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Sample records for fermented-distillery wastewater evaluation

  1. Ecologically engineered system (EES) designed to integrate floating, emergent and submerged macrophytes for the treatment of domestic sewage and acid rich fermented-distillery wastewater: Evaluation of long term performance.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Chiranjeevi, P; Peri, Dinakar; Sarma, P N

    2010-05-01

    An ecologically engineered system (EES) was designed to mimic the natural cleansing functions of wetlands to bring about wastewater treatment. EES consisted of three tanks containing diverse biota viz., aquatic macrophytes, submerged plants, emergent plants and filter feeders connected in series. The designed system was evaluated for 216days by operating in continuous mode (20l/day) to treat both sewage (DS) and fermented-distillery wastewater (FDW, from hydrogen producing bioreactor). Floating macrophyte system (Tank 1) was more effective in removing COD and nitrates. Submerged and emergent integrated macrophyte system (Tank 2) showed an effective removal of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) along with COD. Filter-feeding system (Tank 3) visualized the removal of COD, VFA, turbidity and color. On the whole the system can treat effectively DS (COD, 68.06%; nitrate, 22.41%; turbidity, 59.81%) and FDW (COD, 72.92%; nitrate, 23.15%; color, 46.0%). The designed EES can be considered as an economical approach for the treatment of both sewage and fermented wastewaters. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  3. Deployable Wastewater Treatment Technology Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    AFRL/MLQD is expanding the Deployable Waste Disposal System to include bare base wastewater treatment. The goal of AFRL/MLQD is for the deployable... wastewater treatment system to be integrated into a waste treatment system that will treat both solid and aqueous waste. The US Army (TARDEC) and the... Air Force (AAC/WMO) have been involved in preliminary studies that provide extensive useful background information for this project. These studies show

  4. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  5. TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATION PROTOCOL FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents a generalized protocol for conducting a Toxicity Reduction evaluation (TRE) at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This protocol is designed to provide guidance to municipalities in preparing TRE plans, evaluating the information generated durin...

  6. Wastewater Treatment Evaluation, Mather AFB, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    Flov measurement. g. Poli.’ihing lagoons. h. Anaerobic Sludge Digestion. i. Sludge drying on sand beds. In this report, processes a... process . Solids (sludge) removed from the wastewater in the secondary clarifiers are pumped to the treatment facility influent channel upstream from...undetermined amount of wastewater to return, by gravity, to the recirculation pumps. The effluent from the two secondary clarifiers is combined at

  7. Evaluation of DGT as a metal speciation tool in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Buzier, Rémy; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2006-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the performance of the diffusive gradient in thin film technique (DGT) as a speciation tool for metals in wastewater. The validity of metal sampling by DGT in wastewater was checked. DGT was used in parallel with the Daphnia magna acute toxicity test in order to obtain information on the speciation of copper and cadmium in diluted and spiked filtered wastewater (raw and treated) from two treatment plants. Combining the chemical (DGT) and the biological methods (D. magna toxicity test) allowed metal to be fractionated into inorganic, labile organic and inert organic metal. Copper was mainly found as inert organic complexes, whereas the major part of cadmium was found to be labile organic complexes. The proportion of inert organic copper complexes was higher in the presence of treated wastewater than in raw wastewater. The use of restricted gels in DGT devices discriminated more labile organic cadmium than labile organic copper, indicating that cadmium weak ligands have more complex structures than copper weak ligands. In our experimental conditions (i.e. a high metal to ligand ratio), DGT, even equipped with restricted gels, was able to accumulate labile organic complexes. This result highlights that the ecotoxicological interpretation of DGT measurement should be considered carefully. DGT is a reliable tool to assess the chemical characteristics of metals (i.e. reactivity) in wastewater, but it does not ensure that only inorganic metal is measured.

  8. A methodology to evaluate water and wastewater treatment plant reliability.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, D; Soller, J; Sakaji, R; Olivieri, A

    2001-01-01

    Evaluating the reliability of treatment processes and treatment facilities should be an important part of the planning and design process for water resource, wastewater treatment, and particularly wastewater reuse projects. With the recent developments in technology, particularly the development of membrane processes and alternative disinfection processes for water and wastewater treatment, there is an increasing need for a common methodology to evaluate the reliability of alternative processes and treatment facilities that utilize different combinations of those processes. To assess the reliability of a treatment facility, several aspects of treatment must be considered including a methodical evaluation of both mechanical reliability and plant performance. A straightforward method for conducting these types of analyses is described herein along with a description of applications of this methodology. A discussion is provided highlighting the value of such a methodology for both the water quality engineer and the risk manager.

  9. Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ΣPAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies.

  10. ETV REPORT - EVALUATION OF DAVIS TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL CORP. - INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Evaluation of Davis Technologies International Corp. Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    The Davis Technologies International Corp. (DTIC) Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metalworking and ...

  11. ETV REPORT - EVALUATION OF DAVIS TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL CORP. - INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Evaluation of Davis Technologies International Corp. Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    The Davis Technologies International Corp. (DTIC) Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metalworking and ...

  12. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Wastewater Disinfection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    sodium metabisulfite, and sodium bisulfite are used for dechlorinating chlorinated effluents, but sulfur dioxide is the favored candidate for...metabisulfite and sodium bisulfite are safe substitutes for sulfur dioxide and are used in most small facilities. These solid dechlorination materials are...induced toxicity to aquatic life? (TRC limits. ChlorinatedNO compounds) No Yes Evalue alternate disinfection , technologies: Dechlorination techniques

  13. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery.

  14. Sustainability and economic evaluation of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Mendes, Adélio M; Caetano, Nídia S; Martins, António A

    2014-09-01

    This article evaluates the sustainability and economic potential of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater for biodiesel and biomass production. Three sustainability and two economic indicators were considered in the evaluation within a life cycle perspective. For the production system the most efficient process units were selected. Results show that harvesting and oil separation are the main process bottlenecks. Microalgae with higher lipid content and productivity are desirable for biodiesel production, although comparable to other biofuel's feedstock concerning sustainability. However, improvements are still needed to reach the performance level of fossil diesel. Profitability reaches a limit for larger cultivation areas, being higher when extracted biomass is sold together with microalgae oil, in which case the influence of lipid content and areal productivity is smaller. The values of oil and/or biomass prices calculated to ensure that the process is economically sound are still very high compared with other fuel options, especially biodiesel.

  15. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China.

  16. Tritiated wastewater treatment and disposal evaluation for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses and analyzes information and issues regarding tritium and tritium management. It was prepared in response to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-05A for the evaluation of tritiated wastewater treatment and disposal. The key elements of the report are summarized as follows: Discharge of tritiated water is regulated worldwide. Differences exist in discharge limits and in regulatory philosophy from country to country and from state to state in the United States. Tritium from manmade sources is emitted into the atmosphere and discharged into the ground or directly to the oceans and to waterways that empty into the oceans. In 1989, reported worldwide emissions of tritium from nuclear power generating plants totaled almost 1,000,000 Curies (Ci).

  17. Multiple-objective evaluation of wastewater treatment plant control alternatives.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gallego, Alejandro; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2010-05-01

    Besides the evaluation of the environmental issues, the correct assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) should take into account several objectives such as: economic e.g. operation costs; technical e.g. risk of suffering microbiology-related TSS separation problems; or legal e.g. accomplishment with the effluent standards in terms of the different pollution loads. For this reason, the main objective of this paper is to show the benefits of complementing the environmental assessment carried out by life cycle assessment with economical, technical and legal criteria. Using a preliminary version of the BSM2 as a case study, different combinations of controllers are implemented, simulated and evaluated. In the following step, the resulting multi-criteria matrix is mined using multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the presence of an external carbon source addition, the type of aeration system and the TSS controller are the key elements creating the differences amongst the alternatives. Also, it was possible to characterize the different control strategies according to a set of aggregated criteria. Additionally, the existing synergies amongst different objectives and their consequent trade-offs were identified. Finally, it was discovered that from the initial extensive list of evaluation criteria, only a small set of five are really discriminant, being useful to differentiate within the generated alternatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of electrochemically generated ozone for the disinfection of water and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tanner, B D; Kuwahara, S; Gerba, C P; Reynolds, K A

    2004-01-01

    Effective wastewater treatment is critical to public health and well-being. This is especially true in developing countries, where disinfection of wastewater is frequently inadequate. People who live in these areas may benefit from wastewater disinfection using ozone. This study evaluated the ability of a new electrochemical process of ozone generation, which produced ozone continuously at high pressure and concentration by the electrolysis of water, to disinfect tap water and secondarily treated wastewater. Inactivation of Klebsiella terrigena, Escherichia coli, MS2 bacteriophage and poliovirus 1 was evaluated first in reverse osmosis (RO) treated water. Inactivation of K. terrigena (6-log), E. coli (6-log), MS2 (6-log) and poliovirus 1 (>3-log) was observed after 1 min of ozonation in a 1 L batch reactor. Experiments were then performed to assess the microbiological impact of disinfection using ozone on secondarily treated municipal wastewater. The effect of ozonation on wastewater was determined for total and faecal coliforms, bacteriophages and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria. Electrochemical ozone generators provided an effective, rapid and low-cost method of wastewater disinfection. Based on the results of this research, electrochemically generated ozone would be well suited to remote, small-scale, disinfection operations and may provide a feasible means of wastewater disinfection in developing countries.

  19. Performance evaluation of fault detection methods for wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Villez, Kris; Aguado, Daniel; Rieger, Leiv; Rosén, Christian; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    Several methods to detect faults have been developed in various fields, mainly in chemical and process engineering. However, minimal practical guidelines exist for their selection and application. This work presents an index that allows for evaluating monitoring and diagnosis performance of fault detection methods, which takes into account several characteristics, such as false alarms, false acceptance, and undesirable switching from correct detection to non-detection during a fault event. The usefulness of the index to process engineering is demonstrated first by application to a simple example. Then, it is used to compare five univariate fault detection methods (Shewhart, EWMA, and residuals of EWMA) applied to the simulated results of the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 long-term (BSM1_LT). The BSM1_LT, provided by the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies, is a simulation platform that allows for creating sensor and actuator faults and process disturbances in a wastewater treatment plant. The results from the method comparison using BSM1_LT show better performance to detect a sensor measurement shift for adaptive methods (residuals of EWMA) and when monitoring the actuator signals in a control loop (e.g., airflow). Overall, the proposed index is able to screen fault detection methods. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L

    2003-01-01

    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater.

  1. [Chemical and ecotoxicological evaluation of sludge from city and industrial waste-water treatment].

    PubMed

    Fiore, Maria; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Cunsolo, Maria; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sludge produced by wastewater treatment, by using both chemical and ecotoxicological evaluations. Samples of sludge from treatment of urban and industrial wastewater were analysed. Toxicity of sludge was evaluated by measuring Vibrio fischeri, polychlorobyphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals. Results of chemical and ecotoxicological evaluations were found to be discordant. In all samples, contaminants were found to be below the accepted threshold levels; on the contrary, toxicological evaluations of sludge samples obtained from industrial wastewater found these samples to be toxic. These findings indicate that the evaluation of sludge to be used in agriculture should include an ecotoxicological evaluation, as suggested by the European Community in 1999. Furthermore, chemical evaluation of sludge should be performed by using a single method and the chosen method should have the most restrictive threshold levels of all methods currently in use in the EU.

  2. Evaluation of on-farm biological treatment processes for wastewaters from vegetable peeling.

    PubMed

    Lehtoa, M; Sipilä, I; Sorvala, S; Hellstedt, M; Kymäläinen, H R; Sjöberg, A M

    2009-01-01

    This study highlights the need for the development of simple, efficient, and cost-effective farm-scale applications to treat wastewater arising from vegetable-peeling operations. The aim was to evaluate two full-scale biological wastewater treatment systems, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a biofilter, and a chemical wastewater treatment system on farms carrying out peeling of vegetables. The types, design criteria and parameters of the processes, as well as properties of the untreated and treated wastewaters were presented and evaluated. Seven-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7) entering the SBR was 3100 +/- 529 mg l(-1) (mean +/- standard deviation). The results showed that the SBR was very stable and effective in the treatment of carrot-processing wastewaters, the BOD7 for effluent being about 10 mg l(-1). The biofilter examined did not operate well because the pH too low: the reduction for BOD7 was 63% and, for COD, 58%. When wastewater from potato processing was treated with aluminium sulphate and conveyed to an artificial pond, removal of BOD7 was 67% and that of COD 69%. This method is only suitable for pre- or post-treatment of these wastewaters. Control of the treatment processes appeared to be essential for their proper functioning.

  3. Evaluation of remediation of coal mining wastewater by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Benassi, J.C.; Laus, R.; Geremias, R.; Lima, P.L.; Menezes, C.T.B.; Laranjeira, M.C.M.; Wilhelm, D.; Favere, V.T.; Pedrosa, R.C.

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the remediation of mining wastewater effluents by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers of exposure and effect. DNA damage (Comet assay) and several biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), were measured in blood and liver of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed for 7, 15, and 30 days to dechlorinated tap water, 10% coal mining wastewater (CMW), and coal mining wastewater treated with chitosan microspheres (RCM). The results obtained indicated that the use of oxidative stress biomarkers were useful tools for the toxicity evaluation of coal mining effluents and also suggest that chitosan microspheres may be used as an alternative approach for remediation of coal mining wastewaters.

  4. Wastewater treatment plant modeling supported toxicity identification and evaluation of a tank truck cleaning effluent.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, W; Dries, J; Geuens, L; Blust, R

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is the Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of highly toxic tank truck cleaning wastewater effluent. Conventional TIE, using EDTA and activated carbon addition, revealed organic compounds as main source of toxicity. Additional toxicant characteristics could be derived from hydraulic wastewater treatment plant simulation being high intake frequency, low biodegradability and high acute toxicity ratio between Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna. The risk probability of compounds present in the influent wastewater was simulated using USEPA Estimation Program Interface (EPI) software. Compound toxicity, solubility and removal rate in a wastewater treatment plant were incorporated into one risk number indicative for the probability of a compound to cause toxicity in the effluent. The herbicide acetochlor was deducted from these TIE procedures as major toxicant and this was confirmed by chemical measurements, concentrations in the effluent samples ranged from 3.73+/-0.52 ppm to 7.8+/-2.1 ppm acetochlor equivalents.

  5. Genotoxicity Evaluation of Irrigative Wastewater from Shijiazhuang City in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehui; Tang, Longmei; Yang, Lixue; Zhang, Xiaolin; Wang, Liqin; Yu, Fengxue; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qing; Liu, Dianwu

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the wastewater sample collected from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city was analysed using both chemical analysis and biological assays including the Salmonella mutagenicity test, micronucleus test and single-cell gel electrophoresis. Chemical analysis of the sample was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The Salmonella mutagenicity test was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains with and without S9 mixture. The mice received the wastewater in natura through drinking water at concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. One group of mice was exposed for 2 consecutive days, and the other group of mice was exposed for 15 consecutive days. To establish the levels of primary DNA damage, single-cell gel electrophoresis was performed on treated mouse liver cell. The concentrations of chromium and lead in the sample exceeded the national standard (GB20922-2007) by 0.78 and 0.43-fold, respectively. More than 30 organic compounds were detected, and some of the detected compounds were mutagens, carcinogens and environmental endocrine disrupters. A positive response for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain was observed. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a dose-response manner. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of the Olive tail moments in a dose-response manner. All the results indicated that the sample from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city exhibited genotoxicity and might pose harmful effects on the local residents.

  6. Genotoxicity Evaluation of Irrigative Wastewater from Shijiazhuang City in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixue; Zhang, Xiaolin; Wang, Liqin; Yu, Fengxue; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qing; Liu, Dianwu

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the wastewater sample collected from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city was analysed using both chemical analysis and biological assays including the Salmonella mutagenicity test, micronucleus test and single-cell gel electrophoresis. Chemical analysis of the sample was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The Salmonella mutagenicity test was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains with and without S9 mixture. The mice received the wastewater in natura through drinking water at concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. One group of mice was exposed for 2 consecutive days, and the other group of mice was exposed for 15 consecutive days. To establish the levels of primary DNA damage, single-cell gel electrophoresis was performed on treated mouse liver cell. The concentrations of chromium and lead in the sample exceeded the national standard (GB20922-2007) by 0.78 and 0.43-fold, respectively. More than 30 organic compounds were detected, and some of the detected compounds were mutagens, carcinogens and environmental endocrine disrupters. A positive response for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain was observed. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a dose-response manner. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of the Olive tail moments in a dose-response manner. All the results indicated that the sample from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city exhibited genotoxicity and might pose harmful effects on the local residents. PMID:26658348

  7. Evaluation of wastewater treatment requirements for thermochemical biomass liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.

    1992-05-01

    The broad range of processing conditions involved in direct biomass liquefaction lead to a variety of product properties. The aqueous byproduct streams have received limited analyses because priority has been placed on analysis of the complex organic liquid product. The range of organic contaminants carried in the aqueous byproducts directly correlates with the quantity and quality of contaminants in the liquid oil product. The data in the literature gives a general indication of the types and amounts of components expected in biomass liquefaction wastewater; however, the data is insufficient to prepare a general model that predicts the wastewater composition from any given liquefaction process. Such a model would be useful in predicting the amount of water that would be soluble in a given oil and the level of dissolved water at which a second aqueous-rich phase would separate from the oil. Both biological and thermochemical processes have proposed for wastewater treatment, but no treatment process has been tested. Aerobic and anaerobic biological systems as well as oxidative and catalytic reforming thermochemical systems should be considered.

  8. Evaluation of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    De Francisci, Davide; Su, Yixi; Iital, Arvo; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-04-05

    In the present study, the feasibility of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment was assessed. Continuous cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana with wastewater was tested in lab-scale flat-panel photobioreactors. Nitrogen and phosphorus removals were found to be inversely proportional to the four dilution rates, while chemical oxygen demand removal was found to be 50% at all the tested conditions. The biomass obtained at the highest dilution rate was characterized for its content of lipids, proteins and pigments. The average yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), protein, lutein, chlorophylls and β-carotene was 62.4, 388.2, 1.03, 11.82 and 0.44 mg per gram dry biomass, respectively. Economic analysis revealed that potentially more than 70% of revenue was from the production of pigments, that is, chlorophyllin (59.6%), lutein (8.9%) and β-carotene (5.0%) while reduction in discharging costs of the treated wastewaters could account for 19.6% of the revenue. Due to the low market price of biodiesel, the revenue from the above was found to be the least profitable (1.4%). Even when combining all these different revenues, this cultivation strategy was found with the current prices to be uneconomical. Power consumption for artificial light was responsible for the 94.5% of the production costs.

  9. Evaluation of wastewater treatment requirements for thermochemical biomass liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.

    1992-05-01

    The broad range of processing conditions involved in direct biomass liquefaction lead to a variety of product properties. The aqueous byproduct streams have received limited analyses because priority has been placed on analysis of the complex organic liquid product. The range of organic contaminants carried in the aqueous byproducts directly correlates with the quantity and quality of contaminants in the liquid oil product. The data in the literature gives a general indication of the types and amounts of components expected in biomass liquefaction wastewater; however, the data is insufficient to prepare a general model that predicts the wastewater composition from any given liquefaction process. Such a model would be useful in predicting the amount of water that would be soluble in a given oil and the level of dissolved water at which a second aqueous-rich phase would separate from the oil. Both biological and thermochemical processes have proposed for wastewater treatment, but no treatment process has been tested. Aerobic and anaerobic biological systems as well as oxidative and catalytic reforming thermochemical systems should be considered.

  10. Assessment of multiple sustainability demands for wastewater treatment alternatives: a refined evaluation scheme and case study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Yu, Han-Qing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Guo, Xuesong

    2012-05-15

    Current estimation schemes as decision support tools for the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives focus primarily on the treatment efficiency, effluent quality, and environmental consequences for receiving water bodies. However, these schemes generally do not quantify the potential to convert pollutants in wastewater to recoverable resources. This study proposes a refined evaluation scheme for choices of wastewater treatment processes that quantifies not only adverse environmental effects but also bioenergy and nutrient recovery indices. An original means of data processing was established and clear estimate indicators were consequently obtained to allow a smooth overall estimation. An array of wastewater treatment alternatives that meet three effluent limits were used as case studies to demonstrate how the present scheme works, simultaneously, to identify optimum choices. It is concluded in the overall estimation that the lower sustainability of wastewater treatment contributed by increasingly stringent discharge demands was offset and mitigated by the resource-recovery scenarios involved, and the scenario of recovering nutrients via excess-sludge composting was of more benefit. Thus, before tightening wastewater discharge requirements, one should bear in mind the situation of multiple sustainability by setting a goal to achieve not only the greatest reduction in environmental burden but also the maximum resource-recovery benefits.

  11. The development of empirical models to evaluate energy use and energy cost in wastewater collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, David Morgan

    This research introduces a unique data analysis method and develops empirical models to evaluate energy use and energy cost in wastewater collection systems using operational variables. From these models, several Best Management Processes (BMPs) are identified that should benefit utilities and positively impact the operation of existing infrastructure as well as the design of new infrastructure. Further, the conclusions generated herein display high transferability to certain manufacturing processes. Therefore, it is anticipated that these findings will also benefit pumping applications outside of the water sector. Wastewater treatment is often the single largest expense at the local government level. Not surprisingly, significant research effort has been expended on examining the energy used in wastewater treatment. However, the energy used in wastewater collection systems remains underexplored despite significant potential for energy savings. Estimates place potential energy savings as high as 60% within wastewater collection; which, if applied across the United States equates to the energy used by nearly 125,000 American homes. Employing three years of data from Renewable Water Resources (ReWa), the largest wastewater utility in the Upstate of South Carolina, this study aims to develop useful empirical equations that will allow utilities to efficiently evaluate the energy use and energy cost of its wastewater collection system. ReWa's participation was motivated, in part, by their recent adoption of the United States Environmental Protection Agency "Effective Utility Strategies" within which exists a focus on energy management. The study presented herein identifies two primary variables related to the energy use and cost associated with wastewater collection: Specific Energy (Es) and Specific Cost (Cs). These two variables were found to rely primarily on the volume pumped by the individual pump stations and exhibited similar power functions for the three year

  12. Statistical evaluation of photon count rate data for nanoscale particle measurement in wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Smeraldi, Josh; Ganesh, Rajagopalan; Safarik, Jana; Rosso, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique can detect the concentration and size distribution of nanoscale particles in aqueous solutions by analyzing photon interactions. This study evaluated the applicability of using photon count rate data from DLS analyses for measuring levels of biogenic and manufactured nanoscale particles in wastewater. Statistical evaluations were performed using secondary wastewater effluent and a Malvern Zetasizer. Dynamic light scattering analyses were performed equally by two analysts over a period of two days using five dilutions and twelve replicates for each dilution. Linearity evaluation using the sixty sample analysis yielded a regression coefficient R(2) = 0.959. The accuracy analysis for various dilutions indicated a recovery of 100 ± 6%. Precision analyses indicated low variance coefficients for the impact of analysts, days, and within sample error. The variation by analysts was apparent only in the most diluted sample (intermediate precision ~12%), where the photon count rate was close to the instrument detection limit. The variation for different days was apparent in the two most concentrated samples, which indicated that wastewater samples must be analyzed for nanoscale particle measurement within the same day of collection. Upon addition of 10 mg l(-1) of nanosilica to wastewater effluent samples, the measured photon count rates were within 5% of the estimated values. The results indicated that photon count rate data can effectively complement various techniques currently available to detect nanoscale particles in wastewaters.

  13. Evaluation of wastewater treatment requirements for thermochemical biomass liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C. )

    1992-04-01

    Biomass can provide a substantial energy source. Liquids are preferred for use as transportation fuels because of their high energy density and handling ease and safety. Liquid fuel production from biomass can be accomplished by any of several different processes including hydrolysis and fermentation of the carbohydrates to alcohol fuels, thermal gasification and synthesis of alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct extraction of biologically produced hydrocarbons such as seed oils or algae lipids, or direct thermochemical conversion of the biomass to liquids and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. This report discusses direct thermochemical conversion to achieve biomass liquefaction and the requirements for wastewater treatment inherent in such processing. 21 refs.

  14. "Protein" Measurement in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems: A Critical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Le, Chencheng; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Stuckey, David C

    2016-03-15

    Five commercially available assay kits were tested on the same protein sample with the addition of 17 different types of interfering substances typically found in the biological wastewater treatment, and a comparison of the use of these assays with 22 different protein and peptide samples is also presented. It was shown that a wide variety of substances can interfere dramatically with these assays; the metachromatic response was also clearly influenced by different proteinaceous material. Measurement of the "protein" content in the effluent of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor was then carried out using these assay methods. Quantitative results of the "protein" concentration in the different effluent samples, with or without spiked additions of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), showed considerable disagreement. We concluded that the "protein" measured in wastewater samples using standard colorimetric assays often shows false positive results and has little correlation to their real value. A new analytical method needs to be developed in order to gain greater insight into the biological transformations occurring in anaerobic digestion, and how soluble microbial products (SMPs) are produced.

  15. Evaluation of microbial fuel cells for electricity generation from oil-contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiro; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Akiteru; Yoda, Minoru; Ishiguro, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2016-11-01

    Large quantities of oils and fats are discharged into wastewater from food industries. We evaluated the possibility of using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the generation of electricity from food-industry wastewater containing vegetable oils. Single-chamber MFCs were supplied with artificial wastewater containing soybean oil, and oil removal and electric output were examined under several different conditions. We found that MFC performance could be improved by supplementing wastewater with an emulsifier, inoculating MFCs with oil-contaminated soil, and coating the graphite-felt anodes with carbon nanotubes, resulting in a power output of more than 2 W m(-2) (based on the projected area of the anode). Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments detected abundant amount of Burkholderiales bacteria (known to include oil degraders) in the oil-contaminated soil and anode biofilm, whereas those affiliated with the genus Geobacter were only detected in the anode biofilm. These results suggest that MFCs can be used for energy recovery from food industry wastewater containing vegetable oils. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecotoxicity evaluation and removal of sulfonamides and their acetylated metabolites during conventional wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    García-Galán, María Jesús; González Blanco, Susana; López Roldán, Ramón; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Barceló, Damiá

    2012-10-15

    The present study describes the evaluation of the risk posed by the occurrence of sulfonamides (SAs) in wastewaters. A fully automated analytical method based on on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on line SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed, validated and applied for the analysis of sixteen SAs and, for the first time in wastewaters and sewage sludge, five of their acetylated metabolites. Influent and effluent samples from twenty two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Catalonia (Spain) and sewage sludge from fifteen of them were analyzed; removal rates (RE%) and half-lives (t(1/2)) for each SA were calculated. The estimated correlations between RE% and to the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the different plants indicated no clear influence of HRT on removals. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfapyridine (SPY) and their corresponding acetylated metabolites were detected with the highest frequencies of detection and at the highest concentrations. The ecotoxicity of both SPY and AcSPY was evaluated for the first time through bioluminescent inhibition assays, resulting in a higher toxicity being attributed to the metabolite. Finally, the potential environmental risk posed by the levels of SAs detected was evaluated calculating the hazard quotients (HQ) to different non-target aquatic organisms in treated wastewaters. SMX was the only SA posing a risk to algae, with an HQ>10. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Research on common methods for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities of iron and steel enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingsheng, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Considering the large quantities of wastewater generated from iron and steel enterprises in China, this paper is aimed to research the common methods applied for evaluating the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises. Based on survey results on environmental protection performance, technological economy, resource & energy consumption, services and management, an indicator system for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities is set up. By discussing the standards and industrial policies in and out of China, 27 key secondary indicators are further defined on the basis of investigation on main equipment and key processes for wastewater treatment, so as to determine the method for setting key quantitative and qualitative indicators for evaluation indicator system. It is also expected to satisfy the basic requirements of reasonable resource allocation, environmental protection and sustainable economic development, further improve the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises, and reduce the emission of hazardous substances and environmental impact.

  18. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Nichole E; Haffler, Tyler D; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Rhodes, Eric R

    2013-10-01

    Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater, making wastewater a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viruses. In this study, two procedures were evaluated to concentrate noroviruses, adenoviruses and enteroviruses from primary effluent of wastewater. In the first procedure, indigenous enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses were concentrated using celite (diatomaceous earth) followed by centrifugation through a 30K MWCO filter and nucleic acid extraction. The second procedure used celite concentration followed by nucleic acid extraction only. Virus quantities were measured using qPCR. A second set of primary effluent samples were seeded with Coxsackievirus A7, Coxsackievirus B1, poliovirus 1 or enterovirus 70 before concentration and processed through both procedures for recovery evaluation of enterovirus species representatives. The pairing of the single step extraction procedure with the celite concentration process resulted in 47-98% recovery of examined viruses, while the celite concentration process plus additional centrifugal concentration before nucleic acid extraction showed reduced recovery (14-47%). The celite concentration process followed by a large volume nucleic acid extraction technique proved to be an effective procedure for recovering these important human pathogens from wastewater. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Evaluation of improved techniques for the removal of fission products from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1996 status

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Guo, B.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory results acquired in the course of evaluating new sorbents for the treatment of radiologically contaminated groundwater and process wastewater. During FY 1996, the evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin for the removal of cesium and strontium from wastewaters was completed. Additionally, strontium sorption on sodium nonatitanate powder was characterized in a series of multicomponent batch studies. Both of these materials were evaluated in reference to a baseline sorbent, natural chabazite zeolite.

  2. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Removal from Wastewater in a Modified Packed Bed Biofilm Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Shohreh; Kamika, Ilunga; Tekere, Memory

    2016-01-01

    For the effective application of a modified packed bed biofilm reactor (PBBR) in wastewater industrial practice, it is essential to distinguish the tolerance of the system for heavy metals removal. The industrial contamination of wastewater from various sources (e.g. Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni) was studied to assess the impacts on a PBBR. This biological system was examined by evaluating the tolerance of different strengths of composite heavy metals at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 hours. The heavy metal content of the wastewater outlet stream was then compared to the source material. Different biomass concentrations in the reactor were assessed. The results show that the system can efficiently treat 20 (mg/l) concentrations of combined heavy metals at an optimum HRT condition (2 hours), while above this strength there should be a substantially negative impact on treatment efficiency. Average organic reduction, in terms of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the system, is reduced above the tolerance limits for heavy metals as mentioned above. The PBBR biological system, in the presence of high surface area carrier media and a high microbial population to the tune of 10 000 (mg/l), is capable of removing the industrial contamination in wastewater. PMID:27186636

  3. Evaluation of photoreactivation of Escherichia coli and Enterococci after UV disinfection of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Locas, Annie; Demers, Josée; Payment, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Because chlorine disinfection is not permitted in the province of Quebec, wastewater disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) light has been used for years in wastewater treatment plants. Thermotolerant coliforms discharge criteria are set for each plant and are adjusted by a factor of 1 log to compensate for photoreactivation in UV-disinfected effluents. The current study evaluated levels of Escherichia coli and enterococci photoreactivation from disinfected wastewater under varying temperature, visible light, and type of UV lamps. Escherichia coli photoreactivation increased significantly after exposure to 5600 lx compared with 1600 lx of visible light. This increase was significantly higher in warm water (25 degrees C) than cold water (4 degrees C). The level of photoreactivation of E. coli was also higher after wastewater disinfection by low-pressure UV lamps as opposed to medium-pressure UV lamps. Enterococci, however, were not photoreactivated under any test conditions. This result suggests that enterococci could be a better indicator than thermotolerant coliforms or E. coli. The use of enterococci would also eliminate the requirement to set different discharge criteria based on disinfection type (UV or chemical) and would also provide a better assessment of treatment efficiency for more resistant microorganisms.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of pharmaceutical wastewaters using the alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Xinyao; Li, Ruixia; Li, Zaixing; Zhang, Fei

    2014-02-15

    The toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewaters has recently been the focus of the public in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of different raw and treated pharmaceutical wastewaters to algae Scenedesmus obliquus and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants in China. The results of the conventional parameters analysis indicated that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after treatment. Pharmaceutical effluents were mainly polluted with organics and phosphorus as indicated by the average COD (388 mg/L) and TP (3.16 mg/L) concentrations. The toxicity test results indicated that the influent samples were toxic to both test species. Although the toxicities could be remarkably reduced after treatment, 10 out of the 16 effluent samples exceeded the acute toxicity discharge limit of the Chinese national standards. Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values of S. obliquus and V. fischeri. Compared with S. obliquus, V. fischeri detected more pharmaceutical effluent samples with toxicities. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the COD and NH3-N concentrations based on a Spearman rank correlation analysis.

  5. Evaluation and improvement of wastewater treatment plant performance using BioWin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Cao, Jiashun; Feng, Qian; Wang, Gan; Xue, Zhaoxia; Fang, Fang

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the activated sludge model implemented in the BioWin® software was validated against full-scale wastewater treatment plant data. Only two stoichiometric parameters ( Y p/acetic and the heterotrophic yield ( Y H)) required calibration. The value 0.42 was used for Y p/acetic in this study, while the default value of the BioWin® software is 0.49, making it comparable with the default values of the corresponding parameter (yield of phosphorus release to substrate uptake ) used in ASM2, ASM2d, and ASM3P, respectively. Three scenarios were evaluated to improve the performance of the wastewater treatment plant, the possibility of wasting sludge from either the aeration tank or the secondary clarifier, the construction of a new oxidation ditch, and the construction of an equalization tank. The results suggest that construction of a new oxidation ditch or an equalization tank for the wastewater treatment plant is not necessary. However, sludge should be wasted from the aeration tank during wet weather to reduce the solids loading of the clarifiers and avoid effluent violations. Therefore, it is recommended that the design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) should include flexibility to operate the plants in various modes. This is helpful in selection of the appropriate operating mode when necessary, resulting in substantial reductions in operating costs.

  6. Evaluation of wetland and tertiary wastewater treatments for estrogenicity using in vivo and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Xie, L; Sapozhnikova, Y; Bawardi, O; Schlenk, D

    2005-01-01

    The effects of wetland wastewater treatment on estrogenic activity and estrogenic activity of water after tertiary treatment were evaluated using in vivo (rainbow trout vitellogenin [VTG] expression) and in vitro (yeast estrogen screening) assays. Juvenile rainbow trout exposed to tertiary-treated wastewater from the Green Acres Treatment Plant in Orange County Water District had increased plasma VTG levels compared with control fish. When trout were exposed to wastewater-dominated water before it entered into Prado Wetland (Riverside County, CA), VTG concentrations were increased above those of controls and were not significantly different from fish exposed to water exiting the wetland. VTG E2-equivalent concentrations (EEQs) of the water samples from the Green Acres Plant were 16.92 +/- 16.49 ng/L. Activity of water entering Prado Wetland was 29.80 +/- 28.41 ng/L EEQ, and water exiting was 24.34 +/- 23.17 ng/L EEQ. In vitro assays estimated that estrogenic activity of water from the Green Acres Plant was <1 ng/L EEQ, whereas water entering and exiting Prado Wetland had yeast estrogen screening EEQs of 2.57 and <1 ng/L, respectively. Our results suggest that environmental estrogens that are not potent estrogen-receptor ligands exist in wastewaters from the Green Acres Plant as well as water entering and exiting Prado Wetland. Wetland treatment did not remove environmental estrogens in the water. Our results also suggest that in vitro assays may underestimate estrogenic activity of sampled water.

  7. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Removal from Wastewater in a Modified Packed Bed Biofilm Reactor.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Shohreh; Kamika, Ilunga; Tekere, Memory

    2016-01-01

    For the effective application of a modified packed bed biofilm reactor (PBBR) in wastewater industrial practice, it is essential to distinguish the tolerance of the system for heavy metals removal. The industrial contamination of wastewater from various sources (e.g. Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni) was studied to assess the impacts on a PBBR. This biological system was examined by evaluating the tolerance of different strengths of composite heavy metals at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 hours. The heavy metal content of the wastewater outlet stream was then compared to the source material. Different biomass concentrations in the reactor were assessed. The results show that the system can efficiently treat 20 (mg/l) concentrations of combined heavy metals at an optimum HRT condition (2 hours), while above this strength there should be a substantially negative impact on treatment efficiency. Average organic reduction, in terms of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the system, is reduced above the tolerance limits for heavy metals as mentioned above. The PBBR biological system, in the presence of high surface area carrier media and a high microbial population to the tune of 10 000 (mg/l), is capable of removing the industrial contamination in wastewater.

  8. Evaluation of two conceptual wastewater treatment schemes for a Lurgi-based indirect coal liquefaction plant

    SciTech Connect

    Villiers-Fisher, J.F.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1984-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two conceptual treatment schemes for decontaminating the wastewaters likely to be generated in a conceptual dry-ash Lurgi-based indirect coal liquefaction plant. The conceptual indirect coal liquefaction plant is an integrated (i.e., all utilities generated onsite) facility designed to convert 15,000 tons of moisture- and ash-free coal per stream day to motor gasoline using dry-ash Lurgi coal gasification, Imperial Chemical Industries' methanol synthesis, and Mobil's methanol-to-gasoline processes. The conceptual plant is premised to be located at a generic site in the eastern United States and processes a generic Interior Basin high-sulfur bituminous coal. The following conclusions can be drawn from this assessment: (1) On paper, wastewater treatment facilities can be designed that are projected to treat the indirect coal liquefaction plant wastewaters to a level where the effluent will likely meet the current regulations for aqueous effluents for allied industries such as coke ovens and petroleum refineries. (2) The estimated capital investments, in 1983 US dollars, for the Case I (surface-discharge) and Case II (zero-aqueous-discharge) schemes are approximately $440 million and $550 million, respectively. These costs represent about 15 and 20% of the estimated capital investment for the integrated indirect coal liquefaction plant. (3) Case II (zero-aqueous-discharge) wastewater treatment is likely to result in the accumulation of approximately 1 million tons of toxic solid wastes during the 30 years of plant operation.

  9. Evaluating the vulnerability of surface waters to antibiotic contamination from varying wastewater treatment plant discharges.

    PubMed

    Batt, Angela L; Bruce, Ian B; Aga, Diana S

    2006-07-01

    Effluents from three wastewater treatment plants with varying wastewater treatment technologies and design were analyzed for six antibiotics and caffeine on three sampling occasions. Sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were detected in the effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.090 to 6.0 microg/L. Caffeine was detected in all effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 9.9 microg/L. These findings indicate that several conventional wastewater management practices are not effective in the complete removal of antibiotics, and their discharges have a large potential to affect the aquatic environment. To evaluate the persistence of antibiotics coming from the wastewater discharges on the surrounding surface waters, samples were collected from the receiving streams at 10-, 20- and 100-m intervals. Ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin (0.043 to 0.076 microg/L) were found as far as 100 m from the discharge point, which indicates the persistence of these drugs in surface waters.

  10. Evaluation of engineered nanoparticle toxic effect on wastewater microorganisms: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Eduok, S; Martin, B; Villa, R; Nocker, A; Jefferson, B; Coulon, F

    2013-09-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in a wide range of products is associated with an increased concern for environmental safety due to their potential toxicological and adverse effects. ENPs exert antimicrobial properties through different mechanisms such as the formation of reactive oxygen species, disruption of physiological and metabolic processes. Although there are little empirical evidences on environmental fate and transport of ENPs, biosolids in wastewater most likely would be a sink for ENPs. However, there are still many uncertainties in relation to ENPs impact on the biological processes during wastewater treatment. This review provides an overview of the available data on the plausible effects of ENPs on AS and AD processes, two key biologically relevant environments for understanding ENPs-microbial interactions. It indicates that the impact of ENPs is not fully understood and few evidences suggest that ENPs could augment microbial-mediated processes such as AS and AD. Further to this, wastewater components can enhance or attenuate ENPs effects. Meanwhile it is still difficult to determine effective doses and establish toxicological guidelines, which is in part due to variable wastewater composition and inadequacy of current analytical procedures. Challenges associated with toxicity evaluation and data interpretation highlight areas in need for further research studies.

  11. Evaluation of the Allium anaphase-telophase test in relation to genotoxicity screening of industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rank, J; Nielsen, M H

    1994-02-01

    The Allium anaphase-telophase test was evaluated to find out if it could be recommended in the screening of wastewater for genotoxicity. Five mutagenic or carcinogenic chemicals usually found in wastewater were tested in the Allium anaphase-telophase test. Sodium dichromate (25 microM), benzene (100 microM), dichloromethane (175 microM) and 1,1,1-trichloromethane (175 microM) increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the root cells, whereas formaldehyde (1 mM) was found to be non-mutagenic in this test system. Other studies where chemicals were tested in the Allium test were reviewed. For 15 chemicals the results were compared with results from the Ames test, the Microscreen assay, and carcinogenicity tests in rodents. The sensitivity of the Allium test was calculated to be 82%. In conclusion the Allium test is recommended for the screening of wastewater because it has a high sensitivity, is cheap, rapid, easy to handle, and because it can be used on wastewater without pretreatment of the sample.

  12. Evaluating the heat pump alternative for heating enclosed wastewater treatment facilities in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, C. J.; Phetteplace, G. E.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents a five-step procedure for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using heat pumps to recover heat from treatment plant effluent. The procedure is meant to be used at the facility planning level by engineers who are unfamiliar with this technology. An example of the use of the procedure and general design information are provided. Also, the report reviews the operational experience with heat pumps at wastewater plants located in Fairbanks, Alaska, Madison, Wisconsin, and Wilton, Maine.

  13. Evaluation of Water Quality Renovation by Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T.; Morales, I.; DeLuca, J.; Amador, J.

    2013-12-01

    25% of US households utilize onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for wastewater management. Advanced technologies were designed to overcome the inadequate wastewater treatment by conventional OWTS in critical shallow water table areas, such as coastal zones, in order to protect ground water quality. In addition to the septic tank and soil drainfield that comprise a conventional OWTS, advanced systems claim improved water renovation with the addition of sand filtration, timed dosing controls, and shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. We determined water quality renovation functions under current water table and temperature conditions, in anticipation of an experiment to measure OWTS response to a climate change scenario of 30-cm increase in water table elevation and 4C temperature increase. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used to evaluate the effectiveness of drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone) compared to two types of pressurized, shallow narrow drainfield. Results under steady state conditions indicate complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria, phosphorus and BOD by all soil-based systems. By contrast, removal of total nitrogen inputs was 16% in conventional and 11% for both advanced drainfields. Effluent waters maintained a steady state pH between 3.2 - 3.7 for all technologies. Average DO readings were 2.9mg/L for conventional drainfield effluent and 4.6mg/L for advanced, showing the expected oxygen uptake with shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. The conventional OWTS is outperforming the advanced with respect to nitrogen removal, but renovating wastewater equivalently for all other contaminants of concern. The results of this study are expected to facilitate development of future OWTS regulation and planning guidelines, particularly in coastal zones and in the face of a changing climate.

  14. Evaluation of an electrolysis apparatus for inactivating antineoplastics in clinical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyohide; Hirose, Jun; Sano, Kouichi; Hiro, Naoki; Ijiri, Yoshio; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Tamai, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Nakano, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    We recently reported a system for inactivating antineoplastics in which sodium hypochlorite is supplied by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. In this study, we designed an electrolysis apparatus for inactivating the cytotoxicity of antineoplastics in clinical wastewater using the system. The apparatus consists of an electrolysis cell with platinum-iridium electrodes, a pool tank, a circulating system for wastewater, a safety system for explosive gas and overflow, and an exhaust duct. The free chlorine concentration increased linearly up to 6500 mg l(-1), and pH also increased to 9.0-10.0 within 2h, when 0.9% sodium chloride solution was electrolyzed. We examined its efficacy with model and clinical wastewaters. The reciprocal of dilution factor for disappearance of cytotoxicity using Molt-4 cells was compared before and after electrolysis. In the model wastewater, that was 9.10 x 10(4) before electrolysis, and 3.56 x 10(2) after 2h of electrolysis. In the clinical wastewater (n=26), that was 6.90 x 10(3)-1.02 x 10(6) before electrolysis, and 1.08 x 10(2)-1.45 x 10(4) after 2h of electrolysis. Poisonous and explosive gases released by the electrolysis were measured; however, they were found to be negligible in terms of safety. The environmental load was evaluated by carbon dioxide generation as an index and it was found that the carbon dioxide generated by the electrolysis method was 1/70 lower than that by the dilution method with tap water. Moreover, the cost of the electrolysis method was 1/170 lower than that of the dilution method. This method was found to be both effective and economically valuable.

  15. Proposal to optimize ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater treated by conventional biological and ozonation processes.

    PubMed

    Wigh, Adriana; Devaux, Alain; Brosselin, Vanessa; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Domenjoud, Bruno; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Creusot, Nicolas; Gosset, Antoine; Bazin, Christine; Bony, Sylvie

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of urban and hospital effluents (50% v/v) was evaluated for ecotoxicity with an advanced bioassay battery. Mixed effluents were tested before any treatment, after biological treatment alone, and after biological treatment followed by a tertiary ozonation (15 mg O3/L). Laying a high value on the continuance of organisms' fitness, essential to preserve a healthy receiving ecosystem, the main objective of this study was to combine normalized bioassays with newly developed in vivo and in vitro tests in order to assess alteration of embryo development, growth and reproduction, as well as genotoxic effects in aquatic organisms exposed to complex wastewater effluents. Comparison of the bioassays sensitivity was considered. Contrary to the lack of toxicity observed with normalized ecotoxicity tests, endpoints measured on zebrafish embryos such as developmental abnormalities and genotoxicity demonstrated a residual toxicity in wastewater both after a biological treatment followed or not by a tertiary O3 treatment. However, the ozonation step allowed to alleviate the residual endocrine disrupting potential measure in the biologically treated effluent. This study shows that normalized bioassays are not sensitive enough for the ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewaters and that there is a great need for the development of suitable sensitive bioassays in order to characterize properly the possible residual toxicity of treated effluents.

  16. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance.

  17. Evaluation of the proposed Y-12 steam plant wastewater treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Dinsmore, G.B.

    1984-09-01

    A wastewater treatment facility has been conceptually designed to treat the Y-12 steam plant and ancillary effluents to meet the Clean Water Act's Best Available Technology limitations. This report presents the results of a program to acquire representative samples of the major effluents to be treated in this facility, to characterize these samples, and to perform a bench-scale evaluation of the conceptual design flowsheet. Results indicate the wastewater can be successfully treated with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to remove all pollutants, except copper, silver, and TSS to levels specified in the probable Limits for Y-12 Process Waste Discharges to East Fork Popular Creek. Flocculation of the sludge produced by the Ca(OH)/sub 2/ coagulation with PURIFLOC A23 reduces sludge volume by approx. 69%. Results also indicate that vacuum filtration is a better alternative than centrifugation for dewatering the sludge. 16 references, 10 figures, 7 tables.

  18. Using oysters as anthropogenic indicators to evaluate the occurrence of the wastewater contamination of the estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2015-04-01

    The oyster (Crossostrea gigas) is an important aquacultural species in Taiwan. With an area of over 85% of the total inshore aquacultural field, its production, measured by quantity or economic value, ranks above all other aquacultural products in Taiwan. Since oyster's habitat is on shelves near the coast, the samples from a particular "oyster cultural site" can be applied to evaluate the pollution of a segment of the coastal water. Deficient wastewater treatment has caused untreated wastewaters to have flown in rivers into oyster cultural areas in estuaries as well as shallow coastal water. Therefore, the concentration of pollutants in the oysters can be used as anthropogenic indicators to evaluate the occurrence of the for wastewater contamination of the coastal water. In this study, two groups of anthropogenic organic compounds, chlorinated flame retardant (i.e., Dechlorane Plus) and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances (i.e., 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone), were determined in oyster samples as wastewater contamination pollutants. The method involves the use of matrix solid-phase dispersion prior to their determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results show that these two groups of compounds are ubiquitous in oysters with the concentrations of chlorinated flame retardant and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances ranging from 0.3 to 3.6 ng/g and from 120 to 910 ng/g (lipid weight), respectively. Oysters are useful anthropogenic indicators of organic pollutants in Taiwan's marine environment. The ubiquity of these pollutants in Taiwan's coastal environment supports the need for greater awareness of bioaccumulation processes.

  19. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations – such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1 h – can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed “verified Lagrangian” sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2–4 h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we

  20. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and apoptosis of wastewater before and after disinfection with performic acid.

    PubMed

    Ragazzo, Patrizia; Feretti, Donatella; Monarca, Silvano; Dominici, Luca; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Viola, Gaia; Piccolo, Valentina; Chiucchini, Nicoletta; Villarini, Milena

    2017-06-01

    Disinfection with performic acid (PFA) represents an emerging technology in wastewater treatment. Many recent studies indicate its effectiveness and suitability as a disinfectant for different applications; several have demonstrated its reliability as an alternative to chlorine for disinfecting secondary effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Some disinfection technologies, in relation to their oxidative power, lead to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are of concern for their toxic and carcinogenic potential. The aim of this study was to investigate potential genotoxic, cytotoxic, and mutagenic effects of this disinfection agent on treated secondary effluent coming from a municipal WWTP. A strategy with multiple short-term tests and different target cells (bacterial, plant, and mammalian) was adopted to explore a relatively wide range of potential genotoxic events. The Ames test (point mutation in Salmonella), the micronucleus (chromosomal damage) and Comet tests (primary DNA damage) on human hepatic cells (HepG2) were conducted to detect mutagenicity and chromosomal DNA alterations. DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial potential assays were conducted to evaluate apoptosis in the same kinds of cells. Mutagenic and clastogenic effect potentials were evaluated by examining micronucleus formation in Allium cepa root cells. In all the in vitro tests, carried out on both disinfected and non-disinfected effluents, negative results were always obtained for mutagenic and genotoxic effects. In the Allium cepa tests, however, some non-concentrated wastewater samples after PFA treatment induced a slight increase in micronucleus frequencies in root cells, but not in a dose-related manner. In conclusion, PFA applied for disinfection to a secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant did not contribute to the release of genotoxic or mutagenic compounds. Further studies are required to establish to which extent

  1. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling.

    PubMed

    Antweiler, Ronald C; Writer, Jeffrey H; Murphy, Sheila F

    2014-02-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations - such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1h - can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed "verified Lagrangian" sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2-4h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we show how data

  2. Evaluation of Trenchless Installation Technology for Radioactive Wastewater Piping Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Patton, Bradley D; Sullivan, Nicholas M; Bugbee, Kathy P

    2009-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes dispositioning facilities, contaminated legacy materials/waste, and contamination sources and remediation of soil under facilities, groundwater, and surface water to support final Records of Decision (RODs). The Integrated Facilities Disposition Project (IFDP) is a roughly $15B project for completion of the EM mission at Oak Ridge, with a project duration of up to 35 years. The IFDP Mission Need Statement - Critical Decision-0 (CD-0) - was approved by DOE in July 2007, and the IFDP Alternative Selection and Cost Range - Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) - was approved in November 2008. The IFDP scope includes reconfiguration of waste collection and treatment systems as needed to complete the IFDP remediation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) missions in a safe and cost-effective manner while maintaining compliance with all governing regulations and bodies and preserving the support of continuing operations at ORNL. A step in the CD-1 approval process included an external technical review (ETR) of technical approaches proposed in the CD-1 document related to the facility reconfiguration for the ORNL radioactive waste and liquid low-level waste management systems. The ETR team recommended that the IFDP team consider the use of trenchless technologies for installing pipelines underground in and around contaminated sites as part of the alternatives evaluations required in support of the CD-2 process. The team specifically recommended evaluating trenchless technologies for installing new pipes in existing underground pipelines as an alternative to conventional open trench installation methods. Potential benefits could include reduction in project costs, less costly underground piping, fewer disruptions of ongoing and surface activities, and lower risk for workers. While trenchless technologies have been used extensively in the

  3. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; Howard, Kevin; Harris, Linden; Parodi, Jurek; Kawashima, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  4. Performance evaluation of a full-scale coke oven wastewater treatment plant in an integrated steel plant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Vaidya, A N; Shivaraman, N; Bal, A S

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater generated during coke-oven gas cleaning operations in the integrated steel plant contains phenol, cyanide, thiocyanate, and also oil and grease. Although the activated sludge process is widely practiced for biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater, it was observed during the evaluation of performance of full scale coke-oven wastewater treatment plant that oil contamination and poor sludge settleability had resulted in poor maintenance of the activated sludge process. Keeping these aspects in view, treatability studies were conducted and an alternative treatment process is proposed. With these corrective measures the coke-oven wastewater treatment plant will give desired performance. In this paper we present results of the performance evaluation, data on treatability studies and alternative treatment process scheme.

  5. Lessons learnt from evaluating full-scale ammonium feedback control in three large wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Åmand, L; Laurell, C; Stark-Fujii, K; Thunberg, A; Carlsson, B

    2014-01-01

    Three large wastewater treatment plants in Sweden participate in a project evaluating different types of ammonium feedback controllers in full-scale operation. The goal is to improve process monitoring, maintain effluent water quality and save energy. The paper presents the outcome of the long-term evaluation of controllers. Based on the experiences gained from the full-scale implementations, a discussion is provided about energy assessment for the purpose of comparing control strategies. The most important conclusions are the importance of long-term experiments and the difficulty of comparing energy consumption based on air flow rate measurements.

  6. Radiation processing of wastewater evaluated by toxicity assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrely, S. I.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Pedroso, C. B.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C. G.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Santos, M. C. F.

    2000-03-01

    Biological assays have been applied to industrial effluents and sewage influents, from distinct sites, before and after being submitted to ionizing radiation treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of radiation, mainly electron beam accelerator, for the acute toxicity removal. The selected sampling presented a very toxic level and the radiation process was efficient for toxicity removal for 87.7% of irradiated samples. The sewage influents required lower radiation doses to reduce toxicity when compared to raw industrial effluents.

  7. Evaluation of thickening and dewatering characteristics of SRC-I wastewater treatment sludges. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky, will generate several different sludges as a result of providing extensive wastewater treatment. Because construction of this plant has been postponed indefinitely, there has been an opportunity to generate additional data pertinent to waste treatment. Accordingly, this report presents the results of a study on the thickening and dewatering characteristics of several of the wastewater treatment sludges. The study included: evaluation of chemical conditioning agents; aerobic digestion of biological sludges; gravity thickening; and the relative effectiveness of dewatering by centrifuge, vacuum filter, belt filter, and pressure filter. Sludges were tested individually and in combination. The results indicated that the biological sludge could be best dewatered by pressure filtration. The chemical sludges should be combined prior to dewatering, which should be provided by a belt filter. The tar acid sludge will be kept separate, due to its low pH, and ultimate disposal will be by incineration. The tar acid sludge was more concentrated than had been expected. As a result, thickening, rather than centrifuging, is the recommended treatment for this sludge. All sludges were tested for leachate toxicity by the extraction procedure method. The results were negative, indicating the sludges are non-hazardous in heavy metal concentrations, according to RCRA classification. The test results have identified design changes for the proposed wastewater treatment facilities.

  8. Bioelectro-Fenton: evaluation of a combined biological-advanced oxidation treatment for pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Trellu, Clement; Papirio, Stefano; Oturan, Nihal; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2017-01-31

    Electro-Fenton (EF), an advanced oxidation process, can be combined with a biological process for efficient treatment of wastewater containing refractory pollutants such as pharmaceuticals. In this study, a biological process was implemented in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which was either preceded or followed by EF treatment. The main goal was to evaluate the potential of two sequences of a combined electrochemical-biological process: EF/SBR and SBR/EF for the treatment of real wastewater spiked with 0.1 mM of caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. The biological removal of COD and pharmaceuticals was improved by extending the acclimation time and increasing concentration of biomass in the SBR. Hardly biodegradable caffeine and COD were completely removed during the EF post-treatment (SBR/EF). During the EF/SBR sequence, complete removal of pharmaceuticals was achieved by EF within 30 min at applied current 800 mA. With a current of 500 and 800 mA, the initially very low BOD5/COD ratio increased up to 0.38 and 0.58, respectively, after 30 min. The efficiency of the biological post-treatment was influenced by the biodegradability enhancement after EF pre-treatment. The choice of an adequate sequence of such a combined process is significantly related to the wastewater characteristics as well as the treatment objectives.

