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Sample records for fernald soils annual

  1. Analytical electron microscopy characterization of Fernald soils. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    A combination of backscattered electron imaging and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) with electron diffraction have been used to determine the physical and chemical properties of uranium contamination in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project in Ohio. The information gained from these studies has been used in the development and testing of remediation technologies. Most chemical washing techniques have been reasonably effective with uranyl [U(VI)] phases, but U(IV) phases have proven difficult to remove from the soils. Carbonate leaching in an oxygen environment (heap leaching) has removed some of the U(IV) phases, and it appears to be the most effective technique developed in the program. The uranium metaphosphate, which was found exclusively at an incinerator site, has not been removed by any of the chemical methods. We suggest that a physical extraction procedure (either a magnetic separation or aqueous biphasic process) be used to remove this phase. Analytical electron microscopy has also been used to determine the effect of the chemical agents on the uranium phases. It has also been used to examine soils from the Portsmouth site in Ohio. The contamination there took the form of uranium oxide and uranium calcium oxide phases. Technology transfer efforts over FY 1994 have led to industry-sponsored projects involving soil characterization.

  2. Supporting soil remediation at Fernald by electron beam methods

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.; Cunnane, J.C.

    1994-02-01

    Electron beam techniques have been used to characterize uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald Site, Ohio. The major uranium phases have been identified by analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as uranyl phosphate (autunite), uranium oxide (uraninite), and uranium phosphite [U(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}]. Luminescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy incorrectly identified uranium oxide hydrate (schoepite) as the major phase in Fernald soils. The solubilities of schoepite and autunite are very different, so a solubility-dependent remediation method selected for schoepite will not be effective for removing autunite. AEM is the only technique capable of precisely identifying unknown submicron phases. The uranium phosphite has been found predominantly at the incinerator site at Fernald. This phase has not been removed successfully by any of the chemical remediation technologies. We suggest that an alternative physical extraction procedure be applied to remove this phase.

  3. Distribution of uranium-bearing phases in soils from Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

    1993-12-31

    Electron beam techniques have been used to characterize uranium-contaminated soils and the Fernald Site, Ohio. Uranium particulates have been deposited on the soil through chemical spills and from the operation of an incinerator plant on the site. The major uranium phases have been identified by electron microscopy as uraninite, autunite, and uranium phosphite [U(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}]. Some of the uranium has undergone weathering resulting in the redistribution of uranium within the soil.

  4. In situ construction of horizontal soil containment barrier at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Ridenour, D.; Pettit, P.J.; Walker, J.

    1995-04-01

    An innovative method of placing soil barriers to contain vertical flow is being prepared for demonstration by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO), working in conjunction with the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development (DOE/OTD) and two principle subcontractors. The method employs proven directional drilling techniques, jet grouting technology and unique placement tooling to form horizontal soil barriers in situ. This is done without disturbance to existing land disposed wastes. This paper is a summary report on the current state of that demonstration, including: a discussion of the construction methods, the results of the initial tool tests, an overview of the Fernald site conditions and, the resulting path of tooling development for the second phase of tool testing.

  5. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  6. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. Demonstration of in situ-constructed horizontal soil containment barrier at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, P.J.; Ridenour, D.; Walker, J.; Saugier, K.

    1994-08-01

    A new design of jet grouting tool that can be guided by horizontal well casings and that operates in the horizontal plane has been used for the in situ placement of grout and construction of a prototype horizontal barrier that is free of windows. Jet grouting techniques have been advanced to permit construction of horizontal barriers underneath contaminated soil without having to excavate or disturb the waste. The paper describes progress on the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) In Situ Land Containment Project which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) for DOE`s Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The Fernald project is to demonstrate a novel, enabling technology for the controlled underground placement of horizontal panels of grout, and the joining of adjacent panels to construct practical, extensive barriers. Construction strategy, equipment mechanics and operating details of this new method are described.

  8. Determining uranium speciation in Fernald soils by molecular spectroscopic methods. FY 1993 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.G.; Berg, J.M.; Crisholm-Brause, C.J.; Conradson, S.D.; Donohoe, R.J.; Morris, D.E.; Musgrave, J.A.; Tait, C.D.

    1994-07-01

    This progress report describes new experimental results and interpretations for data collected from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993, as part of the Characterization Task of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration of the Office of Technology Development, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management of the US Department of Energy. X-ray absorption, optical luminescence, and Raman vibrational spectroscopies were used to determine uranium speciation in contaminated soils from the US DOE`s former uranium production facility at Fernald, Ohio. These analyses were carried out both before and after application of one of the various decontamination technologies being developed within the Integrated Demonstration. This year the program focused on characterization of the uranium speciation remaining in the soils after decontamination treatment. X-ray absorption and optical luminescence spectroscopic data were collected for approximately 40 Fernald soil samples, which were treated by one or more of the decontamination technologies.

  9. Analytical electron microscopy characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Site, FY1993 report

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

    1994-10-01

    A combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) is being used to determine the nature of uranium in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The information gained from these studies is being used to develop and test remediation technologies. Investigations using SEM have shown that uranium is contained within particles that are typically 1 to 100 {mu}m in diameter. Further analysis with AEM has shown that these uranium-rich regions are made up of discrete uranium-bearing phases. The distribution of these uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level.

  10. Soils and groundwater cleanup at Fernald: A status update on Operable Unit No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Yerace, P.J.; Bomberger, A.K.; Brettschneider, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses a status update on the cleanup operations at FERNALD. Discussed is the regulatory framework for FERNALD cleanup; overview of the FERNALD site; description of operable unit 5;remedial investigation; pattern of contamination; feasibility studies; and tangible progress to date.

  11. The role of physical separation processes in a proposed physicochemical soil washing system at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Krstich, M.A.; Gibson, R.J.

    1995-08-01

    A soil washing pilot plant to treat soils at the US Department of Energy (DOE) owned Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), was designed based on extensive bench-scale testing. The system`s design incorporated a combination of physical separation and chemical extraction processes and was tested on two soils. The textural composition of the two soils was approximately 20% sand, 60% silt, and 20% clay. Since this grain size distribution was not considered optimum for physical separation techniques, the soil washing pilot plant had to be designed with selected equipment to provide specific soil size fractions during processing operations. A trommel, vibrating screen deck, centrifuge, and attrition scrubber were used in the system to selectively separate specific soil size fractions at 4.75, 2, 0.3, and 0.02 millimeters (mm). The centrifuge was designed to take the less than 0.3 mm soil slurry from the screen deck and produce a particle size of 0.02 mm. The centrifuge produced a high solids stream that averaged greater than 70% solids for both soils. These 0.02 to 0.3 mm soil solids from the centrifuge were combined with the 0.3 to 4.75 mm soil solids from the screen deck and processed through the attrition scrubber. The data collected from the pilot-plant operation was used to aid in the design of a full-scale system and was instrumental in formulating full-scale process operations and the selection of equipment.

  12. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Integrated Demonstration Site

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Timpson, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    An integrated approach that utilizes various characterization technologies has been developed for the Uranium Soil Integrated Demonstration program. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation site near Cincinnati, Ohio, was selected as the host facility for this demonstration. Characterization of background, untreated contaminated, and treated contaminated soils was performed to assess the contamination and the effect of treatment efforts to remove uranium from these soils. Carbonate minerals were present in the contaminated soils (added for erosion control) but were absent in the nearby background soils. Because of the importance of the carbonate anion to uranium solubility, the occurrence of carbonate minerals in these soils will be an important factor in the development of a successful remediation technology. Uranium partitioning data among several particle-size fractions indicate that conventional soil washing will be ineffective for remediation of these soils and that chemical extraction will be necessary to lower the uranium concentration to the target level (52 mg/kg). Carbonate-based (sodium carbonate/bicarbonate) and acid-based (sulfuric and citric acids) lixiviants were employed for the selective removal of uranium from these soils. Characterization results have identified uranium phosphate minerals as the predominant uranium mineral form in both the untreated and treated soils. The low solubility associated with phosphate minerals is primarily responsible for their occurrence in the posttreated soils. Artificial weathering of the treated soils caused by the treatments, particularly acid-based lixiviants, was documented by their detrimental effects on several physicochemical characteristics of these soils (e.g., soil pH, particle-size distribution, and mineralogy).

  13. Integrating removal actions and remedial actions: Soil and debris management at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Goidell, L.C.; Hagen, T.D.; Strimbu, M.J.; Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Taylor, A.C.; Weese, T.E.; Yerace, P.J.

    1996-02-01

    Since 1991, excess soil and debris generated at the Fernald Environmental management Project (FEMP) have been managed in accordance with the principles contained in a programmatic Removal Action (RvA) Work Plan (WP). This plan provides a sitewide management concept and implementation strategy for improved storage and management of excess soil and debris over the period required to design and construct improved storage facilities. These management principles, however, are no longer consistent with the directions in approved and draft Records of Decision (RODs) and anticipated in draft RODs other decision documents. A new approach has been taken to foster improved management techniques for soil and debris that can be readily incorporated into remedial design/remedial action plans. Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. This paper describes the methods that were applied to address the issues associated with keeping the components of the new work plan field implementable and flexible; this is especially important as remedial design is either in its initial stages or has not been started and final remediation options could not be precluded.

  14. Technical approach to finalizing sensible soil cleanup levels at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.; Hertel, B.; Jewett, M.; Janke, R.; Conner, B.

    1996-02-01

    The remedial strategy for addressing contaminated environmental media was recently finalized for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) following almost 10 years of detailed technical analysis. The FEMP represents one of the first major nuclear facilities to successfully complete the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the environmental restoration process. A critical element of this success was the establishment of sensible cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater both on and off the FEMP property. These cleanup levels were derived based upon a strict application of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations and guidance, coupled with positive input from the regulatory agencies and the local community regarding projected future land uses for the site. The approach for establishing the cleanup levels was based upon a Feasibility Study (FS) strategy that examined a bounding range of viable future land uses for the site. Within each land use, the cost and technical implications of a range of health-protective cleanup levels for the environmental media were analyzed. Technical considerations in driving these cleanup levels included: direct exposure routes to viable human receptors; cross- media impacts to air, surface water, and groundwater; technical practicality of attaining the levels; volume of affected media; impact to sensitive environmental receptors or ecosystems; and cost. This paper will discuss the technical approach used to support the finalization of the cleanup levels for the site. The final cleanup levels provide the last remaining significant piece to the puzzle of establishing a final site-wide remedial strategy for the FEMP, and positions the facility for the expedient completion of site-wide remedial activities.

  15. Characterization and remediation of soil prior to construction of an on-site disposal facility at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Jones, G.; Janke, R.; Nelson, K.

    1998-03-01

    During the production years at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), the soil of the site and the surrounding areas was surficially impacted by airborne contamination. The volume of impacted soil is estimated at 2.2 million cubic yards. During site remediation, this contamination will be excavated, characterized, and disposed of. In 1986 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. A site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA). The DOE has completed the RI/FS process and has received approval of the final Records of Decision. The name of the facility was changed to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to emphasize the change in mission to environmental restoration. Remedial actions which address similar scopes of work or types of contaminated media have been grouped into remedial projects for the purpose of managing the remediation of the FEMP. The Soil Characterization and Excavation Project (SCEP) will address the remediation of FEMP soils, certain waste units, at- and below-grade material, and will certify attainment of the final remedial limits (FRLs) for the FEMP. The FEMP will be using an on-site facility for low level radioactive waste disposal. The facility will be an above-ground engineered structure constructed of geological material. The area designated for construction of the base of the on-site disposal facility (OSDF) is referred to as the footprint. Contaminated soil within the footprint must be identified and remediated. Excavation of Phase 1, the first of seven remediation areas, is complete.

  16. In-situ mineralization of actinides for groundwater cleanup: Laboratory demonstration with soil from the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Jensen, M.P.; Schmidt, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    An attractive approach to decreasing the probability of actinide migration in the subsurface is to transform the ions into less mobile forms by remote treatment. The process described herein relies on a polyfunctional organophosphorus complexant to sequester the mobile metal ions by complexation/cation exchange in the near term. The cation exchanger is designed to subsequently decompose, transforming the actinides into insoluble phosphate mineral forms as the medium of stable long-term isolation. This material can be generated in situ in the subsurface thus eliminating the need for excavation to immobilize the actinide ions. Previous investigations have identified a suitable organophosphorus reagent and profiled its decomposition kinetics, verified the formation of phosphate mineral phases upon decomposition of the reagent, determined solubility limits for appropriate metal phosphates under groundwater conditions, and examined the cation exchange behavior of the calcium salt of the organophosphorus reagent. In this report, the focus is on a laboratory-scale demonstration of the concept using a soil sample from the Fernald Environmental Management Plant.

  17. Characterization of uranium contaminated soils from DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project Site: Results of Phase 1 characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Demonstration (ID) for remediation of uranium- contaminated soils has been established by the DOE Office of Technology Development. The Fernald (Feed Materials Production Center) site was selected as the DOE facility for the field demonstration. The principle objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems for the removal of uranium from contaminated soils. Several leaching solutions were employed to determine their effectiveness in extracting uranium from the soil. The extractants and their means of preparation were: 0.1 N nitric acid [HNO{sub 3}]: 6.25 mL of concentrated nitric acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 2% ammonium carbonate [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}]: 20 g of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): 50 mL of NaOCl reagent (Cl < 6%) was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetric acid, disodium salt (EDTA): 37.224 g EDTA was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 2% citric acid monohydrate solution (H{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O): 20 g of critic acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl) in 0.01 N nitric acid: 6.95 g (NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl) was dissolved and diluted to 1 L with 0.01 N HNO{sub 3}. The 0.01 N nitric acid was prepared by diluting 3 mL concentrated nitric acid to 5 L with distilled water; and the sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) method: 0.3 M sodium citrate (88 g tribasic sodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, per liter); 1 M sodium bicarbonate (84 g NaHCO{sub 3} per liter); and 5 g sodium dithionite, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  18. Characterization of uranium contaminated soils from DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project Site: Results of Phase 1 characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Demonstration (ID) for remediation of uranium- contaminated soils has been established by the DOE Office of Technology Development. The Fernald (Feed Materials Production Center) site was selected as the DOE facility for the field demonstration. The principle objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems for the removal of uranium from contaminated soils. Several leaching solutions were employed to determine their effectiveness in extracting uranium from the soil. The extractants and their means of preparation were: 0.1 N nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}): 6.25 mL of concentrated nitric acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 2% ammonium carbonate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}): 20 g of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): 50 mL of NaOCl reagent (Cl < 6%) was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetric acid, disodium salt (EDTA): 37.224 g EDTA was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 2% citric acid monohydrate solution (H{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}H{sub 2}O): 20 g of critic acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) in 0.01 N nitric acid: 6.95 g (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) was dissolved and diluted to 1 L with 0.01 N HNO{sub 3}. The 0.01 N nitric acid was prepared by diluting 3 mL concentrated nitric acid to 5 L with distilled water; and the sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) method: 0.3 M sodium citrate (88 g tribasic sodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O, per liter); 1 M sodium bicarbonate (84 g NaHCO{sub 3} per liter); and 5 g sodium dithionite, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  19. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  20. TRANSITION & CLOSEOUT OF THE FERNALD CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    BILSON, H.E.

    2007-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Fluor Fernald have completed the majority of the cleanup of the Fernald Site. The over 1000 acre complex for processing uranium has been demolished and soil contamination has been remediated. With acres of wetlands and prairies replacing the buildings and waste pits. At the end of the project the focus shifted to developing demonstrating the completion of the project and the contract, as well as ensuring a smooth transition of the facility from the DOE's Environmental Management (EM) Program to the DOE's Legacy Management (LM) Program.

  1. Celebrating success at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Ofte, D.; Baublitz, J.E.; Chaney, K.; Hansen, R.

    1995-01-30

    Restoration of the Fernald Environmental Management Project is now moving from the environmental investigation stage to real, tangible remediation progress. Using a variety of programmatic innovations, DOE and FERMCO continue to strengthen an effective partnership that supports a mutually-developed mission of safe, least-cost, earliest final remediation of the Fernald Site while complying with all applicable DOE Orders, regulatory requirements and commitments and addressing the concerns of the many stakeholders who have an interest in how remediation at Fernald progresses. The progress that is occurring at Fernald is testimony to a productive DOE/FERMCO partnership that will continue to be an essential part of the difficult environmental restoration task at this site.

  2. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John; Wulker, Brian

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  3. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily disturbed soils, Fernald will use

  4. Office of Inspector General audit report on Fluor Daniel Fernald`s use of temporary services subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy (Department) and Fluor Daniel Fernald (Fluor Daniel) implemented two work force restructurings at the Fernald Environmental Management Project between Fiscal Years (FY) 1994 and 1996. During the restructurings, the Department`s cost for temporary service subcontracts increased from $2.8 million to $9.8 million annually. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Fluor Daniel utilized temporary service agreements in an economical and efficient manner and in accordance with the policy and goals of the Department`s Work Force Restructuring Program.

  5. Status report: Fernald site remediation

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    Craig, J.R. Jr.; Saric, J.A.; Schneider, T.; Yates, M.K.

    1995-01-30

    The Fernald site is rapidly transitioning from a Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) site to one where design and construction of the remedies dominates. Fernald is one of the first sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to accomplish this task and real physical progress is being made in moving the five operable units through the CERCLA process. Two of the required Records of Decision (ROD) are in hand and all five operable units will have received their RODs (IROD for OU3) by the end of 1995. Pre-design investigations, design work or construction are now in progress on the operable units. The lessons learned from the work done to date include implementing innovations in the RI and FS process as well as effective use of Removal Actions to begin the actual site remediation. Also, forging close working relationships with the Federal and State Regulators, citizens action groups and the Fernald Citizens Task Force has helped move the program forward. The Fernald successes have been achieved by close coordination and cooperation among all groups working on the projects and by application of innovative technologies within the decision making process.

  6. Transition and closeout of the Fernald Closure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bilson, H.E.; Terry, T.; Reising, J.; Powell, J.; Miller, M.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Fluor Fernald have completed the majority of the cleanup of the Fernald Site. The over 1,000 acre complex for processing uranium has been demolished and soil contamination has been remediated. With acres of wetlands and prairies replacing the buildings and waste pits. At the end of the project the focus shifted to developing demonstrating the completion of the project and the contract, as well as ensuring a smooth transition of the facility from the DOE's Environmental Management (EM) Program to the DOE's Legacy Management (LM) Program. Working with the DOE, each portion of the closure contract was examined for specific closure definition. From this negotiation effort the Comprehensive Exit and Transition Plan (CE/T Plan) was written. The CE/T Plan is intended to assist DOE in the analysis that the site is ready for transfer into long-term stewardship (LTS) (also referred to as legacy management) and that Fluor Fernald, Inc. has satisfactorily completed the closure contract statement of work elements. Following the Lessons Learned from the closure of the Rocky Flats Site, the DOE's Legacy Management Program created a matrix of Transition Elements required to ensure adequate information was in place to allow the new prime contractor to perform the Legacy Management scope of work. The transition plan included over 1,000 elements broken down into functional areas and relied on specific Fernald Responsibility Transition Packages (RTPs) for detailed transition actions. The template for Closure and Transition Planning used at the Fernald Site was developed using the best Lessons Learned from across the DOE Complex. The template could be used for other sites, and lessons learned from this closure and transition will be appropriate for all closure projects. (authors)

  7. Personal and Environmental Exposure Assessment Measurements at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Naomi, H.

    2000-06-01

    The research is directed to developing state-of-the-art personal and environmental exposure assessment for inhaled radionuclides at Fernald during D&D. An additional objective is the radiochemical analyses of soil samples taken around the radium (K-65) silos before and after removal of the material. Lead-210, the long lived decay product of radon released during the removal, provides a sensitive tracer to determine the entire inventory of radon released.

  8. 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program data report

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Cromer, M.V.; Newman, G.C.; Beiso, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    The 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program, hosted by Fernald Environmental Management Project, was established to investigate technologies that are applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort was evaluating field-screening tools potentially capable of acquiring high-resolution information on uranium contamination distribution in surface soils. Further-more, the information needed to be obtained in a cost- and time-efficient manner. Seven advanced field-screening technologies were demonstrated at a uranium-contaminated site at Fernald, located 29 kilometers northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The seven technologies tested were: (1) alpha-track detectors, (2) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (3) electret ionization chambers, (4) and (5) two variants of gamma-ray spectrometry, (6) laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and (7) long-range alpha detection. The goals of this field demonstration were to evaluate the capabilities of the detectors and to demonstrate their utility within the US Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration Program. Identical field studies were conducted using four industry-standard characterization tools: (1) a sodium-iodide scintillometer, (2) a low-energy FIDLER scintillometer, (3) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence detector, and (4) standard soil sampling coupled with laboratory analysis. Another important aspect of this program was the application of a cost/risk decision model to guide characterization of the site. This document is a compilation of raw data submitted by the technologies and converted total uranium data from the 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration.

  9. Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Voisard, Karen; Smiley, Sue

    2016-05-01

    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site’s environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve’s compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the “Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,” which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016).

  10. How to accelerate the Fernald remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.K.; Reising, J.

    1996-01-10

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is unique among Department of Energy (DOE) sites by virtue of successful efforts by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) and DOE-Fernald Area Office (FN) in securing a stak-eholder-assisted final site closure vision and all Record of Decisions (ROD) or Interim RODs required to set the stage for final remediation. DOE and FERMCO have agreed in principle on a Ten Year Plan which accelerates all activities to remediate the site in approximately half the target schedule. This paper presents the path that led to the current Ten Year Plan, the key elements of the plan and the implementation strategies.

  11. 1992 Fernald Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the Fernald site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. This report covers the reporting period from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1992, with the exception of Chapter Three, which provides information from the first quarter of 1993 as well as calendar year 1992 information. This 1992 report provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Use included in this report are summary data of the sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. Finally, this report provides general information on the major waste management and environmental restoration activities during 1992.

  12. 2015 Site Environmental Report Fernald Preserve

    SciTech Connect

    Hertel, Bill; Hooten, Gwen

    2016-05-01

    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site’s environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve’s compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the “Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,” which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016). Remediation of the Fernald Preserve has been successfully completed with the exception of the groundwater. During 2015, activities at the Fernald Preserve included: environmental monitoring activities related to direct radiation, groundwater, and surface water; ecological restoration monitoring and maintenance as well as inspections, care, and monitoring of the site and the OSDF to ensure that provisions of the LMICP are fully implemented; OSDF leak detection monitoring and collection, monitoring, and treatment of leachate from the OSDF; extraction, monitoring, and treatment of contaminated groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer (Operable Unit 5); ongoing operation of the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center, associated outreach, and educational activities; and monitoring as specified in the site’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Environmental monitoring programs were developed to ensure that the remedy remains protective of the environment. The requirements of these programs are described in detail in the LMICP and reported in this Site Environmental Report.

  13. Fernald waste management and disposition

    SciTech Connect

    West, M.L.; Fisher, L.A.; Frost, M.L.; Rast, D.M.

    1995-01-30

    Historically waste management within the Department of Energy complex has evolved around the operating principle of packaging waste generated and storing until a later date. In many cases wastes were delivered to onsite waste management organizations with little or no traceability to origin of generation. Sites then stored their waste for later disposition offsite or onsite burial. While the wastes were stored, sites incurred additional labor costs for maintaining, inspecting and repackaging containers and capital costs for storage warehouses. Increased costs, combined with the inherent safety hazards associated with storage of hazardous material make these practices less attractive. This paper will describe the methods used at the Department of Energy`s Fernald site by the Waste Programs Management Division to integrate with other site divisions to plan in situ waste characterization prior to removal. This information was utilized to evaluate and select disposal options and then to package and ship removed wastes without storage.

  14. The SWAMI inspection robot: Fernald site requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, F.B.

    1993-09-28

    The purpose of this document is to introduce and describe the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) robot project and to identify issues that will need to be addressed prior to its field demonstration at Fernald in mid-1995. SWAMI is a mobile robotic vehicle that will perform mandated weekly inspections of waste containers. Fernald has a large inventory of these containers and a need to protect workers from radiation hazards while enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspections. Fernald`s role in this project is to supply the demonstration site and make all necessary preparations. This includes identification of the test areas and plans, and identification and compliance to Federal, State, DOE, and Site regulations on system safety and quality. In addition, Fernald will link SWAMI output images to off-line mass data storage, and also to an on-line ORACLE database. The authors shall initiate a dialog with State and Federal regulators towards the near term goal of acceptance of the SWAMI test plan and a longer term goal of acceptance of SWAMI as a supplement and improvement to present mandated RCRA inspections.

  15. Characterization of Fernald Silo 3 Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    2001-04-04

    This report summarizes characterization results for uranium residues from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit (OU-4). These residues are currently stored in a one-million-gallon concrete silo, Silo 3, at the DOE Fernald Site, Ohio. Characterization of the Silo 3 waste is the first part of a three part study requested by Rocky Mountain Remedial Services (RMRS) through a Work for others Agreement, WFO-00-007, between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and RMRS. Parts 2 and 3 of this effort include bench- and pilot-scale testing.

  16. Fernald scrap metal recycling and beneficial reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald site, formerly the Feed Materials Production Facility, produced uranium metal products to meet defense production requirements for the Department of Energy from 1953 to 1989. In this report is is described how the Fernald scrap metal project has demonstrated that contractor capabilities can be used successfully to recycle large quantities of Department of Energy scrap metal. The project has proven that the {open_quotes}beneficial reuse{close_quotes} concept makes excellent economic sense when a market for recycled products can be identified. Topics covered in this report include the scrap metal pile history, the procurement strategy, scrap metal processing, and a discussion of lessons learned.

  17. Progressively safer, cheaper demolition of Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Nichols; Norman Pennington

    2000-09-29

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. has been progressively improving Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) at the Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project by applying new technologies and better methodologies to the work. Demolition issues existed in the past that necessitated new or improved solutions to maintain worker safety, protect the environment and accomplish the work in a cost effective manner. Lessons learned from D&D of 80 structures has led to a systematic approach, which can be implemented in various D&D arenas. When facility production was halted, hold-up material and process residues remained in the process piping and components. Over 500,000 pounds of material was removed by workers who completed the tasks two years ahead of schedule, $7 million under budget and with an excellent safety record. This success was the result of detailed planning and irdision of lessons learned as work progressed from facility to facility. Work sequences were developed that reduced airborne contamination. Demolition of structures has been performed at Fernald by carefully selected and qualified subcontractors. Asbestos and lead abatement, equipment, piping and conduit removal, and structural demolition have been completed to progressively higher performance specifications developed by Fluor Fernald based on lessons learned during execution. Safety continues to be the primary consideration in performing potentially hazardous work. Technologies such as hydraulic shears have been developed and used to keep workers away from danger. A new technology, ''Cool Suits,'' has been demonstrated to help prevent heat stress when anti-contamination clothing is required in elevated temperature working conditions. For tall structures, implosion technologies have been employed with progressively improved results, Several other new technologies have been evaluated by Fluor Fernald and applied by subcontractors. The improved technologies included the oxy-gas torch, which uses

  18. Re-injection accelerates groundwater clean up at Fernald, Fluor Fernald, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Dave Brettschneider; William Hertel; Ken Broberg

    2000-09-29

    A successful one year long, field scale demonstration of the use of groundwater re-infection at Fernald was recently completed bringing DOE one step closer to achieving an accelerated site remediation (DOE 2000). The demonstration marks the end of a several year effort to evaluate whether: re-injection could be conducted efficiently at Fernald, and if the approved aquifer remedy at Fernald would benefit by incorporating re-infection. Evaluation of re-injection technology involved not only technical considerations, but also participation and cooperation of regulators and stakeholders. The demonstration was considered to be unique in that it was integrated into the design of the current approved aquifer remedy and utilized the existing remediation infrastructure. Information collected during the demonstration indicated that re-injection wells could be operated efficiently at Fernald and that the current approved groundwater remedy should be modified to include the use of re-injection.

  19. The highly successful safe remediation of the Fernald waste pits undertaken under the privatization model

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, Mark; Lojek, Dave; Murphy, Con

    2003-02-23

    Remediation of eight waste pits at the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site, located northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio, involves excavating approximately one million tonnes in-situ of low-level waste which were placed in pits during Fernald's production era. This unique project, one of the largest in the history of CERCLA/Superfund, includes uranium and thorium contaminated waste, soils and sludges. These wet soils and sludges are thermally dried in a processing facility to meet Department of Transportation (DOT) transportation and disposal facility waste acceptance criteria, loaded into railcars and shipped to the Envirocare waste disposal facility at Clive, Utah. This project is now approximately 60% complete with more than 415,000 tonnes (460,000 tons) of waste material safely shipped in 74 unit trains to Envirocare. Work is scheduled to be completed in early 2005. Success to date demonstrates that a major DOE site remediation project can be safely and successfully executed in partnership with private industry, utilizing proven commercial best practices, existing site labor resources and support of local stakeholders. In 1997 under the DOE's privatization initiative, Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald) solicited the services of the remediation industry to design, engineer, procure, construct, own and operate a facility that would undertake the remediation of the waste pits. The resulting procurement was awarded to IT Corporation, currently Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc. (Shaw). The contractor was required to finance the procurement and construction of its facilities and infrastructure. The contract was performance-based and payment would be made on the successful loadout of the waste from the facility on a per-ton basis meeting the Envirocare waste acceptance criteria. This paper details the performance to date, the challenges encountered, and the seamless partnering between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Fluor Fernald, Shaw, labor

  20. Technology development and applications at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, P.J.; Skriba, M.C.; Warner, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    At the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio, the U.S. Department of Energy and contractor Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) are aggressively pursuing both the development and the application of improved, innovative technology to the environmental restoration task. Application of emerging technologies is particularly challenging in a regulatory environment that places pressure on operational managers to develop and meet tight schedules. The regulatory and operational needs make close communication essential between technology developers and technology users (CERCLA/RCRA Unit managers). At Fernald this cooperation and communication has led, not only to the development and demonstration of new technologies with applications at other sites, but also to application of new technologies directly to the Fernald clean up. New technologies have been applied to improve environmental safety and health, improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts, and to cut restoration costs. The paper will describe successful efforts to develop and apply new technologies at the FEMP and will emphasize those technologies that have been applied and are planned for use in the clean up of this former uranium production facility.

  1. Annual soil CO_{2} production in Moscow Botanical Garden (Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udovenko, Maria; Goncharova, Olga; Matyshak, Georgy

    2017-04-01

    Soil respiration is an essential component of the carbon cycle, determining 25-40 % of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Urban soils are subject to significant anthropogenic influences. Anthropogenic impact affects both the plants and the soil microbiota. So, soil CO2 efflux and soil profile CO2 concentration probably differ in urban and natural soils. Influence of abiotic factors on soil carbon dioxide production is explored insufficiently. The research of their impact on soil carbon dioxide production is necessary to predict soil response to anthropogenic climate change. The aim of this study was estimation of annual soil CO2 production and the impact of climatic factors on it. The research took place in Moscow State University Botanical Garden Arboretum (southern taiga). Investigations were carried out at two sites: the areas planted with Picea obovata and Carpinus betulus. The study was conducted with 1-2 weeks intervals between November 2014 and December 2015. Emission measurement were carried out by closed chamber technique, profile concentration were measured by soil air sampling tubes method. Annual carbon dioxide soil surface efflux of soil planted with Picea obovata was 1370 gCO2/(m2 * year), soil planted with Carpinus betulus - 1590 gCO2/(m2 * year). Soil CO2 concentration increased with depth in average of 3300 to 12000 ppm (at 80 cm depth). Maximum concentration values are confined to the end of vegetation period (high biological activity) and to beginning of spring (spring ice cover of soil prevents CO2 emission). Soil CO2 efflux depends on soil temperature at 10 cm depth (R = 0.89; p <0.05), in a less degree it correlate with soil surface temperature and with soil temperature at 20 cm depth (r=0.88; p<0.05). Soil moisture has a little effect on CO2 efflux in the annual cycle (r=-0.16; p<0.05). However in vegetation period efflux of carbon dioxide largely depends on soil moisture, due to the fact, that soil moisture is limiting factor for soil

  2. Surface and subsurface characterization of uranium contamination at the Fernald environmental management site

    SciTech Connect

    Schilk, A.J.; Perkins, R.W.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    The past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils, and the three-dimensional distribution of the uranium at these sites must be thoroughly characterized before any effective remedial protocols can be established. To this end, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked by the DOE`s Office of Technology Development with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies for the measurement of uranium in surface and subsurface soils at the Fernald Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration site. These studies are detailed in this report.

  3. Development and testing of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) system for Fernald wastes. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, S.S.; Matlack, K.S.; Mohr, R.K.; Brandys, M. Hojaji, H.; Bennett, S.; Ruller, J.; Pegg, I.L.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents results of a treatability study for the evaluation of the MAWS process for wastes stored at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. Wastes included in the study were FEMP Pit 5 sludges, soil-wash fractions, and ion exchange media from a water treatment system supporting a soil washing system. MAWS offers potential for treating a variety of waste streams to produce a more leach resistant waste form at a lower cost than, say, cement stabilization.

  4. Annual Soil Temperature Wave at Four Depths in Southwestern Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Richard S. Sartz

    1967-01-01

    Soil temperature was measured for a year on a southeast-facing slope of 25 percent, latitude 43 degrees 50 minutes N. The spring-summer cover was unmowed alfalfa-bluegrass meadow, the fall-winter cover, meadow stubble. Snow cover was light or absent. The soil was Fayette silt loam, valley phase. The annual temperature wave at all depths followed the air temperature...

  5. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Disposal Facility at Fernald Closure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kumthekar, U.A.; Chiou, J.D.

    2006-07-01

    The On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project near Cincinnati, Ohio is an engineered above-grade waste disposal facility being constructed to permanently store low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and treated mixed LLRW generated during Decommissioning and Demolition (D and D) and soil remediation performed in order to achieve the final land use goal at the site. The OSDF is engineered to store 2.93 million cubic yards of waste derived from the remediation activities. The OSDF is intended to isolate its LLRW from the environment for at least 200 years and for up to 1,000 years to the extent practicable and achievable. Construction of the OSDF started in 1997 and waste placement activities will complete by the middle of April 2006 with the final cover (cap) placement over the last open cell by the end of Spring 2006. An on-site disposal alternative is considered critical to the success of many large-scale DOE remediation projects throughout the United States. However, for various reasons this cost effective alternative is not readily available in many cases. Over the last ten years Fluor Fernald Inc. has cumulated many valuable lessons learned through the complex engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes of the OSDF. Also in the last several years representatives from other DOE sites, State agencies, as well as foreign government agencies have visited the Fernald site to look for proven experiences and practices, which may be adapted for their sites. This paper present a summary of the major issues and lessons leaned at the Fernald site related to engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes for the disposal of remediation waste. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned and to benefit other projects considering or operating similar on-site disposal facilities from our successful experiences. (authors)

  6. Characterization of reproduction and growth of American robins at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.R.; Ambrose, D.M.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-11-01

    As part of a Biological and Ecological Site Characterization of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), suppressed growth in onsite American robin nestlings was discovered in 1987 and in 1990. However, the causal factors relating to suppressed growth were not investigated. This study was initiated to determine if growth suppression still existed, and if so, the possible relationship of FEMP land management practices and soil contaminants through food chains to growth and reproductive fitness. This study was expanded to include five offsite sampling sites, as well as analyses of soils and earthworms for uranium, pesticides/herbicides, and heavy metals.

  7. Rail transportation of Fernald remediation waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fellman, R.T.; Lojek, D.A.; Motl, G.P.; Weddendorf, W.K.

    1995-01-24

    Remediation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site located north of Cincinnati will generate large quantities of low-level radwaste. This volume includes approximately 1,050,000 tons of material to be removed from eight waste pits comprising Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The remedial alternative selected includes waste material excavation, drying and transportation by rail to a burial site in the arid west for disposal. Rail transportation was selected not only because rail transportation is safer than truck transportation, but also because of the sheer magnitude of the project and the availability of bulk rail car unloading facilities at a representative disposal site. Based upon current waste quantity estimates as presented in the Feasibility Study for OUI, a fully-loaded 47-car unit train would depart the Fernald site weekly for five years. This paper illustrates the steps taken to obtain agency and public acceptance of the Record of Decision for the remedy which hinged on rail transportation. A preliminary, but detailed, rail transportation plan was prepared for the project to support a series of CERCLA public meetings conducted in late 1994. Some of the major issues addressed in the plan included the following: (1) Scope of project leading to selection of rail transportation; (2) Waste classification; (3) Rail Company overview; (4) Train configuration and rail car selection; (5) Routing; (6) Safety; (7) Prior Notification Requirements (8) Emergency Response. A series of three public meetings identified a number of issues of prime concern to Fernald stakeholders. Following resolution of these issues during the public comment period, a Record of Decision (ROD) approving implementation of the rail transportation strategy was approved pending incorporation of EPA and State of Ohio comments on December 22, 1994.

  8. The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection At the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Johnston, F.; Homer, J.; Deyo, Y.

    2008-07-01

    At both the Fernald Preserve and the Weldon Spring Site, the development of ecological restoration goals and objectives was used to complement and even enhance achievement of selected remedies. Warm-season native grasses and forbs were used for revegetation of remediated areas. The hardiness and ability to establish in low-nutrient conditions make native grasses ideal candidates for reestablishment of vegetation in excavated areas. At the Fernald Preserve, native grasses were used for vegetative cover on an on-site disposal facility as well. Also at the Fernald Preserve, excavation footprints were optimized to increase the quantity and quality of created wetlands. Drainage features in a couple instances provide passive groundwater recharge, potentially accelerating groundwater remediation efforts. In addition, a number of clean materials and structures were beneficially reused as part of ecological restoration designs, including wood-chip mulch and woody debris, clean concrete, and a rail trestle. At the Weldon Spring Site, several methods were used to control erosion for three years after the initial seeding of native species. A field evaluation of soil conditions and general species diversity was performed in 2007 and it was determined that erosion at the site was typical and repairing naturally. These approaches resulted in 'win-win' strategies needed to successfully remediate and restore complex projects such as the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring. (authors)

  9. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    PubMed Central

    Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grünzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

  10. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

  11. Fernald Silo Remote Retrieval Tool Development

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, V.K.

    2004-05-18

    A long-reach tool was developed to remove discrete objects from the silos at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in Ohio. If they are not removed, these objects can potentially cause problems during the retrieval and transfer of waste from the silos. Most of the objects are on top of the Bentogrout cap inside the silos at or near the primary opening into the tank and will therefore require only vertical lifting. The objects are located about 20 ft from the top of the silo. Although most of the objects can be retrieved from 20 ft, the long-reach tool was designed to for a reach up to 40 ft in case objects roll towards the walls of the tank or need to be removed during heel retrieval operations. This report provides a detailed description of the tool that was developed, tested, and demonstrated at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Scaffolding was erected over two experimental cells to simulate the 40-ft maximum working depth anticipated in the silos at Fernald. Plastic bottles and plastic sheeting simulated the debris that could be encountered during waste retrieval operations.

  12. Natural Resource Damages Settlement Projects at the Fernald Preserve - 12316

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Schneider, Tom; Hertel, Bill; Homer, John

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of two ecological restoration projects at the Fernald Preserve that are funded through a CERCLA natural resource damage settlement. The Paddys Run Tributary Project involves creation of vernal pool wetland habitat with adjacent forest restoration. The Triangle Area Project is a mesic tall-grass prairie establishment, similar to other efforts at the Fernald Preserve. The goal of the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees is to establish habitat for Ambystomatid salamander species, as well as grassland birds. Planning and implementation of on-property ecological restoration projects is one component of compensation for natural resource injury. As with the rest of the Fernald Preserve, ecological restoration has helped turn a DOE liability into a community asset. (authors)

  13. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  14. Fernald Environmental Management Project 1995 site environmental report summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report summarizes the 1995 Site Environmental Report for the Fernald site. It describes the Fernald site mission, exposure pathways, and environmental standards and guidelines. An overview is presented of the impact these activities have on the local environment and public health. Environmental monitoring activities measure and estimate the amount of radioactive and nonradioactive materials that may leave the site and enter the surrounding environment.

  15. The Fernald wet records recovery project: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, H.J.; Devir, B.R.; Hawley, R.A.; Freesmeyer, M.T.

    1995-06-22

    This paper discusses a project performed to recover wet records discovered in January 1995 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This paper discusses the emergency and record recovery phases of the project, the technical options considered for records recovery, and special measures which were required due to radiological contamination of the records. Also, the root causes and lessons learned from the incident, and path forward for future records management operations at Fernald, are discussed.

  16. Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S. Y.

    1997-09-01

    This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.

  17. Analytical Electron Microscopy examination of uranium contamination at the DOE Fernald operation site

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.

    1993-02-01

    Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) has been used to identify uranium-bearing phases present in contaminated soils from the DOE Fernald operation site. A combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and AEM was used in isolating and characterizing uranium-rich regions of the contaminated soils. Soil samples were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by ultramicrotomy using an embedding resin previously employed for aquatic colloids and biological samples. This preparation method allowed direct comparison between SEM and TEM images. At the macroscopic level much of the uranium appears to be associated with clays in the soils; however, electron beam analysis revealed that the uranium is present as discrete phases, including iron oxides, silicates (soddyite), phosphates (autunites), and fluorite. Only low levels of uranium were actually within the clay minerals. The distribution of uranium phases was inhomogeneous at the submicron level.

  18. Climate, soil water storage, and the average annual water balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of the hypothesis that the long-term water balance is determined only by the local interaction of fluctuating water supply (precipitation) and demand (potential evapotranspiration), mediated by water storage in the soil. Adoption of this hypothesis, together with idealized representations of relevant input variabilities in time and space, yields a simple model of the water balance of a finite area having a uniform climate. The partitioning of average annual precipitation into evapotranspiration and runoff depends on seven dimensionless numbers: the ratio of average annual potential evapotranspiration to average annual precipitation (index of dryness); the ratio of the spatial average plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil to the annual average precipitation amount; the mean number of precipitation events per year; the shape parameter of the gamma distribution describing spatial variability of storage capacity; and simple measures of the seasonality of mean precipitation intensity, storm arrival rate, and potential evapotranspiration. The hypothesis is tested in an application of the model to the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, with no calibration. Study area averages of runoff and evapotranspiration, based on observations, are 263 mm and 728 mm, respectively; the model yields corresponding estimates of 250 mm and 741 mm, respectively, and explains 88% of the geographical variance of observed runoff within the study region. The differences between modeled and observed runoff can be explained by uncertainties in the model inputs and in the observed runoff. In the humid (index of dryness <1) parts of the study area, the dominant factor producing runoff is the excess of annual precipitation over annual potential evapotranspiration, but runoff caused by variability of supply and demand over time is also significant; in the arid (index of dryness >1) parts, all of the runoff is caused by variability

  19. Effects of three species of Chihuahuan Desert ants on annual plants and soil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We tested the hypothesis that ant species, which occupy the same nest for a decade or longer, would modify nest soils by increasing soil nutrients and microorganisms resulting in increased biomass, density, cover and species richness of annual plants. We measured soil properties and annual plants on...

  20. Organizing for public involvement in Fernald decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, K.L.; Hoopes, J.

    1993-10-24

    Fernald is returning to the basics of interpersonal communication as a cornerstone of its public involvement program. The guiding premise behind this concept is the belief that face-to-face interaction between people is more likely to build trust and confidence than public meetings, news releases and other traditional public information techniques. A network of project spokespersons, called ``envoys,`` is being organized to develop person-to-person relationships with people interested in the future of Fernald. To support this approach, public affairs personnel are adopting roles as management consultants and communications coaches in addition to serving in their traditional role as public information specialists. Early observations seem to show signs of improvement in the level of public trust in Fernald decision-makers.

  1. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  2. Estimating Annual Soil Carbon Loss in Agricultural Peatland Soils Using a Nitrogen Budget Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Emilie R.; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R.; Linquist, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 – 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 – 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 – 81 % of plant N uptake (129 – 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 – 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 – 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices. PMID:25822494

  3. Vitrification development and experiences at Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Gimpel, R.F.; Paine, D.; Roberts, J.L.; Akgunduz, N.

    1998-09-01

    Vitrification of radioactive wastes products have proven to produce an extremely stable waste form. Vitrification involves the melting of wastes with a mixture of glass-forming additives at high temperatures; when cooled, the wastes are incorporated into a glass that is analogous to obsidian. Obsidian is a volcanic glass-like rock, commonly found in nature. A one-metric ton/day Vitrification Pilot Plant (VITPP) at Fernald, Ohio, simulated the vitrification of radium and radon bearing silo residues using representative non-radioactive surrogates. These non-radioactive surrogates contained high concentrations of lead, sulfates, and phosphates. The vitrification process was carried out at temperatures of 1150 to 1350 C. Laboratory and bench-scale treatability studies were conducted before initiation of the VITPP. Development of the glass formulas, containing up to 90% waste, will be discussed in the paper. The VITPP processed glass for seven months, until a breach of the melter containment vessel suspended operations. More than 70,000 pounds of good surrogate glass were produced by the VITPP. Experiences, lessons learned, and the planned path forward will be presented.

  4. Results of vitrifying Fernald OU-4 wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.A.; Janke, D.S.

    1993-02-01

    Three silos in Operable Unit 4 (OU-4) at the Feed Materials Production Center in Fernald, Ohio, contain residues from the processing of pitchblende ores. Silos 1 and 2, designated as K-65, contain the depleted ore with a BentoGrout cap over the material to reduce radon emanation, while Silo 3 contains calcined residue from processing solutions. The residues in the three silos contain radium, uranium, uranium daughters, and heavy metals (primarily lead). Vitrification tests were carried out on various mixtures of the above materials and the resulting glasses were analyzed. The vitrified residues all tested ``non-hazardous`` by the Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure (TCLP) and demonstrated a high degree of durability by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The specific gravity and radon emanation of both the vitrified and non-vitrified residue were measured. Volume reductions ranging from 50 to 68 percent were obtained while the radon emanation rate was reduced by a factor of about 500,000. Radon emanation from the vitrified residue is of the same order of magnitude as emanation from natural building materials such as brick or concrete.

  5. Results of vitrifying Fernald OU-4 wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.A. ); Janke, D.S. )

    1993-02-01

    Three silos in Operable Unit 4 (OU-4) at the Feed Materials Production Center in Fernald, Ohio, contain residues from the processing of pitchblende ores. Silos 1 and 2, designated as K-65, contain the depleted ore with a BentoGrout cap over the material to reduce radon emanation, while Silo 3 contains calcined residue from processing solutions. The residues in the three silos contain radium, uranium, uranium daughters, and heavy metals (primarily lead). Vitrification tests were carried out on various mixtures of the above materials and the resulting glasses were analyzed. The vitrified residues all tested non-hazardous'' by the Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure (TCLP) and demonstrated a high degree of durability by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The specific gravity and radon emanation of both the vitrified and non-vitrified residue were measured. Volume reductions ranging from 50 to 68 percent were obtained while the radon emanation rate was reduced by a factor of about 500,000. Radon emanation from the vitrified residue is of the same order of magnitude as emanation from natural building materials such as brick or concrete.

  6. Antibacterial compounds from Salvia adenophora Fernald (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bisio, Angela; Schito, Anna Maria; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Hamburger, Matthias; Mele, Giacomo; Piatti, Gabriella; Romussi, Giovanni; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2015-02-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia adenophora Fernald four derivatives of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1-4) together with five clerodane diterpenoids (5, 6, 8-10), and one known diterpene (7) have been isolated. Compounds 1-6 and 8-10 are described for the first time. The structures were established by extensive 1D, 2D NMR and HRESI-TOFMS spectroscopic methods. Finally, the absolute configuration has been established by comparing of experimental and quantum chemical calculation of ECD spectra. Despite a total lack of antimicrobial activity of the plant extract, hinting to the existence of antagonistic interactions in the crude material, three oxylipins (2-4) displayed a promising inhibition on Gram-positive multidrug-resistant clinical strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and, particularly, Staphylococcus epidermidis, while the compounds 9 and 10 revealed a specific and strain-dependent activity against S. epidermidis. Interestingly, the inhibition provided by these compounds was independent of the resistance patterns of these pathogens to classic antibiotics. No action was reported on Gram-negative strains nor on Candida albicans. These results confirm that clerodanes and, particularly, prostaglandin-like compounds can be considered as interesting antimicrobial agents deserving further study.

