Interface driven states in ferromagnetic topological insulator heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauter, Valeria; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh
The broken time reversal symmetry (TRS) states can be introduced into a topological insulator (TI) material by ferromagnetic ordering at the interface. Recently we demonstrated a fundamental step towards realization of high temperature magnetization in Bi2Se3-EuS TI-FMI heterostructures through observation of magnetic proximity-induced symmetry breaking on the Bi2Se3 surface via the exchange interaction by depositing EuS film on the top of the Bi2Se3 surface.Here we show that we can independently break the TRS on both surfaces of a TI, which brings the long-range induced magnetism on either or both surfaces of a TI in a controlled way. We provide a depth-sensitive data on details of magnetic proximity effect in hidden interfaces by Polarized Neutron Reflectometry. The proximity coupling strength and penetration depth of magnetism into TI are extracted as functions of temperature, magnetic field and magnetic history. The large neutron absorption of Eu atoms serves as the element sensitivity and enables us to identify such magnetism in TI as proximity magnetism. This provides a next step to realization of complex heterostructures of TI and FMI leading to wide applications in TI-based next generation spintronic devices. Supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, BES, MIT MRSEC award DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, NSF Grant DMR-1231319.
Noise signatures of metastable resistivity states in ferromagnetic insulating manganite
Przybytek, J.; Fink-Finowicki, J.; Puźniak, R.; Markovich, V.; Jung, G.
2015-07-28
Pronounced noise signatures enabling one to discriminate metastable resistivity states in La{sub 0.86}Ca{sub 0.14}MnO{sub 3} single crystals have been observed. The normalized noise spectra for metastable resisitivity differ both in shape and magnitude, indicating that the metastable state is associated with transition of the electronic system into another local minimum of the potential landscape. Such scenario is consistent with freezing of the electronic system into a Coulomb glass state.
Chang, Cui-Zu; Zhao, Weiwei; Kim, Duk Y; Zhang, Haijun; Assaf, Badih A; Heiman, Don; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Liu, Chaoxing; Chan, Moses H W; Moodera, Jagadeesh S
2015-05-01
The discovery of the quantum Hall (QH) effect led to the realization of a topological electronic state with dissipationless currents circulating in one direction along the edge of a two-dimensional electron layer under a strong magnetic field. The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect shares a similar physical phenomenon to that of the QH effect, whereas its physical origin relies on the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and ferromagnetism. Here, we report the experimental observation of the QAH state in V-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 films with the zero-field longitudinal resistance down to 0.00013 ± 0.00007h/e(2) (~3.35 ± 1.76 Ω), Hall conductance reaching 0.9998 ± 0.0006e(2)/h and the Hall angle becoming as high as 89.993° ± 0.004° at T = 25 mK. A further advantage of this system comes from the fact that it is a hard ferromagnet with a large coercive field (Hc > 1.0 T) and a relative high Curie temperature. This realization of a robust QAH state in hard ferromagnetic topological insulators (FMTIs) is a major step towards dissipationless electronic applications in the absence of external fields.
Orbital domain state and finite size scaling in ferromagnetic insulating manganites.
Papavassiliou, G; Pissas, M; Belesi, M; Fardis, M; Dolinsek, J; Dimitropoulos, C; Ansermet, J P
2003-10-03
55Mn and 139La NMR measurements on a high quality single crystal of ferromagnetic (FM) La0.80Ca0.20MnO3 demonstrate the formation of localized Mn(3+,4+) states below 70 K, accompanied by a strong cooling-rate dependent increase of certain FM neutron Bragg peaks. (55,139)(1/T(1)) spin-lattice and (139)(1/T(2)) spin-spin relaxation rates are strongly enhanced on approaching this temperature from below, signaling a genuine phase transition at T(tr) approximately 70 K. The disappearance of the FM metallic signal by applying a weak external magnetic field, the different NMR radio-frequency enhancement of the FM metallic and insulating states, and the observed finite size scaling of T(tr) with Ca (hole) doping, as observed in powder La(1-x)CaxMnO3 samples, are suggestive of freezing into an inhomogeneous FM insulating and orbitally ordered state embodying "metallic" hole-rich walls.