  9. Treatment of Slaughter House Wastewater in a Sequencing Batch Reactor: Performance Evaluation and Biodegradation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Pradyut; Debsarkar, Anupam; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2013-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains diluted blood, protein, fat, and suspended solids, as a result the organic and nutrient concentration in this wastewater is vary high and the residues are partially solubilized, leading to a highly contaminating effect in riverbeds and other water bodies if the same is let off untreated. The performance of a laboratory-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) has been investigated in aerobic-anoxic sequential mode for simultaneous removal of organic carbon and nitrogen from slaughterhouse wastewater. The reactor was operated under three different variations of aerobic-anoxic sequence, namely, (4+4), (5+3), and (3+5) hr. of total react period with two different sets of influent soluble COD (SCOD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 +-N) level 1000 ± 50 mg/L, and 90 ± 10 mg/L, 1000 ± 50 mg/L and 180 ± 10 mg/L, respectively. It was observed that from 86 to 95% of SCOD removal is accomplished at the end of 8.0 hr of total react period. In case of (4+4) aerobic-anoxic operating cycle, a reasonable degree of nitrification 90.12 and 74.75% corresponding to initial NH4 +-N value of 96.58 and 176.85 mg/L, respectively, were achieved. The biokinetic coefficients (k, K s, Y, k d) were also determined for performance evaluation of SBR for scaling full-scale reactor in future operation. PMID:24027751

  10. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina) Hospital Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Ángela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  11. Performance evaluation of pilot scale sulfur-oxidizing denitrification for treatment of metal plating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Flores, Angel S P; Gwon, Eun-Mi; Sim, Dong-Min; Nisola, Grace; Galera, Melvin M; Chon, Seung-Se; Chung, Wook-Jin; Pak, Dae-Won; Ahn, Zou Sam

    2006-01-01

    A full-scale and two pilot-scale upflow sulfur-oxidizing denitrification (SOD) columns were evaluated using metal plating wastewater as feed. The sludge was autotrophically enriched, and inoculated in the SOD columns attached to the effluent line of three metal plating wastewater treatment facilities. The effects of activated carbon and aeration were also studied, and found effective for the removal of suspended solids and ammonia, respectively. The results showed that the constituents, such as the total nitrogen, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and heavy metals, were effectively removed. The pH was observed to be maintained at 7-8 due to the alkalinity supplied by the sulfur-calcium carbonate (SC) pellet. The denitrification efficiency and start-up period were observed to be affected by the influent quality. Chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc--the major heavy metal components of the influent--were effectively reduced at certain concentrations. Other metal ions were also detected and reduced to undetectable concentrations, but no trends in the comparison with denitrification were observed. From the results it can be concluded that SOD is effective for the removal of nitrogen, particularly nitrates, without a drastic pH change, and can effectively remove minute concentrations of heavy metals and COD in metal plating wastewaters.

  12. The Comparative Evaluation of the Performance of Two Phytoremediation Systems for Domestic Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Valipour, A; Azizi, Sh; Raman, V K; Jamshidi, S; Hamnabard, N

    2014-07-01

    The constructed wetlands as well engineered techniques have been used effectively for phytoremediation of wastewater and pollution control during the last decades. In these technologies, the naturally occurring processes of plants alongside micro-organisms present in the bio-film attached to the roots, soil substrate and water column degrade the organic pollutants. The study seeks to compare the potential use of Phragmites sp. reed bed and floating macrophyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) system for domestic wastewater treatment. The sewage treatment performance is evaluated as 80% & 76% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 90% & 87% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 24% & 18% total dissolved solids (TDS), 69% & 67% total suspended solids (TSS), 12% & 5% Chlorides, 73% & 69% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 42% & 31% phosphate (PO4-P), 93% & 91% most probable number (MPN) and 95% & 92% total viable count (TVC) reduction at optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 & 43 h in Phragmites sp. and water hyacinth systems, respectively. Likewise, the floating macrophyte pond contrary to reed bed process shows insignificant pollutant diminution at 24 h HRT. This paper also highlights the microbial population present through the wetland systems by estimation of total viable count (TVC). The botanical aspect with reference to the plant growth is shown a significant increase in vegetation yield. The overall studies indicate the better treatment efficiency by preferred Phragmites sp. root zone system at low foot print area for domestic wastewater.

  13. Spectrofluorimetric evaluation of total aliphatic and aromatic amines in well waters and wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Djozan, D.; Faraj-Zadeh, M.A.

    1998-09-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic amines are important metabolic intermediates in decomposition processes and are distributed in wastewaters. Monitoring of these compounds in the water samples can indicate whether the environmental waters are contaminated with wastewaters. A simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method is described for the determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines on the basis of ammonia and aniline, respectively. Aromatic amines in samples were reacted at pH 5.5 with fluram immobilized on an Octadecylsilane Solid Phase Extraction (ODS-SPE) cartridge. The produced pyrrolinones were adsorbed on SPE and separated from the aliphatic amines. Analysis of these compounds was carried out by elution of SPE with 1 ml Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and determination of fluorescence intensity at excitation wavelength 400 nm and emission wavelength 475 nm. Aliphatic amines after passing from SPE were collected and reacted with fluram at pH 9.2, and extracted into dichloromethane at pH 3 and quantitated fluorimetrically. Linear dynamic ranges and detection limits (LOD) were 1-20, 0.43 mg l{sup {minus}1} and 1-200, 0.39 {micro}g l{sup {minus}1} for ammonia and aniline, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the evaluation of these compounds in local well waters and municipality wastewaters.

  14. Evaluation of the role of inherent Ca(2+) in phosphorus removal from wastewater system.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Qianqian; Yang, Wangjin; Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The role of inherent Ca(2+) in phosphorus removal from wastewater was evaluated by batch tests. Precipitates were characterized by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) system. Effects of inherent Ca(2+) on phosphorus removal through basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were also analyzed. The results show that upon adjusting the pH to higher than 7.0, inherent Ca(2+) can remove phosphorus from wastewater and form Ca-P precipitates. Residual phosphorus exhibited a linear decreasing trend with increasing the pH from 7.0 to 10.0 and then remained unchanged at higher pH than 10.0. EDS determined that the precipitates contained the elements Ca, P and O. FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the functional groups of precipitates involved PO4(3-), OH(-) and CO3(2-). XRD indicated that the precipitates may consist of CaCO3 and some Ca-P phosphates such as CaHPO4, Ca4H(PO4)3, Ca3(PO4)2, and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). During the removal process of phosphorus by BOFS, due to the presence of inherent Ca(2+) in wastewater, the removal efficiency and rate of phosphorus increased by 15.5% and by a factor of about 3.0, respectively.

  15. Evaluation of specific biological heat potential of oily wastewater in an autothermal thermophilic aerobic treatment system.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui Min; Chen, Chang Yu; Wu, Yeong Shing; Lu, Chih Jen

    2008-09-01

    This study focuses on the specific biological heat potential (h(b)) of oil and grease wastewaterin an autothermal thermophilic aerobic treatment (ATAT) system. A novel experimental device was applied to evaluate h(b) by using heat balance model under steady state. In the study the treatment system was daily fed with realistic and artificial wastewater at 11250 and 17420 mg COD l(-1), respectively. The wastewater was rich in oil and grease at 1220 and 600 mg l(-1), respectively. The sludge retention time (SRT) was controlled at 5 days. The results showed that the average values of h(b) were 3.7 and 3.1 kcal g(-1) COD removed and the true growth yield (Y0) were 0.10 and 0.13 mg MLSS mg(-1) COD for realistic and artificial wastewater respectively. These two systems could maintain reactoroperating temperatures at 43 degrees C and 48 degrees C, respectively. The COD removal efficiency was as high as 90 to 97%. The oil and grease reduction was 68 to 72%. The high organic matter removal capacity and low sludge yield of ATAT process have been demonstrated.

  16. Pilot scale nanofiltration treatment of olive mill wastewater: a technical and economical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sanches, S; Fraga, M C; Silva, N A; Nunes, P; Crespo, J G; Pereira, V J

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of large volumes of olive mill wastewater is presently a challenge. This study reports the technical and economical feasibility of a sequential treatment of olive mill wastewater comprising a dissolved air flotation pre-treatment and nanofiltration. Different pilot nanofiltration assays were conducted in a concentration mode up to different volume reduction factors (29, 45, 58, and 81). Data attained demonstrated that nanofiltration can be operated at considerably high volume reduction factors and still be effective towards the removal of several components. A flux decline of approximately 50% was observed at the highest volume reduction factor, mainly due to increase of the osmotic pressure. Considerably high rejections were obtained across all experiments for total suspended solids (83 to >99%), total organic carbon (64 to 99%), chemical oxygen demand (53 to 77%), and oil and grease (67 to >82%). Treated water was in compliance with European legal limits for discharge regarding total suspended solids and oil and grease. The potential recovery of phenolic compounds was evaluated and found not relevant. It was demonstrated that nanofiltration is economically feasible, involving operation costs of approximately 2.56-3.08 €/m(3), depending on the working plan schedule and volume reduction factor, and requiring a footprint of approximately 52 m(2) to treat 1000 m(3) of olive mill wastewater.

  17. An evaluation of microbial health risks to livestock fed with wastewater-irrigated forage crops.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, P D; Bastos, R K X; Mara, D D

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of five experiments in which animal health risks associated with the consumption of crops irrigated with domestic wastewater were evaluated. Forage maize and Tanner grass were irrigated with treated wastewater and used in goats and calves feeding trials. The irrigated crops presented high levels of surface contamination with E. coli (10(4) -10(7) 25 g(-1) ) and salmonellae (up to 1.6 × 10(4) 25 g(-1)), but none of the animals showed signs of infection or of disease. Further, the microbiological quality of animal products always complied with the Brazilian and European Union standards for food safety. It is suggested that the WHO guideline values for restricted irrigation (≤ 10(4) E. coli 100 ml(-1) and ≤ 1 helminth egg l(-1)), which were developed to protect the health of agricultural field workers, would be equally protective of the health of both animals fed with wastewater-irrigated crops and humans consuming products from such animals. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams.

  19. Occurrence of eight household micropollutants in urban wastewater and their fate in a wastewater treatment plant. Statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Laure; Munoz, Jean-François; Pons, Marie-Noëlle; Yvon, Jacques; Dauchy, Xavier; France, Xavier; Le, Nang Dinh; France-Lanord, Christian; Görner, Tatiana

    2014-05-15

    The occurrence in urban wastewater of eight micropollutants (erythromycin, ibuprofen, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), ofloxacin, sucralose, triclosan, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) originating from household activities and their fate in a biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated. Their concentrations were assessed in the liquid and solid phases (sewage particulate matter and wasted activated sludge (WAS)) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analysis of sewage from two different urban catchments connected to the WWTP showed a specific use of ofloxacin in the mixed catchment due to the presence of a hospital, and higher concentrations of sucralose in the residential area. The WWTP process removed over 90% of ibuprofen and triclosan from wastewater, while only 25% of ofloxacin was eliminated. Erythromycin, sucralose and PFOA were not removed from wastewater, the influent and effluent concentrations remaining at about 0.7 μg/L, 3 μg/L and 10 ng/L respectively. The behavior of PFOS and 4-nonylphenol was singular, as concentrations were higher at the WWTP outlet than at its inlet. This was probably related to the degradation of some of their precursors (such as alkylphenol ethoxylates and polyfluorinated compounds resulting in 4-NP and PFOS, respectively) during biological treatment. 4-NP, ofloxacin, triclosan and perfluorinated compounds were found adsorbed on WAS (from 5 ng/kg for PFOA to 1.0mg/kg for triclosan). The statistical methods (principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions) were applied to examine relationships among the concentrations of micropollutants and macropollutants (COD, ammonium, turbidity) entering and leaving the WWTP. A strong relationship with ammonium indicated that some micropollutants enter wastewater via human urine. A statistical analysis of WWTP operation gave a model for estimating micropollutant output from the WWTP based on a measurement of

  20. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa; Vogel, Jörg; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-03-15

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps to protect humans and the environment from adverse effects. Membrane technology has gained increasing attention as an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment due to increased urbanization. Among the available membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and forward osmosis (FO) have been selected for this study due to their specific characteristics, such as compactness and efficient removal of particles. In this study, two treatment concepts were evaluated with regard to their specific electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: (1) direct MF and (2) direct FO with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from bench- and pilot-scale experiments applying direct MF and FO, respectively. Additionally, available complementary data from a Swedish full-scale wastewater treatment plant and the literature were used to evaluate the concepts in depth. The results of this study indicate that both concepts are net positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area-efficient manner with techniques that are already commercially available and with future membrane technology.

  1. Evaluation of appropriate system for reclaimed wastewater reuse in each area of Tokyo using GIS-based water balance model.

    PubMed

    Aramaki, T; Sugimoto, R; Hanaki, K; Matsuo, T

    2001-01-01

    The appropriate type of reclaimed wastewater reuse system in each area of Tokyo was evaluated from the aspect of economic efficiency, using a GIS-based water balances model. The following four reclaimed wastewater reuse systems and conventional waterworks and sewerage system were evaluated; "Rain water storage and use system", "Onsite wastewater treatment and reuse system", "Sewage treatment and reuse at an intermediate point on the sewer pipe" and "Treated water supply system in sewage treatment plant". In the case that we install them to office and residential buildings, the supplied volume by reclaimed wastewater reuse systems is 693 thousands m3/d, this corresponds to 15% of total water demand in the area. Furthermore, the effects of the following scenarios brought about by technological innovation in water treatment were investigated; the case that flush water in toilet and wastewater from kitchen are also available as source in a "onsite wastewater treatment and reuse system" and the case that reclaimed water is used for laundering in residential buildings. When reclaimed water is used for laundering in residential buildings, the supplied volume by these systems increases to 814 thousand m3/d in the case that these systems are installed to office and residential buildings.

  2. Evaluating the possibility of using acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Yang, X-Y; Xiong, L; Guo, H-J; Luo, J; Wang, B; Zhang, H-R; Lin, X-Q; Chen, X-D

    2015-05-01

    To reduce the cost of bacterial cellulose (BC) production, the possibility of using acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater with high COD value (18 050 mg l(-1) ) for BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus was evaluated. After 7 days of fermentation, the highest BC yield (1·34 g l(-1) ) was obtained. The carbon sources including sugars (glucose and xylose), organic acids (acetic acid and butyric acid) and alcohol compounds (ethanol and butanol) were utilized by G. xylinus simultaneously during fermentation. Although the COD decrease ratio (about 14·7%) was low, the highest BC yield on COD consumption (56·2%, g g(-1) ) was relatively high and the remaining wastewater could be used for further BC fermentation. Besides, the environment of ABE fermentation wastewater showed small influence on the BC structure by comparison with the BC products obtained in traditional HS medium using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Overall, ABE fermentation wastewater is one promising substrate for BC production. The possibility of using acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater for bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus was evaluated in this study. This is the first time that ABE fermentation wastewater was used as substrate for BC fermentation. The results provide detail information of metabolism of G. xylinus in ABE fermentation wastewater and the influence of wastewater environment on the structure of BC samples. Overall, this bioconversion could reduce the cost of BC production greatly. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. 2009 EVALUATION OF TRITIUM REMOVAL AND MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK KJ; GENESSE DJ; STEGEN GE

    2009-02-26

    Since 1995, a state-approved land disposal site (SALDS) has received tritium contaminated effluents from the Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Tritium in this effluent is mitigated by storage in slow moving groundwater to allow extended time for decay before the water reaches the site boundary. By this method, tritium in the SALDS is isolated from the general environment and human contact until it has decayed to acceptable levels. This report contains the 2009 update evaluation of alternative tritium mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed and updated information is provided on state-of-the-art technologies for control of tritium in wastewaters. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-026-07B (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 2007). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated periodically to determine their feasibility for implementation to control Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwaters to meet the Us. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 20,000 pOll and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy. Since the 2004 evaluation, there have been a number of developments related to tritium separation and control with potential application in mitigating tritium contaminated wastewater. These are primarily focused in the areas of: (1) tritium recycling at a commercial facility in Cardiff, UK using integrated tritium separation technologies (water distillation, palladium membrane reactor, liquid phase catalytic exchange, thermal diffusion), (2) development and demonstration of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) using hydrogen/water exchange to separate tritium from water, (3) evaporation of tritium contaminated water for dispersion in the

  4. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect on selected crops using treated and untreated wastewater from different configurative domestic wastewater plants.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B; Kumari, S K Sheena; Stenstrom, T A; Bux, F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity effect of untreated and treated wastewater collected from two different configurations of domestic wastewater treatment plants in South Africa. The phytotoxicity effect on vegetable seed growth was studied in terms of germination index (GI), relative seed germination (RSG) and relative root elongation (RRE) using four commercial crop varieties, viz., tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), radish (Raphanus sativus), carrot (Daucus carota) and onion (Allium cepa). According to phyototoxicity limits, 80% germination and above is regarded as non-toxic and less than 50% GI is regarded as highly toxic and not suitable for agricultural purposes. In our study, seeds were irrigated with concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of treated effluent (TE) and untreated effluent (UTE). The TE results were best with the highest GI (%) recorded as tomato, 177; carrot, 158.5; onion, 132; and lettuce, 124. The results of this study indicate that TE showed no phytotoxicty effects and recorded above 80% GI. The UTE irrigated crops reached a GI of only 50% and above which is clear evidence of the beneficial effect of waste water treatment. The overall results confirmed that treated wastewater has a beneficial effect on agricultural crops and can be used as a liquid fertilizer.

  5. Evaluation of 4-nitrophenol ELISA kit for assessing the origin of organic pollution in wastewater treatment works

    SciTech Connect

    La Farre, M.; Oubina, A.; Marco, M.P.; Ginebreda, A.; Tirapu, L.; Barcelo, D.

    1999-11-01

    A cost-effective strategy based on a recently developed ELISA for 4-nitrophenol was used for the characterization of wastewater samples (industrial and/or urban) of the primary sewage effluent and secondary sewage effluent, also called influent and effluent, respectively, of wastewater treatment works (WWTW) using either biological treatment with secondary settlement and/or physicochemical treatment. Two of the WWTW received only domestic wastewaters, whereas three of them received 60--70% of industrial effluents that were mixed with domestic wastewaters before entering WWTW. The 4-nitrophenol ELISA kit was used as a parameter to evaluate the performance of the treatment plants by comparing the ELISA measurements with those routinely used in WWTW, such as total organic carbon and total phenols content using 4-aminoantipyrine. The 4-nitrophenol ELISA gave a positive response to different wastewaters being a useful measurement for the estimation of the performance of the WWTW. The response obtained with 4-nitrophenol ELISA can differentiate the wastewater pollution discharged into WWTW, either from domestic or industrial sources.

  6. Evaluating new processes and concepts for energy and resource recovery from municipal wastewater with life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Remy, C; Boulestreau, M; Warneke, J; Jossa, P; Kabbe, C; Lesjean, B

    2016-01-01

    Energy and resource recovery from municipal wastewater is a pre-requisite for an efficient and sustainable water management in cities of the future. However, a sound evaluation of available processes and pathways is required to identify opportunities and short-comings of the different options and reveal synergies and potentials for optimization. For evaluating environmental impacts in a holistic view, the tool of life cycle assessment (LCA, ISO 14040/44) is suitable to characterize and quantify the direct and indirect effects of new processes and concepts. This paper gives an overview of four new processes and concepts for upgrading existing wastewater treatment plants towards energy positive and resource efficient wastewater treatment, based upon an evaluation of their environmental impacts with LCA using data from pilot and full-scale assessments of the considered processes.

  7. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. The objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded 'wastewater' samples u...

  8. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. The objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded 'wastewater' samples u...

  9. Risk management, financial evaluation and funding for wastewater and stormwater reuse projects.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Casey; De Silva, Saman; Gan, Kein; Guthrie, Lachlan; Considine, Robert

    2017-04-15

    This paper has considered risk management, financial evaluation and funding in seven Australian wastewater and stormwater reuse projects. From the investigated case studies it can be seen that responsible parties have generally been well equipped to identify potential risks. In relation to financial evaluation methods some serious discrepancies, such as time periods for analysis, and how stormwater benefits are valued, have been identified. Most of the projects have required external, often National Government, funding to proceed. As National funding is likely to become less common in the future, future reuse projects may need to be funded internally by the water industry. In order to enable this the authors propose that the industry requires (1) a standard project evaluation process, and (2) an infrastructure funders' forum (or committee) with representation from both utilities and regulators, in order to compare and prioritise future reuse projects against each other. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water system for wastewater reuse and environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Wang, X C

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a net benefit value (NBV) model for cost-benefit evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse projects, and attention was mainly paid to decentralized systems which are drawing wide interests all over the world especially in the water-deficient countries and regions. In the NBV model, all the factors related to project costs are monetary ones which can be calculated by using traditional methods, while many of the factors related to project benefits are non-monetary ones which need sophisticated methods for monetization. In this regard, the authors elaborated several methods for monetization of the benefits from wastewater discharge reduction, local environment improvement, and human health protection. The proposed model and methods were applied for the cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water reclamation and reuse project in a newly developed residential area in Xi'an, China. The system with dual-pipe collection and grey water treatment and reuse was found to be economically ineligible (NBV > 0) when all the treated water is reused for artificial pond replenishment, gardening and other non-potable purposes by taking into account the benefit of water saving. As environmental benefits are further considered, the economic advantage of the project is more significant.

  11. Evaluation of uptake kinetics during a wastewater diversion into nearshore coastal waters in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Raphael M.; Howard, Meredith D. A.; Hayashi, Kendra; Beck, Carly

    2017-02-01

    The global eutrophication of coastal ecosystems from anthropogenic nutrients is one of the most significant issues affecting changes to coastal oceans today. A three-week diversion of wastewater effluent from the normal offshore discharge pipe (7 km offshore, 56 m depth) to a shorter outfall located in 16 m water (2.2 km offshore) as part of the 2012 Orange County Sanitation District Diversion provided an opportunity to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen on phytoplankton community response. Nitrogen uptake kinetic parameters were used to evaluate the short-term physiological response of the phytoplankton community to the diverted wastewater and to determine if potential ammonium suppression of nitrate uptake was observed. Despite expectations, there was a muted response to the diversion in terms of biomass accumulation and ambient nutrients remained low. At ambient nitrogen concentrations, calculated uptake rates strongly favored ammonium. During the diversion based on the kinetic parameters determined during short-term experiments, the phytoplankton community was using all three N substrates at low concentrations, and had the capacity to use urea, then ammonium, and then nitrate at high concentrations. Ammonium suppression of nitrate uptake was evident throughout the experiment, with increasing suppression through time. Despite this interaction, there was evidence for simultaneous utilization of nitrate, ammonium, and urea during the experiment. The general lack of phytoplankton response as evidenced by low biomass during the diversion was therefore not obviously linked to changes in uptake rates, physiological capacity, or ammonium suppression of nitrate uptake.

  12. Experimental design for the evaluation of struvite sedimentation obtained from an ammonium concentrated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Araújo, Mahira Adna Cota; Lange, Liséte Celina

    2013-01-01

    Chemical precipitation of struvite as a technique of ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) removal from concentrated wastewater has been shown to be an attractive alternative due to its high effectiveness, reaction rate, simplicity, environmental sustainability and, especially, the application potential of the generated solids for the fertilizer industry. The technique of experimental design has been used in order to identify and evaluate the optimum conditions of chemical precipitation reaction applied in a struvite sedimentation study. The preliminary tests were performed using synthetic effluent with a concentration equal to 500.0 mg N L(-1). The stoichiometric ratio Mg:NH(4):PO(4) equal to 1.5:1.0:1.25 and pH equal to 8.5 were taken to be the optimum conditions, where a NH(4)-N removal equal to 98.6% was achieved with only 10-min reaction time. This condition has been used to evaluate the struvite sedimentation from synthetic wastewaters, intending to check the optimum conditions achieved by the experimental design in different initial concentrations, 1,000 and 2,000 mg N L(-1). The results were typical of a good zonal sedimentation and can be used in the scale up the system.

  13. Evaluation of improved techniques for removing strontium and cesium from process wastewater and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this task is to evaluate new sorbent materials, ion-exchange materials, or other processes for groundwater and process wastewater decontamination that will be more selective for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs than standard treatment methods. Laboratory studies will strive to obtain a quantitative understanding of the behavior of these new materials and to evaluate their sorption efficiency in reference to a standard benchmark treatment technique. Testing of the new materials will begin by conducting scoping tests where new treatment materials are compared with standard, commercially available materials in batch shaker tests. Sorption tests will be performed under various treatment conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, simulant waste composition) for the most promising materials. Additional testing with actual wastewater will be conducted with two or three of the most effective treatment methods. Once batch testing of a treatment method is completed, dynamic column tests will be performed using the most successful sorbents, to obtain the defining column operating parameters.

  14. Comparative study on toxicity evaluation of anaerobically treated parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater through fish bioassay.

    PubMed

    Giri, Dipti Ramesh; Singh, Ekta; Satyanarayan, Shanta

    2016-01-01

    Short term aquatic bioassay has been developed into a useful tool in water quality management. These tests give information on comparative toxicity of several compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of raw and anaerobically treated effluents of the parboiled rice manufacturing industry. The acute toxicity test was carried out by using the fish Lebistes reticulatus under laboratory conditions. LC50 values for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between 4.6 and 7.0% for the raw parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater. Two anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactors and two different media matrices, i.e. UV stabilized Biopac media and Fugino spirals, were used for the treatment of parboiled rice mill wastewater. Effluents from these two reactors depicted LC50 values in the range of 68-88% and 62-78% for Biopac and Fugino spiral packed reactors, respectively. From the results, it is evident that anaerobically treated effluents from Biopac packed reactor is marginally better than Fugino spiral packed reactor. Results subjected to statistical evaluation depicted regression coefficient of more than 0.9 indicating good correlation between the mortality and effluent concentration.

  15. Evaluation of reusing alum sludge for the coagulation of industrial wastewater containing mixed anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Jangkorn, Siriprapha; Kuhakaew, Sinchai; Theantanoo, Suwapee; Klinla-or, Harit; Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai

    2011-01-01

    A coagulation-flocculation process is typically employed to treat the industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry manufacturing detergents, soaps, and others. The expenditure of chemicals including coagulants and chemicals for pH adjustment is costly for treating this wastewater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing the aluminum sulfate (alum) sludge as a coagulant or as a coagulation aid so that the fresh alum dosage can be minimized or the removal efficiency can be enhanced. The experiments were conducted in a jar-test apparatus simulating the coagulation-flocculation process for simultaneous removals of organic matters, anionic surfactants, suspended solids, and turbidity. At the optimum initial pH value of 10 and the fresh alum concentration of 400 mg/L, the total suspended solids (TSS), total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total anionic surfactants, and turbidity removal efficiencies were 71.5%, 76.4%, 95.4%, and 98.2%, respectively. The addition of alum sludge as a coagulant alone without any fresh alum addition could significantly remove the turbidity, TCOD, and anionic surfactants. The TSS was left in the supernatants after the settling period, but would subsequently be removed by adding the fresh alum. The TSS, TCOD, and turbidity removal efficiencies were also enhanced when both the alum sludge and the fresh alum were employed. The TCOD removal efficiency over 80% has been accomplished, which has never fulfilled by using the fresh alum alone. It is concluded that the alum sludge could be reused for the treatment of industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry.

  16. Identification and evaluation of a dominant alga from municipal wastewater in removal of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yixuan; Tang, Fei; Su, Xiaoling; Yin, Hua; Ge, Fei

    2016-12-01

    To access better removal of nutrients with algae-based techniques, a dominant alga from real municipal wastewater was identified and its capacity in removing low concentrations of nitrogen (NH(+)4 or NO(-)3) and phosphorus (PO(3-)4) was evaluated. Results showed that Oedogonium brevicingulatum, a filamentous green alga, was confirmed as the dominant alga in the secondary effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Low concentrations of NH(+)4 or NO(-)3 (≤5 mg N L(-1)) and PO(3-)4 (≤0.5 mg P L(-1)) were 100% removed by the algae in a 7-d test. The maximum nutrient removal rate (Vmax) and the half-saturation constant (Km) for NH(+)4 (10.03 ± 0.95 mg g(-1)d(-1) and 0.19 ± 0.03 mg L(-1)) and NO(-)3 (8.43 ± 0.21 mg g(-1) d(-1) and 0.27 ± 0.11 mg L(-1)) indicated the uptake capability for NH(+)4 is higher than that for NO(-)3. Meanwhile, it showed higher affinity for PO(3-)4 (Vmax: 1.42 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) d(-1); Km: 0.02 ± 0.00 mg L(-1)) with NH(+)4 as nitrogen source than that (Vmax: 1.24 ± 0.15 mg g(-1) d(-1); Km: 0.06 ± 0.03 mg L(-1)) with NO(-)3 as nitrogen source. Moreover, nutrient removal efficiencies were observed steady when nitrogen/phosphorus ratio ranged from 5:1 to 20:1. These results suggest that the dominant algae from municipal wastewater have potentials to be applied in nutrient removal.

  17. Evaluation of organic matter concentration in winery wastewater: a case study from Australia.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Wendy C; Fattore, Alison; Zandona, Roy; Christen, Evan W; Arienzo, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) remains a key indicator for proof of compliance with environmental regulators in the monitoring and management of winery effluent. Inter-conversion factors from alternative tests that are more rapid, accurate and simpler to perform have been determined that allow prediction of BOD(5) in winery wastewaters, generally, and at different stages of production and treatment. Mean values obtained from this dataset offer rule of thumb inter-conversion factors: BOD(5) = 0.7 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), BOD(5) = 2.3 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and BOD(5) = 2.7 Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Specific predictive linear relationships are also provided. Out of the relationships between BOD(5) vs COD, TOC and DOC, in winery wastewater, irrespective of vintage or non-vintage production periods and stage of treatment, TOC offered the most reliable prediction of BOD(5). Ethanol, glucose and fructose were evaluated in untreated wastewater as predictors of BOD(5) due to their high specificity in winery effluent. A significant relationship was determined between BOD(5) and (ethanol + glucose + fructose; R(2) = 0.64, n = 19; p<0.05), but relationships between BOD(5) and ethanol and BOD(5) vs (glucose + fructose) were weak (R(2) = 0.45 and 0.34; n = 19; p<0.05 respectively,). There was a very strong linear correlation (y = 0.9767x + 52.8; R(2) = 0.97; n = 23; p<0.05) in COD data in winery effluents when using a commercially available mercury free test kit compared with using a traditional COD test kit that contained mercury. This suggests that mercury free COD test kits could be used by the wine industry for organic pollution assessment with associated reductions to user and environmental risk, as well as reducing the costs of kit waste disposal.

  18. Elimination and ecotoxicity evaluation of phthalic acid esters from textile-dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jieying; Ning, Xun-An; Kong, Minyi; Liu, Daohua; Wang, Guangwen; Cai, Haili; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Yaping; Lu, Xingwen; Yuan, Yong

    2017-08-07

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), presented in fabrics, surfactants and detergents, were discharged into the ecosystem during textile-dyeing wastewater treatment and might have adverse effects on water ecosystems. In this study, comprehensive investigations of the content and component distributions of 12 PAEs across different units of four textile-dyeing wastewater plants were carried out in Guangdong Province, China. Ecotoxicity assessments were also conducted based on risk quotients (RQs). On average, 93.54% TOC and 80.14% CODCr were removed following treatment at the four plants. The average concentration of Σ12PAEs in effluent was 11.78 μg/L. PAEs with highest concentrations were dimethylphthalate (6.58 μg/L), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (2.23 μg/L), and dibutylphthalate (1.98 μg/L). The concentrations of the main toxic PAEs were 2.23 μg/L (bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), 0.19 μg/L (diisononylphthalate) and 0.67 μg/L (dinoctylphthalate); corresponding RQs were 1.4, 0.55, and 0.54 for green algae, respectively. The RQs of Σ12PAEs in effluent of the four plants were >0.1, indicating that Σ12PAEs posed medium or higher ecological risk to fish, Daphnia and green algae. Physicochemical-biochemical system was found to be more effective than biochemical-physicochemical system for TOC and CODCr removal, because pre-physicochemical treatment helped to remove macromolecular organic substances, and reduced the competition with other pollutants during biochemical treatment. However, biochemical-physicochemical system was more effective than physicochemical-biochemical system for elimination of PAEs and for detoxification, since the biochemical treatment might produce the toxic PAEs that could helpfully be settled by post-physicochemical treatment. Moreover, ecotoxicity evaluation was recommended for current textile-dyeing wastewater treatment plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The significance of dilution in evaluating possible impacts of wastewater discharges from large cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Lincoln C; Beegle-Krause, C-J; George, Kenwyn; McGee, Charles D; Mearns, Alan J; Atkinson, Marlin J

    2006-06-01

    In response to public concerns about discharges from large cruise ships, Alaska's Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) sampled numerous effluents in the summer of 2000. The data showed that basic marine sanitation device (MSD) technology for black water (sewage) was not performing as expected. Untreated gray water had high levels of conventional pollutants and surprisingly high levels of bacteria. Both black water and gray water discharges sometimes exceeded state water quality standards for toxicants. The state convened a Science Advisory Panel (the Panel) to evaluate impacts associated with cruise ship wastewater discharges. The effluent data received wide media coverage and increased public concerns. Consequently, legislative decisions were made at the State and Federal level, and regulations were imposed before the Panel completed its evaluation. The Panel demonstrated that following the rapid dilution from moving cruise ships, the effluent data from the Summer of 2000 would not have exceeded water quality standards, and environmental effects were not expected.

  20. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hong-Duck; Lim, Chae-Sung; Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Sang-Ill

    2012-06-30

    The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  1. Evaluation of Ageratum conyzoides in field scale constructed wetlands (CWs) for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tilak, A S; Wani, Suhas P; Datta, A; Patil, M D; Kaushal, M; Reddy, K R

    2017-05-01

    Ageratum conyzoides were evaluated in field scale subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) to quantify its nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake and compare with wetland plants (Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia and Canna indica). The two-field scale subsurface flow CWs, located in the International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, received wastewater from an urban colony. The CW1 and CW2 had the same dimensions (length:10 m, width:3 m, total depth:1.5 m and sand and gravel:1 m), similar flow rates (3 m(3)/d), hydraulic loading rates (HLRs-10 cm/d) and hydraulic retention time (HRT-5 days) from July 2014-August 2015. The vegetation in both CWs consisted of Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia, Canna indica, and Ageratum conyzoides, respectively. The CW1 (% reduction with respect to concentrations) reduced total suspended solids (TSS) (68%), NH4-N (26%), NO3-N (30%), soluble reactive P (SRP) (20%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (45%) and fecal coliforms (71%), while the CW2 (%-reduction with respect to concentrations) reduced TSS (63%), NH4-N (32%), NO3-N (26%), SRP (35%), COD (39%) and fecal coliforms (70%). Ageratum conyzoides can be used in combination with Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia and Canna indica to enhance removal of excessive N, P and fecal coliforms from domestic wastewater.

  2. Photoelectrocatalytic disinfection of water and wastewater: performance evaluation by qPCR and culture techniques.

    PubMed

    Venieri, Danae; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Politi, Eleonora; Sofianos, Spiridon S; Katsaounis, Alexandros; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2013-03-01

    Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation (PEC) was evaluated as a disinfection technique using water and secondary treated wastewater spiked with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. PEC experiments were carried out using a TiO(2)/Ti-film anode and a zirconium cathode under simulated solar radiation. Bacterial inactivation was monitored by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Inactivation rates were enhanced when the duration of the treatment was prolonged and when the bacterial density and the complexity of the water matrix were decreased. E. coli cells were reduced by approximately 6 orders of magnitude after 15 min of PEC treatment in water at 2V of applied potential and an initial concentration of 10(7) CFU/mL; pure photocatalysis (PC) led to about 5 log reduction, while electrochemical oxidation alone resulted in negligible inactivation. The superiority of PEC relative to PC can be attributed to a more efficient separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. Regarding disinfection in mixed bacterial suspensions, E. coli was more susceptible than E. faecalis at a potential of 2V. The complex composition of wastewater affected disinfection efficiency, yielding lower inactivation rates compared to water treatment. qPCR yielded lower inactivation rates at longer treatment times than culture techniques, presumably due to the fact that the latter do not take into account the viable but not culturable state of microorganisms.

  3. Evaluating the degradation, sorption, and negative mass balances of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Blair, Benjamin; Nikolaus, Adam; Hedman, Curtis; Klaper, Rebecca; Grundl, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    Conventional activated sludge (CAS) wastewater treatment processes are insufficient at removing many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater. In addition, negative mass balances, where the effluent concentration is greater than the influent concentration, have been observed in wastewater treatment studies and a further understanding of these results is needed. In this study, the fate and occurrence of 57 PPCPs and hormones were evaluated in an activated sludge process and the mass balances were determined. The goal of the project was to understand the PPCPs biological degradation and the extent of sorption to solids. The samples containing in situ PPCPs (i.e. samples were not spiked with additional PPCPs) were evaluated. Forty-eight of the PPCPs were detected in the soluble form and 29 were detected sorbed to solids. Two notable results were found. First, the results of this study indicate a subset of the highly biodegradable PPCPs stop being degraded at low, yet notable, concentrations. Second, the results revealed that negative mass balances were present for a subset of the PPCPs when evaluating both the soluble and sorbed concentration, for example carbamazepine and ofloxacin. Desorption from solids was not found to attribute to negative mass balances. Overall, the results from this study provide new insights into the fate of PPCPs during CAS wastewater treatment by evaluating the degradation kinetics and sorption and the results may explain the consistent levels of highly degradable PPCPs being emitted from WWTPs worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation and Optimization of Electrode Configuration of Multi-Channel Corona Discharge Plasma for Dye-Containing Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jingyu; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2015-12-01

    A discharge plasma reactor with a point-to-plane structure was widely studied experimentally in wastewater treatment. In order to improve the utilization efficiency of active species and the energy efficiency of this kind of discharge plasma reactor during wastewater treatment, the electrode configuration of the point-to-plane corona discharge reactor was studied by evaluating the effects of discharge spacing and adjacent point distance on discharge power and discharge energy density, and then dye-containing wastewater decoloration experiments were conducted on the basis of the optimum electrode configuration. The experimental results of the discharge characteristics showed that high discharge power and discharge energy density were achieved when the ratio of discharge spacing to adjacent point distance (d/s) was 0.5. Reactive Brilliant Blue (RBB) wastewater treatment experiments presented that the highest RBB decoloration efficiency was observed at d/s of 0.5, which was consistent with the result obtained in the discharge characteristics experiments. In addition, the biodegradability of RBB wastewater was enhanced greatly after discharge plasma treatment under the optimum electrode configuration. RBB degradation processes were analyzed by GC-MS and IC, and the possible mechanism for RBB decoloration was also discussed. supported by China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M562460), the Initiative Funding Programs for Doctoral Research of Northwest A&F University (No. 2013BSJJ121), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21107085)

  5. Evaluation of membrane bioreactor for advanced treatment of industrial wastewater and reverse osmosis pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for pretreatment of reverse osmosis (RO) in order to reuse and reclamation of industrial town wastewater treatment plant was investigated in this study. Performance of MBR effluent through water quality in term of parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN) and total coliform (TC) were measured. Also Silt density index (SDI) was used as indicator for RO feed water. The results of this study demonstrated that MBR produce a high quality permeate water. Approximately 75%, 98%, 74% and 99.9% removal of COD, TSS, TN and TC were recorded, respectively. Also SDI of the permeate effluent from membrane was below 3 for most of the times. It means that pilot yield a high quality treated effluent from the membrane module which can be used as RO feed water. PMID:24355199

  6. Evaluation of olive oil mill wastewater toxicity on the mitochondrial bioenergetics after treatment with Candida oleophila.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, F; Martins, F; Amaral, C; Gomes-Laranjo, J; Almeida, J; Palmeira, C M

    2008-06-01

    In a previous work the ability of Candida oleophila to use phenolic compounds as sole carbon and energy source at high concentrations without an additional carbon source was reported. C. oleophila grown in bioreactor batch cultures in a diluted and sterilized olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) caused a significant decrease in the total tannins content but no significant alteration was observed in phenolic acid and fatty acid content. Both treated and untreated OMWs were tested to evaluate the capacity in interfering with mitochondrial bioenergetics. Mitochondrial respiration was not affected by treated OMW on the range of used concentrations, contrary to the untreated OMW. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiratory complexes were always significantly less affected by treated OMW in comparison with untreated OMW. However, supplementary treatment should be applied before OMW could be considered non-toxic.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Real-Time PCR Methods for Human Noroviruses in Wastewater and Human Stool

    PubMed Central

    Konta, Yoshimitsu; Kazama, Shinobu; Inaba, Manami; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mayuko; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Omura, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the best quantitative PCR assay is essential to detect human norovirus genome effectively from clinical and environmental samples because no cell lines have been developed to propagate this virus. The real-time PCR methods for noroviruses GI (4 assays) and GII (3 assays) were evaluated using wastewater (n = 70) and norovirus-positive stool (n = 77) samples collected in Japan between 2012 and 2013. Standard quantitative PCR assays recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, International Organization for Standardization, and Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, together with recently reported assays were included. Significant differences in positive rates and quantification cycles were observed by non-parametric analysis. The present study identifies the best assay for norovirus GI and GII to amplify norovirus genomes efficiently. PMID:27525654

  8. The implementation of data reconciliation for evaluating a full-scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Behnami, Ali; Shakerkhatibi, Mohammad; Dehghanzadeh, Reza; Benis, Khaled Zoroufchi; Derafshi, Siavash; Fatehifar, Esmaeil

    2016-11-01

    Data reconciliation and mass balance analysis were conducted for the first time to improve the data obtained from a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and the results were applied to evaluate the performance of the plant. Daily average values for 209 days from the inlet and outlet of the plant obtained from WWTP documentation center along with the results of four sampling runs in this work were used for data reconciliation and performance evaluation of the plant. Results showed that standard deviation and relative errors in the balanced data of each measurement decreased, especially for the process wastewater from 24.5 to 8.6 % for flow and 24.5 to 1.5 % for chemical oxygen demand (COD). The errors of measured data were -137 m(3)/day (-4.41 %) and 281 kg/day (7.92 %) for flow and COD, respectively. According to the balanced data, the removal rates of COD and 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) through the aeration unit were equal to 37 and 46 %, respectively. In addition, the COD and BOD5 concentrations were reduced by about 61.9 % (2137 kg/day) and 78.1 % (1976 kg/day), respectively, prior to the biological process. At the same time, the removal rates of benzene, toluene, and styrene were 56, 38, and 69 %, respectively. The results revealed that about 40 % of influent benzene (75.5 kg/day) is emitted to the ambient air at the overhead of the equalization basin. It can be concluded that the volatilization of organic compounds is the basic mechanism for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and it corresponds to the main part of total COD removal from the WWTP.

  9. Pilot-Scale Evaluation of the Nutrient Film Technique for Wastewater Treatment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    A float-actuated submersible pump pumped the wastewater out of this catch basin to the high end of the second tray, which sloped at about a 2% grade...wastewater then flowed down this tray and into another catch basin, where a float-actuated submersible pump pumped the effluent through a flow meter... well known wastewater treatment methods that can be operated as multiobjective systems. The first of these is Sslow-rate and overland flow land

  10. Use of modelling to evaluate best control practice for winery-type wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Batstone, D J; Steyer, J P

    2007-01-01

    Winery wastewaters are high strength, and readily biodegradable, making them perfect for application of anaerobic digestion. However, inherent buffering against pH changes also requires some process knowledge and monitoring. They are therefore an important target for anaerobic process control. This has had limited application, but is emerging as an important research and development area. In this paper, we evaluate the use of model-based control analysis of a heavily loaded vinasse-fed reactor. Two controllers--both proportional-integral (PI)--on total volatile fatty acids (VFA) (< 500 mg/L), alkalinity (VFA/Total Alkalinity < 0.2) were evaluated in a fitted model, against the actual control mechanism used, which was model-based adaptive control. The two controllers were both less aggressive than the adaptive controller, producing less gas overall, but also using more caustic for pH control. The controllers were also evaluated against their ability to deal with noise, as PI controllers are relatively poor for controlling non-linear processes. The VFA controller was very poor with noise added, proving difficult to tune, and oscillatory. The alkalinity controller was effective with moderate detuning. This emphasizes the need to use effective controller inputs, when applying simple, linear controllers. Overall, use of a model was an effective method to evaluate the different controllers in a competitive way, in a standardized environment.

  11. Evaluation of operating characteristics for a chabazite zeolite system for treatment of process wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, T.E.; Perona, J.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing were performed for development and design of a chabazite zeolite ion-exchange system to replace existing treatment systems at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process wastewater treatment systems at ORNL need upgrading to improve efficiency, reduce waste generation, and remove greater quantities of contaminants from the wastewater. Previous study indicated that replacement of the existing PWTP systems with an ion-exchange system using chabazite zeolite will satisfy these upgrade objectives. Pilot-scale testing of the zeolite system was performed using a commercially available ion-exchange system to evaluate physical operating characteristics and to validate smaller-scale column test results. Results of this test program indicate that (1) spent zeolite can be sluiced easily and completely from a commercially designed vessel, (2) clarification followed by granular anthracite prefilters is adequate pretreatment for the zeolite system, and (3) the length of the mass transfer zone was comparable with that obtained in smaller-scale column tests. Laboratory studies were performed to determine the loading capacity of the zeolite for selected heavy metals. These test results indicated fairly effective removal of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc from simple water solutions. Heavy-metals data collected during pilot-scale testing of actual wastewater indicated marginal removal of iron, copper, and zinc. Reduced effectiveness for other heavy metals during pilot testing can be attributed to the presence of interfering cations and the relatively short zeolite/wastewater contact time. Flocculating agents (polyelectrolytes) were tested for pretreatment of wastewater prior to the zeolite flow-through column system. Several commercially available polyelectrolytes were effective in flocculation and settling of suspended solids in process wastewater.

  12. Acute toxicity evaluation of explosive wastewater by bacterial bioluminescence assays using a freshwater luminescent bacterium, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhengfang; Zhao, Quanlin; Zhang, Mohe; Gao, Yuchen

    2011-02-28

    The compositions of explosive wastewater generated from TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) purification stage were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The acute toxicity was evaluated by bacterium bioluminescence assay using a freshwater luminescent bacterium (Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov.) and a marine luminescent bacterium (Photobacterium phosphoreum). The results showed that the wastewater's biodegradability was poor due to the high amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The main organic components were dinitrotoluene sulfonates (DNTS) with small amount of TNT, dinitrotoluene (DNT), mononitrotoluene (MNT) and other derivatives of nitrobenzene. It was highly toxic to luminescent bacteria P. phosphoreum and V. qinghaiensis sp. Nov. After reaction time of 15 min, the relative concentration of toxic pollutants (expressed as reciprocal of dilution ratio of wastewater) at 50% of luminescence inhibition ratio was 5.32×10(-4) for P. phosphoreu, while that was 4.34×10(-4) for V. qinghaiensis. V. qinghaiensis is more sensitive and suitable for evaluating the wastewater's acute toxicity than P. phosphoreum. After adsorption by resin, the acute toxicity can be greatly reduced, which is helpful for further treatment by biological methods.

  13. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G. N.; Mohan, S. Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H2 production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H2 production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation. PMID:25927577

  14. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G N; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-28

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H₂ production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H₂ production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation.

  15. Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater. Therefore, wastewater is a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viru...

  16. 1997 evaluation of tritium removal and mitigation technologies for Hanford Site wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K.; Duncan, J.B.; Flyckt, D.L.; Mohondro, P.C.; Sinton, G.L.

    1997-07-24

    This report contains results of a biennial assessment of tritium separation technology and tritium nitration techniques for control of tritium bearing wastewaters at the Hanford Site. Tritium in wastewaters at Hanford have resulted from plutonium production, fuel reprocessing, and waste handling operations since 1944. this assessment was conducted in response to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

  17. Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater. Therefore, wastewater is a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viru...

  18. Demonstration and Evaluation of Innovative Wastewater Main Rehabilitation Technologies (WERF Report INFR4R11)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lack of knowledge on the performance of innovative wastewater rehabilitation technologies, specifically for large-diameter pipes, and the limited ability to determine the most cost-effective, long-term rehabilitation methods for wastewater collection systems, has been identif...

  19. Demonstration and Evaluation of Innovative Wastewater Main Rehabilitation Technologies (WERF Report INFR4R11)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lack of knowledge on the performance of innovative wastewater rehabilitation technologies, specifically for large-diameter pipes, and the limited ability to determine the most cost-effective, long-term rehabilitation methods for wastewater collection systems, has been identif...

  20. Nutrient Removal from Wastewater using Microalgae: A Kinetic Evaluation and Lipid Analysis.

    PubMed

    2017-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the performance of mixed microalgal bioreactors in treating three differenttypes of wastewaters - kitchen wastewater (KWW), palm oil mill effluent (POME), and pharmaceutical wastewater (PWW) in semi-continuous mode and to analyze the lipid content in the harvested algal biomass. The reactors were monitored for total nitrogen and phosphate removal at eight solid retention times (SRTs) - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 days. The nutrient uptake kinetic parameters were quantified using linearized Michaelis-Menten and Monod models at steady-state conditions. The nutrient removal efficiency and lipid production were found to be higher in KWW when compared with the other wastewaters. Saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1) accounted for more than 60% of the algal fatty acids for all the wastewaters. The lipid is, therefore, considered suitable for synthesizing biodiesel.

  1. A public health evaluation of air emissions from a wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.M.; West, M.; Ashworth, M.R.; Luton, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and liability Act (CERCLA) to carry out the health-related provisions of CERCLA in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency. In 1990, ATSDR gained the additional responsibility of conducting public health assessments at Dept of Defense facilities, including Army, Navy, Air Force, and Defense Logistics Agency sites on the National Priorities List. In compliance with CERCLA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and in response to community concerns and ATSDR recommendations, Tinker Air Force Base conducted air monitoring at the on-base Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP). Ambient air, process, and source samples were collected. Air samples were analyzed for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. ATSDR evaluated the air monitoring data to address the public health implications of potential exposures. Areas of concern included a residential area adjacent to the IWTP and a proposed child development center. This paper discusses the modifications the Air Force implemented at the IWTP, ATSDR`s public health evaluation, and the cooperative efforts of federal agencies to mitigate public health exposures.

  2. Alpine infrastructure in Central Europe: integral evaluation of wastewater treatment systems at mountain refuges.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher, N; Mayr, E; Niederberger, T; Aschauer, C; Lebersorger, S; Steinbacher, G; Haberl, R

    2008-01-01

    Planning, construction and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems at mountain refuges is a challenge. Energy supply, costly transport, limited water resources, unfavourable climate and load variations are only some of the problems that have to be faced. Additionally, legal regulations are different between and even within countries of the Alps. To ensure sustainability, integrated management of the alpine infrastructure management is needed. The energy and water supply and the wastewater and waste disposal systems and the cross-relations between them were analysed for 100 mountain refuges. Wastewater treatment is a main part of the overall 'mountain refuge' system. The data survey and first analyses showed the complex interaction of the wastewater treatment with the other infrastructure. Main criteria for reliable and efficient operation are training, technical support, user friendly control and a relatively simple system set up. Wastewater temperature, alkalinity consumption and high peak loads have to be considered in the planning process. The availability of power in terms of duration and connexion is decisive for the choice of the system. Further, frequency fluctuations may lead to damages to the installed aerators. The type of water source and the type of sanitary equipment influence the wastewater quantity and quality. Biosolids are treated and disposed separately or together with primary or secondary sludge from wastewater treatment dependent on the legal requirements.

  3. Wastewater treatment plant evaluation, McGuire AFB, New Jersey. Final report, 3-17 November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Slavich, F.E.

    1987-03-01

    The USAFOEHL conducted a survey evaluating the wastewater treatment facility at McGuire AFB, New Jersey. The scope of the survey included the evaluation of: (1) individual-treatment-plant unit processes, (2) influent and effluent sewage quality, (3) treatment plant flow rates, and (4) operational and maintenance practices. Results of the survey showed that the plant was not meeting the 7-day NJPDES effluent standard for Total Phenols, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and removal efficiency for TSS. Overall, the unit processes of the plant are performing adequately; notwithstanding correctable operation and maintenance difficulties. Recommendation: (1) Perform daily jar testing at the plant. (2) Clean the chlorine contact chamber. (3) Substitute EPA method 604 for EPA method 423 in determining effluent phenol concentration, if possible. (4) Repair the gaps between the clarifier walls and the overflow weirs. (5) Increase the trickling filter recirculation during periods of low influent flow. (6) Consider construction of an aerate wastewater equalization basin.

  4. Evaluation of organic matter removal and electricity generation by using integrated microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ogino, Akifumi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A floating all-in-one type of microbial fuel cell (Fa-MFC) that allows simple operation and installation in existing wastewater reservoirs for decomposition of organic matter was designed. A prototype cell was constructed by fixing a tubular floater to an assembly composed of a proton-exchange membrane and an air-cathode. To compare anode materials, carbon-cloth anodes or carbon-brush anodes were included in the assembly. The fabricated assemblies were floated in 1-L beakers filled with acetate medium. Both reactors removed acetate at a rate of 133-181 mg/L/d. The Fa-MFC quipped with brush anodes generated a 1.7-fold higher maximum power density (197 mW/m(2)-cathode area) than did that with cloth anodes (119 mW/m(2)-cathode area). To evaluate the performance of the Fa-MFCs on more realistic substrates, artificial wastewater, containing peptone and meat extract, was placed in a 2-L beaker, and the Fa-MFC with brush anodes was floated in the beaker. The Fa-MFC removed the chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater at a rate of 465-1029 mg/L/d, and generated a maximum power density of 152 mW/m(2)-cathode area. When the Fa-MFC was fed with actual livestock wastewater, the biological oxygen demand of the wastewater was removed at a rate of 45-119 mg/L/d, with electricity generation of 95 mW/m(2)-cathode area. Bacteria related to Geobacter sulfurreducens were predominantly detected in the anode biofilm, as deduced from the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence.

  5. EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY OZONATION FOR REDUCING THE TOXICITY OF CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN TO RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS).

    PubMed

    Maya, Nicholas; Evans, Jaden; Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Isazadeh, Siavash; Yargeau, Viviane; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2017-08-16

    While conventional wastewater treatment technologies are effective at removing many contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from municipal wastewater, some contaminants are not removed efficiently. Ozonation may be a treatment option for reducing the concentrations of recalcitrant CECs in wastewater, but this process may generate toxic transformation-products. In the present study, we conducted semi-batch experiments to ozonate municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) spiked with 5 commonly detected CECs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether ozonation increased or decreased biological responses indicative of sublethal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracts prepared from ozonated and non-ozonated WWE. Blood, liver and brain tissues were collected from the fish at 72 h post-injection for analysis of a battery of biomarkers. In fish i.p. injected with the extracts from non-ozonated WWE, significant induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) was observed, but ozonation of the MWWE spiked with CECs significantly reduced this estrogenic response. However, in fish injected with extracts from spiked MWWE after ozonation, the balance of hepatic glutathione in its oxidized (i.e. GSSG) form was altered, indicating oxidative stress. Levels of the neurotransmitter, serotonin, were significantly elevated in brain tissue from trout injected with the extracts from ozonated spiked MWWE; a biological response that has not been previously reported in fish. Other in vivo biomarkers showed no significant changes across treatments. These results indicate that ozonation reduces the estrogenicity of wastewater, but may increase other sublethal responses. The increase in biomarker responses after ozonation may be due to the formation of biologically active products of transformation of CECs, but further work is needed to confirm this conclusion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article

  6. TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATION (TRE) AT A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT USING MUTAGENICITY AS AN END- POINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work revealed substantial levels of mutagenicity in effluents from certain municipal wastewater treatment plants. One of these treatment plants was selected for further study to track the effluent mutagenicity to its sources, to chemically characterize the mutagenicity, ...

  7. Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (< 0.1). Studies were carried out with industrial wastewater instead of a synthetic solution, and an economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater.

  8. Demonstration and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Wastewater Collection Systems Condition Assessment Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

  9. TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATION (TRE) AT A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT USING MUTAGENICITY AS AN END- POINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work revealed substantial levels of mutagenicity in effluents from certain municipal wastewater treatment plants. One of these treatment plants was selected for further study to track the effluent mutagenicity to its sources, to chemically characterize the mutagenicity, ...

