity of cheese whey fermented with kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Londero, A; Quinta, R; Abraham, A G; Sereno, R; De Antoni, G; Garrote, G L

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the chemical and microbiological compositions of three types of whey to be used for kefir fermentation as well as the inhibitory capacity of their subsequent fermentation products against 100 Salmonella sp. and 100 Escherichia coli pathogenic isolates. All the wheys after fermentation with 10% (wt/vol) kefir grains showed inhibition against all 200 isolates. The content of lactic acid bacteria in fermented whey ranged from 1.04 × 10(7) to 1.17 × 10(7) CFU/ml and the level of yeasts from 2.05 × 10(6) to 4.23 × 10(6) CFU/ml. The main changes in the chemical composition during fermentation were a decrease in lactose content by 41 to 48% along with a corresponding lactic acid production to a final level of 0.84 to 1.20% of the total reaction products. The MIC was a 30% dilution of the fermentation products for most of the isolates, while the MBC varied between 40 and 70%, depending on the isolate. The pathogenic isolates Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 2713 and E. coli 2710 in the fermented whey lost their viability after 2 to 7 h of incubation. When pathogens were deliberately inoculated into whey before fermentation, the CFU were reduced by 2 log cycles for E. coli and 4 log cycles for Salmonella sp. after 24 h of incubation. The inhibition was mainly related to lactic acid production. This work demonstrated the possibility of using kefir grains to ferment an industrial by-product in order to obtain a natural acidic preparation with strong bacterial inhibitory properties that also contains potentially probiotic microorganisms.

  5. The role of indigenous yeasts in traditional Irish cider fermentations.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, W F; Davenport, B; Querol, A; Dobson, A D W

    2004-01-01

    To study the role of the indigenous yeast flora in traditional Irish cider fermentations. Wallerstein laboratory nutrient agar supplemented with biotin, ferric ammonium citrate, calcium carbonate and ethanol was employed together with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the region spanning the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene in the identification of indigenous yeasts at the species level, from traditional Irish cider fermentations. By combining the molecular approach and the presumptive media it was possible to distinguish between a large number of yeast species, and to track them within cider fermentations. The Irish cider fermentation process can be divided into three sequential phases based on the predominant yeast type present. Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora uvarum type yeasts predominate in the initial 'fruit yeast phase'. Thereafter Saccharomyces cerevisiae type yeast dominate in the 'fermentation phase', where the alcoholic fermentation takes place. Finally the 'maturation phase' which follows, is dominated by Dekkera and Brettanomyces type yeasts. H. uvarum type yeast were found to have originated from the fruit. Brettanomyces type yeast could be traced back to the press house, and also to the fruit. The press house was identified as having high levels of S. cerevisiae type yeast. A strong link was noted between the temperature profile of the cider fermentations, which ranged from 22 to 35 degrees C and the yeast strain population dynamics. Many different indigenous yeast species were identified. The mycology of Irish cider fermentations appears to be very similar to that which has previously been reported in the wine industry. This study has allowed us to gain a better understanding of the role of indigenous yeast species in 'Natural' Irish cider fermentations. Copyright 2004 The Society for Applied Microbiology

  6. Immunoreactivity and amino acid content of fermented soybean products.

    PubMed

    Frias, Juana; Song, Young Soo; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; González de Mejia, Elvira; Vidal-Valverde, Concepcion

    2008-01-09

    Food allergy has become a public health problem that continues to challenge both the public and the food industry. The objective of this research was the detection and quantification of the major human allergenic soy proteins and to study the reduction in immunoreactivity and improvement of amino acid content after fermentation of soybean flour. Fermentation was carried out in the solid state of cracked seeds inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, and Bacillus subtilis and in the liquid state of milled soybean flours fermented naturally by microorganisms present only in the seeds or by inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum. ELISA and Western blot were used to quantify IgE antibody response, and HPLC was used to identify and quantify total amino acids. L. plantarum fermented soy flour showed the highest reduction in IgE immunoreactivity (96-99%) depending upon the sensitivity of the plasma used. Among the solid fermented products, the lowest reduction in immunoreactivity was obtained when mold strains, R. oryzae and A. oryzae, were used (66 and 68%, respectively, for human plasma 97.5 kUA/L). Among the solid fermented products, those inoculated with B. subtilis yielded a 81 and 86% reduction in immunoreactivity against both human plasma 97.5 IgE kUA/L and human pooled plasma samples, respectively. When soybean was subjected to liquid fermentation, most of the total amino acids increased significantly ( p < or = 0.05). In solid fermentation with R. oryzae, only Ala and Thr content improved. Fermentation can decrease soy immunoreactivity, and there is potential of developing nutritious hypoallergenic soy products.

  7. Revealing the factors influencing a fermentative biohydrogen production process using industrial wastewater as fermentation substrate.