Nyquist noise as probe of hot-electron effects in the ferromagnetic insulating state of manganites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanta, Sudeshna; Raychaudhuri, Arup K.
2009-03-01
Hole-doped rare-earth manganites (like La1-xCaxMnO3) in the ferromagnetic insulating (FMI) state show large non-linear conductance. Such non-linear conductance can arise due to hot-electron effect which originates from decoupling of the electron and lattice temperatures at high power level. The non-linear conductance manifests as electro-resistance or current induced resistance change. We report here low frequency temperature dependent noise measurement which allows us to estimate the electronic temperature by measuring Nyquist noise (``white noise'' in contrast to 1/f noise) in La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 single crystals which has a distinct FMI state below 100K. The measurement was performed with low ac biasing current which was mixed with a high current density d.c that leads to electron heating. We observed that in the insulating state, above a certain input d.c power, the Nyquist noise increases by a large extent and this is coupled to the onset of non-linear conduction as signalled by the power dependence of the differential conductance. The experiment establishes a direct link between hot-electron effect and non-linear conductance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Raj
confirmed by the cos(theta) dependence of field titled MR measurements on the Bi2Se3 thin films. No switching in the AMR or hysteresis behavior in the MR was observed in control experiments performed on non TI materials with superconducting electrodes and metal electrodes on Bi2Se3 TI films. The growth and characterization of Bi2Se3/Bi 2Se3/La0.70Sr0.30MnO3 (TI/FM), a topological insulator/ferromagnet heterostructure is discussed in the last part of the thesis. We have grown Bi2Se3/Bi2Se 3/La0.70Sr0.30MnO3 (TI/FM) heterostructures by the method of pulsed laser deposition. Bi2Se3/La 0.70Sr0.30MnO3 (LSMO) is a strong ferromagnetic material with Tc ˜ 350 K and Bi2Se3 is the most studied topological insulator. XRD and phi scan measurements of Bi2Se3/La 0.70Sr0.30MnO3 (TI/FM) heterostructure showed that epitaxial thin films of Bi2Se3 were grown on the LSMO template. Strong in-plane magnetization was confirmed by magnetometry measurements of the Bi2Se3/LSMO heterostructure. Magnetotransport measurements showed a distorted weak anti-localization effect with hysteretic behavior due to interface induced ferromagnetism in the Bi2Se 3 TI films.
Achieving High-Temperature Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katmis, Ferhat
Topological insulators (TIs) are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic and spintronic devices, including TI-based quantum computation. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a TI system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to a realization of several predicted novel physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the TI surface at specific locations without introducing spin scattering centers could open up new possibilities for devices. Here, we demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) to a TI (Bi2Se3); this interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the FMI (EuS) is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The induced magnetism at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and spin-momentum locking feature of the TI surface is found to greatly enhance the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of the TI/FMI bilayer system. Due to the short range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a TI, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered TI could allow for an efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies. Work supported by MIT MRSEC through the MRSEC Program of NSF under award number DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF grant DMR-1231319.
Spin pumping in Ferromagnet-Topological Insulator-Ferromagnet Heterostructures
Baker, A. A.; Figueroa, A. I.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.
2015-01-01
Topological insulators (TIs) are enticing prospects for the future of spintronics due to their large spin-orbit coupling and dissipationless, counter-propagating conduction channels in the surface state. However, a means to interact with and exploit the topological surface state remains elusive. Here, we report a study of spin pumping at the TI-ferromagnet interface, investigating spin transfer dynamics in a spin-valve like structure using element specific time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetic resonance. Gilbert damping increases approximately linearly with increasing TI thickness, indicating efficient behaviour as a spin sink. However, layer-resolved measurements suggest that a dynamic coupling is limited. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel material class, and suggest great potential for TIs in spintronic devices, through their novel magnetodynamics that persist even up to room temperature. PMID:25601364
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eremeev, S. V.; Men`shov, V. N.; Tugushev, V. V.; Chulkov, E. V.