  10. Demonstration and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Wastewater Collection Systems Condition Assessment Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

  11. Comparison of different modeling approaches to better evaluate greenhouse gas emissions from whole wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Snip, Laura; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2012-11-01

    New tools are being developed to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). There is a trend to move from empirical factors to simple comprehensive and more complex process-based models. Thus, the main objective of this study is to demonstrate the importance of using process-based dynamic models to better evaluate GHG emissions. This is tackled by defining a virtual case study based on the whole plant Benchmark Simulation Model Platform No. 2 (BSM2) and estimating GHG emissions using two approaches: (1) a combination of simple comprehensive models based on empirical assumptions and (2) a more sophisticated approach, which describes the mechanistic production of nitrous oxide (N(2) O) in the biological reactor (ASMN) and the generation of carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) and methane (CH(4) ) from the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1). Models already presented in literature are used, but modifications compared to the previously published ASMN model have been made. Also model interfaces between the ASMN and the ADM1 models have been developed. The results show that the use of the different approaches leads to significant differences in the N(2) O emissions (a factor of 3) but not in the CH(4) emissions (about 4%). Estimations of GHG emissions are also compared for steady-state and dynamic simulations. Averaged values for GHG emissions obtained with steady-state and dynamic simulations are rather similar. However, when looking at the dynamics of N(2) O emissions, large variability (3-6 ton CO(2) e day(-1) ) is observed due to changes in the influent wastewater C/N ratio and temperature which would not be captured by a steady-state analysis (4.4 ton CO(2) e day(-1) ). Finally, this study also shows the effect of changing the anaerobic digestion volume on the total GHG emissions. Decreasing the anaerobic digester volume resulted in a slight reduction in CH(4) emissions (about 5%), but significantly decreased N(2) O emissions in

  12. Evaluating heavy metal accumulation and potential health risks in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asad Sarwar; Hussain, M Iftikhar; Ismail, Shoaib; Khan, Qaisar Mehmood

    2016-11-01

    Effect of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and food crops and potential health risks to human via consumption of these food crops are evaluated. The higher concentrations of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) were found in lettuce, radish and carrots, respectively. However, trace metal levels in all vegetables were far lower than the food safety criteria of World Health Organization and European Union. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr. The trends of estimated dietary intake (EDIs) for adults were in the order of Fe > Zn > Cr > Cu. The highest level of total coliform was recorded in spinach, followed by radish, egg plant, tomatoes and lettuce. The low uptake of heavy metals by vegetables shows that the health risks for human are insignificant. As the variations in transfer factor of metals is related to absorption capability of vegetables, soil properties and nutrient management, the risk of human exposure to metal contamination can be significantly reduced by selecting appropriate crops.

  13. Evaluation of different smoking habits during music festivals through wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Grabic, Roman; Gál, Marián; Gál, Miroslav; Birošová, Lucia; Bodík, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Wastewater analysis is a powerful method that can provide useful information about the abuse of legal and illicit drugs. The aim of our study was to determine nicotine consumption during four different music festivals and to find a connection between smoking and preferences for specific music styles using wastewater analysis. The amount of the nicotine metabolite cotinine was monitored in wastewater at the influent of three waste water treatment plants WWTPs in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the festivals took place. Urinary bio-markers of nicotine utilization were analyzed by LC-HRMS. More than 80,000 festival participants were monitored during our study from June to September 2014. A significant increase of nicotine consumption was observed in wastewaters during music festivals. The nicotine ingestion level was back-calculated and expressed as mass of pure drug consumed per day and per 1000 inhabitants for selected cities of both countries. The highest differences between typical levels of cotinine in wastewaters and the levels during music festivals were detected in Piešťany: 4 g/L/1000 inhabitants during non-festival days compared to 8 g/L/1000 inhabitants during the Topfest pop-rock festival and 6g/L/1000 inhabitants during the Grape dance festival. No significant increase of the amounts of cotinine in wastewater was recorded for the Country and Folk festivals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  15. Evaluation of a Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Technology. INTERNATIONAL WASTEWATER SYSTEMS, INC. MODEL 6000 SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of the IWS Model 6000 SBR began in April 2004 when one SBR was taken off line and cleaned. The verification testing started July 1, 2004 and proceeded without interruption through June 30, 2005. All sixteen four-day sampling events were completed as scheduled, yielding...

  16. An evaluation of the use of colonized periphyton as an indicator of wastewater impact in near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Weber, D L; Moore, J C

    2002-07-01

    Receiving water impacts of point source discharges to the Gulf of Mexico are seldom reported on indigenous flora. The objective of this research was to evaluate the ability of colonized periphyton to provide this information. Water quality and biomass and pigment concentrations of the periphyton were determined at 27 stations located above and below 8 wastewater discharges. Most physicochemical parameters and concentrations of pesticides and PCBs were either unchanged or below detection in the receiving waters, which contrasted occasional increases in concentrations of several trace metals and nutrients. The response of the periphyton was specific to the wastewater, colonization station, response parameter, and colonization period. Statistically significant differences in biomass and pigment content occurred for at least one colonization station located below each of the eight outfalls. This represented a total of 18 of the 21 stations located in wastewater-impacted areas. Phytostimulation was more common than inhibition. Ash-free dry weight increased, on average, by 181% (+/- 1 SD = 123%) and chlorophyll a increased by 356% (+/- 593%) in wastewater-impacted areas. The in situ phytostimulation paralleled the stimulatory trend observed in standardized NPDES whole effluent tests conducted with cultured microalgae for four of eight wastewaters. The use of colonized periphyton as an indicator of wastewater impact was not simple. Spatial variation in response needs consideration to ensure relevancy of the results if this assessment methodology is used for near-coastal wastewater hazard evaluations.

  17. Evaluation of polar organic micropollutants as indicators for wastewater-related coastal water quality impairment.

    PubMed

    Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Aloupi, Maria; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Licha, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Results from coastal water pollution monitoring (Lesvos Island, Greece) are presented. In total, 53 samples were analyzed for 58 polar organic micropollutants such as selected herbicides, biocides, corrosion inhibitors, stimulants, artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals. Main focus is the application of a proposed wastewater indicator quartet (acesulfame, caffeine, valsartan, and valsartan acid) to detect point sources and contamination hot-spots with untreated and treated wastewater. The derived conclusions are compared with the state of knowledge regarding local land use and infrastructure. The artificial sweetener acesulfame and the stimulant caffeine were used as indicators for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively. In case of a contamination with untreated wastewater the concentration ratio of the antihypertensive valsartan and its transformation product valsartan acid was used to further refine the estimation of the residence time of the contamination. The median/maximum concentrations of acesulfame and caffeine were 5.3/178 ng L(-1) and 6.1/522 ng L(-1), respectively. Their detection frequency was 100%. Highest concentrations were detected within the urban area of the capital of the island (Mytilene). The indicator quartet in the gulfs of Gera and Kalloni (two semi-enclosed embayments on the island) demonstrated different concentration patterns. A comparatively higher proportion of untreated wastewater was detected in the gulf of Gera, which is in agreement with data on the wastewater infrastructure. The indicator quality of the micropollutants to detect wastewater was compared with electrical conductivity (EC) data. Due to their anthropogenic nature and low detection limits, the micropollutants are superior to EC regarding both sensitivity and selectivity. The concentrations of atrazine, diuron, and isoproturon did not exceed the annual average of their environmental quality standards (EQS) defined by the European Commission. At two sampling

  18. Evaluation of acute ecotoxicity removal from industrial wastewater using a battery of rapid bioassays.

    PubMed

    Dries, Jan; Daens, Dominique; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares conventional wastewater treatment technologies (coagulation-flocculation and activated sludge) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) treatment for the removal of acute ecotoxicity from wastewater generated by tank truck cleaning (TTC) processes. Ecotoxicity was assessed with a battery of four commercially available rapid biological toxicity testing systems, verified by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Chemical coagulation-flocculation of raw TTC wastewater had no impact on the inhibition of the bioluminescence by Vibrio fischeri (BioTox assay). Subsequent biological treatment with activated sludge without PAC resulted in BioTox inhibition-free effluent (<10% inhibition). In contrast, activated sludge treatment without PAC produced an effluent that significantly inhibited (>50%) (i) the bioluminescence by Photobacterium leiognathi (ToxScreen³ test kit), (ii) the photosynthesis by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris (LuminoTox SAPS test kit), and (iii) the particle ingestion by the crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus (Rapidtoxkit test kit). The lowest inhibition was measured after activated sludge treatment with the highest PAC dose (400 mg/L), demonstrating the effectiveness of PAC treatment for ecotoxicity removal from TTC wastewater. In conclusion, the combination of bioassays applied in the present study represents a promising test battery for rapid ecotoxicty assessment in wastewater treatment.

  19. Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

    1998-07-01

    The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

  20. Evaluation of Approaches for Managing Nitrate Loading from On-Site Wastewater Systems near La Pine, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Weick, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and Deschutes County, to develop a better understanding of the effects of nitrogen from on-site wastewater disposal systems on the quality of ground water near La Pine in southern Deschutes County and northern Klamath County, Oregon. Simulation models were used to test the conceptual understanding of the system and were coupled with optimization methods to develop the Nitrate Loading Management Model, a decision-support tool that can be used to efficiently evaluate alternative approaches for managing nitrate loading from on-site wastewater systems. The conceptual model of the system is based on geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data collected for this study, as well as previous hydrogeologic and water quality studies and field testing of on-site wastewater systems in the area by other agencies. On-site wastewater systems are the only significant source of anthropogenic nitrogen to shallow ground water in the study area. Between 1960 and 2005 estimated nitrate loading from on-site wastewater systems increased from 3,900 to 91,000 pounds of nitrogen per year. When all remaining lots are developed (in 2019 at current building rates), nitrate loading is projected to reach nearly 150,000 pounds of nitrogen per year. Low recharge rates (2-3 inches per year) and ground-water flow velocities generally have limited the extent of nitrate occurrence to discrete plumes within 20-30 feet of the water table; however, hydraulic-gradient and age data indicate that, given sufficient time and additional loading, nitrate will migrate to depths where many domestic wells currently obtain water. In 2000, nitrate concentrations greater than 4 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg N/L) were detected in 10 percent of domestic wells sampled by Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Numerical simulation models were constructed at transect (2

  1. Evaluation and testing of fine mesh sieve technologies for primary treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rusten, B; ødegaard, H

    2006-01-01

    Fine mesh sieve technologies were tested in full scale at several municipal wastewater treatment plants. A screening test was used to characterize wastewater and establish the design criteria for the sieves. To achieve high removal efficiencies it was crucial to operate the sieves with a filter mat. Rotating belt sieves performed best in the full-scale tests. A small dose of cationic polymer and a static flocculator ahead of a rotating belt sieve achieved excellent results on a wastewater that was originally found unsuitable for primary treatment with fine mesh sieves. Simple screw presses dewatered the sludge from the sieves to typically 25-30% total solids. Using fine mesh sieves with <500 microns openings was found to normally be the most economical process for primary treatment.

  2. Evaluation of potato-processing wastewater treatment in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Durruty, Ignacio; Bonanni, Pablo Sebastián; González, Jorge Froilan; Busalmen, Juan Pablo

    2012-02-01

    Wastewaters from potato-processing industries have been traditionally treated by a sequence of steps that include the production of methane as the anaerobic one. This work explores the feasibility of replacing or supplementing methanogenesis with the emerging technology of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Electricity producing biofilms have been enriched from a real anaerobic sludge, and the conversion of potato-processing wastewater into electricity has been studied. When tested as a single treatment step, MFCs were able to process the wastewater with high COD removal but with low energetic conversion efficiency. On the other hand, as a complimentary step for methanogenesis, they improved conversion efficiency and significantly reduced the organic matter load of the final effluent. These results point at the combination of the energetic yield of methanogenesis and the improved COD removal of the electricity producing treatment as the implementation choice.

  3. Performance evaluation and modeling of a submerged membrane bioreactor treating combined municipal and industrial wastewater using radial basis function artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, Seyed Ahmad; Bagheri, Majid; Boudaghpour, Siamak; Ehteshami, Majid; Bagheri, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Treatment process models are efficient tools to assure proper operation and better control of wastewater treatment systems. The current research was an effort to evaluate performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) treating combined municipal and industrial wastewater and to simulate effluent quality parameters of the SMBR using a radial basis function artificial neural network (RBFANN). The results showed that the treatment efficiencies increase and hydraulic retention time (HRT) decreases for combined wastewater compared with municipal and industrial wastewaters. The BOD, COD, [Formula: see text] and total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiencies for combined wastewater at HRT of 7 hours were 96.9%, 96%, 96.7% and 92%, respectively. As desirable criteria for treating wastewater, the TBOD/TP ratio increased, the BOD and COD concentrations decreased to 700 and 1000 mg/L, respectively and the BOD/COD ratio was about 0.5 for combined wastewater. The training procedures of the RBFANN models were successful for all predicted components. The train and test models showed an almost perfect match between the experimental and predicted values of effluent BOD, COD, [Formula: see text] and TP. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values were higher than 0.98 and root mean squared error (RMSE) values did not exceed 7% for train and test models.

  4. Evaluation of effects of phenol recovery on biooxidation and tertiary treatment of SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.W.; Watt, J.C.; Cowan, W.F.; Schuyler, S.E.

    1983-09-01

    Addition of phenol recovery to the wastewater treatment scheme in the Baseline Design for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant was evaluated as a major post-Baseline effort. Phenol recovery affects many downstream processes, but this study was designed to assess primarily its effects on biooxidation and subsequent tertiary treatment. Two parallel treatment schemes were set up, one to treat dephenolated wastewaters and the other for processed nondephenolated wastewaters, a simulation of the Baseline Design. The study focused on comparisons of five areas: effluent quality; system stability; the need for continuous, high-dose powdered activated carbon (PAC) augmentation to the bioreactor; minimum bioreactor hydraulic residence time (HRT); and tertiary treatment requirements. The results show that phenol recovery improves the quality of the bioreactor effluent in terms of residual organics and color. With phenol recovery, PAC augmentation is not required; without phenol recovery, PAC is needed to produce a comparable effluent. Dephenolization also enhances the stability of biooxidation, and reduces the minimum HRT required. With tertiary treatment, both schemes can meet the effluent concentrations published in the SRC-I Final Envivornmental Impact Statement, as well as the anticipated effluent limits. However, phenol recovery does provide a wider safety margin and could eliminate the need for some of the tertiary treatment steps. Based solely on the technical merits observed in this study, phenol recovery is recommended. The final selection should, however, also consider economic tradeoffs and results of other studies such as toxicology testing of the effluents. 34 references, 30 figures and 26 tables.

  5. Evaluation of biodegradability and oxidation degree of hospital wastewater using photo-Fenton process as the pretreatment method.

    PubMed

    Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Suntronvipart, Nattapol

    2006-11-16

    In this work, the photo-Fenton process was used for the pretreatment of hospital wastewater with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability and determining the degree of increased oxidation. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total organic carbon (TOC) and toxicity towards the gram negative marine bioluminescent bacteria of the species V. fischeri were selected as the environmental sum parameters to follow the performance of this process. The enhancement of biodegradability, evaluated in terms of the BOD5/COD ratio, increased from 0.3 to 0.52 and the oxidation degree, calculated in terms of AOS, leveled up from -1.14 to +1.58 at the optimum conditions; a dosage ratio of COD:H2O2:Fe(II) at 1:4:0.1, and a reaction pH of 3. The reduction in the inhibition percentage from the toxicity test indicated the safe levels for micro-organisms in degrading the residual organic substance in this method. Almost total removal percentages of COD, BOD5, and TOC were found by a sequential activated sludge process for the pre-treated wastewater. Results obtained from this work indicated that the photo-Fenton process could be a suitable pretreatment method in reducing toxicity of pollutants and enhancing biodegradability of hospital wastewaters treated in a coupled photochemical-biological system.

  6. Membrane-integrated physico-chemical treatment of coke-oven wastewater: transport modelling and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Pal, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    A modelling and simulation study with economic evaluation was carried out for an advanced membrane-integrated hybrid treatment process that ensures reuse of water with recovery of ammoniacal nitrogen as struvite from coke-oven wastewater. Linearized transport model was developed based on extended Nernst-Plank and concentration polarization modulus equation. Effects of pH, transmembrane pressure and cross-flow rate of interest on membrane charge density, solute rejection and solvent flux were investigated. The membrane module was successful in yielding a pure water flux as high as 120 L m(-2) h(-1) removing more than 95 and 96% of the cyanide and phenol, respectively, while permeating more than 90% NH4 (+)-N at a transmembrane pressure of only 15 × 10(2) KPa and at a pH of 10 for a volumetric cross-flow rate of 800 L h(-1). The Fenton's reagents were used to degrade more than 99% of pollutants present in the concentrated stream. The developed model could successfully predict the plant performance as reflected in the very low relative error (0.01-0.12) and overall high correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.96). Economic analysis indicated that such a membrane-integrated hybrid system could be quite promising in coke wastewater treatment at low cost i.e. $0.934/m(2) of wastewater.

  7. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of photo-catalytically treated petroleum refinery wastewater using an array of bioassays.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar; Nisar, Jan; Adil, Muhammad; Abbas, Mazhar; Riaz, Muhammad; Tahir, M Asif; Younus, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    Degradation and detoxification of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) was carried out by advanced oxidation processes (UV/TiO2/H2O2 and gamma radiation/H2O2). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the independent variables. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using Allium cepa, brime shrimp and haemolytic assays; whereas mutagenicity was tested by Ames tests (TA98 and TA100 strains). Maximum reductions in COD and BOD were recorded as 78% and 87% for UV/TiO2/H2O2 and 77% and 86% for gamma ray/H2O2, respectively. Treatments with both methods at optimized conditions reduced the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of PRW, however, UV/TiO2/H2O2 system was found slightly efficient as compared to gamma ray/H2O2. From the results, it can be concluded that AOP's can successfully be utilized for the degradation of toxic pollutants in petroleum refinery wastewater. Moreover, the bioassays used in this study offered a good reliability for checking the detoxification of treated and un-treated PRW wastewater.

  8. Evaluation of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent quality for agricultural irrigation by Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Using treated wastewater in agriculture irrigation could be a realistic solution for the shortage of fresh water in Iran, however, it is associated with environmental and health threats; therefore, effluent quality assessment is quite necessary before use. The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial quality of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent for being used in agricultural irrigation. In this study, 20 physicochemical and 3 microbial parameters were measured during warm (April to September) and cold months (October to march). Using the measured parameters and the Canadian Water Quality Index, the quality of the effluent was determined in both warm and cold seasons and in all the seasons together. Results The calculated index for the physicochemical parameters in the effluent was equal (87) in warm and cold months and it was obtained as 85 for the seasons all together. When the microbial parameters were used in order to calculate the index, it declined to 67 in warm and cold seasons and 64 in all the seasons together. Also, it was found that three physicochemical parameters (TDS, EC, and NO3) and three microbial parameters (Fecal coliform, Helminthes egg, and Total coliform) had the most contribution to the reduction of the index value. Conclusions The results showed that the physicochemical quality of Shiraz Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent was good for irrigation in the warm, cold, and total of the two kinds of seasons. However, by applying the microbial parameter, the index value declined dramatically and the quality of the effluent was marginal. PMID:23566673

  9. Comparative evaluation of three attached growth systems and a constructed wetland for in situ treatment of raw municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Loupasaki, E; Diamadopoulos, E

    2013-01-01

    The necessity to treat municipal wastewaters in situ, with a low cost, yet effective system, led to the research of alternative methods for wastewater treatment. Attached growth systems can be an alternative option. Three attached growth systems with different media substrate, a rockwool cubes unit, a Kaldnes rings unit and a plastic bottle caps unit were studied in comparison with a constructed wetland in order to evaluate their ability to treat raw municipal wastewater. The selection of the three different media was based on their high porosity and surface area, as well as their availability and price. Three different operating periods were carried out with variations in the organic loading rate and the feeding frequency. The units were fed intermittently with short resting periods, less than 32 h, and relative high mean organic loading rates of 70, 50 and 30 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m2d), respectively for each operating period. The constructed wetland and the rockwool cubes unit were the most effective, with mean COD reduction as mass rate (mg/d) 88% and 88%, biological oxygen demand 78% and 76%, dissolved organic carbon 73% and 67%, and total suspended solids 91% and 92%, respectively. Total nitrogen reduction was significantly higher at the constructed wetland with mean reduction as mass rate 51%, 60% and 83% for each period, compared to 41%, 43% and 60%, respectively, of the rockwool cubes unit. This study showed that it is possible to design, build and operate in situ small and decentralized treatment systems by using readily available packing materials and with minimum wastewater pretreatment.

  10. ETV REPORT: EVALUATION OF HYDROMETRICS, INC., HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSE OSMOSIS (HERO™) INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrometrics, founded in 1979 and located in Helena, MT, manufactures a commercial-ready High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) industrial wastewater treatment system. The system uses a three-stage reverse osmosis process to remove and concentrate metals for recovery while prod...

  11. Optimization and performance evaluation for nutrient removal from palm oil mill effluent wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Raheek I.; Wong, Z. H.; Mohammad, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) wastewater was produced in huge amounts in Malaysia, and if it discharged into the environment, it causes a serious problem regarding its high content of nutrients. This study was devoted to POME wastewater treatment with microalgae. The main objective was to find the optimum conditions (retention time, and pH) in the microalgae treatment of POME wastewater considering retention time as a most important parameter in algae treatment, since after the optimum conditions there is a diverse effect of time and pH and so, the process becomes costly. According to our knowledge, there is no existing study optimized the retention time and pH with % removal of nutrients (ammonia nitrogen NH3-N, and orthophosphorous PO43-) for microalgae treatment of POME wastewater. In order to achieve with optimization, a central composite rotatable design with a second order polynomial model was used, regression coefficients and goodness of fit results in removal percentages of nutrients (NH3-N, and PO43-) were estimated.WinQSB technique was used to optimize the surface response objective functionfor the developed model. Also experiments were done to validate the model results.The optimum conditions were found to be 18 day retention time for ammonia nitrogen, and pH of 9.22, while for orthophosphorous, 15 days were indicated as the optimum retention time with a pH value of 9.2.

  12. Evaluating Microbial Purification during Soil Treatment of Wastewater with Multicomponent Tracer and Surrogate Tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Cuyk, S.; Siegrist, R.L.; Lowe, K.; Harvey, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Soil treatment of wastewater has the potential to achieve high purification efficiency, yet the understanding and predictability of purification with respect to removal of viruses and other pathogens is limited. Research has been completed to quantify the removal of virus and bacteria through the use of microbial surrogates and conservative tracers during controlled experiments with three-dimensional pilot-scale soil treatment systems in the laboratory and during the testing of full-scale systems under field conditions. The surrogates and tracers employed included two viruses (MS-2 and PRID-1 bacteriophages), one bacterium (ice-nucleating active Pseudomonas), and one conservative tracer (bromide ion). Efforts have also been made to determine the relationship between viruses and fecal coliform bacteria in soil samples below the wastewater infiltrative surface, and the correlation between Escherichia coil concentrations measured in percolating soil solution as compared with those estimated from analyses of soil solids. The results suggest episodic breakthrough of virus and bacteria during soil treatment of wastewater and a 2 to 3 log (99-99.9%) removal of virus and near complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria during unsaturated flow through 60 to 90 cm of sandy medium. Results also suggest that the fate of fecal coliform bacteria may be indicative of that of viruses in soil media near the infiltrative surface receiving wastewater effluent. Concentrations of fecal coliform in percolating soil solution may be conservatively estimated from analysis of extracted soil solids.

  13. ETV REPORT: EVALUATION OF HYDROMETRICS, INC., HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSE OSMOSIS (HERO™) INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrometrics, founded in 1979 and located in Helena, MT, manufactures a commercial-ready High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) industrial wastewater treatment system. The system uses a three-stage reverse osmosis process to remove and concentrate metals for recovery while prod...

  14. EVALUATION OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH PREDOMINANTLY DOMESTIC INPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to survey estrogenic releases from two primarily domestic wastewater treatment plants over three seasons (1996-1999). Mature male channel catfish were maintained at two sites within each WWTP and a reference site for 21 days. Estrogenic activity of e...

  15. EVALUATION OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH PREDOMINANTLY DOMESTIC INPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to survey estrogenic releases from two primarily domestic wastewater treatment plants over three seasons (1996-1999). Mature male channel catfish were maintained at two sites within each WWTP and a reference site for 21 days. Estrogenic activity of e...

  16. Ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater treatment plant effluent discharges: a case study in Prato (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, E; Galli, S; Limberti, A; Giovannelli, L

    2004-01-01

    Textile wastewaters, which contain numerous chemicals such as dyes, surfactants, solvents, organic and inorganic salts, can cause severe pollution problems for the receiving freshwaters. The ecotoxicity of wastewaters in Prato, where there are about 14,000 textile and related factories, was investigated from 1996-1999 by means of bioassays. 147 samples of reclaimed wastewater were collected at the outlets of 4 centralized wastewater treatment plants. The acute and chronic toxicity of the effluents was measured with bioassays using three different target organisms: green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), crustaceans (Daphnia magna) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). Toxicity was expressed as Effective Concentration 50 (EC50) and Toxic Units (TU). The results indicated that the effluents did not have significant acute toxicity: only 2.74% (EC50<100%, TU>1) of the 146 samples tested with crustaceans and 6.52% (EC50<50%, TU>2) of the 78 tested with bioluminescent bacteria showed toxic effects. With algae, slight chronic toxicity was found in 49.33% (mean EC50 value=86.56%, mean TU=1.16) of the 140 samples tested. The highest relative response was found with the algal assay using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: 49.33% of 140 samples showed chronic toxicity at 96 hours (EC50<100%).

  17. Evaluation of Sources of Nitrate Beneath Food Processing Wastewater-Application Sites near Umatilla, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna; Paulson, Anthony; Richerson, Phil; Striz, Elise; Black, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Water samples from wells were collected beneath and downgradient of two food-processing wastewater-application sites near Umatilla, Oregon. These samples were analyzed for nitrate stable isotopes, nutrients, major ions, and age-dating constituents to determine if nitrate-stable isotopes can be used to differentiate food-processing waste from other potential sources of nitrate. Major-ion data from each site were used to determine which samples were associated with the recharge of the food-processing wastewater. End-member mixing analysis was used to determine the relative amounts of each identified end member within the samples collected from the Terrace Farm site. The delta nitrogen-15 (delta 15N) of nitrate generally ranged between +2 and +9 parts per thousand and the delta oxygen-18 (delta 18O) of nitrate generally ranged between -2 and -7 parts per thousand. None of the samples that were determined to be associated with the wastewater were different from the samples that were not affected by the wastewater. The nitrate isotope values measured in this study are also characteristic of ammonium fertilizer, animal and human waste, and soil nitrate; therefore, it was not possible to differentiate between food-processing wastewater and the other nitrate sources. Values of delta 15N and delta 18O of nitrate provided no more information about the sources of nitrate in the Umatilla River basin than did a hydrologic and geochemical understanding of the ground-water system derived from interpreting water-level and major-ion chemistry data.

  18. Evaluation of primary and secondary production using wastewater as a culture medium.

    PubMed

    Nandini, S; Ramírez-García, Pedro; Sarma, S S S

    2010-10-01

    The ability of rotifers and cladocerans to convert primary to secondary production in wastewaters was tested. Scenedesmus acutus was cultured on Bold's (defined) medium, wastewater from the tertiary phase of water treatment and a mixture of both. The algal growth rates (µ) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 day⁻¹, being highest in defined medium. The demographic characteristics of Brachionus rubens and Moina macrocopa were tested using algae at a density of 1.0 x 10⁶ cells mL⁻¹. Into each test jar, we introduced 20 neonates (< 12-h-old) of either B. rubens or M. macrocopa. Daily (for M. macrocopa) or twice a day (for B. rubens), dead adults and the neonates were enumerated and removed. Average life-span and generation time of B. rubens were not significantly influenced by the algal treatment type. Gross and net reproductive rates were significantly influenced by the medium on which the algae was cultured; in the case of B. rubens, they ranged from 20-36 and 10-22 offspring female⁻¹; the corresponding values for M. macrocopa were higher (38-110 and 13-31 offspring female⁻¹, respectively). The rate of population increase was higher for Brachionus (0.41-0.65 day⁻¹)) compared to Moina (0.28-0.57 day⁻¹). Brachionus had significantly higher growth rates on algae cultured on Bold medium than on treated wastewater while Moina grew significantly better on Scenedesmus cultured on Bold medium or a mixture of treated wastewater and Bold medium than on treated wastewater alone.

  19. Evaluation of food processing wastewater loading characteristics on metal mobilization within the soil.

    PubMed

    Julien, Ryan; Safferman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater generated during food processing is commonly treated using land-application systems which primarily rely on soil microbes to transform nutrients and organic compounds into benign byproducts. Naturally occurring metals in the soil may be chemically reduced via microbially mediated oxidation-reduction reactions as oxygen becomes depleted. Some metals such as manganese and iron become water soluble when chemically reduced, leading to groundwater contamination. Alternatively, metals within the wastewater may not become assimilated into the soil and leach into the groundwater if the environment is not sufficiently oxidizing. A lab-scale column study was conducted to investigate the impacts of wastewater loading values on metal mobilization within the soil. Oxygen content and volumetric water data were collected via soil sensors for the duration of the study. The pH, chemical oxygen demand, manganese, and iron concentrations in the influent and effluent water from each column were measured. Average organic loading and organic loading per dose were shown to have statistically significant impacts using Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient on effluent water quality. The Hydraulic resting period qualitatively appeared to have impacts on effluent water quality. This study verifies that excessive organic loading of land application systems causes mobilization of naturally occurring metals and prevents those added in the wastewater from becoming immobilized, resulting in ineffective wastewater treatment. Results also indicate the need to consider the organic dose load and hydraulic resting period in the treatment system design. Findings from this study demonstrate waste application twice daily may encourage soil aeration and allow for increased organic loading while limiting the mobilization of metals already in the soil and those being applied.

  20. Evaluation of improved techniques for the removal of fission products from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1997 status

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; DePaoli, S.M.; Guo, B.

    1998-02-01

    The primary goals of this effort in FY 1997 were to survey local end users of wastewater treatment technology and then to evaluate recently available treatment processes in light of user needs. Survey results indicate that local sites are confronted with a limited, and shrinking, budget for treating aqueous waste streams. Therefore, a process will be selected primarily on the basis of sorbent costs, use of existing equipment, and disposal costs for spent processing materials. Current laboratory testing and economic studies have been directed toward addressing the technical issues specific to the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from groundwater and process wastewater. This year`s efforts have concentrated on evaluating the engineered form of crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) for near neutral pH applications. Both powder and pellet forms of CST can be obtained through UOP; this task evaluated only the engineered form of the sorbent for wastewater remediation. Preliminary experimental efforts included measuring the average particle size, surface water content, total sodium content, ion exchange capacity, and equilibration mixing time. The as received material contains approximately 10% fines, which adhere to the CST pellet. The cesium and strontium ion-exchange capacities, based on multiple contacts with 50 ppm of the metal, are 0.8 meq/g and 1.1 meq/g, respectively. Batch tests indicated that an equilibrium mixing time of 100 h was required for cesium sorption. Group 2 cations (Sr, Ca, and Mg) required greater than 500 h. Particle diffusion coefficients were estimated for each of these cations from the batch studies.

  1. Physico-chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological evaluation of a septic tank/Fenton reaction combination for the treatment of hospital wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Berto, Josiani; Rochenbach, Gisele Canan; Barreiros, Marco Antonio B; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Peluso-Silva, Sandra; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos

    2009-05-01

    Hospital wastewater is considered a complex mixture populated with pathogenic microorganisms. The genetic constitution of these microorganisms can be changed through the direct and indirect effects of hospital wastewater constituents, leading to the appearance of antibiotic multi-resistant bacteria. To avoid environmental contamination hospital wastewaters must be treated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of hospital wastewater treated by a combined process of biological degradation (septic tank) and the Fenton reaction. Thus, after septic tank biodegradation, batch Fenton reaction experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale reactor and the effectiveness of this sequential treatment was evaluated by a physico-chemical/microbiological time-course analysis of COD, BOD(5), and thermotolerant and total coliforms. The results showed that after 120min of Fenton treatment BOD(5) and COD values decreased by 90.6% and 91.0%, respectively. The BOD(5)/COD ratio changed from 0.46 to 0.48 after 120min of treatment. Bacterial removal efficiency reached 100%, while biotests carried out with Scenedesmus subspicatus and Daphnia magna showed a significant decrease in the ecotoxicity of hospital wastewater after the sequential treatment. The use of this combined system would ensure that neither multi-resistant bacteria nor ecotoxic substances are released to the environment through hospital wastewater discharge.

  2. Chronic toxicity evaluation of wastewater treatment plant effluents with bioluminescent bacteria: A comparison with invertebrates and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, L.I.; Travers, D.F.; Meier, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    The use of bioluminescent bacteria in chronic toxicity testing is a potentially useful yet unexplored tool in whole effluent biomonitoring. The purpose of this study was to determine the chronic toxicity of 14 different wastewater treatment plant effluents to Chronic Microtox{reg_sign} bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), and a minnow (Pimephales promelas). The invertebrate and fish have been utilized extensively for the evaluation of effluents and in establishing water quality criteria. The results of this study suggest that the 22-h Microtox Chronic Toxicity Test may correlate well with the most sensitive chronic no-observed-effect concentration value of the three-brood C. dubia test.

  3. Evaluation criteria for implementation of a sustainable sanitation and wastewater treatment system at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gaulke, Linda S; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park's administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals. To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

  4. Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

  5. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  6. Evaluation of solid-state bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge as a promising environmental-friendly disposal technique.

    PubMed

    Hossain Molla, Abul; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Zahangir Alam, Md

    2004-11-01

    Natural and environmental-friendly disposal of wastewater sludge is a great concern. Recently, biological treatment has played prominent roles in bioremediation of complex hydrocarbon- rich contaminants. Composting is quite an old biological-based process that is being practiced but it could not create a great impact in the minds of concerned researchers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the solid-state bioconversion (SSB) processes in the biodegradation of wastewater sludge by exploiting this promising technique to rejuvenate the conventional process. The Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) sludge was considered for evaluation of SSB by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation under two conditions: (i) flask (F) and (ii) composting bin (CB) cultures. Sterile and semi-sterile environments were allowed in the F and the CB, respectively, using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 (T/P) and T. harzianum with Mucor hiemalis (T/M) and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD) and rice straw (RS). The significant growth and multiplication of both the mixed fungal cultures were reflected in soluble protein, glucosamine and color intensity measurement of the water extract. The color intensity and pH of the water extract significantly increased and supported the higher growth of microbes and bioconversion. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. A comparatively higher decrease of organic matter (OM) % and C/N ratio were attained in the CB than the F, which implied a higher bioconversion. But the measurement of soluble protein, glucosamine and color intensity exhibited higher values in the F than the CB. The final pH drop was higher in the CB than the F, which implied that a higher nitrification occurred in the CB associated with a higher release of H+ ions

  7. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  8. Evaluation of an integrated continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor: Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiman; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Da; Zhou, Xiangtong; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    A continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor (CSMER) was developed by integrating anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrochemical system (MES). The system was capable of treating high strength artificial wastewater and simultaneously recovering electric and methane energy. Maximum power density of 583±9, 562±7, 533±10 and 572±6 mW m(-2) were obtained by each cell in a four-independent circuit mode operation at an OLR of 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). COD removal and energy recovery efficiency were 87.1% and 32.1%, which were 1.6 and 2.5 times higher than that of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Larger amount of Deltaproteobacteria (5.3%) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens (47%) can account for the better performance of CSMER, since syntrophic associations among them provided more degradation pathways compared to the CSTR. Results demonstrate the CSMER holds great promise for efficient wastewater treatment and energy recovery.

  9. An Evaluation of Technologies to Automate U.S. Army Water and Wastewater Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    Ammunition Plant 20 Red River Army Depot 21 Watervliet Arsenal 25 West Point Military Academy 27 Summary of Potential Automation Areas 32 3 ASSESSMENT OF...Ammunition Plant, TN * Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant, TX * Red River Army Depot, TX * Watervliet Arsenal, NY * West Point Military Academy, NY. A...the Red River Depot. The ammunition plant and seven wastewater treatment plants are operated by Day-Zimmerman under contract to the Army. One

  10. Evaluation of iron ochre from mine drainage treatment for removal of phosphorus from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dobbie, K E; Heal, K V; Aumônier, J; Smith, K A; Johnston, A; Younger, P L

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of polluting discharges from abandoned coal mines in the UK currently produces ca 30,000 t y(-1) of hydrous iron oxides ("ochre"), for which there is no major end-use, but which has previously been shown to have potential for removing P from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The efficiency of ochre for P removal from wastewater was investigated in experiments at two sites in the UK: Leitholm in Scotland and Windlestone in England. The three-year experiment at Leitholm involved diverting secondary-treated wastewater effluent through a trough which contained granular and pelletized ochre at different times. In the nine-month experiment at Windlestone, beds of ochre pellets in horizontal and vertical flow configurations were tested. The ochre treatment systems at Leitholm reduced influent concentrations of total P (TP) and TP mass by ca 80% and 50%, respectively, during optimal flow conditions, and achieved a removal rate of up to 65+/-48 mg TP kg(-1) ochre d(-1). There was no detectable release of potentially toxic metals from the ochre during the experiments. P removal rates by concentration were inversely related to flow and declined during the different phases of the experiments, probably due to clogging. At Windlestone, higher removal rates up to 195 mg TP kg(-1) ochre d(-1) were achieved for short periods of time following cleaning of the experimental system. Ochre has considerable potential to remove P from wastewater in a multi-stage treatment system and has a lifetime estimated to be 10 times longer than other substrates tested for P removal.

  11. Contact Aeration Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrading Evaluation, Reese Air Force Base, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    id* If negoeory sruidanilU y bl Wok nusm) A 1940 vintage contact aeration wastewater treatment (Hays Process ) plant at Reese APE TX was upgraded by...aeration process is presented. The pet.rmance effticiencies of the Reese APE contact aeration treatment plant before and after upgrading are presented...Efeve SE~CURITY CLASSIFICATION OF TbIISP AGECIWa.. Does #ntiorgo). contact aeration process . It was found that the performance efficiencies of the

  12. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    PubMed

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Probabilistic evaluation of integrating resource recovery into wastewater treatment to improve environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; McCarty, Perry L; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yu, Han-Qing; Qian, Yi; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-02-03

    Global expectations for wastewater service infrastructure have evolved over time, and the standard treatment methods used by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are facing issues related to problem shifting due to the current emphasis on sustainability. A transition in WWTPs toward reuse of wastewater-derived resources is recognized as a promising solution for overcoming these obstacles. However, it remains uncertain whether this approach can reduce the environmental footprint of WWTPs. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a net environmental benefit calculation for several scenarios for more than 50 individual countries over a 20-y time frame. For developed countries, the resource recovery approach resulted in ∼154% net increase in the environmental performance of WWTPs compared with the traditional substance elimination approach, whereas this value decreased to ∼60% for developing countries. Subsequently, we conducted a probabilistic analysis integrating these estimates with national values and determined that, if this transition was attempted for WWTPs in developed countries, it would have a ∼65% probability of attaining net environmental benefits. However, this estimate decreased greatly to ∼10% for developing countries, implying a substantial risk of failure. These results suggest that implementation of this transition for WWTPs should be studied carefully in different temporal and spatial contexts. Developing countries should customize their approach to realizing more sustainable WWTPs, rather than attempting to simply replicate the successful models of developed countries. Results derived from the model forecasting highlight the role of bioenergy generation and reduced use of chemicals in improving the sustainability of WWTPs in developing countries.

  14. Evaluation of constructed wetlands by wastewater purification ability and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Gui, P; Inamori, R; Matsumura, M; Inamori, Y

    2007-01-01

    Domestic wastewater is a significant source of nitrogen and phosphorus, which cause lake eutrophication. Among the wastewater treatment technologies, constructed wetlands are a promising low-cost means of treating point and diffuse sources of domestic wastewater in rural areas. However, the sustainable operation of constructed wetland treatment systems depends upon a high rate conversion of organic and nitrogenous loading into their metabolic gaseous end products, such as N2O and CH4. In this study, we examined and compared the performance of three typical types of constructed wetlands: Free Water Surface (FWS), Subsurface Flow (SF) and Vertical Flow (VF) wetlands. Pollutant removal efficiency and N2O and CH4 emissions were assessed as measures of performance. We found that the pollutant removal rates and gas emissions measured in the wetlands exhibited clear seasonal changes, and these changes were closely associated with plant growth. VF wetlands exhibited stable removal of organic pollutants and NH3-N throughout the experiment regardless of season and showed great potential for CH4 adsorption. SF wetlands showed preferable T-N removal performance and a lower risk of greenhouse gas emissions than FWS wetlands. Soil oxidation reduction potential (ORP) analysis revealed that water flow structure and plant growth influenced constructed wetland oxygen transfer, and these variations resulted in seasonal changes of ORP distribution inside wetlands that were accompanied by fluctuations in pollutant removal and greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of Pleurotus ostreatus for the removal of selected pharmaceuticals from hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Palli, Laura; Castellet-Rovira, Francesc; Pérez-Trujillo, Miriam; Caniani, Donatella; Sarrà-Adroguer, Montserrat; Gori, Riccardo

    2017-06-27

    The fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated to assess its ability to remove diclofenac, ketoprofen, and atenolol spiked at 10 mg/L each one in hospital wastewater. The degradation test was carried out in a fluidized bed bioreactor testing both the batch and the continuous mode (hydraulic retention time in the range 1.63-3 days). In batch mode, diclofenac disappeared in less than 24 h, ketoprofen was degraded up to almost 50% in 5 days while atenolol was not removed. In continuous mode, diclofenac and ketoprofen removals were about 100% and 70% respectively; atenolol degradation was negligible during the first 20 days but it increased up to 60% after a peak of laccase production and notable biomass growth. In order to identify the enzymatic system involved, further experiments were carried out in flasks. Purified laccase completely transformed atenolol and diclofenac in less than 5 h, but not ketoprofen. In vivo experiments suggested that cytochrome P450 could be involved in diclofenac and ketoprofen degradation, while partial correlation studies confirmed the role of laccase in atenolol and diclofenac degradation. Two intermediates of diclofenac and ketoprofen were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance. Moreover P. ostreatus was able to reduce chemical oxygen demand of the hospital wastewater which is an important advantage comparing to other fungi in order to develop a wastewater treatment process. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Evaluation of estrogenic activity and measurement of EDCs in wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. C.; Jung, J. Y.; Kim, H. K.

    2006-10-01

    Correlations between estrogenic activity and DOC/UV260 ratio in wastewater treatment processes were investigated to propose a simple, reliable and comprehensive indicator for the presence of estrogenic substances. Contrary to this, when short-term bioassays such as the E-SCREEN, receptor binding and reporter gene expression assays are used for detecting estrogenic activity in the wastewater sample, they require a long time, at least a few days. The major factors contributing to the estrogenic activity were found to be 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (El). A good relationship between the DOC/ UV260 ratio and the concentration of estrogens (El and E2) in the effluent of the activated sludge process was found: the E2 concentration increased as the DOC/UV260 ratio increased while the El concentration decreased. The relative estrogenic activity and DOC/UV260 ratio showed a good correlation (R2=0.84) for all sewage samples except the ozonized samples in the sewage treatment plants. This study shows that the estrogenic compounds are hard to be mineralized by the conventional biological processes. Advanced oxidation processes are required to further remove estrogenic substances in the secondary effluent. By analysis of DOC and UV260, the estrogenic activity in the wastewater can be rapidly estimated.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the microbial community in biological processes treating industrial and domestic wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Degenaar, A P; Ismail, A; Bux, F

    2008-02-01

    Comparison of the microbial composition and process performance between laboratory scale processes treating domestic and vegetable oil wastewaters. Two laboratory scale modified Ludzack-Ettinger processes were operated under similar operating conditions. One process was fed domestic wastewater and the other an industrial wastewater, vegetable oil effluent. Nitrogen removal capacities of the processes were similar. The industrial process exhibited a lower COD removal capacity and oxygen utilization rate, although a greater mixed liquor volatile suspended solids concentration was observed in the industrial process. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes EUBmix, ALF1b, BET42a, GAM42a and HGC69a revealed that 81% and 72% of total cells stained with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) within the domestic and industrial processes respectively bound to EUBmix. This indicated a slightly lower Eubacterial population within the industrial process. The alpha-proteobacteria was the dominant community in the industrial process (31% of EUBmix), while the beta-proteobacteria dominated the domestic process (33% of EUBmix). The findings served to establish a difference in the microbial population between the processes. Therefore, the class alpha-proteobacteria could play a primary role in the degradation of vegetable oil effluent. This research will aid in process design and retrofitting of biological processes treating vegetable oil effluent.

  18. Evaluation of separate urine collection and treatment to augment existing wastewater treatment works.

    PubMed

    Wilsenach, J A; van Bragt, W P M; de Been, P; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous increases in wastewater loads and effluent quality demand improved nutrient removal techniques. A simple technique for nitrogen removal is post-denitrification with methanol. The tradeoff between better effluent vs. methanol consumption is debatable. Methanol dosing is not only un-sustainable in the long term, but the cost of methanol is also becoming increasingly important. Urine contains 80% of the total nitrogen (N) and 50% of the phosphate in wastewater. Separate collection and treatment of urine could improve existing treatment works and diminish the need for post-denitrification. In this paper, a nitritation-denitrification process is proposed where 20-30% of the N in urine is removed with the COD available in urine. The treated urine consists of ammonium-nitrite, which is to be introduced to the anoxic zone of a conventional treatment plant. Optimal denitrification via nitrite is possible with COD from other wastewater sources. The case study presented here shows that 40-50% urine separation and improvement of the flow scheme would improve effluent quality from 19 to 10 g N/m3, which would eliminate the need for post-denitrification.

  19. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO2 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO2 flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO2 fixation capacity of 102g perkg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO2 reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO2 fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  20. A systematic evaluation of chemicals in hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater for reproductive and developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Elise G; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Leaderer, Brian P; Bracken, Michael B; Deziel, Nicole C

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater from unconventional oil and natural gas development contain hundreds of substances with the potential to contaminate drinking water. Challenges to conducting well-designed human exposure and health studies include limited information about likely etiologic agents. We systematically evaluated 1021 chemicals identified in hydraulic-fracturing fluids (n=925), wastewater (n=132), or both (n=36) for potential reproductive and developmental toxicity to triage those with potential for human health impact. We searched the REPROTOX database using Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers for chemicals with available data and evaluated the evidence for adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Next, we determined which chemicals linked to reproductive or developmental toxicity had water quality standards or guidelines. Toxicity information was lacking for 781 (76%) chemicals. Of the remaining 240 substances, evidence suggested reproductive toxicity for 103 (43%), developmental toxicity for 95 (40%), and both for 41 (17%). Of these 157 chemicals, 67 had or were proposed for a federal water quality standard or guideline. Our systematic screening approach identified a list of 67 hydraulic fracturing-related candidate analytes based on known or suspected toxicity. Incorporation of data on potency, physicochemical properties, and environmental concentrations could further prioritize these substances for future drinking water exposure assessments or reproductive and developmental health studies.

  1. Performance evaluation of a continuous flow photocatalytic reactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad; Rashidi, Fariborz; Royaee, Sayed Javid; Jafarikojour, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    A novel photocatalytic reactor for wastewater treatment was designed and constructed. The main part of the reactor was an aluminum tube in which 12 stainless steel circular baffles and four quartz tube were placed inside of the reactor like shell and tube heat exchangers. Four UV-C lamps were housed within the space of the quartz tubes. Surface of the baffles was coated with TiO2. A simple method was employed for TiO2 immobilization, while the characterization of the supported photocatalyst was based on the results obtained through performing some common analytical methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and BET. Phenol was selected as a model pollutant. A solution of a known initial concentration (20, 60, and 100 ppmv) was introduced to the reactor. The reactor also has a recycle flow to make turbulent flow inside of the reactor. The selected recycle flow rate was 7 × 10(-5) m(3).s(-1), while the flow rate of feed was 2.53 × 10(-7), 7.56 × 10(-7), and 1.26 × 10(-6) m(3).s(-1), respectively. To evaluate performance of the reactor, response surface methodology was employed. A four-factor three-level Box-Behnken design was developed to evaluate the reactor performance for degradation of phenol. Effects of phenol inlet concentration (20-100 ppmv), pH (3-9), liquid flow rate (2.53 × 10(-7)-1.26 × 10(-6) m(3).s(-1)), and TiO2 loading (8.8-17.6 g.m(-2)) were analyzed with this method. The adjusted R (2) value (0.9936) was in close agreement with that of corresponding R (2) value (0.9961). The maximum predicted degradation of phenol was 75.50 % at the optimum processing conditions (initial phenol concentration of 20 ppmv, pH ∼ 6.41, and flow rate of 2.53 × 10(-7) m(3).s(-1) and catalyst loading of 17.6 g.m(-2)). Experimental degradation of phenol determined at the optimum conditions was 73.7 %. XRD patterns and SEM images at the optimum conditions revealed that crystal size is approximately 25

  2. TOXICITY OF EXTRACTS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) TO EVALUATE REMOVALS OF MICROPOLLUTANTS BY WASTEWATER TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Maya, Nicholas; Crispo, Calvin; McFarland, Victoria; Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Isazadeh, Siavash; Yargeau, Viviane; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2017-08-09

    Treatment of municipal wastewater reduces the concentrations of some pharmaceuticals and personal care products, hormones and drugs of abuse. However, reduced concentrations of these micropollutants in wastewater may not correlate with reduced toxicity, as transformations of micropollutants and/or the formation of disinfection by-products may generate toxic compounds. In this study, we prepared extracts by solid phase extraction of samples collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) at various stages of treatment and tested these extracts for toxicity to early life stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Toxicity data for extracts prepared from a WWTP with secondary treatment showed that the numbers of exposed embryos (n=12 per treatment) that did not hatch increased from 1/12 for the treatment with untreated effluent to 5/12 for the treatment with final treated effluent. For extracts prepared from a WWTP with tertiary treatment, toxicity among exposed embryos (n=12 per treatment) also increased with each step of wastewater treatment, as shown by mortalities of 2/12 and 8/12 in treatments with extracts from untreated and final treated effluent, respectively, as well as an increase in the numbers of embryos that did not hatch from 2/12 to 9/12 in treatments with untreated and final treated effluent, respectively. Ozonation of treated wastewater collected from a third WWTP caused a high incidence of delayed hatch in exposed embryos (n=24 per treatment). However, hatching success and the numbers of developmental abnormalities in embryos from this ozonation treatment were not different from controls. This study demonstrates the value of including toxicity testing to assess the effectiveness of technologies for treatment of municipal wastewater. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of waste activated sludge as a coagulant aid for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing mixed surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai; Jangkorn, Siriprapha

    2009-04-01

    Wastewater generated by the industry manufacturing detergents and various kinds of consumer products normally contains very high contents of mixed surfactants, organic matters expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD), and phosphates that must be treated prior to discharge to the aquatic environment. In this study, jar-test experiments were conducted to evaluate the waste activated sludge (WAS) as a coagulation aid in the coagulation-flocculation process with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate as a coagulant for the treatment of wastewater collected from the aforementioned industry. The WAS was selected because of its adsorption capability of anionic surfactants and its availability from the wastage stream of biological wastewater treatment process. The effective dosages of both coagulants with and without the WAS additions were determined in this study. Without the WAS addition, the concentrations of 800 mg/L aluminum sulfate at the optimum pH value of 8 and 2208 mg/L ferric chloride at the optimum pH value of 12 were the optimum chemical dosages. It appears that aluminum sulfate was more effective than ferric chloride based on the chemical dosage and removal efficiency. The turbidity, suspended particles, anionic surfactants, COD, and phosphates removal efficiencies of aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride under the optimum dosage were 95.6, 88.2, 78.4, 73.5, 47.3% and 98.8, 92.0, 72.7, 67.5, 53.1%, respectively. The addition of 200 mg/L WAS was sufficient to reduce the optimum dosages of both chemicals by 200 mg/L. The cationic surfactant existing in the wastewater worked as a flocculating agent leading to the flocculation of waste activated sludge resulting in the enmeshment of the suspended particles and colloids on which the COD, anionic surfactants, and phosphates were adsorbed. However, the substances removal efficiencies of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate were slightly enhanced and reduced, respectively. It is possibly explained that the settling time

  4. In situ evaluation of wastewater discharges and the bioavailability of contaminants to marine biota.

    PubMed

    Maranho, L A; André, C; DelValls, T A; Gagné, F; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-12-15

    Marine sediment quality of wastewater discharges areas was determined by using in situ caged clams Ruditapes philippinarum taking into account the seasonality. Clams were caged in sediment directly affected by wastewater discharges at four sites (P1, P2, P3, P4) at the Bay of Cádiz (SW, Spain), and one reference site (P6). Exposure to contaminated sediments was confirmed by measurement of metals and As, PAH, pharmaceutical products and surfactants (SAS) in bottom sediments. Biological effects were determined by following biomarkers of exposure (activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase - EROD, dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase - DBF, glutathione S-transferase - GST, glutathione peroxidase - GPX, glutathione reductase - GR and acetylcholinesterase - AChE), effects (lysosomal membrane stability - LMS, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation - LPO), energy status (total lipids - TLP and mitochondrial electron transport - MET), and involved in the mode of action of pharmaceutical products (monoamine oxidase activity - MAO, alkali-labile phosphates - ALP levels and cyclooxygenase activity - COX). In winter, urban effluents were detoxified by phase I biotransformation (CYP3A-like activity), phase II (GST), and the activation of antioxidant defence enzymes (GR). Urban effluents lead to the detoxification metabolism (CYP1A-like), oxidative effects (LPO and DNA damage), neurotoxicity (AChE) and neuroendocrine disruption (COX and ALP levels) involved in inflammation (P1 and P2) and changes in reproduction as spawning delay (P3 and P4) in clams exposed in summer. Adverse effects on biota exposed to sediment directly affected by wastewater discharges depend on the chemical contamination level and also on the reproductive cycle according to seasonality.

  5. Evaluation of cooling tower and wastewater treatment operations at the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.A.

    1984-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a technical assessment of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant Wastewater Treatment System. This Scope of Work consisted of five primary tasks described as follows: Task 1 - Determine the quantity of hydantoins in the stripped gas liquor (SGL), their precursors, and the kinetics of their formation in condensed liquor for the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) gasification facility. The University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) has measured a high concentration of hydantoins in the gas liquor from their slagging gasifier. UNDERC has tested the use of SGL in a pilot cooling tower and they witnessed some adverse effects in the cooling tower and heat exchanger systems. Task 2 - Investigate the adverse Department of Energy (DOE) findings at UNDERC with regard to corrosion, foaming, biological and organic fouling, chemical attack on concrete and organic emissions resulting from the use of SGL in a pilot plant cooling tower. Task 3 - Validate the heat load on the cooling tower for both summer and winter operation and determine the adequacy of the surge pond to store the maximum predicted amount of excess water accumulated during winter operation. Task 4 - Assess potential fouling, foaming and organic carry-over problems associated with operability of the multiple-effect evaporator and develop recommendations on possible alternate use of evaporator condensate to alleviate possible problems in disposing of excess wastewater. Task 5 - Provide DOE with recommendations on the wastewater treatment backup design and test program already committed to by GPGA. This paper presents Fluor's findings regarding the five primary tasks. 12 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay.

  7. Probabilistic evaluation of integrating resource recovery into wastewater treatment to improve environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; McCarty, Perry L.; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yu, Han-Qing; Qian, Yi; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-01-01

    Global expectations for wastewater service infrastructure have evolved over time, and the standard treatment methods used by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are facing issues related to problem shifting due to the current emphasis on sustainability. A transition in WWTPs toward reuse of wastewater-derived resources is recognized as a promising solution for overcoming these obstacles. However, it remains uncertain whether this approach can reduce the environmental footprint of WWTPs. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a net environmental benefit calculation for several scenarios for more than 50 individual countries over a 20-y time frame. For developed countries, the resource recovery approach resulted in ∼154% net increase in the environmental performance of WWTPs compared with the traditional substance elimination approach, whereas this value decreased to ∼60% for developing countries. Subsequently, we conducted a probabilistic analysis integrating these estimates with national values and determined that, if this transition was attempted for WWTPs in developed countries, it would have a ∼65% probability of attaining net environmental benefits. However, this estimate decreased greatly to ∼10% for developing countries, implying a substantial risk of failure. These results suggest that implementation of this transition for WWTPs should be studied carefully in different temporal and spatial contexts. Developing countries should customize their approach to realizing more sustainable WWTPs, rather than attempting to simply replicate the successful models of developed countries. Results derived from the model forecasting highlight the role of bioenergy generation and reduced use of chemicals in improving the sustainability of WWTPs in developing countries. PMID:25605884

  8. Evaluating two infiltration gallery designs for managed aquifer recharge using secondary treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Elise; Toze, Simon; Patterson, Bradley; Fegg, Wolfgang; Shackleton, Mark; Higginson, Simon

    2013-03-15

    As managed aquifer recharge (MAR) becomes increasingly considered for augmenting water-sensitive urban areas, fundamental knowledge of the achievable scale, longevity and maintenance requirements of different options will become paramount. This paper reports on a 39 month pilot scale MAR scheme that infiltrated secondary treated wastewater through unsaturated sand into a limestone and sand aquifer. Two types of infiltration gallery were constructed to compare their hydraulic performance, one using crushed, graded gravel, the other using an engineered leach drain system (Atlantis Leach System(®)). Both galleries received 25 kL of nutrient-rich, secondary treated wastewater per day. The Atlantis gallery successfully infiltrated 17 ML of treated wastewater over three years. The slotted distribution pipe in the gravel gallery became clogged with plant roots after operating for one year. The infiltration capacity of the gravel gallery could not be restored despite high pressure cleaning, thus it was replaced with an Atlantis system. Reduction in the infiltration capacity of the Atlantis system was only observed when inflow was increased by about 3 fold for two months. The performance of the Atlantis system suggests it is superior to the gravel gallery, requiring less maintenance within at least the time frame of this study. The results from a bromide tracer test revealed a minimum transport time of 3.7 days for the recharged water to reach the water table below 9 m of sand and limestone. This set a limit on the time available for attenuation by natural treatment within the unsaturated zone before it recharged groundwater. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical and mutagenic evaluation of sludge from a large wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ottaviani, M.; Crebelli, R.; Fuselli, S.; La Rocca, C.; Baldassarri, L.T. )

    1993-08-01

    Digested sludges from a wastewater treatment plant were analyzed to assess their level of contamination by some organic (polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides) and inorganic (heavy metals) micropollutants and their mutagenicity features. The heavy metal content in none of the samples exceeded the limits set out in EEC Directive 276/86; as far as PCBs are concerned, the sludges analyzed indicated a level of contamination up to two orders of magnitude higher than some Italian agricultural soils. Mutagenicity assays on either crude or fractionated sludge extracts using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 gave negative results, thus suggesting the absence of genotoxic contaminants in the samples investigated.