    PubMed

    Boboescu, Iulian Zoltan; Ilie, Mariana; Gherman, Vasile Daniel; Mirel, Ion; Pap, Bernadett; Negrea, Adina; Kondorosi, Eva; Bíró, Tibor; Maróti, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Biohydrogen production through dark fermentation using organic waste as a substrate has gained increasing attention in recent years, mostly because of the economic advantages of coupling renewable, clean energy production with biological waste treatment. An ideal approach is the use of selected microbial inocula that are able to degrade complex organic substrates with simultaneous biohydrogen generation. Unfortunately, even with a specifically designed starting inoculum, there is still a number of parameters, mostly with regard to the fermentation conditions, that need to be improved in order to achieve a viable, large-scale, and technologically feasible solution. In this study, statistics-based factorial experimental design methods were applied to investigate the impact of various biological, physical, and chemical parameters, as well as the interactions between them on the biohydrogen production rates. By developing and applying a central composite experimental design strategy, the effects of the independent variables on biohydrogen production were determined. The initial pH value was shown to have the largest effect on the biohydrogen production process. High-throughput sequencing-based metagenomic assessments of microbial communities revealed a clear shift towards a Clostridium sp.-dominated environment, as the responses of the variables investigated were maximized towards the highest H2-producing potential. Mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the microbial consortium largely followed hydrogen-generating metabolic pathways, with the simultaneous degradation of complex organic compounds, and thus also performed a biological treatment of the beer brewing industry wastewater used as a fermentation substrate. Therefore, we have developed a complex optimization strategy for batch-mode biohydrogen production using a defined microbial consortium as the starting inoculum and beer brewery wastewater as the fermentation substrate. These results have the potential

  8. Expression of acylphosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances ethanol fermentation rate

    SciTech Connect

    Raugei, G.; Modesti, A.; Magherini, F.

    1996-06-01

    Previous experiments in vitro have demonstrated the ability of acylphosphatase to increase the rate of glucose fermentation in yeast. To evaluate the possibility of increasing fermentation in vivo also, a chemically synthesized DNA sequence coding for human muscle acylphosphatase was expressed at high level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol production was measured in these engineered strains in comparison with a control. Acylphosphatase expression strongly increased the rate of ethanol production both in aerobic and anaerobic culture. This finding may be potentially important for the development of more efficient industrial fermentation processes. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Mechanisms and kinetics of cellulose fermentation for protein production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a process (and ancillary processing and analytical techniques) to produce bacterial single-cell protein of good nutritional quality from waste cellulose is discussed. A fermentation pilot plant and laboratory were developed and have been in operation for about two years. Single-cell protein (SCP) can be produced from sugarcane bagasse--a typical agricultural cellulosic waste. The optimization and understanding of this process and its controlling variables are examined. Both batch and continuous fermentation runs have been made under controlled conditions in the 535 liter pilot plant vessel and in the laboratory 14-liter fermenters.

  10. Cassava fermentation and associated changes in physicochemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, S N; Mathew, G

    1998-02-01

    Fermentation of cassava is an important processing technique followed in different parts of the world. Although fermentation is known to bring about vast changes in the physicochemical and functional properties of the tubers, attempts have seldom been made to consolidate and critically analyze the available information. Glaring inconsistencies and contradictions noticeable in some of the results reflect the differences and variations in the artisanal processes followed in the preparation of these products. It also stresses the need for a systematic study of not only the quoted products, but also a number of other fermented cassava products that have not been well documented.

  11. [Application of process engineering to remove lignocellulose fermentation inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Xia, Menglei; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation inhibitors are toxic to cells, which is one of the bottlenecks for lignocellulose bio-refinery process. How to remove those inhibitors serves a key role in the bioconversion of lignocellulose. This article reviews the sources and the types of the inhibitors, especially the updated removal strategies including physical methods, chemical methods, biological methods and inhibitor-tolerant strain construction strategies. Based on these, we introduce a new bio-refinery model named "fractional conversion", which reduces the production of inhibitors at pretreatment stage, and a novel in situ detoxification method named "fermentation promoter exploitation technology". This review could provide new research ideas on the removal of fermentation inhibitors.

  12. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  13. Activation of fermentation by salts in Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Calahorra, Martha; Sánchez, Norma Silvia; Peña, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    The presence of 1.0 M KCl or NaCl during growth of Debaryomyces hansenii results in increased ethanol production. An additional increase of fermentation was observed when the salts were also present during incubation under nongrowing conditions. Extracts of cells grown in the presence of salt showed increased alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase activities, indicating that these enzymes are responsible for the increased fermentation capacity. This is confirmed by measurements of the glycolytic intermediates. The increased fermentation capacity of the cells grown with salts seems to enable them to cope with the additional energy required for uptake and/or efflux of cations.