2015-06-01
By means of relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations we study electron band structure of the topological insulator (TI) Bi2Se3 thin films deposited on the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuS substrate. In the Bi2Se3/EuS heterostructure, the gap opened in the spectrum of the topological state has a hybridization character and is shown to be controlled by the Bi2Se3 film thickness, while magnetic contribution to the gap is negligibly small. We also analyzed the effect of Eu doping on the magnetization of the Bi2Se3 film and demonstrated that the Eu impurity induces magnetic moments on neighboring Se and Bi atoms an order of magnitude larger than the substrate-induced moments. Recent magnetic and magneto-transport measurements in EuS/Bi2Se3 heterostructure are discussed.
Pure spin current devices based on ferromagnetic topological insulators
Götte, Matthias; Joppe, Michael; Dahm, Thomas
2016-01-01
Two-dimensional topological insulators possess two counter propagating edge channels with opposite spin direction. Recent experimental progress allowed to create ferromagnetic topological insulators realizing a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state. In the QAH state one of the two edge channels disappears due to the strong ferromagnetic exchange field. We investigate heterostructures of topological insulators and ferromagnetic topological insulators by means of numerical transport calculations. We show that spin current flow in such heterostructures can be controlled with high fidelity. Specifically, we propose spintronic devices that are capable of creating, switching and detecting pure spin currents using the same technology. In these devices electrical currents are directly converted into spin currents, allowing a high conversion efficiency. Energy independent transport properties in combination with large bulk gaps in some topological insulator materials may allow operation even at room temperature. PMID:27782187
Liu, Minhao; Wang, Wudi; Richardella, Anthony R; Kandala, Abhinav; Li, Jian; Yazdani, Ali; Samarth, Nitin; Ong, N Phuan
2016-07-01
A striking prediction in topological insulators is the appearance of the quantized Hall resistance when the surface states are magnetized. The surface Dirac states become gapped everywhere on the surface, but chiral edge states remain on the edges. In an applied current, the edge states produce a quantized Hall resistance that equals the Chern number C = ±1 (in natural units), even in zero magnetic field. This quantum anomalous Hall effect was observed by Chang et al. With reversal of the magnetic field, the system is trapped in a metastable state because of magnetic anisotropy. We investigate how the system escapes the metastable state at low temperatures (10 to 200 mK). When the dissipation (measured by the longitudinal resistance) is ultralow, we find that the system escapes by making a few very rapid transitions, as detected by large jumps in the Hall and longitudinal resistances. Using the field at which the initial jump occurs to estimate the escape rate, we find that raising the temperature strongly suppresses the rate. From a detailed map of the resistance versus gate voltage and temperature, we show that dissipation strongly affects the escape rate. We compare the observations with dissipative quantum tunneling predictions. In the ultralow dissipation regime, two temperature scales (T 1 ~ 70 mK and T 2 ~ 145 mK) exist, between which jumps can be observed. The jumps display a spatial correlation that extends over a large fraction of the sample.