  7. Soil organic carbon quality in forested mineral wetlands at different mean annual temperature.

    Treesearch

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2009-01-01

    Forested mineral soil wetlands (FMSW) store large stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), but little is known on: (i) whether the quality of SOC stored in these soils (proportion of active versus more resistant SOC compounds) differs from SOC in upland soils; (ii) how the quality of SOC in FMSW varies with mean annual temperature (MAT); and (iii) whether SOC decomposition...

  8. Root traits and soil properties in harvested perennial grassland, annual wheat, and never-tilled annual wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and aims: Root functional traits are determinants of soil carbon storage; plant productivity; and ecosystemproperties. However, few studies look at both annual and perennial roots, soil properties, and productivity in the context of field scale agricultural systems. Methods: In Long Term...

  9. Paddys Run Streambank Stabilization Project at the Fernald Preserve, Harrison, OH

    SciTech Connect

    Hooten, Gwendolyn; Hertel, Bill; Homer, John

    2016-03-01

    The Fernald Preserve is a former uranium-processing plant that underwent extensive remediation pursuant to CERCLA and is now managed by the US DOE Office of Legacy Management. While remediation of buildings and soil contamination was completed in 2006, aquifer remediation is ongoing. Paddys Run is a second-order stream that runs to the south along the western side of the Fernald Preserve. The Paddys Run watershed encompasses nearly 41 km2 (16 mi2), including most of the Fernald site. Field personnel conducting routine site inspections in March 2014 observed that Paddys Run was migrating east via bank erosion into the “Pit 3 Swale,” an area of known surface-water contamination. The soil there was certified pursuant to site regulatory agreements and meets all final remediation levels. However, weekly surface-water monitoring is conducted from two puddles within the swale area, when water that exceeds the final remediation levels is present. Paddys Run had migrated east approximately 4 m (13 ft) in 2 years and was approximately 29 m (95 ft) from the sample location. This rapid migration threatened existing conditions that allowed for continued monitoring of the swale area and also threatened Paddys Run water quality. Therefore, DOE and regulators determined that the east bank of Paddys Run required stabilization. This was accomplished with a design that included the following components: relocation of approximately 145 m (475 ft) of streambed 9 m (30 ft) west, installation of a rock toe along the east bank, installation of two cross-vane in-stream grade-control structures, stabilization of a portion of the east bank using soil encapsulated lifts, and regrading, seeding, and planting within remaining disturbed areas. In an effort to take advantage of low-flow conditions in Paddys Run, construction was initiated in September 2014. Weather delays and subsurface flow within the Paddys Run streambed resulted in an interim shutdown of the project area in December 2014

  10. Maximum temperature accounts for annual soil CO2 efflux in temperate forests of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiyong; Xu, Meili; Kang, Fengfeng; Jianxin Sun, Osbert

    2015-07-16

    It will help understand the representation legality of soil temperature to explore the correlations of soil respiration with variant properties of soil temperature. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth was hourly logged through twelve months. Basing on the measured soil temperature, soil respiration at different temporal scales were calculated using empirical functions for temperate forests. On monthly scale, soil respiration significantly correlated with maximum, minimum, mean and accumulated effective soil temperatures. Annual soil respiration varied from 409 g C m(-2) in coniferous forest to 570 g C m(-2) in mixed forest and to 692 g C m(-2) in broadleaved forest, and was markedly explained by mean soil temperatures of the warmest day, July and summer, separately. These three soil temperatures reflected the maximum values on diurnal, monthly and annual scales. In accordance with their higher temperatures, summer soil respiration accounted for 51% of annual soil respiration across forest types, and broadleaved forest also had higher soil organic carbon content (SOC) and soil microbial biomass carbon content (SMBC), but a lower contribution of SMBC to SOC. This added proof to the findings that maximum soil temperature may accelerate the transformation of SOC to CO2-C via stimulating activities of soil microorganisms.

  11. Maximum temperature accounts for annual soil CO2 efflux in temperate forests of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiyong; Xu, Meili; Kang, Fengfeng; Jianxin Sun, Osbert

    2015-01-01

    It will help understand the representation legality of soil temperature to explore the correlations of soil respiration with variant properties of soil temperature. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth was hourly logged through twelve months. Basing on the measured soil temperature, soil respiration at different temporal scales were calculated using empirical functions for temperate forests. On monthly scale, soil respiration significantly correlated with maximum, minimum, mean and accumulated effective soil temperatures. Annual soil respiration varied from 409 g C m−2 in coniferous forest to 570 g C m−2 in mixed forest and to 692 g C m−2 in broadleaved forest, and was markedly explained by mean soil temperatures of the warmest day, July and summer, separately. These three soil temperatures reflected the maximum values on diurnal, monthly and annual scales. In accordance with their higher temperatures, summer soil respiration accounted for 51% of annual soil respiration across forest types, and broadleaved forest also had higher soil organic carbon content (SOC) and soil microbial biomass carbon content (SMBC), but a lower contribution of SMBC to SOC. This added proof to the findings that maximum soil temperature may accelerate the transformation of SOC to CO2-C via stimulating activities of soil microorganisms. PMID:26179467

  12. Fernald`s dilemma: Do we recycle the radioactively contaminated metals, or do we bury them?

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K.L.; Hadley, S.W.; Perlack, R.D.

    1996-06-01

    During the past five years, a number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of large accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder supported manner. The potential health and safety risks to both workers and the public have been addressed. The question remains; can products be fabricated from RSM in a cost efficient and market competitive manner? This paper presents a methodology for use within DOE to evaluate the costs and benefits of recycling and reusing some RSM, rather than disposing of this RSM in an approved burial site. This life cycle decision methodology, developed by both the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE Fernald is the focus of the following analysis.

  13. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  14. Groundwater re-injection at Fernald: Its role in accelerating the aquifer remedy

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Broberg; Robert Janke

    2000-09-29

    A successful field-scale demonstration of the use of groundwater re-injection at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was recently completed, bringing the U.S. Department of Energy one step closer to achieving an accelerated site remediation. The demonstration marks the end of a several-year effort to evaluate (a) whether re-injection could be conducted efficiently at Fernald and (b) whether the approved aquifer remedy at Fernald would benefit from incorporating re-injection.

  15. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  16. Fernald vacuum transfer system for uranium materials repackaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushiva, Shirley; Weekley, Clint; Molecke, Martin; Polansky, Gary

    2002-02-24

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is the site of a former Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing plant. When production was halted, many materials were left in an intermediate state. Some of this product material included enriched uranium compounds that had to be repackaged for shipment of off-site storage. This paper provides an overview, technical description, and status of a new application of existing technology, a vacuum transfer system, to repackage the uranium bearing compounds for shipment. The vacuum transfer system provides a method of transferring compounds from their current storage configuration into packages that meet the Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping requirements for fissile materials. This is a necessary activity, supporting removal of nuclear materials prior to site decontamination and decommissioning, key to the Fernald site's closure process.

  17. CLOSING IN ON CLOSURE PERSPECTIVES FROM HANFORD & FERNALD AN UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL, J.D.

    2004-12-22

    In World War II, the arms dramatically changed from machine guns and incendiary bombs to nuclear weapons. Hanford and Fernald, two government-run sites, were part of the infrastructure established for producing the fissile material for making these weapons, as well as building a nuclear arsenal to deter future aggression by other nations. This paper compares and contrasts, from a communications point of view, these two Department of Energy (DOE) closure sites, each with Fluor as a prime contractor. The major differences between the two sites--Hanford in Washington state and Fernald in Ohio--includes the following: size of the site and the workforce, timing of closure, definition of end state, DOE oversight, proximity to population centers, readiness of local population for closure, and dependence of the local economy on the site's budget. All of these elements affect how the sites' communication professionals provide information even though the objectives are the same: build public acceptance and support for DOE's mission to accelerate cleanup, interface with stakeholders to help ensure that issues are addressed and goals are met, help workers literally work themselves out of jobs--faster, and prepare the ''host'' communities to deal with the void left when the sites are closed and the government contractors are gone. The 12-months between January 04 and January 05 have seen dramatic transformations at both sites, as Fernald is now just about a year away from closure and FLuor's work at Hanford has made the transition from operations to deactivation and demolition. While Fernald continues to clean out silos of waste and ship it off site, Hanford is dealing with recent state legislation that has the potential to significantly impact the progress of cleanup. These changes have even further accentuated the differences in the content, distribution, and impact of communications.

  18. Decontamination and dismantlement of Plant 7 at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Albertin, M.; Borgman, T.; Zebick, B.

    1994-11-07

    Decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) tasks have been successfully completed on Plant 7 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The seven story facility was radiologically, chemically, and biologically contaminated. The work involved the D&D work beginning with safe shutdown and gross decontamination, and ended with removal of the structural steel. A series of lessons learned were gained which include use of explosives, bidding tactics, safe shutdown, building decontamination and lockdown, use of seam climbers, etc.

  19. Evaluation of criticality alarm response at the WEMCO Fernald site

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Westfall, R.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1992-11-01

    This work quantifies the expected dose rates at a series of criticality alarm locations due to several postulated criticality accidents at the Westinghouse Environmental MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF OHIO (WEMCO) Fernald site. One- and two-dimensional discrete- ordinates calculations were performed for seven different shielding configurations using leakage spectra corresponding to two specific postulated critical events. In addition, an estimate of the gaseous fission products released during the hypothetical accident was made using ORIGEN-S point-depletion code.

  20. Environmental Management Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included review of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and FEMP contractor personnel; and inspection and observation of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 15 through April 1, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and activities as part of the EH-1 Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight Audit Program. The EH-24 program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities and activities with respect to compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, Guidance and Directives; conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance; and the status and adequacy of management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The Environmental Management Assessment of FEMP focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems. Further, in response to requests by the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and Fernald Field Office (FN), Quality Assurance and Environmental Radiation activities at FEMP were evaluated from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section in this report.

  1. An annual model of SSM/I radiobrightness for dry soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Yuei-An; England, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    An annual model is presented of the temperature structure within a homogeneous, dry soil halfspace that is subject to both diurnal and annual insolation, radiant heating from the atmosphere, sensible heat exchange with the atmosphere, and radiant cooling. The thermal constitutive properties of the soil are assumed to be constant so that the heat flow equation can be solved analytically. For computational economy, a variable time interval Laplace transform method is developed to predict the temperature.

  2. The Fernald Envoy Program: How face-to-face public involvement is working

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopes, J.; Hundertmark, C.A.; Jordan, J.

    1995-12-31

    In March 1994, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), initiated the Fernald Envoy Program as a tool for strengthening public involvement in the restoration of the Fernald site, a former US Department of Energy uranium processing facility which ceased operation in 1989 and became an environmental restoration site. Based on the concept that opinion leaders play a key role in the flow of information, the Envoy Program was developed to link Fernald with opinion leaders in community groups. In February and March 1995, the University of Cincinnati Center for Environmental Communication Studies, under contract with the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation, conducted an evaluation to determine how the Envoy Program was functioning in relation to the original Envoy Plan. A quasi-experimental design was applied using telephone surveys of opinion leaders in groups with envoy representation and in groups without representation. Findings validated the effectiveness of the program and also identified areas for program improvement.

  3. Measurement of Radon, Thoron, Isotopic Uranium and Thorium to Determine Occupational and Environmental Exposure and Risk at Fernald Feed Material Production Center

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Naomi H.

    2002-10-31

    There are three basic research objectives. (1) To develop an accurate personal and area radon/thoron (222Rn/220Rn) detector for accurate measurement of the exposure to low airborne concentrations of these gases during remediation at Fernald. These are to be used to determine atmospheric dispersion and exposure to radon and thoron prior to and during retrieval and removal of the 4000 Ci of radium (226Ra) in the two silos at Fernald . (2) To develop a miniature personal (or area) aerosol particle size sampler that will operate continuously for weeks of continuous sampling under adverse conditions such as outdoors. Aerosol particle size is the major determinant of lung dose and without a measurement of the inhaled aerosol particle size accurate lung dosimetry cannot be obtained. No DOE site, with the exception of Fernald, is measuring the inhaled particle size spectrum for dosimetric purposes. (3) To develop the sequential radiochemistry necessary to measure any environmental sample (soil or water) for 228,230,232Th, 226,228Ra, 234,235,238U and 210Pb. To utilize the radiochemistry to accurately trace and delineate these nuclides in the environment.

  4. Generation and mobility of radon in soil. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Objectives of this research include: (1) To determine the processes that cause large seasonal and short-term changes in the radon (Rn) content of soil gases, and to develop methods of predicting and modeling these variations; (2) to evaluate the relation of Rn emanation coefficients to form of radium (Ra) and other U-series decay products, particularly the role of Ra in organic matter and Fe-oxides; (3) to evaluate the conditions in which convection of gas in soil and bedrock may affect soil gas radon availability in houses; and, (4) to collaborate with other DOE researchers on evaluation of Rn flux into houses, using our well characterized soil sites.

  5. The green manure value of seven clover species grown as annual crops on low and high fertility temperate soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2009-05-01

    Annual and perennial clover species may differ in green manure value. Seven clover (Trifolium) species were grown as annual crops on low fertility (Breton) and high fertility 15 (Edmonton) soils in Alberta

  6. Mobile Work Platform - A Fluor Fernald innovative dismantlement technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mark S. Peters; Paul R. Cromer; Robert Danner

    2000-06-16

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, has been charged with finding new and innovative D&D technologies and then validating through field demonstration that the technologies are safer, faster and/or more cost-effective. The D&D Focus Area's approach to verifying the benefits of the improved D&D technologies is to use them at DOE sites in large-scale demonstration and deployment (LSDD) projects. The DOE's Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), near Cincinnati Ohio, was host for a LSDD Project overseen by the D&D Focus Area. The FEMP was formerly engaged in the production of high quality uranium metal; and is now currently undergoing active environmental restoration, including removal of major process facilities. As observed during the D&D of Fernald's Plant 1, the baseline method for removing piping required laborers to work above the floor on ladders, scaffolding, ardor man-lifts with hand-held power tools. The pipe must first be rigged to prevent falling when cut. After cutting, the pipe is manually lowered to the ground and placed in a storage/disposal container. The Mobile Work Platform (MWP) consists of a mobile chassis, telescoping arm and a dual crimper/shear ''end-effecter''. It has the capability to grab and hold a pipe, crimp and shear the pipe (up to a ten-foot section) on either side of where it is being held and then lower and place the pipe section into a storage/disposal container. The MWP can crimp/shear up to a 6-inch diameter, schedule 401, carbon steel pipe. A single operator using a radio remote control operates the MWP. The paper will describe the results (productivity, safety advantages and lessons learned) during the Mobile Work Platform demonstration at Fernald.

  7. Comparison of soil microbial respiration and carbon turnover under perennial and annual biofuel crops in two agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, L. M.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Sanford, G. R.; Jackson, R. D.; Heckman, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioenergy crops have the potential to provide a low carbon-intensive alternative to fossil fuels. More than a century of agricultural research has shown that conventional cropping systems can reduce soil organic matter (SOM) reservoirs, which cause long-term soil nutrient loss and C release to the atmosphere. In the face of climate change and other human disruptions to biogeochemical cycles, identifying biofuel crops that can maintain or enhance soil resources is desirable for the sustainable production of bioenergy. The objective of our study was to compare the effects of four biofuel crop treatments on SOM dynamics in two agricultural soils: Mollisols at Arlington Agricultural Research Station in Wisconsin and Alfisols at Kellogg Biological Station in Michigan, USA. We used fresh soils collected in 2013 and archived soils from 2008 to measure the effects of five years of crop management. Using a one-year long laboratory soil incubation coupled with a regression model and radiocarbon measurements, we separated soils into three SOM pools and their corresponding C turnover times. We found that the active pool, or biologically available C, was more sensitive to management and is an earlier indicator of changes to soil C dynamics than bulk soil C measurements. There was no effect of treatment on the active pool size at either site; however, the percent C in the active pool decreased, regardless of crop type, in surface soils with high clay content. At depth, the response of the slow pool differed between annual and perennial cropping systems. The distribution of C among SOM fractions varied between the two soil types, with greater C content associated with the active fraction in the coarser textured-soil and greater C content associated with the slow-cycling fraction in the soils with high clay content. These results suggest that the effects of bioenergy crops on soil resources will vary geographically, with implications for the carbon-cost of biocrop production.

  8. Annual cycles of soil and water temperatures at Hubbard Brook

    Treesearch

    C. Anthony Federer

    1973-01-01

    Soil temperatures in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in central New Hampshire decline very slowly from December to March and are restricted from falling below OºC by insulation of snow and organic matter. Soil in the hardwood forest on a moderate south slope warms rapidly in the spring leafless period after snowmelt and reaches a maximum temperature in...

  9. Three AAVSO Leaders: De Kock, Fernald, and Peltier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Thomas R.

    1986-12-01

    The AAVSO has been blessed with leaders who have been exemplars for the organization, providing leadership in both a formal organizational sense and by setting the example through performance as observers. Reginald P. de Kock, Cyrus F. Fernald, and Leslie C. Peltier, three leading AAVSO observers in the first seventy-five years of the AAVSO's history, illustrate this tradition which is being carried on by contemporary observers. Brief biographical sketches and descriptions of these three leaders are presented to show how they contributed to the AAVSO, each in his own personal way.

  10. Phytotoxic clerodane diterpenes from Salvia miniata Fernald (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bisio, Angela; Damonte, Gianluca; Fraternale, Daniele; Giacomelli, Emanuela; Salis, Annalisa; Romussi, Giovanni; Cafaggi, Sergio; Ricci, Donata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2011-02-01

    Our ongoing research to identify natural growth inhibitors with diterpene and triterpene skeletons exuding from the surface of the aerial parts of Salvia species led us to study Salvia miniata Fernald. Ten clerodane diterpenoids were found, along with three known diterpenes. Most of the isolated compounds from S. miniata inhibited the germination of Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L. in Petri dish experiments. Parallel results have been obtained in experiments carried out to evaluate the subsequent growth of the seedlings of the target species in the presence of the tested compounds.

  11. Fernald Environmental Management Project 1995 site environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Fernald site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. This 1995 Site Environmental Report provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA.

  12. Cold season soil NO fluxes from a temperate forest: drivers and contribution to annual budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medinets, S.; Gasche, R.; Skiba, U.; Schindlbacher, A.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2016-11-01

    Soils, and here specifically acidic forest soils exposed to high rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, are a significant source for the secondary greenhouse gas nitric oxide (NO). However, as flux estimates are mainly based on measurements during the vegetation period, annual NO emissions budgets may hold uncertainty as cold season soil NO fluxes have rarely been quantified. Here we analyzed cold season soil NO fluxes and potential environmental drivers on the basis of the most extensive database on forest soil NO fluxes obtained at the Höglwald Forest, Germany, spanning the years 1994 to 2010. On average, the cold season (daily average air temperature <3 °C) contributed to 22% of the annual soil NO budget, varying from 13% to 41% between individual cold seasons. Temperature was the main controlling factor of the cold season NO fluxes, whereas during freeze-thaw cycles soil moisture availability determined NO emission rates. The importance of cold season soil NO fluxes for annual NO fluxes depended positively on the length of the cold season, but responded negatively to frost events. Snow cover did not significantly affect cold season soil NO fluxes. Cold season NO fluxes significantly correlated with cold season soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. During freeze-thaw periods strong positive correlations between NO and N2O fluxes were observed, though stimulation of NO fluxes by freeze-thaw was by far less pronounced as compared to N2O. Except for freeze-thaw periods NO fluxes significantly exceeded those for N2O during the cold season period. We conclude that in temperate forest ecosystems cold season NO emissions can contribute substantially to the annual NO budget and this contribution is significantly higher in years with long lasting but mild (less frost events) cold seasons.

  13. Effects of rainfall seasonality and soil moisture capacity on mean annual water balance for Australian catchments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, N.J.; Zhang, L.; Milly, P.C.D.; McMahon, T.A.; Jakeman, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    An important factor controlling catchment-scale water balance is the seasonal variation of climate. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the seasonal distributions of water and energy, and their interactions with the soil moisture store, on mean annual water balance in Australia at catchment scales using a stochastic model of soil moisture balance with seasonally varying forcing. The rainfall regime at 262 catchments around Australia was modeled as a Poisson process with the mean storm arrival rate and the mean storm depth varying throughout the year as cosine curves with annual periods. The soil moisture dynamics were represented by use of a single, finite water store having infinite infiltration capacity, and the potential evapotranspiration rate was modeled as an annual cosine curve. The mean annual water budget was calculated numerically using a Monte Carlo simulation. The model predicted that for a given level of climatic aridity the ratio of mean annual evapotranspiration to rainfall was larger where the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall were in phase, that is, in summer-dominant rainfall catchments, than where they were out of phase. The observed mean annual evapotranspiration ratios have opposite results. As a result, estimates of mean annual evapotranspiration from the model compared poorly with observational data. Because the inclusion of seasonally varying forcing alone was not sufficient to explain variability in the mean annual water balance, other catchment properties may play a role. Further analysis showed that the water balance was highly sensitive to the catchment-scale soil moisture capacity. Calibrations of this parameter indicated that infiltration-excess runoff might be an important process, especially for the summer-dominant rainfall catchments; most similar studies have shown that modeling of infiltration-excess runoff is not required at the mean annual timescale. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

  15. Biodegradation of dieldrin by a soil fungus isolated from a soil with annual endosulfan applications.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Ryota; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Ichiro; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Sato, Yuuki

    2010-08-15

    An aerobic dieldrin-degrading fungus, Mucor racemosus strain DDF, was isolated from a soil to which endosulfan had been annually applied for more than 10 years until 2008. Strain DDF degraded dieldrin to 1.01 microM from 14.3 microM during a 10-day incubation at 25 degrees C. Approximately 0.15 microM (9%) of aldrin trans-diol was generated from the dieldrin degradation after a 1-day incubation. The degradation of dieldrin by strain DDF was detected over a broad range of pH and concentrations of glucose and nitrogen sources. Extracellular fluid without mycelia also degraded dieldrin. Strain DDF degraded not only dieldrin but also heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, DDT, and DDE. Endosulfan sulfate and heptachlor were degraded by 0.64 microM (95%) and 0.75 microM (94%), respectively, whereas endosulfan and DDE were degraded by 2.42 microM (80%) and 3.29 microM (79%), respectively, and DDT and heptachlor epoxide were degraded by 6.95 microM (49.3%) and 5.36 microM (67.5%), respectively, compared with the control, which had a concentration of approximately 14 microM. These results suggest that strain DDF could be a candidate for the bioremediation of sites contaminated with various persistent organochlorine pesticides including POPs.

  16. Deployment of Porous Crystalline Matrix (Gubka) Technology for Stabilizing Radioactive Standard Solutions at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D. A.; Tranter, T. J.; Macheret, J.; Meyer, A.; Yesso, D.; Daniels, T.; Aloy, A. S.; Sapozhnikova, N. V.; Anshits, A. G.; Sharonova, O. M.; Tretyakov, A. A.

    2002-02-26

    Radioactive solutions requiring stabilization exist in various compositions throughout the DOE complex. Future cleanup could generate additional actinide residue solutions requiring stabilization at facilities where processing capabilities have been dismantled. Radiological laboratory standard solutions (liquid technical standards) have recently been identified at the Fernald site, which require stabilization and disposal before the laboratory facilities at Fernald can be decommissioned. The Fernald solutions consist of approximately 25 liters of acidic solutions containing isotopes of Cs, Ba, Ra, Eu, U, Am, Po, Ru, Sr, Th, Pb, Pu, and Np and in some cases small quantities of added salts. After stabilization and waste acceptance approval, the resulting waste forms will be disposed at the Nevada Test Site. This paper describes the technology and progress in using the Russian ''Gubka'' technology to stabilize the Fernald liquid technical standards for disposal by September 2002 to meet the facility D&D schedule.

  17. Physiological variation among native and exotic winter annuals associated with microphytic soil crusts in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFalco, Lesley; Detling, James K.; Tracy, C. Richard; Warren, Steven D.

    2001-01-01

    Microbiotic crusts are important components of many aridland soils. Research on crusts typically focuses on the increase in soil fertility due to N-fixing micro-organisms, the stabilization of soils against water and wind erosion and the impact of disturbance on N-cycling. The effect of microbiotic crusts on the associated plant community has received little attention. We quantified the influence of crusts on the production, species diversity, nutrient content and water relations of winter annual plant species associated with microbiotic soil crusts in the northeast Mojave Desert. Shoot biomass of winter annuals was 37% greater and plant density was 77% greater on crusts than were biomass and density on soils lacking crust cover (=bare soils). This greater production of annuals on crusts was likely due to enhanced soil conditions including an almost two-fold increase in soil organic matter and inorganic N compared to bare soils. Crusted soils also had 53% greater volumetric water content than bare soils during November and December, the time when winter annuals become established. As plant development progressed into spring, however, soil water availability decreased: More negative plant xylem water potentials were associated with greater plant biomass on crusted soils. Plants associated with microbiotic soil crusts had lower concentrations of N in shoots (mg N g−1 dry mass). However, total shoot N (mg N m−2) was the same in plants growing on the different soil types when biomass production peaked in April. Shoots had similar patterns in their concentration and content of P. Species diversity of annuals was not statistically different between the two soil types. Yet, while native annuals comprised the greatest proportion of shoot biomass on bare soils, exotic forbs and grasses produced more biomass on crusts. Total shoot nutrient content (biomass×concentration) of the two exotic annual species examined was dramatically greater on crusts than bare soils; only

  18. Winter soil CO2 efflux and its contribution to annual soil respiration in different ecosystems of Ebinur Lake Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Lv, G. H.; He, X. M.; Yang, J. J.; Wang, H. L.; Zhang, X. N.; Ma, H. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Arid and semiarid areas account for about one-third of the total land surface, and which play an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. However, up to now, compare with plenty knowledge information on winter soil efflux of forest ecosystems in mid-latitude ecosystems, winter soil efflux of arid areas at mid-latitude ecosystems is scare, Ebinur Lake Area, which is the study area of the present study, is located in arid regions of Northern China, with a vulnerable ecological environment suffering from extreme weather and climate. The objectives of this study were: (1) measure the winter soil respiration rate in our study area and determine its major environmental factors; (2) determine the winter soil CO2 efflux and its contribution to annual soil CO2 efflux in different ecosystems; and (3) discuss the estimated method of soil respiration that is most suitable to arid areas. We measured winter soil CO2 efflux and the associated environment factors in a farmland ecosystem (50a and 9a cotton fields), an abandoned land ecosystem (7a and 3a abandoned lands) and desert ecosystem ( Populus euphratica, Phragmites australis communities and sandy desert) in Ebinur Lake Area, China. The average winter soil respiration rate in the arid areas in the mid-latitude was 0.063 μmol m-2 s-1 to 0.730 μmol m-2 s-1. Specifically, the average winter soil respiration rate in the farmland ecosystems, abandoned land ecosystems and desert ecosystems were 0.686 μmol m-2 s-1, 0.443 μmol m-2 s-1 and 0.276 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Range of annual Q 10 (known as the increase in soil respiration rate per 10°C increase in temperature) in the three ecosystems were 0.989 to 4.962, 1.971 to 2.096 and 0.947 to 5.173, respectively. The relatively higher Q 10 values in the different ecosystems were all obtained in winter. We found that water (in the form of soil moisture or atmospheric humidity) was the primary factor that affected the change of soil respiration rate in the

  19. Remote sensing-based estimation of annual soil respiration at two contrasting forest sites

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, Lianhong; Huang, Ni; Black, T. Andrew; ...

    2015-11-23

    Soil respiration (Rs), an important component of the global carbon cycle, can be estimated using remotely sensed data, but the accuracy of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. In this article, we proposed a methodology for the remote estimation of annual Rs at two contrasting FLUXNET forest sites (a deciduous broadleaf forest and an evergreen needleleaf forest).

  20. Managing soil nitrogen to restore annual grass-infested plant communities: Effective strategy or incomplete framework?

    Treesearch

    J. J. James; R. E. Drenovsky; T. A. Monaco; M. J. Rinella

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work has established a positive relationship between resource availability and habitat invasibility. For nonnative invasive annual grasses, similar to other invasive species, invader success has been tied most often to increased nitrogen (N) availability. These observations have led to the logical assumption that managing soils for low N...

  1. Soil moisture and biogeochemical factors influence the distribution of annual Bromus species

    Treesearch

    Jayne Belnap; John M. Stark; Benjamin M. Rau; Edith B. Allen; Susan Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic factors have a strong influence on where annual Bromus species are found. At the large regional scale, temperature and precipitation extremes determine the boundaries of Bromus occurrence. At the more local scale, soil characteristics and climate influence distribution, cover, and performance. In hot, dry, summer-rainfall-dominated deserts (Sonoran, Chihuahuan...

  2. Carbonate and citric acid leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Pilot-scale studies (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.H.; Chernikoff, R.; DeMarco, W.D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the results of the soil decontamination demonstration conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site by the Fernald Environmental Restoration and Management Corporation (FERMCO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration, which began in November 1993 and ended in October 1994, involved the removal of uranium from contaminated soil sampled from two FEMP sites. The demonstration was conducted so as to meet the requirements of the Fernald Site Integrated Demonstration program, as well as all environmental, safety, and health requirements of the site.

  3. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low-level RCRA

  4. Non-Native Plant Litter Enhances Soil Carbon Dioxide Emissions in an Invaded Annual Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E.; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k = 0.20 month−1) compared to in isolation (k = 0.10 month−1). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration

  5. Non-native plant litter enhances soil carbon dioxide emissions in an invaded annual grassland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k = 0.20 month(-1)) compared to in isolation (k = 0.10 month(-1)). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration

  6. Climate, interseasonal storage of soil water, and the annual water balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of annual totals and seasonal variations of precipitation and potential evaporation on the annual water balance are explored. It is assumed that the only other factor of significance to annual water balance is a simple process of water storage, and that the relevant storage capacity is the plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil. Under the assumption that precipitation and potential evaporation vary sinusoidally through the year, it is possible to derive an analytic solution of the storage problem, and this yields an expression for the fraction of precipitation that evaporates (and the fraction that runs off) as a function of three dimensionless numbers: the ratio of annual potential evaporation to annual precipitation (index of dryness); an index of the seasonality of the difference between precipitation and potential evaporation; and the ratio of plant-available water-holding capacity to annual precipitation. The solution is applied to the area of the United States east of 105??W, using published information on precipitation, potential evaporation, and plant-available water-holding capacity as inputs, and using an independent analysis of observed river runoff for model evaluation. The model generates an areal mean annual runoff of only 187 mm, which is about 30% less than the observed runoff (263 mm). The discrepancy is suggestive of the importance of runoff-generating mechanisms neglected in the model. These include intraseasonal variability (storminess) of precipitation, spatial variability of storage capacity, and finite infiltration capacity of land. ?? 1994.

  7. Soil moisture controls on inter-annual variability of biogenic isoprene emissions and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Steiner, A. L.; Zakey, A.

    2010-12-01

    Biogenic isoprene emissions directly respond to leaf temperature, photosynthetic active radiation, and soil moisture. These climate variables can be important for estimating biogenic emissions and their impact on interannual variability of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol. Due to the non-linear relationship between temperature and soil moisture, observational data alone are not capable of quantifying each variable’s contribution to isoprene emissions. A process-based emissions model (the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature; MEGAN) is coupled to a regional climate and chemistry model (RegCM-CLM-CHEM) to assess the contributions of environmental variables controlling isoprene emissions on climatological time scales. A fully online simulation was performed from 1994-2008 where isoprene emissions respond at each land surface time step to all environmental variables. A first order Taylor expansion method was used to determine percent contribution to inter-annual isoprene variability from each environmental variable. In July, leaf temperature accounts for more than 65% of inter-annual variations in isoprene emissions over the Plains and the Great Lakes region. However, soil moisture variations tend to dominate controls on inter-annual variability for the southeastern U.S. (> 60%). Model simulations and observational data from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) are implemented to estimate the effects of drought on inter-annual variations of isoprene and ozone.

  8. Sonoran Desert winter annuals affected by density of red brome and soil nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salo, L.F.; McPherson, G.R.; Williams, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    Red brome [Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husn.] is a Mediterranean winter annual grass that has invaded Southwestern USA deserts. This study evaluated interactions among 13 Sonoran Desert annual species at four densities of red brome from 0 to the equivalent of 1200 plants ma??2. We examined these interactions at low (3 I?g) and high (537 I?g NO3a?? g soila??1) nitrogen (N) to evaluate the relative effects of soil N level on survival and growth of native annuals and red brome. Red brome did not affect emergence or survival of native annuals, but significantly reduced growth of natives, raising concerns about effects of this exotic grass on the fecundity of these species. Differences in growth of red brome and of the three dominant non nitrogen-fixing native annuals at the two levels of soil N were similar. Total species biomass of red brome was reduced by 83% at low, compared to high, N levels, whereas that of the three native species was reduced by from 42 to 95%. Mean individual biomass of red brome was reduced by 87% at low, compared to high, N levels, whereas that of the three native species was reduced by from 72 to 89%.

  9. Draft final feasibility study report and proposed plan for Operable Unit 4, response to comments: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report contains questions and comments regarding a risk evaluation and possible remedial action of Operable Unit 4 at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. Attention is focused on the US EPA Region V feasibility study and on the CRARE. The CRARE is a post-remediation time frame document.

  10. Soil fungal resources in annual cropping systems and their potential for management.

    PubMed

    Ellouze, Walid; Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D; Yang, Chao; Bazghaleh, Navid; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hanson, Keith; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils.

  11. Soil Fungal Resources in Annual Cropping Systems and Their Potential for Management

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D.; Yang, Chao; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

  12. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    2003-01-01

    1. Deserts are one of the least invaded ecosystems by plants, possibly due to naturally low levels of soil nitrogen. Increased levels of soil nitrogen caused by atmospheric nitrogen deposition may increase the dominance of invasive alien plants and decrease the diversity of plant communities in desert regions, as it has in other ecosystems. Deserts should be particularly susceptible to even small increases in soil nitrogen levels because the ratio of increased nitrogen to plant biomass is higher compared with most other ecosystems.2. The hypothesis that increased soil nitrogen will lead to increased dominance by alien plants and decreased plant species diversity was tested in field experiments using nitrogen additions at three sites in the in the Mojave Desert of western North America.3. Responses of alien and native annual plants to soil nitrogen additions were measured in terms of density, biomass and species richness. Effects of nitrogen additions were evaluated during 2 years of contrasting rainfall and annual plant productivity. The rate of nitrogen addition was similar to published rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in urban areas adjacent to the Mojave Desert (3·2 g N m−2 year−1). The dominant alien species included the grasses Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and Schismus spp. (S. arabicus and S. barbatus) and the forb Erodium cicutarium.4. Soil nitrogen addition increased the density and biomass of alien annual plants during both years, but decreased density, biomass and species richness of native species only during the year of highest annual plant productivity. The negative response of natives may have been due to increased competitive stress for soil water and other nutrients caused by the increased productivity of aliens.5. The effects of nitrogen additions were significant at both ends of a natural nutrient gradient, beneath creosote bush Larrea tridentata canopies and in the interspaces between them, although responses varied among

  13. Soils and climate: redness and weathering as indicators of mean annual precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Paleosols can be used as archives of past changes of climate and landscapes, but their interpretation has to be based on modern analogies such as Budyko's law of soil zonality. These can be very useful if the respective processes of soil formation are sufficiently well understood. However, some soils such as the Terra Rossa or Red Mediterranean Soils, that are widespread at the fringes of the steppes and deserts, are still disputed with regard to their genesis and environmental significance. In particular, there is no agreement whether they resemble current environmental conditions, or are inherited from climates or sediments of the past. In this context, a remarkable change of the color of surface soils can be observed when driving from the city of Irbid in Jordan towards the east. Soil color apparently changes slowly, but steadily from dark red to yellow colors. However, attempting to express these color changes in numerical form is challenging, and it seemed questionable whether color is indeed connected with soil weathering intensity, or an optical illusion. However, a systematic comparison of different approaches of calculating soil redness found that the CIELAB-color system is suited for numerical expressions of soil redness and performs better than the Munsell charts. Along the investigated transect in Jordan, soil color seems strongly connected with weathering intensity, since various weathering indicators point to a steady increase of soil development with moisture. This suggests that such indices can well be used in semi-arid areas of 250-600 mm of mean annual precipitation. A very strong correlation of magnetic enhancement and rainfall indicates that the investigated soils are forming in equilibrium with current climatic conditions, and regressions based on this gradient might be suited for estimating paleorainfalls recorded by buried paelosols. It seems therefore that surface Terra Rossa soils in Jordan can be in equilibrium with current climate

  14. Remote sensing-based estimation of annual soil respiration at two contrasting forest sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Lianhong; Huang, Ni; Black, T. Andrew; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-11-23

    Soil respiration (Rs), an important component of the global carbon cycle, can be estimated using remotely sensed data, but the accuracy of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. In this article, we proposed a methodology for the remote estimation of annual Rs at two contrasting FLUXNET forest sites (a deciduous broadleaf forest and an evergreen needleleaf forest).

  15. Feasibility study on consolidation of Fernald Environmental Management Project depleted uranium materials

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-30

    In 1991, the DOE made a decision to close the FMPC located in Fernald, Ohio, and end its production mission. The site was renamed FEMP to reflect Fernald`s mission change from uranium production to environmental restoration. As a result of this change, the inventory of strategic uranium materials maintained at Fernald by DOE DP will need to be relocated to other DOE sites. Although considered a liability to the Fernald Plant due to its current D and D mission, the FEMP DU represents a potentially valuable DOE resource. Recognizing its value, it may be important for the DOE to consolidate the material at one site and place it in a safe long-term storage condition until a future DOE programmatic requirement materializes. In August 1995, the DOE Office of Nuclear Weapons Management requested, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to assess the feasibility of consolidating the FEMP DU materials at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This feasibility study examines various phases associated with the consolidation of the FEMP DU at the ORR. If useful short-term applications for the DU fail to materialize, then long-term storage (up to 50 years) would need to be provided. Phases examined in this report include DU material value; potential uses; sampling; packaging and transportation; material control and accountability; environmental, health and safety issues; storage; project management; noneconomic factors; schedule; and cost.

  16. Plant growth-promoting Burkholderia species isolated from annual ryegrass in Portuguese soils.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, N; Dourado, A C; Kruz, S; Alves, P I L; Delgado-Rodríguez, A I; Pais, I; Semedo, J; Scotti-Campos, P; Sánchez, C; Borges, N; Carvalho, G; Barreto Crespo, M T; Fareleira, P

    2016-03-01

    To search for culturable Burkholderia species associated with annual ryegrass in soils from natural pastures in Portugal, with plant growth-promoting effects. Annual ryegrass seedlings were used to trap Burkholderia from two different soils in laboratory conditions. A combined approach using genomic fingerprinting and sequencing of 16S rRNA and recA genes resulted in the identification of Burkholderia strains belonging to the species Burkholderia graminis, Burkholderia fungorum and the Burkholderia cepacia complex. Most strains were able to solubilize mineral phosphate and to synthesize indole acetic acid; some of them could produce siderophores and antagonize the phytopathogenic oomycete, Phytophthora cinnamomi. A strain (G2Bd5) of B. graminis was selected for gnotobiotic plant inoculation experiments. The main effects were the stimulation of root growth and enhancement of leaf lipid synthesis and turnover. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser microscopy evidenced that strain G2Bd5 is a rhizospheric and endophytic colonizer of annual ryegrass. This work revealed that annual ryegrass can naturally associate with members of the genus Burkholderia. A novel plant growth promoting strain of B. graminis was obtained. The novel strain belongs to the plant-associated Burkholderia cluster and is a promising candidate for exploitation as plant inoculant in field conditions. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Annual grass invasion in sagebrush steppe: the relative importance of climate, soil properties and biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sheel; Sheley, Roger L

    2016-06-01

    The invasion by winter-annual grasses (AGs) such as Bromus tectorum into sagebrush steppe throughout the western USA is a classic example of a biological invasion with multiple, interacting climate, soil and biotic factors driving the invasion, although few studies have examined all components together. Across a 6000-km(2) area of the northern Great Basin, we conducted a field assessment of 100 climate, soil, and biotic (functional group abundances, diversity) factors at each of 90 sites that spanned an invasion gradient ranging from 0 to 100 % AG cover. We first determined which biotic and abiotic factors had the strongest correlative relationships with AGs and each resident functional group. We then used regression and structural equation modeling to explore how multiple ecological factors interact to influence AG abundance. Among biotic interactions, we observed negative relationships between AGs and biodiversity, perennial grass cover, resident species richness, biological soil crust cover and shrub density, whereas perennial and annual forb cover, tree cover and soil microbial biomass had no direct linkage to AG. Among abiotic factors, AG cover was strongly related to climate (increasing cover with increasing temperature and aridity), but had weak relationships with soil factors. Our structural equation model showed negative effects of perennial grasses and biodiversity on AG cover while integrating the negative effects of warmer climate and positive influence of belowground processes on resident functional groups. Our findings illustrate the relative importance of biotic interactions and climate on invasive abundance, while soil properties appear to have stronger relationships with resident biota than with invasives.

  18. Soil aggregates and their associated carbon and nitrogen content in winter annual pastures using different tillage management options

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditionally, winter annual pastures are established on grazing areas that are steeply sloping and not regarded as suitable for row-crop production. Using conventional (CT) tillage methods to prepare these fragile lands for winter annual pastures leads to increased erosion and rapid soil degradatio...

  19. Remediation activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, T.J.; Danner, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwestern Ohio. The facility began manufacturing uranium products in the early 1950`s and continued processing uranium ore concentrates until 1989. The facility used a variety of chemical and metallurgical processes to produce uranium metals for use at other DOE sites across the country. Since the facility manufactured uranium metals for over thirty years, various amounts of radiological contamination exists at the site. Because of the chemical and metallurgical processes employed at the site, some hazardous wastes as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) were also generated at the site. In 1989. the FEMP was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) requiring cleanup of the facility`s radioactive and chemical contamination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This paper discusses the proposed remediation activities at the five Operable Units (OUs) designated at the FEMP. In addition, the paper also examines the ongoing CERCLA response actions and RCRA closure activities at the facility.

  20. Grouting of the residual uranium waste in Fernald Silos

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E.; Pettit, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    At the Fernald site in Cincinnati, Ohio, huge concrete silos containing K-65 spent uranium ore were to be decommissioned and demolished as part of the decommissioning and restoration of the site. The K-65 waste in the silos was to be removed by sluicing with a low pressure water jet and placed in a new tank for the solidification processing. However the process was expected to leave at least a few inches of hard residual heel of waste on the floor and perhaps the walls of each silo. The contaminated concrete of the silos along with this waste heel represented a huge volume of material that would pose a hazard to workers, air quality, and groundwater during demolition. The heel material contained significant lead and radium as well as depleted uranium. The waste emitted a large amount of radon gas that was normally captured by a silo off-gas treatment system. Project plans called for the heel material to be mixed in place with a large volume of cement/flyash grout. This would chemically bind up the contaminants reducing the leaching potential of the material. The hardened grout would reduce the release of radon and dilute the concentration of radioactive contaminants allowing the grout to be disposed along with the contaminated concrete. The challenge was to develop an efficient method to mix the waste heel material with the grout without sending workers into the silo. (authors)

  1. The impact of roots on soil organic carbon dynamics in annual and perennial agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniston, J.; Dupont, T.; Glover, J.; Lal, R.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying and developing agricultural systems capable of transferring large quantities of carbon (C) to the soil and sustaining ecosystem processes and services is a priority for ecological researchers and land managers. Temperate grasslands have extensive root systems and transfer large quantities of C to the soil organic C (SOC) pool, which has lead to widespread interest in utilizing perennial grasses as both bioenergy crops and as a model for perennial grains. This study examined five sites in north central Kansas (U.S.A.) that contain the unique land use pairing of tall grass prairie meadows (PM) that have been harvested annually for hay for the past 75 years and annual grain (wheat) production fields (AG) that have been cultivated for a similar length of time, all on deep alluvial soils. Specific research objectives included: 1) To quantify below-ground biomass pools and root C contributions in the two systems; 2) To analyze and compare SOC pools and SOC concentration in primary particle size fractions in the two systems; 3) To utilize natural abundance δ13C signatures to determine the source and turnover of SOC in the soils of the AG sites; and 4) To elucidate the relationship of roots to both SOC pools and nematode food webs. Soil core samples were collected to a depth of 1 m in May and June 2008. Soil samples were analyzed for SOC, microbial biomass C (MBC), nematodes, and a particle size fractionation of SOC in coarse (>250 μm), particulate organic matter (POM) (53-250 μm), silt (2-53 μm), and clay (<2 μm) sized fractions. Root biomass, root length and root C were also analyzed to a depth of 1 m. Natural abundance δ13C values were obtained for all C parameters. Soils under PM had 4 times as much root C as AG soils to 1 m depth in mid May (PM 2.8 Mg ha-1 and AG 0.7 Mg ha-1) and 7 times as much root C to 1 m depth in late June (PM 3.5 Mg ha-1 and AG 0.5 Mg ha-1). The MBC pools were significantly larger in grassland soils to a depth of 60 cm in May

  2. Audit of work force restructuring at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-23

    The Department of Energy (Department) restructured its work force at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (Fernald Project) to reduce staffing levels and to modify the mix of workers` skills in response to budget cuts, facility closures, and changes in the Fernald Project`s mission. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the work force restructurings were effective in reducing staffing levels and in changing the mix of workers` skills. As of September 30, 1995, the restructurings were not effective in reducing staffing levels or in improving the mix of workers` skills. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) spent $2.9 million to separate 255 employees in October 1993. However, by September 30, 1994, all but 14 of the employees separated were either rehired or replaced by new employees with similar skills. The second restructuring began in October 1994 and is not expected to be completed until May 1996. The Department expects the second restructuring to reduce FERMCO`s work force by 476 employees at a cost of $12.9 million. However, since the second restructuring began, FERMCO has hired 265 new employees and at September 30, 1995, had open job announcements seeking 82 additional employees. Many of these new employees have essentially the same skills as employees who separated under the two restructurings. The Department`s objectives were not met because the Fernald Area Office did not (1) require FERMCO to perform the skills analysis necessary to identify which employees were needed to perform the Fernald Project`s current mission, and (2) effectively monitor FERMCO`s restructuring efforts to ensure that the Department`s objectives were met.

  3. Soil N and 15N variation with time in a California annual grassland ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner, D.L.; Amundson, Ronald; Baisden, W. Troy; Kendall, C.; Harden, J.

    2001-01-01

    The %N and ??15N values of soils and plants were measured along a chronosequence spanning 3 to 3000 Ky in a California annual grassland. Total soil N decreased with increasing soil age (1.1 to 0.4 kg N m-2) while the mean ?? 15N values of the soil N increased by several ??? from the youngest to oldest sites (+3.5 to +6.2 ???). The ?? 15N values of plants varied along the gradient, reflecting changing soil N pools and differences in the form of N uptake. The decline in total N storage with time is hypothesized to be due to a shift from N to P limitation with increasing soil age. The general increase in ?? 15N values with time is interpreted using a N mass balance model, and appears to reflect a shift toward an increasing proportional losses of inorganic mineral forms of N (vs. organic forms) with increasing soil age. We develop a quantitative index of this trend (mineral vs. organic forms of N loss) using mass balance considerations and parameters. The %N and ?? 15N values along the California age gradient were compared to the published data for a comparably aged chronosequence in Hawaii. Most striking in this comparison is the observation that the California soil and plant ?? 15N values are several ??? greater than those on comparably aged Hawaiian sites. Multiple explanations are plausible, but assuming the sites have a similar range in ?? 15N values of atmospheric inputs, the isotopic differences suggest that N may be, at least seasonally, in greater excess in the strongly seasonal, semi-arid, California grassland. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Screening and comparison of remedial alternatives for the South Field and flyash piles at the Fernald site

    SciTech Connect

    Bumb, A.C.; Jones, G.N.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-05-01

    The South Field, the Inactive Flyash Pile, and the Active Flyash Pile are in close proximity to each other and are part of Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The baseline risk assessment indicated that the exposure pathways which pose the most significant risk are external radiation from radionuclides in surface soils and use of uranium contaminated groundwater. This paper presents screening and comparison of various remedial alternatives considered to mitigate risks from the groundwater pathway. Eight remedial alternatives were developed which consisted of consolidation and capping, excavation and off-site disposal with or without treatment, excavation and on-site disposal with or without treatment and combinations of these. Risk-based source (soil) preliminary remediation levels (PRLs) and waste acceptance criteria (WACs) were developed for consolidation and capping, excavation, and on-site disposal cell. The PRLs and WACs were developed using an integrated modeling tool consisting of an infiltration model, a surface water model, a vadose zone model, and a three-dimensional contaminant migration model in saturated media. The PRLs and WACs were then used to determine need for soil treatment, determine excavation volumes, and screen remedial alternatives. The selected remedial alternative consisted of excavation and on-site disposal with off-site disposal of the fraction exceeding the WAC.