  10. Evaluation of improved technologies for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1995 status

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Burgess, M.W.; McTaggart, D.R.; Taylor, P.A.; Guo, B.

    1996-03-01

    A number of new sorbents are currently being developed for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from contaminated, caustic low-level liquid waste (LLLW). These sorbents are potentially promising for use in the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and process wastewater containing the two radionuclides. The goal of this subtask is to evaluate the new sorbents to determine whether their associated treatment technology is more selective for the decontamination of wastewater streams than that of currently available processes. Activities during fiscal year 1995 have included completing the characterization of the standard treatment technology, ion exchange on chabazite zeolite. Strontium and cesium sorption on sodium-modified zeolite was observed in the presence of elevated concentrations of wastewater components: sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The most significant loss of nuclide sorption was noted in the first 0- to 4-meq/L addition of the cations to a wastewater simulant. Radionuclide sorption on the pretreated zeolite was also determined under dynamic flow conditions. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, which was developed at the Savannah River Site, was selected as the first new sorbent to be evaluated for wastewater treatment. Nuclide sorption on this resin was greater when the resin had been washed with ultrapure water and air dried prior to use.

  11. Integration of algae cultivation as biodiesel production feedstock with municipal wastewater treatment: strains screening and significance evaluation of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yecong; Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger R

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to find the robust strains for the centrate cultivation system and to evaluate the effect of environmental factors including light intensity, light-dark cycle, and exogenous CO2 concentration on biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrient removal and biodiesel production. The results showed that all 14 algae strains from the genus of Chlorella, Haematococcus, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, and Chloroccum were able to grow on centrate. The highest net biomass accumulation (2.01 g/L) was observed with Chlorella kessleri followed by Chlorella protothecoides (1.31 g/L), and both of them were proved to be capable of mixotrophic growth when cultivated on centrate. Environmental factors had significant effect on algal biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrients removal and biodiesel production. Higher light intensity and exogenous CO2 concentration with longer lighting period promote biomass accumulation, biodiesel production, as well as the removal of chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen, while, lower exogenous CO2 concentration promotes phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance evaluation and spatial sludge distribution at facultative and maturation ponds treating wastewater from an international airport.

    PubMed

    Passos, Ricardo Gomes; von Sperling, Marcos; Ribeiro, Thiago Bressani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation of facultative and maturation ponds in series treating wastewater from a large and intensively used international airport in Brazil, based on 16 years of regular monitoring. The wastewater from the airport showed similar or slightly lower concentrations compared to typical domestic sewage for most of the quality parameters. The contribution of effluents with possible industrial features (aircraft toilets and hangar effluent) did not seem to have adversely affected the characteristics of the influent in terms of aptitude to biological treatment. Overall, the ponds operated under very underloaded conditions (mean loading rate of 44 kg biochemical oxygen demand/ha.d in the facultative pond) and presented a satisfactory quality in terms of effluent concentrations for most parameters. A bathymetric survey of the ponds was done manually by a low-cost measurer constructed specifically for this purpose. After 27 years of operation, only 25% and 18% of the volumes of the facultative and maturation ponds were occupied by sludge. Specific sludge accumulation rates were 0.0071 m³/passenger.year for the facultative pond and 0.00017 m³/passenger.year for the maturation pond.

  13. Electrophoretic nature and evaluation of poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate (PACS) as a coagulant for water and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bao-yu; Yue, Qin-yan; Wang, Bing-jian

    2003-05-01

    A series of poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfates (PACS), which have different OH/Al (gamma) and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratios, has been prepared using AlCl3 x 6H2O, A(SO4)3 x 18H2O and Na2CO3 as raw materials. The electrophoretic nature of PACS was investigated by electrophoresis. Laboratory experiments were undertaken to evaluate the PACS in comparison with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) for the coagulation of simulating water and actual wastewaters. The experimental results show that the gamma value and the Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratio affect the electrophoretic nature of PACS. PACS has a maximum zeta potential at about a gamma value of 1.5 and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratio of 12-16. The zeta potential of PACS varies with pH. The performance of PACS as coagulant is affected by gamma value and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratio. PACS of gamma = 2.1 and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) = 15 gives best turbidity removal effectiveness. In comparison with PAC of gamma = 2.0, PACS of gamma = 2.0 and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) = 16 gives higher removal efficiency for turbidity and COD, and shows the following advantages in the clarification of waters and wastewaters: rapid aggregation velocity, larger and heavier flocs, and lower required dosage.

  14. Integrated system of phytodepuration and water reclamation: A comparative evaluation of four municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Petroselli, Andrea; Giannotti, Maurizio; Marras, Tatiana; Allegrini, Elena

    2017-06-03

    In dry regions, water resources have become increasingly limited, and the use of alternative sources is considered one of the main strategies in sustainable water management. A highly viable alternative to commonly used water resources is treated municipal wastewater, which could strongly benefit from advanced and low-cost techniques for depuration, such as the integrated system of phytodepuration (ISP). The current manuscript investigates four Italian case studies with different sizes and characteristics. The raw wastewaters and final effluents were sampled on a monthly basis over a period of up to five years, allowing the quantification of the ISP performances. The results obtained show that the investigated plants are characterized by an average efficiency value of approximately 83% for chemical oxygen demand removal, 84% for biochemical oxygen demand, 89% for total nitrogen, 91% for total phosphorus, and 85% for total suspended solids. Moreover, for three of the case studies, the ISP final effluent is suitable for irrigation, and in the fourth case study, the final effluent can be released in surface water.

  15. Evaluation of a biological wastewater treatment system combining an OSA process with ultrasound for sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pareja, P M; Aragon, C A; Quiroga, J M; Coello, M D

    2017-05-01

    Sludge production is an undesirable by-product of biological wastewater treatment. The oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process constitutes one of the most promising techniques for reducing the sludge produced at the treatment plant without negative consequences for its overall performance. In the present study, the OSA process is applied in combination with ultrasound treatment, a lysis technique, in a lab-scale wastewater treatment plant to assess whether sludge reduction is enhanced as a result of mechanical treatment. Reported sludge reductions of 45.72% and 78.56% were obtained for the two regimes of combined treatment tested in this study during two respective stages: UO1 and UO2. During the UO1 stage, the general performance and nutrient removal improved, obtaining 47.28% TN removal versus 21.95% in the conventional stage. However, the performance of the system was seriously damaged during the UO2 stage. Increases in dehydrogenase and protease activities were observed during both stages. The advantages of the combined process are not necessarily economic, but operational, as US treatment acts as contributing factor in the OSA process, inducing mechanisms that lead to sludge reduction in the OSA process and improving performance parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Colorimetric measurement of carbohydrates in biological wastewater treatment systems: A critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Le, Chencheng; Stuckey, David C

    2016-05-01

    Four laboratory preparations and three commercially available assay kits were tested on the same carbohydrate samples with the addition of 14 different interfering solutes typically found in wastewater treatment plants. This work shows that a wide variety of solutes can interfere with these assays. In addition, a comparative study on the use of these assays with different carbohydrate samples was also carried out, and the metachromatic response was clearly influenced by variation in sample composition. The carbohydrate content in the supernatant of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) was also measured using these assays, and the amount in the different supernatant samples, with and without a standard addition of glucose to the samples, showed substantial differences. We concluded that the carbohydrates present in wastewater measured using these colorimetric methods could be seriously under- or over-estimated. A new analytical method needs to be developed in order to better understand the biological transformations occurring in anaerobic digestion that leads to the production of soluble microbial products (SMPs) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS).

  17. Evaluation of potential for reuse of industrial wastewater using metal-immobilized catalysts and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongyun; Chung, Jinwook

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a novel technology of reusing the wastewater discharged from the display manufacturing industry through an advanced oxidation process (AOP) with a metal-immobilized catalyst and reverse osmosis (RO) in the pilot scale. The reclaimed water generated from the etching and cleaning processes in display manufacturing facilities was low-strength organic wastewater and was required to be recycled to secure a water source. For the reuse of reclaimed water to ultrapure water (UPW), a combination of solid-phase AOP and RO was implemented. The removal efficiency of TOC by solid-phase AOP and RO was 92%. Specifically, the optimal acid, pH, and H2O2 concentrations in the solid-phase AOP were determined. With regard to water quality and operating costs, the combination of solid-phase AOP and RO was superior to activated carbon/RO and ultraviolet AOP/anion polisher/coal carbon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic evaluation of alternative wastewater treatment plant options for pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Buyukkamaci, Nurdan; Koken, Emre

    2010-11-15

    Excessive water consumption in pulp and paper industry results in high amount of wastewater. Pollutant characteristics of the wastewater vary depending on the processes used in production and the quality of paper produced. However, in general, high organic material and suspended solid contents are considered as major pollutants of pulp and paper industry effluents. The major pollutant characteristics of pulp and paper industry effluents in Turkey were surveyed and means of major pollutant concentrations, which were grouped in three different pollution grades (low, moderate and high strength effluents), and flow rates within 3000 to 10,000m(3)/day range with 1000m(3)/day steps were used as design parameters. Ninety-six treatment plants were designed using twelve flow schemes which were combinations of physical treatment, chemical treatment, aerobic and anaerobic biological processes. Detailed comparative cost analysis which includes investment, operation, maintenance and rehabilitation costs was prepared to determine optimum treatment processes for each pollution grade. The most economic and technically optimal treatment processes were found as extended aeration activated sludge process for low strength effluents, extended aeration activated sludge process or UASB followed by an aeration basin for medium strength effluents, and UASB followed by an aeration basin or UASB followed by the conventional activated sludge process for high strength effluents.

  19. Performance evaluation and bacteria analysis of AFB-MFC enriched with high-strength synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-sheng; Guo, Yong; Yang, Ping; Li, Chong-ming; Gao, Hui; Feng, Li; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the performance and bacterial communities of an anaerobic fluidized bed microbial fuel cell (AFB-MFC) system, the 16S rDNA gene sequencing was applied, and high-strength synthetic wastewater was treated by the AFB-MFC system. The high-strength synthetic wastewater, in which the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen were above 19,000, 2,516-3,871 and 927-1,427 mg/L, was treated by the AFB-MFC system. The removal efficiency of COD, nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen reached 70-89, 98 and 98%, while the maximum voltage was 394 mV. The bacteria analysis revealed the presence of Alistipes putredinis, Carnobacterium sp., Victivallis vadensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Thauera sp., Parabacteroides merdae, Parvimonas micra, Parabacteroides sp., and Desulfomicrobium baculatum in the anode chamber. In addition, the Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed to have the capability of organic degradation and electricity generation, while the Thauera sp. has the capability of denitrification.

  20. Metagenomic approaches for direct and cell culture evaluation of the virological quality of wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Gim Aw, T.; Howe, Adina S.; Rose, J. B.; Bullock, JaQuel A.

    2014-12-15

    Genomic-based molecular techniques are emerging as powerful tools that allow a comprehensive characterization of water and wastewater microbiomes. Most recently, next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies which produce large amounts of sequence data are beginning to impact the field of environmental virology. In this study, NGS and bioinformatics have been employed for the direct detection and characterization of viruses in wastewater and of viruses isolated after cell culture. Viral particles were concentrated and purified from sewage samples by polyethylene glycol precipitation. Viral nucleic acid was extracted and randomly amplified prior to sequencing using Illumina technology, yielding a total of 18 million sequence reads. Most of the viral sequences detected could not be characterized, indicating the great viral diversity that is yet to be discovered. This sewage virome was dominated by bacteriophages and contained sequences related to known human pathogenic viruses such as adenoviruses (species B, C and F), polyomaviruses JC and BK and enteroviruses (type B). An array of other animal viruses was also found, suggesting unknown zoonotic viruses. This study demonstrated the feasibility of metagenomic approaches to characterize viruses in complex environmental water samples.

  1. Evaluation of rural wastewater treatment processes in a county of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui-Yu; Qiang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Dong; Jin, Hui

    2012-07-01

    With the rapid urbanization and industrialization in China, wastewater treatment in rural areas has become an increasing national concern. The selection of appropriate treatment processes closely based on the actual local status is crucial for the prevention of water quality deterioration in rural areas of China. This study presents a full year survey on the performances of various rural wastewater treatment processes at a county level in eastern China including seven three-chamber septic tanks (ST), five micro-power biological facilities (MP), seven constructed wetlands (CW), three stabilization ponds (SP) and five centralized activated sludge treatment plants (AS). It was found that although ST could remove a notable portion of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)), it was ineffective in reducing nutrients and pathogens. Reliability and stability analyses showed that the centralized AS and decentralized CW processes outperformed the SP and MP processes. There were obvious discrepancies between the mean design concentrations, which ensure that 95% of the effluents meet the discharge standards, and the actual effluent concentrations determined for each process. The expected compliance with the tentatively adopted second-grade discharge standards (GB 18918-2002) was unsatisfactory for most of the water quality parameters examined, indicating an urgent need to design more practical discharge standards for decentralized treatment processes. Based on an overall assessment of reliability, stability and cost-effectiveness, the centralized AS was suitable for densely populated towns while the decentralized CW was suitable for sparsely populated villages.

  2. Evaluation of High Rate Algae Ponds for treatment of anaerobically digested wastewater: Effect of CO2 addition and modification of dilution rate.

    PubMed

    de Godos, I; Arbib, Z; Lara, E; Rogalla, F

    2016-11-01

    High Rate Algae Ponds (HRAP) are the simplest way to grow microalgae biomass and an interesting alternative for wastewater treatment. In this work the performance of these systems was evaluated using anaerobically digested wastewater as culture medium. Two variables were studied in long-term mode: the carbon dioxide supply and the modification of the dilution rates. The results showed that CO2 supply increases the productivity but less than expected considering the potential biomass generation calculated based on the ratios of carbon to nitrogen of microalgae and wastewater. The assimilation into biomass only accounted for 57% of the inlet nitrogen under the best conditions because nitrification and volatilization reduced the availability of this element. The operation under short hydraulic retention times presented a more interesting performance with higher biomass productivities. The biomass produced was efficiently harvested with in a Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In situ assessment of a neotropical fish to evaluate pollution in a river receiving agricultural and urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Nédia de Castilhos; de Oliveira, Elton Celton; Fávaro, Luís Fernando; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina; Prioli, Alberto José

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to assess the quality of a midsize river that receives agricultural and urban wastewater. Nuclear abnormalities (NA), comet assays of blood and gills, and gill histopathology were evaluated in fish Astyanax aff. paranae during the summer and winter 2011 at three sites in Paraná State, Brazil: (1) a biological reserve (Rebio-reference area); (2) an agricultural site; (3) a downstream site that accumulates agricultural and urban effluents. We found the highest effects of pollutants in fish at the downstream site during the summer. The agricultural site showed an intermediate damage rate, and fish at Rebio generally had the least damage, with the exception of NA. Despite conflicting results from the biomarkers used, we observed an increase in damage associated with the accumulation of pollutants. Pesticides are probable xenobiotics in the agricultural area. Additionally, metals and substances such as pharmaceuticals and ammonia may be present at the downstream site.

  4. Evaluation of the sensitivity of freshwater organisms used in toxicity tests of wastewater from explosives company.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Elaine Nolasco; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; de Paiva, Teresa Cristina Brazil

    2012-10-01

    Explosives industries are a source of toxic discharge. The aim of this study was to compare organisms sensitivity (Daphnia similis, Danio rerio, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida) in detecting acute toxicity in wastewater from two explosives, 2,4,6-TNT (TNT) and nitrocellulose. The samples were collected from an explosives company in the Paraiba Valley, São Paulo, Brazil. The effluents from TNT and nitrocellulose production were very toxic for tested organisms. Statistical tests indicated that D. similis and D. rerio were the most sensitive organisms for toxicity detection in effluents from 2,4,6-TNT and nitrocellulose production. The P. putida bacteria was the organism considered the least sensitive in indicating toxicity in effluents from nitrocellulose.

  5. An evaluation of tannery industry wastewater treatment sludge gasification by artificial neural network modeling.

    PubMed

    Ongen, Atakan; Ozcan, H Kurtulus; Arayıcı, Semiha

    2013-12-15

    This paper reports on the calorific value of synthetic gas (syngas) produced by gasification of dewatered sludge derived from treatment of tannery wastewater. Proximate and ultimate analyses of samples were performed. Thermochemical conversion alters the chemical structure of the waste. Dried air was used as a gasification agent at varying flow rates, which allowed the feedstock to be quickly converted into gas by means of different heterogeneous reactions. A lab-scale updraft fixed-bed steel reactor was used for thermochemical conversion of sludge samples. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques were used to observe variations in the syngas related to operational conditions. Modeled outputs showed that temporal changes of model predictions were in close accordance with real values. Correlation coefficients (r) showed that the ANN used in this study gave results with high sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Aluminium Dross as Adsorbent for Removal of Carcinogenic Congo Red Dye in Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Zulfika Hazielim b.; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Baini, Rubiyah; Sutan, Norsuzailina Mohamed; Rezaur Rahman, Md

    2017-06-01

    In this study, aluminium dross waste generated from aluminium smelting industries was employed as adsorbent in removing of congo red dye in aqueous solution. The raw aluminium dross as adsorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) for surface area and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectroscopy. Adsorption experiments were carried out by batch system at different adsorbent mass, pH, and initial dye concentration. The results showed that the per cent removal of dye increased as adsorbent mass increased. It was found that 0.4 gram of adsorbent can remove approximately 100 % of dye at pH 9 for dye concentration 20 and 40 ppm. Therefore, it can be concluded that raw aluminium dross without undergone any treatment can be effectively used for the adsorption of congo red in textile wastewater related industries.

  7. Evaluation of virus reduction efficiency in wastewater treatment unit processes as a credit value in the multiple-barrier system for wastewater reclamation and reuse.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshihiro; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    The virus reduction efficiency of each unit process is commonly determined based on the ratio of virus concentration in influent to that in effluent of a unit, but the virus concentration in wastewater has often fallen below the analytical quantification limit, which does not allow us to calculate the concentration ratio at each sampling event. In this study, left-censored datasets of norovirus (genogroup I and II), and adenovirus were used to calculate the virus reduction efficiency in unit processes of secondary biological treatment and chlorine disinfection. Virus concentration in influent, effluent from the secondary treatment, and chlorine-disinfected effluent of four municipal wastewater treatment plants were analyzed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach, and the probabilistic distributions of log reduction (LR) were estimated by a Bayesian estimation algorithm. The mean values of LR in the secondary treatment units ranged from 0.9 and 2.2, whereas those in the free chlorine disinfection units were from -0.1 and 0.5. The LR value in the secondary treatment was virus type and unit process dependent, which raised the importance for accumulating the data of virus LR values applicable to the multiple-barrier system, which is a global concept of microbial risk management in wastewater reclamation and reuse.

  8. Diminished Wastewater Treatment: Evaluation of Septic System Performance Under a Climate Change Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T. B.; Morales, I.; Amador, J.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of climate change are expected to reduce the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), to treat domestic wastewater. In the northeastern U.S., the projected increase in atmospheric temperature, elevation of water tables from rising sea levels, and heightened precipitation will reduce the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment. Incomplete removal of contaminants may lead to transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to groundwater, increasing the risk to public health and likelihood of eutrophying aquatic ecosystems. Advanced OWTS, which include pre-treatment steps and provide unsaturated drainfields of greater volume relative to conventional OWTS, are expected to be more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify water quality functions for two advanced shallow narrow drainfield types and a conventional drainfield under a current climate scenario and a moderate climate change scenario of 30 cm rise in water table and 5°C increase in soil temperature. While no fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) was released under the current climate scenario, up to 109 CFU FCB/mL (conventional) and up to 20 CFU FCB/mL (shallow narrow) were released under the climate change scenario. Total P removal rates dropped from 100% to 54% (conventional) and 71% (shallow narrow) under the climate change scenario. Total N removal averaged 17% under both climate scenarios in the conventional, but dropped from 5.4% to 0% in the shallow narrow under the climate change scenario, with additional leaching of N in excess of inputs indicating release of previously held N. No significant difference was observed between scenarios for BOD removal. The initial data indicate that while advanced OWTS retain more function under the climate change scenario, all three drainfield types experience some diminished treatment capacity.

  9. Microbiological and performance evaluation of sequencing batch reactor for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ogleni, Nurtac; Arifoglu, Yasemin Damar; Ileri, Recep

    2012-04-01

    This study focused on laboratory-scaled and real-scaled treatment plant performances and microbiological investigations for the optimum treatment of textile industry wastewater performed with sequencing batch reactor (SBR). As a result of experimental studies of laboratory-scaled SBR treatment unit, optimum treatment efficiency was taken from 0.5 h filling to 1.5 h. reaction to 1.5 h. settlement to 0.5 h. discharge-idle periods. Average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of SBR of laboratory-scaled textile industry was 75%, whereas average turbidity and color removal (coloration number [RES, m(-1)] 586 nm) efficiencies were 90% and 75%, respectively. Optimum reaction and settlement periods were used in a real-scaled plant, and plant efficiency was examined for parameters such as COD, phenol, pH, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and sludge volume index (SVI). In this study, optimum reaction and settlement periods for treatment of textile industry wastewater were determined within a SBR in a laboratory-scaled plant. These reaction and settlement periods were verified with the measurement of COD, color, and turbidity parameters. Floc structure and protozoa-metazoa species of activated sludge in a SBR were also determined. Optimum reaction and settlement times were used in a real-scaled plant, and plant efficiency was examined for COD, Phenol, pH, MLSS, and SVI parameters. The corresponding values were found as appropriate, acceptable, and meaningful because of variance value of statistical analysis. Protozoa and metazoan in the activated sludge in the laboratory-scaled plant were investigated. Peranema sp., Epistylis sp., Didinium sp., Chilodonella sp., Opercularia sp., Vorticella sp. as protozoa species and Habrotrocha sp., Philodina sp. as metazoa species were determined.

  10. Removal of boron from wastewater: Evaluation of seven poplar clones for B accumulation and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifan; Taylor, Alicia A; Astor, Savina R; Xin, Junliang; Terry, Norman

    2017-01-01

    Boron (B) contamination of wastewater is a serious environmental and health problem, which has proved difficult to remediate. One potential approach is phytoremediation, i.e., the use of plants to extract B into the shoot systems, which can then be harvested and removed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of seven hybrid poplar clones to accumulate and tolerate B at different levels of B and salinity. The clones were grown in quarter strength Hoagland's nutrient solution and exposed to four B treatments: 0.25, 25, 75 and 125 mg B L(-1) in factorial combination with three salinity treatments: 0, 0.5 and 5 g L(-1). Measurements were made of biomass (dry weight) and B concentrations (analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy) of plant tissues. The results showed that, with increasing level of B supply, the B concentrations in the shoot tissue of the poplar clones increased, while shoot biomass decreased. Comparison of the seven different poplar clones revealed that the clone designated 195-529 exhibited the greatest ability for B accumulation and tolerance. Generally, the 0.5 g L(-1) level of salinity was beneficial for poplar growth and B removal, while the high salinity level of 5 g L(-1) significantly inhibited poplar growth and B translocation from roots to shoots. Based on the results obtained with this hydroponic system, the clone 195-529 (P. trichocarpa × P. deltoides) is likely to be the most useful for the removal of B from B contaminated wastewater.

  11. Extension of the evaluation of reverse osmosis for SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    Reverse osmosis (R.O.) is an integral part of the zero discharge option for the proposed SRC-I Demonstration Plant. The original laboratory treatability testing program for reverse osmosis failed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this process, due to problems with membrane fouling and deterioration. In that study (1), a high pressure (800 psi) polyether urea membrane for sea water and a low pressure (400 psi) cellulose diacetate membrane for brackish water failed to maintain reasonable TDS rejection rates during flat cell tests. The problem was particularly severe for the high pressure membrane. At the end of the original study, testing was continued on two additional low pressure membranes. One of these was a cellulose diacetate triacetate blend. The other was a new polyaramid membrane, which had only recently become commercially available. This report documents the results of all of the reverse osmosis laboratory tests. The wastewaters used in this study were effluents from bench scale, two-stage bioreactors, followed by tertiary treatment consisting of coagulation, softening, filtration, and granular activated carbon. The investigative program consisted of both immersion and flat cell tests. The results show tht the SRC-I wastewaters are difficult to treat by reverse osmosis with polyether urea or cellulose acetate membranes, and membrane failure was common. However, the new polyaramid membrane was found to be satisfactory when tested with a dephenolated feed stream. After over 1500 hours of continuous flat cell testing, it exhibited a TDS rejection rate of 95%. Based on these preliminary results, reverse osmosis does appear to be a technically feasible approach to achieve zero discharge, assuming the feed stream is dephenolated.

  12. Socio-hydrological approach to the evaluation of global fertilizer substitution by sustainable struvite precipitants from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Dirk-Jan; Pande, Saket; Renata Cordeiro Ortigara, Angela; Savenije, Hubert; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorus is an element necessary for the development of organic tissue as it forms a key, structural component of DNA and RNA. Currently, much of this unrenewable resource is being wasted to the ocean through the discharge of untreated or partially treated wastewater from urban areas and livestock industries. Analysing the potential phosphorus production of these two sectors in possibly meeting the partial demand of the agricultural sector, will be an important tool in tackling both phosphorus depletion from natural sources as well as phosphorus pollution of water sources . In this study, a global overview is provided where a selection of P-production nodes and P-consumption nodes have been determined using global spatial data. Distances, investment costs and associated carbon footprints are then considered in modelling a simple, alternative trade network of struvite precipitant, phosphorus flows. The network is then optimized to maximum trade flow after which an international, free-market P-commodity price is determined. Carrot-stick policy measures such as subsidies and carbon taxes are evaluated in their benefits to supporting sustainable phosphorus consumption over the non-sustainable counterpart. Preliminary results have revealed that there exists a total anthropogenic production potential of 3.3 MtP for 2005. Very crudely, but in accordance to results by Milhelcic et al. (2011) who reported 22%, approximately 20% of the reported global fertilizer consumption could then be satisfied by recovering urban phosphorus. Phosphorus recovery from wastewater for secondary utilization will prove an important step in creating sustainable communities through closed circle economic development. It is also a step towards prolonging our phosphate rock reserves, granting more time to revise our current phosphorus throughput cycle before the depletion of the remaining reserves.

  13. Community Sewage Sensors towards Evaluation of Drug Use Trends: Detection of Cocaine in Wastewater with DNA-Directed Immobilization Aptamer Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhugen; Castrignanò, Erika; Estrela, Pedro; Frost, Christopher G.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Illicit drug use has a global concern and effective monitoring and interventions are highly required to combat drug abuse. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative and cost-effective approach to evaluate community-wide drug use trends, compared to traditional population surveys. Here we report for the first time, a novel quantitative community sewage sensor (namely DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors, DDIAS) for rapid and cost-effective estimation of cocaine use trends via WBE. Thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was hybridized with aptamer ssDNA in solution, followed by co-immobilization with 6-mercapto-hexane onto the gold electrodes to control the surface density to effectively bind with cocaine. DDIAS was optimized to detect cocaine at as low as 10 nM with a dynamic range from 10 nM to 5 μM, which were further employed for the quantification of cocaine in wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in seven consecutive days. The concentration pattern of the sampling week is comparable with that from mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that the developed DDIAS can be used as community sewage sensors for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of drug use trends, and potentially implemented as a powerful tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of wastewater by un-skilled personnel.

  14. Community Sewage Sensors towards Evaluation of Drug Use Trends: Detection of Cocaine in Wastewater with DNA-Directed Immobilization Aptamer Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhugen; Castrignanò, Erika; Estrela, Pedro; Frost, Christopher G; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-02-15

    Illicit drug use has a global concern and effective monitoring and interventions are highly required to combat drug abuse. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative and cost-effective approach to evaluate community-wide drug use trends, compared to traditional population surveys. Here we report for the first time, a novel quantitative community sewage sensor (namely DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors, DDIAS) for rapid and cost-effective estimation of cocaine use trends via WBE. Thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was hybridized with aptamer ssDNA in solution, followed by co-immobilization with 6-mercapto-hexane onto the gold electrodes to control the surface density to effectively bind with cocaine. DDIAS was optimized to detect cocaine at as low as 10 nM with a dynamic range from 10 nM to 5 μM, which were further employed for the quantification of cocaine in wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in seven consecutive days. The concentration pattern of the sampling week is comparable with that from mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that the developed DDIAS can be used as community sewage sensors for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of drug use trends, and potentially implemented as a powerful tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of wastewater by un-skilled personnel.

  15. Community Sewage Sensors towards Evaluation of Drug Use Trends: Detection of Cocaine in Wastewater with DNA-Directed Immobilization Aptamer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhugen; Castrignanò, Erika; Estrela, Pedro; Frost, Christopher G.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Illicit drug use has a global concern and effective monitoring and interventions are highly required to combat drug abuse. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative and cost-effective approach to evaluate community-wide drug use trends, compared to traditional population surveys. Here we report for the first time, a novel quantitative community sewage sensor (namely DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors, DDIAS) for rapid and cost-effective estimation of cocaine use trends via WBE. Thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was hybridized with aptamer ssDNA in solution, followed by co-immobilization with 6-mercapto-hexane onto the gold electrodes to control the surface density to effectively bind with cocaine. DDIAS was optimized to detect cocaine at as low as 10 nM with a dynamic range from 10 nM to 5 μM, which were further employed for the quantification of cocaine in wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in seven consecutive days. The concentration pattern of the sampling week is comparable with that from mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that the developed DDIAS can be used as community sewage sensors for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of drug use trends, and potentially implemented as a powerful tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of wastewater by un-skilled personnel. PMID:26876971

  16. Evaluation of SimpleTreat 4.0: Simulations of pharmaceutical removal in wastewater treatment plant facilities.

    PubMed

    Lautz, L S; Struijs, J; Nolte, T M; Breure, A M; van der Grinten, E; van de Meent, D; van Zelm, R

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater as predicted by SimpleTreat 4.0 was evaluated. Field data obtained from literature of 43 pharmaceuticals, measured in 51 different activated sludge WWTPs were used. Based on reported influent concentrations, the effluent concentrations were calculated with SimpleTreat 4.0 and compared to measured effluent concentrations. The model predicts effluent concentrations mostly within a factor of 10, using the specific WWTP parameters as well as SimpleTreat default parameters, while it systematically underestimates concentrations in secondary sludge. This may be caused by unexpected sorption, resulting from variability in WWTP operating conditions, and/or QSAR applicability domain mismatch and background concentrations prior to measurements. Moreover, variability in detection techniques and sampling methods can cause uncertainty in measured concentration levels. To find possible structural improvements, we also evaluated SimpleTreat 4.0 using several specific datasets with different degrees of uncertainty and variability. This evaluation verified that the most influencing parameters for water effluent predictions were biodegradation and the hydraulic retention time. Results showed that model performance is highly dependent on the nature and quality, i.e. degree of uncertainty, of the data. The default values for reactor settings in SimpleTreat result in realistic predictions.

  17. Risk-based approach to evaluate the public health benefit of additional wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Soller, Jeffrey A; Olivieri, Adam W; Crook, James; Cooper, Robert C; Tchobanoglous, George; Parkin, Rebecca T; Spear, Robert C; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2003-05-01

    The City of Stockton, CA operates a wastewater treatment facility that discharges tertiary treated effluent during the summer and secondary treated effluent during the winter to the San Joaquin River. Investigations were carried out between 1996 and 2002 to provide insight regarding the potential public health benefit that may be provided by year-round tertiary treatment. A hydraulic model of the San Joaquin River and a dynamic disease transmission model integrated a wide array of disparate data to estimate the level of viral gastroenteritis in the population under the two treatment scenarios. The results of the investigation suggest that risk of viral gastroenteritis attributable to the treatment facility under the existing treatment scheme is several orders of magnitude below the 8-14 illnesses per 1000 recreation events considered tolerable by U.S. EPA, and winter tertiary treatment would further reduce the existing risk by approximately 15-50%. The methodologies employed herein are applicable to other watersheds where additional water treatment is being considered to address public health concerns from recreation in receiving waters.

  18. Evaluation of a combined anaerobic and aerobic system for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; Vallejo-Rodríguez, R; Méndez-Romero, D C

    2010-03-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic/aerobic (An/Ar) system, comprising an anaerobic filter (AF) coupled to an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR), was developed to treat wastewater from a slaughterhouse. The AF operated with organic loadings (OL) from 3.7 to 16.5 kg m(-3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 16 to 72 h. The efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was between 50 and 81% and was shown to be related inversely to the value of the OL. The production rate of methane was in the region of 411 mL per g of COD removed. On the other hand, the degradation of organic matter (OM) by an aerobic pathway in the SBR followed first-order kinetics with regard to OM concentration; 85% of the remaining OM from the AF was eliminated within 6 h of aeration, and over 95% of total OM was eliminated as COD within 9 h. The optimal treatment conditions in this system were found at OL = 11.0 kg m-3 d(-1) and HRT = 24 h in the AF, whereas the SBR was most efficient at 9 h of aeration.

  19. Evaluation of denitrification-nitrification biofilter systems in treating wastewater with low carbon: nitrogen ratios.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjin; Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Moonil; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage biological aerated/anoxic filter (BAF) system for denitrification-nitrification was developed to increase nitrogen removal in the treatment of municipal wastewater with low carbon:nitrogen (C/N) ratio [Formula: see text]. This system exhibited a high denitrification efficiency (67%), despite the low C/N ratio, and the ratio of reduced nitrate to consumed organic compounds was greater than the theoretical value due to the minimization of the conversion of organic carbon to biomass growth, the maintenance of low levels of dissolved oxygen in recycled water, and the maximization of use of organic carbon biosorbed inside biomass in the denitrification BAF. The maximum rate of nitrogen removal was achieved at a recycle ratio of 170%, and the headloss in two BAFs was maintained after a 24-h backwash. Biological nitrogen removal in a two-stage BAF system was possible in a short hydraulic retention time (1.2 h) because the maximum reaction rates of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in each column were achieved.

  20. Evaluation of energy consumption during aerobic sewage sludge treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł

    2017-02-01

    The subject of the research conducted in an operating dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was to examine electric energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment. The excess sewage sludge was aerobically stabilized and dewatered with a screw press. Organic matter varied from 48% to 56% in sludge after stabilization and dewatering. It proves that sludge was properly stabilized and it was possible to apply it as a fertilizer. Measurement factors for electric energy consumption for mechanically dewatered sewage sludge were determined, which ranged between 0.94 and 1.5 kWhm(-3) with the average value at 1.17 kWhm(-3). The shares of devices used for sludge dewatering and aerobic stabilization in the total energy consumption of the plant were also established, which were 3% and 25% respectively. A model of energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment was estimated according to experimental data. Two models were applied: linear regression for dewatering process and segmented linear regression for aerobic stabilization. The segmented linear regression model was also applied to total energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment in the examined dairy WWTP. The research constitutes an introduction for further studies on defining a mathematical model used to optimize electric energy consumption by dairy WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance evaluation of sequencing batch reactor for beverage industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Kamah, Hala; Mahmoud, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for the treatment of beverage industrial wastewater. The SBR was operated at three different organic loading rates (OLRs): 2, 1.7 and 1.1 kg COD/m3 d. Results of continuous long-term operation showed that by decreasing OLR from 2 to 1.7 kg COD/m3 day, the removal efficiency was increased from 95.5 to 99.3% for COD, from 95.3 to 98.1% for BOD and from 87 to 97.7% for TSS. While further decreasing of the OLR to 1.1 kg COD/m3 day, there is no significant adverse effect on organics removal. Also, residual total nitrogen (TN) concentration decreased by decreasing the OLR. However, increasing the OLRs exerted a slightly negative effect on the removal of total phosphorous. On the other hand, the experimental data indicated that the substrate utilization kinetic followed Monod's kinetics model approximately. The maximum specific substrate utilization rate (micro(max), half velocity coefficient (Ks), growth yield coefficient (Y) and decay coefficient (Kd) were 2.94 d(-1), 15.22 mg/L, 0.2384 g VSS/g COD and 0.2019 h(-1), respectively.

  2. Long-term evaluation of a sequential batch reactor (SBR) treating dairy wastewater for carbon removal.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Soledad; Ferrari, Adrián; Benítez, Alejandra; Travers, Dayana; Menes, Javier; Etchebehere, Claudia; Canetti, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Many dairy industries have been using SBR wastewater treatment plants because they allow optimal working condition to be reached. However, to take advantage of SBR capabilities, strong process automation is needed. The aim of this work is to study the factors that influence SBR performance to improve modelling and control. To better understand the whole process we studied the kinetic modelling, the carbon removal mechanism and the relation between reactor performance, aerobic heterotrophic activity and bacterial population dynamics (by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S rDNA, T-RFLP). The heterotrophic activity values presented high variability during some periods; however, this was not reflected on the reactor performance. As sludge health indicator, the average activity in a period was better than individual values. Although all the carbon removal mechanisms are still unclear for this process, they seemed to be influenced by non-respirometric ways (storage, biosorption, accumulation, etc.). The variability of heterotrophic activity could be correlated with the bacterial population diversity over time. Despite the high variability of the activity, a simple kinetic model (pseudo ASM1) based on apparent constant parameters was developed and calibrated. Such modellisation provided a good tool for control purposes.

  3. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis technology for selected antibiotics removal from synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the possibility for low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (RE 2521, CSM) process to serve as an alternative to remove selected antibiotics (ampicillin and amoxicillin) from synthetic wastewater by changing operating conditions such as pH = 3, 6.5 and 10; Pressure = 9, 11 and13 (bar); antibiotic concentration = 10, 255 and 500(mg/L), and temperature = 20, 30 and 40°C. The experiment was designed based on Box-benken, which is a Response Surface methodology design (RSM), using Design Expert software. The concentration of antibiotics was measured by applying a UV-spectrophotometer (Cecil), at the wavelength of 254 nm. Results showed a range of rejection percentage from 73.52% to 99.36% and 75.1% to 98.8%, for amoxicillin and ampicillin, respectively. Considering the solute rejections and the membrane porosity show that the prevailing rejection mechanism of the examined antibiotics by the membrane was the size exclusion effect. The permeate flux for both of the antibiotics was 12–18.73 L/m2.h. Although the permeate flux and antibiotic rejection are influenced by operating pressure, pH, and temperature individually, the interaction between operating parameters did not have noticeable effects. According to the results obtained in this study, the application of RO membrane is recommended for the selected antibiotics to be removed to a considerable degree (up to 95%). PMID:23369431

  4. Evaluating integrated strategies for robust treatment of high saline piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Choi, Wook Jin; Chae, A Na; Park, Joonhong; Kim, Hyung Joo; Song, Kyung Guen

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we integrated physicochemical and biological strategies for the robust treatment of piggery effluent in which high levels of organic constituents, inorganic nutrients, color, and salts remained. Piggery effluent that was stabilized in an anaerobic digester was sequentially coagulated, micro-filtered, and air-stripped prior to biological treatment with mixotrophic algal species that showed tolerance to high salinity (up to 4.8% as Cl(-)). The algae treatment was conducted with continuous O2 supplementation instead of using the combination of high lighting and CO2 injection. The microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda employed as a bio-agent was capable of assimilating both nitrogen (222 mg N g cell(-1) d(-1)) and phosphorus (9.3 mg P g cell(-1) d(-1)) and utilizing dissolved organics (2053 mg COD g cell(-1) d(-1)) as a carbon source in a single treatment process under the heterotrophic growth conditions. The heterotrophic growth of S. quadricauda proceeded rapidly by directly incorporating organic substrate in the oxidative assimilation process, which coincided with the high productivity of algal biomass, accounting for 2.4 g cell L(-1) d(-1). The algae-treated wastewater was subsequently ozonated to comply with discharge permits that limit color in the effluent, which also resulted in improved biodegradability of residual organics. The integrated treatment scheme proposed in this study also achieved 89% removal of COD, 88% removal of TN, and 60% removal of TP. The advantage of using the hybrid configuration suggests that this would be a promising strategy in full-scale treatment facilities for piggery effluent.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of induced seismicity mitigation: Numerical modeling of wastewater injection near Greeley, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Megan R. M.; Ge, Shemin; Sheehan, Anne F.; Nakai, Jenny S.

    2017-08-01

    Mitigation of injection-induced seismicity in Greeley, Colorado, is based largely on proximity of wastewater disposal wells to seismicity and consists of cementation of the bottom of wells to eliminate connection between the disposal interval and crystalline basement. Brief injection rate reductions followed felt events, but injection rates returned to high levels, >250,000 barrels/month, within 6 months. While brief rate reduction reduces seismicity in the short term, overall seismicity is not reduced. We examine contributions to pore pressure change by injection from 22 wells within 30 km of the center of seismicity. The combined injection rate of seven disposal wells within 15 km of the seismicity (Greeley Wells) is correlated with the seismicity rate. We find that injection from NGL-C4A, the well previously suspected as the likely cause of the induced seismicity, is responsible for 28% of pore pressure increase. The other six Greeley Wells contribute 28% of pore pressure increase, and the 15 Far-field Wells between 15 and 30 km from the seismicity contribute 44% of pore pressure increase. Modeling results show that NGL-C4A plays the largest role in increased pore pressure but shows that the six other Greeley Wells have approximately the same influence as NGL-C4A. Furthermore, the 15 Far-field Wells have significant influence on pore pressure near the seismicity. Since the main mitigation action of cementing the bottom of wells has not decreased seismicity, mitigation based on reduced injection rates and spacing wells farther apart would likely have a higher potential for success.

  6. Co-treatment of acid mine drainage with municipal wastewater: performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Theresa A; Gray, Nicholas F

    2013-11-01

    Co-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with municipal wastewater (MWW) using the activated sludge process is a novel treatment technology offering potential savings over alternative systems in materials, proprietary chemicals and energy inputs. The impacts of AMD on laboratory-scale activated sludge units (plug-flow and sequencing batch reactors) treating synthetic MWW were investigated. Synthetic AMD containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and SO4 at a range of concentrations and pH values was formulated to simulate three possible co-treatment processes, i.e., (1) adding raw AMD to the activated sludge aeration tank, (2) pre-treating AMD prior to adding to the aeration tank by mixing with digested sludge and (3) pre-treating AMD by mixing with screened MWW. Continuous AMD loading to the activated sludge reactors during co-treatment did not cause a significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon removal; average COD removal rates ranged from 87-93%. Enhanced phosphate removal was observed in reactors loaded with Fe- and Al-rich AMD, with final effluent TP concentrations<2 mg/L. Removal rates for dissolved Al, Cu, Fe and Pb were 52-84%, 47-61%, 74-86% and 100%, respectively, in both systems. Manganese and Zn removal were strongly linked to acidity; removal from net-acidic AMD was <10% for both metals, whereas removal from circum-neutral AMD averaged 93-95% for Mn and 58-90% for Zn. Pre-mixing with screened MWW was the best process option in terms of AMD neutralization and metal removal. However, significant MWW alkalinity was consumed, suggesting an alkali supplement may be necessary.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a microbial fuel cell treating artificial dialysis wastewater using graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yuko; Yoshida, Naoko

    2016-02-01

    Artificial dialysis wastewater (ADWW) generally contains 800-2,200 mg L-1 of organic matter. Prior to its discharge to the sewage system, ADWW must be treated in order to reduce organic matter to less than 600 mg L-1. This study assesses the applicability of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to the reduction of organic matter in ADWW as an alternative pre-treatment system to aeration. In the MFC, conductive floccular aggregates microbially produced from graphene oxide (GO-flocs) were applied as an anode material in the MFC. The GO-flocs were obtained by anaerobic incubation of graphene oxide (GO) with microorganisms in ADWW at 28 °C for a minimum of 10 days. During incubation, GO in the mixture was transformed into black conductive floccular aggregates having 0.12 mS cm-1, suggesting the microbial reduction of GO to the reduced form. The produced GO-flocs were then used as the anode material in a cylindrical MFC, which was filled with ADWW and covered with a floating, platinum (Pt)-coated carbon cathode. The MFC was polarized via an external resistance of 10 Ω and applied for 120 days by replacing half of the supernatant of the MFC with fresh ADWW, every 6-9 days. As a result, the MFC achieved a 128 mg L-1 d-1 chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) removal rate. For example, the MFC contained 1,500 mg-CODCr L-1 just after replacement, with this concentration being reduced to 1,000 mg-CODCr L-1 after 6-9 days of incubation. At the same time, the MFC showed an average power density of 28 mW m-2 and a maximum power density of 291 mW m-2. These results suggest that a MFC packed with GO-flocs can be used as an alternative biotreatment system, replacing the energy-intensive aeration process.

  8. Economic evaluation of carbon adsorption/ion exchange wastewater-treatment options for Sunflower AAP (Army Ammunition Plant) NQ (nitroguanidine) wastewater-treatment facility. Final report, October 1986-July 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Balasco, A.A.; Cheng, G.C.; Field, E.L.; Vejins, V.R.

    1987-07-31

    The objective of this subtask was to provide an estimate of the capital investment and operating costs for the wastewater-treatment technology option involving activated-carbon adsorption and ion exchange for primary separation, and multiple-effect evaporation and spray drying for volume reduction. During the course of this study, however, it became evident that the process economics could be significantly improved of the ion-exchange step was eliminated from the process scheme. The bases for the system design, plant operation, and cost evaluation were provided to Arthur D. Little by Sunflower AAP personnel to make certain that direct comparisons could be made with other treatment options under consideration.

  9. Evaluation of natural materials as exogenous carbon sources for biological treatment of low carbon-to-nitrogen wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Godínez, Juan; Beltrán-Hernández, Icela; Álvarez-Hernández, Alejandro; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Contreras-López, Elizabeth; Quezada-Cruz, Maribel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In the bacterial processes involved in the mitigation of nitrogen pollution, an adequately high carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio is key to sustain denitrification. We evaluated three natural materials (woodchips, barley grains, and peanut shells) as carbon sources for low C : N wastewater. The amount of organic matter released from these materials to aqueous media was evaluated, as well as their pollution swapping potential by measuring the release of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, N-NH4 (+), NO2 (-), and NO3 (-), and total phosphorous. Barley grains yielded the highest amount of organic matter, which also showed to be the most easily biodegradable. Woodchips and peanut shells released carbon rather steadily and so they would not require frequent replenishment from biological reactors. These materials produced eluates with lower concentrations of nutrients than the leachates from barley grains. However, as woodchips yielded lower amounts of suspended solids, they constitute an adequate exogenous source for the biological treatment of carbon-deficient effluents.

  10. Evaluation of Natural Materials as Exogenous Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Low Carbon-to-Nitrogen Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Godínez, Juan; Beltrán-Hernández, Icela; Álvarez-Hernández, Alejandro; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Contreras-López, Elizabeth; Quezada-Cruz, Maribel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In the bacterial processes involved in the mitigation of nitrogen pollution, an adequately high carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio is key to sustain denitrification. We evaluated three natural materials (woodchips, barley grains, and peanut shells) as carbon sources for low C : N wastewater. The amount of organic matter released from these materials to aqueous media was evaluated, as well as their pollution swapping potential by measuring the release of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, N-NH4+, NO2−, and NO3−, and total phosphorous. Barley grains yielded the highest amount of organic matter, which also showed to be the most easily biodegradable. Woodchips and peanut shells released carbon rather steadily and so they would not require frequent replenishment from biological reactors. These materials produced eluates with lower concentrations of nutrients than the leachates from barley grains. However, as woodchips yielded lower amounts of suspended solids, they constitute an adequate exogenous source for the biological treatment of carbon-deficient effluents. PMID:26495313

  11. [Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

    2010-08-01

    In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis.

  12. Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 2. Aberdeen Proving Ground Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, November 1988-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Herriott, R.S.

    1992-07-01

    An evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated effluent was conducted at the Aberdeen Proving Ground Wastewater Treatment Plant (APG-WWTP), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, from early May 1990 to February 13, 1991. An array of biomonitoring tests structured in a tiered hazard assessment framework was used in the evaluation of the effluent. Several levels of biological organization were included in the array of tests. Acute toxicity was evaluated on daily 24-h composite samples using a 5- and 15-min Microtox assay which employs microbial (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescent activity. Three 24-h LC50 rotifer (Brachionus rubens) toxicity tests were conducted using 24-h composite samples. The following chronic tests were all performed three times using 24-h composite samples: 96-h EC50 algal (Selenastrum capricornutum) growth test, 7-d daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test, and 7-d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) survival and growth test. The acute rotifer tests and all chronic tests were conducted during the same periods in order to compare toxicological responses between biomonitoring systems.... Wastewater, Aquatic, Acute toxicity, Chronic toxicity, Mutagenicity, Ames, Teratogencity, FETAX, Carcinogenicity, Ventilatory biomonitoring system, Microtox, Photobacterium.

  13. Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 1. Aberdeen proving ground-edgewood area wastewater treatment plant. Final report, November 1988-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Graves, W.C.

    1992-07-01

    An evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated effluent was conducted at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area Wastewater Treatment Plant (APG-EA WWTP), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, from January 1989 to December 13, 1989. An array of biomonitoring tests structured in a tiered hazard assessment framework was used in the evaluation of the effluent. Several levels of biological organization were included in the array of tests. Acute toxicity was evaluated on 24-h composite samples using a 15-min Microtox R assay which employs microbial (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescent activity. Two 24-h LC50 rotifer (Brachionus rubens) toxicity tests were conducted using 24-h composite samples The following chronic tests were all performed two times using 24-h composite samples: 96-h EC50 algal (Selenastrum capricornutum) growth test, 7-d daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test, and 7-d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) survival and growth test. Generally, the acute rotifer tests and all chronic tests were conducted during the same periods in order to compare toxicological responses between biomonitoring systems.... Wastewater, Aquatic, Acute toxicity, Chronic toxicity, Mutagenicity, Ames, Teratogenicity, FETAX, Carcinogenicity, Ventilatory biomonitoring system, Microtox R, Photobacterium.

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria at a municipal wastewater treatment plant in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Jing; Hu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Sun-Qin; Li, Yi; Tang, Fang; Lu, Yun; Wei, Bin

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming a concern of public health. In order to acquire information on the emission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from WWTP effluents into natural waters, both average antibiotic tolerance and concentrations of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the effluent of a WWTP in Beijing, China were investigated. A new index of IC(50)/MIC ratio (the antibiotic concentration required to inhibit 50% of total heterotrophic bacteria compared to the highest minimum inhibitory concentration value of a group of pathogens according to a specific antibiotic, as defined by CLSI) was used to reflect the average antibiotic tolerance of total heterotrophic bacteria in the secondary effluent. The results showed that the IC(50)/MIC ratios of heterotrophic bacteria in the secondary effluent to penicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and rifampicin were >2, >1, >1, and 1.08, respectively, which reflected a significantly high general level of heterotrophic bacteria found in the secondary effluent resistant to these five antibiotics. The concentrations of penicillin-, ampicillin-, cephalothin-, and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria were as high as 1.5×10(4)-1.9×10(5), 1.2×10(4)-1.5×10(5), 8.9×10(3)-1.9×10(5) and 2.6×10(4)-2.0×10(5) CFU/mL, and the average percentages in relation to total heterotrophic bacteria were 63%, 47%, 55%, and 69%, respectively. The concentrations of tetracycline- and rifampicin-resistant bacteria were 840-6.1×10(3) and 310-6.1×10(4) CFU/mL with average percentages of 2.6% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, our study found that five- and six-antibiotic-resistant bacteria were widely distributed in four types of enterobacteria from the secondary effluent. The presence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria from effluents of WWTPs into natural waters could pose a serious problem as a secondary pollutant of drinking water.

  15. Effect of HRT in a continuous flow reactor on orthophosphate removal from swine wastewater and the economic evaluation for the land application.

    PubMed

    Celen, Ipek

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of this study was to evaluate a laboratory-scale continuous reactor for orthophosphate (OP) removal from swine wastewater and to minimise HRT so as to minimise the volume of reactor such that a continuous-flow device could be developed for land application of swine manure. The laboratory-scale reactor exhibited very high OP removal when the wastewater was enriched with magnesium (Mg(2 + )) and the solution pH was increased to 8.5 with NaOH at room temperature. Three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) (150, 90, 40, and 10 min) were tested in the laboratory, and OP removals were 96, 94, 93, and 95%, respectively. Also, in this research, economic evaluation based on the chemical cost, several devices, pumps, and processing of product (minus income) are reported for an up-scale process. The whole process costs $113,756/year.

  16. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-02-20

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

  17. Evaluation of the chelating performance of biopolyelectrolyte green complexes (NIBPEGCs) for wastewater treatment from the metal finishing industry.

    PubMed

    López-Maldonado, Eduardo A; Zavala García, Oscar Gabriel; Escobedo, Kevin Cruz; Oropeza-Guzman, Mercedes T

    2017-08-05

    In this paper nonstoichiometric interbiopolyelectrolyte green complexes (NIBPEGCs) were prepared using chitosan (Ch), alginate (AG) and poly(acrylic acid)(PAA). They are proposed as innovative formulations (polyelectrolytes and chelating agents) suitable for the elimination heavy metals contained in wastewater. This application may represent an integral solution for industries rejecting solid and aqueous metallic materials; however, it has not been previously reported. NIBPEGCs physicochemical performance was evaluated based on pH, particle size, surface charge, isoelectric point, dose, coagulation-flocculation kinetics and chemical affinity with seven metal ions. The experimental results showed that NIBPEGCs composed by AG/Ch and PAA/Chitosan have all the three complementary functions: chemical affinity, electrostatic interaction and particle entrapment anticipating more simple operation units to remove heavy metals. Complexes of AG/Ch (negative) were higher performance in removing heavy metals, with a dose window (150-180mg/L), lower dose of 410mg/L PAA/Ch (negative). Investigation of chelating performances of NIBPEGCs show that the efficiency of metal removal is: Ca˃Cr˃Cu˃Pb˃Ni˃Zn˃Cd. Transmittance vs time profiles, metals and zeta potential analysis showed that chelation capacity is the crucial factor to ensure metallic species removal, followed by physical entrapment of the metallic colloids. Integrating all presented results allow to sustain the development of excellent metals removal formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and evaluation of potential reuse options for wastewater sludge and combined sewer system sediments in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, B; Méndez, J M; Barrios, J A; Salgado, G; Sheinbaum, C

    2004-01-01

    Combined sewer systems generate sediments that have characteristics similar to those of primary sludge. Mexico City has such a system composed of a network of pipes, regulation structures (dams, basins) and open channels. The annual generation of sediments is estimated at 2.8 Mm3, which includes 0.41 Mm3 of sludge. As a result, the total capacity for transporting water is reduced considerably, making it necessary to extract yearly an approximate 0.85 Mm3 of those materials and to send them to a final disposal site with a capacity that is being exhausted. As part of the local Governmental effort, this project evaluates the quality of sediments from 6 dams, 4 regulation basins, 2 open channels, and 3 transfer stations. Also, sludge from 20 wastewater treatment plants was sampled. The results showed an important presence of lead and hydrocarbons in some sediments, and some sludge samples contained arsenic and nickel above the limits. Moreover, microbial levels exceeded the limits in all the sediments and sludge samples. Erosion was linked to the generation of an important amount of sediments based on lead concentration. A classification was established to determine the degree of contamination of the sediments as well as the required treatment to allow their potential reuse.