Liu, Minhao; Wang, Wudi; Richardella, Anthony R.; Kandala, Abhinav; Li, Jian; Yazdani, Ali; Samarth, Nitin; Ong, N. Phuan
2016-01-01
A striking prediction in topological insulators is the appearance of the quantized Hall resistance when the surface states are magnetized. The surface Dirac states become gapped everywhere on the surface, but chiral edge states remain on the edges. In an applied current, the edge states produce a quantized Hall resistance that equals the Chern number C = ±1 (in natural units), even in zero magnetic field. This quantum anomalous Hall effect was observed by Chang et al. With reversal of the magnetic field, the system is trapped in a metastable state because of magnetic anisotropy. We investigate how the system escapes the metastable state at low temperatures (10 to 200 mK). When the dissipation (measured by the longitudinal resistance) is ultralow, we find that the system escapes by making a few very rapid transitions, as detected by large jumps in the Hall and longitudinal resistances. Using the field at which the initial jump occurs to estimate the escape rate, we find that raising the temperature strongly suppresses the rate. From a detailed map of the resistance versus gate voltage and temperature, we show that dissipation strongly affects the escape rate. We compare the observations with dissipative quantum tunneling predictions. In the ultralow dissipation regime, two temperature scales (T1 ~ 70 mK and T2 ~ 145 mK) exist, between which jumps can be observed. The jumps display a spatial correlation that extends over a large fraction of the sample. PMID:27482539
Interfacing Topological Insulators with Ferromagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardella, Anthony
In topological insulators, the surface states arise from strong spin-orbit coupling while the degeneracy of the Dirac point is protected by time reversal symmetry. Introducing magnetism in proximity to the surface states breaks this symmetry, destroying the non-trivial Berry phase at the Dirac point and leads to a hedgehog spin texture near the newly opened magnetic gap. This symmetry broken phase leads to a host of unusual physics, such as the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. In this talk, we discuss the growth by molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of such magnetically interfaced and magnetically doped topological insulators. Such materials often suffer from structural defects and interfacial layers, as well as from degradation during device fabrication. In particular, it is shown that Cr doped (Bi1-x,Sbx)2Te3 can exhibit perfect Hall quantization at low temperatures despite these defects. However, the magnetic ordering of this material was found to be quite unusual, displaying a super-paramagnetic like character, perhaps reflecting this disorder. Such observations highlight the surprising behavior of such broken symmetry phases in topological materials. This work was performed in collaboration with A. Kandala, M. Liu, W. Wang, N.P. Ong, C.-X. Liu, and N. Samarth, in addition to the authors of the references cited. This work was supported by funding from ARO/MURI, DARPA and ONR.
Ferromagnetism and glassiness on the surface of topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chun-Xiao; Roy, Bitan; Sau, Jay D.
2016-12-01
We investigate the nature of the ordering among magnetic adatoms, randomly deposited on the surface of topological insulators. Restricting ourselves to dilute impurity and weak coupling (between itinerant fermion and magnetic impurities) limit, we show that for arbitrary amount of chemical doping away from the apex of the surface Dirac cone the magnetic impurities tend to arrange themselves in a spin-density-wave pattern, with the periodicity approximately π /kF , where kF is the Fermi wave vector, when magnetic moment for impurity adatoms is isotropic. However, when magnetic moment possesses strong Ising or easy-axis anisotropy, pursuing both analytical and numerical approaches we show that the ground state is ferromagnetic for low to moderate chemical doping, despite the fragmentation of the system into multiple ferromagnetic islands. For high doping away from the Dirac point as well, the system appears to fragment into many ferromagnetic islands, but the magnetization in these islands is randomly distributed. Such magnetic ordering with net zero magnetization is referred to here as ferromagnetic spin glass, which is separated from the pure ferromagnet state by a first order phase transition. We generalize our analysis for cubic topological insulators (supporting three Dirac cones on a surface) and demonstrate that the nature of magnetic orderings and the transition between them remains qualitatively the same. We also discuss the possible relevance of our analysis to recent experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prajapat, C. L.; Singh, Surendra; Paul, Amitesh; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, M. R.; Mattauch, S.; Ravikumar, G.; Basu, S.
2016-05-01
Coupling between superconducting and ferromagnetic states in hybrid oxide heterostructures is presently a topic of intense research. Such a coupling is due to the leakage of the Cooper pairs into the ferromagnet. However, tunneling of the Cooper pairs though an insulator was never considered plausible. Using depth sensitive polarized neutron reflectivity we demonstrate the coupling between superconductor and magnetic layers in epitaxial La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO)/SrTiO3/YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) hybrid heterostructures, with SrTiO3 as an intervening oxide insulator layer between the ferromagnet and the superconductor. Measurements above and below the superconducting transition temperature (TSC) of YBCO demonstrate a large modulation of magnetization in the ferromagnetic layer below the TSC of YBCO in these heterostructures. This work highlights a unique tunneling phenomenon between the epitaxial layers of an oxide superconductor (YBCO) and a magnetic layer (LCMO) through an insulating layer. Our work would inspire further investigations on the fundamental aspect of a long range order of the triplet spin-pairing in hybrid structures.