  5. Soil moisture and biogeochemical factors influence the distribution of annual Bromus species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Stark, John Thomas; Rau, Benjamin; Allen, Edith B.; Phillips, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic factors have a strong influence on where annual Bromus species are found. At the large regional scale, temperature and precipitation extremes determine the boundaries of Bromusoccurrence. At the more local scale, soil characteristics and climate influence distribution, cover, and performance. In hot, dry, summer-rainfall-dominated deserts (Sonoran, Chihuahuan), little or noBromus is found, likely due to timing or amount of soil moisture relative to Bromus phenology. In hot, winter-rainfall-dominated deserts (parts of the Mojave Desert), Bromus rubens is widespread and correlated with high phosphorus availability. It also responds positively to additions of nitrogen alone or with phosphorus. On the Colorado Plateau, with higher soil moisture availability, factors limiting Bromus tectorum populations vary with life stage: phosphorus and water limit germination, potassium and the potassium/magnesium ratio affect winter performance, and water and potassium/magnesium affect spring performance. Controlling nutrients also change with elevation. In cooler deserts with winter precipitation (Great Basin, Columbia Plateau) and thus even greater soil moisture availability, B. tectorum populations are controlled by nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium. Experimental nitrogen additions stimulate Bromus performance. The reason for different nutrients limiting in dissimilar climatic regions is not known, but it is likely that site conditions such as soil texture (as it affects water and nutrient availability), organic matter, and/or chemistry interact in a manner that regulates nutrient availability and limitations. Under future drier, hotter conditions,Bromus distribution is likely to change due to changes in the interaction between moisture and nutrient availability.

  6. Annual fire and mowing alter biomass, depth distribution, and C and N content of roots in soil in tallgrass prairie

    Treesearch

    D.J. Kitchen; J.M. Blair; M.A. Callaham

    2009-01-01

    Management practices, such as fire andmowing, can affect the distribution and quality of roots and soil C and N in grasslands. We examined long-term (13 years) effects of annual fire and mowing on fine (<2 mm) roots and soil C and N content in a native tallgrass prairie at Konza Prairie Biological Station in northeastern Kansas, USA. Using 90 cm deep soil cores...

  7. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  8. A comparative study of AMF diversity in annual and perennial plant species from semiarid gypsum soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Roldán, A.; Díaz, G.; Torres, P.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities composition regulate plant interactions and determine the structure of plant communities. In this study we analysed the diversity of AMF in the roots of two perennial gypsophyte plant species, Herniaria fruticosa and Senecio auricula, and an annual herbaceous species, Bromus rubens, growing in a gypsum soil from a semiarid area. The objective was to determine whether perennial and annual host plants support different AMF communities in their roots and whether there are AMF species that might be indicators of specific functional plant roles in these ecosystems. The roots were analysed by nested PCR, cloning, sequencing of the ribosomal DNA small subunit region and phylogenetic analysis. Twenty AMF sequence types, belonging to the Glomus group A, Glomus group B, Diversisporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, Archaeosporaceae and Paraglomeraceae, were identified. Both gypsophyte perennial species had differing compositions of the AMF community and higher diversity when compared with the annual species, showing preferential selection by specific AMF sequences types. B. rubens did not show host specificity, sharing the full composition of its AMF community with both perennial plant species. Seasonal variations in the competitiveness of AM fungi could explain the observed differences in AMF community composition, but this is still a working hypothesis that requires the analysis of further data obtained from a higher number of both annual and perennial plant species in order to be fully tested.

  9. Remote sensing-based estimation of annual soil respiration at two contrasting forest sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ni; Gu, Lianhong; Black, T. Andrew; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    Soil respiration (Rs), an important component of the global carbon cycle, can be estimated using remotely sensed data, but the accuracy of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we proposed a methodology for the remote estimation of annual Rs at two contrasting FLUXNET forest sites (a deciduous broadleaf forest and an evergreen needleleaf forest). A version of the Akaike's information criterion was used to select the best model from a range of models for annual Rs estimation based on the remotely sensed data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and root-zone soil moisture product derived from assimilation of the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer soil moisture products and a two-layer Palmer water balance model. We found that the Arrhenius-type function based on nighttime land surface temperature (LST-night) was the best model by comprehensively considering the model explanatory power and model complexity at the Missouri Ozark and BC-Campbell River 1949 Douglas-fir sites. In addition, a multicollinearity problem among LST-night, root-zone soil moisture, and plant photosynthesis factor was effectively avoided by selecting the LST-night-driven model. Cross validation showed that temporal variation in Rs was captured by the LST-night-driven model with a mean absolute error below 1 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at both forest sites. An obvious overestimation that occurred in 2005 and 2007 at the Missouri Ozark site reduced the evaluation accuracy of cross validation because of summer drought. However, no significant difference was found between the Arrhenius-type function driven by LST-night and the function considering LST-night and root-zone soil moisture. This finding indicated that the contribution of soil moisture to Rs was relatively small at our multiyear data set. To predict intersite Rs, maximum leaf area index (LAImax) was used as an upscaling factor to calibrate the site-specific reference respiration

  10. Monitoring Mediterranean Annual Grassland Response to the Changing Soil Moisture Using Digital Webcam Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Chadwick, O.; Roberts, D.; Still, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Annual grasses are more sensitive to water availability than other plant functional types since they have shallow root systems. Monitoring the relationship between soil-water availability and grass growth can improve our knowledge of the phenological timing of water needs and physiological activities such as flowering and senescence. Webcams have proven useful in providing fine resolution documentation of seasonal changes in plant morphology. Here we investigated whether digital webcam images could be used to monitor grass response to soil moisture fluctuations in southern California. Specifically, we quantified the relationship between grass greenness derived from digital images and soil water content measured at 20 cm. Three images were collected each day by a standard commercial webcam in the annual grassland in Coal Oil Point reserve and Sedgwick Ranch in Santa Barbara County, California. Red, green, and blue color channel brightness data of the region-of-interest were extracted from image taken at noon beginning on May 20th, 2008. Relative brightness of each color (red %, green %, and blue %) and the normalized difference index [(green %-red %)/(green %+red %)] were calculated based on brightness data. Soil moisture, temperature, vapor pressure, longwave and shortwave radiation were measured every fifteen minutes at both sites, and actual evapotranspiration was calculated using Bowen ratio method. The preliminary results in Coal Oil Point reserve showed that the green % was relatively stable in the summer but began to rise after the first major rain and then declined as soon as it reached the maximum. This pronounced change coincides with the phenological stage of the grasses. The green % was then compared with soil water content at 20 cm, and we found that the decline of green % lagged soil moisture by about 26 days, which implies that senescence rate of grasses is determined by the drying rate of soil moisture. However, before the point when green % started

  11. Ecological life cycle of Chaerophyllum procumbens variety shortii (Apiacheae), a winter annual of the North American dedicuous forest

    Treesearch

    Carol C. Baskin; Tracy S. Hawkins; Jerry M. Baskin

    2004-01-01

    Numerous winter annuals occur in temperate eastern North America. Based on life cycle information and flowering period, the flora of northeastern USA and adjacent Canada described in Gray's Manual of Botany (Fernald 1950) contains 96 winter annuals (C. Baskin unpublished). This list includes native and introduced species in 57 genera and 23 families. The majority...

  12. Soil moisture and fungi affect seed survival in California grassland annual plants.

    PubMed

    Mordecai, Erin A

    2012-01-01

    Survival of seeds in the seed bank is important for the population dynamics of many plant species, yet the environmental factors that control seed survival at a landscape level remain poorly understood. These factors may include soil moisture, vegetation cover, soil type, and soil pathogens. Because many soil fungi respond to moisture and host species, fungi may mediate environmental drivers of seed survival. Here, I measure patterns of seed survival in California annual grassland plants across 15 species in three experiments. First, I surveyed seed survival for eight species at 18 grasslands and coastal sage scrub sites ranging across coastal and inland Santa Barbara County, California. Species differed in seed survival, and soil moisture and geographic location had the strongest influence on survival. Grasslands had higher survival than coastal sage scrub sites for some species. Second, I used a fungicide addition and exotic grass thatch removal experiment in the field to tease apart the relative impact of fungi, thatch, and their interaction in an invaded grassland. Seed survival was lower in the winter (wet season) than in the summer (dry season), but fungicide improved winter survival. Seed survival varied between species but did not depend on thatch. Third, I manipulated water and fungicide in the laboratory to directly examine the relationship between water, fungi, and survival. Seed survival declined from dry to single watered to continuously watered treatments. Fungicide slightly improved seed survival when seeds were watered once but not continually. Together, these experiments demonstrate an important role of soil moisture, potentially mediated by fungal pathogens, in driving seed survival.

  13. Soil Moisture and Fungi Affect Seed Survival in California Grassland Annual Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mordecai, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Survival of seeds in the seed bank is important for the population dynamics of many plant species, yet the environmental factors that control seed survival at a landscape level remain poorly understood. These factors may include soil moisture, vegetation cover, soil type, and soil pathogens. Because many soil fungi respond to moisture and host species, fungi may mediate environmental drivers of seed survival. Here, I measure patterns of seed survival in California annual grassland plants across 15 species in three experiments. First, I surveyed seed survival for eight species at 18 grasslands and coastal sage scrub sites ranging across coastal and inland Santa Barbara County, California. Species differed in seed survival, and soil moisture and geographic location had the strongest influence on survival. Grasslands had higher survival than coastal sage scrub sites for some species. Second, I used a fungicide addition and exotic grass thatch removal experiment in the field to tease apart the relative impact of fungi, thatch, and their interaction in an invaded grassland. Seed survival was lower in the winter (wet season) than in the summer (dry season), but fungicide improved winter survival. Seed survival varied between species but did not depend on thatch. Third, I manipulated water and fungicide in the laboratory to directly examine the relationship between water, fungi, and survival. Seed survival declined from dry to single watered to continuously watered treatments. Fungicide slightly improved seed survival when seeds were watered once but not continually. Together, these experiments demonstrate an important role of soil moisture, potentially mediated by fungal pathogens, in driving seed survival. PMID:22720037

  14. Fernald - As Closure Approaches Changing Public Participation Is Not an Easy (or Popular) Task

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.

    2006-07-01

    Public participation at a closure site evolves. In large part it's driven by the players - neighbors, DOE, contractors, regulators and to some extent, the media. At Fernald, public participation became an integral part of the decision making process in the late 80's. At that time the Department of Energy was really just beginning to understand the extent of environmental contamination caused by 40 years of uranium metal production. Today, as cleanup nears an end (Figure 1), the Fernald Citizens Advisory Board and other key stakeholders stand at a crossroads. The DOE Office of Environmental Management is working with the Office of Legacy Management and its' contractors as they prepare to take over stewardship of the site. DOE is chartering Local Stakeholder Organizations, LSO's, made up of elected officials to serve as the voice of the public. The transition at Fernald will likely be more difficult than at other cleanup sites. Many area stakeholders have 20 years of time committed to this project. For most, Fernald was an emotional subject that effected their community and families. Change is not easy. (authors)

  15. Upscaling of annual mean and dynamics of water table depth in German organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Belting, Susanne; Laggner, Andreas; Leppelt, Thomas; Frahm, Enrico; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    Water table depth is the key parameter controlling the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from organic soils (peatlands and other organic soils). Therefore, a good estimation of the spatial distribution of water table depth is crucial in any upscaling approach for these greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is further the prerequisite to assess the effects of re-wetting measures. There are attempts to obtain maps of water table depth at large scales (e.g. national or continental) by using process-based hydrological model concepts. However, major problem of the process-based approach is the representation of the water management (ditches, tile drains, pumping and weir management), which is at the best known spatially just for the ditch patterns. Thus, this approach is hardly applicable to the diversely-drained and -used organic soils in central Europe. Here, we present an alternative, data-driven approach for upscaling annual mean and dynamics of water table depth in organic soils. Groundwater level data of a unique dataset from about 60 peatlands, 1100 dipwells and around 8000 annual data sets, is the basis of this approach. Time series were used to calculate long-term annual means, average annual amplitudes and ponding durations. In case of continuous observations, shape parameters of the annual frequency distribution of water table depths were calculated. For each well, numerous site characteristics were collected as possible explanatory variables. This collection was restricted to nationally-available data. For each dipwell, land use is taken from official land use maps (German database ATKIS), and the soil type from the national geological map (1:200.000). In case of reliable site information, maps were corrected accordingly. Additionally, from these maps, topological indicators such as the ditch distance and density, the distance to the edge of the peatland and the peatland area within different buffers were calculated. Meteorological data (precipitation, potential

  16. Modeling the variability in annual carbon fluxes related to biological soil crusts in a Mediterranean shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilske, B.; Burgheimer, J.; Maseyk, K.; Karnieli, A.; Zaady, E.; Andreae, M. O.; Yakir, D.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2009-07-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) constitute a spatially prominent part of the photosynthesizing vegetation in many dryland ecosystems. This study assesses the annual net carbon deposition related to BSC growth in a Mediterranean shrubland for the years 2001-2003 using a model developed to account for the nature of hydration in the poikilohydric life trait of the BSC. Data for BSC-related net CO2 fluxes were obtained from in-situ measurements at the International Long-term Ecological Research site Sayeret Shaked (ILTER-SSK) in the northern Negev Desert, Israel. The BSC was smooth to rugose, up to 15 mm thick and consisted mainly of mosses, cyanobacteria and cyano-lichens. In order to obtain annual estimates, BSC-related CO2 fluxes were correlated with climate records provided by the meteorological station of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring Site network (TEMS) adjacent to SSK. The annual carbon deposition related to BSC growth was assessed from (1) an overall mean of net CO2 flux multiplied with annual activity periods of BSC based on precipitation records, and (2) from a simple precipitation-driven activity model (PdAM). This model combines an algorithm, previously developed to model gas exchange processes in vascular plants, with an empirical module that switches the algorithm on as soon as water is available to maintain activity of poikilohydric BSC. Based on a constant BSC area index of 0.6 m2 m-2 at ILTER-SSK, the final model suggests a large inter-annual variability in BSC-related net carbon deposition ranging from 7 to 51 kg ha-1 yr-1.

  17. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

  18. Influence of warming on soil water potential controls seedling mortality in perennial but not annual species in a temperate grassland.

    PubMed

    Hovenden, Mark J; Newton, Paul C D; Wills, Karen E; Janes, Jasmine K; Williams, Amity L; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Nolan, Michaela J

    2008-01-01

    In a water-limited system, the following hypotheses are proposed: warming will increase seedling mortality; elevated atmospheric CO2 will reduce seedling mortality by reducing transpiration, thereby increasing soil water availability; and longevity (i.e. whether a species is annual or perennial) will affect the response of a species to global changes. Here, these three hypotheses are tested by assessing the impact of elevated CO2 (550 micromol mol(-1) and warming (+2 degrees C) on seedling emergence, survivorship and establishment in an Australian temperate grassland from autumn 2004 to autumn 2007. Warming impacts on seedling survivorship were dependent upon species longevity. Warming reduced seedling survivorship of perennials through its effects on soil water potential but the seedling survivorship of annuals was reduced to a greater extent than could be accounted for by treatment effects on soil water potential. Elevated CO2 did not significantly affect seedling survivorship in annuals or perennials. These results show that warming will alter recruitment of perennial species by changing soil water potential but will reduce recruitment of annual species independent of any effects on soil moisture. The results also show that exposure to elevated CO2 does not make seedlings more resistant to dry soils.

  19. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-09-30

    This annual report describes progress in research on the influence of soil fauna on the general process of terrestrial decomposition. The major goal is to investigate the regulation of decomposition by soil arthropods. Methods have included radioactive tracer measurements of food chain dynamics, rates of nutrient or mineral element flow during decomposition, and simulation modeling. This year's report describes significant progress in defining the influence of soil arthropods in stimulating microbial immobilization of nutrients. Preliminary efforts to define the importance of the soil-litter macroarthropods are also reported.

  20. Soil physiochemical changes following 12 years of annual burning in a humid--subtropical tallgrass prairie: a hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brye, Kristofor R.

    2006-11-01

    Burning is known to stimulate growth of grassland vegetation, promote species diversity, and inhibit natural invasion by woody plants. However, the frequency at which grasslands are burned as part of their management can affect soil nutrient content and, ultimately, productivity. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in soil physical and chemical properties in a native tallgrass prairie after 12 years of annual burning. In 1989, five soil samples from the 0 to 10 cm depth were collected along a transect through a 3 ha parcel of native tallgrass prairie in central Arkansas. Soil sampling was repeated in 2001 to assess changes over time. Results showed that soil bulk density, electrical conductivity, extractable P, Na, Fe, and Mn decreased significantly ( P < 0.05), while soil organic matter, total N and C, and the C/N ratio increased significantly ( P < 0.05) within the 12-year period during which annual burning was the only imposed management practice. Mean extractable K, Ca, Mg, S, and Zn levels were all lower in 2001 than in 1989, but differences were not significant, while soil pH did not change. The results of this study indicate that annual export of several essential plant nutrients during prescribed burning of relatively small, remnant prairie fragments exceeds annual imports from atmospheric deposition and/or organic matter mineralization. Annual prescribed burning may be too frequent to maintain optimal ecosystem functioning and productivity. Decreasing the frequency of prescribed burning for native grassland management may help to retain more soil nutrients to sustain a higher level of productivity.

  1. Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil nutrients alter competitive performance of California annual grassland species

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, H.L.; Chapin, F.S. III; Field, C.B.

    1995-06-01

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil nutrients altered interspecific competitive performance of three grassland annuals, all exhibiting the C{sub 3} metabolic pathway. Plantago erecta, an herbaceous dicot dominant in low-fertility serpentine grassland, was the superior interspecific competitor at low soil nutrients. Bromus hordeaceus, an introduced grass dominant in higher fertility sandstone grassland, was the superior interspecific competitor at high soil nutrients. Interspecific competitive ability of Plantago was slightly enhanced under elevated CO{sub 2}, but only at high soil nutrients, whereas interspecific competitive ability of Bromus was stimulated under elevated CO{sub 2} at both low and high soil nutrients. Interspecific competitive ability of Lasthenia californica, another herbaceous dicot common in serpentine grassland, was low in all treatments, and tended to decrease with elevated CO{sub 2} at low soil nutrients. Our results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2} may shift plant species abundance of serpentine grassland in favor of Bromus hordeaceus.

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE), Operable Unit 2, Fernald, Hamilton County, OH, June 8, 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 2 at the U.S. Department of Energy FEMP site in Fernald, Ohio. Operable Unit 2 consists of the Solid Waste Landfill, the North and South Lime Sludge Ponds, the South Field, the Inactive and Active Flyash Piles, and berms, liners, and soils within the Operable Unit 2 boundaries. The selected remedy for Operable unit 2 includes excavation of all material with contaminants of concern above the established cleanup levels, material processing for size reduction and moisture control if required, on-site disposal in an engineered disposal facility with a composite cap and liner system, and off-site disposal of a small fraction of the excavated material that exceeds the waste acceptance criteria of the on-site disposal facility.

  3. A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

    A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

  4. Determination of total and isotopic uranium by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.L.; Bolin, R.N.; Feller, M.T.; Danahy, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    At the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in southwestern Ohio, ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with sample introduction by peristaltic pumping, is used to determine total and isotopic uranium (U-234, U-235, U-236 and U-238) in soil samples. These analyses are conducted in support of the environmental cleanup of the FEMP site. Various aspects of the sample preparation and instrumental analysis will be discussed. Initial sample preparation consists of oven drying to determine moisture content, and grinding and rolling to homogenize the sample. This is followed by a nitric/hydrofluoric acid digestion to bring the uranium in the sample into solution. Bismuth is added to the sample prior to digestion to monitor for losses. The total uranium (U-238) content of this solution and the U{sup 235}/U{sup 238} ratio are measured on the first pass through the ICP-MS. To determine the concentration of the less abundant U{sup 234} and U{sup 236} isotopes, the digestate is further concentrated by using Eichrom TRU-Spec extraction columns before the second pass through the ICP-MS. Quality controls for both the sample preparation and instrumental protocols will also be discussed. Finally, an explanation of the calculations used to report the data in either weight percent or activity units will be given.

  5. Temperature and vegetation effects on soil organic carbon quality along a forested mean annual temperature gradient in North America

    Treesearch

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; Gary M. King; Martin F. Jurgensen; Christopher D. Barton; S. Douglas McDowell

    2008-01-01

    Both climate and plant species are hypothesized to influence soil organic carbon (SOC) quality, but accurate prediction of how SOC process rates respond to global change will require an improved understanding of how SOC quality varies with mean annual temperature (MAT) and forest type. We investigated SOC quality in paired hardwood and pine stands growing in coarse...

  6. Plant-Soil Relationships of the Invasive Annual Grass Taeniatherum caput-meduseae: A reciprocal transplant experiment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The annual grass Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) is highly invasive on rangelands of the western United States. It originates from the Mediterranean basin and was introduced accidentally into North America in the late 1800s. To increase our knowledge of the soil factors that may contribute t...

  7. Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report for Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, Howard S.

    2010-04-10

    This annual report summarizes maintenance, monitoring, and inspection activities performed to implement the selected remedy for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Results from monitoring perched water and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center are also presented.

  8. Radiological release criteria at the Fernald Environmental Management Project theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrter, R.W.

    1995-01-17

    As environmental restoration activities progress at the DOE`s Fernald site, and across the country, large volumes of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) are being generated. Despite the existence of ``free-release`` guidelines from DOE. The strategy of onsite decontamination and release of RSM for unrestricted use has been generally overlooked in recent years. A pilot project was completed at Fernald in which 120 tons of RSM were decontaminated onsite and released for unrestricted use. This paper compares that strategy to more traditional DOE RSM management practices. Many options exist for managing RSM. DOE orders dictate that contractors demonstrate flexibility in utilizing a combination of techniques to optimize the benefits of waste management activates. The FERMCO Recycling Department led an effort to provide their customer with an economical alternative to the traditional approach of burying contaminated metal as LLW, based on established DOE free-release guidelines.

  9. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES&H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES&H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES&H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES&H issues.

  10. Status of decommissioning activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was formally closed and the mission of the facility was officially redirected toward environmental restoration in August 1991. Many of the production facilities and equipment still contained quantities of raw, intermediate, and finished production-related materials. The safe Shutdown program was initiated to remove and properly disposition all nuclear product and in process residue materials, supplies, chemicals, and associated process equipment that was abandoned in place when FEMP stopped production in 1989. As part of the remedial design of the interim remedial action, a schedule for building dismantlement was submitted in June 1995. A 31-year schedule was developed, based on anticipation of reduced funding levels. However, recent cleanup successes at Fernald led to DOE endorsement of greater funding for the final cleanup, accelerating the schedule for Operable Unit 3 dismantlement, reducing the schedule to ten years. Under the accelerated schedule, several plants will be dismantled, starting in 1996.

  11. Calibration method for the reference parameter in Fernald and Klett inversion combining Raman and Elastic return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongzhu; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Chen, Hao

    2017-02-01

    A calibration method is proposed to invert the extinction coefficient for Fernald and Klett inversion by using the particle backscattering coefficient inversed with Raman and Elastic return signals. The calibration method is analyzed theoretically and experimentally, the inversion accuracy can be improved by removing the dependence on reference altitudes and intervals in conventional calibration methods, which resulted from the introduction of backscattering coefficient with relatively higher accuracy obtained by Raman-Mie inversion method. The standard deviation of this new calibration method can be reduced by about 20×, compared to that of the conventional calibration methods of Fernald and Klett inversion. And, the more stable effective inversed range with this new calibration method can be obtained by removing the dimple phenomenon in clouds position.

  12. Statistical analysis of real-time, enviromental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Enviromental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Spitz, H.B.; Tomezak, L.

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses was conducted to determine what impact radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: (1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; (2) the production/administration area; (3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and (4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant barrier was applied to the contents of the silos. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Automated container transportation using self-guided vehicles: Fernald site requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, F.B.

    1993-09-01

    A new opportunity to improve the safety and efficiency of environmental restoration operations, using robotics has emerged from advances in industry, academia, and government labs. Self-Guided Vehicles (SGV`s) have recently been developed in industry and early systems have already demonstrated much, though not all, of the functionality necessary to support driverless transportation of waste within and between processing facilities. Improved materials databases are being developed by at least two DOE remediation sites, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEME) in the State of Ohio and the Hanford Complex in the State of Washington. SGV`s can be developed that take advantage of the information in these databases and yield improved dispatch, waste tracking, report and shipment documentation. In addition, they will reduce the radiation hazard to workers and the risk of damaging containers through accidental collision. In this document, features of remediation sites that dictate the design of both the individual SGV`s and the collective system of SGV`s are presented, through the example of the site requirements at Fernald. Some concepts borrowed from the world of manufacturing are explained and then used to develop an integrated, holistic view of the remediation site as a pseudo-factory. Transportation methods at Fernald and anticipated growth in transport demand are analyzed. The new site-wide database under development at Fernald is presented so that advantageous and synergistic links between SGV`s and information systems can be analyzed. Details of the SGV development proposed are submitted, and some results of a recently completed state of the art survey for SGV use in this application are also presented.

  14. An integrated building demolition and waste planning model for the Fernald Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hampshire, L.H.; Clark, T.R.; Frost, M.L.; Reising, J.W.

    1995-04-01

    The Fernald DOE site will begin full-scale remediation of buildings under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) during the 1995 fiscal year pursuant to a signed Record of Decision. This effort is currently estimated to cost $350 million and span a minimum duration of 8 years, if funding is not a constraint. The identification of the most viable sequence and schedule for the effort involved the development of an integrated planning model and the commissioning of a sitewide planning team. The resulting work product represents the best combination of assumptions and calculations possible at this time and provides information necessary for compliance with the CERCLA Remedial Design documentation requirements for the over 230 component structures governed by the decision. Sequence and integrated schedule development for the decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) of Fernald structures has involved evaluation of current and future utilization of structures, availability of waste storage and staging space, the needs and impacts of other on-going Fernald projects, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) waste management and remediation projects, the layout of site utilities, site hydrology, and the potential sizing, location, and construction rates for an on-property disposal cell.

  15. Exploring technical and cultural appeals in strategic risk communication: the Fernald radium case.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jennifer Duffield

    2003-04-01

    Risk disputes are often characterized by tensions between technical and cultural understandings of risk and by communication practices that reflect those differing perspectives. This study considers how participants in risk debates draw upon and combine aspects of technical and cultural rationality as broad orientations to risk in expressing their views and formulating persuasive appeals during risk debates. Rhetorical theorist Kenneth Burke's (1984) concept of frames of acceptance is used to analyze a case study involving competing priorities for radium stored at the Fernald site, a former Department of Energy nuclear weapons facility. A rhetorical analysis is conducted using the transcript from a 1995 public meeting during which local residents and a nuclear medicine expert discussed priorities of Fernald site cleanup versus providing radium stored on site for promising cancer research. Two tensions are identified that fostered disagreement among discussants: the first a tension between a local or global context for the controversy and the second a tension between competing definitions of public participation for this issue. This study analyzes the rhetorical strategies by which participants in the Fernald radium debate articulated these tensions and argues that technical and cultural rationality (Plough & Krimsky, 1987) acted as sources of rhetorical invention influencing participants' individual frames of acceptance and the ways they defined and interpreted the situation and crafted persuasive appeals.

  16. Linking annual N2O emission in organic soils to mineral nitrogen input as estimated by heterotrophic respiration and soil C/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhijian; Huang, Aiying; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2014-01-01

    Organic soils are an important source of N2O, but global estimates of these fluxes remain uncertain because measurements are sparse. We tested the hypothesis that N2O fluxes can be predicted from estimates of mineral nitrogen input, calculated from readily-available measurements of CO2 flux and soil C/N ratio. From studies of organic soils throughout the world, we compiled a data set of annual CO2 and N2O fluxes which were measured concurrently. The input of soil mineral nitrogen in these studies was estimated from applied fertilizer nitrogen and organic nitrogen mineralization. The latter was calculated by dividing the rate of soil heterotrophic respiration by soil C/N ratio. This index of mineral nitrogen input explained up to 69% of the overall variability of N2O fluxes, whereas CO2 flux or soil C/N ratio alone explained only 49% and 36% of the variability, respectively. Including water table level in the model, along with mineral nitrogen input, further improved the model with the explanatory proportion of variability in N2O flux increasing to 75%. Unlike grassland or cropland soils, forest soils were evidently nitrogen-limited, so water table level had no significant effect on N2O flux. Our proposed approach, which uses the product of soil-derived CO2 flux and the inverse of soil C/N ratio as a proxy for nitrogen mineralization, shows promise for estimating regional or global N2O fluxes from organic soils, although some further enhancements may be warranted.

  17. Overestimation of soil CO2 fluxes from closed chamber measurements at low atmospheric turbulence biases the diurnal pattern and the annual soil respiration budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braendholt, Andreas; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Ibrom, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Precise quantification of the diurnal and seasonal variation of soil respiration (Rs) is crucial to correctly estimate annual soil carbon fluxes as well as to correctly interpret the response of Rs to biotic and abiotic factors on different time scale. In this study we found a systematic effect of low atmospheric turbulence on continuous hourly Rs measurements with closed chambers throughout one year in a temperate Danish beech forest. Using friction velocity (u⋆) measured at the site above the canopy, we filtered out chamber flux data measured at low atmospheric turbulence. The non-filtered data showed a clear diurnal pattern of Rs across all seasons with highest fluxes during night time suggesting an implausible negative temperature sensitivity of Rs. When filtering out data at low turbulence, the annually averaged diurnal pattern changed, such that the highest Rs fluxes were seen during day time, i.e. following the course of soil temperatures. This effect on the diurnal pattern was due to low turbulence primarily occurring during night time. We calculated different annual Rs budgets by filtering out fluxes for different levels of u⋆. The highest annual Rs budget was found when including all data and it decreased with an increasing u⋆ filter threshold. Our results show that Rs was overestimated at low atmospheric turbulence throughout the year and that this overestimation considerably biased the diurnal pattern of Rs and led to an overestimation of the annual Rs budget. Thus we recommend that that any analysis of the diurnal pattern of Rs must consider overestimation of Rs at low atmospheric turbulence, to yield unbiased diurnal patterns. This is crucial when investigating temperature responses and potential links between CO2 production and Rs on a short time scale, but also for correct estimation of annual Rs budgets. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by the free Danish Ministry for Research, Innovation and higher Education, the free Danish Research

  18. Community Surveys: Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    C. K. Mertz; James Flynn; Donald G. MacGregor; Theresa Satterfield; Stephen M. Johnson; Seth Tuler; Thomas Webler

    2002-10-16

    This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones in Arvada and from 99% of the potential telephones in Westminster. Surveying started on August 10, 2001 and finished on September 25, 2001. A total of 401 completed interviews were obtained with a CASRO response rate of 32.5%. The average length of an interview was 15.7 minutes. Overall, respondents hold favorable views of science. They indicate an interest in developments in science and technology, feel that the world is better off because of science, and that science makes our lives healthier, easier, and more comfortable. However, respondents are divided on whether science should decide what is safe or not safe for themselves and their families. The majority of the respondents think that standards for exposure to radiation should be based on what science knows about health effects of radiation and on what is possible with today's technology. Although few respondents had visited the sites, most had heard or read something about Fernald or Rocky Flat s in the

  19. Modeling the annual soil erosion rate in the mouth of river Pineios' sub-basin in Thessaly County, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilia, Ioanna; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas

    2015-04-01

    Erosion is a natural - geomorphological phenomenon, active through geological time that is considered as one of the main agents that forms the earth surface. Soil erosion models estimate the rates of soil erosion and provide useful information and guidance for the development of appropriate intervention and soil conservation practices and strategies. A significant number of soil erosion models can be found in literature; however, the most extensively applied model is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) established in 1997 by Renard KG, Foster GR, Weesies GA, McCool DK and Yoder DC. RUSLE is an empirically based model that enables the estimation of the average annual rate of soil erosion for an area of interest providing several alternative scenarios involving cropping systems, management methods and erosion control strategies. According to RUSLE model's specifications five major factors (rainfall pattern, soil type, topography, crop system, and management practices) are utilized for estimating the average annual erosion through the following equation: A=RxKxLxSxCxP, PIC where A is the computed spatial average soil loss and temporal average soil loss per unit area (tons ha-1 year-1), R the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (MJ mm ha-1h-1 year-1), K the soil erodibility factor (tons h MJ-1 mm-1), L the slope - length factor, S the slope steepness factor, C the cover management factor and P the conservation support practice factor. L, S, C and P factors are all dimensionless. The present study aims to utilize a GIS-based RUSLE model in order to estimate the average annual soil loss rate in the sub-basin extending at the mouth of Pineios river in Thessaly County, Greece. The area covers approximate 775.9 km2 with a mean slope angle of 7.8o. The rainfall data of 39 gauge station from 1980 to 2000 where used in order to predict the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (R). The K-factor was estimated using soil maps available from the European Soil Portal with a

  20. Ensuring comparability of data generated by multiple analytical laboratories for environmental decision making at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, C.; Campbell, B.A.; Danahy, R.J.; Dugan, T.A.; Tomlinson, F.K.

    1994-09-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility located 17 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. From 1952 until 1989, the Fernald site provided high-purity uranium metal products to support US defense programs. In 1989 the mission of Fernald changed from one of uranium production to one of environmental restoration. At Fernald, multiple functional programs require analytical data. Inorganic and organic data for these programs are currently generated by seven laboratories, while radiochemical data are being obtained from six laboratories. Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) programs have been established to help ensure comparability of data generated by multiple laboratories at different times. The quality assurance program for organic and inorganic measurements specifies which analytical methodologies and sample preparation procedures are to be used based on analyte class, sample matrix, and data quality requirements. In contrast, performance specifications have been established for radiochemical analyses. A blind performance evaluation program for all laboratories, both on-site and subcontracted commercial laboratories, provides continuous feedback on data quality. The necessity for subcontractor laboratories to participate in the performance evaluation program is a contractual requirement. Similarly, subcontract laboratories are contractually required to generate data which meet radiochemical performance specifications. The Fernald on-site laboratory must also fulfill these requirements.

  1. Pastures to Prairies to Pools: An Update on Natural Resource Damages Settlement Projects at the Fernald Preserve - 13198

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Schneider, Tom; Hertel, Bill; Homer, John

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management oversees implementation and monitoring of two ecological restoration projects at the Fernald Preserve, Fernald, Ohio, that are funded through a CERCLA natural resource damage settlement. Planning and implementation of on-property ecological restoration projects is one component of compensation for natural resource injury. The Paddys Run Tributary Project involves creation of vernal pool wetland habitat with adjacent forest restoration. The Triangle Area Project is a mesic tall-grass prairie establishment, similar to other efforts at the Fernald Preserve. The goal of the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees is to establish habitat for Ambystomatid salamander species, as well as grassland birds. Field implementation of these projects was completed in May 2012. Herbaceous cover and woody vegetation survival was determined in August and September 2012. Results show successful establishment of native vegetation. Additional monitoring will be needed to determine whether project goals have been met. As with the rest of the Fernald Preserve, ecological restoration has helped turn a DOE liability into a community asset. (authors)

  2. Annual and seasonal variability of metals and metalloids in urban and industrial soils in Alcalá de Henares (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Peña-Fernández, A.; Lobo-Bedmar, M.C.; González-Muñoz, M.J.

    2015-01-15

    Contamination of urban and industrial soils with trace metals has been recognized as a major concern at local, regional and global levels due to their implication on human health. In this study, concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were determined in soil samples collected in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain) in order to evaluate the annual and seasonal variation in their levels. The results show that the soils of the industrial area have higher metals concentrations than the urban area. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the two principal sources of trace metal contamination, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the urban soils of Alcalá can be attributed to traffic emissions, while As, Ni and Be primarily originated from industrial discharges. The seasonal variation analysis has revealed that the emission sources in the industrial area remain constant with time. However, in urban areas, both emissions and emission pathways significantly increase over time due to ongoing development. Currently, there is no hypothesis that explains the small seasonal fluctuations of trace metals in soils, since there are many factors affecting this. Owing to the fact that urban environments are becoming the human habitat, it would therefore be advisable to monitor metals and metalloids in urban soils because of the potential risks to human health. - Highlights: • Anthropogenic activities may affect the seasonal metal variation in Alcalá's soils. • Weather characteristics may also influence the seasonal metal variation in soils. • Alcalá's continual urban growth may have increased the levels of metals in its soils. • Metal variability in Alcalá's industrial soils might be dependent on their sources. • High soil metal content might make it difficult to identify temporal variation.

  3. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extensive use of sustainable and intensive agricultural systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable crop and soil management systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil managem...

  4. Uranium removal from soils: An overview from the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Brainard, J.R.; York, D.A.; Chaiko, D.J.; Matthern, G.

    1994-09-01

    An integrated approach to remove uranium from uranium-contaminated soils is being conducted by four of the US Department of Energy national laboratories. In this approach, managed through the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, these laboratories are developing processes that selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste that is difficult to manage or dispose of. These processes include traditional uranium extractions that use carbonate as well as some nontraditional extraction techniques that use citric acid and complex organic chelating agents such as naturally occurring microbial siderophores. A bench-scale engineering design for heap leaching; a process that uses carbonate leaching media shows that >90% of the uranium can be removed from the Fernald soils. Other work involves amending soils with cultures of sulfur and ferrous oxidizing microbes or cultures of fungi whose role is to generate mycorrhiza that excrete strong complexers for uranium. Aqueous biphasic extraction, a physical separation technology, is also being evaluated because of its ability to segregate fine particulate, a fundamental requirement for soils containing high levels of silt and clay. Interactions among participating scientists have produced some significant progress not only in evaluating the feasibility of uranium removal but also in understanding some important technical aspects of the task.

  5. The Effects of Nitrogen Enrichment and a Simulated Rainfall Event on Soil Carbon Dioxide Efflux in an Annual California Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. P.; Strong, A. L.; Chiariello, N.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Soils contain the largest pool of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies have shown that enhanced precipitation (projected by climate models) and human activities (such as increased fertilizer use) may alter this cycle by enhancing soil microbial activity, although effects are often variable. Soils in semi-arid grasslands play a vital role in the global carbon cycle and may be responsive to environmental perturbations. Previous studies have demonstrated that wet-up treatments positively influence soil carbon dioxide efflux rates, which are otherwise low during dry summers. A preliminary study performed in a semi-arid annual grassland has shown that long-term nitrogen enrichment (equivalent to 70kg N per hectare) positively influences soil carbon dioxide efflux during peak biomass in the wet season. However, the combined effect and seasonal dynamics of these environmental changes is poorly understood. In order to assess this interaction, we explore the short-term response of soil carbon dioxide efflux rates in a semi-arid grassland to a combination of long-term nitrogen enrichment and a simulated 20-mm rainfall event in the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRCGE), a long-term, multi-factorial experiment in a semi-arid annual grassland located in the foothills of the Santa Cruz mountains in central California. We measured soil carbon dioxide efflux rates from pre-installed soil respiration collars for forty-eight hours after a simulated rainfall event (20mm) during the dry season in late July 2013. Both the enhanced and non-enhanced nitrogen treatments had an immediate pronounced response to the wet-up stimulation in which efflux rates increased by an average of more than six-fold. In contrast with previous studies of soil carbon dioxide efflux at JRGCE during the wet season in which N enrichment elevated efflux rates relative to controls, however, the soil carbon dioxide efflux rates in response

  6. Estimated Annual Net Change in Soil Carbon per US County, 1990-2004

    DOE Data Explorer

    West, Tristram O.; Brandt, Craig C.; Wilson, Bradly S.; Hellwinckel, Chap M.; Tyler, Donald D.; Marland, Gregg; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel D.; Larson, James A.; Nelson, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    These data represent the estimated net change (Megagram per year) in soil carbon due to changes in the crop type and tillage intensity. Estimated accumulation of soil carbon under Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)lands is included in these estimates. Negative values represent a net flux from the atmosphere to the soil; positive values represent a net flux from the soil to the atmosphere. As such, soil carbon sequestration is represented here as a negative value.

  7. Soil C:N ratio as a predictor of annual riverine DOC flux at local and global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitkenhead, J. A.; McDowell, W. H.

    2000-03-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is important in a wide variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes in surface waters. We examined the relationship between DOC flux and soil C:N ratio on a biome basis. DOC fluxes for 164 rivers were subdivided into 15 biome types including tropical rain forest, coniferous forests, peatland, deciduous forests, mixed forests, and grasslands. A database of soil C:N ratios was constructed and subdivided into biome types. At a global scale, mean soil C:N ratio of a biome accounts for 99.2% of the variance in annual riverine DOC flux among biomes. The relationship between soil C:N ratio and DOC flux at the biome scale was used to predict annual riverine DOC flux at the watershed scale for three test watersheds not included in the original model. Predicted flux of each watershed was within 4.5% of the actual DOC flux. Using the C:N model, we estimated the total export of carbon from land to the oceans to be 3.6×1014 g yr-1. This empirical model should be useful in predicting changes in DOC flux under changing climatic conditions.

  8. Effects of simulated acid rain on nutrient uptake in annual rye grass grown in surface mine soil

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A.; Aharrah, E.C.

    1984-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on the growth, along with the Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations found in a common revegetation species, annual rye grass, Lolium multiflorum Lam. Annual rye grass seeds were planted in two sets of pots. One set was filled with potting soil and the other with surface mine soil. Both sets were divided into three groups, each receiving applications of simulated acid rain of either pH 5.7, 4.0, or 3.0. After five weeks of growth, grasses from each pot were harvested. Dry weight, root length, leaf blade length, plant number, and concentrations of Al, Mn, and Fe were determined for each sample. There was an observable decrease in plant growth and number as the pH decreased. Seed germination ranged from six to ten days longer in pots receiving waterings of pH 3.0 compared to those with a pH of 5.7. The concentrations of Al and Fe increased in the plants between treatments 4.0 and 3.0. Mn concentrations were unaffected by pH. Plants grown in mine soil produced less biomass and showed an increase in Al, Mn, and Fe content as compared to those plants grown in potting soil.

  9. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Porco, D.J.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1994-01-14

    This presentation will describe the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation`s (FERMCO) Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RlDs) Program, the unique process used to implement it, and the status of the program. We will also discuss the lessons learned as the program was implemented. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Fernald site to produce uranium metals for the nation`s defense programs in 1953. In 1989, DOE suspended production and, in 1991, the mission of the site was formally changed to one of environmental cleanup and restoration. The site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO`s mission is to provide safe, early, and least-cost final clean-up of the site in compliance with all regulations and commitments. DOE has managed nuclear facilities primarily through its oversight of Management and Operating contractors. Comprehensive nuclear industry standards were absent when most DOE sites were first established, Management and Operating contractors had to apply existing non-nuclear industry standards and, in many cases, formulate new technical standards. Because it was satisfied with the operation of its facilities, DOE did not incorporate modern practices and standards as they became available. In March 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 90-2, which called for DOE to identify relevant standards and requirements, conduct adequacy assessments of requirements in protecting environmental, public, and worker health and safety, and determine the extent to which the requirements are being implemented. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of DOE embraced the recommendation for facilities under its control. Strict accountability requirements made it essential that FERMCO and DOE clearly identify applicable requirements necessary, determine the requirements` adequacy, and assess FERMCO`s level of compliance.

  10. Annual and seasonal variability of metals and metalloids in urban and industrial soils in Alcalá de Henares (Spain).

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; Lobo-Bedmar, M C; González-Muñoz, M J

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of urban and industrial soils with trace metals has been recognized as a major concern at local, regional and global levels due to their implication on human health. In this study, concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were determined in soil samples collected in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain) in order to evaluate the annual and seasonal variation in their levels. The results show that the soils of the industrial area have higher metals concentrations than the urban area. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the two principal sources of trace metal contamination, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the urban soils of Alcalá can be attributed to traffic emissions, while As, Ni and Be primarily originated from industrial discharges. The seasonal variation analysis has revealed that the emission sources in the industrial area remain constant with time. However, in urban areas, both emissions and emission pathways significantly increase over time due to ongoing development. Currently, there is no hypothesis that explains the small seasonal fluctuations of trace metals in soils, since there are many factors affecting this. Owing to the fact that urban environments are becoming the human habitat, it would therefore be advisable to monitor metals and metalloids in urban soils because of the potential risks to human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Annual grass invasion in sagebrush-steppe: The relative importance of climate, soil properties and biotic interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bansal, Sheel; Sheley, Roger L.

    2016-01-01

    The invasion by winter-annual grasses (AGs) such as Bromus tectorum into sagebrush steppe throughout the western USA is a classic example of a biological invasion with multiple, interacting climate, soil and biotic factors driving the invasion, although few studies have examined all components together. Across a 6000-km2 area of the northern Great Basin, we conducted a field assessment of 100 climate, soil, and biotic (functional group abundances, diversity) factors at each of 90 sites that spanned an invasion gradient ranging from 0 to 100 % AG cover. We first determined which biotic and abiotic factors had the strongest correlative relationships with AGs and each resident functional group. We then used regression and structural equation modeling to explore how multiple ecological factors interact to influence AG abundance. Among biotic interactions, we observed negative relationships between AGs and biodiversity, perennial grass cover, resident species richness, biological soil crust cover and shrub density, whereas perennial and annual forb cover, tree cover and soil microbial biomass had no direct linkage to AG. Among abiotic factors, AG cover was strongly related to climate (increasing cover with increasing temperature and aridity), but had weak relationships with soil factors. Our structural equation model showed negative effects of perennial grasses and biodiversity on AG cover while integrating the negative effects of warmer climate and positive influence of belowground processes on resident functional groups. Our findings illustrate the relative importance of biotic interactions and climate on invasive abundance, while soil properties appear to have stronger relationships with resident biota than with invasives.

  12. Chemical, physical, and biological controls on the spatial heterogeneity of annual soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, D. L.; Inamdar, S. P.; Vargas, R.

    2016-12-01

    Soils play a major role in global CO2 and CH4 fluxes. However, the magnitudes of these fluxes vary widely in space and time due to the inherent heterogeneity of the underlying chemical, physical, and biological environmental controlling factors of these fluxes. Understanding the relationships between these controlling factors and the resulting CO2 and CH4 fluxes is critical for identifying potential climate change feedbacks in soils. We examined an array of chemical (organic matter content and quality), physical (soil texture, water content, and bulk density), and biological (fungal, bacterial, and methanogen/troph functional gene ratios) controlling factors on soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes over the course of one year in a topographically complex forested catchment. Cumulative annual CO2 and CH4 fluxes ranged from 18.0 to 79.3 mol CO2 m-2 y-1 and -42 to 15 mmol CH4 m-2 y-1 across 20 sites within the 12 ha study area. Annual fluxes of both gases were significantly different across valley-bottom wetlands, transition zones, and uplands. Additionally, both CO2 efflux and CH4 uptake were negatively correlated to bulk density, and were significantly related to optical characteristics of pore water and water-extractable SOM. Soil water content was closely related to fluxes of both gases and many of the other controlling factors. This study provides insights into the many influential controlling factors on soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes, highlighting the complex interactions of topography, hydrology, and the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems.