  19. Evaluation of the toxic potential of coffee wastewater on seeds, roots and meristematic cells of Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Coffee wastewater (CWW) is an effluent produced through wet processing of coffee containing high concentration of organic matter, nutrients, salts and also agrochemicals. It is released directly into the argillaceous soil or into decantation tanks for later disposal into soils, by fertigation, subsurface infiltration or superficial draining. However, this practice is not followed by the monitoring the toxicity potential of this effluent. In this sense, the present work aimed to evaluate the phytotoxic, cytogenotoxic and mutagenic potential of CWW on seed germination, root elongation and cell cycle alterations in the plant model Lactuca sativa L. The effluent (CWW) collected was diluted in distilled water into six concentrations solutions (1.25%, 1.66%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10%, 20%). A solution of raw CWW (100%) was also applied. Distilled water was used as negative control), and the DNA alkylating agent, metilmetano sulfonate (4×10(-4)M) as positive control. Physico-chemical parameters of the CWW was accessed and it was found that the effluent contained total phenols and inorganic matter in amounts within the limits established by the National Environment Council (CONAMA). Nevertheless, the biologicals assays performed demonstrated the phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicty of CWW. Seed germination was totally inhibited after exposure of raw CWW. In addition, a decrease in seed germination speed as well as in root growth dose-dependently manner was noticed. Moreover, nuclear and chromosomal alterations were observed in the cell cycle, mostly arising from aneugenic action.

  20. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal. PMID:28216654

  1. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of Ln3+-TiO2 nanomaterial using fluorescence technique for real wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saif, M.; Aboul-Fotouh, S. M. K.; El-Molla, S. A.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Ismail, L. F. M.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation the photocatalytic activity of different Ln3+ modified TiO2 nanomaterials using fluorescence based technique has rarely been reported. In the present work, x mol Ln3+ modified TiO2 nanomaterials (Ln = Nd3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Dy3+ and Er3+ ions; x = 0.005, 0.008, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized using different advanced techniques. The photocatalytic efficiency of the modified TiO2 expressed in the charge carrier separation and rad OH radicals formation were assigned using TiO2 fluorescence quenching and fluorescence probe methods, respectively. The obtained fluorescence measurements confirm that doping treatment significantly decreases the electron-hole recombination probability in the obtained Ln3+/TiO2. Moreover, the rate of rad OH radicals formation is increased by doping. The highly active nanoparticles (0.02Gd3+/TiO2 and 0.01Eu3+/TiO2) were applied for industrial wastewater treatment using solar radiation as a renewable energy source.

  2. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-02-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

  3. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE INTERNAL PIPE SEALING SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER MAIN REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many utilities are seeking emerging and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the service life of their infrastructure systems. This report describes the testing and performance evaluation of an internal pipe sealing system, which provides a permanent physical seal fo...

  6. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE INTERNAL PIPE SEALING SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER MAIN REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many utilities are seeking emerging and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the service life of their infrastructure systems. This report describes the testing and performance evaluation of an internal pipe sealing system, which provides a permanent physical seal fo...

  7. Evaluation on estrogenicity and oxidative hepatotoxicity of fossil fuel industrial wastewater before and after the powdered activated carbon treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-An; Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Ting-Chien

    2004-06-01

    There are 10 manufacturers who produce fossil fuel products in the Da-Hse Industrial District, Kaohsiung County, southwestern Taiwan. Before discharging the wastewater into the nearby aquatic environment, the pretreated wastewater from these manufacturers must be processed in a treatment plant which includes four major processing units: equalization, a primary clarifier, an aeration basin, and a final clarifier. In order to estimate the potential environmental risks of industrial wastewater from each manufacturer and the treatment efficiency of the powdered activated carbon treatment (PACT) system used in this wastewater treatment plant, in vitro bioassays for estrogenicity and oxidative hepatotoxicity were carried out using a stably transfected human breast cancer cell line, MVLN, and a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2, respectively. Estrogenic substances occurred in nine of 10 pretreated wastewaters from these manufacturers in which the relative luciferase activity ranged from 18.9% to 98.0% for 1-fold-condensed wastewaters corresponding to the concentration of the original wastewater. The estrogenicity was highest at the influent of the treatment plant and decreased through the treatment process. About 81% estrogenicity clearance was found through all processing units. On the other hand, oxidative hepatotoxic substances existed in seven of 10 pretreated wastewaters from these manufacturers in which relative TBARs activity ranged from 18.5% to 43.0% for 1-fold-condensed wastewater. The TBARs of influent samples apparently decreased through the processing units until the aeration basin, but abruptly rose in the final clarifier, which was a result of the addition of an active charcoal-retrieving agent with the molecular formula of (C(2)H(3))(n)CONHCH(2)N(CH(3))(3)Cl and which had high TBARs activity. No TBARs activity being found in effluent samples could be a consequence of allowing sufficient time for coagulation between the active charcoal and its

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Alternative Disinfectants for Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) initiated a research program to evaluate the performance of various disinfectants that could potentially be used in drink...

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Alternative Disinfectants for Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) initiated a research program to evaluate the performance of various disinfectants that could potentially be used in drink...

  10. Cultivation of green algae Chlorella sp. in different wastewaters from municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Min, Min; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Chen, Yifeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yingkuan; Ruan, Roger

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before primary settling (#1 wastewater), wastewater after primary settling (#2 wastewater), wastewater after activated sludge tank (#3 wastewater), and centrate (#4 wastewater), which is the wastewater generated in sludge centrifuge. The average specific growth rates in the exponential period were 0.412, 0.429, 0.343, and 0.948 day(-1) for wastewaters #1, #2, #3, and #4, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N were 82.4%, 74.7%, and 78.3% for wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, respectively. For #3 wastewater, 62.5% of NO3-N, the major inorganic nitrogen form, was removed with 6.3-fold of NO2-N generated. From wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, 83.2%, 90.6%, and 85.6% phosphorus and 50.9%, 56.5%, and 83.0% COD were removed, respectively. Only 4.7% was removed in #3 wastewater and the COD in #3 wastewater increased slightly after algal growth, probably due to the excretion of small photosynthetic organic molecules by algae. Metal ions, especially Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in centrate, were found to be removed very efficiently. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production.

  11. [Comprehensive Toxicity Evaluation and Toxicity Identification Used in Tannery and Textile Wastewaters].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Chen, Wen-yan; Wan, Yu-shan; Zheng, Guo-juan; Zhao, Yuan; Cai, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    To better evaluate the toxicity of tannery and textile effluents from various emission stages, the research attempted battery of toxicological bioassays and toxicological indices. The bioassays employed Microtox test, zebra fish embryo-larval test and algae (Chlorella vulgaris) test. Meanwhile, toxicological indices including Toxicity Unit (TU), Average Toxicity (AvTx), Toxic Print (TxPr), Most Sensitive Test (MST) and Potential Ecotoxic Effects Probe (PEEP) were applied. The results illustrated that PEEP was the most comprehensive index to take account of the emissions and toxic potential of effluents. PEEP values showed that the reduction rates of toxicity in tannery and textile effluents were 36. 8% and 23. 2%, respectively. Finally, based on the Microtox toxicity test, toxicants in textile effluent were identified through the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. The results indicated that the main toxicant of textile effluent was non-polar organic pollutants, followed by filterable compounds, heavy metals, oxidizing substances and volatile components.

  12. Application of carbon foam for heavy metal removal from industrial plating wastewater and toxicity evaluation of the adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Song, Mi-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Park, Chanhyuk; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2016-06-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains various types of toxic substances, such as heavy metals, solvents, and cleaning agents. Carbon foam was used as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from real industrial plating wastewater. Its sorption capacity was compared with those of a commercial ion-exchange resin (BC258) and a heavy metal adsorbent (CupriSorb™) in a batch system. The experimental carbon foam has a considerably higher sorption capacity for Cr and Cu than commercial adsorbents for acid/alkali wastewater and cyanide wastewater. Additionally, cytotoxicity test showed that the newly developed adsorbent has low cytotoxic effects on three kinds of human cells. In a pilot plant, the carbon foam had higher sorption capacity for Cr (73.64 g kg(-1)) than for Cu (14.86 g kg(-1)) and Ni (7.74 g kg(-1)) during 350 h of operation time. Oxidation pretreatments using UV/hydrogen peroxide enhance heavy metal removal from plating wastewater containing cyanide compounds.

  13. Performance evaluation of different solar advanced oxidation processes applied to the treatment of a real textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Diego R; Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    The performance of different solar-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as TiO2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, and Fe(2+)/H2O2/UV-visible in the treatment of a real textile effluent using a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), was investigated. The influence of the main photo-Fenton reaction variables such as iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+) L(-1)), pH (2.4-4.5), temperature (10-50 °C), and irradiance (22-68 WUV m(-2)) was evaluated in a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation. The real textile wastewater presented a beige color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (8.1), moderate organic content (dissolved organic carbon (DOC) = 129 mg C L(-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 496 mg O2 L(-1)), and high conductivity mainly associated to the high concentration of chloride (1.1 g Cl(-) L(-1)), sulfate (0.4 g SO 4 (2 -) L(- 1)), and sodium (1.2 g Na(+) L(-1)) ions. Although all the processes tested contributed to complete decolorization and effective mineralization, the most efficient process was the solar photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 70 % mineralization (DOCfinal = 41 mg C L(-1); CODfinal < 150 mg O2 L(-1)) at pH 3.6, requiring a UV energy dose of 3.5 kJUV L(-1) (t 30 W = 22.4 min; [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and consuming 18.5 mM of H2O2.

  14. Evaluation of the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrates from municipal wastewater reclamation by coagulation and granular activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Tao; Shi, Na; Tian, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) contains elevated concentrations of contaminants which pose potential risks to aquatic environment. The treatment of ROC from an mWRRO using granular activated carbon (GAC) combined pretreatment of coagulation was optimized and evaluated. Among the three coagulants tested, ferric chloride (FeCl3) presented relatively higher DOC removal efficiency than polyaluminium chloride and lime at the same dosage and coagulation conditions. The removal efficiency of DOC, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity concentration of the ROC could achieve 16.9, 18.9, and 39.7 %, respectively, by FeCl3 coagulation (with FeCl3 dosage of 180.22 mg/L), which can hardly reduce UV254 and genotoxicity normalized by DOC of the DOM with MW <5 kDa. However, the post-GAC adsorption column (with filtration velocity of 5.7 m/h, breakthrough point adsorption capacity of 0.22 mg DOC/g GAC) exhibited excellent removal efficiency on the dominant DOM fraction of MW <5 kDa in the ROC. The removal efficiency of DOC, UV254, and TDS in the ROC was up to 91.8, 96, and 76.5 %, respectively, by the FeCl3 coagulation and post-GAC adsorption. Also, the DOM with both genotoxicity and antiestrogenic activity were completely eliminated by the GAC adsorption. The results suggest that GAC adsorption combined pretreatment of FeCl3 coagulation as an efficient method to control organics, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity in the ROC from mWRRO system.

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of re-circulated bio-filter as a pretreatment process for petroleum refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoli; Chen, Chunmao; Yan, Guangxu; Chen, Yu; Guo, Shaohui

    2016-12-01

    Conventional biological treatment process is not very efficient for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) that contains high-concentration of organic contaminants. Prior to biological treatment, an additional pretreatment process for PRW is required for the effluent to meet the discharge standards. While re-circulated bio-filter (RBF) has been applied as a pretreatment process in several PRW treatment plants, its effects have not been comprehensively evaluated. In this study, the parameters of operation, the changes in pollution indexes and contaminant composition in an engineered RBF have been investigated. We found that mainly highly active de-carbonization bacteria were present in the RBF, while no nitrification bacteria were found in the RBF. This indicated the absence of nitrification in this process. The biodegradable organic contaminants were susceptible to degradation by RBF, which decreased the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) by 83.64% and the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODCr) by 54.63%. Consequently, the alkalinity and pH value of RBF effluent significantly increased, which was unfavorable for the control of operating parameters in subsequent biological treatment. Along with the decrease of CODCr, the RBF effluent exhibited a reduction in biodegradability. 834 kinds of recalcitrant polar organic contaminants remained in the effluent; most of the contaminant molecules having complex structures of aromatic, polycyclic and heterocyclic rings. The results of this study showed that RBF could efficiently treat PRW for biodegradable organic contaminants removal; however, it is difficult to treat bio-refractory organic contaminants, which was unfavorable for the subsequent biological treatment process operation. An improved process might provide overall guarantees for the PRW treatment.

  16. From the conventional biological wastewater treatment to hybrid processes, the evaluation of organic micropollutant removal: A review.

    PubMed

    Grandclément, Camille; Seyssiecq, Isabelle; Piram, Anne; Wong-Wah-Chung, Pascal; Vanot, Guillaume; Tiliacos, Nicolas; Roche, Nicolas; Doumenq, Pierre

    2017-03-15

    Because of the recalcitrance of some micropollutants to conventional wastewater treatment systems, the occurrence of organic micropollutants in water has become a worldwide issue, and an increasing environmental concern. Their biodegradation during wastewater treatments could be an interesting and low cost alternative to conventional physical and chemical processes. This paper provides a review of the organic micropollutants removal efficiency from wastewaters. It analyses different biological processes, from conventional ones, to new hybrid ones. Micropollutant removals appear to be compound- and process- dependent, for all investigated processes. The influence of the main physico-chemical parameters is discussed, as well as the removal efficiency of different microorganisms such as bacteria or white rot fungi, and the role of their specific enzymes. Even though some hybrid processes show promising micropollutant removals, further studies are needed to optimize these water treatment processes, in particular in terms of technical and economical competitiveness.

  17. Formulation of synthetic greywater as an evaluation tool for wastewater recycling technologies.

    PubMed

    Hourlier, Fanny; Masse, Anthony; Jaouen, Pascal; Lakel, Abdel; Gerente, Claire; Faur, Catherine; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    On-site greywater recycling is one of the main ways of preserving water resources in urban or arid areas. This study aims to formulate model synthetic greywater (SGW) in order to evaluate and compare the performances of several recycling processes on a reproducible effluent. The formulated SGW is composed of septic effluent to provide indicators of faecal contamination, and technical quality chemical products to simulate organic pollution of greywater. To ensure that the SGW developed is representative of household greywater, its analysis was compared to real greywater collected and analysed (RGWs) and to real greywater mentioned in previous publications (RGW(L)). The performance of a direct nanofiltration process with a concentration factor of 87.5% at 35 bar was then tested on both real greywater and SGW. The laboratory experimental results are promising: fluxes and retention rates were high, and similar for both effluents. The permeation flux was higher than 50 L h(-1) m(-2). Retentions greater than 97% for biochemical oxygen demand for 5 days (BOD5) and 92% for anionic surfactants were observed. No Enterococcus were detected in the two permeates. These results confirm that the model SGW developed in this study shows the same behaviour as real greywater when recycled. Thus, the use of this SGW developed in this study was validated for the evaluation of membrane efficiency to treat greywater. This new tool will be a real asset for future studies.

  18. National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use inCost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

    2006-09-01

    Calculating the benefits and costs of water conservation orefficiency programs requires knowing the marginal cost of the water andwastewater saved by those programs. Developing an accurate picture of thepotential cost savings from water conservation requires knowing the costof the last few units of water consumed or wastewater released, becausethose are the units that would be saved by increased water efficiency.This report describes the data we obtained on water and wastewater ratesand costs, data gaps we identified, and other issues related to using thedata to estimate the cost savings that might accrue from waterconservation programs. We identified three water and wastewater ratesources. Of these, we recommend using Raftelis Financial Corporation(RFC) because it: a) has the most comprehensive national coverage; and b)provides greatest detail on rates to calculate marginal rates. The figurebelow shows the regional variation in water rates for a range ofconsumption blocks. Figure 1A Marginal Rates of Water Blocks by Regionfrom RFC 2004Water and wastewater rates are rising faster than the rateof inflation. For example, from 1996 to 2004 the average water rateincreased 39.5 percent, average wastewater rate increased 37.8 percent,the CPI (All Urban) increased 20.1 percent, and the CPI (Water andSewerage Maintenance) increased 31.1 percent. On average, annualincreases were 4.3 percent for water and 4.1 percent for wastewater,compared to 2.3 percent for the All Urban CPI and 3.7 percent for the CPIfor water and sewerage maintenance. If trends in rates for water andwastewater rates continue, water-efficient products will become morevaluable and more cost-effective.

  19. Evaluation of new alternatives in wastewater treatment plants based on dynamic modelling and life cycle assessment (DM-LCA).

    PubMed

    Bisinella de Faria, A B; Spérandio, M; Ahmadi, A; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2015-11-01

    With a view to quantifying the energy and environmental advantages of Urine Source-Separation (USS) combined with different treatment processes, five wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) scenarios were compared to a reference scenario using Dynamic Modelling (DM) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and an integrated DM-LCA framework was thus developed. Dynamic simulations were carried out in BioWin(®) in order to obtain a realistic evaluation of the dynamic behaviour and performance of plants under perturbation. LCA calculations were performed within Umberto(®) using the Ecoinvent database. A Python™ interface was used to integrate and convert simulation data and to introduce them into Umberto(®) to achieve a complete LCA evaluation comprising foreground and background processes. Comparisons between steady-state and dynamic simulations revealed the importance of considering dynamic aspects such as nutrient and flow peaks. The results of the evaluation highlighted the potential of the USS scenario for nutrient recovery whereas the Enhanced Primary Clarification (EPC) scenario gave increased biogas production and also notably decreased aeration consumption, leading to a positive energy balance. Both USS and EPC scenarios also showed increased stability of plant operation, with smaller daily averages of total nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, USS and EPC results demonstrated that the coupled USS + EPC scenario and its combinations with agricultural spreading of N-rich effluent and nitritation/anaerobic deammonification could present an energy-positive balance with respectively 27% and 33% lower energy requirements and an increase in biogas production of 23%, compared to the reference scenario. The coupled scenarios also presented lesser environmental impacts (reduction of 31% and 39% in total endpoint impacts) along with effluent quality well within the specified limits. The marked environmental performance (reduction of global warming) when nitrogen is used

  20. Evaluation of drugs of abuse use and trends in a prison through wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià

    2011-01-01

    Illicit drugs and metabolites have been recognized recently as a group of emerging contaminants of concern, as a consequence of their high volumes of use and production. Drug residue levels in the aquatic environment have also been pointed out as good indicators of illicit drug abuse. The present work assesses for the first time drug abuse in a penal complex from the levels of different drug residues measured in the prison sewage waters and evaluates the suitability of this approach to track and control illicit drug usage in such facilities. The presence of various drugs of abuse and metabolites in sewage waters from a penal complex was determined by an analytical method based on on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of consumption indicators measured in this water were used to back-calculate drugs usage in the penal complex. Daily use was observed for methadone (average of 156 doses/day/1000 inh), alprazolam (129 doses/day/1000 inh), ephedrine (46 doses/day/1000 inh), cannabis (33 doses/day/1000 inh.) and cocaine (3 doses/day/1000 inh). Sporadic consumption was observed for heroin, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy. In spite of the fact that this and other sewage epidemiological approaches described may suffer from bias that still need to be investigated and refined, it provides near "real-time" information on collective drug use in an anonymous way and constitutes a very useful, economic and fast tool to evaluate the efficiency of measures adopted to control and track drug abuse in this type of facilities (or any other provided that has a STP associated or an accessible collector system). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and validation of a generic nontarget method based on liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry analysis for the evaluation of different wastewater treatment options.

    PubMed

    Nürenberg, Gudrun; Schulz, Manoj; Kunkel, Uwe; Ternes, Thomas A

    2015-12-24

    A comprehensive workflow for using nontarget approaches as process evaluation tools was implemented, including data acquisition based on a LC-HRMS (QTOF) system using direct injection and data post-processing for the peak recognition in "full scan" data. Both parts of the approach were not only developed and validated in a conventional way using the suspected analysis of a set of spiked known micropollutants but also the nontarget analysis of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent itself was utilized to consider a more environmental relevant range of analytes. Hereby, special focus was laid on the minimization of false positive results (FPs) during the peak recognition. The optimized data post-processing procedure reduced the percentage of FPs from 42% to 10-15%. Furthermore, the choice of a suitable chromatography for biological treated wastewater systems was also discussed during the method development. The workflow paid also attention to differences in the performance levels of the LC-HRMS system by implementation of an adaption system for intensity variations comparing different measurements dates or different instruments. The application of this workflow on wastewater samples from a municipal WWTP revealed that more than 91% compounds were eliminated by the biological treatment step and that the received effluent contained 55% newly formed potential transformation products.

  2. Comparative evaluation of wastewater-treatment microbial fuel cells in terms of organics removal, waste-sludge production, and electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yusuke; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit living microbes for electricity generation coupled to organics degradation. MFCs are expected to be applied to energy-saving wastewater treatment (WWT) as alternatives to activated-sludge reactors (ASRs). Although extensive laboratory studies have been performed to develop technologies for WWT-MFCs, limited information is available for comparative evaluation of MFCs and ASRs in terms of organics removal and waste-sludge production. In the present study, laboratory WWT experiments were performed using cassette-electrode MFCs and ASRs that were continuously supplied either with artificial domestic wastewater (ADW) containing starch and peptone or with artificial industrial wastewater (AIW) containing methanol as the major organic matter. We found that these two types of WWT reactors achieved similar organics-removal efficiencies, namely, over 93% based on chemical oxygen demands for the ADW treatment and over 97% for the AIW treatment. Sludge was routinely removed from these reactors and quantified, showing that amounts of waste sludge produced in MFCs were approximately one-third or less compared to those in ASRs. During WWT, MFCs continuously generated electricity with Coulombic efficiencies of 20% or more. In reference to ASRs, MFCs are demonstrated to be attractive WWT facilities in terms of stable organics removal and low waste-sludge production. Along with the unnecessity of electric power for aeration and the generation of power during WWT, the results obtained in the present study suggest that MFCs enable substantial energy saving during WWT.

  3. Evaluation of improved techniques for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from process wastewater and groundwater: Chabazite zeolite baseline study

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.; Burgess, M.W.; Guo, B.

    1995-04-01

    Standard waste treatment procedures for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from contaminated groundwater and process wastewaters generate large volumes of secondary contaminated wastes. Several new sorbent materials, ion exchangers, and other processes hold the promise of treating large volumes of contaminated water while minimizing the generation of secondary low-level radioactive wastes. As part of the Efficient Separations/Processes-Integrated Program (ESPIP), these new treatment techniques will be compared with standard processes to define their effectiveness for the removal of radioactive strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs), as well as to gauge the quantity of secondary radioactive waste generated by the new processes. This report summarizes the efforts made to design standardized testing procedures to evaluate the sorption characteristics of a baseline wastewater treatment technique. Definition of the experimental procedures, as well as a summary of the benchmark sorption technique, will provide the framework with which to compare newly evolving treatment technologies. Accomplishments include selecting the feed strewn to the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as representative of the prototypical contaminated wastewater of many DOE sites. Samples from the PWTP feed stream were collected and analyzed for metals, anions, total Sr and Cs, radioactive Sr and Cs, alkalinity, pH, and density. The cumulative sample data were used to formulate a simulant that will be used as a standard waste surrogate for comparative testing of selected treatment methods.

  4. Evaluation of the WHO helminth eggs criteria using a QMRA approach for the safe reuse of wastewater and sludge in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Navarro, I; Jiménez, B

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the actual WHO recommendations to develop standards for the safe reuse of wastewater, excreta or sludge in agriculture using a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is presented. The proposed values are defined using a risk-based model for Ascaris lumbricoides infection to assess the human risks associated with exposure to this pathogen from crops irrigated with polluted water, or from crops grown in biosolid-enriched soil. From the results it becomes evident that, with regard to helminth eggs, the WHO guidelines for wastewater reuse in agriculture seem more stringent than are needed in developing countries, while for the reuse of sludge they appear to be the opposite. Although more information is needed to confirm this conclusion, which was derived from a single piece of research, at the very least a more cautious approach is recommended when evaluating excreta or sludge for agricultural purposes in developing countries. Additionally, this work shows that the application of some barriers, other than wastewater and sludge treatment as suggested by WHO, can play an important role in controlling risks.

  5. Impact of untreated wastewater on a major European river evaluated with a combination of in vitro bioassays and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    König, Maria; Escher, Beate I; Neale, Peta A; Krauss, Martin; Hilscherová, Klára; Novák, Jiří; Teodorović, Ivana; Schulze, Tobias; Seidensticker, Sven; Kamal Hashmi, Muhammad Arslan; Ahlheim, Jörg; Brack, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Complex mixtures of micropollutants, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals emitted by wastewater effluents to European rivers may compromise the quality of these water resources and may pose a risk to ecosystem health and abstraction of drinking water. In the present study, an integrated analytical and bioanalytical approach was applied to investigate the impact of untreated wastewater effluents from the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, into the River Danube. The study was based on three on-site large volume solid phase extracted water samples collected upstream and downstream of the untreated wastewater discharge. Chemical screening with liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) was applied together with a battery of in vitro cell-based bioassays covering important steps of the cellular toxicity pathway to evaluate effects on the activation of metabolism (arylhydrocarbon receptor AhR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma PPARγ), specific modes of action (estrogen receptor ERα, androgen receptor AR) and adaptive stress responses (oxidative stress, inflammation). Increased effects, significantly changed contamination patterns and higher chemical concentrations were observed downstream of the wastewater discharge. A mass balance approach showed that enhanced endocrine disruption was in good agreement with concentrations of detected hormones, while only a smaller fraction of the effects on xenobiotic metabolism (<1%) and adaptive stress responses (0-12%) could be explained by the detected chemicals. The chemical and effects patterns observed upstream of the discharge point were fairly re-established at about 7 km downstream, demonstrating the enormous dilution capacity of this large river. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Greenhouse evaluation of struvite and sludges from municipal wastewater treatment works as phosphorus sources for plants.

    PubMed

    Plaza, César; Sanz, Rafael; Clemente, Cristina; Fernández, José M; González, Ricardo; Polo, Alfredo; Colmenarejo, Manuel F

    2007-10-03

    Sewage sludge obtained by a conventional aerobic activated sludge process (CSS), P-rich sewage sludge from an enhanced biological P removal process (PRS), and struvite (MgNH 4PO 4 x 6H 2O) recovered from an anaerobic digester supernatant using a low-grade MgO byproduct from the calcination of natural magnesite as a Mg source (STR) were evaluated as P sources for plant growth. For this purpose, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted using a P-deficient loamy sand soil and perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) as the test crop. The P sources were applied at rates equivalent to 0, 9, 17, 26, 34, and 44 mg/kg P. Single superphosphate (SUP) was used as reference for comparison with the other P sources. The results obtained indicated that STR was as effective as SUP in increasing the dry matter yield and supplying P to ryegrass. Compared to SUP and STR, PRS and especially CSS exhibited less agronomic effectiveness as P sources, which may be attributed, at least partially, to greater soil P fixation because of the larger amount of Fe incorporated with these materials.

  7. Evaluating Contaminants of Emerging Concern as tracers of wastewater from septic systems.

    PubMed

    James, C Andrew; Miller-Schulze, Justin P; Ultican, Shawn; Gipe, Alex D; Baker, Joel E

    2016-09-15

    Bacterial and nutrient contamination from anthropogenic sources impacts fresh and marine waters, reducing water quality and restricting recreational and commercial activities. In many cases the source of this contamination is ambiguous, and a tracer or set of tracers linking contamination to source would be valuable. In this work, the effectiveness of utilizing a suite of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) as tracers of bacteria from human septic system effluent is investigated. Field sampling was performed at more than 20 locations over approximately 18 months and analyzed for a suite of CECs and fecal coliform bacteria. The sampling locations included seeps and small freshwater discharges to the shoreline. Sites were selected and grouped according to level of impact by septic systems as determined by previous field sampling programs. A subset of selected locations had been positively identified as being impacted by effluent from failing septic systems through dye testing. The CECs were selected based on their predominant use, their frequency of use, and putative fate and transport properties. In addition, two rounds of focused sampling were performed at selected sites to characterize short-term variations in CEC and fecal coliform concentrations, and to evaluate environmental persistence following source correction activities. The results indicate that a suite of common use compounds are suitable as generalized tracers of bacterial contamination from septic systems and that fate and transport properties are important in tracer selection. Highly recalcitrant or highly labile compounds likely follow different loss profiles in the subsurface compared to fecal bacteria and are not suitable tracers. The use of more than one tracer compound is recommended due to source variability of septic systems and to account for variations in the subsurface condition. In addition, concentrations of some CECs were measured in receiving waters at levels which suggested the

  8. Evaluation of Gracilaria caudata J. Agardh for bioremediation of nutrients from shrimp farming wastewater.

    PubMed

    Marinho-Soriano, E; Panucci, R A; Carneiro, M A A; Pereira, D C

    2009-12-01

    The accelerated development of shrimp farming in Brazil in recent decades has caused negative impacts to the environment. The most evident effects resulting from this activity is the increase in organic material, the reduction in oxygen and the excessive rise in water nutrients. Thus, there is a need for finding alternative solutions that can mitigate the negative impacts caused by this activity. A potentially viable solution is the use of macroalgae to remove nutrients from the cultivation systems. This study examined in situ (shrimp pond), the growth and storage of nitrogen and phosphorous from the macroalga Gracilaria caudata. A short-term measurement experiment was also conducted to evaluate the bioremediation potential this species. These results showed positive values for biomass and growth during the study period, except at day 45 for the tubular nets and day 75 for the cages, when they reached lower values than those of the initial weight. The results obtained indicate that G. caudata may reach annual production of 59.16 ton ha(-1) of wet weight, which corresponds to 11.83 ton dry weight. Nitrogen and phosphorous content in the algal tissues increased with time. The mean for the period was 2.61+/-0.26% and 0.20+/-0.03% for the nitrogen and phosphorous, respectively. An estimate of the data showed that 1 ha of cultivated algae has the potential to remove 0.309 ton ha(-1) year(-1) of nitrogen and 0.024 ton ha(-1) year(-1) of phosphorous. The study of the biofiltration capacity of G. caudata showed a significant reduction in nutrients. The removal of NH(4)-N was around 59.5%, NO(3)-N 49.6% and PO(4)-P 12.3% in 4 h. These results suggest that although G. caudata showed relatively modest growth rates, they can be cultivated together with shrimp and can contribute to the removal of nitrogen and phosphorous from the pond. Moreover, the capacity to efficiently remove nutrients demonstrated in laboratory experiments encourages the use of this alga as a

  9. Genetic material present in hospital wastewaters: Evaluation of the efficiency of DNA denaturation by ozonolysis and ozonolysis/sonolysis treatments.

    PubMed

    Somensi, Cleder A; Souza, André L F; Simionatto, Edésio L; Gaspareto, Patrick; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-10-01

    Hospital wastewater treatments must ensure that all genetic material is destroyed, since nuclear and extra-nuclear DNA can show antimicrobial resistance and contain recombinant genes, which promote vertical and/or horizontal gene transfer, amplifying the current problem of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. In this study, we investigated whether ozonolysis or ozonolysis/sonolysis in combination can denature genetic material, i.e., destroy the integrity of DNA molecules, present in hospital wastewaters. To achieve this goal, hospital wastewaters were treated by ozonolysis or ozonolysis/sonolysis in combination (at 70 and 100 W L(-1)) and both raw and treated wastewaters were analyzed in terms of disinfection and DNA denaturation efficiency quantified by viable cell counts and by agarose gel electrophoresis. In the ozonolysis treatment, the agarose gel electrophoresis technique showed that the ozone-treated samples contained DNA molecules, while combined ozonolysis/sonolysis destroyed the DNA in a power density-dependent manner (64% at 70 W L(-1) and 81% at 100 W L(-1)). Care must be taken by environmental managers to distinguish disinfection processes from DNA denaturation processes, since these two terms are not synonymous.

  10. Evaluation of an alternative method for wastewater treatment containing pesticides using solar photocatalytic oxidation and constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Berberidou, Chrysanthi; Kitsiou, Vasiliki; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Antoniadis, Αpostolos; Ntonou, Eleftheria; Zalidis, George C; Poulios, Ioannis

    2017-06-15

    The present study proposes an integrated system based on the synergetic action of solar photocatalytic oxidation with surface flow constructed wetlands for the purification of wastewater contaminated with pesticides. Experiments were conducted at pilot scale using simulated wastewater containing the herbicide clopyralid. Three photocatalytic methods under solar light were investigated: the photo-Fenton and the ferrioxalate reagent as well as the combination of photo-Fenton with TiO2 P25, which all led to similar mineralization rates. The subsequent treatment in constructed wetlands resulted in further decrease of DOC and inorganic ions concentrations, especially of NO3(-). Clopyralid was absent in the outlet of the wetlands, while the concentration of the detected intermediates was remarkably low. These findings are in good agreement with the results of phytotoxicity of the wastewater, after treatment with the ferrioxalate/wetlands process, which was significantly reduced. Thus, this integrated system based on solar photocatalysis and constructed wetlands has the potential to effectively detoxify wastewater containing pesticides, producing a purified effluent which could be exploited for reuse applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  12. Performance evaluation of cross-flow membrane system for wastewater reuse from the wood-panels industry.

    PubMed

    Dizge, Nadir

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to perform a series of lab-scale membrane separation experiments under various operating conditions to investigate the performance behaviour of nanofiltration membrane (NF 270) for wastewater reuse from the wood-panels industry. The operating condition effects, e.g. cross-flow velocity (CFV), trans membrane pressure (TMP) and temperature, on the permeate flux and contaminant rejection efficiency were investigated. Moreover, three different samples: (1) raw wastewater collected from the wood-panels industry; (2) ultrafiltration pre-treated wastewater (UF-NF); and (3) coagulation/flocculation pre-treated wastewater (CF-NF) were employed in this study. The UF-NF was proposed as a pre-treatment process because it could reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) effectively with lower energy consumption than CF-NF. The performance of NF 270 membrane was assessed by measurements of the many parameters (pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, COD, suspended solids, total nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, and total phosphate) under various operating conditions. It was noted that the contaminant rejection was affected by changing TMP and CFV. It was concluded that the purified water stream can be recycled into the process for water reuse or safely disposed to the river.

  13. Cost estimation and economical evaluation of three configurations of activated sludge process for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarinejad, Shahryar

    2017-09-01

    The activated sludge (AS) process is a type of suspended growth biological wastewater treatment that is used for treating both municipal sewage and a variety of industrial wastewaters. Economical modeling and cost estimation of activated sludge processes are crucial for designing, construction, and forecasting future economical requirements of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, three configurations containing conventional activated sludge (CAS), extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes for a wastewater treatment plant in Tehran city were proposed and the total project construction, operation labor, maintenance, material, chemical, energy and amortization costs of these WWTPs were calculated and compared. Besides, effect of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) amounts on costs of WWTPs was investigated. Results demonstrated that increase of MLSS decreases the total project construction, material and amortization costs of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS. In addition, increase of this value increases the total operation, maintenance and energy costs, but does not affect chemical cost of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS.

  14. METHOD-SPECIFIC PRECISION AND BIAS RELATIONSHIPS DEVELOPED FROM DATA SUBMITTED DURING USEPA WASTEWATER LABORATORY PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper documents the process used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to estimate the mean and standard deviation of data reported by in-control wastewater laboratories during Water Pollution (WP) studies. This process is then applied to the data rep...

  15. Cost estimation and economical evaluation of three configurations of activated sludge process for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarinejad, Shahryar

    2016-07-01

    The activated sludge (AS) process is a type of suspended growth biological wastewater treatment that is used for treating both municipal sewage and a variety of industrial wastewaters. Economical modeling and cost estimation of activated sludge processes are crucial for designing, construction, and forecasting future economical requirements of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, three configurations containing conventional activated sludge (CAS), extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes for a wastewater treatment plant in Tehran city were proposed and the total project construction, operation labor, maintenance, material, chemical, energy and amortization costs of these WWTPs were calculated and compared. Besides, effect of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) amounts on costs of WWTPs was investigated. Results demonstrated that increase of MLSS decreases the total project construction, material and amortization costs of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS. In addition, increase of this value increases the total operation, maintenance and energy costs, but does not affect chemical cost of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS.

  16. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  17. Integrating chemical analysis and bioanalysis to evaluate the contribution of wastewater effluent on the micropollutant burden in small streams.

    PubMed

    Neale, Peta A; Munz, Nicole A; Aїt-Aїssa, Selim; Altenburger, Rolf; Brion, François; Busch, Wibke; Escher, Beate I; Hilscherová, Klára; Kienle, Cornelia; Novák, Jiří; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Shao, Ying; Stamm, Christian; Hollender, Juliane

    2017-01-15

    Surface waters can contain a range of micropollutants from point sources, such as wastewater effluent, and diffuse sources, such as agriculture. Characterizing the source of micropollutants is important for reducing their burden and thus mitigating adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. In this study, chemical analysis and bioanalysis were applied to assess the micropollutant burden during low flow conditions upstream and downstream of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging into small streams in the Swiss Plateau. The upstream sites had no input of wastewater effluent, allowing a direct comparison of the observed effects with and without the contribution of wastewater. Four hundred and five chemicals were analyzed, while the applied bioassays included activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, activation of the androgen receptor, activation of the estrogen receptor, photosystem II inhibition, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and adaptive stress responses for oxidative stress, genotoxicity and inflammation, as well as assays indicative of estrogenic activity and developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Chemical analysis and bioanalysis showed higher chemical concentrations and effects for the effluent samples, with the lowest chemical concentrations and effects in most assays for the upstream sites. Mixture toxicity modeling was applied to assess the contribution of detected chemicals to the observed effect. For most bioassays, very little of the observed effects could be explained by the detected chemicals, with the exception of photosystem II inhibition, where herbicides explained the majority of the effect. This emphasizes the importance of combining bioanalysis with chemical analysis to provide a more complete picture of the micropollutant burden. While the wastewater effluents had a significant contribution to micropollutant burden downstream, both chemical analysis and bioanalysis showed a relevant contribution of diffuse sources from

  18. Wastewater analysis to monitor use of caffeine and nicotine and evaluation of their metabolites as biomarkers for population size assessment.

    PubMed

    Senta, Ivan; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Borsotti, Andrea; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara

    2015-05-01

    The use of caffeine, nicotine and some major metabolites was investigated by wastewater analysis in 13 sewage treatment plants (STPs) across Italy, and their suitability was tested as qualitative and quantitative biomarkers for assessing population size and dynamics. A specific analytical method based on mass spectrometry was developed and validated in raw urban wastewater, and included two caffeine metabolites, 1-methylxanthine and 7-methylxanthine, never reported in wastewater before. All these compounds were found widely at the μg/L level. Mass loads, calculated by multiplying concentrations by the wastewater daily flow rate and normalized to the population served by each plant, were used to compare the profiles from different cities. Some regional differences were observed in the mass loads, especially for nicotine metabolites, which were significantly higher in the south than in the center and north of Italy, reflecting smoking prevalences from population surveys. There were no significant weekly trends, although the mean mass loads of caffeine and its metabolites were slightly lower during the weekend. Most caffeine and nicotine metabolites fulfilled the requirements for an ideal biomarker for the assessment of population size, i.e. being easily detectable in wastewater, stable in sewage and during sampling, and reflecting human metabolism. Nicotine metabolites were tested as quantitative biomarkers to estimate population size and the results agreed well with census data. Caffeine and its metabolites were confirmed as good qualitative biomarkers, but additional information is needed on the caffeine metabolism in relation to the multiple sources of its main metabolites. This exploratory study opens the way to the routine use of nicotine metabolites for estimating population size and dynamics.

  19. Can wastewater-based epidemiology be used to evaluate the health impact of temperature? - An exploratory study in an Australian population.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Mueller, Jochen; Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake; Dang, Nhung; Morawska, Lidia; Thai, Phong K

    2017-03-22

    Ambient temperature is known to have impact on population health but assessing its impact by the traditional cohort approach is resource intensive. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) could be an alternative for the traditional approach. This study was to provide the first evaluation to see if WBE can be used to assess the impact of temperature exposure to a population in South East Queensland, Australia using selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as biomarkers. Daily loads of eight PPCPs in wastewater collected from a wastewater treatment plant were measured from February 2011 to June 2012. Corresponding daily weather data were obtained from the closest weather station. Missing data of PPCPs were handled using the multiple imputation (MI) method, then we used a one-way between-groups analysis of variance to examine the seasonal effect on daily variation of PPCPs by seasons. Finally, an MI estimate was performed to evaluate the continuous relationship between daily average temperature and each multiply-imputed PPCP using time-series regression analysis. The results indicated that an increase of 1°C in average temperature associated with decrease at 1.3g/d (95% CI: -2.2 to (-0.4), p<0.05) for atenolol, increase at 36.5g/d (95% CI: 25.2-47.8, p<0.01) for acesulfame, and increase at 0.8g/d (95% CI: 0.02-1.55, p=0.05) for naproxen. No significant association was observed between temperature and the remaining PPCPs, comprising: caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, hydrochlorothiazide, and salicylic acid. The findings suggested that consumption of sweetened drinks, risk of worsening cardiovascular conditions and pains are associated with variation in ambient temperature. WBE can thus be used as a complementary method to traditional cohort studies in epidemiological evaluation of the association between environmental factors and health outcomes provided that specific biomarkers of such health outcomes can be identified.

  20. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  1. Evaluation of a second derivative UV/visible spectroscopy technique for nitrate and total nitrogen analysis of wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Ferree, M A; Shannon, R D

    2001-01-01

    A method for nitrate analysis based on second derivative UV/Visible spectroscopy was developed by Simal et al. (1985: Simal J., Lage M. A., and Iglesias I. (1985) Second derivative ultraviolet spectroscopy and sulfamic acid method for determination of nitrates in water. J. Assoc. Analyt. Chem. 68, 962-964) and Suzuki and Kuroda (1987: Suzuki, N. and Kuroda R. (1987) Direct simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite by ultraviolet second-derivative spectrophotometry. Analyst 112, 1077-1079), and later modified for the analysis of total nitrogen in aqueous samples of varying nitrate:organic nitrogen ratios (Crumpton et al., 1992: Crumption W. G., Isenhart T. M. and Mitchell P. D. (1992) Nitrate and organic N analyses with second-derivative spectroscopy. Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 907-913). The procedure uses the second derivative of the absorption spectrum for nitrate (NO3-), which has a peak at approximately 224 nm that is proportional to the NO3- concentration. Samples for total N analysis are first oxidized to NO3- by persulfate digestion. The objectives of this study were to: (1) test the accuracy and precision of the second derivative method through the use of NIST-traceable wastewater check samples; (2) determine whether the second derivative method for nitrate analysis can be used for wastewater samples and whether the method compares favorably with other currently used nitrate analysis methods; and (3) use the method to analyze wastewater samples containing a range of nitrate and total nitrogen concentrations. Our results indicated that the method needed to be modified to include a longer digestion time (60 min) and dilution of samples prior to digestion (if needed). With the modified method, nitrogen recoveries were not significantly different (P > or = 0.05) from samples with known N concentrations. In addition, nitrate concentrations in constructed wetland and wastewater samples analyzed by both second derivative spectroscopy and ion chromatography were

  2. Evaluating the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing a pharmaceutical and personal care product chemical cocktail: compound removal efficiency and effects on juvenile rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Osachoff, Heather L; Mohammadali, Mehrnoush; Skirrow, Rachel C; Hall, Eric R; Brown, Lorraine L Y; van Aggelen, Graham C; Kennedy, Christopher J; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-10-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) can evade degradation in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and can be chronically discharged into the environment, causing concern for aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans that may be exposed to these bioactive chemicals. The ability of a common STP process, conventional activated sludge (CAS), to remove PPCPs (caffeine, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, estrone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, ibuprofen, naproxen, 4-nonylphenol, tonalide, triclocarban and triclosan) from a synthetic wastewater was evaluated in the present study. The removal of individual PPCPs by the laboratory-scale CAS treatment plant ranged from 40 to 99.6%. While the efficiency of removal for some compounds was high, remaining quantities have the potential to affect aquatic organisms even at low concentrations. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to influent recreated model wastewater with methanol (IM, solvent control) or with PPCP cocktail (IC), or CAS-treated effluent wastewater with methanol (EM, treated control) or with PPCP cocktail (EC). Alterations in hepatic gene expression (evaluated using a quantitative nuclease protection plex assay) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) protein concentrations occurred in exposed fish. Although there was partial PPCP removal by CAS treatment, the 20% lower VTG transcript levels and 83% lower plasma VTG protein concentration found in EC-exposed fish compared to IC-exposed fish were not statistically significant. Thus, estrogenic activity found in the influent was retained in the effluent even though typical percent removal levels were achieved raising the issue that greater reduction in contaminant load is required to address hormone active agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the operating performance of conventional versus flocculator secondary clarifiers at the Kuwahee Wastewater Treatment Plant, Knoxville, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Patricio A; Reed, Gregory D

    2007-05-01

    The difference in performance of three differently designed circular secondary clarifiers in the same wastewater treatment plant was analyzed in this paper. Data obtained using flocculated suspended solids and disperse suspended solids tests were analyzed using statistical tools. The conventional clarifier showed more variability in the average effluent suspended solids concentration when compared with the flocculator-clarifiers. Furthermore, a difference in performance among the two different flocculator-clarifiers was found.

  4. Fate and behaviour of copper and zinc in secondary biological wastewater treatment processes: I. Evaluation of biomass adsorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Crane, R S; Barton, P; Cartmell, E; Coulon, F; Hillis, P; Judd, S J; Santos, A; Stephenson, T; Lester, J N

    2010-06-01

    The current sources of copper and zinc in municipal wastewaters have been considered, and the changes in the concentrations and quantities of these two elements entering sewage treatment works over the last three decades have been calculated. The concentrations and quantities of the heavy metals cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc, entering UK sewage treatment works, have been reduced by between 50% and 90% during this period. However, the reductions in copper and zinc appear to be at the lower end of these ranges and thus remain a cause for concern, particularly their concentrations in sewage effluents and their potential environmental impacts on receiving waters. Bench studies have been undertaken to predict removals by three types of biological wastewater treatment plants: trickling filters, conventional activated sludge and membrane bioreactors, to determine if any of these processes are more efficacious for the removal of these metals. These results suggest that, despite membrane bioreactor biomass achieving the lowest effluent suspended solids concentration and having the lowest effluent chemical oxygen demand, which is accepted as a surrogate measure of organic chemical chelating ability of the aqueous phase, they produce the highest effluent values for the two metals in this study (copper and zinc). Removals of zinc and copper in biological wastewater treatment processes are probably primarily determined by those factors influencing metal solubility in the biomass matrix.

  5. Reclamation of the wastewater from an industrial park using hollow-fibre and spiral-wound membranes: 50 m3 d(-1) pilot testing and cost evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Jiaoa, S R; Hung, J M; Lu, C J; Chung, Y J

    2009-08-01

    The feasibility of reclaiming effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plants through a membrane process was evaluated in three phases. In phase 1 we selected nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), each with a design capacity exceeding 10,000 m3 d(-1), and analyzed the corresponding effluent composition. 'Potential recycling percentage', R, ranged from 50% to 80% for the industrial park WWTPs, indicating a high feasibility for the reuse of effluent. In phase 2, a 50 m3 d(-1) pilot plant was installed in one of the selected WWTPs and underwent testing for one year. The quality of the reclaimed water was suitable for general-purpose industrial use. In the two ultrafiltration (UF) modules tested, the hydrophilic polyethersulfone hollow-fibre module was more tolerant to variable properties, and had higher recycling percentages than those of backwashable hydrophobic polyvinylidene difluoride spiral-wound module. Using the spiral-wound UF module helped reduce the cost for producing 1 m3 of reclaimed water (US$0.80) compared with a hollow-fibre module (US$0.88). In phase 3, we evaluated the negative effects of refluxing the reverse osmosis retentate, containing high total dissolved solids and non-biodegradable organics, with the biological treatment unit of the upstream WWTP. Biological compactibility tests showed that the refluxed retentate ratio should be reduced to maintain the conductivity of mixed liquor in the aeration tank at less than 110% of the original value.

  6. Evaluating the mobility of toxic metals in untreated industrial wastewater sludge using a BCR sequential extraction procedure and a leaching test.

    PubMed

    Kazi, T G; Jamali, M K; Kazi, G H; Arain, M B; Afridi, H I; Siddiqui, A

    2005-09-01

    The distribution and speciation of toxic metals in industrial wastewater sludge (IWS) was investigated. In this work, the modified BCR three-stage sequential extraction procedure was applied to the fractionation of Cr Pb Ni, and Cd in untreated industrial wastewater sludge from industrial sites in Hyderabad (Pakistan). The extracts were analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure was evaluated using a certified reference material for soil mixed with sewage sludge BCR 483. The results from the partitioning study indicate that more easily mobilized forms (acid exchangeable) of Cd were dominant. The oxidizable fraction was dominant for all four toxic metals. Metal recovery was good, with <4% difference between the total metal recovered through the extractant steps and the total metal determined after microwave digestion. Lixiviation tests (DIN 38414-S4) were used to evaluate the leaching of toxic species from IWS, and it was observed that levels of leachable toxic metals were low compared to the amount of metal extracted in the exchangeable fraction of the BCR protocol.

  7. Evaluation of the treatability of a winery distillery (vinasse) wastewater by UASB, anoxic-aerobic UF-MBR and chemical precipitation/adsorption.

    PubMed

    Petta, Luigi; De Gisi, Sabino; Casella, Patrizia; Farina, Roberto; Notarnicola, Michele

    2017-10-01

    A multi-stage pilot-scale treatment cycle consisting of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB) followed by an anoxic-aerobic Ultra Filtration Membrane Bio Reactor (UF-MBR) and a post treatment based on chemical precipitation with lime or adsorption on Granular Activated Carbons (GAC), was applied in order to evaluate the treatment feasibility of a real winery distillery wastewater at laboratory and bench scale. The wastewater was classified as high strength with acidic pH (3.8), and concentrations of 44,600, 254, 604 and 660 mg/l for CODtot, total nitrogen, total phosphorous and phenols, respectively. The UASB reactor was operated at Organic Loading Rates (OLR) in the range 3.0-11.5 kgCODtot/m(3)/d achieving treatment efficiency up to 97%, with an observed methane production of 340 L of CH4/kgCOD. The MBR system was operated with an organic load in the range 0.070-0.185 kgCOD/kgVSS/d, achieving a removal up to 48%, 67% and 65% of the influent COD, total nitrogen and phenols, respectively. The combination of UASB and UF-MBR treatment units was not effective in phosphate and colour removal assigning to further chemical precipitation and adsorption processes, respectively, their complete removal in order to comply with legal standards for wastewater discharge. Subsequently, the optimization of the investigated treatment chain was assessed by applying a chemical precipitation step upstream and downstream the UASB reactor, and a related treatment unit cost assessment is presented in view of a further technological scale-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the process performance of a down-flow hanging sponge reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Yuma; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Banjongproo, Pathan; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Onodera, Takashi; Okadera, Tomohiro; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2017-08-24

    This study assesses the performance of an aerobic trickling filter, down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor, as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology. Also, the characteristic eukaryotic community structure in DHS reactor was investigated. Long-term operation of a DHS reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater (COD = 150-170 mg/L and BOD = 60-90 mg/L) was performed under the average ambient temperature ranged from 28°C to 31°C in Bangkok, Thailand. Throughout the evaluation period of 550 days, the DHS reactor at a hydraulic retention time of 3 h showed better performance than the existing oxidation ditch process in the removal of organic carbon (COD removal rate = 80-83% and BOD removal rate = 91%), nitrogen compounds (total nitrogen removal rate = 45-51% and NH4(+)-N removal rate = 95-98%), and low excess sludge production (0.04 gTS/gCOD removed). The clone library based on the 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequence revealed that phylogenetic diversity of 18S rRNA gene in the DHS reactor was higher than that of the present oxidation ditch process. Furthermore, the DHS reactor also demonstrated sufficient COD and NH4(+)-N removal efficiency under flow rate fluctuation conditions that simulates a small-scale treatment facility. The results show that a DHS reactor could be applied as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology in tropical regions such as Bangkok, Thailand.

  9. Pepper mild mottle virus as an indicator and a tracer of fecal pollution in water environments: comparative evaluation with wastewater-tracer pharmaceuticals in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Nakada, Norihide; Hanamoto, Seiya; Inaba, Manami; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Do, An Thuan; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Oguma, Kumiko; Hayashi, Takeshi; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2015-02-15

    We analyzed pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) in 36 samples taken from surface water, wastewater, groundwater, tap water and bottled water in Hanoi, Vietnam. We then compared the occurrence and fates of PMMoV with pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), which are known wastewater tracers. PMMoV was detected in 94% of the surface water samples (ponds, water from irrigated farmlands and rivers) and in all the wastewater samples. The PMMoV concentration ranged from 5.5×10(6)-7.2×10(6)copies/L in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents, 6.5×10(5)-8.5×10(5)copies/L in WWTP effluents and 1.0×10(4)-1.8×10(6)copies/L in surface water. Among the sixty PPCPs analyzed, caffeine and carbamazepine had high detection rates in surface water (100% and 88%, respectively). In surface water, the concentration ratio of PMMoV to caffeine remained unchanged than that in WWTP influents, suggesting that the persistence of PMMoV in surface water was comparable to that of caffeine. The persistence and the large concentration ratio of PMMoV in WWTP influents to the method detection limit would account for its ubiquitous detection in surface water. In comparison, human enteric viruses (HEV) were less frequently detected (18-59%) than PMMoV in surface water, probably because of their faster decay. Together with the reported high human feces-specificity, our results suggested that PMMoV is useful as a sensitive fecal indicator for evaluating the potential occurrence of pathogenic viruses in surface water. Moreover, PMMoV can be useful as a moderately conservative fecal tracer for specifically tracking fecal pollution of surface water. PMMoV was detected in 38% of the groundwater samples at low concentrations (up to 19copies/L). PMMoV was not detected in the tap water and bottled water samples. In groundwater, tap water and bottled water samples, the occurrence of PPCPs and HEV disagreed with that of PMMoV, suggesting that PMMoV is not suitable as an indicator or a tracer in

  10. Evaluation of the Brinecell{reg_sign} electrochemical oxidation unit for destruction of noncyanide strippers and other colored compounds in wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wikoff, P.M.; Suciu, D.F.

    1994-08-01

    The noncyanide strippers used in the plating operations at Kelly Air Force Base, in San Antonio, Texas, develop an intense red color during use. Currently, the spent strippers cannot be treated in the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant because, even after biological treatment, the color remains too high for discharge. The Brinecell{reg_sign} process was evaluated for its application in treating the spent stripping solutions. The Brinecell{reg_sign} produces strong oxidizing agents that could treat the color causing compounds. The Brinecell{reg_sign} process was used to treat a 1 to 400 dilution of spent Clepo 204-T at 50 C and 60 g/L salt. After 8 hours of treatment, the color remaining was 8 units and the solution appeared colorless. Treatment of the Metalx B-9 reduced the color to 60 units. The effect of salt concentration, solution temperature, and solution pH was evaluated on the Brinecell{reg_sign} treatment process.

  11. Comparative evaluation on the performance of bio-rack and shallow pond systems for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Valipour, A; Raman, V K; Badaliansgholikandi, G

    2012-10-01

    Constructed wetlands have been used successfully for treatment of wastewater during the last decades. The bio-rack and shallow pond systems are well engineered wetland process in wastewater treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the potential use of bio-rack and shallow pond systems for domestic wastewater treatment either in presence of high total dissolved solids (TDS) or heavy metal salts. The sewage treatment performance indicates 75.15% & 80.93% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 86.59% & 90.90% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 27.54% & 15.98% total dissolved solids (TDS), 73.13% & 70.31% total suspended solids (TSS), 8.86% & 3.61% Chlorides, 70.22% & 74.18% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 31.71% & 41.24% phosphate (PO4-P), 92.11% & 96.45% most probable number (MPN) and 93.05% & 98.24% total viable count (TVC) reduction at 10 & 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) in bio-rack and shallow pond system respectively. Likewise, the Phragmites sp. and water hyacinth can tolerate TDS up to 9000 and 2000 mg/L. The reduction in TDS is minor (14 & 19%) at the highest tolerable limit whereas the heavy metal reduction is 68 & 65%, 69 & 67%, 67 & 63%, 71 & 69% for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in bio-rack and shallow pond system respectively. The overall studies indicate the better treatment efficiency in bio-rack system at low foot print area (91 m2) compared to shallow pond system.