Prajapat, C L; Singh, Surendra; Paul, Amitesh; Bhattacharya, D; Singh, M R; Mattauch, S; Ravikumar, G; Basu, S
2016-05-21
Coupling between superconducting and ferromagnetic states in hybrid oxide heterostructures is presently a topic of intense research. Such a coupling is due to the leakage of the Cooper pairs into the ferromagnet. However, tunneling of the Cooper pairs though an insulator was never considered plausible. Using depth sensitive polarized neutron reflectivity we demonstrate the coupling between superconductor and magnetic layers in epitaxial La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO)/SrTiO3/YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) hybrid heterostructures, with SrTiO3 as an intervening oxide insulator layer between the ferromagnet and the superconductor. Measurements above and below the superconducting transition temperature (TSC) of YBCO demonstrate a large modulation of magnetization in the ferromagnetic layer below the TSC of YBCO in these heterostructures. This work highlights a unique tunneling phenomenon between the epitaxial layers of an oxide superconductor (YBCO) and a magnetic layer (LCMO) through an insulating layer. Our work would inspire further investigations on the fundamental aspect of a long range order of the triplet spin-pairing in hybrid structures.
A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity coupling
Katmis, Ferhat; Lauter, Valeria; Nogueira, Flavio S.; Assaf, Badih A.; Jamer, Michelle E.; Wei, Peng; Satpati, Biswarup; Freeland, John W.; Eremin, Ilya; Heiman, Don; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.
2016-05-09
Topological insulators are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry(1,)2, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens up new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic, spintronic and quantum computation devices(3-5). Introducing ferromagnetic order into a topological insulator system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to the realization of several predicted physical phenomena(6,7). In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the surface of the topological insulator at specific locations without introducing spin-scattering centres could open up new possibilities for devices. Here we use spin-polarized neutron reflectivity experiments to demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (EuS) to a topological insulator (Bi2Se3) in a bilayer system. This interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the ferromagnetic insulator is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The magnetism induced at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and the spin-momentum locking of the topological insulator surface greatly enhances the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of this bilayer system. The ferromagnetism extends similar to 2 nm into the Bi2Se3 from the interface. Owing to the short-range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a topological insulator, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered topological insulator(2,8) could allow efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy-efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies.
A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity coupling.
Katmis, Ferhat; Lauter, Valeria; Nogueira, Flavio S; Assaf, Badih A; Jamer, Michelle E; Wei, Peng; Satpati, Biswarup; Freeland, John W; Eremin, Ilya; Heiman, Don; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Moodera, Jagadeesh S
2016-05-26
Topological insulators are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens up new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic, spintronic and quantum computation devices. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a topological insulator system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to the realization of several predicted physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the surface of the topological insulator at specific locations without introducing spin-scattering centres could open up new possibilities for devices. Here we use spin-polarized neutron reflectivity experiments to demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (EuS) to a topological insulator (Bi2Se3) in a bilayer system. This interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the ferromagnetic insulator is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The magnetism induced at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and the spin-momentum locking of the topological insulator surface greatly enhances the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of this bilayer system. The ferromagnetism extends ~2 nm into the Bi2Se3 from the interface. Owing to the short-range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a topological insulator, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered topological insulator could allow efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy-efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies.
A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katmis, Ferhat; Lauter, Valeria; Nogueira, Flavio S.; Assaf, Badih A.; Jamer, Michelle E.; Wei, Peng; Satpati, Biswarup; Freeland, John W.; Eremin, Ilya; Heiman, Don; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.