  13. Generation and mobility of radon in soil: Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    This research program is designed to evaluate the extent and nature of uranium and radium depletion and/or enrichment in soil horizons, as a function of climate and other factors affecting soil character; evaluate the relation of radon emanation coefficient to soil type, soil properties, soil-forming factors and radon levels in soil gas; and evaluate the relation of fragipans, soil mixture and soil permeability to radon concentration and radon flux in soil profiles. During the first year of this project, five soil profiles in central Pennsylvania (3 over limestone/dolomite, 2 over sandstone) were sampled and described and a variety of analysis, including radium and uranium, conducted on the samples, as summarized on table 1. The radon content of soil gas through the profiles was measured at approximately two week intervals throughout the year, so that we now have essentially a year of data. Cores were collected from four soil profiles at a variety of depths and the permeability, diffusion coefficient and emanation coefficient are being measured over a range of moisture contents and temperatures. Selective chemical extractions were used to determine the form of radium and uranium in the soil. 7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Invasion of a semi-arid shrubland by annual grasses increases autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration rates due to altered soil moisture and temperature patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritz, M.; Hale, I.; Lipson, D.

    2010-12-01

    Shrub <-> grassland conversions are a globally occurring phenomenon altering habitat structure, quality and nutrient cycling. Grasses and shrubs differ in their above and belowground biomass allocation, root architecture, phenology, litter quality and quantity. Conversion affects soil microbial communities, soil moisture and temperature and carbon (C) allocation patterns. However, the effect of conversion on C storage is regionally variable and there is no consistent direction of change. In Southern California invasion by annual grasses is a major threat to native shrub communities and it has been proposed that grass invasion increases NPP and ecosystem C storage (Wolkovich et al, 2009). In order to better understand how this shrub <-> grassland conversion changes ecosystem C storage it is important to understand the partitioning of soil respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Respiration was measured in plots under shrubs and grasses from February when it was cold and wet to July when it was hot and dry, capturing seasonal transitions in temperature and water availability. Roots were excluded under shrubs and grasses with root exclusion cores to quantify heterotrophic respiration. Using total soil respiration (Rt) = autotrophic respiration (root) (Ra)+ heterotrophic respiration (microbial) (Rh) the components contributing to total soil respiration can be evaluated. Respiration, soil moisture and temperature were measured daily at four hour intervals using Licor 8100 automated chamber measurements. Throughout the measurement period, Rt under grasses exceeded Rt under shrubs. Higher Rt levels under grasses were mainly due to higher Ra in grasses rather than changes in Rh. On average grass Ra was almost double shrub Ra. Higher grass respiration levels are partially explained by differences in soil moisture and temperature between shrubs and grasses. Respiration rates responded similarly to seasonal transitions regardless of treatment although Ra

  15. Soils conditioned by native vegetation and by the exotic invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum: do a native perennial and two exotic grasses sense the substrates similarly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasion by the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum often increases soil nutrient availability. It is unclear, however, if other grasses benefit from this higher nutrient status. Soil from three sites in the northern Great Basin U.S.A. conditioned by B. tectoruminvasion (BTCS=B. tectorum conditioned...

  16. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report and incremental funding request

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1984-09-26

    Relationships have been investigated between soil fauna, soil microbes and the decomposition process. Progress is reported in measuring the stimulatory effect of soil arthropod activities upon microbial immobilization of nutrient elements and other elements, and in evaluating the effects of arthropod feeding upon decomposition rates of unconfined leaf litter. (ACR)

  17. Aerial and soil seed banks enable populations of an annual species to cope with an unpredictable dune ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Xuejun; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Huang, Zhenying; Walck, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Simultaneous formation of aerial and soil seed banks by a species provides a mechanism for population maintenance in unpredictable environments. Eolian activity greatly affects growth and regeneration of plants in a sand dune system, but we know little about the difference in the contributions of these two seed banks to population dynamics in sand dunes. Methods Seed release, germination, seedling emergence and survival of a desert annual, Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), inhabiting the Ordos Sandland in China, were determined in order to explore the different functions of the aerial and soil seed banks. Key Results The size of the aerial seed bank was higher than that of the soil seed bank throughout the growing season. Seed release was positively related to wind velocity. Compared with the soil seed bank, seed germination from the aerial seed bank was lower at low temperature (5/15 °C night/day) but higher in the light. Seedling emergence from the soil seed bank was earlier than that from the aerial seed bank. Early-emerged (15 April–15 May) seedlings died due to frost, but seedlings that emerged during the following months survived to reproduce successfully. Conclusions The timing of seed release and different germination behaviour resulted in a temporal heterogeneity of seedling emergence and establishment between the two seed banks. The study suggests that a bet-hedging strategy for the two seed banks enables A. squarrosum populations to cope successfully with the unpredictable desert environment. PMID:24918206

  18. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Rowe, M.D.; Sun, C.; Anspaugh, L.; Layton, D.

    1993-03-01

    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated.

  19. Vitrification of Simulated Fernald K-65 Silo Waste at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1998-07-07

    Vitrification is the technology that has been chosen to solidify approximately 18,000 tons of geologic mill tailings, designated as K-65 wastes, at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. The glass formula developed in this study for the FEMP wastes is a lithia substituted soda-lime-lithia-silica (SLLS) composition which melts at 1050 degrees Celsius. Low melting formulations minimize volatilization of hazardous species such as arsenic, selenium, chromium, and lead during vitrification. Formulation in the SLLS system avoids problematic phase separation known to occur in the MO-B2O3-SiO2 glass forming system (where MO = CaO, MgO, BaO, and PbO which are all constituents of the FEMP wastes). The SLLS glass passed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) for all the hazardous constituents of concern under the current regulations. The SLLS glass is as durable as the high melting soda-lime-silica glasses and is more durable than the borosilicate glasses previously developed for the K-65 wastes. Optimization of glass formulations in the SLLS glass forming system should provide glasses which will pass the newly promulgated Universal Treatment Standards which take effect of August 28, 1998.

  20. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C. ); Selleck, C.B. ); Jacoboski, D.L. )

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness.

  1. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C.; Selleck, C.B.; Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics & Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness.

  2. Occurrence of Schoenoplectus mucronatus at the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Preserve

    SciTech Connect

    Homer, John; Decker, Ashlee; Bien, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Bog bulrush (Schoenoplectus mucronatus) is a perennial wetland species native to Africa, Asia, and Europe. Its documented occurrence in the United States includes California, Hawaii, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Tennessee. This species spreads through seed, rhizomes, and stolons, and has shown resistance to certain herbicides. Online plant databases do not show the distribution of the species reaching into Ohio or Indiana; however, local experts have indicated that specimens are in both states. Various reports indicate that S. mucronatus is locally abundant but not yet widespread regionally. In recent years, S. mucronatus has become increasingly abundant at the Fernald Preserve, a U.S. Department of Energy site in northwest Hamilton County, Ohio. The 425- hectare (1,050-acre) site has undergone extensive remediation and subsequent ecological restoration, and various wetlands have been constructed across the site. S. mucronatus was first observed at the Fernald Preserve in 2008, in one constructed basin. During monitoring in 2009, S. mucronatus was seen in 8 of 23 basins surveyed. This increase has raised concern that the species may become a regional problem. This poster aims to alert botanists and ecological restoration personnel of the species’ regional occurrence, and prompt discussion of its potential impacts and how it can be controlled.

  3. Mixed wastes management at Fernald: Making it happen quickly, economically and compliantly

    SciTech Connect

    Witzeman, J.T.; Rast, D.M.

    1996-02-09

    At the end of calender year 1992, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) had approximately 12,500 drums of mixed low-level waste in storage and the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) had just begun to develop an aggressive project based program to treat and dispose of this mixed waste. By 1996 the FERMCO mixed waste management program had reduced the aforementioned 12,500 drums of waste once in inventory to approximately 5800 drums. Projects are currently in progress to completely eliminate the FEMP inventory of mixed waste. As a result of these initiatives and aggressive project management, the FEMP has become a model for mixed waste handling, treatment and disposal for DOE facilities. Mixed waste management has traditionally been viewed as a singular and complex environmental problem. FERMCO has adopted the viewpoint that treatment and disposal of mixed waste is an engineering project, to be executed in a disciplined fashion with timely and economic results. This approach allows the larger mixed waste management problem to be divided into manageable fractions and managed by project. Each project is managed by problem solving experts, project managers, in lieu of environmental experts. In the project approach, environmental regulations become project requirements for individual resolution, as opposed to what had formerly been viewed as technically unachievable environmental standards.

  4. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Rowe, M.D.; Sun, C. ); Anspaugh, L.; Layton, D. )

    1993-03-01

    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated.

  5. Progress report on decommissioning activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), is located about 18 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. Between 1953 and 1989, the facility, then called the Feed Material Production Center or FMPC, produced uranium metal products used in the eventual production of weapons grade material for use by other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In 1989, FMPC`s production was suspended by the federal government in order to focus resources on environmental restoration versus defense production. In 1992, Fluor Daniel Fernald assumed responsibility for managing all cleanup activities at the FEMP under contract to the DOE. In 1990, as part of the remediation effort, the site was divided into five operable units based on physical proximity of contaminated areas, similar amounts of types of contamination, or the potential for a similar technology to be used in cleanup activities. This report continues the outline of the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities at the FEMP site Operable Unit 3 (OU3) and provides an update on the status of the decommissioning activities. OU3, the Facilities Closure and Demolition Project, involves the remediation of more than 200 uranium processing facilities. The mission of the project is to remove nuclear materials stored in these buildings, then perform the clean out of the buildings and equipment, and decontaminate and dismantle the facilities.

  6. A vadose zone Transport Processes Investigation within the glacial till at the Fernald Environmental Management Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwing, J.; Roepke, Craig Senninger; Brainard, James Robert; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Mann, Michael J. A.; Holt, Robert M.; Kriel, Kelly

    2007-08-01

    This report describes a model Transport Processes Investigation (TPI) where field-scale vadose zone flow and transport processes are identified and verified through a systematic field investigation at a contaminated DOE site. The objective of the TPI is to help with formulating accurate conceptual models and aid in implementing rational and cost effective site specific characterization strategies at contaminated sites with diverse hydrogeologic settings. Central to the TPI are Transport Processes Characterization (TPC) tests that incorporate field surveys and large-scale infiltration experiments. Hypotheses are formulated based on observed pedogenic and hydrogeologic features as well as information provided by literature searches. The field and literature information is then used to optimize the design of one or more infiltration experiments to field test the hypothesis. Findings from the field surveys and infiltration experiments are then synthesized to formulate accurate flow and transport conceptual models. Here we document a TPI implemented in the glacial till vadose zone at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio, a US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing site. As a result of this TPI, the flow and transport mechanisms were identified through visualization of dye stain within extensive macro pore and fracture networks which provided the means for the infiltrate to bypass potential aquatards. Such mechanisms are not addressed in current vadose zone modeling and are generally missed by classical characterization methods.

  7. Groundwater Treatment at the Fernald Preserve: Status and Path Forward for the Water Treatment Facility - 12320

    SciTech Connect

    Powel, J.; Hertel, B.; Glassmeyer, C.; Broberg, K.

    2012-07-01

    Operating a water treatment facility at the Fernald Preserve in Cincinnati, Ohio-to support groundwater remediation and other wastewater treatment needs-has become increasingly unnecessary. The Fernald Preserve became a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) site in November 2006, once most of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental remediation and site restoration had been completed. Groundwater remediation is anticipated to continue beyond 2020. A portion of the wastewater treatment facility that operated during the CERCLA cleanup continued to operate after the site was transferred to LM, to support the remaining groundwater remediation effort. The treatment facility handles the site's remaining water treatment needs (for groundwater, storm water, and wastewater) as necessary, to ensure that uranium discharge limits specified in the Operable Unit 5 Record of Decision are met. As anticipated, the need to treat groundwater to meet uranium discharge limits has greatly diminished over the last several years. Data indicate that the groundwater treatment facility is no longer needed to support the ongoing aquifer remediation effort. (authors)

  8. Quantitative Relationship of Soil Texture with the Observed Population Density Reduction of Heterodera glycines after Annual Corn Rotation in Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Hernández, Oscar; Giesler, Loren J.

    2014-01-01

    Soil texture has been commonly associated with the population density of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode: SCN), but such an association has been mainly described in terms of textural classes. In this study, multivariate analysis and a generalized linear modeling approach were used to elucidate the quantitative relationship of soil texture with the observed SCN population density reduction after annual corn rotation in Nebraska. Forty-five commercial production fields were sampled in 2009, 2010, and 2011 and SCN population density (eggs/100 cm3 of soil) for each field was determined before (Pi) and after (Pf) annual corn rotation from ten 3 × 3-m sampling grids. Principal components analysis revealed that, compared with silt and clay, sand had a stronger association with SCN Pi and Pf. Cluster analysis using the average linkage method and confirmed through 1,000 bootstrap simulations identified two groups: one corresponding to predominant silt-and-clay fields and other to sand-predominant fields. This grouping suggested that SCN relative percent population decline was higher in the sandy than in the silt-and-clay predominant group. However, when groups were compared for their SCN population density reduction using Pf as the response, Pi as a covariate, and incorporating the year and field variability, a negative binomial generalized linear model indicated that the SCN population density reduction was not statistically different between the sand-predominant field group and the silt-and-clay predominant group. PMID:24987160

  9. De-noising and retrieving algorithm of Mie lidar data based on the particle filter and the Fernald method.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Pan, Zengxin; Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Chen, Shihua; Min, Qilong

    2015-10-05

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an atmospheric lidar decreases rapidly as range increases, so that maintaining high accuracy when retrieving lidar data at the far end is difficult. To avoid this problem, many de-noising algorithms have been developed; in particular, an effective de-noising algorithm has been proposed to simultaneously retrieve lidar data and obtain a de-noised signal by combining the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Fernald method. This algorithm enhances the retrieval accuracy and effective measure range of a lidar based on the Fernald method, but sometimes leads to a shift (bias) in the near range as a result of the over-smoothing caused by the EnKF. This study proposes a new scheme that avoids this phenomenon using a particle filter (PF) instead of the EnKF in the de-noising algorithm. Synthetic experiments show that the PF performs better than the EnKF and Fernald methods. The root mean square error of PF are 52.55% and 38.14% of that of the Fernald and EnKF methods, and PF increases the SNR by 44.36% and 11.57% of that of the Fernald and EnKF methods, respectively. For experiments with real signals, the relative bias of the EnKF is 5.72%, which is reduced to 2.15% by the PF in the near range. Furthermore, the suppression impact on the random noise in the far range is also made significant via the PF. An extensive application of the PF method can be useful in determining the local and global properties of aerosols.

  10. Germination traits explain soil seed persistence across species: the case of Mediterranean annual plants in cereal fields

    PubMed Central

    Saatkamp, Arne; Affre, Laurence; Dutoit, Thierry; Poschlod, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Seed persistence in the soil under field conditions is an important issue for the maintenance of local plant populations and the restoration of plant communities, increasingly so in the light of rapidly changing land use and climate change. Whereas processes important for dispersal in space are well known, knowledge of processes governing dispersal in time is still limited. Data for morphological seed traits such as size have given contradictory results for prediction of soil seed persistence or cover only a few species. There have been few experimental studies on the role of germination traits in determining soil seed persistence, while none has studied their predictive value consistently across species. Delayed germination, as well as light requirements for germination, have been suggested to contribute to the formation of persistent seed banks. Moreover, diurnally fluctuating temperatures can influence the timing of germination and are therefore linked to seed bank persistence. Methods The role of germination speed measured by T50 (days to germination of 50 % of all germinated seeds), light requirement and reaction to diurnally fluctuating temperatures in determining seed persistence in the soil was evaluated using an experimental comparative data set of 25 annual cereal weed species. Key Results It is shown that light requirements and slow germination are important features to maintain seeds ungerminated just after entering the soil, and hence influence survival of seeds in the soil. However, the detection of low diurnally fluctuating temperatures enhances soil seed bank persistence by limiting germination. Our data further suggest that the effect of diurnally fluctuating temperatures, as measured on seeds after dispersal and dry storage, is increasingly important to prevent fatal germination after longer burial periods. Conclusions These results underline the functional role of delayed germination and light for survival of seeds in the soil

  11. Molecular composition of soil organic matter with land-use change along a bi-continental mean annual temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Oliva; Haddix, Michelle L; Conant, Richard T; Paul, Eldor A; Simpson, Myrna J

    2016-12-15

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is critical for maintaining soil fertility and long-term agricultural sustainability. The molecular composition of SOM is likely altered due to global climate and land-use change; but rarely are these two aspects studied in tandem. Here we used molecular-level techniques to examine SOM composition along a bi-continental (from North to South America) mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient from seven native grassland/forest and cultivated/pasture sites. Biomarker methods included solvent extraction, base hydrolysis and cupric (II) oxide oxidation for the analysis of free lipids of plant and microbial origin, ester-bound lipids from cutin and suberin, and lignin-derived phenols, respectively. Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to examine the overall composition of SOM. Soil cultivation was found to increase the amount of microbial-derived compounds at warmer temperatures (up to 17% increase). The cultivated soils were characterized by much lower contributions of plant-derived SOM components compared to the native soils (up to 64% lower at the coldest site). In addition, cultivation caused an increase in lignin and cutin degradation (up to 68 and 15% increase, respectively), and an increase in the amount of suberin-derived inputs (up to 54% increase). Clear differences in the molecular composition of SOM due to soil cultivation were observed in soils of varying mineral composition and were attributed to disturbance, different vegetation inputs, soil aggregate destruction and MAT. A high organic allophanic tropical soil was characterized by its protection of carbohydrates and nitrogen-containing compounds. The conversion of native to cultivated land shows significant shifts in the degradation stage of SOM. In particular, cutin-derived compounds which are believed to be part of the stable SOM pool may undergo enhanced degradation with long-term cultivation and disruption of soil aggregates. On a per year basis, the total

  12. Suppression of annual Bromus tectorum by perennial Agropyon cristatum: roles of soil N availability and biological soil space

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Worldwide, exotic invasive grasses have caused numerous ecosystem perturbations. Rangelands of the western United States have experienced increases in the size and frequency of wildfires largely due to invasion by the annual grass Bromus tectorum. Rehabilitation of invaded rangelands is difficult; b...

  13. Differences in native soil ecology associated with invasion of the exotic annual chenopod, Halgeton glomeratus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Freeman, D. Carl; Emlen, John M.; Belnap, Jayne; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Zak, John C.; Sobek, Edward; Tracy, Mary; Montante, James

    2003-01-01

    Various biotic and abiotic components of soil ecology differed significantly across an area whereHalogeton glomeratus is invading a native winterfat, [ Krascheninnikovia (= Ceratoides) lanata] community. Nutrient levels were significantly different among the native, ecotone, and exotic-derived soils. NO3, P, K, and Na all increased as the cover of halogeton increased. Only Ca was highest in the winterfat area. A principal components analysis, conducted separately for water-soluble and exchangeable cations, revealed clear separation between halogeton- and winterfat-derived soils. The diversity of soil bacteria was highest in the exotic, intermediate in the ecotone, and lowest in the native community. Although further studies are necessary, our results offer evidence that invasion by halogeton alters soil chemistry and soil ecology, possibly creating conditions that favor halogeton over native plants.

  14. Annual cycle of magmatic CO2 in a tree-kill soil at Mammoth Mountain, California: implications for soil acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Time-series sensor data reveal significant short-term and seasonal variations of magmatic CO2 in soil over a 12 month period in 1995-1996 at the largest tree-kill site on Mammoth Mountain, central-eastern California. Short-term variations leading to ground-level soil CO2 concentrations hazardous and lethal to humans were triggered by shallow faulting in the absence of increased seismicity or intrusion, consistent with tapping a reservoir of accumulated CO2, rather than direct magma degassing. Hydrologic processes closely modulated seasonal variations in CO2 concentrations, which rose to 65%-100% in soil gas under winter snowpack and plunged more than 25% in just days as the CO2 dissolved in spring snowmelt. The high efflux of CO2 through the tree-kill soils acts as an open-system CO2 buffer causing infiltration of waters with pH values commonly of < 4.2, acid loading of up to 7 keqH+.ha-1.yr-1, mobilization of toxic Al3+, and long-term decline of soil fertility.

  15. Annual carbon dioxide cycle in a montane soil: observations, modeling, and implications for weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, D.K.; Cerling, T.E.

    1987-12-01

    Profiles of CO/sub 2/ concentrations in soil and snow, soil respiration, soil and snow temperatures, and shallow ground water chemistry were monitored from March 1984 to July 1985 in a montane region neat Brighton, Utah. Significant seasonal variations in the concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in soil and snow occurred, and two principal rise-decline cycles were observed. During the first cycle the concentration of soil CO/sub 2/ at 35 cm rose from 4200 ppmv in July to a maximum of 12,400 ppmv in August and then declined to 4300 ppmv by October. This cycle is attributed to the changing production rate of soil CO/sub 2/ during the growing season. During the second cycle the concentration of CO/sub 2/ at 35 cm began to rise in November, reached a maximum of 7200 ppmv in early spring, and quickly declined to 3200 ppmv by late spring shortly after the snow cover had melted. This cycle is attributed to deterioration in the exchange of CO/sub 2/ between the soil and atmosphere due to a deep snowpack. A model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was developed to account for the temporal and spatial distribution of soil CO/sub 2/. The model predicts that soil CO/sub 2/ at 35 cm is increased by as much as 15 times due to the deep snowpack. The elevated concentration of soil CO/sub 2/, abundance of water, and above-freezing soil temperatures imply that significant soil weathering occurs during the winter in montane regions.

  16. Soil nitrifying and denitrifying capacities are altered by global change factors in a California annual grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niboyet, A.; Le Roux, X.; Barthes, L.; Hungate, B.; Dijkstra, P.; Blankinship, J. C.; Brown, J. R.; Field, C. B.; Leadley, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrification and denitrification are key mediators of nitrogen (N) cycling, especially N losses, in terrestrial ecosystems, yet little is known about the long-term, in situ responses of these two microbial processes to the simultaneous and interacting global changes likely to occur this century. We investigated the responses of the two steps of nitrification - ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation - and of denitrification to the interactive effects of elevated CO2, warming, increased precipitation and N deposition as part of the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment. We followed these responses over two growing seasons of the experiment using measures of potential rates of ammonia oxidation, nitrite oxidation, and denitrification, along with key correlates of these activities (gross N mineralization, gross nitrification, soil moisture, soil NH4+ and NO3- concentrations, soil pH, soil temperature, soil CO2 and N2O effluxes, and root and shoot biomass). Across all dates, soil ammonia and nitrite oxidizing capacities responded very differently to global change treatments: soil ammonia oxidizing capacities were increased by 59% in the high N deposition treatment (likely as a result of higher substrate availability for ammonia-oxidizers), while soil nitrite oxidizing capacities did not respond to the N deposition treatment but were reduced by 10% in the increased precipitation treatment. Soil denitrifying capacities were increased by 26% in the high N deposition treatment (likely as a result of higher substrate availability for denitrifiers) and by 15% in the increased precipitation treatment (likely as a result of higher soil water content). Overall, elevated CO2 and warming were found to have little effects on soil nitrifying and denitrifying capacities, and interactive effects between global change components were rare when analyzed across multiple sampling dates. Thus, our results suggest that increased atmospheric N deposition and changes in precipitation

  17. How effective are soil and water conservation techniques in reducing annual plot runoff and soil loss? A pan-European and Mediterranean review and analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

    2012-04-01

    While a substantial number of experimental studies on the effectiveness of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCTs) in reducing annual runoff (Ra) and annual soil loss (SLa) at plot scales in Europe and the Mediterranean exists, a comprehensive overview and analysis of plot Ra and SLa data is lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of SWCT in reducing Ra and SLa in Europe and the Mediterranean, as well as to explore the factors that determine SWCT effectiveness. In the framework of the FP6 project DESIRE (http://www.desire-project.eu), a comprehensive plot database was compiled based on an extensive literature review covering 101 reports and publications. The database contains Ra and SLa data measured on runoff plots, where various SWCTs were tested in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The total database contains 353 plots, corresponding to 2 093 plot-years from 103 plot measuring stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. For 224 of these plots (corresponding to 1 567 plot-years), Ra and/or SLa from a paired plot with the same dimensions, land use and measuring period, but without the application SWCT was available, allowing to assess the effectiveness of the applied SWCTs. Documented SWCTs include cover crops, mulching, grass buffer strips, strip cropping, exclosure, no-tillage, reduced tillage, contour tillage, deep tillage, drainage, soil amendment, terraces, contour bunds and geotextiles. Analyses of the database shows that there are clear differences in effectiveness in reducing Ra and SLa between different SWCTs. Techniques related to crop and vegetation management like mulching (median reduction of Ra to 32% and SLa to 23% of the corresponding values measured on the plot without SWCT) and cover crops (36% for Ra and 14% for SLa) are more effective than soil management techniques like no-tillage (85% for Ra and 57% for SLa) or reduced tillage (90% for Ra and 68% for SLa). While these techniques are commonly

  18. Phenanthrene-degrader community dynamics in rhizosphere soil from a common annual grass

    SciTech Connect

    Miya, R.K.; Firestone, M.K.

    2000-04-01

    Enhanced rates of phenanthrene biodegradation were observed in rhizosphere soils planted with slender oat (Avena barbata Pott ex Link) compared with unplanted bulk soil controls. Soil microbial populations were characterized using a modified most probable number (MPN) method to determine quantitative shifts in heterotrophic and phenanthrene degrader communities while principal component analysis (PCA) of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data from isolated phenanthrene degraders was used to identify qualitative differences and degrader community diversity. The average heterotrophic bacterial population over time was about three times larger in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil while phenanthrene degrading populations increased by as much as an order of magnitude between 24 and 28 days after planting (DAP). Thus, phenanthrene degraders were selectively enriched in rhizosphere soil compared with bulk soil. The greatest selection for degraders occurred during the later stages of plant development from 24 to 32 DAP. A PCA plot of the FAME data from phenanthrene degrader isolates indicated that the rhizosphere degraders were less diverse than bulk soil degraders. These results give some insight into the mechanisms responsible for enhanced biodegradation and selective degrader enrichment in Rhizosphere soils.

  19. Nitrogen soil emissions and belowground plant processes in Mediterranean annual pastures are altered by ozone exposure and N-inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martín, L.; Bermejo-Bermejo, V.; García-Torres, L.; Alonso, R.; de la Cruz, A.; Calvete-Sogo, H.; Vallejo, A.

    2017-09-01

    Increasing tropospheric ozone (O3) and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition alter the structure and composition of pastures. These changes could affect N and C compounds in the soil that in turn can influence soil microbial activity and processes involved in the emission of N oxides, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but these effects have been scarcely studied. Through an open top chamber (OTC) field experiment, the combined effects of both pollutants on soil gas emissions from an annual experimental Mediterranean community were assessed. Four O3 treatments and three different N input levels were considered. Fluxes of nitric (NO) and nitrous (N2O) oxide, CH4 and CO2 were analysed as well as soil mineral N and dissolved organic carbon. Belowground plant parameters like root biomass and root C and N content were also sampled. Ozone strongly increased soil N2O emissions, doubling the cumulative emission through the growing cycle in the highest O3 treatment, while N-inputs enhanced more slightly NO; CH4 and CO2 where not affected. Both N-gases had a clear seasonality, peaking at the start and at the end of the season when pasture physiological activity is minimal; thus, higher microorganism activity occurred when pasture had a low nutrient demand. The O3-induced peak of N2O under low N availability at the end of the growing season was counterbalanced by the high N inputs. These effects were related to the O3 x N significant interaction found for the root-N content in the grass and the enhanced senescence of the community. Results indicate the importance of the belowground processes, where competition between plants and microorganisms for the available soil N is a key factor, for understanding the ecosystem responses to O3 and N.

  20. Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E R; Robinson, W

    2002-02-01

    In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that time the shorter-lived isotopes had all but disappeared, but strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), and cesium-137, ({sup 137}Cs) were reduced by only one half-life. Minute amounts of the long-lived isotopes, plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), were present in soil, but were found to be inconsequential in the food chain of humans and land animals. Rather, extensive studies demonstrated that the major concern for human health was {sup 137}Cs in the terrestrial food chain (Robison et al., 1983; Robison et al., 1997). The following papers document results from several studies between 1986 and 1997 aimed at minimizing the {sup 137}Cs content of annual food crops. The existing literature on radiocesium in soils and plant uptake is largely a consequence of two events: the worldwide fallout of 1952-58, and the fallout from Chernobyl. The resulting studies have, for the most part, dealt either with soils containing some amount of silicate clays and often with appreciable K, or with the short-term development of plants in nutrient cultures.

  1. Measurement of Radon, Thoron, Isotopic Uranium and Thorium to Determine Occupational and Environmental Exposure and Risk at Fernald Feed Material Production Center

    SciTech Connect

    Naomi H. Harley, Ph.D.

    2004-07-01

    To develop a new and novel area and personal radon/thoron detector for both radon isotopes to better measure the exposure to low airborne concentrations of these gases at Fernald. These measurements are to be used to determine atmospheric dispersion and exposure to radon and thoron prior to and during retrieval and removal of the 4000 Ci of radium in the two silos at Fernald.

  2. Managing soil nitrogen to restore annual grass infested plant communities: an effective strategy or incomplete framework?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theoretical and empirical work has established a positive relationship between resource availability and habitat invasibility. For invasive annual grasses, similar to other invasive species, invader success has been most often tied to increases in nitrogen (N) availability. These observations have...

  3. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of crop rotations that support sustainable agriculture depends on understanding complex relationships between soils, crops, and yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] stover dry weig...

  4. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; O'Neill, K. P.; Trumbore, S.E.; Veldhuis, H.; Stocks, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    We used input and decomposition data from 14C studies of soils to determine rates of vertical accumulation of moss combined with carbon storage inventories on a sequence of burns to model how carbon accumulates in soils and moss after a stand-killing fire. We used soil drainage - moss associations and soil drainage maps of the old black spruce (OBS) site at the BOREAS northern study area (NSA) to areally weight the contributions of each moderately well drained, feathermoss areas; poorly drained sphagnum - feathermoss areas; and very poorly drained brown moss areas to the carbon storage and flux at the OBS NSA site. On this very old (117 years) complex of black spruce, sphagnum bog veneer, and fen systems we conclude that these systems are likely sequestering 0.01-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-' at OBS-NSA today. Soil drainage in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba, controls carbon storage and flux by controlling moss input and decomposition rates and by controlling through fire the amount and quality of carbon left after burning. On poorly drained soils rich in sphagnum moss, net accumulation and long-term storage of carbon is higher than on better drained soils colonized by feathermosses. The carbon flux of these contrasting ecosystems is best characterized by soil drainage class and stand age, where stands recently burned are net sources of CO2, and maturing stands become increasingly stronger sinks of atmospheric CO2. This approach to measuring carbon storage and flux presents a method of scaling to larger areas using soil drainage, moss cover, and stand age information.

  5. Aerial and soil seed banks enable populations of an annual species to cope with an unpredictable dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Xuejun; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Huang, Zhenying; Walck, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    Simultaneous formation of aerial and soil seed banks by a species provides a mechanism for population maintenance in unpredictable environments. Eolian activity greatly affects growth and regeneration of plants in a sand dune system, but we know little about the difference in the contributions of these two seed banks to population dynamics in sand dunes. Seed release, germination, seedling emergence and survival of a desert annual, Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), inhabiting the Ordos Sandland in China, were determined in order to explore the different functions of the aerial and soil seed banks. The size of the aerial seed bank was higher than that of the soil seed bank throughout the growing season. Seed release was positively related to wind velocity. Compared with the soil seed bank, seed germination from the aerial seed bank was lower at low temperature (5/15 °C night/day) but higher in the light. Seedling emergence from the soil seed bank was earlier than that from the aerial seed bank. Early-emerged (15 April-15 May) seedlings died due to frost, but seedlings that emerged during the following months survived to reproduce successfully. The timing of seed release and different germination behaviour resulted in a temporal heterogeneity of seedling emergence and establishment between the two seed banks. The study suggests that a bet-hedging strategy for the two seed banks enables A. squarrosum populations to cope successfully with the unpredictable desert environment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Approved CAMU equals faster, better, cheaper remediation at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Goidell, L.C.; Strimbu, M.J.; Nickel, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    A 1,050 acre Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) was approved for the Fernald Protection Agency Environmental Management Project (FEMP) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to manage environmental media remediation waste in the Operable Unit 5 Record of Decision, 1995. Debris is also proposed for management as remediation waste under the CAMU Rule in the Operable Unit 3 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report, as of December 1995. Application of the CAMU Rule at the FEMP will allow consolidation of low-level mixed waste and hazardous waste that presents minimal threat from these two operable units in an on-property engineered disposal facility without triggering land disposal restrictions (LDRs). The waste acceptance criteria for the on property disposal facility are based on a combination of site-specific risk-based concentration standards, as opposed to non-site-specific requirements imposed by regulatory classifications.

  7. DEPLOYMENT OF THE GUBKA TECHNOLOGY TO STABILIZE RADIOACTIVE STANDARD SOLUTIONS AT THE FERNALD ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, N.A.; Knecht, D.A.; Meyer, A.; Aloy, A.; Anshits, A.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the deployment of the Gubka technology to stabilize liquid technical standards at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. Gubka, an open-cell glass crystalline porous material, was developed by a joint research program of Russian Institutes at St. Petersburg, Krasnoyarsk, and Zheleznogorsk and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Gubka technology can be applied in an active or a passive method to stabilize a solution. In both methods the result is the same, and the dried components of the solution are sorbed in the pores of the Gubka block while the liquid phase is evaporated. In this deployment Gubka blocks were passively floated in the solutions at ambient conditions. As the solutions evaporated, the non-volatile components were sorbed in the pores of the Gubka blocks. The waste-loaded Gubka blocks have been packaged for transportation and disposal at the Nevada Test site within an existing waste category.

  8. Environment, safety and health compliance assessment, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Secretary of Energy established independent Tiger Teams to conduct environment, safety, and health (ES H) compliance assessments at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. This report presents the assessment of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the assessment at FMPC is to provide the Secretary with information regarding current ES H compliance status, specific ES H noncompliance items, evaluation of the adequacy of the ES H organizations and resources (DOE and contractor), and root causes for noncompliance items. Areas reviewed included performance under Federal, state, and local agreements and permits; compliance with Federal, state and DOE orders and requirements; adequacy of operations and other site activities, such as training, procedures, document control, quality assurance, and emergency preparedness; and management and staff, including resources, planning, and interactions with outside agencies.

  9. Seasonal variation in secondary metabolites of edible shoots of Buck's beard [Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald (Rosaceae)].

    PubMed

    Fusani, Pietro; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Zidorn, Christian; Kiss, Anna K; Scartezzini, Fabrizio; Granica, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Rosaceae family. In the northern regions of Italy young shoots of A. dioicus are collected and used as vegetable. No studies on the chemical composition of young shoots of A. dioicus have been reported so far. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to develop and validate a comprehensive chromatographic method allowing the identification and quantification of chemical compounds occurring in A. dioicus shoots harvested at different developmental stages. The results showed that shoots contain mainly polyphenols. Twenty-four compounds were detected. Caffeoylglucose derivatives were recognized as major compounds. It was also confirmed that shoots contain the cyanogenic compound prunasin at all investigated vegetation stages. It was shown that the prunasin content significantly increases during plant development, thus justifying the belief that after the development of the first green leaves, shoots should not be used for culinary purposes any longer.

  10. Cost avoidance realized through transportation and disposal of Fernald mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, A.K.; Dilday, D.R.; Rast, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    Currently, Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing a transformation from shipping radiologically contaminated waste within the DOE structure for disposal to now include Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) shipments to a permitted commercial disposal facility (PCDF) final disposition. Implementing this change can be confusing and is perceived as being more difficult than it actually is. Lack of experience and disposal capacity, sometimes and/or confusing regulatory guidance, and expense of transportation and disposal of MLLW ar contributing factors to many DOE facilities opting to simply store their MLLW. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company (FERMCO) established itself as a leader i addressing MLLW transportation and disposal by being one of the first DOE facilities to ship mixed waste to a PCDF (Envirocare of Utah) for disposal. FERMCO`s proactive approach in establishing a MLLW Disposal Program produces long-term cost savings while generating interim mixed waste storage space to support FERMCO`s cleanup mission. FERMCO`s goal for all MLLW shipments was to develop a cost efficient system to accurately characterize, sample and analyze the waste, prepare containers and shipping paperwork, and achieve regulatory compliance while satisfying disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This goal required the ability to evolve with the regulations, to address waste streams of varying matrices and contaminants, and to learn from each MLLW shipment campaign. These efforts have produced a successful MLLW Disposal Program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO has a massed lessons learned from development of this fledgling program which may be applied complex-wide to ultimately save facilities time and money traditionally wasted by maintaining the status quo.

  11. Accelerating D&D at Fernald: The fast track remediation design/bid package

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, S.M.; Albertin, M.F.; Borgman, T.D.; Zebick, W.A.

    1995-01-31

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department Of Energy (DOE) facility near Cincinnati, Ohio which provided high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were halted in 1989 to focus available resources on environmental restoration activities at the facility. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) is the designation given to the production area and production-associated facilities and equipment, including, but not limited to, all above and below ground structures, equipment, and utilities. In late spring of 1994, two decisions were made that established the long range strategy on how remedial designs (RD) and the bidding of remedial actions (RA) are approached for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Fernald facilities. The first was to fast track the remediation design and bidding process for the first three D&D packages; and the second was to use standard performance specifications to streamline the decontamination and decommissioning process. This paper describes these strategies, identifies the key elements involved, and discusses the lessons learned that were associated with the approaches. A brief synopsis of these elements follows: (1) A facility complex grouping facilities into blocks of work was used for bid packages. (2) A task force approach involving required functional organizations was used to fast track the design and bidding process. (3) Standard Performance Specifications have been developed for each task to establish minimum acceptable criteria and provide the subcontractor flexibility. This approach also dramatically decreases costs for future D&D packages. (4) A key feature of value engineering has been the use of construction methods and techniques to drive the D&D cost significantly lower. (5) The bid package was structured around a modified IFB approach. This provides the successful bidder the opportunity to incorporate innovative ideas within the performance.

  12. Demonstration of packaging of Fernald Silo I waste in chemically bonded phosphate ceramic.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A. S.

    1999-01-27

    This paper summarizes our experience in bench-scale packaging of Fernald Silo I waste in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics. The waste was received from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and its treatability was studied in our laboratory. This waste contained As{sup 5+}, Ba, Cr{sup 6+}, Ni, Pb, Se{sup 4+}, and Zn as the hazardous contaminants. In addition, the total specific activity of all the radioactive isotopes in the waste was 3.85 {micro}Ci/g, of which that of radium alone was 0.477 {micro}Ci/g. This indicated that radon (a daughter product of the radium) in the waste could present a serious handling problem during this study. For this reason, the waste was handled and stored in a flowing-air glovebox. We made waste form samples with an actual waste loading of 66.05 wt.% and subjected them to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The results showed excellent stabilization of all contaminants. Actual levels detected in the leachate were well below the EPA's most stringent Universal Treatment Standards and in almost all cases were one order of magnitude below this limit. Radioactivity in the leachate was also very low. Alpha activity was 25 {+-} 2.5 pCi/mL, while beta activity was 9.81 {+-} 0.98 pCi/mL. This very low activity was attributed to the efficient stabilization of radium as insoluble radium phosphate in the waste form, thus prohibiting its leaching. This study indicates that the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic process may be a very suitable way to package Silo I waste for transportation and storage or disposal.

  13. The art of implosions has impacted the success of three decontamination and decommissioning projects at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Borgman, T.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), near Cincinnati, Ohio, has successfully impacted the safety, cost and schedule goals of the Decontamination and Dismantling (D&D) Program by using the art of implosions. An implosion is the act of bringing a structure down in a well planned and directed manner using explosive materials. Three major structures in three separate projects were imploded using this well known commercial technology. Safety is, and will always be, the major consideration with each of the projects. As each project succeeded another, the work process used new and improved methods to lower the risk to the environment, provide a safer workplace by reducing the exposure of high risk work and reducing the spread of lead, asbestos and radioactive materials. The time frame for dismantlement of the steel structures was greatly improved, thus reducing the total project cost. The lessons learned were incorporated from one project to another, to continually improve the work process. A number of alternatives were considered for the removal of the structures, seven, four and three stories in height. The subcontractor and its demolition sub-tier contractor worked in a fixed price lump sum contract environment. While skeptical at first, the subcontractor realized the benefits of the technology, a win-win situation for all participants. The overall planning of each of the events was tied to the needs of the client (DOE), the stakeholders and the community surrounding the site, and the continuing progress at the Fernald site. The recording and application of several key lessons learned in the sequence of implosions, will be the key issues of interest in this paper. Each project offered interesting opportunities for contingency planning, coordination, safety culture adjustments, and high regard for the protection of surrounding structures.

  14. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M.; Xie, Jianping; Li, Dejun; Qin, Yujia; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. PMID:27677789

  15. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M; Xie, Jianping; Li, Dejun; Qin, Yujia; Hale, Lauren E; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-09-27

    Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. Global change involves simultaneous alterations, including those caused by climate warming and land management practices (e.g., clipping). Data on the interactive effects of

  16. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Alan E.; Wade, Len J.; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur–C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0–10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  17. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M.; Xie, Jianping; ...

    2016-09-27

    Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. Withmore » less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. IMPORTANCE Global change involves simultaneous alterations, including those caused by climate warming and land management practices (e.g., clipping). Data on the

  18. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M.; Xie, Jianping; Li, Dejun; Qin, Yujia; Hale, Lauren E.; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-09-27

    Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. IMPORTANCE Global change involves simultaneous alterations, including those caused by climate warming and land management practices (e.g., clipping). Data on the interactive

  19. Extraction of cadmium and tolerance of three annual cut flowers on Cd-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lal, Khajanchi; Minhas, P S; Shipra; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, R K

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the production potential and Cd removal by three flower crops, viz.: marigold (Tagetes erecta), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) and gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus), an experiment was conducted on differentially contaminated soils (DTPA-Cd 0.6-68.4 mg kg(-1)). Biotoxicity of Cd lead to reductions in growth and flower yield of marigold at DTPA-Cd >or= 7.9 mg kg(-1) soil, while the productivity of chrysanthemum and gladiolus was sustained up to 21.2 mg kg(-1). DTPA-Cd for 50% yield reduction (C(50)) was 85, 106 and 215 mg kg(-1) soil for marigold, chrysanthemum and gladiolus, respectively, that indicates a better Cd-tolerance in gladiolus. The uptake of Cd increased with contents in soils and the maximum accumulation occurred in leaves. Among the economic parts, gladiolus spikes accumulated the highest Cd (7.2) followed by flowers of marigold (6.5) and chrysanthemum (4.0 mg kg(-1)). But, because of higher biomass, the total Cd removal was the maximum with chrysanthemum (8.3) followed by gladiolus (6.0) and the minimum (2.6 mg m(-2)) with marigold. Gladiolus with highest tolerance and Cd-content in saleable part holds potential to clean up the moderately contaminated soils.

  20. An application of the NCRP screening techniques to atmospheric radon releases from the former feed materials production center near Fernald, Ohio. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

    PubMed

    Miller, C W

    1999-11-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has published a series of screening models for releases of radionuclides to the environment. These models have been used to prioritize radionuclides being considered in environmental dose reconstructions. The NCRP atmospheric models are also accepted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for demonstrating compliance with the constraint on releases of airborne radioactive materials to the environment from licensees other than power reactors. This study tested the NCRP atmospheric techniques by comparing annual average predicted air concentrations of radon with measured radon concentrations at 14 locations 43 m to 598 m downwind of the former U.S. Department of Energy Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) near Fernald, Ohio, for the period 2 July 1985 to 2 July 1986. Predictions were made using five different sets of meteorological data as input: (1) NCRP default values; (2) composite FMPC site data; (3) data from the Greater Cincinnati Airport; (4) data from the Dayton, Ohio, airport; and (5) data collected at Miami University, located near Oxford, Ohio. Following are the respective medians and ranges of the ratio of the predicted to observed annual radon air concentrations for each of these sources of meteorological data: (1) 5.2, 0.9-54; (2) 1.4, 0.1-8.2; (3) 0.7, 0.1-7.2; (4) 0.7, 0.1-8.4; and (5) 0.6, 0.1-10. The stated goal of the NCRP models is to predict doses that do not underpredict actual doses by greater than a factor of 10. In this comparison, all of the meteorological data produced air concentration predictions that meet this criteria. However, to ensure that final doses meet this criterion, one would need to carefully evaluate all assumptions used to calculate dose from each of these air concentrations.

  1. Atmospheric aerosol measurements of 238U and 232Th at Fernald, Ohio, and implications on inhalation dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Leifer, Robert Z; Jacob, Ethel M; Marschke, Stephen F; Praniti, David M

    2002-12-01

    Measurements of the aerosol size distribution of 238U and 232Th at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project site were made to improve the inhalation dose calculations to off-site individuals. For approximately 1 y an 8-stage cascade impactor was co-located with a high volume sampler and operated at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site to collect aerosol samples. During most of the year, the site was dominated by giant particles with more than 70% of the mass of 238U above 15 microm. The seasonal average of the activity median aerodynamic diameter, based on the impactor samples, which excluded particles >15 microm, for both uranium and thorium was approximately 6.5 microm. These numbers reflect the activities at the site and the domination of the resuspension processes. During most sampling periods the size distribution was bimodal. Thorium concentrations were comparable to the uranium concentrations during the late spring and summer period and decreased to approximately 25% of the 238U concentration in the late summer. Fernald Environmental Management Project is required to calculate the maximum allowable dose from airborne emissions, excluding radon, to meet NESHAP compliance. These calculations assume an AMAD of 1 microm. We found that if you combine size distribution information with the latest ICRP 66 lung model you reduce the estimated dose by a factor of 7. Inclusion of the size distribution of radionuclides at any sampling site would substantially improve the dose estimates to the population.

  2. Resolving inter-annual terrestrial water storage variations using microwave-based surface soil moisture retrievals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to their shallow vertical support, remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals are commonly regarded as being of limited value for water budget applications requiring the characterization of temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (S). However, advances in our ability to esti...

  3. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O.

  4. Plant litter effects on soil nutrient availability and vegetation dynamics: changes that occur when annual grasses invade shrub-steppe communities

    Treesearch

    Sheel Bansal; Roger L. Sheley; Bob Blank; Edward A. Vasquez

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and quality of plant litter occur in many ecosystems as they are invaded by exotic species, which impact soil nutrient cycling and plant community composition. Such changes in sagebrush-steppe communities are occurring with invasion of annual grasses (AG) into a perennial grass (PG) dominated system. We conducted a 5-year litter manipulation...

  5. Annual cover crops do not inhibit early growth of perennial grasses on a disturbed restoration soil in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In agricultural, rangeland, and forest system revegetation projects, cover crops are used for competitive exclusion of weeds and to stabilize soil. Within revegetation projects, annual or short-lived perennial grasses are often sown at the same time as the perennial grasses that are the desired spec...

  6. Plutonium speciation, solubilization, and migration in soils. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, M.; Runde, W.; Haire, R.G.

    1998-06-01

    'The DOE is currently conducting cleanup activities at its nuclear weapons development sites, many of which have accumulated plutonium in soils for 50 years. To properly control Pu migration in soils within Federal sites and onto public lands, better evaluate the public risk, and design effective remediation strategies, a fundamental understanding of Pu speciation, transport, and release mechanisms is needed. Key scientific goals include: determine Pu concentrations and speciation at a contaminated DOE site; study the formation, stability, and structural and spectroscopic features of environmentally relevant Pu (III, IV, and V) species; determine the mechanism of interaction between Pu and Mn/Fe minerals and the potential release of Pu via redox cycling; and model the environmental behavior of plutonium.'