  12. Process Design and Cost Estimating Algorithms for the Computer Assisted Procedure for Design and Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Systems (CAPDET).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    wastewaters for the removal of ammonia by air-stripping process. 2.11.4.1.5 Regeneration of spent clinoptilolite , an ammonia selective ion exchange...Settleable solids (ml/1) 20 10 5 Total nitrogen (as N) 60 40 20 Free ammonia (as NH3 ) 30 15 10 Total phosphorus (as P) 20 10 5 Chlorides (as Cl) 150...concentration, mg/i1. NH3E - effluent ammonia nitrogen concentration, mg/i. 0 2.1- 12 2.1.9.3.15.4 Phosphorus. P04E (0.7) (P04) O where PO4E

  13. Critical evaluation of monitoring strategy for the multi-residue determination of 90 chiral and achiral micropollutants in effluent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Bruce; Proctor, Kathryn; Youdan, Jane; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    It is essential to monitor the release of organic micropollutants from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for developing environmental risk assessment and assessing compliance with legislative regulation. In this study the impact of sampling strategy on the quantitative determination of micropollutants in effluent wastewater was investigated. An extended list of 90 chiral and achiral micropollutants representing a broad range of biological and physico-chemical properties were studied simultaneously for the first time. During composite sample collection micropollutants can degrade resulting in the under-estimation of concentration. Cooling collected sub-samples to 4°C stabilised ≥81 of 90 micropollutants to acceptable levels (±20% of the initial concentration) in the studied effluents. However, achieving stability for all micropollutants will require an integrated approach to sample collection (i.e., multi-bottle sampling with more than one stabilisation method applied). Full-scale monitoring of effluent revealed time-paced composites attained similar information to volume-paced composites (influent wastewater requires a sampling mode responsive to flow variation). The option of monitoring effluent using time-paced composite samplers is advantageous as not all WWTPs have flow controlled samplers or suitable sites for deploying portable flow meters. There has been little research to date on the impact of monitoring strategy on the determination of chiral micropollutants at the enantiomeric level. Variability in wastewater flow results in a dynamic hydraulic retention time within the WWTP (and upstream sewerage system). Despite chiral micropollutants being susceptible to stereo-selective degradation, no diurnal variability in their enantiomeric distribution was observed. However, unused medication can be directly disposed into the sewer network creating short-term (e.g., daily) changes to their enantiomeric distribution. As enantio-specific toxicity is observed

  14. Adsorption studies of molasse's wastewaters on activated carbon: modelling with a new fractal kinetic equation and evaluation of kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Figaro, S; Avril, J P; Brouers, F; Ouensanga, A; Gaspard, S

    2009-01-30

    Adsorption kinetic of molasses wastewaters after anaerobic digestion (MSWD) and melanoidin respectively on activated carbon was studied at different pH. The kinetic parameters could be determined using classical kinetic equations and a recently published fractal kinetic equation. A linear form of this equation can also be used to fit adsorption data. Even with lower correlation coefficients the fractal kinetic equation gives lower normalized standard deviation values than the pseudo-second order model generally used to fit adsorption kinetic data, indicating that the fractal kinetic model is much more accurate for describing the kinetic adsorption data than the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

  15. Optimization and modelling of synthetic azo dye wastewater treatment using Graphene oxide nanoplatelets: Characterization toxicity evaluation and optimization using Artificial Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priya; Sau, Shubhra; Das, Papita; Mukhopadhayay, Aniruddha

    2015-09-01

    Azo dyes pose a major threat to current civilization by appearing in almost all streams of wastewater. The present investigation was carried out to examine the potential of Graphene oxide (GO) nanoplatelets as an efficient, cost-effective and non-toxic azo dye adsorbent for efficient wastewater treatment. The treatment process was optimized using Artificial Neural Network for maximum percentage dye removal and evaluated in terms of varying operational parameters, process kinetics and thermodynamics. A brief toxicity assay was also designed using fresh water snail Bellamya benghalensis to analyze the quality of the treated solution. 97.78% removal of safranin dye was obtained using GO as adsorbent. Characterization of GO nanoplatelets (using SEM, TEM, AFM and FTIR) reported the changes in its structure as well as surface morphology before and after use and explained its prospective as a good and environmentally benign adsorbent in very low quantities. The data recorded when subjected to different isotherms best fitted the Temkin isotherm. Further analysis revealed the process to be endothermic and chemisorption in nature. The verdict of the toxicity assay rendered the treated permeate as biologically safe for discharge or reuse in industrial and domestic purposes.

  16. Evaluation of methanogenic treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Hu, T H; Whang, L M; Lei, C N; Chen, C F; Chiang, T Y; Lin, L B; Chen, H W; Liu, P W G; Cheng, S S

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated TMAH biodegradation under methanogenic conditions. Under methanogenic conditions, a sludge from a full-scale UASB treating TFT-LCD wastewater was able to degrade 2,000 mg/L of TMAH within 10 h and attained a specific degradation rate of 19.2 mgTMAH/gVSS-h. Furthermore, several chemicals including some surfactants, DMSO, and sulfate were examined for their potential inhibitory effects on TMAH biodegradation under methanogenic conditions. The results indicated that surfactant S1 (up to 2%) and DMSO (up to 1,000 mg/L) presented negligible inhibitory effects on TMAH degradation, while surfactant S2 (0.2-1%) might inhibit methanogenic reaction without any TMAH degradation for 3-5 h. At sulfate concentrations higher than 300 mg/L, a complete inhibition of methanogenic reaction and TMAH biodegradation was observed. Results from cloning and sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina mazei were the dominant methanogens in the UASB treating TMAH-containing TFT-LCD wastewater.

  17. An evaluation of duckweed-based pond systems as an alternative option for decentralised treatment and reuse of wastewater in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nhapi, I; Dalu, J; Ndamba, J; Siebel, M A; Gijzen, H J

    2003-01-01

    A study was carried out in Zimbabwe to evaluate the performance of duckweed ponds as an option for treating and reusing wastewater in small, decentralised communities. The study focused on nitrogen and phosphorus removal, operational problems, and duckweed application. Two full-scale trial plants at Nemanwa and Gutu-Mupandawana growth points were used. Sewage samples were collected and analysed monthly from September 2000 to August 2001 for NO3, NH4(-)1 TKN, TP, COD, and other field measurements. The duckweed was harvested daily and fed to chickens. The Nemanwa plant had high nutrient levels due to nil outflows caused by water rationing in the area. The Gutu effluent had averages of 38.7 +/- 23.1 mg/l TN and 7.5 +/- 2.4 mg/l TP which are above the respective Zimbabwean standards of 10 mg/l TN and 1 mg/l TP. COD removal efficiency at Gutu was poor at 45%. The performance of Gutu and Nemanwa plants suffered from inappropriate design especially pond depth and short-circuiting. The duckweed died off in the November-January period, this being attributed to excessive levels of ammonia. It was concluded that the duckweed pond systems would offer a good alternative for managing and reusing wastewater at community level provided due regard is paid to appropriate design criteria.

  18. Evaluation of various liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry operation modes applied to the analysis of organic pollutants in wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Bueno, María Jesús Martínez; Agüera, Ana; Hernando, María Dolores; Gómez, María José; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2009-08-07

    The LC-MS/MS analysis of a group of 14 organic pollutants in wastewater--including pharmaceuticals (analgesics/anti-inflammatories, lipid regulators and diuretics), pesticides (diuron) and disinfectants (chlorophene)--has been carried out using a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). In order to take advantage of the capabilities of the QqLIT system, two methods have been developed and compared, based on the application of different operation modes. One of them uses selected reaction monitoring (SRM), which is the standard mode for quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis. The other is based on the use of an information dependent acquisition scan function (IDA), which allows the combination of a SRM acting as the survey scan and an enhanced product ion scan (EPI) as dependent scan within the same analysis. Performance of both methods was compared, especially in terms of their limits of detection and identification capability. The advantages and limitations of both techniques are discussed. Finally, the two methodologies developed were applied to real samples for evaluation of effluent wastewater in a treatment plant on the south-eastern Mediterranean coast of Spain. The presence of most of the target compounds was detected at mean concentrations ranging from 50 ng/L (mefenamic acid) to 3373 ng/L (hydrochlorothiazide).

  19. Reverse electrodialysis performed at pilot plant scale: Evaluation of redox processes and simultaneous generation of electric energy and treatment of wastewater.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Adriana; Tedesco, Michele; Cipollina, Andrea; Galia, Alessandro; Micale, Giorgio; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2017-08-08

    This paper describes the experimental campaign carried out with a reverse electrodialysis (RED) demonstration plant (Marsala, Italy) with the main aims of: (i) evaluating the effect of various operating parameters, including the redox processes, on the system performances; (ii) using the plant for the simultaneous generation of electric energy and treatment of wastewater. The prototype (44 × 44 cm(2), 500 cell pairs) was tested using both real (brackish water and brine) and artificial solutions. Tests with two different electrode rinse solutions (with or without iron redox couples) were performed. In agreement with the data obtained in the laboratory, the presence of iron ions contributes positively to the power production. The effect of flow rates in the electrode and saline compartments, as well as aging of the electrode rinse solution was also investigated. The possibility to remove an organic pollutant (the azoic dye Acid Orange 7) from the electrode solution was tested, obtaining a very fast and total removal of the pollutant. This experimental campaign represents the first demonstration in a real environment of the abilities of a RED plant to treat wastewater, thus giving useful indications for the spreading of RED technology in the near future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Aquatic toxicity evaluation of TiO2 nanoparticle produced from sludge of TiCl4 flocculation of wastewater and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. C.; Kim, S.; Shon, H. K.; Vigneswaran, S.; Kim, S. D.; Cho, J.; Kim, In S.; Choi, K. H.; Kim, J. B.; Park, H. J.; Kim, J.-H.

    2009-11-01

    Flocculation using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as a coagulant is an efficient and economical application because the flocculated sludge can be recycled to produce a valuable byproduct, namely titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. However, toxicity of TiCl4 has not yet been assessed while it is used in water treatment. The aquatic toxicity of TiCl4 flocculation process was investigated to assess the environmental safety of the coagulant. D. magna and V. fischeri bioassays were carried out to evaluate the supernatant toxicity after TiCl4 flocculation. Artificial wastewater, biologically treated sewage effluent, and seawater were used to study the toxicity of TiCl4 flocculation. Results showed that supernatant toxicity was very low when TiCl4 flocculation was conducted (no observed effect concentration = 100 mg/L and lowest observed effect concentration = 150 mg/L exposed to D. magna and V. fischeri, respectively). Similarly, TiO2 nanoparticles recovered from wastewater and seawater flocculated sludge were also found to have low toxicity. The regenerated TiO2 nanoparticles indicated low toxicity values when compared to the commercial-TiO2 nanoparticle, P-25.

  1. Application of ICP-OES for evaluating energy extraction and production wastewater discharge impacts on surface waters in Western Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Norris, Gary A; Landis, Matthew S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; McGee, John K; Kamal, Ali S

    2015-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to quantify inorganic species in wastewater and river samples using a method based on EPA Method 200.7 rev4.4. A total of 53 emission lines from 30 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, and Zn) were investigated. Samples were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion using a mixture of 2% HNO3 and 0.5% HCl. Lower interferences and better detection characteristics resulted in selection of alternative wavelengths for Al, As, Sb, Mg, Mo, and Na. Radial view measurements offered accurate determinations of Al, Ba, K, Li, Na, and Sr in high-brine samples. Spike recovery studies and analyses of reference materials showed 80-105% recoveries for most analytes. This method was used to quantify species in samples with high to low brine concentrations with method detection limits a factor of 2 below the maximum contaminant limit concentrations of national drinking water standards. Elements B, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, and Sr were identified as potential tracers for the sources impacting PDWS intakes. Usability of the ICP-OES derived data for factor analytic model applications was also demonstrated.

  2. Performance evaluation of a two-phase anaerobic digestion process of synthetic domestic wastewater at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, L; Montalvo, S; Coronado, E; Chamy, R; Poirrier, P; Crutchik, D; Sánchez, E; De La Rubia, M A; Borja, R

    2009-06-01

    A two-phase anaerobic digestion process of synthetic domestic wastewater was studied at ambient temperature in mild to cold climates. The hydrolytic stage was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor with an effective volume of 1.2 L. The hydrolytic reactor operated at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 1.3 to 2.7 h, which allowed for optimum HRT to be obtained in order to achieve a maximum amount of soluble COD. For the methanogenic stage, an up-flow anaerobic filter with a volume of 1.35 L and corrugated plastic rings as biomass immobilization support were used. During the investigation, the ambient temperature ranged between 21 degrees C and 24 degrees C. Synthetic domestic wastewater with a COD of 700 mg/L was used as substrate. The study was performed at total organic loading rates (OLR(T)) of 2.0-4.3 g COD/L. d, with a global HRT (including both hydrolytic and methanogenic stages) of 2.8-5.8 hours. A maximum percentage of organic matter removed of 88% was achieved at a global HRT of 5.8 hours. Under these operating conditions, the production of biogas was 97% higher than that obtained in the one-phase anaerobic digestion process. Additionally, the kinetics involved in the hydrolytic stage was determined using the Contois kinetic model, which adequately predicted the experimental results.

  3. The solids retention time-a suitable design parameter to evaluate the capacity of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Clara, M; Kreuzinger, N; Strenn, B; Gans, O; Kroiss, H

    2005-01-01

    Micropollutants as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) or pharmaceuticals are of increased interest in water pollution control. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are relevant point sources for residues of these compounds in the aquatic environment. The solids retention time (SRT) is one important parameter for the design of WWTPs, relating to growth rate of microorganisms and to effluent concentrations. If a specific substance is degraded in dependency on the SRT, a critical value for the sludge age can be determined. In WWTPs operating SRTs below this critical value, effluent concentrations in the range of influent concentrations or a distribution according to the adsorption equilibrium have to be expected, whereas in WWTPs operating at SRTs higher than the critical value degradation will occur. Critical SRTs were determined for different micropollutants, indicating that the design criteria based on the sludge age allows an estimation of emissions. Different treatment technologies as conventional activated sludge systems and a membrane bioreactor were considered and no significant differences in the treatment efficiency were detected when operated at comparable SRT. The results of the investigations lead to the conclusion that low effluent concentrations can be achieved in WWTPs operating SRTs higher than 10 days (referred to a temperature of 10 degrees C). This corresponds to the requirements for WWTPs situated in sensitive areas according to the urban wastewater directive of the European Community (91/271/EEC) in moderate climatic zones.

  4. Removal of hydrogen sulfide generated during anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewater using biochar: Evaluation of efficiency and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kanjanarong, Jarupat; Giri, Balendu S; Jaisi, Deb P; Oliveira, Fernanda R; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Chaiprapat, Sumate; Singh, R S; Balakrishna, Avula; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from biogas was investigated in a biochar column integrated with a bench-scale continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating sulfate-laden wastewater. Synthetic wastewater containing sulfate concentrations of 200-2000mg SO4(2-)/L was used as substrate, and the CSTR was operated at an organic loading rate of 1.5g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L·day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20days. The biochar was able to remove about 98.0 (±1.2)% of H2S for the ranges of concentrations from 105-1020ppmv, especially at high moisture content (80-85%). Very high H2S adsorption capacity (up to 273.2±1.9mg H2S/g) of biochar is expected to enhance the H2S oxidation into S(0) and sulfate. These findings bring a potentially novel application of sulfur-rich biochar as a source of sulfur, an essential but often deficient micro-nutrient in soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

    2014-09-15

    In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plug-flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10 weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2-3 days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH4 or N2O peak emissions. CH4 emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N2O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH4 and N2O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system.

  6. Preparation and Evaluation of Titanium-Based Xerogel as a Promising Coagulant for Water/Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Li, Minghui; Song, Xiaojie; Chen, Zhihao; Wu, Bingdang; Zhang, Shujuan

    2016-09-06

    The nontoxicity of titanium (Ti) and the potential to produce valuable photocatalysts from the final coagulated sludge constitute the main advantages of Ti-based coagulants over conventional ones. However, the low effluent pH and the too-fast hydrolysis limit the wide application of Ti-salt coagulants. Prehydrolysis, to some extent, is helpful to improve the coagulation performance of Ti-salt coagulants. However, the prehydrolyzed polytitanium chloride (PTC) still suffers from narrow applicable dose/pH range. A novel and efficient Ti-based coagulant, denoted as titanium xerogel coagulant (TXC), was successfully prepared by the sol-gel method with TiCl4 as the precursor and acetylacetone as a modifying agent. Compared with TiCl4, a PTC, and a commercial polyferric sulfate, the resulting TXC possessed a larger floc size, better settling property, and wider applicable coagulant dose/pH range. Moreover, the effluent pH after TXC coagulation was not significantly reduced, avoiding the corrosion problem sometimes caused by the low effluent pH. TXC exhibited good coagulation performance for several real wastewaters, especially for the wastewaters of low turbidity. These results demonstrate that gelation was a more effective strategy than prehydrolysis to overcome the inherent weaknesses of Ti salts as a type of promising coagulants.

  7. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance genes in four municipal wastewater treatment plants in Harbin, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Duan, Ruan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms is of great concern for public health. In this study, the distribution and removal efficiency of intI1 and eight subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for tetracycline, sulfonamides, beta-lactams resistance in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Harbin, which locates in Songhua River basin in cold areas of China, were monitored by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that intI1 and 6 ARGs except for blaTEM and blaSHV were detected in wastewater and sludge samples and 0.3-2.7 orders of magnitude of ARGs removal efficiency in the four WWTPs were observed. The investigation on the removal of ARGs of different treatment units in one WWTP showed that the biological treatment unit played the most important role in ARGs removal (1.2-1.8 orders of magnitude), followed by UV disinfection, while primary physical treatment units can hardly remove any ARGs. Although all the WWTPs can remove ARGs effectively, ARGs concentrations are still relatively high in the effluent, their further attenuation should be investigated.

  8. Methods to Evaluate Influence of Onsite Septic Wastewater-Treatment Systems on Base Flow in Selected Watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia, October 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Ankcorn, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of onsite septic wastewater-treatment systems (OWTS) on base-flow quantity needs to be understood to evaluate consumptive use of surface-water resources by OWTS. If the influence of OWTS on stream base flow can be measured and if the inflow to OWTS is known from water-use data, then water-budget approaches can be used to evaluate consumptive use. This report presents a method to evaluate the influence of OWTS on ground-water recharge and base-flow quantity. Base flow was measured in Gwinnett County, Georgia, during an extreme drought in October 2007 in 12 watersheds that have low densities of OWTS (22 to 96 per square mile) and 12 watersheds that have high densities (229 to 965 per square mile) of OWTS. Mean base-flow yield in the high-density OWTS watersheds is 90 percent greater than in the low-density OWTS watersheds. The density of OWTS is statistically significant (p-value less than 0.01) in relation to base-flow yield as well as specific conductance. Specific conductance of base flow increases with OWTS density, which may indicate influence from treated wastewater. The study results indicate considerable unexplained variation in measured base-flow yield for reasons that may include: unmeasured processes, a limited dataset, and measurement errors. Ground-water recharge from a high density of OWTS is assumed to be steady state from year to year so that the annual amount of increase in base flow from OWTS is expected to be constant. In dry years, however, OWTS contributions represent a larger percentage of natural base flow than in wet years. The approach of this study could be combined with water-use data and analyses to estimate consumptive use of OWTS.

  9. Bioindicators of wastewater ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jirova, Gabriela; Wittlingerova, Zdenka; Zimova, Magdalena; Vlkova, Alena; Wittlerova, Martina; Dvorakova, Marketa; Jirova, Dagmar

    2016-12-18

    Wastewater, especially containing hospital effluents, exhibits high chemical complexity and specificity since it includes various chemicals, biocides, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, radionuclides, disinfectants and pathogens. Biological tests provide true evidence of the wastewater quality and unlike chemical analytical tests show comprehensive pollution effects on the environment and human health. Normalized conventional bioassays are not sensitive enough for ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater and there is a great need for the development of suitable sensitive bioassays in order to characterize properly the residual toxicity of treated effluents. Provisions of binding EU legislation regarding protection of animals used for scientific purposes and legislation dealing with test methods for identification and classification of health hazard of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, medical devices and consumer products such as cosmetics for environmental ecosystems and for man require to employ alternative toxicological methods respecting the 3Rs concept with priority given to methods in vitro. The Fish Embryo Test (FET) is identified as a relevant, reliable and efficient alternative test method in vitro for determination of acute toxicity for fish. Using the FET, additional toxicological endpoints may be investigated to assess organ specific bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and mutagenicity, developmental toxicity, teratogenicity, various forms of neurotoxicity or endocrine disruptivity. The addition of multiparametric sensitive endpoints makes the FET a true alternative in vitro assay and a powerful tool in toxicology.

  10. Anaerobic treatment of complex chemical wastewater in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor: process optimization and evaluation of factor interactions using the Taguchi dynamic DOE methodology.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Chandrasekhara Rao, N; Krishna Prasad, K; Murali Krishna, P; Sreenivas Rao, R; Sarma, P N

    2005-06-20

    The Taguchi robust experimental design (DOE) methodology has been applied on a dynamic anaerobic process treating complex wastewater by an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR). For optimizing the process as well as to evaluate the influence of different factors on the process, the uncontrollable (noise) factors have been considered. The Taguchi methodology adopting dynamic approach is the first of its kind for studying anaerobic process evaluation and process optimization. The designed experimental methodology consisted of four phases--planning, conducting, analysis, and validation connected sequence-wise to achieve the overall optimization. In the experimental design, five controllable factors, i.e., organic loading rate (OLR), inlet pH, biodegradability (BOD/COD ratio), temperature, and sulfate concentration, along with the two uncontrollable (noise) factors, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and alkalinity at two levels were considered for optimization of the anae robic system. Thirty-two anaerobic experiments were conducted with a different combination of factors and the results obtained in terms of substrate degradation rates were processed in Qualitek-4 software to study the main effect of individual factors, interaction between the individual factors, and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio analysis. Attempts were also made to achieve optimum conditions. Studies on the influence of individual factors on process performance revealed the intensive effect of OLR. In multiple factor interaction studies, biodegradability with other factors, such as temperature, pH, and sulfate have shown maximum influence over the process performance. The optimum conditions for the efficient performance of the anaerobic system in treating complex wastewater by considering dynamic (noise) factors obtained are higher organic loading rate of 3.5 Kg COD/m3 day, neutral pH with high biodegradability (BOD/COD ratio of 0.5), along with mesophilic temperature range (40 degrees C), and

  11. Evaluation of sample preparation methods for the detection of total metal content using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in wastewater and sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimpe, K. M.; Ngila, J. C.; Mabuba, N.; Nomngongo, P. N.

    Heavy metal contamination exists in aqueous wastes and sludge of many industrial discharges and domestic wastewater, among other sources. Determination of metals in the wastewater and sludge requires sample pre-treatment prior to analysis because of certain challenges such as the complexity of the physical state of the sample, which may lead to wrong readings in the measurement. This is particularly the case with low analyte concentration to be detected by the instrument. The purpose of this work was to assess and validate the different sample preparation methods namely, hot plate and microwave-assisted digestion procedures for extraction of metal ions in wastewater and sludge samples prior to their inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric (ICP-OES) determination. For the extraction of As, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, three acid mixtures, that is, HNO3/H2O2, HNO3/HClO4/H2O2 and aqua regia + H2O2, were evaluated. Influent wastewater spiked with the SRM (CWW-TM-B) was used for the optimization of acid mixtures affecting the extraction procedure. After sample digestion, the filtration capabilities of cellulose-acetate filter paper and the acrodisc syringe filter with the pore size of 0.45 μm were compared. In terms of performance, acrodisc syringe filter in terms of the improved recoveries obtained, was found to be the best filtration method compared to the filter paper. Based on the analytical results obtained, microwave-assisted digestion (MAD) using aqua regia + H2O2 mixture was found to be the most suitable method for extraction of heavy metals and major elements in all the sample matrices. Therefore, MAD using aqua regia + H2O2 mixture was used for further investigations. The precision of the developed MAD method expressed in terms of relative standard deviations (% RSD) for different metals was found to be <5%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.12% to 2.18 μg L-1 and 0.61% to 3.43 μg L-1

  12. Kinetic evaluation and performance of a mesophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating medium-strength food-processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, E; Ince, M; Onkal Engin, G

    2010-06-01

    High rate mesophilic anaerobic contact reactors (MACR) represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of different industrial effluents. These reactors demonstrate quite similar features to their aerobic counterparts, activated sludge systems. A lab-scale high rate mesophilic anaerobic contact reactor was operated with wastewater originated from a potato-processing plant, at six different loading rates of 1.1-5g COD/L per day. The operational performance of MACR was monitored from start-up by assessing COD removal efficiency, total volatile fatty acid production and biogas composition. Furthermore, various kinetic models have been successfully applied to the experimental data to determine substrate balance, maximum utilization rate and volumetric methane production. The COD removal efficiencies were found to be 78-92% and the methane percentage of the biogas produced was 80-89%. Additionally, the methane yield coefficient was found to be 0.394 L CH(4)/gTCOD(rem).

  13. Evaluation of a long-term operation of a submerged nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF MBR) for advanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Choi, J H; Fukushi, K; Ng, H Y; Yamamoto, K

    2006-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is considered as one of the most promising separation technologies to obtain a very good-quality permeate in water and wastewater treatment. A submerged NF membrane bioreactor (NF MBR) using polyamide membranes was tested for a long-term operation and the performance of the NF MBR was compared with that of a microfiltration MBR (MF MBR). Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the permeate of the NF MBR ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/L, whereas that of the MF MBR showed an average of 5 mg/L. This could be explained by the tightness of the NF membrane. Although the concentration of organic matter in the supernatant of the NF MBR was higher than that in the permeate due to high rejection by the NF membrane, the NF MBR showed excellent treatment efficiency and satisfactory operational stability for a long-term operation.

  14. Evaluation of starch-based flocculants for the flocculation of dissolved organic matter from textile dyeing secondary wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hu; Liu, Zhouzhou; Li, Aimin; Yang, Hu

    2017-05-01

    China is a major textile manufacturer in the world; as a result, large quantities of dyeing effluents are generated every year in the country. In this study, the performances of two cationic starch-based flocculants with different chain architectures, i.e., starch-graft-poly[(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride] (STC-g-PDMC) and starch-3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (STC-CTA), in flocculating dissolved organic matter (DOM) in dyeing secondary effluents were investigated and compared with that of polyaluminum chloride (PAC). In the exploration of the flocculation mechanisms, humic acid (HA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were selected as main representatives of DOM in textile dyeing secondary effluents, which were humic/fulvic acid-like and protein-like extracellular matters according to the studied wastewater's characteristics based on its three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectrum. According to experimental results of the flocculation of both the real and synthetic wastewaters, STC-g-PDMC with cationic branches had remarkable advantages over STC-CTA and PAC because of the more efficient charge neutralization and bridging flocculation effects of STC-g-PDMC. Another interesting finding in this study was the reaggregation phenomenon after restabilization at an overdose during the flocculation of BSA effluents by STC-g-PDMC at a very narrow pH range under a nearly neutral condition. This phenomenon might be ascribed to the formation of STC-g-PDMC/BSA complexes induced by some local charge interactions between starch-based flocculant and the amino acid fragments of protein due to charge patch effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the giant reed (Arundo donax) in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands for the treatment of dairy processing factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Idris, Shaharah Mohd; Jones, Paul L; Salzman, Scott A; Croatto, George; Allinson, Graeme

    2012-09-01

    Two emergent macrophytes, Arundo donax and Phragmites australis, were established in experimental horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF), gravel-based constructed wetlands (CWs) and challenged by treated dairy processing factory wastewater with a median electrical conductivity of 8.9 mS cm(-1). The hydraulic loading rate was tested at 3.75 cm day(-1). In general, the plants grew well during the 7-month study period, with no obvious signs of salt stress. The major water quality parameters monitored (biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids (SS) and total nitrogen (TN) but not total phosphorus) were generally improved after the effluent had passed through the CWs. There was no significance different in removal efficiencies between the planted beds and unplanted gravel beds (p > 0.007), nor was there any significant difference in removal efficiencies between the A. donax and P. australis beds for most parameters. BOD, SS and TN removal in the A. donax and P. australis CWs was 69, 95 and 26 % and 62, 97 and 26 %, respectively. Bacterial removal was observed but only to levels that would allow reuse of the effluent for use on non-food crops under Victorian state regulations. As expected, the A. donax CWs produced considerably more biomass (37 ± 7.2 kg wet weight) than the P. australis CWs (11 ± 1.4 kg wet weight). This standing crop equates to approximately 179 and 68 tonnes ha(-1) year(-1) biomass (dry weight) for A. donax and P. australis, respectively (assuming a 250-day growing season and single-cut harvest). The performance similarity of the A. donax and P. australis planted CWs indicates that either may be used in HSSF wetlands treating dairy factory wastewater, although the planting of A. donax provides additional opportunities for secondary income streams through utilisation of the biomass produced.

  16. Evaluation of system performance and microbial communities of a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Ng, How Yong

    2015-09-15

    In this study, a control anaerobic membrane bioreactor (C-AnMBR) and a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor (B-AnMBR) were operated for 210 d to treat pharmaceutical wastewater. Both the bioreactors were fed with the pharmaceutical wastewater containing TCOD of 16,249 ± 714 mg/L and total dissolved solids (TDS) of 29,450 ± 2209 mg/L with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 13.0 ± 0.6 kgCOD/m(3)d. Under steady-state condition, an average total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency of 46.1 ± 2.9% and 60.3 ± 2.8% was achieved by the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The conventional anaerobes in the C-AnMBR cannot tolerate the hypersaline conditions well, resulting in lower TCOD removal efficiency, biogas production and methane yield than the B-AnMBR seeded from the coastal shore. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that marine bacterial species (Oliephilus sp.) and halophilic bacterial species (Thermohalobacter sp.) were only present in the B-AnMBR; these species could possibly degrade complex and recalcitrant organic matter and withstand hypersaline environments. Two different dominant archaeal communities, genus Methanosaeta (43.4%) and Methanolobus (61.7%), were identified as the dominant methanogens in the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The species of genus Methanolobus was reported resistant to penicillin and required sodium and magnesium for growth, which could enable it to thrive in the hypersaline environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  19. Development and evaluation of Mn oxide-coated composite adsorbent for the removal and recovery of heavy metals from coal processing wastewater. Final report, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Huan Jung; Anderson, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research was to evaluate a Mn oxide-coated granular activated carbon (MnGAC) for the removal and recovery of metals from wastewaters. The composite adsorbent was prepared by coating M-n-oxide onto granular activated carbon. Three coating methods (adsorption, precipitation, and dry oxidation) were developed and studied in this research. The adsorbent (MnTOG) prepared by a dry oxidation method had the highest Cu(II) adsorption capacity of the three synthesis methods. In multiple adsorption/regeneration cycle tests, MnTOG had better Cu(II) removal relative to those adsorbents prepared by other methods. MnTOG had the ability to remove Cu(II) and Cd(II) to trace level (< 4 ug/L) in a column process at least through 3000 and 1400 BV, respectively. Cd(II) removal was hindered by the presence of Cu(II). However, Cu(II) removal was only slightly reduced by the presence of Cd(II). Cu(II) adsorption in batch and fixed-bed processes onto MnTOG was successfully modeled with a homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM). However, the HSDM could only successfully describe the adsorption of Cd(II) onto MnTOG in the batch process, but not the fixed-bed process. M-n oxide can be deposited on GAC to create a composite adsorbent with an increased Cu(II) or Cd(II) adsorption capacity. Composite adsorbent (MnGAC) has the potential to become an efficient way to remove metals from metal contaminated wastewater.

  20. Evaluation of disinfection techniques in the treatment of advanced primary treated wastewater for Ciudad Juárez, México.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Leirad; Turner, Charles D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of alternative disinfection techniques at the bench-scale level using wastewater from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, as model feed. This paper presents findings on the effectiveness of UV radiation, peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as disinfectants for advanced primary treatment (APT) plant effluent. Wastewater samples for bench-scale testing were collected from an agua negra ("black water") ditch that is part of the combined sewer system in Ciudad Juarez. Bench-scale simulations of the APT process used in Ciudad Juarez were run using a jar test apparatus and aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] as the coagulant. Jar test effluent from the bench system was used for disinfection testing. The Mexican discharge quality standard for total coliforms is 10 000/100 mL. Ultraviolet radiation met this standard at a dose of 47.5 mW-s/cm2. Ultraviolet disinfection proved reliable and effective despite the presence of suspended solids, and UV dose effectiveness expressed as a total coliforms survival ratio was best explained by a linear regression model. The ClO2 dose ranged from 10 to 20 mg/L and was only effective under ambient temperature conditions found during the winter months; PAA disinfection never met Mexican standards. Chlorine disinfection was effective at a dose range of 8 to 10 mg/L on samples collected at low temperature conditions. Since the completion of this research, Ciudad Juarez has discontinued the use of chlorine disinfection because of its high cost and ineffectiveness.

  1. Process contribution evaluation for COD removal and energy production from molasses wastewater in a BioH2-BioCH4-MFC-integrated system.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeonghee; Lee, Yun-Yeong; Choi, Hyung Joo; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a three-stage-integrated process using the hydrogenic process (BioH2), methanogenic process (BioCH4), and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was operated using molasses wastewater. The contribution of individual processes to chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy production was evaluated. The three-stage integration system was operated at molasses of 20 g-COD L(-1), and each process achieved hydrogen production rate of 1.1 ± 0.24 L-H2 L(-1) day(-1), methane production rate of 311 ± 18.94 mL-CH4 L(-1) day(-1), and production rate per electrode surface area of 10.8 ± 1.4 g m(-2) day(-1). The three-stage integration system generated energy production of 32.32 kJ g-COD(-1) and achieved COD removal of 98 %. The contribution of BioH2, BioCH4, and the MFC reactor was 20.8, 72.2, and, 7.0 % of the total COD removal, and 18.7, 81.2, and 0.16 % of the total energy production, respectively. The continuous stirred-tank reactor BioH2 at HRT of 1 day, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket BioCH4 at HRT of 2 days, and MFC reactor at HRT of 3 days were decided in 1:2:3 ratios of working volume under hydraulic retention time consideration. This integration system can be applied to various configurations depending on target wastewater inputs, and it is expected to enhance energy recovery and reduce environmental impact of the final effluent.

  2. Evaluation of Managed Aquifer Recharge Scenarios using Treated Wastewater: a Case study of the Zarqa River Basin, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Rawy, Mustafa; Zlotnik, Vitaly; Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Kacimov, Anvar; Abdalla, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is an arid country, facing great challenges due to limited water resources. The shortage of water resources constrains economy, especially agriculture that consumes the largest amount of available water (about 53 % of the total demand). According to the Jordan Water Strategy 2008 - 2022, groundwater is twice greater than the recharge rate. Therefore, the government charged the planners to consider treated wastewater (TWW) as a choice in the water resources management and development strategies. In Jordan, there are 31 TWW plants. Among them, As Samra plant serving the two major cities, Amman and Zarqa, is the largest, with projected maximum capacity of 135 Million m3/year. This plant is located upstream of the Zarqa River basin that accepts all TWW discharges. The Zarqa River is considered the most important source of surface water in Jordan and more than 78 % of its current is composed of TWW. The main objectives were to develop a conceptual model for a selected part of the Zarqa River basin, including the As Samrapant, and to provide insights to water resources management in the area using TWW. The groundwater flow model was developed using MODFLOW 2005 and used to assess changes in the aquifer and the Zarqa River under a set of different increments in discharge rates from the As Samra plant and different groundwater pumping rates. The results show that the water table in the study area underwent an average water table decline of 29 m prior to the As Samra plant construction, comparing with the current situation (with annual TWW discharge of 110 Million m3). The analysis of the TWW rate increase to 135 million m3/year (maximum capacity of the As Samra plant) shows that the average groundwater level will rise 0.55 m, compared to the current conditions. We found that the best practices require conjunctive use management of surface- and groundwater. The simulated scenarios highlight the significant role of TWW in augmenting the aquifer storage, improving

  3. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  4. AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF COLONIZED PERIPHYTON AS AN INDICATOR OF WASTEWATER IMPACT IN NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phytoassessment of wastewater-impacted coastal areas is not common in the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this research was to provide some initial information on this issue for eight industrial, municipal, and forest product wastewaters using periphyton as an indicat...

  5. Performance evaluation of semi continuous vertical flow constructed wetlands (SC-VF-CWs) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Rajesh

    2017-05-01

    The present study demonstrated the understating of municipal wastewater treatment in five types of CWs operated under semi continuous vertical flow mode. All CWs treatment conditions show the significantly lower pollutants concentrations. The average NH4(+)-N, TN, NO2(-)-N, NO3(-)-N, SO4(2-), and PO4(3-) removal efficiency in the ISs-CWs were 83.60%, 82.43%, 15.61%, 48.93%, 80.45%, and 78.94% respectively. The average NO2(-)-N removal efficiency shows that highest nitrite accumulation occurred in the Cont-CWs followed by C-CWs. The lowest increase in the biomass (127.5%) was observed in the Eichhornia crassipes planted in the ISs-CWs. The ISs filtration barrier created in the constructed wetlands was sufficient enough to remove all the pollutants. Principal components EFA 2D deformation plots show the distribution of the various nitrogenous species in the constructed wetlands along different components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of agro based industrial wastewater in sequencing batch reactor: performance evaluation and growth kinetics of aerobic biomass.

    PubMed

    Lim, J X; Vadivelu, V M

    2014-12-15

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a working volume of 8 L and an exchange ratio of 25% was used to enrich biomass for the treatment of the anaerobically treated low pH palm oil mill effluent (POME). The influent concentration was stepwise increased from 5000 ± 500 mg COD/L to 11,500 ± 500 mg COD/L. The performance of the reactor was monitored at different organic loading rates (OLRs). It was found that approximately 90% of the COD content of the POME wastewater was successfully removed regardless of the OLR applied to the SBR. Cycle studies of the SBR show that the oxygen uptake by the biomass while there is no COD reduction may be due to the oxidation of the storage product by the biomass. Further, the growth kinetic parameters of the biomass were determined in batch experiments using respirometer. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was estimated to be 1.143 day(-1) while the half saturation constant (Ks) with respect to COD was determined to be 0.429 g COD/L. The decay coefficient (bD) and biomass yield (Y) were found to be 0.131 day(-1) and 0.272 mg biomass/mg COD consumed, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Evaluation of the Performance and Economics of Membranes and Separators in Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells Treating Domestic Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Christgen, Beate; Scott, Keith; Dolfing, Jan; Head, Ian M; Curtis, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    The cost of materials is one of the biggest barriers for wastewater driven microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Many studies use expensive materials with idealistic wastes. Realistically the choice of an ion selective membrane or nonspecific separators must be made in the context of the cost and performance of materials available. Fourteen membranes and separators were characterized for durability, oxygen diffusion and ionic resistance to enable informed membrane selection for reactor tests. Subsequently MFCs were operated in a cost efficient reactor design using Nafion, ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes, a nonspecific separator (Rhinohide), and a no-membrane design with a carbon-paper internal gas diffusion cathode. Peak power densities during polarisation, from MFCs using no-membrane, Nafion and ETFE, reached 67, 61 and 59 mWm(-2), and coulombic efficiencies of 68±11%, 71±12% and 92±6%, respectively. Under 1000 Ω, Nafion and ETFE achieved an average power density of 29 mWm(-2) compared to 24 mWm(-2) for the membrane-less reactors. Over a hypothetical lifetime of 10 years the generated energy (1 to 2.5 kWhm(-2)) would not be sufficient to offset the costs of any membrane and separator tested.

  8. An Evaluation of the Performance and Economics of Membranes and Separators in Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells Treating Domestic Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Christgen, Beate; Scott, Keith; Dolfing, Jan; Head, Ian M.; Curtis, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The cost of materials is one of the biggest barriers for wastewater driven microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Many studies use expensive materials with idealistic wastes. Realistically the choice of an ion selective membrane or nonspecific separators must be made in the context of the cost and performance of materials available. Fourteen membranes and separators were characterized for durability, oxygen diffusion and ionic resistance to enable informed membrane selection for reactor tests. Subsequently MFCs were operated in a cost efficient reactor design using Nafion, ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes, a nonspecific separator (Rhinohide), and a no-membrane design with a carbon-paper internal gas diffusion cathode. Peak power densities during polarisation, from MFCs using no-membrane, Nafion and ETFE, reached 67, 61 and 59 mWm-2, and coulombic efficiencies of 68±11%, 71±12% and 92±6%, respectively. Under 1000Ω, Nafion and ETFE achieved an average power density of 29 mWm-2 compared to 24 mWm-2 for the membrane-less reactors. Over a hypothetical lifetime of 10 years the generated energy (1 to 2.5 kWhm-2) would not be sufficient to offset the costs of any membrane and separator tested. PMID:26305330

  9. Application and kinetic evaluation of upflow anaerobic biofilm reactor for nitrogen removal from wastewater by Anammox process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The lab-scale upflow anaerobic biofilm reactor was successfully operated for the treatment of synthetic wastewater with high nitrogen load by Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process. During the entire period of operation, the reactor temperature was kept at 35±1°C. The operational strategy consisted of both increasing the ammonium and nitrite concentrations from 60 to 700mgN/L and from 80 to 920 mgN/L, respectively and decreasing the hydraulic retention time from 24 to 6 h, at each step. The highest achieved removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite were 91 and 93%, respectively. Consequently, due to their acceptable performance for nitrogen removal in previous researches, modified Stover-Kincannon and Grau second-order models were used in this study. According to the experiment results, the model validity testing showed that the Stover-Kincannon model was a little more appropriate for the description of nitrogen removal in the reactor, even though both models gave high correlation coefficients (R2=0.999). PMID:23414202

  10. Evaluation of oxygen transfer parameters of fine-bubble aeration system in plug flow aeration tank of wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Wu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Hanchang; Song, Yanqing

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge of the oxygen mass transfer of aerators under operational conditions in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is meaningful for the optimization of WWTP, however, scarce to best of our knowledge. Through analyzing a plug flow aeration tank in the Lucun WWTP, in Wuxi, China, the oxygenation capacity of fine-bubble aerators under process conditions have been measured in-situ using the off-gas method and the non-steady-state method. The off-gas method demonstrated that the aerators in different corridors in the aeration tank of WWTP ha d significantly different oxygen transferperformance; furthermore, the aerators in the samecorridor shared almost equal oxygen transfer performance over the course of a day. Results measured by the two methods showed that the oxygen transfer performance of fine-bubble aerators in the aeration tank decreased dramatically compared with that in the clean water. The loss of oxygen transfer coefficient was over 50% under low-aeration conditions (aeration amount < 0.67 Nm3/hr). However, as the aeration amount reached 0.96 Nm3/hr, the discrepancy of oxygen transfer between the process condition and clean water was negligible. The analysis also indicated that the non-steady-state and off-gas methods resulted in comparable estimates of oxygen transfer parameters for the aerators under process conditions.

  11. Comparative evaluations on bio-treatment of hexavalent chromate by resting cells of Pseudochrobactrum sp. and Proteus sp. in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shimei; Dong, Xinjiao; Zhou, Jiangmin; Ge, Shichao

    2013-09-15

    Two marine bacterial strains, B5 and H24, were isolated from long-term Cr(VI) contaminated seawater and identified as Pseudochrobactrum and Proteus, respectively, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Both strains were examined for their tolerance to Cr(VI) and other metal salts and their abilities to reduce Cr(VI) to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)]. Growing cells of Pseudochrobactrum sp. B5 and Proteus sp. H24 could tolerate Cr(VI) at a concentration of 2000 and 1500 mg/l and completely reduce 1000 mg/l Cr(VI) in LB medium within 96 and 144 h, respectively. Resting cells of the two strains were able to reduce 200mg/l Cr(VI) in Tris-HCl buffer within 16 and 24h, respectively. Furthermore, resting cells of both strains were able to reduce Cr(VI) in industrial wastewaters three times consecutively. Overall, this study provides evidence of the potential for application of chromate-reducing bacteria to direct Cr(VI) decontamination of industrial effluents.

  12. Performance evaluation and microbial community of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) treating mariculture wastewater at different chlortetracycline concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Chang, Qingbo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Jin, Chunji; Guo, Liang; Zhao, Yangguo; Wang, Sen; Wang, Xuejiao

    2016-11-01

    The effects of chlortetracycline (CTC) on the performance, microbial activity, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial community of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) were investigated in treating mariculture wastewater. Low CTC concentration (less than 6 mg/L) had no obvious effect on the SBBR performance, whereas high CTC concentration could inhibit the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal of the SBBR. The microbial activity of the biofilm in the SBBR decreased with the increase of CTC concentration from 0 to 35 mg/L. The protein (PN) contents were always higher than the PS contents in both loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) at different CTC concentrations. The chemical compositions of LB-EPS and TB-EPS had obvious variations with the increase of CTC concentration from 0 to 35 mg/L. The high-throughput sequencing revealed the effects of CTC on the microbial communities of the biofilm at phylum, class and genus level. The relative abundances of some genera displayed a decreasing tendency with the increase of CTC concentration from 0 to 35 mg/L, such as Nitrospira, Paracoccus, Hyphomicrobium, Azospirillum. However, the relative abundances of the genera Flavobacterium, Aequorivita, Buchnera, Azonexus and Thioalbus increased with the increase of CTC concentration.

  13. Persistence of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the ongoing 2014/2015 Ebola virus outbreak, significant questions regarding the appropriate handling of Ebola virus-contaminated liquid waste remain, including the persistence of Ebola virus in wastewater. To address these uncertainties, we evaluated the persistence of Ebola virus spiked in sterilized domestic sewage. The viral titer decreased approximately 99% within the first test day from an initial viral titer of 106 TCID50 mL–1; however, it could not be determined if this initial rapid decrease was due to aggregation or inactivation of the viral particles. The subsequent viral titer decrease was less rapid, and infectious Ebola virus particles persisted for all 8 days of the test. The inactivation constant (k) was determined to be −1.08 (2.1 days for a 90% viral titer decrease). Due to experimental conditions, we believe these results to be an upper bound for Ebola virus persistence in wastewater. Wastewater composition is inherently heterogeneous; subsequently, we caution that interpretation of these results should be made within a holistic assessment, including the effects of wastewater composition, dilution, and potential exposure routes within wastewater infrastructure. While it remains unknown if Ebola virus may be transmitted via wastewater, these data demonstrate a potential exposure route to infectious Ebola virus via wastewater and emphasize the value of a precautionary approach to wastewater handling in an epidemic response. PMID:26523283

  14. Evaluation of the treatment performance and microbial communities of a combined constructed wetland used to treat industrial park wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Liu, Weijing; Li, Chao; Xiao, Chun; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-06-01

    Constructed wetlands are ecosystems that use plants and microorganisms to remediate pollution in soil and water. In this study, two parallel pilot-scale vertical flow wetland and horizontal flow wetland (VF-HF) systems were implemented to investigate the treatment performance and microorganism community structure in the secondary effluent of an industrial park wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with a loading rate of 100 mm/day near the Yangtze River in Suzhou City, East China. Removal efficiencies of 82.3, 69.8, 77.8, and 32.3 were achieved by the VF-HF systems for ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively. The VF system specialized in COD and NH4 (+)-N removal (73.6 and 79.2 %), whereas the HF system mainly contributed to TN removal (63.5 %). The effluents in all seasons are capable of achieving the "surface water environmental quality standard" (GB3838-2002) grade IV. In the VF system, the 16S gene and nirK gene were significantly correlated with depth, with the 16S gene showing significant correlations with the dissolved oxygen (DO) level (r = 0.954, p < 0.05), which was determined by real-time PCR and high-throughput sequencing. Many types of bacteria capable of biodegradation, including nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders (improvement of the BOD5/COD ratio), were observed, and they contributed to approximately 90 % of the nitrogen removal in the VF-HF system.

  15. Evaluating conceptual modeling frameworks for farm scale groundwater pathogen transport associated with animal farming and municipal wastewater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S. J.; Li, X.; Watanabe, N.; Atwill, R.; Puente, C. E.; Harter, T.

    2010-12-01

    Land applications to crops of diluted animal manure associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and field discharges from municipal wastewater treatment plants are potential pathways for the contamination of shallow domestic and agricultural wells by pathogenic microorganisms. Sampling of soil and groundwater for the indicator and pathogenic microorganisms; Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was undertaken at two CAFOs in the San Joaquin Valley, California between 2006 and 2009. Observed concentrations are highly variable in both magnitude and frequency of detection and indicated no clear relationship to field applications or seasonal effects. To investigate if the observed variability in microorganism concentrations in groundwater could be attributed to aquifer heterogeneity, we developed multiple conceptual frameworks employing nonpoint source loading functions and groundwater transport models to simulate a shallow agricultural monitoring well catchment. We developed both, homogenous and heterogeneous aquifer representations, the latter using stochastic transition probability Markov chain representation. Also, we developd homogeneous and spatio-temporally heterogeneous loading models. Model sensitivity to conceptual frameworks, transport parameters, and spatio-temporal variations in diffuse pathogen loading at the water table was determined by comparing simulated frequency of pathogen detection with measured monitoring well breakthrough curves. Model results indicate that field scale aquifer heterogeneity cannot fully account for the variation in concentrations observed in shallow monitoring wells and that microorganism loading at the water table must also be highly heterogeneous. A two dimensional Neyman-Scott cluster process was found to provide the best representation of heterogeneity in recharge concentration and is conceptually consistent with the presence of low attenuation transport pathways in the

  16. Evaluation of a upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with partial recirculation of effluent used to treat wastewaters from pulp and paper plants.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Pires, E C

    2007-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a UASB reactor treating diluted black liquor from a Kraft pulp mill, which simulates an unbleached Kraft plant wastewater, under different operational conditions, including partial recycling of the effluent. The reactor's performance was evaluated from the standpoint of COD, pH, volatile acid concentration, alkalinity, concentration of methane in the biogas, and microbiological examinations of the sludge. Without recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 36 to 30h did not significantly affect the average COD removal efficiency. The parameter displaying the greatest variation was the average concentration of effluent volatile acids, which increased by 16%. With recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 30 to 24h increased the average COD removal efficiency from 75% to 78%. In this case, the average effluent alkalinity also showed an increase. The use of partial recirculation of the effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal under the operational conditions tested in this work, but it was possible to operate the reactor with lower hydraulic retention time without disintegration of the granules.

  17. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  18. Development and performance evaluation of an algal biofilm reactor for treatment of multiple wastewaters and characterization of biomass for diverse applications.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Poonam; Prajapati, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Pushpendar; Malik, Anushree; Pant, Kamal K

    2017-01-01

    A modified algal biofilm reactor (ABR) was developed and assessed for high biomass productivity and treatment potential using variable strength wastewaters with accumulation of specialized bio-products. The nonwoven spun bond fabric (70GSM) was selected as suitable biofilm support on the basis of attachment efficiency, durability and ease of harvesting. The biomass productivity achieved by ABR biofilms were 4gm(-2)d(-1), 3.64gm(-2)d(-1) and 3.10gm(-2)d(-1) when grown in livestock wastewater (LSW), domestic grey water (DGW) and anaerobically digested slurry (ADS), respectively. Detailed characterization of wastewater grown biomass showed specific distribution of biomolecules into high lipid (38%) containing biomass (DGW grown) and high protein (44%) biomass (LSW and ADS grown). The feasibility assessment of ABR in terms of net energy return (>1) favored its application in an integrated system for treatment and recycling of rural wastewaters with simultaneous production of biomethane, livestock feed supplement and bio fertilizers.

  19. Performance evaluation of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor pilot plant system used in treating real wastewater from recycled paper industry.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Rakmi Abdul; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hasan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot scale granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor with a capacity of 2.2 m3 was operated for over three months to evaluate its performance treating real recycled paper industry wastewater under different operational conditions. In this study, dissolved air floatation (DAF) and clarifier effluents were used as influent sources of the pilot plant. During the course of the study, the reactor was able to biodegrade the contaminants in the incoming recycled paper mill wastewater in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), adsorbable organic halides (AOX; specifically 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP)) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) removal efficiencies at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 1-3 days, aeration rates (ARs) of 2.1-3.4 m3/min and influent feed concentration of 40-950 mg COD/l. Percentages of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals increased with increasing HRT, resulting in more than 90% COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals at HRT values above two days. Degradation of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N were seriously affected by variation of ARs, which resulted in significant decrease of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals by decreasing ARs from 3.4 m3/min to 2.1 m3/min, varying in the ranges of 24-80%, 6-96% and 5-42%, respectively. In comparison to the clarifier effluent, the treatment performance of DAF effluent, containing high COD concentration, resulted in a higher COD removal of 82%. The use of diluted DAF effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal. Higher NH3-N removal efficiency of almost 100% was observed during operation after maintenance shutdown compared to normal operation, even at the same HRT of one day due to the higher dissolved oxygen concentrations (1-7 mg/l), while no significant difference in COD removal efficiency was observed.

  20. Evaluation of different wastewater treatment processes and development of a modified attached growth bioreactor as a decentralized approach for small communities.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Shohreh; Valipour, Alireza; Sithebe, Thami

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential future use of three biological processes in order to designate the most desired solution for on-site treatment of wastewater from residential complexes, that is, conventional activated sludge process (CASP), moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), and packed-bed biofilm reactor (PBBR). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 3, and 2 h can be achieved in CASP, MBBR, and PBBR, respectively. The PBBR dealt with a particular arrangement to prevent the restriction of oxygen transfer efficiency into the thick biofilms. The laboratory scale result revealed that the overall reduction of 87% COD, 92% BOD₅, 82% TSS, 79% NH₃-N, 43% PO₄-P, 95% MPN, and 97% TVC at a HRT of 2 h was achieved in PBBR. The microflora present in the system was also estimated through the isolation, identification, and immobilization of the microorganisms with an index of COD elimination. The number of bacterial species examined on the nutrient agar medium was 22 and five bacterial species were documented to degrade the organic pollutants by reducing COD by more than 43%. This study illustrated that the present PBBR with a specific modified internal arrangement could be an ideal practice for promoting sustainable decentralization and therefore providing a low wastage sludge biomass concentration.

  1. Fish embryo tests with Danio rerio as a tool to evaluate surface water and sediment quality in rivers influenced by wastewater treatment plants using different treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Thellmann, Paul; Köhler, Heinz-R; Rößler, Annette; Scheurer, Marco; Schwarz, Simon; Vogel, Hans-Joachim; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-11-01

    In order to evaluate surface water and the sediment quality of rivers connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment technologies, fish embryo tests (FET) with Danio rerio were conducted using native water and sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of four WWTPs in Southern Germany. Two of these WWTPs are connected to the Schussen River, a tributary of Lake Constance, and use a sand filter with final water purification by flocculation. The two others are located on the rivers Schmiecha and Eyach in the area of the Swabian Alb and were equipped with a powdered activated carbon stage 20 years ago, which was originally aimed at reducing the release of stains from the textile industry. Several endpoints of embryo toxicity including mortality, malformations, reduced hatching rate, and heart rate were investigated at defined time points of embryonic development. Higher embryotoxic potentials were found in water and sediments collected downstream of the WWTPs equipped with sand filtration than in the sample obtained downstream of both WWTPs upgraded with a powdered activated carbon stage.

  2. Evaluation of the Presence of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Dissolved and Solid Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples of Gran Canaria Island (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Morales, T.; Sosa-Ferrera, Z.; Santana-Rodríguez, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid and solid samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Gran Canaria Island (Spain) have been tested for the presence of compounds with endocrine-disrupting properties. The selected degradation stages were sampled bimonthly from each WWTP over the 12-month period from July 2010 to July 2011. The analytical methods used for the determination of the endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) were based on on-line solid phase extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) coupled to UHPLC-MS/MS. All of the hyphenated methodologies employed in this work showed good recoveries (72–104%) and sensitivities, with LODs lower than 7.0 ng L−1 and 6.3 ng g−1 for the dissolved and solid fractions, respectively. We have also evaluated the estrogenicity of the samples in terms of their estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs). The chemical analysis of the selected EDCs revealed fairly low concentrations for both natural and synthetic oestrogens, alkylphenolic compounds, and bisphenol-A in each of the dissolved, particulate, and sludge samples (ng L−1 or ng g−1). However, the estimated estrogenic activity indicated that the majority of samples could represent an important environmental risk, clearly surpassing the threshold to exert deleterious consequences on living beings. PMID:24163820

  3. Performance evaluation of a novel reciprocation membrane bioreactor (rMBR) for enhanced nutrient removal in wastewater treatment: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jaeho; Smith, Shaleena; Kim, Gyu Dong; Roh, Hyung Keun

    2015-01-01

    This study compared and evaluated the performance of a conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a novel reciprocation MBR (rMBR) which used mechanical membrane reciprocation in place of membrane air scouring in pilot-scale tests. Each system was independently operated for 280 days at a local wastewater treatment plant for a parallel assessment of operating performance. The rMBR was found to be more effective than the MBR with regard to operating performance and energy consumption. Inertial forces created by the reciprocating motion shook foulants from the membrane surface. In addition, because of the looseness of the fibers, they moved relative to each other during reciprocation thus preventing sludge clogging inside the fiber bundle. Because the rMBR does not use aeration for membrane cleaning, the membrane tank in the rMBR maintained anoxic conditions, allowing endogenous denitrification in the membrane tank. The rMBR permeate contained an average of 1.7 mg/L total nitrogen (TN) with less than 1 mg/L NO(3)-N, while the TN concentration in the MBR permeate averaged 5 mg/L with 3.5 mg/L NO(3)-N. The specific energy consumption for membrane reciprocation in the rMBR was 0.064 kWh/m(3), while that for air scouring in the MBR was 0.19 kWh/m(3).