  14. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Aidoo, Kofi E; Nout, M J Rob; Sarkar, Prabir K

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages such as rice and palm wines, and condiments such as papads and soy sauce. Although several products are obtained by natural fermentation, the use of traditional starter cultures is widespread. This minireview focuses on the diversity and functionality of yeasts in these products, and on opportunities for research and development.

  15. The Influence of Various Factors on the Methane Fermentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.

  16. Factors affecting alcohol fermentation of wood acid hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.F.; Bery, M.K.; Colcord, A.R.; Roberts, R.S.; Corbitt, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of ethanol and furfural on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production, at different glucose and furfural concentrations, were examined. The data collected during the fermentation of glucose with no furfural present in the medium fitted the model system proposed by Aiba et al. Furfural disappeared rapidly from the medium at the early stages of fermentation, followed by a constant rate which continued throughout the experiment. The initial furfural concentration of 3 g/L decreased the cell multiplication and the fermentation rate to 59 and 33%, respectively. The furfural concentration in this medium reached 60% of its initial value after 27.5 h.

  17. Metabolically engineered bacteria for producing hydrogen via fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Vardar‐Schara, Gönül; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hydrogen, the most abundant and lightest element in the universe, has much potential as a future energy source. Hydrogenases catalyse one of the simplest chemical reactions, 2H+ + 2e‐ ↔ H2, yet their structure is very complex. Biologically, hydrogen can be produced via photosynthetic or fermentative routes. This review provides an overview of microbial production of hydrogen by fermentation (currently the more favourable route) and focuses on biochemical pathways, theoretical hydrogen yields and hydrogenase structure. In addition, several examples of metabolic engineering to enhance fermentative hydrogen production are presented along with some examples of expression of heterologous hydrogenases for enhanced hydrogen production. PMID:21261829

  18. Fungal hydrolysis in submerged fermentation for food waste treatment and fermentation feedstock preparation.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-01

    Potential of fungal hydrolysis in submerged fermentation by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae as a food waste treatment process and for preparation of fermentation feedstock has been investigated. By fungal hydrolysis, 80-90% of the initial amount of waste was reduced and degraded within 36-48 h into glucose, free amino nitrogen (FAN) and phosphate. Experiments revealed that 80-90% of starch can be converted into glucose and highest concentration of FAN obtained, when solid mashes of A. awamori and A. oryzae are successively added to fermentations at an interval of 24h. A maximal solid-to-liquid ratio of 43.2% (w/v) of food waste has been tested without a negative impact on releases of glucose, FAN and phosphate, and final concentrations of 143 g L(-1), 1.8 g L(-1) and 1.6 g L(-1) were obtained in the hydrolysate, respectively. Additionally, fungal hydrolysis as an alternative to conventional treatments for utilization of food waste is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvement of xylose fermentation in respiratory-deficient xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bingyin; Shen, Yu; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Xiao; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Effective conversion of xylose in lignocelluloses is expected to reduce the production cost of second-generation biofuels significantly. The factors affecting xylose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that express xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase (XR-XDH) are studied. Although overproduction of non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway significantly increased the aerobic-specific growth rate on xylose and slightly improved conversion of xylose to ethanol under oxygen-limited conditions, the elimination of respiration by deleting cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV gene impeded aerobic growth on xylose. However, the adaptive evolution of the respiratory-deficient strain with an NADP(+)-preferring XDH mutant in xylose media dramatically improved its xylose-fermenting ability. The specific growth rate, ethanol yield, and xylitol yield of the evolved strain on xylose were 0.06h(-1), 0.39gg(-1), and 0.13gg(-1) consumed xylose, respectively. Similar to anaerobic fermentation, the evolved strain exhibited accumulated ethanol rather than recycled it under aerobic conditions.

  20. Effects of end products on fermentation profiles in Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 for syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Taylor, Steven; Wang, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 is a strict anaerobic bacterium capable of converting syngas to biofuels. However, its fermentation profiles is poorly understood. Here, various end-products, including acetic acid, butyric acid, hexanoic acid, ethanol and butanol were supplemented to evaluate their effects on fermentation profiles in C. carboxidivorans at two temperatures. At 37°C, fatty acids addition likely led to more corresponding alcohols production. At 25°C, C2 and C4 fatty acids supplementation resulted in more corresponding higher fatty acids, while supplemented hexanoic acid increased yields of C2 and C4 fatty acids and hexanol. Supplementation of ethanol or butanol caused increased production of C2 and C4 acids at both temperatures; however, long-chain alcohols were still more likely produced at lower temperature. In conclusion, fermentation profiles of C. carboxidivorans can be changed in respond to pre-added end-products and carbon flow may be redirected to desired products by controlling culture conditions.