  7. Plutonium speciation, solubilization, and migration in soils. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, R.G.; Neu, M.; Runde, W.

    1998-06-01

    The DOE is currently conducting cleanup activities at its nuclear weapons development sites, many of which have accumulated plutonium in soils for 50 years. To properly control Pu migration in soils within Federal sites and onto public lands, better evaluate the public risk, and design effective remediation strategies, a fundamental understanding of Pu speciation, transport, and release mechanisms is needed. Key scientific goals include: determine Pu concentrations and speciation at a contaminated DOE site; study the formation, stability, and structural and spectroscopic features of environmentally relevant Pu (III, IV, and V) species; determine the mechanism of interaction between Pu and Mn/Fe minerals and the potential release of Pu via redox cycling; and model the environmental behavior of plutonium. This report summarizes work after seven months of a three-year project. In the first year of this project the authors are focusing on the origin, speciation, and mobility of plutonium at the Rocky Flats Environmental Test Site (RFETS).

  8. Temperature exerts no influence on carbon isotope ratios in soil along the 400 mm isopleth of mean annual precipitation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoan

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic carbon is the largest pool of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem, and its isotopic composition is affected by a number of factors. However, the influence of environmental factors, especially temperature, on soil organic carbon isotope values is poorly constrained. This impedes the application of the variability of organic carbon isotopes to reconstructions of paleoclimate, paleoecology, and global carbon cycling. Given the considerable temperature gradient along the 400 mm isohyet (isopleth of mean annual precipitation - MAP) in China, this isohyet provides ideal experimental sites for studying the influence of temperature on soil organic carbon isotopes. In this study, the effect of temperature on surface soil carbon isotope composition was assessed by a comprehensive investigation of 27 sites across a temperature gradient along the isohyet. Results demonstrate that temperature does not play a role in soil carbon isotope. This suggests that organic carbon isotopes in sediments cannot be used for paleotemperature reconstruction and that the effect of temperature on organic carbon isotopes can be neglected in the reconstruction of paleoclimate and paleovegetation. Multiple regressions with MAT (mean annual temperature), MAP, altitude, latitude, and longitude as independent variables and soil carbon isotope as the dependent variable show that these five environmental factors together account for only 9% of soil carbon isotope variance. However, one-way ANOVA analyses suggest that soil type and vegetation type are significant factors influencing soil carbon isotope. Multiple regressions, in which the five aforementioned environmental factors were taken as quantitative variables, and vegetation type, soil type based on the Chinese Soil Taxonomy, and World Reference Base (WRB) soil type were separately used as dummy variables, show that 36.2, 37.4, and 29.7%, respectively, of the variability in soil carbon isotope are explained. Compared to the multiple

  9. Annual burning of a tallgrass prairie inhibits C and N cycling in soil, increasing recalcitrant pyrogenic organic matter storage while reducing N availability.

    PubMed

    Soong, Jennifer L; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2015-06-01

    Grassland ecosystems store an estimated 30% of the world's total soil C and are frequently disturbed by wildfires or fire management. Aboveground litter decomposition is one of the main processes that form soil organic matter (SOM). However, during a fire biomass is removed or partially combusted and litter inputs to the soil are substituted with inputs of pyrogenic organic matter (py-OM). Py-OM accounts for a more recalcitrant plant input to SOM than fresh litter, and the historical frequency of burning may alter C and N retention of both fresh litter and py-OM inputs to the soil. We compared the fate of these two forms of plant material by incubating (13) C- and (15) N-labeled Andropogon gerardii litter and py-OM at both an annually burned and an infrequently burned tallgrass prairie site for 11 months. We traced litter and py-OM C and N into uncomplexed and organo-mineral SOM fractions and CO2 fluxes and determined how fire history affects the fate of these two forms of aboveground biomass. Evidence from CO2 fluxes and SOM C:N ratios indicates that the litter was microbially transformed during decomposition while, besides an initial labile fraction, py-OM added to SOM largely untransformed by soil microbes. Additionally, at the N-limited annually burned site, litter N was tightly conserved. Together, these results demonstrate how, although py-OM may contribute to C and N sequestration in the soil due to its resistance to microbial degradation, a long history of annual removal of fresh litter and input of py-OM infers N limitation due to the inhibition of microbial decomposition of aboveground plant inputs to the soil. These results provide new insight into how fire may impact plant inputs to the soil, and the effects of py-OM on SOM formation and ecosystem C and N cycling.

  10. Diurnal, Seasonal and Inter-annual Variations of N2O Fluxes from Perennial Vineyard Soils in California, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suddick, E. C.; Carlisle, E. A.; Spencer, R. G.; Smart, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    The USA emits 1562 million metric tons of carbon equivalents a year, whereby this value is projected to rise by an estimated 14 % in 2012. California is the 12th major global emitter of greenhouse gases, emitting approximately 500 million metric tons of carbon equivalents a year. 84 % of greenhouse gas emissions are from CO2, 7 % and 6 % from N2O and CH4 respectively and approximately 8 % of these emissions are derived from agricultural activities. The concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O) within the atmosphere has been increasing at a rate of approximately 0.27 % per year and has mainly been attributed to agricultural practices such as land-use changes, biomass burning, nitrogen fertilization, livestock and manure management. Agriculture related activities generate from 6 to 35 Tg N2O-N per year, or about 60 to 70 % of global production. The primary biogenic sources of N2O are from terrestrial soils, which are thought to be a major source of N2O to the atmosphere and mainly involve the microbial nitrogen transformations brought about by nitrification and denitrification. The aim of this study was to quantify the seasonal and inter-annual variability of N2O emissions and nitrogen cycling from a conventionally tilled wine grape vineyard in Napa, California during a two year closed static chamber study and to also investigate the diurnal N2O flux pattern and effects of fertilization management practices on emissions within a table grape vineyard in Delano, California. Preliminary data shows that the annual N2O fluxes were influenced by soil properties, management practices and weather such as precipitation events where increases in N2O emissions were observed after irrigation or fertilization practices and immediately following rainfall. Vineyard floor and vine management will be discussed in terms of the significance management practices have upon the release of N2O emissions from vineyard soils where the high water and nitrogen fertilizer usage within these

  11. An integrated approach to the characterization and decontamination of uranium contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, V.; Francis, C.; Armstrong, A.; Dyer, R.

    1994-02-01

    An Integrated Demonstration (ID) Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company, has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Chemical and physical characterization of Fernald soils and the uranium wastes contained therein is being accomplished by means of standard analytical techniques as well as a suite of non-standard microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Likewise, a suite of physical and chemical extraction technologies are being designed and tested for accomplishing soil decontamination. However, the main theme of this paper is not the technologies being tested but the approach taken to integrate characterization, decontamination, and risk assessment efforts. It is the authors intent to outline the critical components of an integrated approach for characterizing and remediating uranium contaminated soils as well as provide a real-world example based on the lessons learned in the ID program.

  12. Efforts to Improve Efficiency of Extraction Well Operation at the Fernald Preserve, Harrison, Ohio – 16177

    SciTech Connect

    Glassmeyer, Cathy; Hooten, Gwen; Hertel, Bill; Broberg, Ken

    2016-03-01

    The Fernald Preserve, a former uranium processing facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products during the Cold War, is located in southwest Ohio. The facility became a US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) site in November 2006, following completion of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental remediation and site restoration (with the exception of groundwater). When the site was turned over to LM, approximately 76.5 ha of the Great Miami Aquifer remained contaminated with uranium above the final remediation level of 30 μg/L. Here, uranium contamination is being removed from groundwater in the Great Miami Aquifer through a pump-and-treat operation, which is predicted to continue until 2033. Twenty extraction wells pump about 30 million liters per day. Operation of the system is impacted by iron in the groundwater that promotes iron fouling of the well pumps, motors, and screens. The design of the well field evolved over 21 years and reflected a conservative system that could respond to a wide range of pumping conditions. For instance, some of the extraction wells were sized with pumps and motors that would allow the well to pump up to 1890 L/min (500 gpm) if warranted. The added flexibility, though, came at the cost of operational efficiency. We describe the efforts that have been taken by LM since the Fernald site was transferred to LM to mitigate the operational impacts from the iron fouling aquifer conditions and improve the efficiency of the well-field operation. Variable-frequency drives were installed at six wells to replace flow control valves. Several wells with oversized pumps and motors were changed from 24-hour per day operation to 8-hour per day operation to allow the pumps to operate closer to their design flow rates. Pumps and motors were “right-sized” at many wells to improve pumping efficiency. The process used to rehabilitate (or clean) well screens was improved, and

  13. Temperature exerts no influence on organic matter δ13C of surface soil along the 400 mm isopleth of mean annual precipitation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yufu; Wang, Guoan; Tan, Qiqi; Chen, Zixun

    2016-09-01

    Soil organic carbon is the largest pool of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem, and its isotopic composition is affected by a number of factors. However, the influence of environmental factors, especially temperature, on soil organic carbon isotope values (δ13CSOM) is poorly constrained. This impedes the application of the variability of organic carbon isotopes to reconstructions of paleoclimate, paleoecology, and global carbon cycling. Given the considerable temperature gradient along the 400 mm isohyet (isopleth of mean annual precipitation - MAP) in China, this isohyet provides ideal experimental sites for studying the influence of temperature on soil organic carbon isotopes. In this study, the effect of temperature on surface soil δ13C was assessed by a comprehensive investigation of 27 sites across a temperature gradient along the isohyet. Results demonstrate that temperature does not play a role in soil δ13C. This suggests that organic carbon isotopes in sediments cannot be used for paleotemperature reconstruction and that the effect of temperature on organic carbon isotopes can be neglected in the reconstruction of paleoclimate and paleovegetation. Multiple regressions with MAT (mean annual temperature), MAP, altitude, latitude, and longitude as independent variables and δ13CSOM as the dependent variable show that these five environmental factors together account for only 9 % of soil δ13C variance. However, one-way ANOVA analyses suggest that soil type and vegetation type are significant factors influencing soil δ13C. Multiple regressions, in which the five aforementioned environmental factors were taken as quantitative variables, and vegetation type, soil type based on the Chinese Soil Taxonomy, and World Reference Base (WRB) soil type were separately used as dummy variables, show that 36.2, 37.4, and 29.7 %, respectively, of the variability in soil δ13C are explained. Compared to the multiple regressions in which only quantitative environmental

  14. Mixed waste management plans at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, T.J.; Sattler, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwestern Ohio. The facility began production of uranium metal products in the early 1950`s and continued processing of uranium ore concentrates until 1989. The facility used a variety of chemical and metallurgical processes to manufacture uranium metals for use at other DOE sites across the country. Because of the chemical and metallurgical processes employed at the site, some hazardous wastes as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) were generated during the manufacture of the uranium metal products. Because of uranium metal`s radioactive properties, the hazardous wastes generated at the facility typically contain some radioactivity. Wastes which contain both a hazardous component subject to RCRA regulation and a radioactive component subject to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 are described as mixed waste. In 1989, the FEMP was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) requiring cleanup of the facility`s radioactive and chemical contamination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This paper examines the regulatory requirements associated with development of the plan used to manage mixed wastes at the FEMP. In addition, the paper discusses the strategies used to integrate the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) with CERCLA response actions.

  15. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of concrete silos 1, 2, 3 and 4 at Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Char, C.V.; Shiner, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) site located near Cincinnati, Ohio. FEMP was formerly established as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1951 under the Atomic Energy Commission. FEMP is currently undergoing site wide environmental remediation. This paper addresses four concrete silos built during the 1950s and located in Operable Unit 4 (OU-4). Silos 1 and 2 known as K-65 Silos contain residues from Uranium Ore processing. Silo 3 contains metal oxides in powder form. Silo 4 is empty. The Silos are categorized as low hazard facilities and the Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) performance category is PC-2, based on a recently completed safety analysis report. This paper describes the structural evaluation of concrete Silos 1, 2, 3 and 4 for NPH. Non Destructive Tests (NDT) were conducted to establish the current conditions of the silos. Analytical and computer methods were used to evaluate the stresses and displacements for different silo configurations and different loading combinations. Finite element models were developed to uniquely represent each silo, and analyzed using SAP90 computer program. The SAPLOT post processor was used for rapid determination of critical areas of concern for critical loading combinations and for varying silo configurations.

  16. Effects of nitrogen and biochar amendment on soil methane concentration profiles and diffusion in a rice-wheat annual rotation system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Wu, Zhen; Dong, Yubing; Zhou, Ziqiang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-12-08

    The CH4 emissions from soil were influenced by the changeable CH4 concentrations and diffusions in soil profiles, but that have been subjected to nitrogen (N) and biochar amendment over seasonal and annual time frames. Accordingly, a two-year field experiment was conducted in southeastern China to determine the amendment effects on CH4 concentrations and diffusive effluxes as measured by a multilevel sampling probe in paddy soil during two cycles of rice-wheat rotations. The results showed that the top 7-cm soil layers were the primary CH4 production sites during the rice-growing seasons. This layer acted as the source of CH4 generation and diffusion, and the deeper soil layers and the wheat season soil acted as the sink. N fertilization significantly increased the CH4 concentration and diffusive effluxes in the top 7-cm layers during the 2013 and 2014 rice seasons. Following biochar amendment, the soil CH4 concentrations significantly decreased during the rice season in 2014, relative to the single N treatment. Moreover, 40 t ha(-1) biochar significantly decreased the diffusive effluxes during the rice seasons in both years. Therefore, our results showed that biochar amendment is a good strategy for reducing the soil profile CH4 concentrations and diffusive effluxes induced by N in paddy fields.

  17. Effects of nitrogen and biochar amendment on soil methane concentration profiles and diffusion in a rice-wheat annual rotation system

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Wu, Zhen; Dong, Yubing; Zhou, Ziqiang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-01-01

    The CH4 emissions from soil were influenced by the changeable CH4 concentrations and diffusions in soil profiles, but that have been subjected to nitrogen (N) and biochar amendment over seasonal and annual time frames. Accordingly, a two-year field experiment was conducted in southeastern China to determine the amendment effects on CH4 concentrations and diffusive effluxes as measured by a multilevel sampling probe in paddy soil during two cycles of rice-wheat rotations. The results showed that the top 7-cm soil layers were the primary CH4 production sites during the rice-growing seasons. This layer acted as the source of CH4 generation and diffusion, and the deeper soil layers and the wheat season soil acted as the sink. N fertilization significantly increased the CH4 concentration and diffusive effluxes in the top 7-cm layers during the 2013 and 2014 rice seasons. Following biochar amendment, the soil CH4 concentrations significantly decreased during the rice season in 2014, relative to the single N treatment. Moreover, 40 t ha−1 biochar significantly decreased the diffusive effluxes during the rice seasons in both years. Therefore, our results showed that biochar amendment is a good strategy for reducing the soil profile CH4 concentrations and diffusive effluxes induced by N in paddy fields. PMID:27929052

  18. Effects of nitrogen and biochar amendment on soil methane concentration profiles and diffusion in a rice-wheat annual rotation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Wu, Zhen; Dong, Yubing; Zhou, Ziqiang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-12-01

    The CH4 emissions from soil were influenced by the changeable CH4 concentrations and diffusions in soil profiles, but that have been subjected to nitrogen (N) and biochar amendment over seasonal and annual time frames. Accordingly, a two-year field experiment was conducted in southeastern China to determine the amendment effects on CH4 concentrations and diffusive effluxes as measured by a multilevel sampling probe in paddy soil during two cycles of rice-wheat rotations. The results showed that the top 7-cm soil layers were the primary CH4 production sites during the rice-growing seasons. This layer acted as the source of CH4 generation and diffusion, and the deeper soil layers and the wheat season soil acted as the sink. N fertilization significantly increased the CH4 concentration and diffusive effluxes in the top 7-cm layers during the 2013 and 2014 rice seasons. Following biochar amendment, the soil CH4 concentrations significantly decreased during the rice season in 2014, relative to the single N treatment. Moreover, 40 t ha‑1 biochar significantly decreased the diffusive effluxes during the rice seasons in both years. Therefore, our results showed that biochar amendment is a good strategy for reducing the soil profile CH4 concentrations and diffusive effluxes induced by N in paddy fields.

  19. Soil decontamination using aqueous biphasic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Gupta, D.

    1994-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to develop a biphasic extraction process for separating ultrafine particulate contaminants from soils having high amounts of silt and clay. This work has thus far dealt with the removal of refractory uranium particles from the soils at Fernald, Ohio. The separation process involves the selective partitioning of ultra-fine particles between two immiscible aqueous phases. The authors have conducted batch extraction studies and are now beginning to scaleup the process for pilot-plant testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results of these extraction studies are discussed.

  20. Soil nitrogen cycling and availability are linked to ammonia oxidizer abundance across a tropical mean annual temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, S.; Litton, C. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Sparks, J. P.; Groffman, P.; Hewson, I.; Fahey, T.

    2016-12-01

    Interactions among environmental variables can obfuscate the primary drivers linking soil microbial community function to ecosystem biogeochemistry. These connections are important to understand in order to predict ecosystem responses to global climate change. In particular, the role of mean annual temperature (MAT) in regulating carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling via microbial communities remains unclear. To study these dynamics in situ, we used a a natural elevation gradient of tropical wet montane forest on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i with established permanent plots. Across the gradient, environmental variables besides MAT remain constant. We studied the abundance and activity of the amoA gene, which regulates the rate-limiting step of nitrification, in ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) with relation to N availability and cycling across increasing MAT. Our results show that the abundance of amoA is positively correlated with MAT (p<0.05; r2=0.34) and that MAT and amoA abundance are the primary predictors of nitrate (NO3-) bioavailability (p<0.05). We also found that the relative expression of amoA (cDNA/DNA) is not correlated with MAT or potential net nitrification rate. Our results indicate the direct role of MAT in ammonia oxidizer community structure and demonstrate feedbacks to nutrient availability in forest systems. These findings suggest that forest primary production and carbon cycling may be affected by AOA and AOB responses to rising MAT.

  1. Estimation of annual effective dose from indoor radon/thoron concentrations and measurement of radon concentrations in soil.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rohit; Bala, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Radon short-lived decay products generated from the earth is one of the serious indoor air and soil pollutants. The RAD-7 Electronic Radon Detector with a special accessory is used for the purpose of measurement. The radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of the study area are found to vary from 35±0.5 to 315.2±5.35 Bq m(-3) and 66.1±2.3 to 1710±139.36 Bq m(-3) with the average values of 98.65±1.9 and 388.19±11 Bq m(-3), respectively. From indoor air, the total annual effective dose is calculated and it varies from 0.88 to 7.94 mSv y(-1). The preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than the radon concentration in the houses of the study area. In general, the values of the indoor air are within the recommended action level of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, 2009.

  2. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Gill, V.R.; Lee, S.Y.; Morris, D.E.; Nickelson, M.D.; Perry, D.L.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1993-08-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP.

  3. Effects of dairy manure management in annual and perennial cropping systems on soil microbial communities associated with in situ N2O fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunfield, Kari; Thompson, Karen; Bent, Elizabeth; Abalos, Diego; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Liquid dairy manure (LDM) application and ploughing events may affect soil microbial community functioning differently between perennial and annual cropping systems due to plant-specific characteristics stimulating changes in microbial community structure. Understanding how these microbial communities change in response to varied management, and how these changes relate to in situ N2O fluxes may allow the creation of predictive models for use in the development of best management practices (BMPs) to decrease nitrogen (N) losses through choice of crop, plough, and LDM practices. Our objectives were to contrast changes in the population sizes and community structures of genes associated with nitrifier (amoA, crenamoA) and denitrifier (nirK, nirS, nosZ) communities in differently managed annual and perennial fields demonstrating variation in N2O flux, and to determine if differences in these microbial communities were linked to the observed variation in N2O fluxes. Soil was sampled in 2012 and in 2014 in a 4-ha spring-applied LDM grass-legume (perennial) plot and two 4-ha corn (annual) treatments under fall or spring LDM application. Soil DNA was extracted and used to target N-cycling genes via qPCR (n=6) and for next-generation sequencing (Illumina Miseq) (n=3). Significantly higher field-scale N2O fluxes were observed in the annual plots compared to the perennial system; however N2O fluxes increased after plough down of the perennial plot. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated differences in N-cycling communities between annual and perennial cropping systems, and some communities became similar between annual and perennial plots after ploughing. Shifts in these communities demonstrated relationships with agricultural management, which were associated with differences in N2O flux. Indicator species analysis was used to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most responsible for community shifts related to management. Nitrifying and denitrifying soil

  4. Soils

    Treesearch

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  5. Ion exchange technology in the remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Sutton; Cathy Glassmeyer; Steve Bozich

    2000-09-29

    Using pump and treat methodology, uranium contaminated groundwater is being removed from the Great Miami Aquifer at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) per the FEMP Record of Decision (ROD) that defines groundwater cleanup. Standard extraction wells pump about 3900 gallons-per-minute (gpm) from the aquifer through five ion exchange treatment systems. The largest treatment system k the Advanced Wastewater Treatment (AWWT) Expansion System with a capacity of 1800 gpm, which consists of three trains of two vessels. The trains operate in parallel treating 600 gpm each, The two vessels in each train operate in series, one in lead and one in lag. Treated groundwater is either reinfected back into the aquifer to speed up the aquifer cleanup processor discharged to the Great Miami River. The uranium regulatory ROD limit for discharge to the river is 20 parts per billion (ppb), and the FEMP uranium administrative action level for reinfection is 10 ppb. Spent (i.e., a resin that no longer adsorbs uranium) ion exchange resins must either be replaced or regenerated. The regeneration of spent ion exchange resins is considerably more cost effective than their replacement. Therefore, a project was undertaken to learn how best to regenerate the resins in the groundwater vessels. At the outset of this project, considerable uncertainty existed as to whether a spent resin could be regenerated successfully enough so that it performed as well as new resin relative to achieving very low uranium concentrations in the effluent. A second major uncertain y was whether the operational lifetime of a regenerated resin would be similar to that of a new resin with respect to uranium loading capacity and effluent concentration behavior. The project was successful in that a method for regenerating resins has been developed that is operationally efficient, that results in regenerated resins yielding uranium concentrations much lower than regulatory limits, and that results in

  6. Bayesian geostatistical model-based estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Nigeria, including annual deworming requirements.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, Akinola S; Ekpo, Uwem F; Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Abe, Eniola M; Olamiju, Francisca O; Isiyaku, Sunday; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Saka, Yisa; Nebe, Obiageli J; Braide, Eka I; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-04-01

    The acceleration of the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Nigeria, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy, has become imperative in light of the global fight against neglected tropical diseases. Predictive risk maps are an important tool to guide and support control activities. STH infection prevalence data were obtained from surveys carried out in 2011 using standard protocols. Data were geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide, geographic information system database. Bayesian geostatistical models with remotely sensed environmental covariates and variable selection procedures were utilized to predict the spatial distribution of STH infections in Nigeria. We found that hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura infections are endemic in 482 (86.8%), 305 (55.0%), and 55 (9.9%) locations, respectively. Hookworm and A. lumbricoides infection co-exist in 16 states, while the three species are co-endemic in 12 states. Overall, STHs are endemic in 20 of the 36 states of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. The observed prevalence at endemic locations ranged from 1.7% to 51.7% for hookworm, from 1.6% to 77.8% for A. lumbricoides, and from 1.0% to 25.5% for T. trichiura. Model-based predictions ranged from 0.7% to 51.0% for hookworm, from 0.1% to 82.6% for A. lumbricoides, and from 0.0% to 18.5% for T. trichiura. Our models suggest that day land surface temperature and dense vegetation are important predictors of the spatial distribution of STH infection in Nigeria. In 2011, a total of 5.7 million (13.8%) school-aged children were predicted to be infected with STHs in Nigeria. Mass treatment at the local government area level for annual or bi-annual treatment of the school-aged population in Nigeria in 2011, based on World Health Organization prevalence thresholds, were estimated at 10.2 million tablets. The predictive risk maps and estimated deworming needs presented here will be helpful for escalating the control

  7. Bayesian Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Nigeria, Including Annual Deworming Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Akinola S.; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Abe, Eniola M.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Isiyaku, Sunday; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Saka, Yisa; Nebe, Obiageli J.; Braide, Eka I.; Mafiana, Chiedu F.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Background The acceleration of the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Nigeria, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy, has become imperative in light of the global fight against neglected tropical diseases. Predictive risk maps are an important tool to guide and support control activities. Methodology STH infection prevalence data were obtained from surveys carried out in 2011 using standard protocols. Data were geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide, geographic information system database. Bayesian geostatistical models with remotely sensed environmental covariates and variable selection procedures were utilized to predict the spatial distribution of STH infections in Nigeria. Principal Findings We found that hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura infections are endemic in 482 (86.8%), 305 (55.0%), and 55 (9.9%) locations, respectively. Hookworm and A. lumbricoides infection co-exist in 16 states, while the three species are co-endemic in 12 states. Overall, STHs are endemic in 20 of the 36 states of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. The observed prevalence at endemic locations ranged from 1.7% to 51.7% for hookworm, from 1.6% to 77.8% for A. lumbricoides, and from 1.0% to 25.5% for T. trichiura. Model-based predictions ranged from 0.7% to 51.0% for hookworm, from 0.1% to 82.6% for A. lumbricoides, and from 0.0% to 18.5% for T. trichiura. Our models suggest that day land surface temperature and dense vegetation are important predictors of the spatial distribution of STH infection in Nigeria. In 2011, a total of 5.7 million (13.8%) school-aged children were predicted to be infected with STHs in Nigeria. Mass treatment at the local government area level for annual or bi-annual treatment of the school-aged population in Nigeria in 2011, based on World Health Organization prevalence thresholds, were estimated at 10.2 million tablets. Conclusions/Significance The predictive risk maps and estimated

  8. Soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  9. Annual emissions of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration, from eight organic soils in Western Denmark managed by agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S. O.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Schäfer, C.-M.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Elsgaard, L.; Kristensen, K.; Larsen, S. E.; Torp, S. B.; Greve, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    The use of organic soils by agriculture involves drainage and tillage, and the resulting increase in C and N turnover can significantly affect their greenhouse gas balance. This study estimated annual fluxes of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration (Reco), from eight organic soils managed by agriculture. The sites were located in three regions representing different landscape types and climatic conditions, and three land use categories were covered (arable crops, AR, grass in rotation, RG, and permanent grass, PG). The normal management at each site was followed, except that no N inputs occurred during the monitoring period from August 2008 to October 2009. The stratified sampling strategy further included six sampling points in three blocks at each site. Environmental variables (precipitation, PAR, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level) were monitored continuously and during sampling campaigns, where also groundwater samples were taken for analysis. Gaseous fluxes were monitored on a three-weekly basis, giving 51, 49 and 38 field campaigns for land use categories AR, PG and RG, respectively. Climatic conditions in each region during monitoring were representative as compared to 20-yr averages. Peat layers were shallow, typically 0.5 to 1 m, and with a pH of 4 to 5. At six sites annual emissions of N2O were in the range 3 to 24 kg N2O-N ha-1, but at two arable sites (spring barley, potato) net emissions of 38 and 61 kg N2O-N ha-1 were recorded. The two high-emitting sites were characterized by fluctuating groundwater, low soil pH and elevated groundwater SO42- concentrations. Annual fluxes of CH4 were generally small, as expected, ranging from 2 to 4 kg CH4 ha-1. However, two permanent grasslands had tussocks of Juncus effusus L. (soft rush) in sampling points that were consistent sources of CH4 throughout the year. Emission factors for organic soils in rotation and with permanent grass, respectively, were estimated to be 0.011 and 0.47 g m-2

  10. Anti-noise algorithm of lidar data retrieval by combining the ensemble Kalman filter and the Fernald method.

    PubMed

    Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Li, Chen

    2013-04-08

    The lidar signal-to-noise ratio decreases rapidly with an increase in range, which severely affects the retrieval accuracy and the effective measure range of a lidar based on the Fernald method. To avoid this issue, an alternative approach is proposed to simultaneously retrieve lidar data accurately and obtain a de-noised signal as a by-product by combining the ensemble Kalman filter and the Fernald method. The dynamical model of the new algorithm is generated according to the lidar equation to forecast backscatter coefficients. In this paper, we use the ensemble sizes as 60 and the factor δ(1/2) as 1.2 after being weighed against the accuracy and the time cost based on the performance function we define. The retrieval and de-noising results of both simulated and real signals demonstrate that our method is practical and effective. An extensive application of our method can be useful for the long-term determining of the aerosol optical properties.

  11. Cost avoidance techniques through the Fernald controlled area trash segregation program and the RIMIA solid waste reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Menche, C.E.

    1997-05-14

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department of Energy owned facility that produced high quality uranium metals for military defense. The Fernald mission has changed from one of production to remediation. Remediation is intended to clean up legacy (primary) waste from past practices. Little opportunity is available to reduce the amount of primary waste. However, there is an opportunity to reduce secondary waste generation, primarily through segregation. Two programs which accomplish this are the Controlled Area Trash Segregation Program and the RIMIA Solid Waste Reduction Program. With these two programs now in place at the FEMP, it has been estimated that a 60% reduction has been achieved in unnecessary clean waste being disposed as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site. The cost savings associated with these programs (currently 79,000 cubic feet, $428,000) could easily run into the millions of dollars based on the upcoming restoration activities to be undertaken. The segregation of non-radiological waste in the radiologically Controlled Area not only establishes a firm commitment to send only low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site, but also results in substantial cost avoidance.

  12. Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River. Annual report, September 7, 1995--September 8, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.L.; Miller, M.C.; Moller, B.J.; Marsh, S.L.

    1996-03-01

    Fish were collected, using electroshocking techniques, from three sites in the Great Miami River (GMR) (September 7 and 8, 1995) as part of an annual survey for Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO). The objective was to collect fish fillets for uranium analysis and examine the health of the fish community in comparison to data collected during the past eleven years. Samples were taken from upstream (river mile = RM; RM 38) and downstream (RM 19) of the Fernald site as well as from near the Fernald effluent line (RM 24). RM 38 is isolated from upstream fish migration by two dams located near Hamilton, Ohio and fish collected from this site should not be influenced by processes at the downstream sites. Samples of 549 fish from 29 species belonging to nine families provided seventy-two samples for uranium analysis by an independent laboratory. Chemical analysis of water samples collected at each site was used to determine the effect of chemical parameters on the fish community. This study focused on comparison of the density, biomass and diversity of the fish community between sites and between years.

  13. Uranium soils integrated demonstration, 1993 status

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhfer, K.

    1994-08-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), operated by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) for the DOE, was selected as the host site for the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration. The Uranium Soils ID was established to develop and demonstrate innovative remediation methods which address the cradle to grave elements involved in the remediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium. The participants in the ID are from FERMCO as well as over 15 other organizations from DOE, private industry and universities. Some of the organizations are technology providers while others are members of the technical support groups which were formed to provide technical reviews, recommendations and labor. The following six Technical Support Groups (TSGs) were formed to focus on the objective of the ID: Characterization, Excavation, Decontamination, Waste Treatment/Disposal, Regulatory, and Performance Assessment. This paper will discuss the technical achievements made to date in the program as well as the future program plans. The focus will be on the realtime analysis devices being developed and demonstrated, the approach used to characterize the physical/chemical properties of the uranium waste form in the soil and lab scale studies on methods to remove the uranium from the soil.

  14. Natural variations in snow cover do not affect the annual soil CO2 efflux from a mid-elevation temperate forest

    PubMed Central

    Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Climate change might alter annual snowfall patterns and modify the duration and magnitude of snow cover in temperate regions with resultant impacts on soil microclimate and soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil). We used a 5-year time series of Fsoil measurements from a mid-elevation forest to assess the effects of naturally changing snow cover. Snow cover varied considerably in duration (105–154 days) and depth (mean snow depth 19–59 cm). Periodically shallow snow cover (<10 cm) caused soil freezing or increased variation in soil temperature. This was mostly not reflected in Fsoil which tended to decrease gradually throughout winter. Progressively decreasing C substrate availability (identified by substrate induced respiration) likely over-rid the effects of slowly changing soil temperatures and determined the overall course of Fsoil. Cumulative CO2 efflux from beneath snow cover varied between 0.46 and 0.95 t C ha−1 yr−1 and amounted to between 6 and 12% of the annual efflux. When compared over a fixed interval (the longest period of snow cover during the 5 years), the cumulative CO2 efflux ranged between 0.77 and 1.18 t C ha−1 or between 11 and 15% of the annual soil CO2 efflux. The relative contribution (15%) was highest during the year with the shortest winter. Variations in snow cover were not reflected in the annual CO2 efflux (7.44–8.41 t C ha−1) which did not differ significantly between years and did not correlate with any snow parameter. Regional climate at our site was characterized by relatively high amounts of precipitation. Therefore, snow did not play a role in terms of water supply during the warm season and primarily affected cold season processes. The role of changing snow cover therefore seems rather marginal when compared to potential climate change effects on Fsoil during the warm season. PMID:23966344

  15. Natural variations in snow cover do not affect the annual soil CO2 efflux from a mid-elevation temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Climate change might alter annual snowfall patterns and modify the duration and magnitude of snow cover in temperate regions with resultant impacts on soil microclimate and soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ). We used a 5-year time series of Fsoil measurements from a mid-elevation forest to assess the effects of naturally changing snow cover. Snow cover varied considerably in duration (105-154 days) and depth (mean snow depth 19-59 cm). Periodically shallow snow cover (<10 cm) caused soil freezing or increased variation in soil temperature. This was mostly not reflected in Fsoil which tended to decrease gradually throughout winter. Progressively decreasing C substrate availability (identified by substrate induced respiration) likely over-rid the effects of slowly changing soil temperatures and determined the overall course of Fsoil . Cumulative CO2 efflux from beneath snow cover varied between 0.46 and 0.95 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) and amounted to between 6 and 12% of the annual efflux. When compared over a fixed interval (the longest period of snow cover during the 5 years), the cumulative CO2 efflux ranged between 0.77 and 1.18 t C ha(-1) or between 11 and 15% of the annual soil CO2 efflux. The relative contribution (15%) was highest during the year with the shortest winter. Variations in snow cover were not reflected in the annual CO2 efflux (7.44-8.41 t C ha(-1) ) which did not differ significantly between years and did not correlate with any snow parameter. Regional climate at our site was characterized by relatively high amounts of precipitation. Therefore, snow did not play a role in terms of water supply during the warm season and primarily affected cold season processes. The role of changing snow cover therefore seems rather marginal when compared to potential climate change effects on Fsoil during the warm season.

  16. Annual emissions of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration, from eight organic soils in Western Denmark managed by agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S. O.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Schäfer, C.-M.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Elsgaard, L.; Kristensen, K.; Larsen, S. E.; Torp, S. B.; Greve, M. H.

    2011-10-01

    The use of organic soils by agriculture involves drainage and tillage, and the resulting increase in C and N turnover can significantly affect their greenhouse gas balance. This study estimated annual fluxes of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration (Reco), from eight organic soils managed by agriculture. The sites were located in three regions representing different landscape types and climatic conditions, and three land use categories (arable crops, AR, grass in rotation, RG, and permanent grass, PG) were covered. The normal management at each site was followed, except that no N inputs occurred during the monitoring period from August 2008 to October 2009. The stratified sampling strategy further included six sampling points in three blocks at each site. Environmental variables (precipitation, PAR, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level) were monitored continuously and during sampling campaigns, where also groundwater samples were taken for analysis. Gaseous fluxes were monitored on a three-weekly basis, giving 51, 49 and 38 field campaigns for land use categories AR, PG and RG, respectively. Climatic conditions in each region during monitoring were representative based on 20-yr averages. Peat layers were shallow, typically 0.5 to 1 m, and with a pH of 4-5. At six sites annual emissions of N2O were in the range 3 to 24 kg N2O-N ha-1, but at two arable sites (spring barley, potato) net emissions of 38 and 61 kg N2O-N ha-1 were recorded. Both were characterized by fluctuating groundwater with elevated SO42- concentrations. Annual fluxes of CH4 were generally small, as expected, ranging from -2 to 4 kg CH4 ha-1. However, two permanent grasslands had tussocks of Juncus effusus (soft rush) in sampling points that were consistent sources of CH4 throughout the year. Emission factors for organic soils in rotation and permanent grass, respectively, were estimated to be 0.011 and 0.47 g m-2 for CH4, and 2.5 and 0.5 g m-2 for N2O. This first

  17. Phosphorus status and microbial community of paddy soil with the growth of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) under different phosphorus fertilizer treatments*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hai-chao; Wang, Guang-huo

    2009-01-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was grown in paddy soil in pots under different phosphorus (P) fertilizer treatments to investigate changes of P fractions and microbial community of the soil. The treatments included Kunyang phosphate rock (KPR) applications at 50 mg P/kg (KPR50) and 250 mg P/kg (KPR250), mono-calcium phosphate (MCP) application at 50 mg P/kg (MCP50), and the control without P application. The results showed that KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications significantly increased the dry weight of the ryegrass by 13%, 38%, and 55%, and increased P uptake by 19%, 135%, and 324%, respectively. Compared with MCP50, the relative effectiveness of KPR50 and KPR250 treatments in ryegrass production was about 23% and 68%, respectively. After one season of ryegrass growth, the KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications increased soil-available P by 13.4%, 26.8%, and 55.2%, respectively. More than 80% of the applied KPR-P remained as HCl-P fraction in the soil. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that the total and bacterial PLFAs were significantly higher in the soils with KPR250 and MCP50 treatments compared with KPR50 and control. The latter had no significant difference in the total or bacterial PLFAs. The KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 treatments increased fungal PLFA by 69%, 103%, and 69%, respectively. Both the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis of the PLFA data suggest that P treatments altered the microbial community composition of the soils, and that P availability might be an important contributor to the changes in the microbial community structure during the ryegrass growth in the paddy soils. PMID:19817001

  18. Established native perennial grasses out-compete an invasive annual grass regardless of soil water and nutrient availability

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. McGlone; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Thomas E. Kolb; Ty Nietupsky

    2012-01-01

    Competition and resource availability influence invasions into native perennial grasslands by nonnative annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum. In two greenhouse experiments we examined the influence of competition, water availability, and elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability on growth and reproduction of the invasive annual grass B. tectorum and two...

  19. The effects of precipitation and soil type on three invasive annual grasses in the western United States

    Treesearch

    Sheel Bansal; Jeremy J. James; Roger L. Sheley

    2014-01-01

    Multiple species of annual grasses are invading sagebrush-steppe communities throughout the western United States. Most research has focused on dominant species such as Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), yet other, less studied annual grasses such as Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) and Ventenata dubia (ventenata) are spreading rapidly. Future precipitation regimes...

  20. Characterization of uranium- and plutonium-contaminated soils by electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.

    1995-03-01

    Electron beam techniques have been used to characterize uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Site in Ohio, and also plutonium-bearing `hot particles, from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean. By examining Fernald samples that had undergone chemical leaching it was possible to observe the effect the treatment had on specific uranium-bearing phases. The technique of Heap leaching, using carbonate solution, was found to be the most successful in removing uranium from Fernald soils, the Heap process allows aeration, which facilitates the oxidation of uraninite. However, another refractory uranium(IV) phase, uranium metaphosphate, was not removed or affected by any soil-washing process. Examination of ``hot particles`` from Johnston Island revealed that plutonium and uranium were present in 50--200 nm particles, both amorphous and crystalline, within a partially amorphous aluminum oxide matrix. The aluminum oxide is believed to have undergone a crystalline-to-amorphous transition caused by alpha-particle bombardment during the decay of the plutonium.

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE) operable unit 5, AKA Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Hamilton County, OH, January 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 5 of the FEMP site in Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Operable Unit 5 consists of impacted environmental media including groundwater in the underlying Great Miami Aquifer, perched groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, flora, and fauna.

  2. Recommended seismic hazard levels for the Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; Fernald, Ohio; and Portsmouth, Ohio, Department of Energy reservations

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Manrod, W.E.; Stoddart, W.C.

    1982-12-01

    This document presents recommendations for the seismic hazard levels at the Oak Ridge Operations-Department of Energy (ORO-DOE) reservations in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; Fernald, Ohio; and Portsmouth, Ohio. These recommendations are based on seismic hazard studies that have occurred over the past 10 y concerning these reservations. The authors have conducted in-depth reviews of the seismic hazard studies that have been completed for the reservations, have had various meetings with the authors of these studies, have had meetings and conducted studies among themselves and their consultants, and feel that the recommendations made in this report represent the state-of-the-art for assessing the seismic hazard at a site.

  3. Radon suppression in storage silos at the United States Department of Energy Feed Material Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Land, R.R. ); Biancheria, A. ); Craig, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Two silos at the Department of Energy Feed Material Production Facility in Fernald, Ohio, contain an estimated 8800 metric tons of high-grade pitchblende ore residue solids, which contain approximately 3,300 curies (Ci) of radium and 1810 Ci of thorium. These silos are the subject of an on-going CERCLA RI/F Program. Fugitive radon emissions from the silos exceed EPA limits. In addition, structural analyses have revealed that the silos have little credible remaining design life. While pursuing final remediation, a removal action is being taken to address the current situation. The removal action entails the emplacement of a covering layer of bentonite slurry inside the silos. The bentonite will reduce the fugitive emissions to EPA limits and mitigate the effects of dome structural failure, while presenting minimum impact on potential final remedial action alternatives for the silos. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Annual variation in the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs in soil and herbage samples collected near a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, M; Agramunt, M C; Bocio, A; Domingo, J L; de Kok, H A M

    2003-07-01

    In May 2000, the levels of a number of metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V and Zn) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in soil and herbage samples collected near a cement plant from Sta. Margarida i els Monjos (Catalonia, Spain). To determine the temporal variation in the concentrations of metals and PCDD/PCDFs, in May 2001 soil and herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points and analyzed for the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs. In general terms, metal concentrations in soils did not change between May 2000 and May 2001, while significant decreases in the levels of Cr, Ni and V were found in herbage. On the other hand, no significant differences in the mean I-TEQ values of PCDD/PCDFs were found in soil and herbage samples. The results of this survey show that according to the annual variation in the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs the environmental impact of the cement plant on the area under its direct influence is not relevant.

  5. Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Double-cropping forages may help to ameliorate excess soil nutrients in manure-impacted fields. Studies were conducted on Savannah soil with a 30+ yr history of broiler litter to determine the yield of biomass and P in bermudagrass (summer) and ryegrass-bermudagrass (year-round) forage systems. Duri...

  6. Increases in mean annual temperature do not alter soil bacterial community structure in tropical montane wet forests

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Selmants; Karen L. Adair; Creighton M. Litton; Christian P. Giardina; Egbert Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacteria play a key role in regulating terrestrial biogeochemical cycling and greenhouse gas fluxes across the soil-atmosphere continuum. Despite their importance to ecosystem functioning, we lack a general understanding of how bacterial communities respond to climate change, especially in relatively understudied ecosystems like tropical montane wet...

  7. Microbial degradation of acenapthene and napthalene under denitrification conditions in soil--water systems: Annual report, October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Mihelcic, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1987-10-01

    This study examined the microbial degradation of acenaphthene and naphthalene under denitrification conditions at soil-to-water ratios of 1:25 and 1:50 with soil containing approximately 10/sup 5/ denitrifying organisms per gram of soil. Under nitrate-excess conditions, both acenaphthene and naphthalene were degraded microbially from initial aqueous-phase concentrations of about one and several mg/l, respectively, to nondetectable levels (<0.01 mg/l) in time periods less than 9 weeks. Acclimation periods of 12 to 36 days were observed prior to the onset of microbial degradation in tests with soil not previously exposed to PAH, while acclimation periods were absent in tests with soil reserved from prior PAH degradation tests. It was judged that the apparent acclimation period resulted from the time for a small population of organisms capable of PAH degradation to attain sufficient densities to exhibit detectable PAH reduction. About 0.9 percent of the naturally occurring soil organic carbon could be mineralized under denitrification conditions, and this accounted for the greater proportion of the nitrate depletion. The mineralization of the labile fraction of the soil organic carbon via microbial denitrification occurred without an observed acclimation period, and was rapid compared to PAH degradation. Under nitrate-limiting conditions the PAH compounds were stable owing to the depletion of nitrate via the more rapid process of soil organic carbon mineralization. The microbial degradation of the PAH compound depends on the interrelationships between: the desorption kinetics and the reversibility of desorption of sorbed compound from the soil, the concentration of PAH-degrading microorganisms, and the competing reaction for nitrate utilization via mineralization of the labile fraction of naturally occurring soil organic carbon. 44 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Integration of health physics, safety and operational processes for management and disposition of recycled uranium wastes at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, James; Buckley, James

    2003-02-23

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald), the contractor for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), recently submitted a new baseline plan for achieving site closure by the end of calendar year 2006. This plan was submitted at DOE's request, as the FEMP was selected as one of the sites for their accelerated closure initiative. In accordance with the accelerated baseline, the FEMP Waste Management Project (WMP) is actively evaluating innovative processes for the management and disposition of low-level uranium, fissile material, and thorium, all of which have been classified as waste. These activities are being conducted by the Low Level Waste (LLW) and Uranium Waste Disposition (UWD) projects. Alternatives associated with operational processing of individual waste streams, each of which poses potentially unique health physics, industrial hygiene and industrial hazards, are being evaluated for determination of the most cost effective and safe met hod for handling and disposition. Low-level Mixed Waste (LLMW) projects are not addressed in this paper. This paper summarizes historical uranium recycling programs and resultant trace quantity contamination of uranium waste streams with radionuclides, other than uranium. The presentation then describes how waste characterization data is reviewed for radiological and/or chemical hazards and exposure mitigation techniques, in conjunction with proposed operations for handling and disposition. The final part of the presentation consists of an overview of recent operations within LLW and UWD project dispositions, which have been safely completed, and a description of several current operations.

  9. Inter-annual variation in the response of leaf-out onset to soil moisture increase in a teak plantation in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yoshifuji, Natsuko; Igarashi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Sato, Takanori; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-11-01

    To understand the impact of inter-annual climate change on vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges, it has become necessary to explore changes in leaf-out onset in response to climatic fluctuations. We examined the response of leaf-out and transpiration onset dates to soil moisture in a teak plantation in northern Thailand based on a 12-year leaf area index and sap flow measurements. The date of leaf-out and transpiration onset varied between years by up to 40 days, and depended on the initial date when the relative extractable water in a soil layer of 0-0.6 m (Θ) was greater than 0.2 being consistent with our previous results. Our new finding is that the delay in leaf-out and transpiration onset relative to the initial date when Θ > 0.2 increases linearly as the initial date on which Θ > 0.2 becomes earlier. The delay spans about 20 days in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in March (the late dry season)-much earlier than usual because of heavy pre-monsoon rainfalls-while there is little delay in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in May. This delay indicates the influence of additional factors on leaf-out onset, which controls the delay in the response of leaf-out to soil moisture increase. The results increased our knowledge about the pattern and extent of the changes in leaf phenology that occur in response to the inter-annual climate variation in tropical regions, where, in particular, such research is needed.

  10. Soil moisture redistribution and its effect on inter-annual active layer temperature and thickness variations in a dry loess terrace in Adventdalen, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Carina; Frampton, Andrew; Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne

    2017-02-01

    High-resolution field data for the period 2000-2014 consisting of active layer and permafrost temperature, active layer soil moisture, and thaw depth progression from the UNISCALM research site in Adventdalen, Svalbard, is combined with a physically based coupled cryotic and hydrogeological model to investigate active layer dynamics. The site is a loess-covered river terrace characterized by dry conditions with little to no summer infiltration and an unsaturated active layer. A range of soil moisture characteristic curves consistent with loess sediments is considered and their effects on ice and moisture redistribution, heat flux, energy storage through latent heat transfer, and active layer thickness is investigated and quantified based on hydro-climatic site conditions. Results show that soil moisture retention characteristics exhibit notable control on ice distribution and circulation within the active layer through cryosuction and are subject to seasonal variability and site-specific surface temperature variations. The retention characteristics also impact unfrozen water and ice content in the permafrost. Although these effects lead to differences in thaw progression rates, the resulting inter-annual variability in active layer thickness is not large. Field data analysis reveals that variations in summer degree days do not notably affect the active layer thaw depths; instead, a cumulative winter degree day index is found to more significantly control inter-annual active layer thickness variation at this site. A tendency of increasing winter temperatures is found to cause a general warming of the subsurface down to 10 m depth (0.05 to 0.26 °C yr-1, observed and modelled) including an increasing active layer thickness (0.8 cm yr-1, observed and 0.3 to 0.8 cm yr-1, modelled) during the 14-year study period.