  4. Evaluation of Different Wastewater Treatment Processes and Development of a Modified Attached Growth Bioreactor as a Decentralized Approach for Small Communities

    PubMed Central

    Valipour, Alireza; Sithebe, Thami

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential future use of three biological processes in order to designate the most desired solution for on-site treatment of wastewater from residential complexes, that is, conventional activated sludge process (CASP), moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), and packed-bed biofilm reactor (PBBR). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 3, and 2 h can be achieved in CASP, MBBR, and PBBR, respectively. The PBBR dealt with a particular arrangement to prevent the restriction of oxygen transfer efficiency into the thick biofilms. The laboratory scale result revealed that the overall reduction of 87% COD, 92% BOD5, 82% TSS, 79% NH3-N, 43% PO4-P, 95% MPN, and 97% TVC at a HRT of 2 h was achieved in PBBR. The microflora present in the system was also estimated through the isolation, identification, and immobilization of the microorganisms with an index of COD elimination. The number of bacterial species examined on the nutrient agar medium was 22 and five bacterial species were documented to degrade the organic pollutants by reducing COD by more than 43%. This study illustrated that the present PBBR with a specific modified internal arrangement could be an ideal practice for promoting sustainable decentralization and therefore providing a low wastage sludge biomass concentration. PMID:24327802

  5. Evaluation of the Relationship between the Incubation Time and Carotenoid Production in Rhodotorula Slooffiae and R. Mucilaginosa Isolated from Leather Tanning Wastewater 

    PubMed Central

    Sadat Naghavi, Farzaneh; Hanachi, Parichehr; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Saboora, Azra; Ghorbani, Atefeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Carotenoids which are naturally synthesized by fungi such as yeasts can act as an antioxidant which is closely related to their ability to decrease the risk of a variety of degenerative diseases. In recent years, the increase of demand for carotenoids obtained from natural sources has promoted major efforts to improve carotenoid production from biological sources such as pigmented yeasts. The aim of this study was comparing incubation time and carotenoid production in Rhodotorula slooffiae and R. mucilaginosa isolated from leather tanning wastewater. Materials and Methods: To isolate the carotenoid pigment, cells were suspended in acetone and broken using a homogenizer, followed by centrifugation and separation of supernatant. In order to study the effect of incubation time, samples were held at 30 ˚С in a shaker at 150 rpm for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hr. For analytical evaluation, pigments were measured spectrophotometrically at 450 nm using the extinction coefficient E1%450=2500. Results: The results showed that the content of total carotenoid in R. slooffiae was the highest when samples were incubated for 72 hr. Overall, R. mucilaginosa had more potential to produce carotenoid. The best incubation periods for R. slooffiae and R. mucilaginosa were 72 hr and 48 hr, respectively. Conclusion: It seemed that the maximum rate of total carotenoid was not directly associated with the maximum amount of cell biomass and the type of carotenoid and their relative amount may vary depending on genus of yeast. PMID:24379970

  6. Evaluating photo-degradation of COD and TOC in petroleum refinery wastewater by using TiO2/ZnO photo-catalyst.

    PubMed

    Aljuboury, Dheeaa Al Deen Atallah; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Abdul Aziz, Hamidi Bin; Feroz, Shaik; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of combined solar photo-catalyst of titanium oxide/zinc oxide (TiO2/ZnO) with aeration processes to treat petroleum wastewater. Central composite design with response surface methodology was used to evaluate the relationships between operating variables for TiO2 dosage, ZnO dosage, air flow, pH, and reaction time to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removals prove to be significant with low probabilities (<0.0001). The obtained optimum conditions included a reaction time of 170 min, TiO2 dosage (0.5 g/L), ZnO dosage (0.54 g/L), air flow (4.3 L/min), and pH 6.8 COD and TOC removal rates of 99% and 74%, respectively. The TOC and COD removal rates correspond well with the predicted models. The maximum removal rate for TOC and COD was 99.3% and 76%, respectively at optimum operational conditions of TiO2 dosage (0.5 g/L), ZnO dosage (0.54 g/L), air flow (4.3 L/min), reaction time (170 min) and pH (6.8). The new treatment process achieved higher degradation efficiencies for TOC and COD and reduced the treatment time comparing with other related processes.

  7. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  8. Evaluation of the presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in dissolved and solid wastewater treatment plant samples of Gran Canaria Island (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vega-Morales, T; Sosa-Ferrera, Z; Santana-Rodríguez, J J

    2013-01-01

    Liquid and solid samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Gran Canaria Island (Spain) have been tested for the presence of compounds with endocrine-disrupting properties. The selected degradation stages were sampled bimonthly from each WWTP over the 12-month period from July 2010 to July 2011. The analytical methods used for the determination of the endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) were based on on-line solid phase extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) coupled to UHPLC-MS/MS. All of the hyphenated methodologies employed in this work showed good recoveries (72-104%) and sensitivities, with LODs lower than 7.0 ng L(-1) and 6.3 ng g(-1) for the dissolved and solid fractions, respectively. We have also evaluated the estrogenicity of the samples in terms of their estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs). The chemical analysis of the selected EDCs revealed fairly low concentrations for both natural and synthetic oestrogens, alkylphenolic compounds, and bisphenol-A in each of the dissolved, particulate, and sludge samples (ng L(-1) or ng g(-1)). However, the estimated estrogenic activity indicated that the majority of samples could represent an important environmental risk, clearly surpassing the threshold to exert deleterious consequences on living beings.

  9. Impact of wastewater treatment plants on receiving surface waters and a tentative risk evaluation: the case of estrogens and beta blockers.

    PubMed

    Gabet-Giraud, V; Miège, C; Jacquet, R; Coquery, M

    2014-02-01

    Five estrogenic hormones (unconjugated + conjugated fractions) and 10 beta blockers were analyzed in three wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and receiving river waters in the area of Lyon, France. In the different samples, only two estrogens were quantified: estrone and estriol. Some beta blockers, such as atenolol, acebutolol, and sotalol, were almost always quantified, but others, e.g., betaxolol, nadolol, and oxprenolol were rarely quantified. Concentrations measured in river waters were in the nanogram per liter range for estrogens and between 0.3 and 210 ng/L for beta blockers depending on the substance and the distance from the WWTP outfall. The impact of the WWTP on the receiving rivers was studied and showed a clear increase in concentrations near the WWTP outfall. For estrogens, the persistence in surface waters was not evaluated given the low concentrations levels (around 1 ng/L). For beta blockers, concentrations measured downstream of the WWTP outfall were up to 16 times higher than those measured upstream. Also, the persistence of metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol was noted even 2 km downstream of the WWTP outfall. The comparison of beta blocker fingerprints in the samples collected in effluent and in the river also showed the impact of WWTP outfall on surface waters. Finally, a tentative environmental risk evaluation was performed on 15 sites by calculating the ratio of receiving water concentrations to predicted non-effect concentrations (PNEC). For estrogens, a total PNEC of 5 ng/L was considered and these substances were not linked to any potential environmental risk (only one site showed an environmental risk ratio above 1). Unfortunately, few PNECs are available and risk evaluation was only possible for 4 of the 10 beta blockers studied: acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol. Only propranolol presented a ratio near or above 1, showing a possible environmental risk for 4 receiving waters out of 15.

  10. Comparative evaluations of organic matters and nitrogen removal capacities of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands: Domestic and nitrified wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun J; Liang, Kang; Wu, Su Q; Zhang, Sheng H; Liang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) microcosms were established for treating two types of representative wastewater: domestic and nitrified wastewater under two loading rates (LRs) over about two years. Their removal capacities of organic substance and nitrogen as well as the effects of loading rate (LR), outflow temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were investigated and compared. Efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) eliminations were achieved by the IVCWs, with the mass removal rates increasing linearly with the increasing LRs strongly, achieving average value of 56.07 g m(-2) d(-1) at the highest loading rate. Nevertheless, the effluent COD concentrations also increased, with the average value exceeding Class I A discharge standard (< 50 mg L(-1)) for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China at the highest loading rate. Greater total nitrogen (TN) mass removal rates but lower efficiencies were obtained at the high LR for both types of wastewater, and better removal was achieved for nitrified wastewater (NW) in comparison to domestic wastewater (DW), probably due to the prevailing anoxic conditions inside the IVCW beds restricted nitrification process of DW. The influences of LR, temperature and DO on COD removal were slight, but all remarkable on TN reduction. As compared to DO, temperature was more crucial for nitrogen removal, and the temperature dependence coefficient for TN removal of low LR of NW was significantly greater than others.

  11. Effects of tannery wastewater exposure on adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Moysés, Felipe; Bertoldi, Karine; Lovatel, Gisele; Vaz, Sabrina; Ferreira, Kelly; Junqueira, Juliana; Bagatini, Pamela Brambilla; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Xavier, Léder Leal; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2017-09-25

    Our aim was to evaluate the effects of exposure to tannery wastewater on mortality and/or antioxidant enzyme system in adult wild-type Canton-S Drosophila melanogaster. Exposure to tannery wastewater induced a concentration-dependent lethality in adult Canton-S flies. Tannery wastewater was able to alter antioxidant enzyme activities, specifically glutathione peroxidase-like and glutathione S-transferase, in adult Canton-S D. melanogaster. We conclude that D. melanogaster is a reliable model to evaluate the toxicity induced by tannery wastewater.

  12. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  13. Treatment and reuse of coal conversion wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Luthy, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of recent experimental activities to evaluate processing characteristics of coal conversion wastewaters. Treatment studies have been performed with high-BTU coal gasification process quench waters to assess enhanced removal of organic compounds via powdered activated carbon-activated sludge treatment, and to evaluate a coal gasification wastewater treatment train comprised of sequential processing by ammonia removal, biological oxidation, lime-soda softening, granular activated carbon adsorption, and reverse osmosis. In addition, treatment studies are in progress to evaluate solvent extraction of gasification process wastewater to recover phenolics and to reduce wastewater loading of priority organic pollutants. Biological oxidation of coal gasification wastewater has shown excellent removal efficiencies of major and trace organic contaminants at moderate loadings, addition of powdered activated carbon provides lower effluent COD and color. Gasification process wastewater treated through biological oxidation, lime-soda softening and activated carbon adsorption appears suitable for reuse as cooling tower make-up water. Solvent extraction is an effective means to reduce organic loadings to downstream processing units. In addition, preliminary results have shown that solvent extraction removes chromatographable organic contaminants to low levels.

  14. Treatment Processes for Removal of Wastewater Contaminants (WERF Report INFR8SG09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the nature of colloids associated with wastewater effluents. It also evaluated the association of emerging contaminants with these wastewater colloids. Two distinct emerging contaminants were investigated to gain general insight into the potential importan...

  15. Treatment Processes for Removal of Wastewater Contaminants (WERF Report INFR8SG09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the nature of colloids associated with wastewater effluents. It also evaluated the association of emerging contaminants with these wastewater colloids. Two distinct emerging contaminants were investigated to gain general insight into the potential importan...

  16. Evaluation of primary and secondary treated and disinfected wastewater irrigation of tomato and cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions, regarding growth and safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Manios, T; Papagrigoriou, I; Daskalakis, G; Sabathianakis, I; Terzakis, S; Maniadakis, K; Markakis, G

    2006-08-01

    Tomato and cucumber seedlings were distributed into 10 groups (five for each plant) of 15 plants each. The plants were irrigated for 10 weeks with primary treated wastewater (group A), secondary treated wastewater (group B), chlorinated secondary treated wastewater (group C), a fertilizer dilution (group F), and tap water (group M). All precautions were taken to secure that there was no direct contact between the wastewater and the edible portions of the crops. During this period and on a weekly basis, the height and number of leaves was monitored, while, at the end, the dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots for each plant of each group was measured. Based on these growth parameters, both types of plant in groups A and F recorded the most significant development compared to the other three groups. The plants irrigated with tap water recorded the smallest development, in every case. Plants in groups B and C were similar, with a slight (but not significant) superiority for the plants irrigated with secondary treated wastewater, probably as a result of some phytotoxic effects of residual chloride in the chlorinated wastewater. The presence of nutrients and specifically nitrogen in the various solutions explains the differences satisfactorily. The vegetables grown on the plants of each group were harvested, and their surface tissue analyzed for total coliforms (TC) and enterococci (EC). Tomatoes grown on the plants of groups A and B recorded the highest values for TC, with 505 and 490 cfu/g, respectively, whereas, for cucumbers, those values were 342 and 450 cfu/g, respectively. Enterococci were detected on the surface of harvested vegetables from groups A and B, but the small number of cases and their random character cannot support any strong relations between the used wastewater and their presence. The TC values in group C were very low, far lower than those if group F. No EC were found in either group C or group F. These primary results suggested that irrigation

  17. Microbial monitoring and performance evaluation for H2S biological air emissions control at a wastewater lift station in South Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kim D; Yadavalli, Naga; Karre, Anand K; Paca, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system consisting of a biotrickling filter and two biofilters was installed at Waste Water Lift Station # 64 in Brownsville, Texas, USA to evaluate the performance of the system being loaded with variable concentrations of wastewater hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions. In this study, the effectiveness of sulfur oxidizing bacteria along with the distribution of various sulfur species and their correlation with the performance of the biofilters was evaluated. The biofilters were packed with engineered media consisting of plastic cylinders with compacted organic material which was supplied by Met-Pro Environmental Air Solutions (formerly Bio·Reaction Industries). The overall performance of the pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system with an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 60s and the overall performance of the biofilter unit with an EBRT of 35s developed a removal efficiency of > 99% at H(2)S levels up to 500 ppm. A decrease in performance over time was observed in the first and second sections of the first biofilter unit with the third section of the biofilter unit ultimately becoming the most robust unit removing most of the pollutant. The second biofilter unit was not needed and subsequently removed from the system. The number of CFUs in sulfur oxidizing T.thioparus selective media grew significantly in all four sections of the biofilter over the two months of pilot operation of the biological unit. The sulfur oxidizer growth rates appeared to be highest at low total sulfur content and at slightly acidic pH levels. This study has implications for improving the understanding of the distribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria throughout the length of the biofilter columns, which can be used to further optimize performance and estimate breakthrough at these very high H(2)S input loadings.

  18. Technical and environmental evaluation of an integrated scheme for the co-treatment of wastewater and domestic organic waste in small communities.

    PubMed

    Lijó, Lucía; Malamis, Simos; González-García, Sara; Fatone, Francesco; Moreira, María Teresa; Katsou, Evina

    2017-02-01

    A technical and environmental evaluation of an innovative scheme for the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and domestic organic waste (DOW) was undertaken by coupling an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a fermentation reactor. Alternative treatment configurations were evaluated with different waste collection practices as well as various schemes for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. All treatment systems fulfilled the required quality of the treated effluent in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations. However, only the configurations performing the short-cut nitrification/denitrification with biological phosphorus removal met the specifications for water reuse. The environmental assessment included the analysis of impacts on climate change (CC), freshwater eutrophication (FE) and marine eutrophication (ME). A functional unit (FU) of 2000 people receiving treatment services was considered. The most relevant sources of environmental impacts were associated to the concentration of dissolved methane in the UASB effluent that is emitted to the atmosphere in the SBR process (accounting for 41% of impacts in CC), electricity consumption, mainly for aeration in the SBR (representing 14% of the impacts produced in CC), and the discharge of the treated effluent in receiving waters (contributing 98% and 57% of impacts in FE and ME, respectively). The scheme of separate waste collection together with biological nitrogen removal and phosphorus uptake via nitrite was identified as the best configuration, with good treated effluent quality and environmental impacts lower than those of the other examined configurations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating impacts of recharging partially treated wastewater on groundwater aquifer in semi-arid region by integration of monitoring program and GIS technique.

    PubMed

    Alslaibi, Tamer M; Kishawi, Yasser; Abunada, Ziyad

    2017-05-01

    The current study investigates the impact of recharging of partially treated wastewater through an infiltration basin on the groundwater aquifer quality parameters. A monitoring program supported by a geographic information analysis (GIS) tool was used to conduct this study. Groundwater samples from the entire surrounding boreholes located downstream the infiltration basin, in addition to samples from the recharged wastewater coming from the Beit Lahia wastewater treatment (BLWWTP), were monitored and analysed between 2011 and 2014. The analysis was then compared with the available historical data since 2008. Results revealed a groundwater replenishment with the groundwater level increased by 1.0-2.0 m during the study period. It also showed a slight improvement in the groundwater quality parameters, mainly a decrease in TDS, Cl(-) and NO3(-) levels by 5.5, 17.1 and 20%, respectively, resulting from the relatively better quality of the recharged wastewater. Nevertheless, the level of boron and ammonium in the groundwater wells showed a significant increase over time by 96 and 100%, respectively. Moreover, the infiltration rate was slowed down in time due to the relatively high level of total suspended solid (TSS) in the infiltrated wastewater.

  20. Evaluation of phytotoxic elements, trace elements and nutrients in a standardized crop plant, irrigated with raw wastewater treated by APT and ozone.

    PubMed

    Orta de Velásquez, M T; Rojas-Valencia, M N; Reales-Pineda, A C

    2006-01-01

    This project studied the benefits of applying Advanced Primary Treatment (APT) and ozone (O3) to raw wastewater destined for reuse in agriculture. The ozone was applied directly to raw wastewater, as well as to wastewater already treated with APT, and the results compared against a control sample of potable water. The experimental conditions that reported the best results was wastewater treated with O3 (at a dose of 4.8 mg/L, at pH 7, temperature 23 degrees C, for 1 hr), given that it met standards in force in Mexico with regard to micro-organism and heavy metal content. Under these conditions, after 15 min of ozonation, 100% destruction of the following bacteria was observed: V. cholerae, S. typhi as well as total and faecal coliforms. Destruction of helminth eggs and Giardia sp. took one hour. No phytotoxic elements or heavy metals were found. The balance of nutrients N:P:K (300:100:200 mg/kg) required for lettuce growth, was found in wastewater subjected to both treatment plans. However, ozone favoured the nitrification and assimilation of the nutrients, by contributing oxygen to the soil. Therefore, these conditions produced the greatest lettuce growth, the entire plant averaging 38 cm in length and 125 g. in weight. Moreover, a better appearance of the leaves was also noted.

  1. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  2. The effects of olives harvest period and production year on olive mill wastewater properties - evaluation of Pleurotus strains as bioindicators of the effluent's toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2013-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1Δ9cis, nC17:1Δ10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1Δ9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings.

  3. First evaluation of illicit and licit drug consumption based on wastewater analysis in Fort de France urban area (Martinique, Caribbean), a transit area for drug smuggling.

    PubMed

    Damien, Devault A; Thomas, Néfau; Hélène, Pascaline; Sara, Karolak; Yves, Levi

    2014-08-15

    Drugs of abuse are increasingly consumed worldwide. Such consumption could be back-calculated based on wastewater content. The West Indies, with its coca production and its thriving illicit drug market, is both a hub of world cocaine trafficking and a place where its consumption is prevalent particularly in the form of crack. The present study will firstly investigate Caribbean consumption by a daily 5 to 7 day sampling campaign of composite wastewater samples from the four wastewater treatment plants of the Martinique capital, including working and non-working periods. The local consumption of cocaine is ten to thirty times higher than OECD standards because of the prevalence of crack. The excretion coefficient for crack consumption and the impact of temperature on drug stability need further investigation. However, the low diversity of illicit drugs consumed and the crack prevalence suggest practices driven by the transiting of drugs for international trafficking.

  4. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  5. An evaluation of a hybrid ion exchange electrodialysis process in the recovery of heavy metals from simulated dilute industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Akrama; Hoadley, Andrew F A

    2012-06-15

    Hybrid ion exchange electrodialysis, also called electrodeionization (IXED), is a technology in which a conventional ion exchange (IX) is combined with electrodialysis (ED) to intensify mass transfer and to increase the limiting current density and therefore to carry out the treatment process more effectively. It allows the purification of metal-containing waters, as well as the production of concentrated metal salt solutions, which could be recycled. The objective of this paper was to investigate the ability of the IXED technique for the treatment of acidified copper sulphate solutions simulating rinsing water of copper plating lines. A single-stage IXED process at lab-scale with a small bed of ion exchanger resin with a uniform composition was evaluated, and the treatment performance of the process was thoroughly investigated. The IXED stack was assembled as a bed layered with the ion exchanger resin (strong acid cation-exchange Dowex™) and inert materials. The stack configuration was designed to prevent a non-uniform distribution of the current in the bed and to allow faster establishment of steady-state in the cell for IXED operation. The influence of operating conditions (e.g. ion exchanger resin with a cross-linking degree from 2 to 8% DVB, and current density) on IXED performance was examined. A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of the processing parameters of IXED on (i) the abatement yield of the metal cation, which is a fundamental purification parameter and an excellent indicator of the extent of IXED, (ii) the current yield or the efficiency of copper transport induced by the electrical field and (iii) the energy consumption. The experimental results showed that the performance at steady-state of the IXED operation with a layered bed remained modest, because of the small dimension of the bed and notably the current efficiency varied from 25 to 47% depending on the conditions applied. The feasibility of using the IXED

  6. Performance evaluation of wastewater treatment using horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands optimized by micro-aeration and substrate selection.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fei; Wu, Juan; Dai, Yanran; Xiang, Dongfang; Cheng, Shuiping; Ji, Hongjiu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of micro-aeration and substrate selection on domestic sewage treatment performance were explored using three pairs (with or without micro-aeration) of horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands (CWs) filled with zeolite, ceramsite or quartz granules. The individual and combined effects of micro-aeration and substrate selection on the purification performance of the experimental-scale HSSF CWs were evaluated. The results showed that micro-aeration significantly increased the treatment efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus (TP), ortho-phosphate (PO4(3-)-P) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) using HSSF CWs, while the substrate selection significantly affected the TP, PO4(3-)-P and NH4+-N removal efficiencies (p<0.05). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that there was a significant interaction term (i.e. micro-aeration×substrate selection) for NH4+-N removal (p<0.05). Among the three substrates, ceramsite was the best substrate for the treatment of domestic sewage using HSSF CWs. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that a ceramsite-filled HSSF CW with micro-aeration could be the optimal configuration for decentralized domestic sewage treatment.

  7. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  8. Decentralized wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tchobanoglous, G.

    1998-07-01

    Decentralized wastewater management systems maintain both the solid and liquid fractions of the wastewater near their point of origin. In the future, as long-term strategies are developed to optimize the use of water resources and to protect the environment, it is clear that decentralized systems will become an important element of those strategies.

  9. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  10. A Multivariate Approach to Evaluate Biomass Production, Biochemical Composition and Stress Compounds of Spirulina platensis Cultivated in Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Topyürek, Ali; Markou, Giorgos; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2016-10-01

    The study was performed to investigate the effects of using cow effluent for the cultivation of Spirulina platensis on its biomass production and cell physiology. S. platensis was cultivated in three different cow effluents (CE) used as cultivation medium during 15 days. CE was prepared using dry cow manures, and it was further modified with supplement of NaNO3 (CEN) and NaNO3 + NaCl (CENS). High nitrate value stimulated chlorophyll-a and total protein content of the cyanobacterium and also biomass production in standards medium (SM) and CEN media. Total carbohydrate content of S. platensis grown in CE media was found to be higher (p < 0.05) than that of SM. Productions of biomass and biochemical compounds by the cyanobacterium grown on the CE and SM media were evaluated by using multivariate approach. Conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), salinity, pH, and TDS played important role (p < 0.01) in the biochemical composition. As an effective explanatory factor, ORP had a significant positive correlation with H2O2, whereas negatively correlated with chlorophyll-α, biomass production, filament length, and proline. Canonical correspondence analysis proposed that biochemical compounds of S. platensis were not only affected by salinity and nutrition of media but also by pH and ORP. The present study indicated that CEN as a low cost model medium had high potential for the production of biomass by S. platensis with high protein content.

  11. Changes in hormone and stress-inducing activities of municipal wastewater in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowicz, Pola; Yang, Wenbo; Zhou, Hongde; Parker, Wayne J; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-12-01

    Conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants do not efficiently remove contaminants of emerging concern, and so are primary sources for contaminant release into the aquatic environment. Although these contaminants are present in effluents at ng-μg/L concentrations (i.e. microcontaminants), many compounds can act as endocrine disrupting compounds or stress-inducing agents at these levels. Chemical fate analyses indicate that additional levels of wastewater treatment reduce but do not always completely remove all microcontaminants. The removal of microcontaminants from wastewater does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in biological activity, as contaminant metabolites or byproducts may still be biologically active. To evaluate the efficacy of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants to remove biological activity, we examined the performance of a full scale conventional activated sludge municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. We assessed reductions in levels of conventional wastewater parameters and thyroid hormone disrupting and stress-inducing activities in wastewater at three phases along the treatment train using a C-fin assay. Wastewater treatment was effective at reducing total suspended solids, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and stress-inducing bioactivity. However, only minimal reduction was observed in thyroid hormone disrupting activities. The present study underscores the importance of examining multiple chemical and biological endpoints in evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of wastewater treatment for removal of microcontaminants.

  12. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna Małgorzata; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A), trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B), and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C). High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters. PMID:26807728

  13. Co-occurrence of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in wastewater: quantitative evaluation of balance by in vitro ERα reporter gene assay and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Masaru; Ihara, Mariko O; Kumar, Vimal; Narumiya, Masanori; Hanamoto, Seiya; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-06-03

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are exogenous substances that alter the function of the endocrine system, with adverse health effects on organisms or their progeny. In vitro estrogen receptor (ER) reporter gene assays have long been used to measure estrogenic activity in wastewater. Nevertheless, there is still uncertainty about their usefulness in environmental monitoring on account of a discrepancy between the estrogenic response of the in vitro assay and concentrations of estrogenic compounds determined by chemical analysis. Here, we measured estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in wastewater by ERα reporter gene assay. All samples were simultaneously analyzed for estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol, and the concentrations were used to predict estrogenic activity. All samples in which measured estrogenic activity was significantly lower than predicted showed strong antiestrogenic activity. In addition, we confirmed that the fraction that did not have antiestrogenic activity showed stronger estrogenic activity than the unfractionated wastewater extract. These results indicate that antiestrogenic compounds in wastewater suppress the activity of natural estrogens, and the reporter gene assay represents the net activity.

  14. Evaluation of a single-stage carbon oxidation-nitrification process for treating high TAN effluent from anaerobic digestion of poultry rendering wastewater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plants and animals. However, an excess amount of nitrogen in waterways may lead to anoxic condition and negatively alter various aquatic lifeforms due to their toxicity. Main sources of nitrogen in the environment include the discharge from wastewater treatment ...

  15. Trace analysis of herbicides in wastewaters by a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approach and liquid chromatography with quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry: evaluation of green parameters.

    PubMed

    del Mar Parrilla Vázquez, Maria; Martínez Galera, Maria; Parrilla Vázquez, Piedad; Uclés Moreno, Ana

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for determining phenylureas (monuron, isoproturon, diuron, linuron and neburon) and propanil herbicides in wastewater has been developed and validated, and the most significant parameters were compared with the corresponding ones found in the literature, thus showing the method performance. The method involves pre-concentration by a simple, rapid, sensitive and low environmental toxicity temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure. The herbicides were identified and determined by liquid chromatography with a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Data acquisition in selected-reaction monitoring mode allowed the simultaneous identification and quantification of the analytes using two transitions. The information dependent acquisition scan was performed to carry out the identification of those analytes whose second transition was present at low intensity, also providing extra confirmation for the other analytes. Limits of quantification were in the range 1.0-5.0 ng/L. Good recoveries (95-103%) were obtained for the extraction of the target analytes in wastewater samples. The methodology developed was applied to analyze effluent wastewater samples from a wastewater treatment plant located in an agricultural zone of Almería (Spain) and the results indicated the presence of diuron at mean concentration levels of 73.5 ng/L.

  16. The gas chromatographic determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater samples: evaluation of experimental biases in direct injection method against thermal desorption method.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Md Ahsan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Cho, Jinwoo

    2014-04-11

    The production of short-chained volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by the anaerobic bacterial digestion of sewage (wastewater) affords an excellent opportunity to alternative greener viable bio-energy fuels (i.e., microbial fuel cell). VFAs in wastewater (sewage) samples are commonly quantified through direct injection (DI) into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this study, the reliability of VFA analysis by the DI-GC method has been examined against a thermal desorption (TD-GC) method. The results indicate that the VFA concentrations determined from an aliquot from each wastewater sample by the DI-GC method were generally underestimated, e.g., reductions of 7% (acetic acid) to 93.4% (hexanoic acid) relative to the TD-GC method. The observed differences between the two methods suggest the possibly important role of the matrix effect to give rise to the negative biases in DI-GC analysis. To further explore this possibility, an ancillary experiment was performed to examine bias patterns of three DI-GC approaches. For instance, the results of the standard addition (SA) method confirm the definite role of matrix effect when analyzing wastewater samples by DI-GC. More importantly, their biases tend to increase systematically with increasing molecular weight and decreasing VFA concentrations. As such, the use of DI-GC method, if applied for the analysis of samples with a complicated matrix, needs a thorough validation to improve the reliability in data acquisition.

  17. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, Robert Charles; Green, Timothy Scott; Hull, Laurence Charles

    2001-02-01

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  18. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, R.C.; Green, T.S.; Hull, L.C.

    2001-02-28

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  19. Evaluation of Estrogenic Activity of Wastewater: Comparison Among In Vitro ERα Reporter Gene Assay, In Vivo Vitellogenin Induction, and Chemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Masaru; Kitamura, Tomokazu; Kumar, Vimal; Park, Chang-Beom; Ihara, Mariko O; Lee, Sang-Jung; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2015-05-19

    The in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) reporter gene assay has long been used to measure estrogenic activity in wastewater. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the assay represents net estrogenic activity in the balance between estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in wastewater. However, it remained unclear whether the net estrogenic activity measured by the in vitro ERα reporter gene assay can predict the in vivo estrogenic effect of wastewater. To determine this, we measured the following: estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of wastewater and reclaimed water by the in vitro ERα reporter gene assay, expression of vitellogenin-1 (vtg1) and choriogenin-H (chgH) in male medaka (Oryzias latipes) by quantitative real-time PCR, and estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol concentrations chemically to predict estrogenic activity. The net estrogenic activity measured by the in vitro medaka ERα reporter gene assay predicted the in vivo vtg1/chgH expression in male medaka more accurately than the concentrations of estrogens. These results also mean that in vivo vtg1/chgH expression in male medaka is determined by the balance between estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. The in vitro medaka ERα reporter gene assay also predicted in vivo vtg1/chgH expression on male medaka better than the human ERα reporter gene assay.

  20. Evaluation of Emerging Contaminants of Concern at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant Based on Seasonal Events, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, Arthur C.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan has identified highly treated wastewater as a possible water source for the restoration of natural water flows and hydroperiods in selected coastal areas, including the Biscayne Bay coastal wetlands. One potential source of reclaimed wastewater for the Biscayne Bay coastal wetlands is the effluent from the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southern Miami-Dade County. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Wastewater Reuse Technology Pilot Project Delivery Team, initiated a study to assess the presence of emerging contaminants of concern in the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant influent and effluent using current wastewater-treatment methods. As part of the study, 24-hour composite and discrete samples were collected at six locations (influent at plants 1 and 2, effluent pump, reuse train, chlorine dioxide unit, and ultraviolet pilot unit) at the plant during: (1) a dry-season, low-flow event on March 2-3, 2004, with an average inflow rate of 83.7 million gallons per day; (2) a wet-season, average-flow event on July 20-21, 2004, with an average inflow rate of 89.7 million gallons per day; and (3) high-rate disinfection tests on October 5 and 20, 2004, with average flow rates of 84.1 and 119.6 million gallons per day, respectively. During these four sampling events, 26, 27, 29, and 35 constituents were detected, respectively. The following transformations in concentration were determined in the waste stream: -100 to 180 percent at the effluent pump and -100 to 85 percent at the reuse train on March 2-3, 2004, and -100 to 1,609 percent at the effluent pump and -100 to 832 percent at the reuse train on July 20-21, 2004; -100 to -37 percent at the effluent pump, -100 to -62 percent at the reuse train, -100 to -56 percent at the chlorine dioxide unit, and -100 to -40 percent at the ultraviolet pilot unit on October 5, 2004; and -100 to -4 percent at the

  1. Sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Muga, Helen E; Mihelcic, James R

    2008-08-01

    A set of indicators that incorporate environmental, societal, and economic sustainability were developed and used to investigate the sustainability of different wastewater treatment technologies, for plant capacities of <5 million gallons per day (MGD) or 18.9 x 10(3) cubic meters (m(3)/day). The technologies evaluated were mechanical (i.e., activated sludge with secondary treatment), lagoon (facultative, anaerobic, and aerobic), and land treatment systems (e.g., slow rate irrigation, rapid infiltration, and overland flow). The economic indicators selected were capital, operation and management, and user costs because they determine the economic affordability of a particular technology to a community. Environmental indicators include energy use, because it indirectly measures resource utilization, and performance of the technology in removing conventional wastewater constituents such as biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus, and pathogens. These indicators also determine the reuse potential of the treated wastewater. Societal indicators capture cultural acceptance of the technology through public participation and also measure whether there is improvement in the community from the specific technology through increased job opportunities, better education, or an improved local environment. While selection of a set of indicators is dependent on the geographic and demographic context of a particular community, the overall results of this study show that there are varying degrees of sustainability with each treatment technology.

  2. Evaluation of the occurrence and biodegradation of parabens and halogenated by-products in wastewater by accurate-mass liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS).

    PubMed

    González-Mariño, Iria; Quintana, José Benito; Rodríguez, Isaac; Cela, Rafael

    2011-12-15

    An assessment of the sewage occurrence and biodegradability of seven parabens and three halogenated derivatives of methyl paraben (MeP) is presented. Several wastewater samples were collected at three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) during April and May 2010, concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The performance of the QTOF system proved to be comparable to triple-quadrupole instruments in terms of quantitative capabilities, with good linearity (R(2) > 0.99 in the 5-500 ng mL(-1) range), repeatability (RSD < 5.6%) and LODs (0.3-4.0 ng L(-1) after SPE). MeP and n-propyl paraben (n-PrP) were the most frequently detected and the most abundant analytes in raw wastewater (0.3-10 μg L(-1)), in accordance with the data displayed in the bibliography and reflecting their wider use in cosmetic formulations. Samples were also evaluated in search for potential halogenated by-products of parabens, formed as a result of their reaction with residual chlorine contained in tap water. Monochloro- and dichloro-methyl paraben (ClMeP and Cl(2)MeP) were found and quantified in raw wastewater at levels between 0.01 and 0.1 μg L(-1). Halogenated derivatives of n-PrP could not be quantified due to the lack of standards; nevertheless, the monochlorinated species (ClPrP) was identified in several samples from its accurate precursor and product ions mass/charge ratios (m/z). Removal efficiencies of parabens and MeP chlorinated by-products in WWTPs exceeded 90%, with the lowest percentages corresponding to the latter species. This trend was confirmed by an activated sludge biodegradation batch test, where non-halogenated parabens had half-lives lower than 4 days, whereas halogenated derivatives of MeP turned out to be more persistent, with up to 10 days of half-life in the case of dihalogenated derivatives. A further stability test performed with raw wastewater

  3. Determination of the internal chemical energy of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, E S; Curtis, T P; Dolfing, J

    2011-01-15

    The wastewater industry is facing a paradigm shift, learning to view domestic wastewater not as a waste stream which needs to be disposed of but as a resource from which to generate energy. The extent of that resource is a strategically important question. The only previous published measurement of the internal chemical energy of wastewater measured 6.3 kJ/L. It has long been assumed that the energy content in wastewater relates directly to chemical oxygen demand (COD). However there is no standard relationship between COD and energy content. In this study a new methodology of preparing samples for measuring the internal chemical energy in wastewater is developed, and an analysis is made between this and the COD measurements taken. The mixed wastewater examined, using freeze-drying of samples to minimize loss of volatiles, had 16.8 kJ/L, while the domestic wastewater tested had 7.6 kJ/L nearly 20% higher than previously estimated. The size of the resource that wastewater presents is clearly both complex and variable but is likely to be significantly greater than previously thought. A systematic evaluation of the energy contained in wastewaters is warranted.

  4. The SIPIBEL project: treatment of hospital and urban wastewater in a conventional urban wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Chonova, Teofana; Lecomte, Vivien; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc; Bouchez, Agnès; Labanowski, Jérôme; Dagot, Christophe; Lévi, Yves; Perrodin, Yves; Wiest, Laure; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Cournoyer, Benoit; Sebastian, Christel

    2017-07-07

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) receives increasing attention because of its specific composition and higher concentrations of some micropollutants. Better knowledge of HWW is needed in order to improve management strategies and to ensure the preservation of wastewater treatment efficiency and freshwater ecosystems. This context pushed forward the development of a pilot study site named Site Pilote de Bellecombe (SIPIBEL), which collects and treats HWW separately from urban wastewater, applying the same conventional treatment process. This particular configuration offers the opportunity for various scientific investigations. It enables to compare hospital and urban wastewater, the efficiency of the two parallel treatment lines, and the composition of the resulting hospital and urban treated effluents, as well as the evaluation of their effects on the environment. The study site takes into account environmental, economic, and social issues and promotes scientific and technical multidisciplinary actions. ᅟ.

  5. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  6. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants: removal and ecotoxicological impact of wastewater discharges and sludge disposal.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Camacho-Muñoz, D; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence of sixteen pharmaceutically active compounds in influent and effluent wastewater and in primary, secondary and digested sludge in one-year period has been evaluated. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) were calculated to evaluate the efficiency of removal of these compounds from wastewater by sorption onto sludge. The ecotoxicological risk to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, due to wastewater discharges to the receiving streams and to the application of digested sludge as fertilizer onto soils, was also evaluated. Twelve of the pharmaceuticals were detected in wastewater at mean concentrations from 0.1 to 32 μg/L. All the compounds found in wastewater were also found in sewage sludge, except diclofenac, at mean concentrations from 8.1 to 2206 μg/kg dm. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, gemfibrozil and caffeine were the compounds at the highest concentrations. LogKd values were between 1.17 (naproxen) and 3.48 (carbamazepine). The highest ecotoxicological risk in effluent wastewater and digested sludge is due to ibuprofen (risk quotient (RQ): 3.2 and 4.4, respectively), 17α-ethinylestradiol (RQ: 12 and 22, respectively) and 17β-estradiol (RQ: 12 and 359, respectively). Ecotoxicological risk after wastewater discharge and sludge disposal is limited to the presence of 17β-estradiol in digested-sludge amended soil (RQ: 2.7). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the levels of alcohol sulfates and ethoxysulfates in marine sediments near wastewater discharge points along the coast of Tenerife Island.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, C; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Blanc, R; Navalón, A; Pérez-Trujillo, J P; Vílchez, J L

    2014-02-15

    Alcohol sulfates (AS) and alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) are all High Production Volume and 'down-the-drain' chemicals used globally in detergent and personal care products, resulting in low levels ultimately released to the environment via wastewater treatment plant effluents. They have a strong affinity for sorption to sediments. Almost 50% of Tenerife Island surface area is environmentally protected. Therefore, determination of concentration levels of AS/AES in marine sediments near wastewater discharge points along the coast of the Island is of interest. These data were obtained after pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Short chains of AES and especially of AS dominated the homologue distribution for AES. The Principal Components Analysis was used. The results showed that the sources of AS and AES were the same and that both compounds exhibit similar behavior. Three different patterns in the distribution for homologues and ethoxymers were found.

  8. Scenario Analysis of the Impact on Drinking Water Intakes from Bromide in the Discharge of Treated Oil and Gas Wastewater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientists created different scenarios for conventional commercial wastewater treatment plants that treat oil and gas wastewaters to evaluate the impact from bromide in discharges by the CWTP plants.

  9. Saline landfill leachate disposal in facultative lagoons for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Orta de Velasquez, M T; Monje-Ramirez, I; Yañez Noguez, I

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of disposing of saline landfill leachates in a Facultative Lagoon Wastewater Treatment Plant (FLWTP). The FLWTP is near a landfill and presents two characteristics: a wastewater influent with low organic matter, and high lagoon salinity due to the soil characteristics. These characteristics made the FLWTP a viable candidate to evaluate the feasibility of adding landfill leachates to the wastewater influent. Different mixtures of leachate with raw wastewater using volumetric ratios of 4%, 6%, and 10% (v/v) were evaluated in facultative lagoon reactors (FLRs). A 10% concentration of leachates in raw wastewater increased BOD5 and COD in the influent from 45 to 110 mg L(-1) and from 219 to 711 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found that the increase in salinity given by the raw wastewater and leachate mixture did not inhibit algae diversity. The types of algae present were Microcystis sp., Merismopedia sp., Euglena sp., Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella, Diatomea and Anacystis sp. However, decreased algae densities were observed, as measured by the decrease in chlorophyll concentration. The results showed that a 100% leachate concentration combined with wastewater did not upset biological treatment in the FLRs. Mean removal efficiencies for BOD5 and COD were 75% and 35%, respectively, giving a final BOD5 lower than 25 mg L(-1). There was also a significant decrease in the leachate heavy metal content when diluted with raw wastewater as result of natural precipitation.

  10. Evaluation of a TiO2 photocatalysis treatment on nitrophenols and nitramines contaminated plant wastewaters by solid-phase extraction coupled with ESI HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Perchet, G; Merlina, G; Revel, J-C; Hafidi, M; Richard, C; Pinelli, E

    2009-07-15

    Nitration reactions of aromatic compounds are commonly involved in different industrial processes for pharmaceutical, pesticide or military uses. For many years, most of the manufacturing sites used lagooning systems to treat their process effluents. In view of a photocatalytic degradation assay, the wastewater of a lagoon was investigated by using HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry. The wastewater was highly concentrated in RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) and two herbicides Dinoterb (2-tert-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol) and Dinoseb (2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol). First of all, an analytical method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with HPLC ESI MS/MS was put in work for identification and titration of RDX, HMX and the two dinitrophenols in a complex natural matrix. Then, the UV/TiO2 treatment was investigated for pollutants removal. Dinitrophenolic compounds were significantly degraded after a 8-h-exposition of the wastewater/TiO2 suspension, whereas RDX and HMX were poorly affected.

  11. Evaluation of wastewater treatment in a novel anoxic-aerobic algal-bacterial photobioreactor with biomass recycling through carbon and nitrogen mass balances.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cynthia; Domínguez, Jesús M; García, Dimas; Blanco, Saúl; Pérez, Rebeca; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-09-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiosis, implemented in an innovative anoxic-aerobic photobioreactor configuration with biomass recycling, supported an efficient removal of total organic carbon (86-90%), inorganic carbon (57-98%) and total nitrogen (68-79%) during synthetic wastewater treatment at a hydraulic and sludge retention times of 2 days and 20 days, respectively. The availability of inorganic carbon in the photobioreactor, determined by its supply in the wastewater and microalgae activity, governed the extent of nitrogen removal by assimilation or nitrification-denitrification. Unexpectedly, nitrate production was negligible despite the high dissolved oxygen concentrations, denitrification being only based on nitrite reduction. Biomass recycling resulted in the enrichment of rapidly settling algal flocs, which supported effluent total suspended solid concentrations below the European Union maximum discharge limits. Finally, the maximum nitrous oxide emissions recorded were far below the emission factors reported for wastewater treatment plants, confirming the environmental sustainability of this innovative photobioreactor in terms of global warming impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and evaluation of wastewater-treatment processes at the H-Coal site in Catlettsburg, Kentucky. Volume I. Design summary and R and D task identification

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, G.E.; Walker, J.F.; Brown, C.H.; Klein, J.A.; Genung, R.K.

    1982-04-01

    The design of a mobile process development unit (PDU) for coal conversion wastewater treatment and an overview of the associated R and D program for its use are described. The PDU consists of three modular units, which can be arranged in various sequences: carbon adsorption, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. Each of the units has a nominal flow capacity of approx. 60 mL of wastewater feed per second (1 gpm). The feed to the PDU will be taken as a sidestream from the existing wastewater treatment system at the H-Coal site. It will have been processed through oil-water separation and distillation stripping, and can be taken both before and after bio-oxidation by an activated sludge process. The ozonation system experimental parameters are ozone contact time, ozone treatment rate, column pressure, and pH. The system will be analyzed as a continuous stirred tank reactor. The calculated results will include ozone reaction, treatment, and absorption rates, contaminant depletion and reaction rates, ozone absorption and contaminant removal efficiencies, and ozone volumetric mass-transfer coefficients. The carbon adsorption system will be operated to obtain bed-depth-service-time (BDST) data for various carbons and operating conditions. The BDST method will yield the rate of carbon exhaustion as well as the minimum depth of carbon required to remove contaminants. Reverse osmosis will be studied to measure dissolved solids rejection efficiency, permeate recovery, and fouling characteristics of various commercially available membranes.

  13. Waste to energy applications in the Wisconsin canning industry: Economic and environmental evaluation of anaerobic treatment of vegetable processing wastewaters using a fixed film reactor: Project report

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, C.R.; Stover, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the economic and environmental consequences of anaerobic wastewater treatment applied to a vegetable canning plant owned by Our Best Foods, Inc., Pulaski, Wisconsin. A pilot scale, upflow fixed film anaerobic reactor was utilized to determine pollutant removal efficiency, operational parameters, and basis of design of conceptual full scale conceptual full scale systems. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) as low as twelve hours and organic loading rates as high as 1.6 pounds total chemical oxygen demand (COD) per cubic foot of media per day were achieved during the pilot study. The total and soluble COD removals averaged 59% and 79% respectively for the duration of the study. The biogas produced from the anaerobic treatment pilot system typically contained 60 to 65% methane. About 3.0 cubic feet of methane (5.5 cubic feet of biogas) were produced at standard temperature and pressure (STP) per one pound of total COD removed. Wastewaters used in this study were found to be highly variable in their strength and chemical composition. Based upon the results of the pilot study, the projected economics of different hypothetical wastewater treatment options were examined and compared to the economics of the present waste disposal program. 18 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Fluorescence spectroscopy for wastewater monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Carstea, Elfrida M; Bridgeman, John; Baker, Andy; Reynolds, Darren M

    2016-05-15

    Wastewater quality is usually assessed using physical, chemical and microbiological tests, which are not suitable for online monitoring, provide unreliable results, or use hazardous chemicals. Hence, there is an urgent need to find a rapid and effective method for the evaluation of water quality in natural and engineered systems and for providing an early warning of pollution events. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable technique to characterize and monitor wastewater in surface waters for tracking sources of pollution, and in treatment works for process control and optimization. This paper reviews the current progress in applying fluorescence to assess wastewater quality. Studies have shown that, in general, wastewater presents higher fluorescence intensity compared to natural waters for the components associated with peak T (living and dead cellular material and their exudates) and peak C (microbially reprocessed organic matter). Furthermore, peak T fluorescence is significantly reduced after the biological treatment process and peak C is almost completely removed after the chlorination and reverse osmosis stages. Thus, simple fluorometers with appropriate wavelength selectivity, particularly for peaks T and C could be used for online monitoring in wastewater treatment works. This review also shows that care should be taken in any attempt to identify wastewater pollution sources due to potential overlapping fluorophores. Correlations between fluorescence intensity and water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total organic carbon (TOC) have been developed and dilution of samples, typically up to ×10, has been shown to be useful to limit inner filter effect. It has been concluded that the following research gaps need to be filled: lack of studies on the on-line application of fluorescence spectroscopy in wastewater treatment works and lack of data processing tools suitable for rapid correction and extraction of

  15. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Laura E; Lepine, Christine; Sharrer, Kata L; Summerfelt, Steven T

    2016-11-15

    Chemoheterotrophic denitrification technologies using woodchips as a solid carbon source (i.e., woodchip bioreactors) have been widely trialed for treatment of diffuse-source agricultural nitrogen pollution. There is growing interest in the use of this simple, relatively low-cost biological wastewater treatment option in waters with relatively higher total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) such as aquaculture wastewater. This work: (1) evaluated hydraulic retention time (HRT) impacts on COD/TSS removal, and (2) assessed the potential for woodchip clogging under this wastewater chemistry. Four pilot-scale woodchip denitrification bioreactors operated for 267 d showed excellent TSS removal (>90%) which occurred primarily near the inlet, and that COD removal was maximized at lower HRTs (e.g., 56% removal efficiency and 25 g of COD removed per m(3) of bioreactor per d at a 24 h HRT). However, influent wastewater took progressively longer to move into the woodchips likely due to a combination of (1) woodchip settling, (2) clogging due to removed wastewater solids and/or accumulated bacterial growth, and (3) the pulsed flow system pushing the chips away from the inlet. The bioreactor that received the highest loading rate experienced the most altered hydraulics. Statistically significant increases in woodchip P content over time in woodchip bags placed near the bioreactor outlets (0.03 vs 0.10%P2O5) and along the bioreactor floor (0.04 vs. 0.12%P2O5) confirmed wastewater solids were being removed and may pose a concern for subsequent nutrient mineralization and release. Nevertheless, the excellent nitrate-nitrogen and TSS removal along with notable COD removal indicated woodchip bioreactors are a viable water treatment technology for these types of wastewaters given they are used downstream of a filtration device. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into a municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant.

  17. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Jiang, Yi; Lee, Gordon; Kokabian, Bahareh; Fast, Sara; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L; Magbanua, Benjamin S; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment. In particular, this paper primarily focuses on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (single and multiple pollutants, and metals), and emerging pollutant removal (pharmaceuticals). A summary of studies involving the plant (vegetation) effects, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  18. Development of a sensitive and false-positive free PMA-qPCR viability assay to quantify VBNC Escherichia coli and evaluate disinfection performance in wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Kibbee, Richard J; Örmeci, Banu

    2017-01-01

    The detection and quantification of viable Escherichia coli cells in wastewater treatment plant effluent is very important as it is the main disinfection efficacy parameter for assessing its public health risk and environmental impact. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and false-positive free propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) assay to quantify the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) E. coli present in secondary wastewater effluent after chlorine disinfection. The qPCR target was the E. coli uidA gene, and native Taq was used to eliminate false positives caused by the presence of contaminant E. coli DNA in recombinant Taq polymerase reagents. Due to issues with qPCR inhibitors in wastewater, this study explored several pre-DNA extraction treatment methods for qPCR inhibitor removal. PMA-qPCR validation was done using salmon testes DNA (Sketa DNA) as an exogenous control added directly to the wastewater samples and amplified using a separate qPCR assay. After disinfection of secondary effluent with 2ppm chlorine at the plant, the mean Log10 CFU reduction in E. coli was 2.85 from a mean CFU of 3.48/10mL compared to 0.21 Log10 CCE mean reduction of the uidA gene from a mean CCE of 3.16/10mL. The VBNC cell concentrations were calculated as 2.32 Log10/10mL by subtracting the colony forming units (CFU) obtained from membrane filtration from the calculated CFU equivalent (CCE) values obtained from PMA-qPCR. These results demonstrate the effective use of a PMA-qPCR method for the quantification of the E. coli uidA gene and indicate there are high numbers (2.01×10(3)CCE/100mL) of VBNC E. coli cells leaving the wastewater treatment plant in the final effluent after chlorine treatment. VBNC bacterial cells are of concern as they have the potential to resuscitate and grow, regain virulence, affect natural microbiome in the discharge sites, and pass on antimicrobial resistant genes to other microorganisms. Copyright © 2016

  19. Model development and evaluation of methane potential from anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge and un-dewatered grease trap waste.

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, Sedat; Malina, Joseph F

    2015-06-01

    The performance of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with un-dewatered grease trap waste was assessed using modified biochemical methane potential tests under mesophilic conditions (35°C). Methane potentials, process inhibition and chemical behavior of the process were analyzed at different grease trap waste feed ratios on volatile solids basis. Nonlinear regression analyses of first order reaction and modified Gompertz equations were performed to assist in interpretation of the experimental results. Methane potential of un-dewatered grease trap waste was measured as 606 mL CH4/g VS(added), while methane potential of municipal wastewater sludge was only 223 mL CH4/g VS(added). The results indicated that anaerobic digestion of grease trap waste without dewatering yields less methane potential than concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste because of high wastewater content of un-dewatered grease trap waste. However, anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge and grease trap waste still yields over two times more methane potential and approximately 10% more volatile solids reduction than digestion of municipal wastewater sludge alone. The anaerobic co-digestion process inhibitions were reported at 70% and greater concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste additions on volatile solids basis in previous studies; however, no inhibition was observed at 100% un-dewatered grease trap waste digestion in the present study. These results indicate that anaerobic co-digestion of un-dewatered grease trap waste may reduce the inhibition risk compared to anaerobic co-digestion of concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste. In addition, a mathematical model was developed in this study for the first time to describe the relationship between grease trap waste feed ratio on volatile solids basis and resulting methane potential. Experimental data from the current study as well as previous biochemical methane potential studies were successfully fit to this

  20. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  1. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  2. Review of Organic Wastewater Compound Concentrations and Removal in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems.

    PubMed

    Schaider, Laurel A; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2017-07-05

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems, such as septic systems, serve 20% of U.S. households and are common in areas not served by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) globally. They can be sources of nutrients and pathogen pollution and have been linked to health effects in communities where they contaminate drinking water. However, few studies have evaluated their ability to remove organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) such as pharmaceuticals, hormones, and detergents. We synthesized results from 20 studies of 45 OWCs in conventional drainfield-based and alternative onsite wastewater treatment systems to characterize concentrations and removal. For comparison, we synthesized 31 studies of these same OWCs in activated sludge WWTPs. OWC concentrations and removal in drainfields varied widely and depended on wastewater sources and compound-specific removal processes, primarily sorption and biotransformation. Compared to drainfields, alternative systems had similar median and higher maximum concentrations, reflecting a wider range of system designs and redox conditions. OWC concentrations and removal in drainfields were generally similar to those in conventional WWTPs. Persistent OWCs in groundwater and surface water can indicate the overall extent of septic system impact, while the presence of well-removed OWCs, such as caffeine and acetaminophen, may indicate discharges of poorly treated wastewater from failing or outdated septic systems.

  3. Tertiary filtration in small wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

    2007-01-01

    Tertiary filtration can be proposed in small wastewater treatment plants with impact on protected water bodies. Rotating disk filters may be adopted, in respect to conventional sand filters, when low availability of space and low investment costs are the prevailing conditions. The overall objective of this research was to evaluate the filtration efficiency of rotating disk filters; to compare effectiveness with traditional sand filters; to analyse thoroughly the importance of particle size distribution in wastewater tertiary filtration. In the experimental activity, conventional wastewater quality parameters were investigated and particle size distribution (PSD) was characterized to discuss the filter effectiveness. The effect of design and operation parameters of tertiary filters were discussed related to particle removal curves derived from particles counts. Analysis of particle size distribution can be very useful to help comprehension of filtration processes, design of filtration treatments and to decide the best measures to improve filter performance.

  4. Nitrification performance in a membrane bioreactor treating industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dvořák, Lukáš; Svojitka, Jan; Wanner, Jiří; Wintgens, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The influence of industrial (pharmaceutical and chemical) wastewater composition on membrane bioreactor (MBR) performance was investigated in a pilot-scale installation. The study focussed on nitrification performance, which was evaluated based on influent and effluent parameters as well as batch nitrification rate tests. The industrial wastewater was pumped into the MBR in a mixture with municipal wastewater at constant flow rate. The loading of the MBR with industrial wastewater was increased stepwise from 0 to 75% share in the mixed influent to study the adaptation of nitrifying bacteria. Stable nitrification performance was observed until the content of industrial wastewater in the influent reached 40%, with effluent values of around 0.56 mg L(-1) NH4-N and 98.3% ammonia removal. Breakdown of nitratation was observed at a 40% industrial wastewater dose and breakdown of nitritation at a 50% dose, respectively. However, after several months of adaptation, both processes recovered. No nitrification was observed when the industrial wastewater share exceeded 50%. Adaptation of nitrifying bacteria in the MBR was also confirmed by results of kinetic tests. The inhibition effect of the concentrated industrial wastewater to the MBR sludge decreased substantially after several months of exposure, while the inhibition of referential activated sludge remained constant. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. New trends in removing heavy metals from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meihua; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Chaosheng; Rong, Hongwei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    With the development of researches, the treatments of wastewater have reached a certain level. Whereas, heavy metals in wastewater cause special concern in recent times due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. Therefore, it is important to get rid of the heavy metals in wastewater. The previous studies have provided many alternative processes in removing heavy metals from wastewater. This paper reviews the recent developments and various methods for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. It also evaluates the advantages and limitations in application of these techniques. A particular focus is given to innovative removal processes including adsorption on abiological adsorbents, biosorption, and photocatalysis. Because these processes have leaded the new trends and attracted more and more researches in removing heavy metals from wastewater due to their high efficency, pluripotency and availability in a copious amount. In general, the applicability, characteristic of wastewater, cost-effectiveness, and plant simplicity are the key factors in selecting the most suitable method for the contaminated wastewater.