2016-05-01
Topological insulators are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens up new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic, spintronic and quantum computation devices. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a topological insulator system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to the realization of several predicted physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the surface of the topological insulator at specific locations without introducing spin-scattering centres could open up new possibilities for devices. Here we use spin-polarized neutron reflectivity experiments to demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (EuS) to a topological insulator (Bi2Se3) in a bilayer system. This interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the ferromagnetic insulator is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The magnetism induced at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and the spin-momentum locking of the topological insulator surface greatly enhances the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of this bilayer system. The ferromagnetism extends ~2 nm into the Bi2Se3 from the interface. Owing to the short-range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a topological insulator, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered topological insulator could allow efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy-efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Mingda; Cui, Wenping; Yu, Jin; Dai, Zuyang; Wang, Zhe; Katmis, Ferhat; Guo, Wanlin; Moodera, Jagadeesh
2015-01-01
The magnetic proximity effect between the topological insulator (TI) and ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) is considered to have great potential in spintronics. However, a complete determination of interfacial magnetic structure has been highly challenging. We theoretically investigate the interlayer exchange coupling of two FMIs separated by a TI thin film, and show that the particular electronic states of the TI contributing to the proximity effect can be directly identified through the coupling behavior between two FMIs, together with a tunability of the coupling constant. Such an FMI/TI/FMI structure not only serves as a platform to clarify the magnetic structure of the FMI/TI interface, but also provides insights in designing the magnetic storage devices with ultrafast response.
Novel Majorana mode and magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic superconducting topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goudarzi, H.; Khezerlou, M.; Asgarifar, S.
2017-03-01
Among the potential applications of topological insulators, we investigate theoretically the effect of coexistence of proximity-induced ferromagnetism and superconductivity on the surface states of 3-dimensional topological insulator, where the superconducting electron-hole excitations can be significantly affected by the magnetization of ferromagnetic order. We find that, Majorana mode energy, as a verified feature of TI F/S structure, along the interface sensitively depends on the magnitude of magnetization mzfs in FS region, while its slope in perpendicular incidence presents steep and no change. Since the superconducting gap is renormalized by a factor η (mzfs) , hence Andreev reflection is more or less suppressed, and, in particular, resulting subgap tunneling conductance is more sensitive to the magnitude of magnetizations in FS and F regions. Furthermore, an interesting scenario happens at the antiparallel configuration of magnetizations mzf and mzfs resulting in magnetoresistance in N/F/FS junction, which can be controlled and decreased by tuning the magnetization magnitude in FS region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khezerlou, Maryam; Goudarzi, Hadi; Asgarifar, Samin
2017-03-01
Among the potential applications of topological insulators, we theoretically study the coexistence of proximity-induced ferromagnetic and superconducting orders in the surface states of a 3-dimensional topological insulator. The superconducting electron-hole excitations can be significantly affected by the magnetic order induced by a ferromagnet. In one hand, the surface state of the topological insulator, protected by the time-reversal symmetry, creates a spin-triplet and, on the other hand, magnetic order causes to renormalize the effective superconducting gap. We find Majorana mode energy along the ferromagnet/superconductor interface to sensitively depend on the magnitude of magnetization mzfs from superconductor region, and its slope around perpendicular incidence is steep with very low dependency on mzfs. The superconducting effective gap is renormalized by a factor η(mzfs), and Andreev bound state in ferromagnet-superconductor/ferromagnet/ferromagnet-superconductor (FS/F/FS) Josephson junction is more sensitive to the magnitude of magnetizations of FS and F regions. In particular, we show that the presence of mzfs has a noticeable impact on the gap opening in Andreev bound state, which occurs in finite angle of incidence. This directly results in zero-energy Andreev state being dominant. By introducing the proper form of corresponding Dirac spinors for FS electron-hole states, we find that via the inclusion of mzfs, the Josephson supercurrent is enhanced and exhibits almost abrupt crossover curve, featuring the dominant zero-energy Majorana bound states.