  11. Intra- and inter-annual variation of Cd, Zn, Mn and Cu in foliage of poplars on contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lettens, S; Vandecasteele, B; De Vos, B; Vansteenkiste, D; Verschelde, P

    2011-05-01

    The uptake of trace metals in the leaves of fast-growing woody species is a crucial factor in ecological risk assessment and in the evaluation of phytoextraction potentials. In this study, we present a long-term data series of foliar Cd, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations in poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides). Leaves were collected every three weeks from 2001 until 2007 on three sites, (i) a new plantation on an alluvial soil polluted by river sediments, (ii) a new plantation on an unpolluted soil and (iii) a 10-year old plantation on a polluted dredged sediment soil. In addition, tree rings were measured on the alluvial soil in order to better assess growth over the past seven years. Foliar concentrations of Cd, Zn and Mn decreased considerably with time in the new plantation on polluted soil. Concentrations of Zn and Mn decreased in the new plantation on unpolluted soil as well. The older plantation on polluted soil did not show changes in foliar concentrations for Cd, Zn or Mn. Foliar Cu concentrations slightly increased for all sites. Within one growing season, foliar concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu and Mn increased towards the end of the season. The tree ring data of the poplars on the alluvial soil indicated a strong decrease in growth due to declining tree condition from 2005 onwards, the same year that foliar Cd and Zn concentrations markedly decreased. Lower transpiration rates probably induced a lower uptake of dissolved trace metals. It is concluded that stand health and growth rate have a strong impact on the variation of foliar trace metal concentrations over time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Soils

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    Edaphic and climatic characteristics of a site quite well define the quality of that site for plant growth. The importance of soil characteristics to the growth and well-being of aspen in the West is apparent from observations by many authors, from inferences resulting from work with other trees and agricultural crops, and from detailed study of aspen soils and site...

  13. How many measurements are needed to estimate accurate daily and annual soil respiration fluxes? Analysis using data from a temperate rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Quezada, Jorge F.; Brito, Carla E.; Cabezas, Julián; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Fuentes, Juan P.; Bown, Horacio E.; Franck, Nicolás

    2016-12-01

    Making accurate estimations of daily and annual Rs fluxes is key for understanding the carbon cycle process and projecting effects of climate change. In this study we used high-frequency sampling (24 measurements per day) of Rs in a temperate rainforest during 1 year, with the objective of answering the questions of when and how often measurements should be made to obtain accurate estimations of daily and annual Rs. We randomly selected data to simulate samplings of 1, 2, 4 or 6 measurements per day (distributed either during the whole day or only during daytime), combined with 4, 6, 12, 26 or 52 measurements per year. Based on the comparison of partial-data series with the full-data series, we estimated the performance of different partial sampling strategies based on bias, precision and accuracy. In the case of annual Rs estimation, we compared the performance of interpolation vs. using non-linear modelling based on soil temperature. The results show that, under our study conditions, sampling twice a day was enough to accurately estimate daily Rs (RMSE < 10 % of average daily flux), even if both measurements were done during daytime. The highest reduction in RMSE for the estimation of annual Rs was achieved when increasing from four to six measurements per year, but reductions were still relevant when further increasing the frequency of sampling. We found that increasing the number of field campaigns was more effective than increasing the number of measurements per day, provided a minimum of two measurements per day was used. Including night-time measurements significantly reduced the bias and was relevant in reducing the number of field campaigns when a lower level of acceptable error (RMSE < 5 %) was established. Using non-linear modelling instead of linear interpolation did improve the estimation of annual Rs, but not as expected. In conclusion, given that most of the studies of Rs use manual sampling techniques and apply only one measurement per day, we

  14. The effects of precipitation and soil type on three invasive annual grasses in the western United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in the Great Basin are highly susceptible to annual grass invasion. Large regions are covered by Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), but there has been a recent upsurge in the abundance and distribution of Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) and Ventenata dubia (ventenata)....

  15. Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. is a non-native, annual grass that has invaded western North America. In SE Utah, B. tectorum generally occurs in grasslands dominated by the native perennial grass, Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. and rarely where the natives Stipa hymenoides Roem. and Schult. and S. comata Trin. & Rupr. are dominant. This patchy invasion is likely due to differences in soil chemistry. Previous laboratory experiments investigated using soil amendments that would allow B. tectorum to germinate but would reduce B. tectorum emergence without affecting H. jamesii. For this study we selected the most successful treatments (CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and zeolite) from a previous laboratory study and applied them in the field in two different years at B. tectorum-dominated field sites. All amendments except the lowest level of CaCl2 and zeolite negatively affected B. tectorum emergence and/or biomass. No amendments negatively affected the biomass of H. jamesii but NaCl reduced emergence. Amendment effectiveness depended on year of application and the length of time since application. The medium concentration of zeolite had the strongest negative effect on B. tectorum with little effect on H. jamesii. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine why zeolite was effective and found it released large amounts of Na+, adsorbed Ca2+, and increased Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable K, and NH 4+ in the soil. Our results suggest several possible amendments to control B. tectorum. However, variability in effectiveness due to abiotic factors such as precipitation and soil type must be accounted for when establishing management plans. ?? Springer 2006.

  16. Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4. Interestingly, in pots where H. jamesii was present, the negative effect of these treatments was ameliorated. Whereas the presence of B. tectorum generally decreased the aboveground biomass of H. jamesii (comparing aboveground biomass in monoculture versus combination pots), the presence of H. jamesii resulted in an enhancement of B. tectorum aboveground biomass by up to 900%. We hypothesize that B. tectorum was able to obtain resources from H. jamesii, an action that benefited B. tectorum while generally harming H. jamesii. Possible ways resources may be gained by B. tectorum from native perennial grasses include (1) B. tectorum is protected from salt stress by native plants or associated soil biota; (2) when B. tectorum is grown with H. jamesii, the native soil biota is altered in a way that favors B. tectorum growth, including B. tectorum tapping into the mycorrhizal network of native plants and obtaining resources from them; (3) B. tectorum can take advantage of root exudates from native plants, including water and nutrients released by natives via hydraulic redistribution; and (4) B. tectorum is able to utilize some combination of the above mechanisms. In summary, land managers may find adding soil treatments can temporarily suppress B. tectorum

  17. Electrochemical processes for in-situ treatment of contaminated soils. Annual progress report, September 1996--May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.P.; Cha, D.; Chang, J.H.; Qiang, Z.; Sung, M.; Cheng, L.

    1997-01-01

    'Soil samples from three industrial sites at two depths ranges (2--4 feet and 8--14 feet) were received and pertinent physico-chemical properties, such as pH, specific surface area, moisture content, organic matter content, hydraulic conductivity, cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH at zero point of charge (pH{sub zpc}), particle size distribution, organic contaminants and heavy metals fractionation were analyzed. Results show that clay and silt are the major components in the soil samples, which exhibits a relatively low hydraulic conductivity of about 10{sup -7} {approximately} 10{sup -8} cm/sec. The pH value of soil samples is in the neutral range (from pH 6.1 to 7.6) and its variation with depth is insignificant. Organic matter content is another important factor which affects soil properties such as specific surface area, chemical adsorption capacity and cation exchange capacity. Results indicate that the organic matter content ranges between 0.79% and 1.81%. The effective cation exchange capacity is from 13.8 to 21.2 meq/100 g. The values of moisture content, specific surface area and pH{sub zpc} range from 10.2--16.9%, 0.4--0.9 (m{sup 2}/g) and 2.18--2.60, respectively.'

  18. Effects of annual and interannual environmental variability on soil fungi associated with an old-growth, temperate hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Burke, David J

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal and interannual variability in temperature, precipitation and chemical resources may regulate fungal community structure in forests but the effect of such variability is still poorly understood. In this study, I examined changes in fungal communities over two years and how these changes were correlated to natural variation in soil conditions. Soil cores were collected every month for three years from permanent plots established in an old-growth hardwood forest, and molecular methods were used to detect fungal species. Species richness and diversity were not consistent between years with richness and diversity significantly affected by season in one year but significantly affected by depth in the other year. These differences were associated with variation in late winter snow cover. Fungal communities significantly varied by plot location, season and depth and differences were consistent between years but fungal species within the community were not consistent in their seasonality or in their preference for certain soil depths. Some fungal species, however, were found to be consistently correlated with soil chemistry across sampled years. These results suggest that fungal community changes reflect the behavior of the individual species within the community pool and how those species respond to local resource availability.

  19. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W.; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F.

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling. PMID:27501148

  20. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling.

  1. Inter-annual variability of area-scaled gaseous carbon emissions from wetland soils in the Liaohe Delta, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W.; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Yueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling.

  2. Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water : Project CP-1227 : FY04 annual technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Webb, Stephen Walter

    2005-01-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of a mass transfer model evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water based on experimental work obtained earlier in this project. This mass transfer numerical model has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be developed further using additional experimental data.

  3. The effects of soil mineral phases on the abiotic degradation of selected organic compounds. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sandu, S.S.

    1992-06-01

    Tetraphonylboron (TPB) will be used to precipitate radioactive 137Cs from high level nuclear waste water, at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which is operated by the US Department of Energy (US DOE), at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC. The decontaminated wastewater will contain millimolar quantities of TPB that will be processed into salt concretions. The waste processing operations will require about 3{times}l0{sup 5} kg/yr of TPB during its full scale operation. The transportation and use of large amounts of TPB can potentially result in the release of TPB into soil or aquatic environments where its degradation will take place. Previous studies have shown that TPB degrades abiotically in soils; however, the role of specific mineral surfaces in mediating the reaction kinetics and mechanisms for the abiotic degradation of TPB are not clearly known. Laboratory studies have been undertaken to evaluate the surface facilitated degradation of TPB by aluminum silicate clay minerals-kaolinite and montmorillonite. Preliminary results indicate that the rate of degradation of TPB is much higher in kaolinite-a single layer mineral-than in montmorillonite - a double layer mineral- and Orangeburg loamy soil. The initial products of TPB degradation in both minerals are diphenylboric acid (DPBA) and biphenyl. However, HPLC monitoring of degradation products of TPB in montmorillonite appears to indicate the presence of phenol and monophenyboric acid (MPBA).

  4. Monoterpenoids from the traditional North Italian vegetable Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H.Hara (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Granica, Sebastian; Fusani, Pietro; Stanisławska, Iwona; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Melck, Dominique; Motta, Andrea; Zidorn, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Investigations of young shoots of Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H.Hara (Rosaceae), collected from the wild and used as vegetables in alpine provinces of Italy, yielded eight monoterpenoids. Besides known compounds, aruncin A, aruncide A, and cimicifugolide, five previously undescribed substances, aruncins C, D, and E, and aruncides D and E, were identified. Based on results from the full synthesis of aruncin B, structures of aruncin A and aruncide A were revised. Structures were established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and based on data from synthetic aruncin B. An HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed to investigate the distribution of the monoterpenoids in different organs of Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris and in aerial parts of A. dioicus var. aethusifolius (H.Lév.) H.Hara [Syn.: Aruncus aethusifolius (H.Lév.) Nakai]. Preliminary bioactivity studies moreover indicated weak cytotoxicity for some of the compounds against human prostrate adenocarcinoma cells.

  5. Uranium-contaminated soils: Ultramicrotomy and electron beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    Uranium contaminated soils from the Fernald Operation Site, Ohio, have been examined by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM). A method is described for preparing of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin sections by ultramicrotomy. By using these thin sections, SEM and TEM images can be compared directly. Uranium was found in iron oxides, silicates (soddyite), phosphates (autunites), and fluorite. Little uranium was associated with clays. The distribution of uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level.

  6. [Research on output and quality of Panax notoginseng and annual change characteristics of N, P and K nutrients of planting soil under stereo-cultivation].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-mei; Cui, Xiu-ming; Lan, Lei; Chen, Wei-dong; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Lu, Da-hui; Yang, Ye

    2015-08-01

    The output and agronomic characters of 3-year-old Panax notoginseng cultured under stereo structure (upper, middle and down layers) were investigated, and the annual change of N, P and K of its planting soil were also studied. Results showed that, compared with field cultured Panax notoginseng, growth vigour and output of stereo-cultivation were significantly lower. But the total production of the 3 layers was 1.6 times of field. The growth vigor and production of P. notoginseng was in the order of upper layer > middle layer > down layer. The content of ginsenoside in rhizome, root tuber and hair root of P. notoginseng was in the order of upper layer > field > middle layer > down layer. Organic matter content and pH of stereo-cultivation soil decreased with the prolonging of planting time, which with the same trend of yield. Organic matter content of stereo-cultivation soil was significantly higher than field, but the pH was significantly lower. Contents of total and available N, P and K in stereo-cultivation soil and field decreased with the prolonging of planting time. The content of N and P were in the order of upper layer > middle layer > yield > down layer, the content of K was in the order of upper layer > middle layer > down layer > yield. Compared with field, the proportion of N and P in the organ of underground (rhizome, root tuber and hair root) of upper layer were increased, while decreased in middle and down layers. Proportion of K in underground decreased significantly of the 3 layers. In conclusion, the agronomic characters and production of stereo-cultivation were significantly lower than that of yield. But the total production of the 3 layers were significantly higher than field of unit area. And the aim of improving land utilization efficiency was achieved. Nutritions in the soil of stereo-cultivation were enough to support the development of P. notoginseng, which was not the cause of weak growth and low production. The absorbing ability of P

  7. Soil concentration profiles and diffusion and emission of nitrous oxide influenced by the application of biochar in a rice-wheat annual rotation system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziqiang; Xu, Xin; Bi, Zhichao; Li, Lu; Li, Bo; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-04-01

    Field experiments were carried out to determine biochar effects on nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration profiles, diffusion, and emissions in paddy soil under rice-wheat annual rotation in southeastern China. An in situ soil gas device was adapted to measure N2O concentrations at depths of 7, 15, 30, and 50 cm. Five treatments were installed as N0B0, N0B1, N1B0, N1B1, and N1B2 (B0, B1, and B2 designated as biochar at 0, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively, while N0 and N1 as nitrogen at 0 and 250 kg N ha(-1) crop(-1), respectively). The results showed that N2O concentrations were higher in the 15 and 30 cm depths than other depths. With positive diffusive fluxes, the 7 cm in the rice season and 15 cm in the wheat season were main production sites. The surface N2O emissions and topsoil diffusive fluxes showed good agreement. N application strongly increased soil N2O profiles and surface emissions. Relative to N1B0, N1B1 decreased N2O concentration, surface emissions, and diffusive fluxes by 25.2, 31.8, and 26.5 %, respectively, while N1B2 decreased them averagely by 40.7, 43.2, and 44.2 %, correspondingly. Therefore, the gas gradient method is effective for estimating N2O emissions, and biochar can decrease N2O production when N was applied.

  8. Annual soil CO2 efflux in a cold temperate forest in northeastern China: effects of winter snowpack and artificial nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boqi; Mou, Changcheng; Yan, Guoyong; Xu, Lijian; Jiang, Siling; Xing, Yajuan; Han, Shijie; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Qinggui

    2016-01-06

    We conducted a snow depth 0 cm (non-snowpack), 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and natural depth) gradient experiment under four quantities of nitrogen addition (control, no added N; low-N, 5 g N m(-2) yr(-1); medium-N, 10 g N m(-2) yr(-1); and high-N, 15 g N m(-2) yr(-1)) and took an-entire-year measurements of soil respiration (Rs) in Korean pine forests in northeastern China during 2013-2014. No evidence for effects of N on Rs could be found during the growing season. On the other hand, reduction of snowpack decreased winter soil respiration due to accompanied relatively lower soil temperature. We found that winter temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs were significantly higher than the growing season Q10 under all the N addition treatments. Moderate quantities of N addition (low-N and medium-N) significantly increased temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs, but excessive (high-N) addition decreased it during winter. The Gamma empirical model predicted that winter Rs under the four N addition treatments contributed 4.8. ± 0.3% (control), 3.6 ± 0.6% (low-N), 4.3 ± 0.4% (medium-N) and 6.4 ± 0.5% (high-N) to the whole year Rs. Our results demonstrate that N deposition will alter Q10 of winter Rs. Moreover, winter Rs may contribute very few to annual Rs budget.

  9. Annual soil CO2 efflux in a cold temperate forest in northeastern China: effects of winter snowpack and artificial nitrogen deposition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boqi; Mou, Changcheng; Yan, Guoyong; Xu, Lijian; Jiang, Siling; Xing, Yajuan; Han, Shijie; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Qinggui

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a snow depth 0 cm (non-snowpack), 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and natural depth) gradient experiment under four quantities of nitrogen addition (control, no added N; low-N, 5 g N m−2 yr−1; medium-N, 10 g N m−2 yr−1; and high-N, 15 g N m−2 yr−1) and took an-entire-year measurements of soil respiration (Rs) in Korean pine forests in northeastern China during 2013–2014. No evidence for effects of N on Rs could be found during the growing season. On the other hand, reduction of snowpack decreased winter soil respiration due to accompanied relatively lower soil temperature. We found that winter temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs were significantly higher than the growing season Q10 under all the N addition treatments. Moderate quantities of N addition (low-N and medium-N) significantly increased temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs, but excessive (high-N) addition decreased it during winter. The Gamma empirical model predicted that winter Rs under the four N addition treatments contributed 4.8. ± 0.3% (control), 3.6 ± 0.6% (low-N), 4.3 ± 0.4% (medium-N) and 6.4 ± 0.5% (high-N) to the whole year Rs. Our results demonstrate that N deposition will alter Q10 of winter Rs. Moreover, winter Rs may contribute very few to annual Rs budget. PMID:26732991

  10. Annual soil CO2 efflux in a cold temperate forest in northeastern China: effects of winter snowpack and artificial nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boqi; Mou, Changcheng; Yan, Guoyong; Xu, Lijian; Jiang, Siling; Xing, Yajuan; Han, Shijie; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Qinggui

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a snow depth 0 cm (non-snowpack), 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and natural depth) gradient experiment under four quantities of nitrogen addition (control, no added N; low-N, 5 g N m‑2 yr‑1 medium-N, 10 g N m‑2 yr‑1 and high-N, 15 g N m‑2 yr‑1) and took an-entire-year measurements of soil respiration (Rs) in Korean pine forests in northeastern China during 2013–2014. No evidence for effects of N on Rs could be found during the growing season. On the other hand, reduction of snowpack decreased winter soil respiration due to accompanied relatively lower soil temperature. We found that winter temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs were significantly higher than the growing season Q10 under all the N addition treatments. Moderate quantities of N addition (low-N and medium-N) significantly increased temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs, but excessive (high-N) addition decreased it during winter. The Gamma empirical model predicted that winter Rs under the four N addition treatments contributed 4.8. ± 0.3% (control), 3.6 ± 0.6% (low-N), 4.3 ± 0.4% (medium-N) and 6.4 ± 0.5% (high-N) to the whole year Rs. Our results demonstrate that N deposition will alter Q10 of winter Rs. Moreover, winter Rs may contribute very few to annual Rs budget.

  11. Seasonal and Inter-annual Changes in Photosynthetic and Soil Respiratory Processes in a Cool-temperate Deciduous Forest on a Mountainous Landscape in Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, H.; Noh, N. J.; Saitoh, T. M.; Nagao, A.; Noda, H. M.; Kuribayashi, M.; Nagai, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems is one of the most crucial themes in ecosystem sciences under current and future climate changes as it would affect our Earth system. Remote sensing and modeling analysis studies from continental to global scales have been indicating that the recent climate change is influential to photosynthetic processes in terrestrial vegetation such as forests and grasslands, by altering phenology (seasonal change) and foliage biomass. In addition, increasing temperature and possibly changing photosynthetic activities of plants are influential to soil carbon dynamics. Our deeper and broader understandings on such photosynthetic and respiratory processes governing carbon cycle and hence budget of terrestrial ecosystems are critical to detect the changes of ecosystem processes and the functions in changing environments, as they would influence the biodiversity, ecosystem services and Earth system.In order to reveal the nature of temporal changes in photosynthetic and respiratory processes in forest ecosystems, we have been conducting multi-disciplinary observations of ecophysiological and optical properties for canopy photosynthesis in a cool-temperate deciduous forest since 2003 ("Takayama site", contributing to AsiaFlux and JaLTER). In addition, open-field warming experiments have been conducted since 2011 to examine the possible influence of near-future warming condition on forest canopy photosynthesis and soil respiration. (1) Our long-term measurements of leaf and canopy photosynthesis revealed that their phenology is influenced by inter-annual variation of micrometeorological conditions. (2) Combined analysis of leaf-canopy photosynthesis and optical properties enabled us to estimate the forest photosynthetic productivity at regional scale by satellite data. (3) Open-field warming experiments suggested that tree foliage and soil processes would acclimate to near-future warming conditions.

  12. Long term (2006-2016) seasonal and inter-annual variability of soil electrical resistivity in a Laotian catchment of the OZCAR network. Impact of land use change, soil type and rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robain, Henri; Ribolzi, Olivier; De Rouw, Anneke; Silvera, Norbert; Souniaphong, Phabvilay; Soulileuth, Bousamai; Latchasak, Keooudone; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Valentin, Christian; Gaillardet, Jerome

    2017-04-01

    The MSEC(1) observatory of the critical zone in south-east Asia, which is part of the OZCAR(2) Network, has been monitored since 1999 (Laos, Thailand, Vietnam) to study the long term impact of land use changes in tropical mountainous regions, in terms of soil properties (porosity, depth, SOC, nutrients…), biodiversity (weeds, soil macro fauna), plant roots (architecture, functions,…), and transfers within the critical zone at various temporal and space scales: partition between infiltration and runoff, water quality (physical, chemical and bacteriological) and erosion processes (splash, inter-rill and rill, tillage, mass-movement). In the Houay Pano catchment located in Northern Laos, a long-term monitoring system was implemented in 2006 combining Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), with soil and hydrological equipments to better analyse the interactions between bank and hillslopes groundwater, and streamwater, in a context of steep slopes (>50%) and rapid land use change (conversion of annual crops to teak plantation). This continuous ERT monitoring has been carried out along a representative 100 m long transect in the middle of the 65 ha catchment perpendicular to the stream. The data were collected every week during rainy season and every second week during dry season. It has been associated with hydrological monitoring (piezometers, limnimeters, gauging weirs). Such high resolution geophysical monitoring data set (approx. 900 apparent resistivity measurements for each acquisition) provides an invaluable non-invasive proxy of soil water content variations in the different layers of the vadose zone. It demonstrates: i) the influence of plant cover on water infiltration; ii) the pathways for vertical and horizontal water fluxes within the soil cover; iii) the control of soil organisation along the hillslope over the hydrological behaviour of the unsaturated part of the critical zone. (1) «Multi-Scale Environmental Changes» : http://msec.obs-mip.fr/ (2

  13. Measurement and Modeling of Energetic Material Mass Transfer to Soil Pore Water - Project CP-1227 Annual Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.; WEBB, STEPHEN W.; ROMERO, JOSEPH V.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; GRIFFIN, FAWN A.

    2003-01-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g. weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. Experimental work to date with Composition B explosive has shown that column tests typically produce effluents near the temperature dependent solubility limits for RDX and TNT. The influence of water flow rate, temperature, porous media saturation and mass loading is documented. The mass transfer model formulation uses a mass transfer coefficient and surface area function and shows good agreement with the experimental data. Continued experimental work is necessary to evaluate solid phase particle size and 2-dimensional effects, and actual low order detonation debris. Simulation model improvements will continue leading to a capability to complete screening assessments of the impacts of military range operations on groundwater quality.

  14. Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water :project CP-1227 FY03 annual technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L.; Kerr, Dayle R.

    2004-01-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. This report documents the results of the Phase III experimental effort, which evaluated the impacts of surface deposits versus buried deposits, energetic material particle size, and low order detonation debris. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be refined and a 2-d screening model will be developed for initial site-specific applications. A technology development roadmap was created to show how specific R&D efforts are linked to technology and products for key customers.

  15. The annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam) as a trigger for high-magnitude soil erosion in temperate river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, fertile soils that experience frequent disturbance. Riverbanks and the riparian zone thus represent prime habitat. Its ability to out-compete most perennial vegetation yet tendency to suddenly die during seasonally cold weather has led to claims that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along inland watercourses. Despite the strong implication, this was only recently proven during an investigation conducted over one dieback and regrowth cycle in 2012/13 along a watercourse in northwest Switzerland. Here we reinterpret those initial findings and also present additional data from the same watercourse which now covers three die-off and regrowth cycles, as well as data over two die-off and regrowth cycles from a river system in southwest UK. Results from all monitoring campaigns strongly support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes significant soil erosion along contaminated sections of riverbank and riparian zone. More specifically, however, approximately one third of the total number of contaminated locations monitored (n=41) recorded net ground surface retreat that exceeded, by at least one order of magnitude, equivalent annual erosion rates documented on cultivated hillslopes in temperate regions. Not only does I. glandulifera induce repeat cycles of colonization and die-off, therefore, but collectively, the results generated so far strongly infer that under certain circumstances, this cycle of events can commonly trigger severe or even extreme erosion. Seasonally induced soil loss of this magnitude, particularly along short sections of watercourses, is unsustainable in the long-term and may lead to key fluvial features undergoing profound morphological and structural changes. Such an effect

  16. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.

  17. Kinetics and mechanisms of metal retention/release in geochemical processes in soil. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.

    1998-06-01

    'The long-term fate of toxic metals in soils cannot be precisely predicted, and often remediation recommendations and techniques may be ineffective or unnecessary. This work will generate basic knowledge on the kinetics and mechanism(s) of heavy metal retention/release by soil mineral colloids. The information should assist in improving remediation strategies for toxic heavy metal contaminated soils. The objectives are: (1) To determine the effects of residence time on the mechanisms of Cr(VI), Cu(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II) sorption/release on Fe and Al oxide and clay mineral surfaces using kinetic studies coupled to extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. (2) To study the effect of temperature, pH, and phosphate on metal sorption by oxides, and derive thermodynamic parameters to describe the sorption process. As of June, 16, 1997 several clay minerals were tested for their efficiency of removing Cr from aqueous systems. The materials tested--smectite, vermiculites, illites, and kaolinite--represent the natural clay minerals that are abundant in soils and sediments. The clays were used in either their original or reduced (reduced with sodium dithionite) forms. The experimental result indicate that the reduced clays acted as an efficient remover of Cr(VI) from an aqueous system. The XANES spectra of Cr-treated clays provided evidence that the clays reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and immobilized Cr in the clays at the same time. Sodium dithionite applied directly into aqueous systems reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), but could not immobilize Cr even in the presence of the clays. The Cr(VI) removal capacity varied with the clay mineral type and the structural Fe content. For the clays used in this study, the removal capacity follows the orders of smectites > vermiculites and illites > kaolinite. Within the same type of clay minerals, reduction of Cr(VI) is highly related to the ferrous iron

  18. Uranium-contaminated soils: Ultramicrotomy and electron beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.

    1994-02-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Site, Ohio, have been examined by a combination of scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging (SEM/BSE) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The inhomogeneous distribution of particulate uranium phases in the soil required the development of a method for using ultramicrotomy to prepare transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin sections of the SEM mounts. A water-miscible resin was selected that allowed comparison between SEM and TEM images, permitting representative sampling of the soil. Uranium was found in iron oxides, silicates (soddyite), phosphates (autunites), and fluorite (UO{sub 2}). No uranium was detected in association with phyllosilicates in the soil.

  19. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Lee, S.Y.

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the US Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the US Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment.

  20. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    SciTech Connect

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  1. Office of Inspector General report on audit of proposal to acquire land at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-05

    The US Department of Energy (Department) obtained an appraisal and developed a cost estimate to acquire 78 to 100 acres of privately-held land adjoining the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) as an additional buffer for a waste disposal facility. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the proposed purchase of land was essential to support the site`s mission. The Department obtained an appraisal and developed a cost estimate to acquire the additional land without confirming that av lid need for the land existed. If the land is acquired, the Department could spend between $655,000 and $2.2 million unnecessarily. Additionally, the Department could incur unnecessary maintenance and security costs to maintain the land after acquisition. It was recommended that the Manager, Ohio Field Office, dismiss the proposal to acquire the additional land. Management agreed with the recommendation, stating that the acquisition could not be justified at this time. However, management did not agree with the finding that the Department obtained an appraisal and developed a cost estimate without confirming that a valid need for the land existed. Management stated that the appraisal and cost estimate were principal and necessary to determining whether a need for the land existed. It was concluded that the appraisal and cost estimate should not have been performed because a valid need for the land was never established. Also, it was concluded that it would be inappropriate to reconsider the proposal to acquire the land at a later date if additional funds become available, unless a valid need for the land is first established.

  2. The consequences of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project: Report of the DOE/Nevada Independent Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.; Hansen, W.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) convened a panel of independent scientists to assess the performance impact of shallow burial of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, in light of a transportation incident in December 1997 involving this waste stream. The Fernald waste has been transported to the Nevada Test Site and disposed in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) since 1993. A separate DOE investigation of the incident established that the waste has been buried in stress-fractured metal boxes, and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high-volumetric water contents). The Independent Panel was charged with determining whether disposition of this waste in the Area 5 RWMS has impacted the conclusions of a previously completed performance assessment in which the site was judged to meet required performance objectives. To assess the performance impact on Area 5, the panel members developed a series of questions. The three areas addressed in these questions were (1) reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) excess moisture in the waste. The panel has concluded that there is no performance impact from reduced container integrity--no performance is allocated to the container in the conservative assumptions used in performance assessment. Similarly, the process controlling post-closure subsidence results primarily from void space within and between containers, and the container is assumed to degrade and collapse within 100 years.

  3. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders: The soil is a major sulfate source through peat and pyrite oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; van der Geest, Harm G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-02-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species. Potential limitation of these plants to areas with low sulfate was analyzed with a spatial match-up of two large databases. The peat polders are generally used for dairy farming or nature conservation, and have considerable areas of shallow surface water (mean 16%, range 6-43%). As a consequence of continuous drainage, the peat in these polders mineralizes causing subsidence rates generally ranging between 2 and 10 mm y-1. Together with pyrite oxidation, this peat mineralization the most important internal source of sulfate, providing an estimated 96 kg SO4 ha-1 mm-1 subsidence y-1. External sources are precipitation and water supplied during summer to compensate for water shortage, but these were found to be minor compared to internal release. The most important output flux is discharge of excess surface water during autumn and winter. If only external fluxes in and out of a polder are evaluated, inputs average 37 ± 9 and exports 169 ± 17 kg S ha-1 y-1. During summer, when evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall, sulfate accumulates in the unsaturated zone, to be flushed away and drained off during the wet autumn and winter. In some polders, upward seepage from early Holocene, brackish sediments can be a source of sulfate. Peat polders export sulfate to the regional water system and the sea during winter drainage. The available sulfate probably only plays a minor role in the oxidation of peat: we estimate that this is less than 10% whereas aerobic mineralization is the most important. Most surface waters in these polders have high sulfate concentrations, which generally decline during the growing season when aquatic sediments are a sink. In the sediment, this sulfur is

  4. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C. W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  5. Relationship between breast cancer risk factors and mammographic breast density in the Fernald Community Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Yaghjyan, L; Mahoney, M C; Succop, P; Wones, R; Buckholz, J; Pinney, S M

    2012-01-01

    Background: We investigated associations of known breast cancer risk factors with breast density, a well-established and very strong predictor of breast cancer risk. Methods: This nested case–control study included breast cancer-free women, 265 with high and 860 with low breast density. Women were required to be 40–80 years old and should have a body mass index (BMI) <35 at the time of the index mammogram. Information on covariates was obtained from annual questionnaires. Results: In the overall analysis, breast density was inversely associated with BMI at mammogram (P for trend<0.001), and parity (P for trend=0.02) and positively associated with alcohol consumption (ever vs never: odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.4–2.8). Alcohol consumption was positively associated with density, and the association was stronger in women with a family history of breast cancer (P<0.001) and in women with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) history (P<0.001). Parity was inversely associated with density in all subsets, except premenopausal women and women without a family history. The association of parity with density was stronger in women with HRT history (P<0.001). Conclusion: The associations of alcohol and parity with breast density appear to be in reverse direction, but stronger in women with a family history of breast cancer and women who ever used HRT. PMID:22281662

  6. Microscopic characterization of radionuclide contaminated soils to assist remediation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.

    1994-11-01

    A combination of optical, scanning, and analytical electron microscopies have been used to describe the nature of radionuclide contamination at several sites. These investigations were conducted to provide information for remediation efforts. This technique has been used successfully with uranium-contaminated soils from Fernald, OH, and Portsmouth, OH, thorium-contaminated soil from a plant in Tennessee, plutonium-contamination sand from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and incinerator ash from Los Alamos, NM. Selecting the most suitable method for cleaning a particular site is difficult if the nature of the contamination is not understood. Microscopic characterization allows the most appropriate method to be selected for removing the contamination and can show the effect a particular method is having on the soil. A method of sample preparation has been developed that allows direct comparison of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, enabling characterization of TEM samples to be more representative of the bulk sample.

  7. Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Smith, Ronald M.; Truex, Michael J.; Matthews, Hope E.

    2011-10-01

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2011. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development's (OTID) mission is to transform science into viable solutions for environmental cleanup. In 2010, OTID developed the Impact Plan, Science and Technology to Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Closure to outline the benefits of research and development of the lifecycle cost of cleanup across the DOE complex. This plan outlines OTID's ability to reduce by $50 billion, the $200 billion life-cycle cost in waste processing, groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning. The projected life-cycle costs and return on investment are based on actual savings realized from technology innovation, development, and insertion into remedial strategies and schedules at the Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula sites. To achieve our goals, OTID developed Applied Field Research Initiatives to facilitate and accelerate collaborative development and implementation of new tools and approaches that reduce risk, cost and time for site closure. The primary mission of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) is to protect our nation's water resources, keeping them clean and safe for future generations. The DVZ-AFRI was established for the DOE to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. Subsurface contaminants include radionuclides, metals, organics, and liquid waste that originated from various sources, including legacy waste from the nation's nuclear weapons complexes. The DVZ-AFRI project team is translating strategy into action by working to solve these complex challenges in a collaborative

  8. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was assembled in response to a request from the FEMP Aquifer Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald, Inc., requested that a Team of experts be convened to review technologies for the removal of uranium in both brine ion exchange regeneration solution from the Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility and in the leachate from the OSDF. The Team was asked to identify one or more technologies for bench-scale testing as a cost effective alternative to remove uranium so that the brine regeneration solution from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment facility and the leachate from the OSDF can be discharged without further treatment. The Team was also requested to prepare a recommended development and demonstration plan for the alternative technologies. Finally, the Team was asked to make recommendations on the optimal technical solution for field implementation. The Site's expected outcomes for this effort are schedule acceleration, cost reduction, and better long-term stewardship implementation. To facilitate consideration of the most appropriate technologies, the Team was divided into two groups to consider the brine and the leachate separately, since they represent different sources with different constraints on solutions, e.g., short-term versus very long-term and concentrated versus dilute contaminant matrices. This report focuses on the technologies that are most appropriate for the leachate from the OSDF. Upon arriving at FEMP, project personnel asked the Team to concentrate its efforts on evaluating potential technologies and

  9. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS), Phase I: Soil washing final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy`s environmental restoration and technology development activities, GTS Duratek, Inc., and its subcontractors have demonstrated an integrated thermal waste treatment system at Fernald, OH, as part the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program. Specifically, MAWS integrates soil washing, vitrification of mixed waste streams, and ion exchange to recycle and remediate process water to achieve, through a synergistic effect, a reduction in waste volume, increased waste loading, and production of a durable, leach-resistant, stable waste form suitable for disposal. This report summarizes the results of the demonstration/testing of the soil washing component of the MAWS system installed at Fernald (Plant 9). The soil washing system was designed to (1) process contaminated soil at a rate of 0.25 cubic yards per hour; (2) reduce overall waste volume and provide consistent-quality silica sand and contaminant concentrates as raw material for vitrification; and (3) release clean soil with uranium levels below 35 pCi/g. Volume reductions expected ranged from 50-80 percent; the actual volume reduction achieved during the demonstration reached 66.5 percent. The activity level of clean soil was reduced to as low as 6 pCi/g from an initial average soil activity level of 17.6 pCi/g (the highest initial level of soil provided for testing was 41 pCi/g). Although the throughput of the soil washing system was inconsistent throughout the testing period, the system was online for sufficient periods to conclude that a rate equivalent to 0.25 cubic yards per hour was achieved.

  10. The integration of innovative technologies into a physical-separation-based soil washing system

    SciTech Connect

    Krstich, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    An innovative system`s approach to the treatment of soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has been proposed to effectively and cost competitively treat a significant mass of soil. The use of an integrated soil treatment system to decontaminate FEMP soils is a unique application of the soil washing technology. Due to the unfavorable soil particle size distribution and the ubiquitous distribution of uranium among these particle size fractions, conventional soil washing processes commonly used on predominantly sandy soils alone may not achieve the desirable waste minimization level without the inclusion of innovative technologies. This objective of this paper is to briefly describe the physical separation and chemical extraction process commonly used in soil washing operation and to present the baseline soil washing approach used on FEMP soils. Noting the successful and not-so-successful processes within the soil washing operation at the FEMP, a proposed innovative system`s approach to treating FEMP soils will be described. This system`s approach will integrate a conventional soil washing operation with proposed innovative technologies.

  11. The impact of changing land use, nitrate deposition and CO{sub 2} fertilization on soil carbon storage. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.; Broecker, W.

    1992-05-21

    This research strives to assess the impact of changing land use, nitrate deposition and CO{sub 2} fertilization on soil carbon storage. Our motivation is that this reservoir is the most likely candidate for the so-called missing carbon sink. We are working on several aspects of this problem by measuring carbon content, nitrogen content and radiocarbon ratios in paired soil samples from neighboring sites, to determine the impact of land use on soil carbon inventories and turnover times. We are also gathering information on how the C/N ratios in soils vary with climate and changing land use, in an effort to estimate how much carbon has been sequestered as a result of atmospheric fallout of NH{sub 4}OH and HNO{sub 3}. Finally, we are developing a soil greening model that uses CO{sub 2} growth-enhancement results and bomb radiocarbon-based estimates of soil carbon inventory response times.

  12. Short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influences biochemical and microbial characteristics of soils under an annual crop [Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)].

    PubMed

    Dinesh, R; Srinivasan, V; Hamza, S; Manjusha, A

    2010-06-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influence biochemical and microbial variables reflecting soil quality. For the study, soils were collected from a field experiment conducted on turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) involving organic nutrient management (ONM), chemical nutrient management (CNM) and integrated nutrient management (INM). The findings revealed that application of organic manures and biofertilizers (ONM and INM) positively influenced microbial biomass C, N mineralization, soil respiration and enzymes activities. Contrarily, greater metabolic quotient levels in CNM indicated a stressed soil microbial community. Principal component analysis indicated the strong relationship between microbial activity and the availability of labile and easily mineralizable organic matter. The findings imply that even short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers promoted soil microbial and enzyme activities and these parameters are sensitive enough to detect changes in soil quality due to short-term incorporation of biological fertilizers. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests and effect of land use change on the carbon cycle in Amazon soils. Annual report No. 1, 1 September 1991-30 August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Nepstad, D.; Stone, T.; Davidson, E.; Trumbore, S.E.

    1992-10-01

    The main objective of these NASA-funded projects is to improve our understanding of land-use impacts on soil carbon dynamics in the Amazon Basin. Soil contains approximately one half of tropical forest carbon stocks, yet the fate of this carbon following forest impoverishment is poorly studied. Our mechanistics approach draws on numerous techniques for measuring soil carbon outputs, inputs, and turnover time in the soils of adjacent forest and pasture ecosystems at our research site in Paragominas, state of Para, Brazil. We are scaling up from this site-specific work by analyzing Basin-wide patterns in rooting depth and rainfall seasonality, the two factors that we believe should explain much of the variation in tropical soil carbons dynamics. In this report, we summarize ongoing measurements at our Paragominas study site, progress in employing new field data to understand soil C dynamics, and some surprising results from our regional, scale-up work.

  14. Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.; Goddard, P.L.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Kimbrough, C.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Lietzke, D.A.; McGin, C.W.; Nourse, B.D.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Shaw, R.A.; Stinnette, S.E.; Switek, J.; Wright, J.C.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.; Burgoa, B.B.; Lietzke, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objectives of the BSCP are to provide baseline data for contaminated site assessment and estimates of potential human health risk associated with background concentrations of hazardous and other constituents in native soils. This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in Phase I of the project. It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program.

  15. Comparison of the bioavailability of elemental waste laden soils using in vivo and in vitro analytical methodology and refinement of exposure/dose model. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gailo, M.; Georgopoulos, P.; Lioy, P.J.; Roy, A.

    1997-01-01

    'The bioavailability study has made significant progress in developing in vitro methodology, and the authors have completed the time course in vivo studies. The in vitro studies have been conducted to establish the major digestive variables of concern and the values to be used in application of both the saliva/gastric juice and intestinal fluid components of a synthetic digestive extraction. In vitro and in vivo experiments have been conducted on the 575 urn particle fraction of a soil sample collected in a Jersey City State Park. Five Jersey City soil samples were first characterized for physical and chemical characteristics. Based upon the composition of the five soils, one was selected for use in the first series of experiments. The second set of in vivo studies are to be conducted on a standard NIST Montana soil. It has already been examined for bioaccessibility and availability with the in vitro methodology. A sample has been collected in Bayonne to obtain an urban background soil. Surficial soil samples have been acquired from the Savannah River Site of the DOE. These are not radioactive but are contaminated with heavy metals, e.g. arsenic, and are being analyzed by both the in vivo and in vitro methodology. During this past summer a second set of soil samples were collected at Savannah River Site. These contain levels of both heavy metals and radionuclides. Recently, a special extraction laboratory has been constructed at EOHSI, with resources made available from the organization. It will handle the extraction and measurement of the radio activity of the soil, and extracts obtained by the in vivo techniques. It is anticipated that the SRS samples collected this summer will be available for analysis in both the in vivo and in vitro systems this fall. The initial characterization will be for soil, physical and chemical content, and microbial characteristics. The samples will be analyzed for the 5 75 urn particle size fraction, and the total mass 5 250 urn in

  16. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil.

  17. Final environmental assessment for the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations receipt and storage of uranium materials from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Through a series of material transfers and sales agreements over the past 6 to 8 years, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has reduced its nuclear material inventory from 14,500 to approximately 6,800 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This effort is part of the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) decision to change the mission of the FEMP site; it is currently shut down and the site is being remediated. This EA focuses on the receipt and storage of uranium materials at various DOE-ORO sites. The packaging and transportation of FEMP uranium material has been evaluated in previous NEPA and other environmental evaluations. A summary of these evaluation efforts is included as Appendix A. The material would be packaged in US Department of Transportation-approved shipping containers and removed from the FEMP site and transported to another site for storage. The Ohio Field Office will assume responsibility for environmental analyses and documentation for packaging and transport of the material as part of the remediation of the site, and ORO is preparing this EA for receipt and storage at one or more sites.

  18. Performance acceptance test of a portable instrument to detect uranium in water at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S.; Weeks, S.J.

    1997-03-28

    The Eppendorf-Biotronik Model IC 2001-2, a portable field ruggedized ion chromatography instrument, was rigorously tested at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio. This instrument rapidly detected the uranium concentration in water, and has a detection limit in the low ppb range without using the sample concentrating feature. The test set of samples analyzed included: ``Real World`` water samples from the AWWT containing uranium concentrations in the 9--110 ppb range, a sample blank, and a performance evaluation sample. The AWWT samples contained sets of both raw water and acid-preserved water samples. Selected samples were analyzed in quadruplicate to asses the instrument`s precision, and these results were compared with the results from an off-site confirmatory laboratory to assess the instrument`s accuracy. Additional comparisons with on-site laboratory instruments, Chemcheck KPA-11 and Scintrex UA-3 are reported. Overall, the Eppendorf-Biotronik IC 2001-2 performed exceptionally well providing a detection limit in the low ppb region (< 10 ppb) and giving rapid (< 5 minutes) accurate and reproducible analytical results for the AWWT, ``real world``, water samples with uranium concentrations in the region of interest (10--40 ppb). The per sample operating cost for this instrument is equivalent to the per sample cost for the currently used KPA. The time required to analyze a sample and provide a result is approximately the same for the CI 2001-2, KPA, and Scintrex instruments.

  19. Office of Inspector General audit report on credit card usage at the Ohio Field Office and the Fernald and Miamisburg Environmental Management Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    In 1994 the Department of Energy (Department) obtained the services of Rocky Mountain BankCard System, through the use of a General Services Administration contract, as a means for the Department and its contractors to make small purchases. The use of credit cards was expected to simplify small purchase procedures and improve cash management. The Ohio Field Office (Field Office) uses the credit card system and oversees usage by its area offices. Contractors under the Field Office also use the credit card system to make small purchases. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) has issued one audit report concerning the use of credit cards. In April 1996, the OIG issued Report WR-B-96-06, Audit of Bonneville Power Administration`s Management of Information Resources. The audit concluded that improvements could be made in implementing credit card and property procedures in Bonneville`s management of computer-related equipment. Specifically, many credit card purchases were made by employees whose authority to buy was not properly documented, and the purchasing files often lacked invoices that would show what was purchased. Additionally, some cardholders split purchases to avoid credit card limits. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the Field Office, Fernald and Miamisburg Environmental Management Projects, Fluor Daniel, and B and W were using credit cards for the appropriate purposes and within the limitations established by Federal and Departmental regulations.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the use of the greater confinement disposal concept for the disposal of Fernald 11e(2) byproduct material at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.R.; Brown, T.J.; Stockman, H.W.; Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Price, L.L. |

    1997-09-01

    This report documents a preliminary evaluation of the ability of the greater confinement disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site to provide long-term isolation of radionuclides from the disposal of vitrified byproduct material. The byproduct material is essentially concentrated residue from processing uranium ore that contains a complex mixture of radionuclides, many of which are long-lived and present in concentrations greater than 100,000 picoCuries per gram. This material has been stored in three silos at the fernald Environmental Management Project since the early 1950s and will be vitrified into 6,000 yd{sup 3} (4,580 m{sup 3}) of glass gems prior to disposal. This report documents Sandia National Laboratories` preliminary evaluation for disposal of the byproduct material and includes: the selection of quantitative performance objectives; a conceptual model of the disposal system and the waste; results of the modeling; identified issues, and activities necessary to complete a full performance assessment.

  1. Bioavailability of organic solvents in soils: Input into biologically based dose-response models for human risk assessments. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.

    1998-06-01

    'The purpose of this study is to determine the bioavailability of organic solvents following dermal exposures to contaminated soil and water. Breath analysis is being used to obtain real-time measurements of volatile organics in expired air following exposure in rats and humans. Rhesus monkeys will be used as surrogates for humans in benzene exposures. The exhaled breath data is being analyzed using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to determine the dermal bioavailability of organic solvents under realistic exposure conditions. The end product of this research will be a tested framework for the rapid screening of real and potential exposures while simultaneously developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to comprehensively evaluate and compare exposures to organics from either contaminated soil or water. This report summarizes work 7 months into a 3-year project. Method development has produced systems for solvent exposure from soil and water which mimic actual exposure, and for which animals and human volunteers can be safely tested. Soil exposure is generally open to the air (working the soil) while water exposure is generally immersion. For 6--8 hour test exposure, a patch has been developed where soil is contained against the skin by a non-occlusive membrane, while simultaneously allowing volatilization of test solvent to the environment (activated charcoal). The water counterpart is an occlusive glass culture dish, sealed to skin with silicone adhesive. Shorter term exposure is done by one hand immersion in a bucket containing circulating water or soil, the volunteer instructed to move fingers through the water or soil. Human volunteers and animals breathe fresh air via a new breath-inlet system that allows for continuous real-time analysis of undiluted exhaled air. The air supply system is self-contained and separated from the exposure solvent-laden environment. The system uses a Teledyne 3DQ Discovery ion trap mass

  2. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Volume 1, Phase 1: Annual report, September 28, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant.