  6. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.E.; Eliason, S.D.; Laegreid, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated as a treatment technology for the removal of organics from biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) generated from an experimental biomass gasifier at Texas Tech University. Wastewaters were characteristically high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) with initial values ranging from 32,000 to 68,000 mg/1. Since RO is normally considered a complementary treatment technology, wastewaters were pretreated by biological or wet air oxidation (WAO) processes. One set of experiments were run using untreated wastewaters to compare membrane performance with those experiments using pretreated wastewaters. Experiments were run for 8 to 10 hrs using UOP's TFC-85 membrane operating at 700 psig and 18 to 20/sup 0/C. This membrane is similar to the NS-100, a membrane known for being effective in the separation of organics from solution. Separation of organics from solution was determined by COD removal. Removal percentages for biologically pretreated wastewaters averaged 98% except for one group of runs averaging 69% removal. This exception was probably due to the presence of milk solids in the feed. Use of RO on WAO pretreated wastewaters and unpretreated feeds resulted in 90% COD removal. Membrane degradation was observed when using full-strength and WAO pretreated feeds, but not when using feeds that had undergone biological pretreatment. Color removal was computed for the majority of experiments completed. Overall, 99 to 100% of the total color was removed from BGW feeds, values which coincide with those reported in the literature for other wastewaters.

  7. Increase of cytotoxicity during wastewater chlorination: Impact factors and surrogates.

    PubMed

    Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Lu, Yun; Hu, Hong-Ying; Yang, Yang; Liu, Rui; Liu, Feng

    2017-02-15

    Toxic and harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were formed during wastewater chlorination. It was recently suggested that cytotoxicity to mammalian cells reflects risks posed by chlorinated wastewater. Here, ATP assays were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Chlorination significantly increased cytotoxicity of treated wastewater. Factors affecting cytotoxicity formation during wastewater chlorination were investigated. Quenching with sodium thiosulfate and ascorbic acid decreased the formed cytotoxicity, while ammonium kept the cytotoxicity stable. The chlorine dose required for the maximum cytotoxicity increase was dramatically affected by DOC and ammonia concentrations. The maximum cytotoxicity increase, defined as the cytotoxicity formation potential (CtFP), occurred when wastewater was treated for 48h with a chlorine dose of 2·DOC+11·NH3N+10 (mg-Cl2/L). During chlorination, the amounts of AOX formation was found to be significantly correlated with cytotoxicity formation when no DBPs were destroyed. AOX formation could be used as a surrogate to estimate cytotoxicity increase during wastewater chlorination. Besides, the CtFP of 14 treated wastewater samples was assessed ranged from 5.4-20.4mg-phenol/L. The CtFP could be estimated from UV254 of treated wastewater because CtFP and UV254 were strongly correlated.

  8. Effects of wastewater irrigation on soil properties and turfgrass growth.

    PubMed

    Castro, Elena; Mañas, Maria Pilar; De Las Heras, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Reuse of treated wastewater for turf irrigation is often viewed as one way to maximize existing urban water resources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of treated wastewater for turfgrass and assess the effects of continuous use of treated water on the soil and crop. Two turfgrass plots irrigated with drinking water and treated wastewater were monitored over a two-year period. Physical and chemical parameters in the soil and foliar tissue were analyzed. Plants irrigated with treated wastewater had highest sodium content. There were no negative effects with respect to changes in soil pH but a significant increase in electrical conductivity and sodium content was observed in wastewater-irrigated soil. Treated wastewater could be used as a resource for agricultural irrigation since it contributes phosphorus and organic matter. However, it is necessary to consider that several crops could be negatively affected by wastewater irrigation because of the sodium content and this should be taken into account when water-sprinklers are in use, since this is the case in the present study. The benefits of irrigation with treated urban wastewater include contributing plant nutrients to turfgrass while conserving freshwater.

  9. Learn about Small Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many small and rural communities, including those in Indian Country and along the U.S.-Mexico border, struggle with aging or inadequate wastewater treatment systems, or do not have access to basic wastewater services.

  10. [Modern approaches to wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Ivan'ko, O M

    2013-01-01

    The present state and prospects of new methods for cleaning in the water and wastewater using membrane separation, are examples of application of this technology in the treatment of surface and subsurface natural waters, seawater desalination, wastewater treatment plants.

  11. Evaluation of the treatment performance of lab-scaled vertical flow constructed wetlands in removal of organic compounds, color and nutrients in azo dye-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dogdu, Gamze; Yalcuk, Arda

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the treatment performance of vertical flow intermittent feeding constructed wetland (VFCW) in removal of organic pollution, nutrients and color in azo-dye containing wastewater. The systems consisted of PVC reactors, some filling materials such as gravel, sand and zeolite and wetland plants including Typha angustifolia and Canna indica. The average treatment efficiency of the systems for COD, color, sulphate, NH4-N, and PO4-P were in the range of 57-63%, 94-99%, 44-48%, 39-44%, and 84-88%, respectively among the VFCW reactors. It is concluded that VFCW reactor system can effectively be used in the treatment of dye-rich wastewater, especially for the removal of color and in the reduction of COD. Biofilm formation and cleavage of azo bonds could be observed by SEM and FTIR results, respectively. Almost similar NH4-N and PO4-P removal were obtained in all reactors by using same amount of zeolite media.

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of three sets of advanced wastewater treatment trains for treating secondary effluent: Organic micro-pollutants and bio-toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Li, Mo; Wen, Qinxue

    2017-09-20

    The environmental presence of organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) has posed increasing risks on aquatic organism and human health. The performance of three commonly used advanced wastewater treatment trains, coagulation-sand filter, coagulation-biological aerated filter (BAF) and ozonation-biological activated carbon (BAC), in removing fifteen residual contaminants and bio-toxicity of the effluent from a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated. Relatively high level of OMPs (0.69-14.71 μg/L), genotoxicity (22.64 μg 4-NQO/L) and estrogenic activity (1.4 μg E2/L) were observed from the secondary effluent (SE). Limited OMPs and bio-toxicity reduction was achieved during coagulation with 20 mg/L of polymeric aluminium and sand filter. Ozonation exhibited high advantage in OMPs, genotoxicity and estrogenic activity reduction. More than 80% of removal was achieved for most OMPs after ozonation with normalized dose of 1.25 mg O3/mg DOC, and the removal of OMPs was consistent well with the second reaction kinetics constants of OMPs with ozone. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, spectroscopy indicators such as UV254 and total fluorescence (TF) exhibited a high positive correlation with genotoxicity reduction, while estrogenic activity was related well with OMPs variation. To sum up, spectroscopic indicators showed a high potential to indicate the OMPs and bio-toxicity of SE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Performance evaluation of anaerobic hybrid reactors with different packing media for treating wastewater of mild alkali treated rice straw in ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhuri; Balasubramanian, Velmurugan; Mehta, Himali; Dixit, Garima; Madamwar, Datta; Shah, Amita R

    2014-01-01

    Four anaerobic hybrid reactors with different packing media viz. gravel (R1), pumice stone (R2), polypropylene saddles (R3) and ceramic saddles (R4) were operated in semi-continuous mode. Biomethanation potential of the wastewater generated during alkali-treatment of rice straw in ethanol production process was investigated at ambient conditions. The reactors were operated with varying organic loading rates (0.861-4.313 g COD l(-1) d(-1)) and hydraulic retention time (3-15 days). Higher COD removal efficiency (69.2%) and methane yield (0.153 l CH4 g(-1) CODadded) were achieved in reactor R2 at 15 days HRT. Modified Stover-Kincannon model was applied to estimate the bio-kinetic coefficients and fitness of the model was checked by the regression coefficient for all the reactors. The model showed an excellent correlation between the experimental and predicted values. The present study demonstrated the treatment of wastewater from alkali treated rice straw for production of biogas.

  14. Evaluation of an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor containing diatomite and maifanite for the improved treatment of petroleum wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Liang, Jiahao; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X; Zhan, Yali; Wang, Qinghong

    2017-11-01

    Novel diatomite (R1) and maifanite (R2) were utilized as support materials in an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor for the treatment of recalcitrant petroleum wastewater. At high organic loadings (11kg-COD/m(3)·d), these materials were efficient at reducing COD (92.7% and 93.0%) in comparison with controls (R0) (88.4%). Higher percentages of large granular sludge (0.6mm or larger) were observed for R1 (30.3%) and R2 (24.6%) compared with controls (22.6%). The larger portion of granular sludge provided a favorable habitat that resulted in greater microorganism diversity. Increased filamentous bacterial communities are believed to have promoted granular sludge formation promoting a conductive environment for stimulation methanogenic Archaea. These communities had enhanced pH tolerance and produced more methane. This study illustrates a new potential use of diatomite and maifanite as support materials in UASB reactors for increased efficiency when treating refractory wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lab-scale co-digestion of kitchen waste and brown water for a preliminary performance evaluation of a decentralized waste and wastewater management.

    PubMed

    Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Girotto, Francesca; Hirata, Osamu; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-08-01

    An overall interaction is manifested between wastewater and solid waste management schemes. At the Laboratory of Environmental Engineering (LISA) of the University of Padova, Italy, the scientific and technical implications of putting into practice a decentralized waste and wastewater treatment based on the separation of grey water, brown water (BW - faecal matter) and yellow water (YW - urine) are currently undergoing investigation in the Aquanova Project. An additional aim of this concept is the source segregation of kitchen waste (KW) for subsequent anaerobic co-digestion with BW. To determine an optimal mixing ratio and temperature for use in the treatment of KW, BW, and eventually YW, by means of anaerobic digestion, a series of lab-scale batch tests were performed. Organic mixtures of KW and BW performed much better (max. 520mlCH4/gVS) in terms of methane yields than the individual substrates alone (max. 220mlCH4/gVS). A small concentration of urine proved to have a positive effect on anaerobic digestion performance, possibly due to the presence of micronutrients in YW. When considering high YW concentrations in the anaerobically digested mixtures, no ammonia inhibition was observed until a 30% and 10% YW content was added under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of different substrates to support the growth of Typha latifolia in constructed wetlands treating tannery wastewater over long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia treating tannery wastewater under long-term operation. Two expanded clay aggregates (Filtralite MR3-8-FMR and Filtralite NR3-8-FNR) and a fine gravel-FG were used as substrate for the constructed wetland units plus one unit with FMR was left as an unvegetated control. The systems were subject to three hydraulic loadings, 18, 8 and 6cmd(-1), and to periods of interruption in the feed. The relationship between the substrate, plant development and removal efficiency, especially of organic matter, was investigated. Organic loadings up to 1800kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1) and 3849kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) were applied leading to mass removals of up to 652kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1) and 1869kg COD ha(-1)d(-1), respectively. The three different substrates were adequate for the establishment of T. latifolia, although the clay aggregates allowed for higher plant propagation levels. The units with FNR and FMR achieved significantly higher COD and BOD5 removal when compared to the FG and to the unplanted units. The systems proved to be tolerant to high organic loadings and to interruptions in feed suggesting this technology as a viable option for the biological treatment of tannery wastewater.

  17. A scientific approach to wastewater recovery and reuse in the textile industry.

    PubMed

    Orhon, D; Babuna, F G; Kabdaslí, I; Insel, F G; Karahan, O; Dulkadiroğlu, H; Doğruel, S; Sevimil, F; Yediler, A

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater recovery and reuse in industries requires all the basic steps of quality management. It should involve a comprehensive in plant survey of processes with wastewater generation, identification of recoverable streams, and treatment requirements for reuse. It should equally undertake evaluation of wastewater quality remaining after segregation of the recovered portion, with specific emphasis on technological implications of appropriate treatment and compliance with effluent limitations. In this study, all these factors were experimentally assessed and evaluated for a knit fabric processing textile plant.

  18. Energy forest irrigated with wastewater: a comparative microbial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Carlander, A; Schönning, C; Stenström, T A

    2009-09-01

    In this study, risks for human infection associated with irrigation of municipal wastewater on short rotation willow coppice (Salix) were evaluated in three countries. The aim was also to determine the reduction of indicator organisms and pathogens in the treatment plants. Two of the field sites were chosen for further evaluation by QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) applied to three scenarios: accidental ingestions of wastewater, exposure to aerosols and ingestion of groundwater. The risks of infection for bacteria (Salmonella), virus (rotavirus) and protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidium) were characterised as probability of infections per exposure and number of infections per year.The highest risk for infection was associated with exposure to rotavirus in Culmore (Northern Ireland), by either accidental ingestion of wastewater or ingestion of groundwater (P(inf) 8 x 10(-1)). For Kvidinge (Sweden) the risk for virus infection by ingestion of wastewater were in the same range (P(inf) 7 x 10(-1)). The risk for Giardia infection differed between the two sites due to differences in concentration of this pathogen in the wastewater. The groundwater was found to have suffered faecal contamination due to the wastewater irrigation. Use of partially treated wastewater for irrigation of energy crops could be a sustainable option if site-specific recommendations are developed.

  19. Stability of alumina, ceria, and silica nanoparticles in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Otero-González, Lila; Barbero, Isabel; Field, Jim A; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are used in semiconductor manufacturing operations such as wafer chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP). Understanding the stability of NPs in municipal wastewater is essential for the evaluation of the fate of NPs released to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study aimed to evaluate the stability of Al(2)O(3), CeO(2), and SiO(2) NPs and CMP waste effluents containing these NPs in municipal wastewater. Al(2)O(3) and CeO(2) NPs were destabilized by wastewater constituents, as indicated by the formation of large agglomerates. However, the same NPs in the CMP waste slurries showed high stability in wastewater, probably due to additives present in the slurry that modify the surface chemistry of the particles. Likewise, both the commercial SiO(2) NPs and the CMP waste slurry containing SiO(2) NPs showed substantial stability in wastewater since this NP has a very low point of zero charge, which suggests that this NP could be the hardest one to remove in conventional WWTPs by aggregation-sedimentation. In summary, the results indicate that wastewater may destabilize NPs suspensions, which would facilitate NP removal in WWTPs. However, some chemicals present in real CMP slurries may counterbalance this effect. More research is needed to completely understand the surface chemistry involved.

  20. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  1. Off Grid Photovoltaic Wastewater Treatment and Management Lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPlace, Lucas A.; Moody, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    The SSC wastewater treatment system is comprised of key components that require a constant source of electrical power or diesel fuel to effectively treat the wastewater. In alignment with the President's new Executive Order 13653, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, this project aims to transform the wastewater treatment system into a zero emissions operation by incorporating the advantages of an off grid, photovoltaic system. Feasibility of implementation will be based on an analytical evaluation of electrical data, fuel consumption, and site observations.

  2. Comparative removal of toxic pollutants by six wastewater treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, S.A.; Austern, B.M.; Eralp, A.E.; Wise, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Five pilot-scale wastewater treatment processes providing less than secondary treatment were evaluated for capability to remove priority pollutants from municipal wastewater. The selected processes were primary clarification plus filtration, chemical clarification, high rate trickling filter, aerated lagoon and facultative lagoon. A conventional activated sludge system was operated in parallel with the alternative processes to serve as a control. Wastewater feed was spiked with 21 organics dissolved in toluene. Removals of ambient levels of five metals were also determined. The control activated sludge provided the best removals of organics.

  3. Biokinetic study for SRC-I wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    Biooxidation is an important part of the overall wastewater treatment system for the proposed SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky. After the completion of a Baseline Design for the plant in April 1982, various refinements were evaluated. One of these was the inclusion of a process for phenol recovery from four sour-water streams. As part of this evaluation, an extensive laboratory treatability study was conducted on wastewaters both with and without this phenol recovery step. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of different treatment schemes on different wastewaters and did not include the development of the kinetic coefficients that govern the biooxidation process. Additional treatability testing documented herein, has been performed to establish the kinetic coefficients for biooxidation of the SRC-I wastewaters. This will provide a rational basis for any subsequent changes in design. The wastewater feed used in this study was process recycle water from the Fort Lewis, Washington, pilot plant. Prior to biooxidation, it was pretreated by solvent extraction for removal of phenolics and by steam stripping for removal of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Two, 2-stage bench scale bioreactors were operated for approximately eight months, during which time they were stabilized at various steady-state conditions. Kinetic coefficients were evaluated according to the Lawrence and McCarty model, based on BOD, COD, and TOC. Nitrification, oxygen utilization, and solids settling velocities were also studied. The results showed that BOD is a poor basis for the model mainly because almost all BOD/sub 5/ was removed at all steady-state conditions. Also, the model was more accurate for steady-state conditions of lower solids retention times. The bulk of both organic and ammonia reductions occurred in the first stage reactors.

  4. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0

  5. Long-term field evaluation of the changes in fruit and olive oil chemical compositions after agronomic application of olive mill wastewater with rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Tekaya, Meriem; El-Gharbi, Sinda; Chehab, Hechmi; Attia, Faouzi; Hammami, Mohamed; Mechri, Beligh

    2018-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with rock phosphate (RP) in a field of olive trees, on olive fruits and oil quality. The results revealed that olive fruits of OMW-RP amended plants had higher contents of polyphenols and mannitol indicating that agronomic application of OMW with RP generated an oxidative stress. Land spreading of OMW with RP altered the relative proportions of individual sugars in leaves and fruits. Consequently, the oil content decreased significantly, and a marked decrease in the contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls was also observed. Changes also took place in the composition of fatty acids, particularly by the increase of linoleic acid and the decrease of oleic acid. Our results suggested that the use of OMW in combination with RP is expected to have a major negative impact on olive fruit and oil quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of biological nutrient removal from wastewater by Twin Circulating Fluidized Bed Bioreactor (TCFBBR) using a predictive fluidization model and AQUIFAS APP.

    PubMed

    Andalib, Mehran; Nakhla, George; Sen, Dipankar; Zhu, Jesse

    2011-02-01

    A two-phase and three-phase predictive fluidization model based on the characteristics of a system such as media type and size, flow rates, and reactor cross sectional area was proposed to calculate bed expansion, solid, liquid and gas hold up and specific surface area (SSA) of the biofilm particles. The model was subsequently linked to 1d AQUIFAS APP software (Aquaregen) to model biological nutrient removal in two phase (anoxic) and three phase (aerobic) fluidized bed bioreactors. The credibility of the proposed model for biological nutrient removal was investigated using the experimental data from a Twin Circulating Fluidized Bed Bioreactors (TCFBBR) treating synthetic and municipal wastewater. The SSA of bio-particles and volume of the expanded bed were simulated as a function of operational parameters. Two-sided t-tests demonstrated that simulated SCOD, NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, TN, VSS and biomass yields agreed with the experimental values at the 95% confidence level.

  7. The GREAT-ER model in China: Evaluating the risk of both treated and untreated wastewater discharges and a consideration to the future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Benjamin; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    As a result of rapid economic development, the production and usage of chemicals in China has risen significantly. This has resulted in China's environment becoming degraded. The Chinese government has attempted to ease these problems with significant investment towards upgrading the wastewater network. These efforts have initially focused upon large cities; progressing towards smaller populations within the most recent 5 year plan. However rural populations were largely overlooked, ~90% of rural settlements do not have treatment facilities for their wastewater. The next (13th) five year plan is a great opportunity to improve upon wastewater infrastructure. This transition is particularly important and it is essential for the government to prioritise settlements to provide treatment facilities and to improve water quality in receiving waters. This study focuses upon the use of a catchment model in order make progress towards this goal. A reliable model which can capture the complexity of the catchment is needed, but one without complexity in itself, in order for it to be developed and validated without an excessive requirement for data. The Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER) model is a catchment-scale stochastic-deterministic GIS model. It is primarily used for higher-tier chemical risk assessment. Emissions are from point source only and are calculated based upon population and calculated emission rates per capita. Dilution and transportation are determined using low-flow statistics within each stretch; calculated based upon catchment soil and topographic properties. Removal of the contaminant can occur prior to emission and in-stream. The lowest tier methodology applies a simple 1st-order removal rate and a flat percentage removal for in-stream and sewage treatment work removal respectively. The data requirements are relatively low, although still challenging for many situations. Many authors have reported reasonable

  8. Comparative Toxicity of Chlorinated Saline and Freshwater Wastewater Effluents to Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengting; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Richardson, Susan D

    2015-12-15

    Toilet flushing with seawater results in saline wastewater, which may contain approximately 33-50% seawater. Halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), especially brominated and iodinated DBPs, have recently been found in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents. With the occurrence of brominated and iodinated DBPs, the adverse effects of chlorinated saline wastewater effluents to marine ecology have been uncertain. By evaluating the developmental effects in the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii directly exposed to chlorinated saline/freshwater wastewater effluents, we found surprisingly that chlorinated saline wastewater effluents were less toxic than a chlorinated freshwater wastewater effluent. This was also witnessed by the marine alga Tetraselmis marina. The toxicity of a chlorinated wastewater effluent to the marine species was dominated by its relatively low salinity compared to the salinity in seawater. The organic matter content in a chlorinated wastewater effluent might be partially responsible for the toxicity. The adverse effects of halogenated DBPs on the marine species were observed pronouncedly only in the "concentrated" chlorinated wastewater effluents. pH and ammonia content in a wastewater effluent caused no adverse effects on the marine species. The results suggest that using seawater to replace freshwater for toilet flushing might mitigate the "direct" acute detrimental effect of wastewater to the marine organisms.

  9. Evaluation of Acinetobacter sp. B9 for Cr (VI) resistance and detoxification with potential application in bioremediation of heavy-metals-rich industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Gupta, Anshu

    2013-09-01

    Present work demonstrates Cr (VI) detoxification and resistance mechanism of a newly isolated strain (B9) of Acinetobacter sp. Bioremediation potential of the strain B9 is shown by simultaneous removal of major heavy metals including chromium from heavy-metals-rich metal finishing industrial wastewater. Strain B9 tolerate up to 350 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) and also shows level of tolerance to Ni (II), Zn (II), Pb (II), and Cd (II). The strain was capable of reducing 67 % of initial 7.0 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) within 24 h of incubation, while in presence of Cu ions 100 % removal of initial 7.0 and 10 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) was observed with in 24 h. pH in the range of 6.0-8.0 and inoculum size of 2 % (v/v) were determined to be optimum for dichromate reduction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies suggested absorption or intracellular accumulation and that might be one of the major mechanisms behind the chromium resistance by strain B9. Scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes in the strain due to chromium stress. Relevance of the strain for treatment of heavy-metals-rich industrial wastewater resulted in 93.7, 55.4, and 68.94 % removal of initial 30 mg L(-1) Cr (VI), 246 mg L(-1) total Cr, and 51 mg L(-1) Ni, respectively, after 144 h of treatment in a batch mode.

  10. Phenolic removal in a model olive oil mill wastewater using Pleurotus ostreatus in bioreactor cultures and biological evaluation of the process.

    PubMed

    Aggelis, G; Iconomou, D; Christou, M; Bokas, D; Kotzailias, S; Christou, G; Tsagou, V; Papanikolaou, S

    2003-09-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus grown in bioreactor batch cultures in a model phenolic wastewater (diluted and sterilized olive oil mill wastewater-OMW), caused significant phenolic removal. Laccase, the sole ligninolytic enzyme detected in the growth environment, was produced during primary metabolic growth. The bioprocess was simulated with the aid of a mathematical model and the parameters of growth were determined. When the fungal biomass was increased in the reactor (during repeated batch experiments) the rate of reducing sugars consumption progressively increased, but a phenolic fraction seemed of being strongly resistant to oxidation. The toxicity of OMW against the seeds of Lepidium sativum and the marine Branchiopoda Artemia sp. was significantly decreased after biotreatment. On the contrary, the toxicity against the freshwater Branchiopoda Daphnia magna was not affected by the treatment, whereas on the soil and freshwater sediments Ostracoda Heterocypris incongruens was slightly decreased. Both treated and untreated OMWs, used as water for irrigation of lettuce and tomato plants, did not significantly affect the uptake of several nutrients by the cultivated plants, but resulted in a decrease in the plant yields, which was minimized when high OMW dilutions were used. As a conclusion, P. ostreatus is able to reduce phenolic content and toxicity of sterilized OMW, in bioreactor cultures. However, high OMW dilutions should be used, and/or additional treatment should be applied before use of the OMW in the environment, e.g. as water for irrigation. Further research should be done in order to transfer this technology under industrial conditions (e.g. by using unsterilized OMW).

  11. Microalgae and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

    2012-07-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater.

  12. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2015-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents advances in noteworthy research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations and system design; operation and maintenance; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  13. WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

  14. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  15. WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

  16. Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.N.; McCreary, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

  17. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (A) Actual emissions tests that use full-size or scale-model wastewater tanks that... barometric pressure, or (B) An engineering evaluation that the Administrator determines is an accurate method...) For any fixed roof tank and closed-vent system that is operated and maintained under negative...

  18. 78 FR 41926 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Performance Evaluation Studies on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Wastewater Laboratories (Renewal); EPA ICR No. 0234.11, OMB Control No. 2080-0021 AGENCY: Environmental... an information collection request (ICR), ``Performance Evaluation Studies on Wastewater Laboratories...

  19. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  20. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    PubMed

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  1. Mitigating Environmental Risks of Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2016-04-01

    nutrients from treated wastewater enhanced plant growth and improved plant productivity. Finally, treated wastewater is a good source of water and can supply soil and plant with many nutrients. However, to avoid any health or environmental problems, reuse of treated wastewater should be subjected to continuous monitoring and fruit qualities should be evaluated.

  2. Reclaimed municipal wastewater for forage production.

    PubMed

    Ines, Ben Said; Imed, Mezghani; Frikha, Donyez; Mohamed, Chaieb; Adele, Muscolo

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the possibility of using reclaimed municipal wastewater for agricultural purpose. We assessed the validity of municipal wastewater treatment, analyzing its chemical characteristics before and after the biological stabilization by pond treatment (WSP). The reclaimed municipal treated wastewater (TWW) was used to irrigate Cenchrus ciliaris. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse, from July 2013 to July 2014, comparing the effects of TWW with the water normally used for irrigation (tap water, TW) on the growth and flowering parameters of C. ciliaris. During this study, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. were detected in TW, TWW, soils and plants under irrigation. Our results evidenced that TWW increased plant growth, producing taller plants with respect to TW. Total coliforms and fecal coliforms in TWW, TW, soils and plants were under the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Salmonella was never found in TW, TWW, or soil and plants irrigated with TWW. The absence of pathogens suggests that the pond treatment is an effective method to reclaim wastewater, lowering biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and pathogens. In this respect, TWW can be used as a valid alternative to freshwater for irrigation of fodder species.

  3. Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.H.

    1982-07-01

    This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

  4. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater containing the Reactive Orange 16 azo dye by a combination of ozonation and moving-bed biofilm reactor: evaluating the performance, toxicity, and oxidation by-products.

    PubMed

    Castro, Francine D; Bassin, João Paulo; Dezotti, Márcia

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an aqueous solution containing the azo dye Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) was subjected to two sequential treatment processes, namely: ozonation and biological treatment in a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The most appropriate ozonation pretreatment conditions for the biological process and the toxicity of the by-products resulting from RO16 ozone oxidation were evaluated. The results showed that more than 97 % of color removal from the dye solutions with RO16 concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 mg/L was observed in 5 min of ozone exposure. However, the maximum total organic carbon removal achieved by ozonation was only 48 %, indicating partial mineralization of the dye. Eleven intermediate organic compounds resulting from ozone treatment of RO16 solution were identified by LC/MS analyses at different contact times. The toxicity of the dye-containing solution decreased after 2 min of ozonation, but increased at longer contact times. The results further demonstrated that the ozonolysis products did not affect the performance of the subsequent MBBR, which achieved an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium removal of 93 ± 1 and 97 ± 2 %, respectively. A second MBBR system fed with non-ozonated dye-containing wastewater was run in parallel for comparison purposes. This reactor also showed an appreciable COD (90 ± 1 %) and ammonium removal (97 ± 2 %), but was not effective in removing color, which remained practically invariable over the system. The use of short ozonation times (5 min) and a compact MBBR has shown to be effective for the treatment of the simulated textile wastewater containing the RO16 azo dye.

  5. Water quality and geochemistry evaluation of groundwater upstream and downstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant/Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajjali, William; Al-Hadidi, Kheir; Ismail, Ma'mmon

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater in the northeastern Amman-Zarqa basin is an important source of water for irrigation. The quality and quantity of water has deteriorated due to mismanagement and misunderstanding of the hydrogeological system. Overexploitation of groundwater resources upstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant (KSWTP) has lowered the water table 43 m since the beginning of groundwater development in 1968. Heavy pumping of groundwater downstream of KSWTP has not dropped the water level due to constant recharge from the Zarqa river bed. The water level of groundwater is rising continuously at a rate of 20 cm per year since building the KSWTP in 1985. Groundwater salinity has also shifted the quality of the aquifer from fresh to brackish. Continual irrigation from the groundwater upstream of KSWTP dissolves accumulated salt from the soil formed by evaporation, and the contaminated water infiltrates back to the aquifer, thereby increasing both salt and nitrate concentrations. The intense irrigation from the reclaimed water downstream of KSWTP and leakage of treated wastewater from the Zarqa River to the shallow groundwater is a secondary source of salt and nitrates. The isotopic composition of groundwater varies over a wide range and is associated with the meteoric water line affected by Mediterranean Sea air moisture. The isotopic composition of groundwater is represented by evaporation line (EL) with a low slope of 3.6. The enrichment of groundwater in δ18O and δD is attributed mainly to the two processes of evaporation before infiltration of return flow and mixing of different types of water in KSWTP originating from different aquifers. The EL starts from a location more depleted than the weighted mean value of the Amman rainfall station on the Eastern Meteoric Water Line indicating that the recharge took place under the climate regime prevailing today in Jordan and the recharge of the groundwater originates from a greater elevation than that of the

  6. Water quality and geochemistry evaluation of groundwater upstream and downstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant/Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajjali, William; Al-Hadidi, Kheir; Ismail, Ma'mmon

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in the northeastern Amman-Zarqa basin is an important source of water for irrigation. The quality and quantity of water has deteriorated due to mismanagement and misunderstanding of the hydrogeological system. Overexploitation of groundwater resources upstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant (KSWTP) has lowered the water table 43 m since the beginning of groundwater development in 1968. Heavy pumping of groundwater downstream of KSWTP has not dropped the water level due to constant recharge from the Zarqa river bed. The water level of groundwater is rising continuously at a rate of 20 cm per year since building the KSWTP in 1985. Groundwater salinity has also shifted the quality of the aquifer from fresh to brackish. Continual irrigation from the groundwater upstream of KSWTP dissolves accumulated salt from the soil formed by evaporation, and the contaminated water infiltrates back to the aquifer, thereby increasing both salt and nitrate concentrations. The intense irrigation from the reclaimed water downstream of KSWTP and leakage of treated wastewater from the Zarqa River to the shallow groundwater is a secondary source of salt and nitrates. The isotopic composition of groundwater varies over a wide range and is associated with the meteoric water line affected by Mediterranean Sea air moisture. The isotopic composition of groundwater is represented by evaporation line (EL) with a low slope of 3.6. The enrichment of groundwater in δ18O and δD is attributed mainly to the two processes of evaporation before infiltration of return flow and mixing of different types of water in KSWTP originating from different aquifers. The EL starts from a location more depleted than the weighted mean value of the Amman rainfall station on the Eastern Meteoric Water Line indicating that the recharge took place under the climate regime prevailing today in Jordan and the recharge of the groundwater originates from a greater elevation than that of the

  7. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia

    2016-02-15

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  8. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE ABILITY OF CHLORINE TO INACTIVATE SELECTED ORGANISMS FROM THE BIOFILM OF A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIMULATOR FOLLOWING A LONG-TERM WASTEWATER CROSS-CONNECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking water distribution system simulator (DSS) from the U.S. EPA was operated with a direct cross-connection of 0.3% wastewater to system volume per day for 70 d. During the cross-connection, tap water, wastewater, and system discharge water were monitored to ensure that ...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE ABILITY OF CHLORINE TO INACTIVATE SELECTED ORGANISMS FROM THE BIOFILM OF A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIMULATOR FOLLOWING A LONG-TERM WASTEWATER CROSS-CONNECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking water distribution system simulator (DSS) from the U.S. EPA was operated with a direct cross-connection of 0.3% wastewater to system volume per day for 70 d. During the cross-connection, tap water, wastewater, and system discharge water were monitored to ensure that ...

  11. Evaluation of carbofuran-mediated toxicity against human lymphocytes and red blood cells in simulated wastewater degraded by coagulation-flocculation.

    PubMed

    Saini, Roli; Kumar, Pradeep; Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim

    2017-06-01

    Coagulation-flocculation in water treatment has been relied upon aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) salts for treatment of contaminants present in source waters containing dissolved organic compounds. However, water quality deteriorates day by day which makes it urgent to improve the standards of the treatment procedure. Coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation performance of ferric chloride and alum was comparatively investigated for carbofuran treatment in simulated wastewater. Coagulation trails were performed in a jar test at several pH levels and coagulant doses to determine reduction efficiencies of carbofuran degradation and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Effect of carbofuran on proliferation, viability, and direct cytotoxicity was performed using human neuroblastoma cells U-87. Direct toxicity of carbofuran on human mononuclear cells and red blood cells (RBC) was also analyzed. Carbofuran and its derivatives were found to be relatively safe at low concentration (2-5 μM). However, at slightly higher concentration (8 μM), a moderate loss in viability and proliferative potential was observed. Taken together, these results suggest that carbofuran appears to be safe at moderate or low concentration with respect to viability of normal human lymphocytes and RBC.

  12. Evaluating the efficiency and temporal variation of pilot-scale constructed wetlands and steel slag phosphorus removing filters for treating dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Martin S; Drizo, Aleksandra; Rizzo, Donna M; Druschel, Greg; Hayden, Nancy; Twohig, Eamon

    2010-07-01

    The performance and temporal variation of three hybrid and three integrated, saturated flow, pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) were tested for treating dairy farm effluent. The three hybrid systems each consisted of two CWs in-series, with horizontal and vertical flow. Integrated systems consisted of a CW (horizontal and vertical flow) followed by a steel slag filter for removing phosphorus. Time series temporal semivariogram analyses of measured water parameters illustrated different treatment efficiencies existed over the course of one season. As a result, data were then divided into separate time period groups and CW systems were compared using ANOVA for parameter measurements within each distinct time period group. Both hybrid and integrated CWs were efficient in removing organics; however, hybrid systems had significantly higher performance (p<0.05) during peak vegetation growth. Compared to hybrid CWs, integrated CWs achieved significantly higher DRP reduction (p<0.05) throughout the period of investigation and higher ammonia reduction (p<0.05) in integrated CWs was observed in late summer. Geochemical modeling demonstrates hydroxyapatite and vivianite minerals forming on steel slag likely control the fate of phosphate ions given the reducing conditions prevalent in the system. The model also demonstrates how the wastewater:slag ratio can be adjusted to maximize phosphorus removal while staying at a near-neutral pH.

  13. Microbial-based evaluation of foaming events in full-scale wastewater treatment plants by microscopy survey and quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Leal, Cristiano; Amaral, António Luís; Costa, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-08-01

    Activated sludge systems are prone to be affected by foaming occurrences causing the sludge to rise in the reactor and affecting the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) performance. Nonetheless, there is currently a knowledge gap hindering the development of foaming events prediction tools that may be fulfilled by the quantitative monitoring of AS systems biota and sludge characteristics. As such, the present study focuses on the assessment of foaming events in full-scale WWTPs, by quantitative protozoa, metazoa, filamentous bacteria, and sludge characteristics analysis, further used to enlighten the inner relationships between these parameters. In the current study, a conventional activated sludge system (CAS) and an oxidation ditch (OD) were surveyed throughout a period of 2 and 3 months, respectively, regarding their biota and sludge characteristics. The biota community was monitored by microscopic observation, and a new filamentous bacteria index was developed to quantify their occurrence. Sludge characteristics (aggregated and filamentous biomass contents and aggregate size) were determined by quantitative image analysis (QIA). The obtained data was then processed by principal components analysis (PCA), cross-correlation analysis, and decision trees to assess the foaming occurrences, and enlighten the inner relationships. It was found that such events were best assessed by the combined use of the relative abundance of testate amoeba and nocardioform filamentous index, presenting a 92.9 % success rate for overall foaming events, and 87.5 and 100 %, respectively, for persistent and mild events.

  14. Evaluation of co-pyrolysis petrochemical wastewater sludge with lignite in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a packed-bed reactor: Pyrolysis characteristics, kinetics, and products analysis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Lin; Chen, Jianbiao; Yao, Pikai; Zhou, Dapeng; Zhao, Liang; Yin, Hongchao

    2016-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge and Huolinhe lignite were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer and packed-bed reactor coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and gas chromatography. The pyrolysis characteristics of the blends at various sludge blending ratios were compared with those of the individual materials. Thermogravimetric experiments showed that the interactions between the blends were beneficial to generate more residues. In packed-bed reactor, synergetic effects promoted the release of gas products and left less liquid and solid products than those calculated by additive manner. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analysis showed that main functional groups in chars gradually disappeared with pyrolysis temperatures increasing, and H2O, CH4, CO, and CO2 appeared in volatiles during pyrolysis. Gas compositions analysis indicated that, the yields of H2 and CO clearly increased as the pyrolysis temperature and sludge blending ratio increasing, while the changes of CH4 and CO2 yields were relatively complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of a coagulation/flocculation-lamellar clarifier and filtration-UV-chlorination reactor for removing emerging contaminants at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria

    2013-03-15

    The presence and elimination of 25 emerging contaminants in two full-scale Spanish wastewater treatment plants was studied. The tertiary treatment systems consisted of coagulation, flocculation lamellar settlement and filtration (pulsed-bed sand filters) units, and disinfection was carried out by medium pressure UV light lamps and chlorination. Diclofenac and carbamazepine were found to be the emerging contaminants with the highest concentrations in secondary effluents. Photodegradable emerging contaminants (e.g. ketoprofen, triclosan and diclofenac) were removed by filtration-UV light radiation-chlorination whereas most hydrophobic compounds (e.g. galaxolide and tonalide) were eliminated by coagulation-flocculation followed by lamellar clarification, a unit in which a seasonal trend was observed. Overall mass removal efficiency was about 60%. 1-(8-Chlorocarbazolyl) acetic acid, an intermediate product of the photodegradation of diclofenac, was detected after filtration-UV-chlorination, but not after coagulation-flocculation and lamellar clarification. This study demonstrated potential for general applicability of two established tertiary treatment systems to eliminate emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Colilert-18 for detection and enumeration of fecal coliform bacteria in wastewater using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Alternative Test procedure Protocol.

    PubMed

    Warden, Paul S; DeSarno, Monique S; Volk, Sarah E; Eldred, Bradley J

    2011-01-01

    This study compared recovery of fecal coliform bacteria from sewage by Colilert-18 and Standard Methods 9222D (membrane-Fecal Coliform medium) in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Alternative Test Protocol (ATP). Samples were collected from 10 different wastewater treatment plants in the northeastern United States and tested in a single laboratory. Twenty replicates of each sample were analyzed by each method, and 200 positive and 200 negative responses were confirmed for each method. Recovery of fecal coliforms by Colilert-18 was significantly higher than (8 of 10 sites) or statistically equivalent to (1 of 10 sites) recovery by the reference method (Standard Methods 9222D) for samples from all but one site. Both methods had low false-positive rates (< 2%); however, the false-negative rate observed with Standard Methods 9222D (21.5%) was substantially higher than that observed with Colilert-18 (7%). The accuracy rates of the two methods were calculated as 96.5 and 88.9% for Colilert-18 and Standard Methods 9222D, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that Colilert-18 meets the acceptance criteria for alternative methods specified in the EPA ATP.

  17. New approach for data evaluation of industrial wastewater treatment plant: methodology and case study for a coke and steel-processing plant.

    PubMed

    Drakides, Christian; Lay-Son, Meiling

    2009-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTP) treating industrial effluents produces large amount of data. Frequent sampling is done in the influent and effluent but also in intermediate points. Samples are analyzed for classical and specific contaminants and physical-chemical parameters are monitored. In this paper data from a BWWTP treating the effluents of a coke and steel-processing factory are analyzed. Due to a complex situation, this BWWTP gave poor performances that did not match environmental regulations, meanwhile upgrading proved to be uneasy. Data analysis using principal component analyses (PCA) or kinetic modeling with a Haldane model was unsuccessful in handling these data, which was attributed to undetermined toxic effects. A new methodology is reported, that allowed to identify a kinetics for thiocyanate degradation and a relation between pH and toxic effects. This analysis of the plant data allowed to make hypothesis on the process control parameters and to recommend management modifications, allowing a further increase of the performances.

  18. Evaluation of energy-distribution of a hybrid microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) for cost-effective wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Bi, Fanghua; Ngo, Huu-Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Jia, Hui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xinbo

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost hybrid system integrating a membrane-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was studied for fouling mitigation. The appended electric field in the MBR was supplied by the MFC with continuous flow. Supernatant from an anaerobic reactor with low dissolved oxygen was used as feed to the MFC in order to enhance its performance compared with that fed with synthetic wastewater. The voltage output of MFC maintained at 0.52±0.02V with 1000Ω resister. The electric field intensity could reach to 0.114Vcm(-1). Compared with the conventional MBR (CMBR), the contents rather than the components of foulants on the cake layer of fouled MFC-MBR system was significantly reduced. Although only 0.5% of the feed COD was translated into electricity and applied to MBR, the hybrid system showed great feasibility without additional consumption but extracting energy from waste water and significantly enhancing the membrane filterability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of Isotope Abundance of 15NO3-N in a Nitrate Rich Stream Below a Wastewater Treatment Plant to Evaluate Denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofton, D.; Hershey, A. E.

    2005-05-01

    Using natural isotope abundances of nitrate-nitrogen, in conjunction with nitrate concentrations along a stream transect, can provide information about nitrate input versus downstream export and losses due to denitrification. Given that denitrifying microbes prefer the lighter isotope, isotopic fractionation should occur in nitrate rich streams resulting in enrichment of 15NO3-N if denitrification is an important process resulting in an inverse relationship between nitrate and δ 15NO3-N. Conversely, if the relationship between 15NO3-N and δ 15N is not inversely proportional, denitrification is likely of minor importance in the reach. Variable nonlinear patterns could be indicative of 15NO3-N rich input from groundwater, tributaries or concentrations in excess of microbial demand leading to massive downstream export. We measured stream 15NO3-N concentrations in an urban stream receiving high nitrogen inputs from a wastewater treatment plant. Although observed NO3-N concentrations varied from 3-6 mg L-1 in the stream reach, the relationship between ln NO3 and δ 15NO3-N was very weak, suggesting limited importance of denitrification.

  20. Effect of pH on the anaerobic acidogenesis of agroindustrial wastewaters for maximization of bio-hydrogen production: a lab-scale evaluation using batch tests.

    PubMed

    Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Vavouraki, Aikaterini Ioannis; Kornaros, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pH on the production of bio-hydrogen and end-products from a mixture of olive mill wastewater, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (with a ratio of 55:40:5, v/v/v). Batch experiments were performed under mesophilic conditions (37°C) at a range of pH from 4.5 to 7.5. The main end-products identified were acetic, propionic, butyric, lactic acid and ethanol. The highest hydrogen production yield was observed at pH 6.0 (0.642 mol H2/mol equivalent glucose consumed), whereas the maximum VFAs concentration (i.e. 13.43 g/L) was measured at pH 6.5. The composition of acidified effluent in acetic and butyric acid was similar at pH 6.0 and 6.5, albeit an increase of propionic acid was observed in higher pH. Lactic acid was identified as a major metabolite which presented an intense accumulation (up to 11 g/L) before its further bioconversion to butyric acid and hydrogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Three-way principal component analysis as a tool to evaluate the chemical stability of metal bearing residues from wastewater treatment by the ferrite process.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Rafael; Vega, Marisol; Barrado, Enrique; Castrillejo, Yolanda; Sánchez, Isabel

    2013-11-15

    The chemical fractionation patterns of eight metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been determined in 27 metal-bearing residues by using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. The residues were generated as by-products during the optimization of a semi-continuous reactor for metal removal from wastewater based on ferrite synthesis by co-precipitation. The three-dimensional X dataset (samples×metals×fractions) obtained by applying the BCR procedure has been analyzed by multivariate methods: matrix augmentation (MA-PCA) and three-way principal component analysis, 3-PCA (PARAFAC and Tucker3 models). MA-PCA and PARAFAC methods led to two-factor models giving a satisfactory but incomplete picture of the metal fractionation patterns, but the Tucker3 [2,1,2] model allowed to simultaneously describe both the 'pseudo-total' (acid-soluble) contents and the chemical fractionation by means of two non-null interactions g111 and g212 which explain 53.5% and 18.0% of the total variance, respectively. The A-mode loadings of the g212 interaction showed the close relationship between the magnetic character of the solid residues, i.e. the crystalline structure, and the chemical fractionation patterns of the metals resulting from the application of the BCR sequential extraction procedure.

  2. Biodenitrification of industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Helfrich, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), a US Department of Energy facility at Fernald, Ohio, is constructing a fluidized-bed biodenitrification plant based on pilot work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This plant is designed to treat approximately 600 to 800 L/min of wastewater having a nitrate concentration as high as 10 g/L. The effluent is to contain less than 0.1 g/L of nitrate. Since this new facility is an extrapolation of the ORNL work to significantly larger scale equipment and to actual rather than synthetic wastewater, design verification studies have been performed to reduce uncertainties in the scaleup. The results of these studies are summarized in this report. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  4. Wastewater treatment as an energy production plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samela, Daniel A.

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential for net energy production at a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Historically, wastewater treatment plants have been designed with the emphasis on process reliability and redundancy; efficient utilization of energy has not received equal consideration. With growing demands for energy and increased budgetary pressures in funding wastewater treatment plant costs, methods of reducing energy consumption and operating costs were explored in a new and novel direction pointed towards energy production rather than energy consumption. To estimate the potential for net energy production, a quantitative analysis was performed using a mathematical model which integrates the various unit operations to evaluate the overall plant energy balance. Secondary treatment performance analysis is included to ensure that the energy evaluation is consistent with plant treatment needs. Secondary treatment performance was conducted for activated sludge, trickling filters and RBCs. The equations for the mathematical model were developed independently for each unit operation by writing mass balance equations around the process units. The process units evaluated included those for preliminary treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, disinfection, and sludge treatment. Based on an analysis of both energy reduction and energy recovery methods, it was shown that net energy production at a secondary WWTP is possible utilizing technologies available today. Such technologies include those utilized for plant operations, as well as for energy recovery. The operation of fuel cells using digester gas represents one of the most significant new opportunities for energy recovery at wastewater facilities. The analysis predicts that a trickling filter WWTP utilizing commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from digester gas can provide for facility energy needs and have both electrical and thermal energy available for

  5. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents noteworthy advances in research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations/force mains/ system design; operation and maintenance; asset management; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  6. PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-05-11

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of the sampling equipment in the 225-WC building, the PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility. The Wastewater Sampling Facility houses equipment to sample and monitor the PFP`s liquid effluents before discharging the stream to the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The majority of the streams are not radioactive and discharges from the PFP Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The streams that might be contaminated are processed through the Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) before discharging to TEDF. The sampling equipment consists of two flow-proportional composite samplers, an ultrasonic flowmeter, pH and conductivity monitors, chart recorder, and associated relays and current isolators to interconnect the equipment to allow proper operation. Data signals from the monitors are received in the 234-5Z Shift Office which contains a chart recorder and alarm annunciator panel. The data signals are also duplicated and sent to the TEDF control room through the Local Control Unit (LCU). Performing the OTP has verified the operability of the PFP wastewater sampling system. This Operability Test Report documents the acceptance of the sampling system for use.

  7. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  8. Alginate beads provide a beneficial physical barrier against native microorganisms in wastewater treated with immobilized bacteria and microalgae.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Sergio A; de-Bashan, Luz E; Moreno, Manuel; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-03-01

    When the freshwater microalga Chlorella sorokiniana and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense were deployed as free suspensions in unsterile, municipal wastewater for tertiary wastewater treatment, their population was significantly lower compared with their populations in sterile wastewater. At the same time, the numbers of natural microfauna and wastewater bacteria increased. Immobilization of C. sorokiniana and A. brasilense in small (2-4 mm in diameter), polymer Ca-alginate beads significantly enhanced their populations when these beads were suspended in normal wastewater. All microbial populations within and on the surface of the beads were evaluated by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with scanning electron microscopy and direct measurements. Submerging immobilizing beads in wastewater created the following sequence of events: (a) a biofilm composed of wastewater bacteria and A. brasilense was created on the surface of the beads, (b) the bead inhibited penetration of outside organisms into the beads, (c) the bead inhibited liberation of the immobilized microorganisms into the wastewater, and (d) permitted an uninterrupted reduction of ammonium and phosphorus from the wastewater. This study demonstrated that wastewater microbial populations are responsible for decreasing populations of biological agents used for wastewater treatment and immobilization in alginate beads provided a protective environment for these agents to carry out uninterrupted tertiary wastewater treatment.

  9. Evaluating the polar organic chemical integrative sampler for the monitoring of beta-blockers and hormones in wastewater treatment plant effluents and receiving surface waters.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Romain; Miège, Cécile; Bados, Philippe; Schiavone, Séverine; Coquery, Marina

    2012-02-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are known to be a source of surface water contamination by organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present work was to study the suitability of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) to monitor beta-blockers and hormones in effluents and surface waters. Four sampling campaigns were carried out in French rivers (the Saône, the Ardières, the Bourbre, and the Seine) between November 2007 and September 2008. Passive samplers were exposed in surface waters, upstream and downstream of WWTP outflows, and in effluents. Exposures lasted for up to 24 d to study the uptake kinetics directly in situ, and repeatability was assessed by exposure of triplicates. A good agreement was found between POCIS and water samples. With the exception of atenolol, beta-blockers showed a linear uptake during at least three weeks, and their sampling rates could be determined in situ. These sampling rates were then used to calculate time-weighted average concentrations of beta-blockers in the Seine River with an overall good accuracy and repeatability. Such calculations could not be performed for hormones because of their variable occurrences and low concentrations in water and POCIS. Polar organic chemical integrative sampler therefore seems to be a suitable tool for monitoring beta-blockers in surface waters impacted by WWTP effluents. Longer exposure durations would be necessary to determine the suitability of POCIS for monitoring hormones. Finally, preliminary assays on the use of several deuterated compounds as performance reference compounds showed promising results for deuterated atenolol. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  10. Enrichment of Secondary Wastewater Sludge for Production of Hydrogen from Crude Glycerol and Comparative Evaluation of Mono-, Co- and Mixed-Culture Systems.

    PubMed

    Pachapur, Vinayak Laxman; Kutty, Prianka; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Ramirez, Antonio Avalos

    2016-01-13

    Anaerobic digestion using mixed-culture with broader choice of pretreatments for hydrogen (H₂) production was investigated. Pretreatment of wastewater sludge by five methods, such as heat, acid, base, microwave and chloroform was conducted using crude glycerol (CG) as substrate. Results for heat treatment (100 °C for 15 min) showed the highest H₂ production across the pretreatment methods with 15.18 ± 0.26 mmol/L of medium at 30 °C in absence of complex media and nutrient solution. The heat-pretreated inoculum eliminated H₂ consuming bacteria and produced twice as much as H₂ as compared to other pretreatment methods. The fermentation conditions, such as CG concentration (1.23 to 24 g/L), percentage of inoculum size (InS) (1.23% to 24% v/v) along with initial pH (2.98 to 8.02) was tested using central composite design (CCD) with H₂ production as response parameter. The maximum H₂ production of 29.43 ± 0.71 mmol/L obtained at optimum conditions of 20 g/L CG, 20% InS and pH 7. Symbiotic correlation of pH over CG and InS had a significant (p-value: 0.0011) contribution to H₂ production. The mixed-culture possessed better natural acclimatization activity for degrading CG, at substrate inhibition concentration and provided efficient inoculum conditions in comparison to mono- and co-culture systems. The heat pretreatment step used across mixed-culture system is simple, cheap and industrially applicable in comparison to mono-/co-culture systems for H₂ production.

  11. Enrichment of Secondary Wastewater Sludge for Production of Hydrogen from Crude Glycerol and Comparative Evaluation of Mono-, Co- and Mixed-Culture Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pachapur, Vinayak Laxman; Kutty, Prianka; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Ramirez, Antonio Avalos

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion using mixed-culture with broader choice of pretreatments for hydrogen (H2) production was investigated. Pretreatment of wastewater sludge by five methods, such as heat, acid, base, microwave and chloroform was conducted using crude glycerol (CG) as substrate. Results for heat treatment (100 °C for 15 min) showed the highest H2 production across the pretreatment methods with 15.18 ± 0.26 mmol/L of medium at 30 °C in absence of complex media and nutrient solution. The heat-pretreated inoculum eliminated H2 consuming bacteria and produced twice as much as H2 as compared to other pretreatment methods. The fermentation conditions, such as CG concentration (1.23 to 24 g/L), percentage of inoculum size (InS) (1.23% to 24% v/v) along with initial pH (2.98 to 8.02) was tested using central composite design (CCD) with H2 production as response parameter. The maximum H2 production of 29.43 ± 0.71 mmol/L obtained at optimum conditions of 20 g/L CG, 20% InS and pH 7. Symbiotic correlation of pH over CG and InS had a significant (p-value: 0.0011) contribution to H2 production. The mixed-culture possessed better natural acclimatization activity for degrading CG, at substrate inhibition concentration and provided efficient inoculum conditions in comparison to mono- and co-culture systems. The heat pretreatment step used across mixed-culture system is simple, cheap and industrially applicable in comparison to mono-/co-culture systems for H2 production. PMID:26771607

  12. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay.

    PubMed

    Schilirò, Tiziana; Porfido, Arianna; Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Gilli, Giorgio

    2012-08-15

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17β-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35±1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72±0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18±3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53±2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p<0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67±26% and 52±27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S=0.650, p=0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms.

  13. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  14. Occurrence, fate and antibiotic resistance of fluoroquinolone antibacterials in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hong Anh; Pham, Ngoc Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Tung; Hoang, Thi Thuong; Pham, Hung Viet; Pham, Van Ca; Berg, Michael; Giger, Walter; Alder, Alfredo C

    2008-06-01

    Occurrence and behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) were investigated in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam. Hospital wastewater in Hanoi is usually not treated and this untreated wastewater is directly discharged into one of the wastewater channels of the city and eventually reaches the ambient aquatic environment. The concentrations of the FQs, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) in six hospital wastewaters ranged from 1.1 to 44 and from 0.9 to 17 micrgl(-1), respectively. Total FQ loads to the city sewage system varied from 0.3 to 14 g d(-1). Additionally, the mass flows of CIP and NOR were investigated in the aqueous compartment in a small wastewater treatment facility of one hospital. The results showed that the FQ removal from the wastewater stream was between 80 and 85%, probably due to sorption on sewage sludge. Simultaneously, the numbers of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were measured and their resistance against CIP and NOR was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration. Biological treatment lead to a 100-fold reduction in the number of E. coli but still more than a thousand E. coli colonies per 100ml of wastewater effluent reached the receiving water. The highest resistance was found in E. coli strains of raw wastewater and the lowest in isolates of treated wastewater effluent. Thus, wastewater treatment is an efficient barrier to decrease the residual FQ levels and the number of resistant bacteria entering ambient waters. Due to the lack of municipal wastewater treatment plants, the onsite treatment of hospital wastewater before discharging into municipal sewers should be considered as a viable option and consequently implemented.

  15. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State of ldaho Division of Environmental Quality issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit, #LA-000141-01, for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The permit expires August 7, 1999. This report is being submitted with the renewal application and specifically addresses; Wastewater flow; Wastewater characteristics; Impacts to vegetation in irrigation area; Im