  3. Variations in annual water-energy balance and their correlations with vegetation and soil moisture dynamics: A case study in the Wei River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Huang, Qiang; Leng, Guoyong; Zhao, Menglong; Meng, Erhao

    2017-03-01

    It is of importance to investigate watershed water-energy balance variations and to explore their correlations with vegetation and soil moisture dynamics, which helps better understand the interplays between underlying surface dynamics and the terrestrial water cycle. The heuristic segmentation method was adopted to identify change points in the parameter ω series in Fu's equation belonging to the Budyko framework in the Wei River Basin (WRB) and its sub-basins aiming to examine the validity of stationary assumptions. Additionally, the cross wavelet analysis was applied to explore the correlations between vegetation and soil moisture dynamics and ω variations. Results indicated that (1) the ω variations in the WRB are significant, with some change points identified except for the sub-basin above Zhangjiashan, implying that the stationarity of ω series in the WRB is invalid except for the sub-basin above Zhangjiashan; (2) the correlations between soil moisture series and ω series are weaker than those between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) series and ω series; (3) vegetation dynamics show significantly negative correlations with ω variations in 1983-2003 with a 4-8 year signal in the whole WRB, and both vegetation and soil moisture dynamics exert strong impacts on the parameter ω changes. This study helps understanding the interactions between underlying land surface dynamics and watershed water-energy balance.

  4. Comparison of the bioavailability of elemental waste laden soils using in vivo and in vitro analytical methodology and refinement of exposure/dose models. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J.; Gallo, M.; Georgopoulos, P.; Tate, R.; Buckley, B.

    1998-06-01

    'The authors hypotheses are: (1) the more closely the synthetic, in vitro, extractant mimics the extraction properties of the human digestive bio-fluids, the more accurate will be the estimate of an internal dose; (2) performance can be evaluated by in vivo studies with a rat model and quantitative examination of a mass balance, calculation and dose estimates from model simulations for the in vitro and in vivo system; and (3) the concentration of the elements Pb, Cd, Cr and selected Radionuclides present in the bioavailable fraction obtained with a synthetic extraction system will be a better indicator of contaminant ingestion from a contaminated soil because it represents the portion of the mass which can yield exposure, uptake and then the internal dose to an individual. As of April 15, 1998, they have made significant progress in the development of a unified approach to the examination of bioavailability and bioaccessibility of elemental contamination of soils for the ingestion route of exposure. This includes the initial characterization of the soil, in vitro measurements of bioaccessibility, and in vivo measurements of bioavailability. They have identified the basic chemical and microbiological characteristics of waste laden soils. These have been used to prioritize the soils for potential mobility of the trace elements present in the soil. Subsequently they have employed a mass balance technique, which for the first time tracked the movement and distribution of elements through an in vitro or in vivo experimental protocol to define the bioaccessible and the bioavailable fractions of digested soil. The basic mass balance equation for the in vitro system is: MT = MSGJ + MIJ + MR. where MT is the total mass extractable by a specific method, MSGJ, is the mass extracted by the saliva and the gastric juices, MIJ is the mass extracted by the intestinal fluid, and MR is the unextractable portion of the initial mass. The above is based upon the use of a synthetic

  5. Task 15 -- Remediation of organically contaminated soil using hot/liquid (subcritical) water. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.

    1997-12-31

    This activity involves a pilot-scale demonstration of the use of hot/liquid water for the removal of organic contaminants from soil at the pilot (20 to 40 kg) scale. Lab-scale studies are being performed to determine the optimum temperature, contact time, and flow rates for removal of the organic contaminants. Initial investigations into using carbon sorbents to clean the extractant water for recycle use and to concentrate the extracted contaminants in a small volume for disposal are also being performed. Liquid water is normally considered to be too polar a solvent to be effective for removal of organic contaminants from contaminated soils and sludges. However, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that the polarity of liquid water can be changed from that of a very polar solvent at ambient conditions to that of an organic solvent (e.g., ethanol or acetonitrile) by simply raising the temperature. The EERC has exploited this unique property of liquid water to obtain highly selective extractions of polar (at lower temperatures) to nonpolar (at 200 to 250 C) organics from contaminated soils and sludges. Only moderate pressures (a maximum of about 45 atm at 250 C and lower pressures at lower temperatures) are required. With this procedure, all detectable hazardous organics were removed from the sludge, thus making the remaining material (about 99% of the original mass) a nonhazardous material. The present understanding of hot/liquid water extraction for the removal of hazardous organics from contaminated soils and sludges is being used to develop the engineering parameters needed to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the remediation technology. Progress during the report period is summarized.

  6. Scots pine litter decomposition along drainage succession and soil nutrient gradients in peatland forests, and the effects of inter-annual weather variation

    Treesearch

    Raija Laiho; Jukka Laine; Carl C. Trettin; Leena Finér

    2004-01-01

    Peatlands form a large carbon (C) pool but their C sink is labile and susceptible to changes in climate and land-use. Some pristine peatlands are forested, and others have the potential: the amount of arboreal vegetation is likely to increase if soil water levels are lowered as a consequence of climate change. On those sites tree litter dynamics may be crucial for the...

  7. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Frank J; Pechmann, Ildiko; Bogden, John D; Grabosky, Jason; Weis, Peddrick

    2008-12-01

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG-Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load.

  8. Fixed capital investments for the uranium soils integrated demonstration soil treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the United States required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was formed to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium contaminated soils. The USID Program has five major tasks in developing and demonstrating these technologies. Each must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies developed by the USID Program. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  9. Diversity and Ecological Characterization of Sporulating Higher Filamentous Marine Fungi Associated with Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald in Two Portuguese Salt Marshes.

    PubMed

    Calado, Maria da Luz; Carvalho, Luís; Pang, Ka-Lai; Barata, Margarida

    2015-10-01

    Fungal communities associated with early stages of decomposition of Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald were assessed in two geographically distinct salt marshes in Portugal by direct observation of fungal sporulating structures. Twenty-three fungal taxa were identified from 390 plant samples, 11 of which were common to both study sites. Natantispora retorquens, Byssothecium obiones, Phaeosphaeria spartinicola, Phoma sp. 1 and Stagonospora sp. were the most frequent fungal taxa in the studied communities. The fungal species Anthostomella spissitecta, Camarosporium roumeguerii, Coniothyrium obiones, Decorospora gaudefroyi, Halosarpheia trullifera, Leptosphaeria marina and Stagonospora haliclysta were recorded for the first time on S. maritima plants; with the exception of C. roumeguerii and L. marina, all of these species were also new records for Portugal. The differences between species composition of the communities associated with S. maritima were attributed to differences in abiotic conditions of the salt marshes. Although the fungal taxa were distributed differently along the host plants, common species to both fungal communities were found on the same relative position, e.g. B. obiones, Lulworthia sp. and N. retorquens occurred on the basal plant portions, Buergenerula spartinae, Dictyosporium pelagicum and Phoma sp. 1 on the middle plant portions and P. spartinicola and Stagonospora sp. on the top plant portions. The distinct vertical distribution patterns reflected species-specific salinity requirements and flooding tolerance, but specially substrate preferences. The most frequent fungi in both communities also exhibited wider distribution ranges and produced a higher number of fruiting structures, suggesting a more active key role in the decay process of S. maritima.

  10. 238U and 232Th Dose Calculations and Size Distribution Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosols at Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R. Z.; Jacob, E. M.; Marschke, S. F.; Pranitis, D. M.; Jaw, H-R. Kristina

    2000-03-01

    A rotating drum impactor was co-located with a high volume air sampler for ~ 1 y at the fence line of the U. S. Department of Energy’s Fernald Environmental Management Project site. Data on the size distribution of uranium bearing atmospheric aerosols from 0.065 mm to 100 mm in diameter were obtained and used to compute dose using several different models. During most of the year, the mass of 238U above 15 mm exceeded 70% of the total uranium mass from all particulates. Above 4.3 µm, the 238U mass exceeded 80% of the total uranium mass from all particulates. During any sampling period the size distribution was bimodal. In the winter/spring period, the modes appeared at 0.29 µm and 3.2 µm. During the summer period, the lower mode shifted up to ~ 0.45 mm. In the fall/winter, the upper mode shifted to ~ 1.7 µm, while the lower mode stayed at 0.45 mm. These differences reflect the changes in site activities. Thorium concentrations were comparable to the uranium concentrations during the late spring and summer period and decreased to ~25% of the 238U concentration in the late summer. The thorium size distribution trend also differed from the uranium trend. The current calculational method used to demonstrate compliance with regulations assumes that the airborne particulates are characterized by an activity median diameter of 1 µm. This assumption results in an overestimate of the dose to offsite receptors by as much as a factor of seven relative to values derived using the latest ICRP 66 lung model with more appropriate particle sizes. Further evaluation of the size distribution for each radionuclide would substantially improve the dose estimates.

  11. Environment, Safety and Health independent evaluation of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company`s (FERMCO) Comprehensive Environmental Occupational Safety and Health Program (CEOSHP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) requested the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to perform an independent evaluation of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation`s (FERMCO`s) Comprehensive Environmental occupational Safety and Health Program (CEOSHP) document. In 1992, FERMCO was awarded the Department of Energy`s (DOE) first Environmental Restoration Management Contract and developed the CEOSHP to respond to contract requirements. EH limited its review to the CEOSHP because this document constitutes FERMCO`s written environment, safety and health (ES&H) program document and thus provides the basis for FERMCO`s ES&H program. EH`s independent review identified several major areas of the CEOSHP that need to be revised if it is to function successfully as the program-level document for FERMCO`s environment, safety and health program. The problems identified occur throughout the document and apply across the three CEOSHP sections evaluated by EH: the Occupational Safety and Health program, the Environmental Protection program, and the Radiological Control program. Primary findings of the CEOSHP: (1) Does not fully reflect the occupational safety and health, environmental protection, and radiological control requirements of the Department; (2) Does not convey a strong sense of management leadership of the program or clearly delineate employee rights, responsibilities, and roles in FERMCO`s ES&H program; (3) Is not a program management-level document; (4) Does not describe a ``seamless`` ES&H program; and (5) Does not clearly convey how FERMCO`s ES&H program actually works. EH`s detailed evaluation of FERMCO`s CEOSHP, along with specific recommendations are presented in Sections 2, 3, and 4 of this report. EH believes that EM will find this review and analysis useful in its efforts to assist FERMCO in a comprehensive redrafting of the CEOSHP.

  12. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    A recent Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study identified 59 waste sites at 14 DOE facilities across the nation that exhibit radionuclide contamination in excess of established limits. The rapid and efficient characterization of these sites, and the potentially contaminated regions that surround them represents a technological challenge with no existing solution. In particular, the past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of surface and subsurface soils. Such contamination commonly occurs within waste burial sites, cribs, pond bottom sediments and soils surrounding waste tanks or uranium scrap, ore, tailings, and slag heaps. The objective of the Uranium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop optimal remediation methods for soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium (U), at DOE sites. It is examining all phases involved in an actual cleanup, including all regulatory and permitting requirements, to expedite selection and implementation of the best technologies that show immediate and long-term effectiveness specific to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and applicable to other radionuclide contaminated DOE sites. The demonstration provides for technical performance evaluations and comparisons of different developmental technologies at FEMP sites, based on cost-effectiveness, risk-reduction effectiveness, technology effectiveness, and regulatory and public acceptability. Technology groups being evaluated include physical and chemical contaminant separations, in situ remediation, real-time characterization and monitoring, precise excavation, site restoration, secondary waste treatment, and soil waste stabilization.

  13. Cadmium concentration and distribution in corn (Zea mays L.) grown on a calcareous soil for three years after three annual sludge applications.

    PubMed

    Webber, L R; Beauchamp, E G

    1979-01-01

    The disposal of digested sewage sludge on crop-producing land appeals to municipalities as an option but may pose a hazard to human and animal health if the plant material contains elevated levels of some heavy metals. This paper reports the levels of cadmium in corn grain and stover for six years -- three years with sludge applied annually and for three years after sludge applications were terminated. The cadmium concentration in corn grain from the sixth year was similar to values found in corn grown on non-sludged plots. In corn stover from treated plots the cadmium concentration was greater than from untreated plots. Our study indicated that phytotoxic levels of cadmium did not exist even though elevated levels occurred in the corn stover.

  14. [Interannual changes in PAR and soil moisture during the warm season may be more important for directing of annual carbon balance in tundra than temperature fluctuations].

    PubMed

    Karelin, D V; Zamolodchikov, D G; Zukert, N V; Chestnykh, O V; Pochikalov, A V; Kraev, G N

    2013-01-01

    A lot of studies on the impact of global climate changes on natural communities deal with cryogenic ecosystems, tundra in particular, since they are delimited by low air temperature and permafrost, thus being extremely sensitive to long-term climate fluctuations. Continuous warming in Northern Hemisphere is unmasking all the more details concerning complex system of direct relationships, feedbacks, and interactions of carbon balance factors as the main response function. While the set of such factors may be viewed as more or less complete, their relative contribution to C-balance, as is becoming clear with accumulating results of field observations, directly depends on temporal scale of observations and is not constant. As the results of field observations and modeling of tundra ecosystems show, any one of significant factors can become the leading one within the boundaries determined by the given scale of observations. Even the least significant factor can become the determining one for direction of carbon annual net flux in an ecosystem, if contributions of more significant factors canceled each other during the period of observations. In the most general situation, the greater is the variation of a significant factor during the period of observations, the larger is its partial contribution. The complete set of independent variables of C-balance is not limited by abiotic factors but should include such an important factor as a stock of plants living top mass, which can be treated as not only the natural product of C-balance but also as its independent parameter.

  15. Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

    1993-08-01

    A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site.

  16. AAPCC Annual Reports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Annual Report 2000 Annual Report 1999 Annual Report Poison Data National Poison Data System Uses for NPDS ... Elements NPDS FAQs Annual Reports Find Your Local Poison Center Poison centers offer free, private, confidential medical ...

  17. Effects of various uranium leaching procedures on soil: Short-term vegetation growth and physiology. Progress report, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, N.T.

    1994-08-01

    Significant volumes of soil containing elevated levels of uranium exist in the eastern United States. The contamination resulted from the development of the nuclear industry in the United States requiring a large variety of uranium products. The contaminated soil poses a collection and disposal problem of a magnitude that justifies the development of decontamination methods. Consequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program to address the problem. The fundamental goal of the USID task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than what can be done using current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics and without generating waste that is difficult to manage and/or dispose of. However, procedures developed for removing uranium from contaminated soil have involved harsh chemical treatments that affect the physicochemical properties of the soil. The questions are (1) are the changes in soil properties severe enough to destroy the soil`s capacity to support and sustain vegetation growth and survival? and (2) what amendments might be made to the leached soil to return it to a reasonable vegetation production capacity? This study examines the vegetation-support capacity of soil that had been chemically leached to remove uranium. The approach is to conduct short-term germination and phytotoxicity tests for evaluating soils after they are subjected to various leaching procedures followed by longer term pot studies on successfully leached soils that show the greatest capacity to support plant growth. This report details the results from germination and short-term phytotoxicity testing of soils that underwent a variety of leaching procedures at the bench scale at ORNL and at the pilot plant at Fernald.

  18. Rangeland runoff and soil erosion database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The estimated annual costs of damage caused by soil erosion and excessive sediment in surface waters within the U.S. is approximately $6 billion to $16 billion annually. Historically, information on the types, patterns, causes, spatial location, severity, and extent of land degradation through soil ...

  19. Heap leach studies on the removal of uranium from soil. Report of laboratory-scale test results

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; York, D.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Dander, D.C.; Longmire, P.A.; Morris, D.E.; Strait, R.K.; Brewer, J.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report details the initial results of laboratory-scale testing of heap leach that is being developed as a method for removing uranium from uranium-contaminated soil. The soil used was obtained from the site of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) near the village of Fernald in Ohio. The testing is being conducted on a laboratory scale, but it is intended that this methodology will eventually be enlarged to field scale where, millions of cubic meters of uranium-contaminated soil can be remediated. The laboratory scale experiments show that, using carbonate/bicarbonate solutions, uranium can be effectively removed from the soil from initial values of around 600 ppM down to 100 ppM or less. The goal of this research is to selectively remove uranium from the contaminated soil, without causing serious changes in the characteristics of the soil. It is also hoped that the new technologies developed for soil remediation at FEMP will be transferred to other sites that also have uranium-contaminated soil.

  20. Field demonstration of technologies for delineating uranium contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, V.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Schwing, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Perry, D.L.; Morris, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort is the evaluation of field screening tools capable of acquiring high resolution information on the distribution of uranium contamination in surface soils in a cost-and-time efficient manner. Consistent with this need, four field screening technologies have been demonstrated at two hazardous waste sites at the FERMCO. The four technologies tested are wide-area gamma spectroscopy, beta scintillation counting, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES), and long-range alpha detection (LRAD). One of the important findings of this demonstration was just how difficult it is to compare data collected by means of multiple independent measurement techniques. Difficulties are attributed to differences in measurement scale, differences in the basic physics upon which the various measurement schemes are predicated, and differences in the general performance of detector instrumentation. It follows that optimal deployment of these techniques requires the development of an approach for accounting for the intrinsic differences noted above. As such, emphasis is given in this paper to the development of a methodology for integrating these techniques for use in site characterization programs as well as the development of a framework for interpreting the collected data. The methodology described here also has general application to other field-based screening technologies and soil sampling programs.

  1. Soil microbial community structure: mechanical disturbance alters soil microbial community

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil microbes are responsible for soil nutrient cycling in both perennial and annual management systems for beef cattle and grain production. In the Southern Plains of Oklahoma, producers plant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in rotation with winter canola (Brassica rapa). Producers in the Southern...

  2. National Wildlife's Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presented is the Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index, a subjective analysis of the state of the nation's natural resources. Resource trends are detailed for wildlife, minerals, air, water, soil living space, and forests. (BT)

  3. National Wildlife's Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presented is the Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index, a subjective analysis of the state of the nation's natural resources. Resource trends are detailed for wildlife, minerals, air, water, soil living space, and forests. (BT)

  4. Annual Quality Assurance Conference Files by Tom Mancuso

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    25th Annual Quality Assurance Conference. Abstract: Learn about the NEW EPA Method 325b for Refinery Fence Line Monitoring and TO-17 Extended for Soil Gas by Tom Mancuso and Abstract: Success Using Alternate Carrier Gases for Volatile Methods

  5. Polyphenol oxidase activity in annual forage clovers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mediated phenol reactions in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) bind forage protein and reduce proteolysis, producing beneficial effects on forage protein degradability, silage fermentation, and soil-N cycling. We evaluated PPO activity in seven previously untested annual c...

  6. Bioreduction amenability testing of actinide contaminated soils. The systems: Am{sup 241}-Pu{sup 238}, Am{sup 241}-Pu{sup 239/40}, U

    SciTech Connect

    Korich, D.G.; Sharp, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Bioreductive processing of actinide contaminated soils can achieve extraction levels in excess of 97% for both plutonium and uranium contaminants. Reasonable reaction rates of 4 to 6 day resident times for Pu-Am have been demonstrated on 4 gram sample charges. Longer reaction times of 17 days required for uranium extraction can be improved by soil sample preconditioning and/or an increase in process reagent concentrations. The environmentally benign treatment process operates at pH 6--7, preserves the original soil matrix, and utilizes standard processing equipment. The process reagent component (inoculum SD-1 and biological growth medium PX100{trademark}) are available for utilization in an integrated system. Process techniques developed by MBX, involving graduated volume bioreactors have been proven to alleviate biological toxicity problems in treatment leachates. Bioreduction processing of actinide contaminated soils, preconditioning of soil charges, and recycling or vegetation of unacceptable tailings can be combined to provide an effective and environmentally attractive method of remediation. The soil test program was designed to determine the applicability of the MBX bioreductive technology to solubilize Pu and Am from RFP, Mound and LANL soils and uranium from Hanford and Fernald soils.

  7. 7 CFR 1410.42 - Annual rental payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.42 Annual..., include a payment based on a weighted average soil rental rate or marginal pastureland rental rate, as... appropriate, prepare a schedule for each county that shows the maximum soil rental rate CCC may pay which may...

  8. 7 CFR 1410.42 - Annual rental payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.42 Annual..., include a payment based on a weighted average soil rental rate or marginal pastureland rental rate, as... appropriate, prepare a schedule for each county that shows the maximum soil rental rate CCC may pay which may...

  9. Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-09-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  10. N2O emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability

    Treesearch

    A.M. Weitza; E. Linderb; S. Frolkingc; P.M. Crillc; M. Keller

    2001-01-01

    We studied soil moisture dynamics and nitrous oxide (N2O) ¯uxes from agricultural soils in the humid tropics of Costa Rica. Using a splitplot design on two soils (clay, loam) we compared two crop types (annual, perennial) each unfertilized and fertilized. Both soils are of andic origin. Their properties include relatively low bulk density and high organic matter...

  11. Soil management: The key to soil quality and sustainable agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Barão, Lúcia; Soares, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    close as possible natural soil conditions while producing food, feed, fibre and fuel. This means to establish and manage crops while disturbing the soil as least as possible, to maintain the soil permanently covered with plants or their residues and to allow for a diversity of plants either in rotation or in association. These principles also known as Conservation Agriculture have shown to be the most promising approach for a sustainable production intensification and proven to work in a wide range of agro-ecological conditions. Although adopted already on more than 150 Mha worldwide, in Europe it still can be considered a novel soil management practice as it is applied on only around 2% of the annual cropland. A paradigm shift and innovative approaches are needed both to recognise the principles of Conservation Agriculture as the only cost-effective, and thus overall sustainable soil management practices capable to deliver the soil-mediated ecosystem services and to make Conservation Agriculture systems work and accepted as the best compromise to attain better soil quality. Keywords: Soil threats, Soil conservation, GAEC, Conservation Agriculture, Resource efficiency

  12. Soil CO₂ dynamics in a tree island soil of the Pantanal: the role of soil water potential.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto, Osvaldo B; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S; Messias, Indira A M; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO₂ research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO₂ dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO₂ concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO₂ efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO₂ efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m⁻² y⁻¹. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0-20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO₂ concentrations, with high CO₂ values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO₂ efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO₂ dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO₂ efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO₂ concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO₂ efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above.

  13. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO2 concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO2 efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO2 efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m−2 y−1. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0–20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO2 concentrations, with high CO2 values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO2 efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO2 dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO2 efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO2 concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO2 efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  14. Observing Mean Annual Mediterranean Maquis Ecosystem Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, S.; Bellucco, V.; Mereu, S.; Sirca, C.; Spano, D.

    2014-12-01

    In semi arid ecosystems, extremely low Soil Water Content (SWC) values may limit ecosystem respiration (Reco) to the point of hiding the typical exponential response of respiration to temperature. This work is aimed to understand and model the Reco of an evergreen Mediterranean maquis ecosystem and to estimate the contribution of soil CO2 efflux to Reco. The selected site is located in the center of the Mediterranean sea in Sardinia (Italy). Mean annual precipitation is 588 mm and mean annual temperature is 15.9 °C. Vegetation cover is heterogeneous: 70% covered by shrubs and 30% of bare soil. Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) is monitored with an Eddy Covariance (EC) tower since April 2004. Soil collars were placed underneath the dominant species (Juniperus phoenicea and Pistacia lentiscus) and over the bare soil. Soil CO2 efflux was measured once a month since April 2012. Soil temperature and SWC were monitored continuously at 5 cm depth in 4 different positions close to the soil collars. Six years of EC measurements (2005-2010) and two years of soil CO2 efflux (2012-2013) measurements were analysed. Reco was estimated from the measured EC fluxes at night after filtering for adequate turbulence (u* > 1.5). Reco measurements were then binned into 1°C intervals and median values were first fitted using the Locally Estimated Scatterplot Smoothing (LOESS) method (to determine the dominant trend of the experimental curve) Reco shows an exponential increase with air and soil temperature, until SWC measured at 0.2 m depth remains above 19% vol. Secondly, the coefficients of the selected Lloyd and Taylor (1994) were estimated through the nonlinear least square (nls) method: Rref (ecosystem respiration rate at a reference temperature of 10 °C was equal to 1.65 μmol m-2 s-1 and E0 (activation energy parameter that determines the temperature sensitivity) was equal to 322.46. In addition, bare and drier soils show a reduced response of measured CO2 efflux to increasing

  15. Radon generation and transport in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Soil-gas Rn, soil moisture, and soil temperature have been monitored for one year or more at five sites in Pennsylvania which have been characterized for soil bulk density, porosity, diffusivity and permeability. Radon-222 and {sup 222}Rn vary in an annual, approximately sinusoidal pattern having an amplitude of 2- to 10-fold at all five sites. Since Rn partitioning between gas and water is temperature sensitive, and because soil moisture and temperature change in annual cycles, much of the variability in {sup 222}Rn occurs in annual cycles. Therefore knowledge of regional and temporal soil moisture and temperature patterns allows estimates of {sup 222}Rn in soil gas. These estimates suggest Rn is least elevated by moisture in cold, arid soils, and temporal variability will be small in arid soils. In areas where the soil substrate has lower Rn, emanation coefficient, or bulk density than the soil, soil-gas Rn can diffuse into the substrate. Under extreme conditions the Rn concentration can have a gradient towards the rock. Soil cores were used to measure the fraction of Rn exhaling to the gas phase over a range of moisture tensions. The greatest exhaling fraction generally occurred at intermediate moisture tension. The low exhaling fraction in dry soil is attributed to lodging of recoiling Rn in adjacent soil grains. The low exhaling fraction in wet soil is attributed to waterinhibited diffusion. This core method provides reasonable estimates of the combined effects of emanation and diffusion on Rn in soils. Bulk diffusion coefficients and permeability coefficients generally decrease by nearly 1 and 2 orders of magnitude respectively from the eluvial to the illuvial horizons in typical soils.

  16. Forest soils

    Treesearch

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  17. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  18. Effects of cropping systems on soil biology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The need for fertilizer use to enhance soil nutrient pools to achieve good crop yield is essential to modern agriculture. Specific management practices, including cover cropping, that increase the activities of soil microorganisms to fix N and mobilize P and micronutrients may reduce annual inputs ...

  19. Physiological variation among native and exotic winter annual plants associated with microbiotic crusts in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFalco, L.A.; Detling, J.K.; Tracy, C.R.; Warren, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Microbiotic crusts are important components of many aridland soils. Research on crusts typically focuses on the increase in soil fertility due to N-fixing micro-organisms, the stabilization of soils against water and wind erosion and the impact of disturbance on N-cycling. The effect of microbiotic crusts on the associated plant community has received little attention. We quantified the influence of crusts on the production, species diversity, nutrient content and water relations of winter annual plant species associated with microbiotic soil crusts in the northeast Mojave Desert. Shoot biomass of winter annuals was 37% greater and plant density was 77% greater on crusts than were biomass and density on soils lacking crust cover (=bare soils). This greater production of annuals on crusts was likely due to enhanced soil conditions including an almost two-fold increase in soil organic matter and inorganic N compared to bare soils. Crusted soils also had 53% greater volumetric water content than bare soils during November and December, the time when winter annuals become established. As plant development progressed into spring, however, soil water availability decreased: More negative plant xylem water potentials were associated with greater plant biomass on crusted soils. Plants associated with microbiotic soil crusts had lower concentrations of N in shoots (mg N g-1 dry mass). However, total shoot N (mg N m-2) was the same in plants growing on the different soil types when biomass production peaked in April. Shoots had similar patterns in their concentration and content of P. Species diversity of annuals was not statistically different between the two soil types. Yet, while native annuals comprised the greatest proportion of shoot biomass on bare soils, exotic forbs and grasses produced more biomass on crusts. Total shoot nutrient content (biomass x concentration) of the two exotic annual species examined was dramatically greater on crusts than bare soils; only one

  20. 1957 bibliography of Pacific Northwest forest soils publications.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1958-01-01

    In 1956, The Forest Soils Committee of the Douglas-fir Region endorsed preparation of an annual bibliography dealing with forest soils research in the Pacific Northwest. The first list, published as Research Note No. 130, summarized all forest soils publications pertaining to the region through 1955. A summary of such publications appearing in 1956 was released as...

  1. Nocturnal soil CO2 uptake and its relationship to sub-surface soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes in a Chihuahuan Desert shrubland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite their prevalence, little attention has been given to quantifying aridland soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes over prolonged, annually occurring dry periods. We measured surface soil respiration (Rsoil), volumetric soil moisture and temperature in inter- and under-canopy soils, sub-surface soi...

  2. Measurement of Radon, Thoron, Isotopic Uranium and Thorium to Determine Occupational and Environmental Exposure and Risk at Fernald Feed Material Production Center Publication Date: September 25, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Naomi H.

    2001-09-25

    Research Objectives: (1) To develop an accurate personal radon/thoron monitor to quantitate exposure to low airborne concentrations before and during removal and relocation of radium from the silos. (2) To develop a personal aerosol particle size sampler, based on the principles of the novel sampler we have developed. The sampler measures not only 222Rn decay product aerosol size but long lived nuclides. There are, as yet, no particle size distribution data on the aerosol particle size distribution of these nuclides during remediation at any DOE site, although the aerosol particle size is the major determinant of lung dose. (3) To develop the sequential radiochemistry necessary to measure any environmental sample for 228,230,232Th, 226,228Ra, 234,235,238U and 210Pb. To utilize the radiochemistry and accurately trace and delineate these nuclides in the environment. To obtain historic and present radiochemical data to determine the need for supplemental soil/water etc., measurements.

  3. Annual Technical Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    T ’ .. . . . -. . . . , . . . - . ... - -. --- ~ . . . ..... .... IIS~ANNUAL TECHNICAL REPORT K-TO THE OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT No, N00014...RIECIPICHT’S CATC1.O@ NUM@SA 4. TITLE (sn$ S-611fleI) ’I TYPE OP RErPORT A Pimo0o COVEREC, Annual Technical Report Am~4~10/01ZS-9130/26 S.PERFORMING

  4. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  5. Annual Review of Biophysics.

    PubMed

    Hatzis, Christos

    2013-07-01

    Annual Review of Biophysics Rees D. Dill K., Williamson J., Annual Reviews Palo Alto, CA, 2010. 581 pp. (hardcover), ISBN: 978-0-8243-1839-0, © 2013 Doody's Review Service. Doody's Review Service. © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Annual Data Profile, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin. Community Colleges and Technical Institutes Div.

    This document is a compilation of annual data profile tables, Perkins measures, and institutional effectiveness measures and standards for South Texas Community College, 1998. Data highlights include: (1) total annual enrollment in 1996-97 was 11,508 (872 white; 29 black; 10,526 Hispanic; 69 Asian; 9 Native American; 3 international; and 81…

  7. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  8. Mycorrhizal colonization does not affect tolerance to defoliation of an annual herb in different light availability and soil fertility treatments but increases flower size in light-rich environments.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Chama, Ana; Guevara, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous distribution of resources in most plant populations results in a mosaic of plant physiological responses tending to maximize plant fitness. This includes plant responses to trophic interactions such as herbivory and mycorrhizal symbiosis which are concurrent in most plants. We explored fitness costs of 50% manual defoliation and mycorrhizal inoculation in Datura stramonium at different light availability and soil fertility environments in a greenhouse experiment. Overall, we showed that non-inoculated and mycorrhiza-inoculated plants did not suffer from 50% manual defoliation in all the tested combinations of light availability and soil fertility treatments, while soil nutrients and light availability predominately affected plant responses to the mycorrhizal inoculation. Fifty percent defoliation had a direct negative effect on reproductive traits whereas mycorrhiza-inoculated plants produced larger flowers than non-inoculated plants when light was not a limiting factor. Although D. stramonium is a facultative selfing species, other investigations had shown clear advantages of cross-pollination in this species; therefore, the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation on flower size observed in this study open new lines of inquiry for our understanding of plant responses to trophic interactions. Also in this study, we detected shifts in the limiting resources affecting plant responses to trophic interactions.

  9. The Modeling of the Effects of Soiling, Its Mechanisms, and the Corresponding Abrasion

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Lin; Muller, Matthew; Deceglie, Michael; Miller, David; Moutinho, Helio

    2016-02-24

    Decreasing LCOE with predictive soiling loss models (using site data to predict annualized energy loss), quantification of different soiling mechanisms (using AFM-based characterization), and developing standards for PV module coatings.

  10. Metals in European roadside soils and soil solution--a review.

    PubMed

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    This review provides a summary of studies analysing metal concentrations in soils and soil solution at European roadsides. The data collected during 27 studies covering a total of 64 sites across a number of European countries were summarised. Highest median values of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in the top soil layer at the first 5 m beside the road. Generally, the influence of traffic on soil contamination decreased with increasing soil depth and distance to the road. The concentration patterns of metals in soil solution were independent from concentrations in the soil matrix. At 10-m distance, elevated soil metal concentrations, low pH, and low percolation rates led to high solute concentrations. Directly beside the road, high percolation rates lead to high annual loadings although solute concentrations are comparatively low. These loadings might be problematic, especially in regions with acidic sandy soils and a high groundwater table.

  11. Quantifying Shrink Swell Capacity of Soil Using Soil Moisture Isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, L. D.; Cobos, D. R.; Campbell, C. S.; Morgan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Vertisols, soils instinctively known for their expansive clays that cause them to have a high shrink swell potential, cover 2.4% of the earths ice-free land. In the United States these expansive soils can cause upwards of 6 billion in damages to pavements, foundations, and utility lines annually (Brady & Weil, 2010). Because of this, it is especially important that a soils ability to shrink and swell is well characterized when making engineering decisions. One traditional method for measuring a soil's expansive potential, the Coefficient of Linear Extensibility (COLE), can take weeks to months to complete (Grossman et al., 1968; Schafer and Singer, 1976b). Use of soil moisture isotherms, or the Soil Moisture Characteristic Curve (SMCC), in recent research has shown that the slope of the SMCC is related to a soils swelling potential (McKeen, 1992). The goal of this research is to evaluate the robustness of the relationship between the SMCC and COLE for a set of well-characterized test soils with COLE ranging from 0 to 0.176. If expansive potential can be reliably predicted from the SMCC, then data from recently developed automatic soil moisture isotherm generators could be used to characterize expansive potential with a fraction of the time and effort necessary for traditional techniques.

  12. Conserving Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved…

  13. Sensitivity of soil respiration to variability in soil moisture and temperature in a humid tropical forest

    Treesearch

    Tana Wood; M. Detto; W.L. Silver

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation and temperature are important drivers of soil respiration. The role of moisture and temperature are generally explored at seasonal or inter-annual timescales; however, significant variability also occurs on hourly to daily time-scales. We used small (1.54 m2), throughfall exclusion shelters to evaluate the role soil moisture and temperature as temporal...

  14. Temperature and Soil Moisture Regimes In and Adjacent to the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Jerry T. Crews; Linton Wright

    2000-01-01

    The effects of elevation, aspect, ambient air temperature, and soil moisture on soil temperature were examined in and adjacent to the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia to determine the extent of frigid soils. The mean annual temperature of frigid soils ranges from 1? to 7?C at a depth of 50 cm; the difference between mean winter and mean summer temperatures...

  15. Seasonal Dynamics of Enzymatic Activities and Functional Diversity in Soils under Different Organic Management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil microbial activity and diversity fluctuate seasonally under annual organic amendment for improving soil quality. We investigated the effects of municipal compost (MC), poultry litter (PL), and cover crops of spring oats and red clover (RC) on soil enzyme activities, and soil bacterial community...

  16. Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-Y.; Liu, S.-G.; Zhang, D.-Q.; Liu, S.-Z.; Li, Ji; Zhou, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (±SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ± 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ± 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ± 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.

  17. Soil carbonates and soil water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of soil carbonates occurring as solidified masses or dispersed particles can alter soil water dynamics from what would be expected based on non-carbonate soil properties. Carbonate minerals in the soil can be derived from high carbonate parent material, additions in the form of carbonat...

  18. 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  19. Seasonal changes in soil water repellency and their effect on soil CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a seasonally variable phenomenon controlled by moisture content and at the same time a regulator of the distribution and conductivity of water in the soil. The distribution and availability of water in soil is also an important factor for microbial activity, decomposition of soil organic matter and exchange of gases like CO2 and CH4 between the soil and the atmosphere. It has been therefore hypothesised that SWR by restricting water availability in soil can affect the production and the transport of CO2 in the soil and between the soil and the atmosphere. This study investigates the effect of seasonal changes in soil moisture and water repellency on CO2 fluxes from soil. The study was conducted for 3 year at four grassland and pine forest sites in the UK with contrasting precipitation. The results show the temporal changes in soil moisture content and SWR are affected by rainfall intensity and the length of dry periods between the storms. Soils exposed to very high annual rainfall (>1200mm) can still exhibit high levels of SWR for relatively long periods of time. The spatial variation in soil moisture resulting from SWR affects soil CO2 fluxes, but the most profound effect is visible during and immediately after the rainfall events. Keywords: soil water repellency, CO2 flux, hydrophobicity, preferential flow, gas exchange, rainfall

  20. TARDEC Annual Report 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    working on specific technologies, such as automotive capabilities, materials and software development. The benefits of these collaborations are two-fold...ANNUAL REPORT U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER TWO THOUSAND TEN Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Tank- Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Fiscal Year (FY) 10 Annual Report 14. ABSTRACT

  1. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  2. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  3. Soil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

    1987-01-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

  4. 109th AOAC international annual meeting & exposition. Final program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contain papers which were presented at the 109th AOAC International Annual Meeting & Exposition. Topics were concerned with the analysis of toxics and organics in environmental materials, particularly soils. Individual projects have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy data bases.

  5. Soil properties, soil functions and soil security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Soil plays a crucial role in the ecosystem functioning such as food production, capture and storage of water, carbon and nutrients and in the realisation of a number of UN Sustainable Developments Goals. In this work we present an approach to spatially and jointly assess the multiple contributions of soil to the delivery of ecosystem services within multiple land-use system. We focussed on the modelling of the impact of soil on sediment retention, carbon storage, storing and filtering of nutrients, habitat for soil organisms and water regulation, taking into account examples of land use and climate scenarios. Simplified models were used for the single components. Spatialised Bayesian Belief networks were used for the jointly assessment and mapping of soil contribution to multiple land use and ecosystem services. We integrated continuous 3D soil information derived from digital soil mapping approaches covering the whole of mainland Scotland, excluding the Northern Islands. Uncertainty was accounted for and propagated across the whole process. The Scottish test case highlights the differences in roles between mineral and organic soils and provides an example of integrated study assessing the contributions of soil. The results show the importance of the multi-functional analysis of the contribution of soils to the ecosystem service delivery and UN SDGs.

  6. Inference of Soil Hydrologic Parameters from Electronic Soil Moisture Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, David G.; Seyfried, Mark S.; McNamara, James P.; Hwang, Kyotaek

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important control on hydrologic function, as it governs vertical fluxes from and to the atmosphere, groundwater recharge and lateral fluxes through the soil. Historically, the traditional model parameters of saturation, field capacity and permanent wilting point have been determined by laboratory methods. This approach is challenged by issues of scale, boundary conditions and soil disturbance. We develop and compare four methods to determine values of field saturation, field capacity, plant extraction limit and initiation of plant water stress from long term in-situ monitoring records of TDR-measured volumetric water content (Q). The monitoring sites represent a range of soil textures, soil depths, effective precipitation and plant cover types in a semi-arid climate. The Q records exhibit attractors (high frequency values) that correspond to field capacity and the plant extraction limit at both annual and longer time scales, but the field saturation values vary by year depending on seasonal wetness in the semi-arid setting. The analysis for five sites in two watersheds is supported by comparison to values determined by a common pedotransfer function and measured soil characteristic curves. Frozen soil is identified as a complicating factor for the analysis and users are cautioned to filter data by temperature, especially for near surface soils.

  7. Tillage Requirments for integrating winter-annual grazing in peanut production: Plant water status and productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of crop rotation systems involving winter-annual grazing can help peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producers increase profitability, although winter-annual grazing could result in excessive soil compaction, which can severely limit yields. We conducted a 3-yr field study on a Dothan loamy sand i...

  8. Soil Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killham, Ken

    1994-04-01

    Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

  9. Soil Quality Indicator: a new concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barão, Lúcia; Basch, Gottlieb

    2017-04-01

    During the last century, cultivated soils have been intensively exploited for food and feed production. This exploitation has compromised the soils' natural functions and many of the soil-mediated ecosystems services, including its production potential for agriculture. Also, soils became increasingly vulnerable and less resilient to a wide range of threats. To overcome this situation, new and better management practices are needed to prevent soil from degradation. However, to adopt the best management practices in a specific location, it is necessary to evaluate the soil quality status first. Different soil quality indicators have been suggested over the last decades in order to evaluate the soil status, and those are often based on the performance of soil chemical, physical and biological properties. However, the direct link between these properties and the associated soil functions or soil vulnerability to threats appears more difficult to be established. This present work is part of the iSQAPER project- Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience, where new soil quality concepts are explored to provide better information regarding the effects of the most promising agricultural management practices on soil quality. We have developed a new conceptual soil quality indicator which determines the soil quality status, regarding its vulnerability towards different threats. First, different indicators were specifically developed for each of the eight threats considered - Erosion, SOM decline, Poor Structure, Poor water holding capacity, Compaction, N-Leaching, Soil-borne pests and diseases and Salinization. As an example for the case of Erosion, the RUSLE equation for the estimate of the soil annual loss was used. Secondly, a reference classification was established for each indicator to integrate all possible results into a Good, Intermediate or Bad classification. Finally, all indicators were

  10. Effect of soil in nutrient cycle assessment at dairy farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Annual farm nutrient cycle assessments give valuable insight in the nutrient cycles and nutrient losses at dairy farms. It describes nutrient use efficiencies for the entire farm and for the underlying components cattle, manure, crops and soil. In many modelling studies, soil is kept as a constant factor, while soil quality is vital for soil functioning of the ecosystem. Improving soil quality will improve the nutrient cycle, and will also have positive effect on the soil functions crop production, water cycling and greenhouse gas mitigation. Spatial variation of soil properties within a farm, however, are not included in annual nutrient cycle assessments. Therefore it is impossible to identify fields where most profit can be gained by improving farm management at field level, and it is not possible to identify and to quantify nutrient flow path ways. The aim of this study is to develop a framework to improve the annual nutrient cycle assessment at Dutch dairy farms, by including soil properties and their spatial variation within farms. Soil type and soil quality will be described by visual soil assessment of soil quality characteristics. The visual observations will be linked to the nutrient cycle assessment, using soil-hydrological model SWAP. We will demonstrate how soil quality at field level can impact on crop production, eutrophication potential and greenhouse gas potential at farm level. Also, we will show how this framework can be used by farmers to improve their farm management. This new approach is focusing on annual nutrient cycle assessment, but could also be used in life cycle assessment. It will improve understanding of soil functioning and dairy farm management.

  11. Assessing soil erosion using USLE model and MODIS data in the Guangdong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Yunpeng; Yang, Jingxue

    2017-07-01

    In this study, soil erosion in the Guangdong, China during 2012 was quantitatively assessed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The parameters of the model were calculated using GIS and MODIS data. The spatial distribution of the average annual soil loss on grid basis was mapped. The estimated average annual soil erosion in Guangdong in 2012 is about 2294.47t/ (km2.a). Four high sensitive area of soil erosion in Guangdong in 2012 was found. The key factors of these four high sensitive areas of soil erosion were significantly contributed to the land cover types, rainfall and Economic development and human activities.

  12. Saline soils spectral library as a tool for digital soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bas, María Victoria; Meléndez-Pastor, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, José; Gómez, Ignacio; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Hernández, Encarni

    2013-04-01

    Soil information is needed at regional to global scales for proper land management. Soil scientist has been historically interested in mapping soil classes and properties to represent and explore the spatial distribution of soil characteristics. Fortunately, soil mapping came into the digital era decades ago, enabling the dissemination of computationally intensive techniques (e.g., geostatistics). Digital soil mapping is moving forward in recent decades. Digital soil mapping has evolved from "traditional" studies that employed a set of soils to build soil maps, to more recent approaches that exploit the increasing computing facilities to combine soil databases with ancillary data such as digital elevation models, remote sensing imagery and proximal sensing datasets. The inclusion of VNIR spectroscopy in digital soil mapping approaches is an outstanding research field. VNIR spectroscopy has largely been employed to quantify soil properties with proximal sensor and remote sensor (i.e., imaging spectroscopy). One of the traditional problems in soil mapping is the time needed to compile a soil database large enough to allow for mapping with robustness. Therefore there is a growing interest in using the less time consuming, immutability of the sample and increasing accuracy of soil spectroscopy to obtain accurate enough soil maps but with lower data requirements. This research trend is particularly interesting for the study of highly dynamic soil processes for which is necessary to know the spatial and temporal changes of certain properties for a correct soil assessment. The objective of this work was the study of soil salinity which is a dynamic property responding to seasonal (i.e., vertical upwelling) and inter-annual (i.e., salinization) changes. Soil salinity is a major constraint for agriculture by limiting or excluding certain crops. Thus, a continuous monitoring of soil salinity is needed to select the most suitable crops and to prevent future salinization

  13. Soil organic carbon distribution in roadside soils of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhadip; Scharenbroch, Bryant C; Ow, Lai Fern

    2016-12-01

    Soil is the largest pool of organic carbon in terrestrial systems and plays a key role in carbon cycle. Global population living in urban areas are increasing substantially; however, the effects of urbanization on soil carbon storage and distribution are largely unknown. Here, we characterized the soil organic carbon (SOC) in roadside soils across the city-state of Singapore. We tested three hypotheses that SOC contents (concentration and density) in Singapore would be positively related to aboveground tree biomass, soil microbial biomass and land-use patterns. Overall mean SOC concentrations and densities (0-100 cm) of Singapore's roadside soils were 29 g kg(-1) (4-106 g kg(-1)) and 11 kg m(-2) (1.1-42.5 kg m(-2)) with median values of 26 g kg(-1) and 10 kg m(-2), respectively. There was significantly higher concentration of organic carbon (10.3 g kg(-1)) in the top 0-30 cm soil depth compared to the deeper (30-50 cm, and 50-100 cm) soil depths. Singapore's roadside soils represent 4% of Singapore's land, but store 2.9 million Mg C (estimated range of 0.3-11 million Mg C). This amount of SOC is equivalent to 25% of annual anthropogenic C emissions in Singapore. Soil organic C contents in Singapore's soils were not related to aboveground vegetation or soil microbial biomass, whereas land-use patterns to best explain variance in SOC in Singapore's roadside soils. We found SOC in Singapore's roadside soils to be inversely related to urbanization. We conclude that high SOC in Singapore roadside soils are probably due to management, such as specifications of high quality top-soil, high use of irrigation and fertilization and also due to an optimal climate promoting rapid growth and biological activity.

  14. 1956 bibliography of Pacific Northwest forest soils publications.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1957-01-01

    In 1956, a summary of references on Pacific Northwest forest soils research was developed to begin a systematic annual recording of regionally published material in this comparatively new field. This summary included references for all years through 1955.

  15. Soil penetrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, E. A.; Hotz, G. M.; Bryson, R. P. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    An auger-type soil penetrometer for burrowing into soil formations is described. The auger, while initially moving along a predetermined path, may deviate from the path when encountering an obstruction in the soil. Alterations and modifications may be made in the structure so that it may be used for other purposes.

  16. Stochastic soil water balance under seasonal climates

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xue; Porporato, Amilcare; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of soil water partitioning in seasonally dry climates necessarily requires careful consideration of the periodic climatic forcing at the intra-annual timescale in addition to daily scale variabilities. Here, we introduce three new extensions to a stochastic soil moisture model which yields seasonal evolution of soil moisture and relevant hydrological fluxes. These approximations allow seasonal climatic forcings (e.g. rainfall and potential evapotranspiration) to be fully resolved, extending the analysis of soil water partitioning to account explicitly for the seasonal amplitude and the phase difference between the climatic forcings. The results provide accurate descriptions of probabilistic soil moisture dynamics under seasonal climates without requiring extensive numerical simulations. We also find that the transfer of soil moisture between the wet to the dry season is responsible for hysteresis in the hydrological response, showing asymmetrical trajectories in the mean soil moisture and in the transient Budyko's curves during the ‘dry-down‘ versus the ‘rewetting‘ phases of the year. Furthermore, in some dry climates where rainfall and potential evapotranspiration are in-phase, annual evapotranspiration can be shown to increase because of inter-seasonal soil moisture transfer, highlighting the importance of soil water storage in the seasonal context. PMID:25663808

  17. The Effect of Land Use on Soil Erosion in the Guadiana Watershed in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    TANIA DEL MAR LÓPEZ; T. MITCHELL AIDE; SCATENA F. N.

    1998-01-01

    The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System to determine the influence of land use and other environmental factors on soil erosion in the Guadiana watershed in Puerto Rico. Mean annual erosion, suspended sediment discharge, and the rainfall-erosion factor of the RUSLE increased with annual rainfall....

  18. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  19. Task E container corrosion studies: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, L.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Topping, J.B.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting the Solid Waste Technology Support Program (SWTSP) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Task E is the Container Corrosion Study Portion of the SWTSP that will perform testing to provide defensible data on the corrosion of low-carbon steel, as used in drums to contain chemical and radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site. A second objective of Task E is to provide and test practical alternative materials that have higher corrosion resistance than low-carbon steel. The scope of work for fiscal year (FY) 1993 included initial testing of mild steel specimens buried in Hanford soils or exposed to atmospheric corrosion in metal storage sheds. During FY 1993, progress was made in three areas of Task E. First, exposure of test materials began at the Soil Corrosion Test Site where low-carbon steel specimens were placed in the soil in five test shafts at depths of 9 m (30 ft). Second, the corrosion measurement of low-carbon steel in the soil of two solid waste trenches continued. The total exposure time is {approx} 500 days. Third, an atmospheric corrosion test of low-carbon steel was put initiated in a metal shed (Building 2401-W) in the 200 West Area. This annual report describes the Task E efforts and provides a current status.

  20. Sampling frequency affects estimates of annual nitrous oxide fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Barton, L.; Wolf, B.; Rowlings, D.; Scheer, C.; Kiese, R.; Grace, P.; Stefanova, K.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, a potent greenhouse gas, from soils is necessary to improve our knowledge of terrestrial N2O losses. Developing universal sampling frequencies for calculating annual N2O fluxes is difficult, as fluxes are renowned for their high temporal variability. We demonstrate daily sampling was largely required to achieve annual N2O fluxes within 10% of the ‘best’ estimate for 28 annual datasets collected from three continents—Australia, Europe and Asia. Decreasing the regularity of measurements either under- or overestimated annual N2O fluxes, with a maximum overestimation of 935%. Measurement frequency was lowered using a sampling strategy based on environmental factors known to affect temporal variability, but still required sampling more than once a week. Consequently, uncertainty in current global terrestrial N2O budgets associated with the upscaling of field-based datasets can be decreased significantly using adequate sampling frequencies. PMID:26522228

  1. Sampling frequency affects estimates of annual nitrous oxide fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, L.; Wolf, B.; Rowlings, D.; Scheer, C.; Kiese, R.; Grace, P.; Stefanova, K.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, a potent greenhouse gas, from soils is necessary to improve our knowledge of terrestrial N2O losses. Developing universal sampling frequencies for calculating annual N2O fluxes is difficult, as fluxes are renowned for their high temporal variability. We demonstrate daily sampling was largely required to achieve annual N2O fluxes within 10% of the ‘best’ estimate for 28 annual datasets collected from three continents—Australia, Europe and Asia. Decreasing the regularity of measurements either under- or overestimated annual N2O fluxes, with a maximum overestimation of 935%. Measurement frequency was lowered using a sampling strategy based on environmental factors known to affect temporal variability, but still required sampling more than once a week. Consequently, uncertainty in current global terrestrial N2O budgets associated with the upscaling of field-based datasets can be decreased significantly using adequate sampling frequencies.

  2. Soil organic carbon dynamics jointly controlled by climate, carbon inputs, soil properties and soil carbon fractions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongkui; Feng, Wenting; Luo, Yiqi; Baldock, Jeff; Wang, Enli

    2017-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are regulated by the complex interplay of climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions. However, the interrelation of SOC and these drivers and their potential connection networks are rarely assessed quantitatively. Using observations of SOC dynamics with detailed soil properties from 90 field trials at 28 sites under different agroecosystems across the Australian cropping regions, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate, soil properties, carbon (C) inputs and soil C pools (a total of 17 variables) on SOC change rate (rC , Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) ). Among these variables, we found that the most influential variables on rC were the average C input amount and annual precipitation, and the total SOC stock at the beginning of the trials. Overall, C inputs (including C input amount and pasture frequency in the crop rotation system) accounted for 27% of the relative influence on rC , followed by climate 25% (including precipitation and temperature), soil C pools 24% (including pool size and composition) and soil properties (such as cation exchange capacity, clay content, bulk density) 24%. Path analysis identified a network of intercorrelations of climate, soil properties, C inputs and soil C pools in determining rC . The direct correlation of rC with climate was significantly weakened if removing the effects of soil properties and C pools, and vice versa. These results reveal the relative importance of climate, soil properties, C inputs and C pools and their complex interconnections in regulating SOC dynamics. Ignorance of the impact of changes in soil properties, C pool composition and C input (quantity and quality) on SOC dynamics is likely one of the main sources of uncertainty in SOC predictions from the process-based SOC models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  4. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  5. Sensitivity of Soil Respiration to Variability in Soil Moisture and Temperature in a Humid Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Tana E.; Detto, Matteo; Silver, Whendee L.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation and temperature are important drivers of soil respiration. The role of moisture and temperature are generally explored at seasonal or inter-annual timescales; however, significant variability also occurs on hourly to daily time-scales. We used small (1.54 m2), throughfall exclusion shelters to evaluate the role soil moisture and temperature as temporal controls on soil CO2 efflux from a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico. We measured hourly soil CO2 efflux, temperature and moisture in control and exclusion plots (n = 6) for 6-months. The variance of each time series was analyzed using orthonormal wavelet transformation and Haar-wavelet coherence. We found strong negative coherence between soil moisture and soil respiration in control plots corresponding to a two-day periodicity. Across all plots, there was a significant parabolic relationship between soil moisture and soil CO2 efflux with peak soil respiration occurring at volumetric soil moisture of approximately 0.375 m3/m3. We additionally found a weak positive coherence between CO2 and temperature at longer time-scales and a significant positive relationship between soil temperature and CO2 efflux when the analysis was limited to the control plots. The coherence between CO2 and both temperature and soil moisture were reduced in exclusion plots. The reduced CO2 response to temperature in exclusion plots suggests that the positive effect of temperature on CO2 is constrained by soil moisture availability. PMID:24312508

  6. ASE Annual Conference 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas…

  7. Annual Research Briefs - 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the 1996 annual progress reports of the research fellows and students supported by the Center for Turbulence Research. Last year, CTR hosted twelve resident Postdoctoral Fellows, three Research Associates, four Senior Research Fellows, and supported one doctoral student and ten short term visitors.

  8. TACSCE Research Annual 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesko, Silvia Jo

    1991-01-01

    This annual contains the paper that won the 1991 President's Award of the Texas Association for Community Service and Continuing Education (TACSCE) as well as the runner-up paper and other articles. An editorial, "Learning to Crawl" (Silvia Lesko), focuses on the editor's "discovery" of the adult learner. "Ethics and…

  9. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Hules , John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  10. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing…

  11. UNICEF Annual Report, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) describes the programs and services provided by this organization in 1993. Following an introduction by UNICEF's executive director, the report reviews regional developments in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, Latin…

  12. Folklife Annual, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbour, Alan, Ed.; Hardin, James, Ed.

    This annual publication is intended to promote the documentation and study of the folklife of the United States, to share the traditions, values, and activities of U.S. folk culture, and to serve as a national forum for the discussion of ideas and issues in folklore and folklife. The articles in this collection are: (1) "Eating in the Belly…

  13. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  14. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  15. NRCC annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer.

  16. UNICEF Annual Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) details the programs and services provided by this organization in 1992-93. Following an introduction by UNICEF's executive director, the report briefly reviews UNICEF activities for 1992, then describes specific projects in the following areas: (1) child survival and development;…

  17. UNICEF Annual Report 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    In introducing this annual report, the executive director of UNICEF delineates the four techniques for primary health care and basic services reported in the publication "State of the World's Children, 1982-1983." The ensuing review of UNICEF's activities illustrates highlights of the year's program cooperation, including trends and key…

  18. Annual Report, FY 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Board for Community Colleges, Annapolis.

    This annual report from the Maryland State Board for Community Colleges outlines information on enrollment, instructional programs, finance, capital construction, the state master plan, legislation, and the Vocational Education Acts Grant for fiscal year 1978. The report reveals that the 1977 opening fall credit enrollment for Maryland community…

  19. Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook provides modeled projections of domestic energy markets through 2050, and includes cases with different assumptions of macroeconomic growth, world oil prices, technological progress, and energy policies. With strong domestic production and relatively flat demand, the United States becomes a net energy exporter over the projection period in most cases.

  20. Annual Income Tax Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Sandra C.

    1992-01-01

    This annual guide to income tax for parents of children with disabilities covers organizing records; avoiding audits; deducting medical expenses; and considering the impact of recent changes in medical expenses, Social Security numbers for children, child care, earned income credit, and deduction for dependents. (DB)

  1. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  2. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  3. OMS 1987 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Designed to serve both as an activity report on Office of Management Studies (OMS) progress during 1987 and a catalog of OMS services and products, this annual report focuses on the management of technology in a scholarly environment. Programs and services are reported in five sections: (1) Applied Research and Development (the Institute on…

  4. Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook provides modeled projections of domestic energy markets through 2050, and includes cases with different assumptions of macroeconomic growth, world oil prices, technological progress, and energy policies. With strong domestic production and relatively flat demand, the United States becomes a net energy exporter over the projection period in most cases.

  5. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  6. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  7. UNICEF Annual Report, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) describes the programs and services provided by this organization in 1993. Following an introduction by UNICEF's executive director, the report reviews regional developments in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, Latin…

  8. International Energy Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  9. Annual Coal Distribution

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  10. Grassroots. Annual Report 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassroots Educare Trust, Gatesville (South Africa).

    This annual report describes the programs and staff for 1993 of Grassroots Educare Trust, an organization that helps South African communities provide preschool education and health care. Contents of the report are: (1) a list of the board of trustees; (2) a message from the chairman; (3) the director's report on external efforts and internal…

  11. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  12. Annual research briefs, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Briefs of the 1994 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulence Research are presented. Subjects covered include turbulence combustion, large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged turbulence modeling, turbulence control, postprocessing, sound generation, and turbulence physics.

  13. NUFFIC Annual Report, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation, The Hague.

    The 1977 annual report of the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC) considers the following topics: major developments in work and policy; relationships NUFFIC has with other organizations; University Development Cooperation; developments in international education; the functioning of the Consultative Structure…

  14. UNICEF Annual Report. 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report reviews the work UNICEF has been doing to help transform the "Child Survival Revolution" from a dream into a reality. Discussion focuses primarily on child health and nutrition and other basic services for children. Throughout, the review is supplemented with profiles of program initiatives made to improve the…

  15. UNICEF Annual Report 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    In introducing this annual report, the executive director of UNICEF delineates the four techniques for primary health care and basic services reported in the publication "State of the World's Children, 1982-1983." The ensuing review of UNICEF's activities illustrates highlights of the year's program cooperation, including trends and key…

  16. UNICEF Annual Report. 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This annual report reviews the work UNICEF has been doing to help transform the "Child Survival Revolution" from a dream into a reality. Discussion focuses primarily on child health and nutrition and other basic services for children. Throughout, the review is supplemented with profiles of program initiatives made to improve the…

  17. UNICEF Annual Report, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    At this time, the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) is commemorating its 50th anniversary, under the slogan "children first." This annual UNICEF report reviews the organization's activities during 1995. An introduction by the executive director states that the report will give readers a sense of what UNICEF is doing with partners to…

  18. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, David B.

    1999-01-01

    This 1999 issue of the "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "The Unmade Analogy: Alcohol and Abortion" (Richard W. Leeman); "Say, You Want a Revolution" (Roy Schwartzman and Constance Y. Green); "Exploring the Relationship between Perceived Narrativity and Persuasiveness"…

  19. ASE Annual Conference 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas…

  20. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Annual, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The inaugural volume of Magnetic Resonance Annual includes reviews of MRI of the posterior fossa, cerebral neoplasms, and the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. A chapter on contrast materials outlines the mechanisms of paramagnetic contrast enhancement and highlights several promising contrast agents.

  2. Radiological Monitoring Equipment For Real-Time Quantification Of Area Contamination In Soils And Facility Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    M. V. Carpenter; Jay A. Roach; John R Giles; Lyle G. Roybal

    2005-09-01

    The environmental restoration industry offers several sys¬tems that perform scan-type characterization of radiologically contaminated areas. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of field systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyse radiological contamination in surface soils. The base system consists of a detector, such as sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometers, a global positioning system (GPS), and an integrated user-friendly computer interface. This mobile concept was initially developed to provide precertifica¬tion analyses of soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium at the Fernald Closure Project, near Cincinnati, Ohio. INL has expanded the functionality of this basic system to create a suite of integrated field-deployable analytical systems. Using its engineering and radiation measurement expertise, aided by computer hardware and software support, INL has streamlined the data acquisition and analysis process to provide real-time information presented on wireless screens and in the form of coverage maps immediately available to field technicians. In addition, custom software offers a user-friendly interface with user-selectable alarm levels and automated data quality monitoring functions that validate the data. This system is deployed from various platforms, depending on the nature of the survey. The deployment platforms include a small all-terrain vehicle used to survey large, relatively flat areas, a hand-pushed unit for areas where manoeuvrability is important, an excavator-mounted system used to scan pits and trenches where personnel access is restricted, and backpack- mounted systems to survey rocky shoreline features and other physical settings that preclude vehicle-based deployment. Variants of the base system include sealed proportional counters for measuring actinides (i.e., plutonium-238 and americium-241) in building demolitions, soil areas, roadbeds, and process line routes at the Miamisburg

  3. Soil: A Public Health Threat or Savior

    SciTech Connect

    IL Pepper; CP Gerba; DT Newby; CW Rice

    2009-05-01

    Soil is the most complicated biomaterial on the planet due to complex soil architecture and billions of soil microbes with extreme biotic diversity. Soil is potentially a source of human pathogens, which can be defined as geo-indigenous, geo-transportable, or geotreatable. Such pathogens cumulatively can and do result in multiple human fatalities annually. A striking example is Helminths, with current infections worldwide estimated to be around two billion. However, soil can also be a source of antibiotics and other natural products that enhance human health. Soilborne antibiotics are used to treat human infections, but can also result in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Natural products isolated from soil resulted in 60% of new cancer drugs between the period 1983–1994. Soils are also crucial to human health through their impact on human nutrition. Finally, from a global perspective, soils are vital to the future well-being of nations through their impact on climate change and global warming. A critical review of soil with respect to public health leads to the conclusion that overall soil is a public health savior. The value of soil using a systems approach is estimated to be $20 trillion, and is by far the most valuable ecosystem in the world.

  4. Ecosystem impacts of exotic annual invaders in the Genus Bromus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.; Belnap, Jayne; Stark, John M.; Allen, Edith B.; Rau, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the impacts of exotic plant species on ecosystems is necessary to justify and guide efforts to limit their spread, restore natives, and plan for conservation. Invasive annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum, B. rubens, B. hordeaceus, and B. diandrus (hereafter collectively referred to as Bromus) transform the structure and function of ecosystems they dominate. Experiments that prove cause-and-effect impacts of Bromus are rare, yet inferences can be gleaned from the combination of Bromus-ecosystem associations, ecosystem condition before/after invasion, and an understanding of underlying mechanisms. Bromus typically establishes in bare soil patches and can eventually replace perennials such as woody species or bunchgrasses, creating a homogeneous annual cover. Plant productivity and cover are less stable across seasons and years when Bromus dominates, due to a greater response to annual climate variability. Bromus’ “flash” of growth followed by senescence early in the growing season, combined with shallow rooting and annual habit, may lead to incomplete use of deep soil water, reduced C sequestration, and accelerated nutrient cycling. Litter produced by Bromus alters nearly all aspects of ecosystems and notably increases wildfire occurrence. Where Bromus has become dominant, it can decrease soil stability by rendering soils bare for months following fire or episodic, pathogen-induced stand failure. Bromus-invaded communities have lower species diversity, and associated species tend to be generalists adapted to unstable and variable habitats. Changes in litter, fire, and soil properties appear to feedback to reinforce Bromus’ dominance in a pattern that portends desertification.

  5. Properties of Forested Loess Soils After Repeated Prescribed Burns

    Treesearch

    D.M. Moehring; C.X. Grano; J.R. Bassett

    1966-01-01

    Nine annual burns have had little effect on the nutrient content and structure of the surface 4 inches of loess soils on flat terrain.Because prescribed burns must often be repeated to obtain desired results, many foresters are apprehensive about the possible deleterious effects on soils. In 1954 the Timber Management Laboratory at Crossett, Arkansas, in co-...

  6. Climate change, soil health, and ecosystem goods and services

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Worldwide, climate change is predicted to alter precipitation regimes, annual temperatures, and occurrence of severe weather events. These changes have important implications for soil health-- defined as the capacity of a soil to contribute to ecosystem function and sustain producers and consumers--...

  7. Editorial: Organic wastes in soils: Biogeochemical and Environmental Aspects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This special issue of Soil Biology and Biochemistry presents papers from the Second General Annual Conference of European Geosciences Union, Session SSS12 Recycling of Organic Wastes in Soils: Biogeochemical and Environmental Issues, held at the Austria Center Vienna, 24-29 April 2005. Session SSS12...

  8. (Contaminated soil)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  9. Response of annual grassland carbon cycling to experimental rainfall additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W. W.; Silver, W. L.; Allen-Diaz, B.; Thompson, A.; Jackson, R.

    2006-12-01

    Annual grassland ecosystems are likely to be sensitive to changes in the timing and amount of rainfall, with important implications for climate feedback effects. Many climate models have forecasted rainfall increases for northern California over the next century. We hypothesized that increased rainfall in annual grasslands would increase soil respiration and decrease soil carbon (C) storage. Using microsprinklers, we augmented wet- season (typically November to April) rain events by 50 %, and each year, we added an early-season and a late-season rainfall event to extend wet-season length. Control plots received ambient rainfall only. We measured soil respiration and net primary production over three water years (defined as September to August) to estimate the net change in the soil C pool. The added early- and late-season rain events significantly increased soil respiration for three to four weeks after wetting, but did not significantly increase C respired per year. Soil respiration was not significantly increased by 50 % augmentation of wet-season rainfall over the study. An ANOVA of annual respiration from control plots showed significantly more respired carbon (F = 8.157, p = 0.02) in water year 2004 (WY 04; 1452 ± 152 g m-2 y-1), compared to WY 03 or WY 05 (998 ± 40 and 925 ± 71 g m-2 y-1, respectively). Greater soil respiration in WY 04 resulted not from higher annual rainfall totals, but from unusually late natural storms which occurred under warm summer conditions. Relative to controls, grass in treatment plots allocated more C to roots in the first (drier) year, and slightly more C to shoots in the second (wetter) year. Combined above- and below-ground net primary production was greater in WY04 (913 ± 171 g m-2 y-1 and 668 ± 93 g m-2 y-1 for treatment and control plots, respectively) than in WY03 (588 ± 85 g m-2 y-1 and 483 ± 46 g m-2 y-1 for treatment and controls, respectively), partly offsetting increased C losses from respiration. Our results

  10. Annual recertification: fun? Wow!

    PubMed

    Amos, A

    1994-01-01

    Learning is critical to fostering a knowledge base required for maintaining currency and furthering professional development. In the ever-changing field of nephrology, most skills practised in nursing are considered to be sanctioned medical acts or added nursing skills. Therefore, annual recertification of the skills designated as sanctioned medical acts is an expectation of the College of Nurses of Ontario. The Wellesley Hospital policy indicates one time only or annual approval of the added nursing skills. The article will discuss the use of games as a creative, non-threatening educational tool in the recertification/re-approval process currently in place at The Wellesley Hospital, renal programs. In the past two years, several games or alternative teaching strategies have been utilized to assist the staff in preparing for recertification. This paper will examine the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing alternative teaching formats. Commentary regarding the response of staff nurses, nursing management and education will be highlighted.

  11. Annual Energy Review 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  12. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  13. Renewable energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  14. International energy annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  16. [Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Yu, Han-qing; Xu, Ming-gang; Lü, Jia-long; Bao, Yao-xian; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of "anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil" at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a(-1)) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a(-1)) > granite red soil (0.006 a(-1)). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region.

  17. Papermill biosolids effect on soil physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Price, G W; Voroney, R P

    2007-01-01

    Papermill biosolids (PB) can provide multiple benefits to the soil system. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of a high C/N ratio (C/N = 100) de-inked PB on soil physical and chemical properties, including soil bulk density, infiltration rates, wet aggregate stability, total soil carbon, and heavy metal concentrations. Four rates of PB (0, 50, 100, and 150 Mg ha(-1)) were applied annually, for up to 3 yr, on four agricultural soils in Ontario, Canada. Decreases in soil bulk density between 0.27 and 0.35 g cm(-3), relative to the nonamended treatment, were observed in soils receiving PB treatments over 3 yr. Total soil carbon increased within 1 yr on PB-amended soils planted to soybeans but not on soils planted to corn. Hydraulic conductivities (K fs) were greater in all soils receiving PB amendments relative to the nonamended treatment throughout the study. Other properties measured, such as pH and electrical conductivity, were relatively unchanged after 2 yr of PB applications. While some increases in heavy metal accumulation occurred, there were no clear trends observed at any of the sites related to PB rates. The results of this study provide support to the idea that annual applications of PB can add significantly to the stability of soil structure.

  18. NSLS annual report 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out.

  19. 2008 annual merit review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  20. Uranium industry annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. NERSC 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    2001-12-12

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005.

  2. NERSC 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    1999-03-01

    This 1998 annual report from the National Scientific Energy Research Computing Center (NERSC) presents the year in review of the following categories: Computational Science; Computer Science and Applied Mathematics; and Systems and Services. Also presented are science highlights in the following categories: Basic Energy Sciences; Biological and Environmental Research; Fusion Energy Sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Other Projects.

  3. Annual Report 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    quality activities, and coordinating activities with other Federal and non-Federal basin interests groups. - , DD Fo’N, 1473 EDITION Ort NOV6S IS...Sod•’ I TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) PAGE SECTION VII- RESERVOIR DATA SUMMARY 1. SWD MAP 2. INDEX BY BASINS 3. INDEX IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER 4. DATA...TABLES SECTION VIII - MINUTES OF THE TRINITY RIVER BASIN INTERESTS GROUP AND THE ANNUAL SWD WATER MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL MEETING 1. TRINITY RIVER BASIN

  4. Soil carbon sequestration by three perennial legume pastures is greater in deeper soil layers than in the surface soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.-K.; Turner, N. C.; Song, L.; Gu, Y.-J.; Wang, T.-C.; Li, F.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a vital role as both a sink for and source of atmospheric carbon. Revegetation of degraded arable land in China is expected to increase soil carbon sequestration, but the role of perennial legumes on soil carbon stocks in semiarid areas has not been quantified. In this study, we assessed the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and two locally adapted forage legumes, bush clover (Lespedeza davurica S.) and milk vetch (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) on the SOC concentration and SOC stock accumulated annually over a 2 m soil profile. The results showed that the concentration of SOC in the bare soil decreased slightly over the 7 years, while 7 years of legume growth substantially increased the concentration of SOC over the 0-2.0 m soil depth. Over the 7-year growth period the SOC stocks increased by 24.1, 19.9 and 14.6 Mg C ha-1 under the alfalfa, bush clover and milk vetch stands, respectively, and decreased by 4.2 Mg C ha-1 in the bare soil. The sequestration of SOC in the 1-2 m depth of the soil accounted for 79, 68 and 74 % of the SOC sequestered in the 2 m deep soil profile under alfalfa, bush clover and milk vetch, respectively. Conversion of arable land to perennial legume pasture resulted in a significant increase in SOC, particularly at soil depths below 1 m.

  5. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  6. Disappearance and persistence of aldrin after five annual applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, L.J.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation was initiated in 1965 to ascertain the disappearance rate of aldrin applied on loam soils at the recommended level of 1.5 lb per acre from 1960 through 1964. There was no further application of pesticides. Sampling began in 1965 and extended into 1970. Data from gas chromatographic analyses of soil and earthworm samples, collected spring and fall, showed that more than 95 percent of the pesticide had disappeared before the study began. There was no significant (P > 0.05) reduction in aldrin plus dieldrin residues throughout 6 years of study. Similarly, residues in earthworms (Allolobophora caligimosa) failed to decline during the 6 years. Average combined residues for 11 semi-annual collection periods was 0.11 ppm in soils, 0.61 ppm in earthworms, wet-weight bases. Results showed that high levels of pesticide did not accumulate and remain in the soil as a result of annual applications and that a large part of applied aldrin had disappeared within 1 year. Earthworms contained 4 to 15 times (average 5.6) as much aldrin plus dieldrin as was found in soils.

  7. Influence of Bromus tectorum invasion on soil properties in northern Nevada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the last 50 years, the exotic annual grass, Bromus tectorum, has come to dominate rangelands over northern Nevada. Long-term occupation of soil by B. tectorum has the potential to alter soil processes particularly carbon and nitrogen cycles. Using a paired design, we compared surface soil propert...

  8. Soil erosion and deposition before and after fire in oak savannas

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Hui Chen; Aaron T. Kauffman; Cody L. Stropki; Daniel G. Neary

    2013-01-01

    Effects of low severity prescribed burning treatments and a wildfire on soil erosion and deposition in the oak savannas in the Southwestern Borderlands are reported. Measurements in the spring and fall, respectively, characterize soil movements following winter rains and high-intensity summer rainstorms. Annual values are also presented. Relationships between soil...

  9. Vegetation and environmental controls on soil respiration in a pinon-juniper woodland

    Treesearch

    Sandra A. White

    2008-01-01

    Soil respiration (RS) responds to changes in plant and microbial activity and environmental conditions. In arid ecosystems of the southwestern USA, soil moisture exhibits large fluctuations because annual and seasonal precipitation inputs are highly variable, with increased variability expected in the future. Patterns of soil moisture, and periodic severe drought, are...

  10. Deforestation effects on soil moisture, streamflow, and water balance in the central Appalachians

    Treesearch

    James H. Patric; James H. Patric

    1973-01-01

    Soil moisture, precipitation, and streamflow were measured on three watersheds in West Virginia, two deforested and one forested. Water content of barren soil always exceeded that of forest soil throughout the growing season and especially in dry weather. Streamflow increased 10 inches annually on the watersheds that were cleared, most of the increase occurring between...

  11. The magnitude and variability of soil-surface CO2 efflux increase with temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Treesearch

    Creighton M. Litton; Christian P. Giardina; Jeremy K. Albano; Michael S. Long; Gregory P. Asner

    2011-01-01

    Soil-surface CO2 efflux (FS; ‘soil respiration’) accounts for 50% of the CO2 released annually by the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere, and the magnitude and variability of this flux are likely to be sensitive to climate change. We measured FS in nine permanent plots along a 5.2C mean annual...

  12. A distinct seasonal pattern of the ratio of soil respiration to total ecosystem respiration in a spruce-dominated forest

    Treesearch

    E.A. Davidson; A.D. Richardson; K.E. Savage; D.Y. Hollinger

    2006-01-01

    Annual budgets and fitted temperature response curves for soil respiration and ecosystem respiration provide useful information for partitioning annual carbon budgets of ecosystems, but they may not adequately reveal seasonal variation in the ratios of these two fluxes. Soil respiration (Rs) typically contributes 30-80% of...

  13. [Distribution of soil organic carbon in surface soil along a precipitation gradient in loess hilly area].

    PubMed

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Guang-hui; Luan, Li-li; Li, Zhen-wei; Geng, Ren

    2016-02-01

    Along the 368-591 mm precipitation gradient, 7 survey sites, i.e. a total 63 investigated plots were selected. At each sites, woodland, grassland, and cropland with similar restoration age were selected to investigate soil organic carbon distribution in surface soil (0-30 cm), and the influence of factors, e.g. climate, soil depth, and land uses, on soil organic carbon distribution were analyzed. The result showed that, along the precipitation gradient, the grassland (8.70 g . kg-1) > woodland (7.88 g . kg-1) > farmland (7.73 g . kg-1) in concentration and the grassland (20.28 kg . m-2) > farmland (19.34 kg . m-2) > woodland (17.14 kg . m-2) in density. The differences of soil organic carbon concentration of three land uses were not significant. Further analysis of pooled data of three land uses showed that the surface soil organic carbon concentration differed significantly at different precipitation levels (P<0.00 1). Significant positive relationship was detected between mean annual precipitation and soil organic carbon concentration (r=0.838, P<0.001) in the of pooled data. From south to north (start from northernmost Ordos), i.e. along the 368-591 mm precipitation gradient, the soil organic carbon increased with annual precipitation 0. 04 g . kg-1 . mm-1, density 0.08 kg . m-2 . mm-1. The soil organic carbon distribution was predicted with mean annual precipitation, soil clay content, plant litter in woodland, and root density in farmland.

  14. Soil biology for resilient healthy soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    What is a resilient healthy soil? A resilient soil is capable of recovering or adapting to stress; the health of the living/biological component of the soil is crucial for soil resiliency. Soil health is tightly coupled to the concept of soil quality (Text Box 1) and the terms are frequently used ...

  15. Researches regarding extractable glyphosate residues from different soils.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Ersilia; Lazureanu, Aurel; Alda, Simion; Negrea, Monica; Iordanescu, Olimpia

    2008-01-01

    GLyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is a systemic, broad spectrum herbicide effective against most plant species, including annual and perennial species and is one of the world's most widely used herbicide. To glyphosate applied treatments, a part of active agent comes in contact with soil surface, adsorbing to soil compounds, while another part remains in soil solution. The adsorbing to soil compounds represents a feat importance conditioning the herbicide presence in soil solution and so, his availability to degradation and dispersion in the environment. In this paper work, the extractable glyphosate residues from soil solution have been determined through HPLC-FLD. Substrates used were Black Chernozem, Typical Gleysoil, Slight Vertisol, with moderate carbonatation. The experimental results indicated that the extractable glyphosate residue fractions from soil diminish (<20%), depending of soil parameters and decrease in this order: Gleysoil, Black Chernozem, Slight Vertisol.

  16. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  17. The interactive effects of soil transplant into colder regions and cropping on soil microbiology and biogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Feng; Xue, Kai; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-03-01

    Soil transplant into warmer regions has been shown to alter soil microbiology. In contrast, little is known about the effects of soil transplant into colder regions, albeit that climate cooling has solicited attention in recent years. To address this question, we transplanted bare fallow soil over large transects from southern China (subtropical climate zone) to central (warm temperate climate zone) and northern China (cold temperate climate zone). After an adaptation period of 4 years, soil nitrogen components, microbial biomass and community structures were altered. However, the effects of soil transplant on microbial communities were dampened by maize cropping, unveiling a negative interaction between cropping and transplant. Further statistical analyses with Canonical correspondence analysis and Mantel tests unveiled annual average temperature, relative humidity, aboveground biomass, soil pH and NH4 (+) -N content as environmental attributes closely correlated with microbial functional structures. In addition, average abundances of amoA-AOA (ammonia-oxidizing archaea) and amoA-AOB (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) genes were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with soil nitrification capacity, hence both AOA and AOB contributed to the soil functional process of nitrification. These results suggested that the soil nitrogen cycle was intimately linked with microbial community structure, and both were subjected to disturbance by soil transplant to colder regions and plant cropping.

  18. The impact of soil degradation on soil functioning in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2010-05-01

    actual economic impact of soil degradation in Europe.The total costs of soil degradation that could be assessed for erosion, organic matter decline, salinisation, landslides and contamination on the basis of available data, would be up to €38 billion annually for EU25. These estimates are necessarily wide ranging due to the lack of sufficient quantitative and qualitative data. Future research activities will have to address, in multidisciplinary teams, the social and economic aspects of soil degradation in Europe, in order to come up with more reliable estimates of the economic impact of soil degradation. A more reliable and updated system of indicators needs to be developed in order to cover the full cycle of the Driving forces-Pressures-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. Recent developments towards a new soil monitoring system for Europe will be presented as well as some of the recent outputs of the European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC).

  19. Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craine, Joseph M.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Wang, Lixin; Augusto, Laurent; Baisden, W. Troy; Brookshire, E. N. J.; Cramer, Michael D.; Hasselquist, Niles J.; Hobbie, Erik A.; Kahmen, Ansgar; Koba, Keisuke; Kranabetter, J. Marty; Mack, Michelle C.; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Mayor, Jordan R.; McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Michelsen, Anders; Nardoto, Gabriela B.; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Perakis, Steven S.; Peri, Pablo L.; Quesada, Carlos A.; Richter, Andreas; Schipper, Louis A.; Stevenson, Bryan A.; Turner, Benjamin L.; Viani, Ricardo A. G.; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zeller, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the 15 N: 14 N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among soil N isotopes, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the concentrations of organic carbon and clay in soil. In both hot ecosystems and dry ecosystems, soil organic matter was more enriched in 15 N than in corresponding cold ecosystems or wet ecosystems. Below a MAT of 9.8°C, soil δ15N was invariant with MAT. At the global scale, soil organic C concentrations also declined with increasing MAT and decreasing MAP. After standardizing for variation among mineral soils in soil C and clay concentrations, soil δ15N showed no consistent trends across global climate and latitudinal gradients. Our analyses could place new constraints on interpretations of patterns of ecosystem N cycling and global budgets of gaseous N loss.

  20. Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients

    PubMed Central

    Craine, Joseph M.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Wang, Lixin; Augusto, Laurent; Baisden, W. Troy; Brookshire, E. N. J.; Cramer, Michael D.; Hasselquist, Niles J.; Hobbie, Erik A.; Kahmen, Ansgar; Koba, Keisuke; Kranabetter, J. Marty; Mack, Michelle C.; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Mayor, Jordan R.; McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Michelsen, Anders; Nardoto, Gabriela B.; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Perakis, Steven S.; Peri, Pablo L.; Quesada, Carlos A.; Richter, Andreas; Schipper, Louis A.; Stevenson, Bryan A.; Turner, Benjamin L.; Viani, Ricardo A. G.; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zeller, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the 15N:14N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among soil N isotopes, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the concentrations of organic carbon and clay in soil. In both hot ecosystems and dry ecosystems, soil organic matter was more enriched in 15N than in corresponding cold ecosystems or wet ecosystems. Below a MAT of 9.8°C, soil δ15N was invariant with MAT. At the global scale, soil organic C concentrations also declined with increasing MAT and decreasing MAP. After standardizing for variation among mineral soils in soil C and clay concentrations, soil δ15N showed no consistent trends across global climate and latitudinal gradients. Our analyses could place new constraints on interpretations of patterns of ecosystem N cycling and global budgets of gaseous N loss. PMID:25655192

  1. Estimates of soil erosion using cesium-137 tracer models.

    PubMed

    Saç, M M; Uğur, A; Yener, G; Ozden, B

    2008-01-01

    The soil erosion was studied by 137Cs technique in Yatagan basin in Western Turkey, where there exist intensive agricultural activities. This region is subject to serious soil loss problems and yet there is not any erosion data towards soil management and control guidelines. During the soil survey studies, the soil profiles were examined carefully to select the reference points. The soil samples were collected from the slope facets in three different study areas (Kirtas, Peynirli and Kayisalan Hills). Three different models were applied for erosion rate calculations in undisturbed and cultivated sites. The profile distribution model (PDM) was used for undisturbed soils, while proportional model (PM) and simplified mass balance model (SMBM) were used for cultivated soils. The mean annual erosion rates found using PDM in undisturbed soils were 15 t ha(-1) year(-1) at the Peynirli Hill and 27 t ha(-1) year(-1) at the Kirtas Hill. With the PM and SMBM in cultivated soils at Kayişalan, the mean annual erosion rates were obtained to be 65 and 116 t ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. The results of 137Cs technique were compared with the results of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).

  2. Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients.

    PubMed

    Craine, Joseph M; Elmore, Andrew J; Wang, Lixin; Augusto, Laurent; Baisden, W Troy; Brookshire, E N J; Cramer, Michael D; Hasselquist, Niles J; Hobbie, Erik A; Kahmen, Ansgar; Koba, Keisuke; Kranabetter, J Marty; Mack, Michelle C; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Mayor, Jordan R; McLauchlan, Kendra K; Michelsen, Anders; Nardoto, Gabriela B; Oliveira, Rafael S; Perakis, Steven S; Peri, Pablo L; Quesada, Carlos A; Richter, Andreas; Schipper, Louis A; Stevenson, Bryan A; Turner, Benjamin L; Viani, Ricardo A G; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zeller, Bernd

    2015-02-06

    Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the (15)N:(14)N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among soil N isotopes, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the concentrations of organic carbon and clay in soil. In both hot ecosystems and dry ecosystems, soil organic matter was more enriched in (15)N than in corresponding cold ecosystems or wet ecosystems. Below a MAT of 9.8°C, soil δ(15)N was invariant with MAT. At the global scale, soil organic C concentrations also declined with increasing MAT and decreasing MAP. After standardizing for variation among mineral soils in soil C and clay concentrations, soil δ(15)N showed no consistent trends across global climate and latitudinal gradients. Our analyses could place new constraints on interpretations of patterns of ecosystem N cycling and global budgets of gaseous N loss.

  3. NPL 1999 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 NPL 1999 Annual Report. The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics research. Research activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current program includes ''in-house'' research on nuclear collisions using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators as well as local and remote non-accelerator research on fundamental symmetries and weak interactions and user-mode research on relativistic heavy ions at large accelerator facilities around the world.

  4. International energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  5. Annual Research Briefs, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulent Research (CTR) are included. It is intended primarily as a contractor report to NASA, Ames Research Center. In addition, numerous CTR Manuscript Reports were published last year. The purpose of the CTR Manuscript Series is to expedite the dissemination of research results by the CTR staff. The CTR is devoted to the fundamental study of turbulent flow; its objectives are to produce advances in physical understanding of turbulence, in turbulence modeling and simulation, and in turbulence control.

  6. Annual research briefs, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinks, Debra (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the 1989 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows of the Center for Turbulence Research. It is intended as a year end report to NASA, Ames Research Center which supports this group through core funding and by making available physical and intellectual resources. The Center for Turbulence Research is devoted to the fundamental study of turbulent flows; its objectives are to simulate advances in the physical understanding of turbulence, in turbulence modeling and simulation, and in turbulence control. The reports appearing in the following pages are grouped in the general areas of modeling, experimental research, theory, simulation and numerical methods, and compressible and reacting flows.

  7. Annual Energy Review 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-01

    This twenty-ninth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) most comprehensive look at integrated energy statistics. The summary statistics on the Nation’s energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices cover all major energy commodities and all energy-consuming sectors of the U.S. economy from 1949 through 2010. The AER is EIA’s historical record of energy statistics and, because the coverage spans six decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analysis.

  8. Annual Energy Review 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  9. Annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-01

    This is the eighth annual report submitted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to Congress. It covers activities and expenditures during Fiscal Year 1991, which ended September 30, 1991. Chapter 1 of this report describes OCRWM`s mission and objectives. Chapters 2 through 8 cover the following topics: earning public trust and confidence; geological disposal; monitored retrieval storage; transportation; systems integration and regulatory compliance; international programs; and program management. Financial statements for the Nuclear Waste Fund are presented in Chapter 9.

  10. Ultrasound Annual, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

  11. Nuclear medicine annual, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide evaluation of brain death, bone imaging with SPECT, and lymphoscintigraphy are among the topics covered in Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1987. In addition, the book includes reviews of the role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and in the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Reports describe advances in radionuclide and magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal gland and assess the current status of diuretic renography. Also included are articles on changes in functional imaging with aging, on radionuclide evaluation of the lower genitourinary tract in children, and on cholescintigraphy in children.

  12. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  13. Annual Progress Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-20

    AD-AIO6 983 ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA COORDINATEO SCIENCE LAB F/0 12/1 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPOMT ,(U1 OCT 81 H V POOR NOOOII-81-K-O014 UNCLASSIFIED T-111...34 University of Illinois at Urbana -Chaimpaign Urbana , Illinois 61801 I ~~ ~ ~ ~ I I7 CONROLINOFIC______NDADDES Office of Naval Research - Octe--mm...Unclassified Approved for public release; dis tribu tion ’anlimi ted. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the aboeet onfored a Weak 20. 1# Offrmoaw Repeol

  14. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  15. Annual Research Briefs - 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    a round liq- uid jet by a coaxial flow of gas. D. KIM, 0. DESJARDINS, MI. HERRMANN AND P. MOIN 185 Stable and high-order accurate finite difference...Research 185 Annual Research Briefs 2006 Toward two-phase simulation of the primary breakup of a round liquid jet by a coaxial flow of gas By D. Kim, 0...gas phase. The flow solver volume fraction i) is defined as The breakup of a round liquid jet by a coaxial flow of gas 187 Vi = ’ H(G)dV, (2.9) where

  16. Water movement in stony soils: The influence of stoniness on soil water content profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Viliam; Knava, Karol

    2010-05-01

    WATER MOVEMENT IN STONY SOILS: THE INFLUENCE OF STONINESS ON SOIL WATER CONTENT PROFILES Viliam Novák, Karol Kňava Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3, Slovakia, e-mail: novak@uh.savba.sk Soils containing rock fragments are widespread over the world, on Europe such soil account for 30%, 60% in Mediterranean region. In comparison to fine earth soils (soil particles are less then 2 mm) stony soils contain rock fragments characterized by the low retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, for stony soils -in comparison to the fine-earth soils - is typical lower hydraulic conductivity and retention capacity, which lead to the decrease decrease of infiltration rate and low water retention. So, water movement and its modeling in stony soil would differ from fine earth (usually agricultural) soil. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the differences in water movement in homogeneous soil (fine earth) and stony soil. The influence of different stoniness on soil water content and soil water dynamics was studied too. Windthrow at High Tatra mountains in Slovakia (November 2004) cleared nearly 12 000 ha of 80 year conifers and this event initiated complex research of windthrow impact on the ecosystem. The important part of this study was water movement in impacted area. Specific feature of the soil in this area was moraine soil consisting of fine earth, characterized as silty sand, with the relative stone content up to 0.49, increasing with depth. Associated phenomenon to the forest clearing is the decrease of rain interception and higher undercanopy precipitation. Conifers interception capacity can be three times higher than low canopy interception, and can reach up to 40% of annual precipitation in Central Europe. Stones in the soil are decreasing infiltration rate, but paradoxically increased understorey precipitation and followingly the increased cumulative infiltration led to the increase of the soil

  17. The sensitivity of soil respiration to soil temperature, moisture, and carbon supply at the global scale.

    PubMed

    Hursh, Andrew; Ballantyne, Ashley; Cooper, Leila; Maneta, Marco; Kimball, John; Watts, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major pathway by which fixed carbon in the biosphere is returned to the atmosphere, yet there are limits to our ability to predict respiration rates using environmental drivers at the global scale. While temperature, moisture, carbon supply, and other site characteristics are known to regulate soil respiration rates at plot scales within certain biomes, quantitative frameworks for evaluating the relative importance of these factors across different biomes and at the global scale require tests of the relationships between field estimates and global climatic data. This study evaluates the factors driving Rs at the global scale by linking global datasets of soil moisture, soil temperature, primary productivity, and soil carbon estimates with observations of annual Rs from the Global Soil Respiration Database (SRDB). We find that calibrating models with parabolic soil moisture functions can improve predictive power over similar models with asymptotic functions of mean annual precipitation. Soil temperature is comparable with previously reported air temperature observations used in predicting Rs and is the dominant driver of Rs in global models; however, within certain biomes soil moisture and soil carbon emerge as dominant predictors of Rs. We identify regions where typical temperature-driven responses are further mediated by soil moisture, precipitation, and carbon supply and regions in which environmental controls on high Rs values are difficult to ascertain due to limited field data. Because soil moisture integrates temperature and precipitation dynamics, it can more directly constrain the heterotrophic component of Rs, but global-scale models tend to smooth its spatial heterogeneity by aggregating factors that increase moisture variability within and across biomes. We compare statistical and mechanistic models that provide independent estimates of global Rs ranging from 83 to 108 Pg yr(-1) , but also highlight regions of uncertainty

  18. Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid chronic risk assessment for soil biota.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg; Manson, Philip S; Mehrsheikh, Akbar; Sutton, Peter; Levine, Steven L

    2016-11-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used widely in agriculture, horticulture, private gardens, and public infrastructure, where it is applied to areas such as roadsides, railway tracks, and parks to control the growth of weeds. The exposure risk from glyphosate and the primary soil metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on representative species of earthworms, springtails, and predatory soil mites and the effects on nitrogen-transformation processes by soil microorganisms were assessed under laboratory conditions based on internationally recognized guidelines. For earthworms, the reproductive no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 472.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalent (a.e.)/kg dry soil, which was the highest concentration tested, and 198.1 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA. For predatory mites, the reproductive NOEC was 472.8 mg a.e./kg dry soil for glyphosate and 320 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA, the highest concentrations tested. For springtails, the reproductive NOEC was 472.8 mg a.e./kg dry soil for glyphosate and 315 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA, the highest concentrations tested. Soil nitrogen-transformation processes were unaffected by glyphosate and AMPA at 33.1 mg a.e./kg soil and 160 mg/kg soil, respectively. Comparison of these endpoints with worst-case soil concentrations expected for glyphosate (6.62 mg a.e./kg dry soil) and AMPA (6.18 mg/kg dry soil) for annual applications at the highest annual rate of 4.32 kg a.e./ha indicate very low likelihood of adverse effects on soil biota. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2742-2752. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  19. Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Bogdan, Ileana; Ioan Pop, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Soil tillage system and its intensity modify by direct and indirect action soil temperature, moisture, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance and soil structural condition. Minimum tillage and no-tillage application reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first years of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. All this physicochemical changes affect soil biology and soil respiration. Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil respiration is one measure of biological activity and decomposition. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant and fertilizer. Our research follows the effects of the three tillage systems: conventional system, minimum tillage and no-tillage on soil respiration and finally on soil organic carbon on rotation soybean - wheat - maize, obtained on an Argic Faeoziom from the Somes Plateau, Romania. To quantify the change in soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest). Soil monitoring system of CO2 and O2 included gradient method, made by using a new generation of sensors capable of measuring CO2 concentration in-situ and quasi-instantaneous in gaseous phase. At surface soil respiration is made by using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. These areas were was our research presents a medium multi annual temperature of 8.20C medium of multi annual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: i). Conventional system: reversible plough (22-25 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); ii). Minimum tillage system: paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); iii). No-tillage. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three

  20. Soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Bromwell, L. G.; Durgunoglu, H. T.; Hovland, H. J.; Treadwell, D. D.; Costes, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of an investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil on the Descartes slopes, and the Cayley Plains in the vicinity of the LM for Apollo 16. The soil mechanics data were derived form (1) crew commentary and debriefings, (2) television, (3) lunar surface photography, (4) performance data and observations of interactions between soil and lunar roving vehicle, (5) drive-tube and deep drill samples, (6) sample characteristics, and (7) measurements using the SRP. The general characteristics, stratigraphy and variability are described along with the core samples, penetrometer test results, density, porosity and strength.