Quantum Corrections Crossover and Ferromagnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators
Bao, Lihong; Wang, Weiyi; Meyer, Nicholas; Liu, Yanwen; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Kai; Ai, Ping; Xiu, Faxian
2013-01-01
Revelation of emerging exotic states of topological insulators (TIs) for future quantum computing applications relies on breaking time-reversal symmetry and opening a surface energy gap. Here, we report on the transport response of Bi2Te3 TI thin films in the presence of varying Cr dopants. By tracking the magnetoconductance (MC) in a low doping regime we observed a progressive crossover from weak antilocalization (WAL) to weak localization (WL) as the Cr concentration increases. In a high doping regime, however, increasing Cr concentration yields a monotonically enhanced anomalous Hall effect (AHE) accompanied by an increasing carrier density. Our results demonstrate a possibility of manipulating bulk ferromagnetism and quantum transport in magnetic TI, thus providing an alternative way for experimentally realizing exotic quantum states required by spintronic applications. PMID:23928713
Ferromagnetic-Insulator-Based Superconducting Junctions as Sensitive Electron Thermometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giazotto, F.; Solinas, P.; Braggio, A.; Bergeret, F. S.
2015-10-01
We present an exhaustive theoretical analysis of charge and thermoelectric transport in a normal-metal-ferromagnetic-insulator-superconductor junction and explore the possibility of its use as a sensitive thermometer. We investigate the transfer functions and the intrinsic noise performance for different measurement configurations. A common feature of all configurations is that the best temperature-noise performance is obtained in the nonlinear temperature regime for a structure based on an Europium chalcogenide ferromagnetic insulator in contact with a superconducting Al film structure. For an open-circuit configuration, although the maximal intrinsic temperature sensitivity can achieve 10 nK Hz-1 /2 , a realistic amplifying chain will reduce the sensitivity up to 10 μ K Hz-1 /2 . To overcome this limitation, we propose a measurement scheme in a closed-circuit configuration based on state-of-the-art superconducting-quantum-interference-device detection technology in an inductive setup. In such a case, we show that temperature-noise can be as low as 35 nK Hz-1 /2 . We also discuss a temperature-to-frequency converter where the obtained thermovoltage developed over a Josephson junction operated in the dissipative regime is converted into a high-frequency signal. We predict that the structure can generate frequencies up to approximately 120 GHz and transfer functions up to 200 GHz /K at around 1 K. If operated as an electron thermometer, the device may provide temperature-noise lower than 35 nK Hz-1 /2 thereby being potentially attractive for radiation-sensing applications.
Superfluid Spin Transport Through Easy-Plane Ferromagnetic Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2014-06-01
Superfluid spin transport—dissipationless transport of spin—is theoretically studied in a ferromagnetic insulator with easy-plane anisotropy. We consider an open geometry where the spin current is injected into the ferromagnet from one side by a metallic reservoir with a nonequilibrium spin accumulation and ejected into another metallic reservoir located downstream. Spin transport is studied using a combination of magnetoelectric circuit theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, and microscopic linear-response theory. We discuss how spin superfluidity can be probed in a magnetically mediated negative electron-drag experiment.
Topological insulator in junction with ferromagnets: Quantum Hall effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Kagalovsky, V.
2015-06-01
The ferromagnet-topological insulator-ferromagnet (FM-TI-FM) junction exhibits thermal and electrical quantum Hall effects. The generated Hall voltage and transverse temperature gradient can be controlled by the directions of magnetizations in the FM leads, which inspires the use of FM-TI-FM junctions as electrical and as heat switches in spintronic devices. Thermal and electrical Hall coefficients are calculated as functions of the magnetization directions in ferromagnets and the spin-relaxation time in TI. Both the Hall voltage and the transverse temperature gradient decrease but are not completely suppressed even at very short spin-relaxation times. The Hall coefficients turn out to be independent of the spin-relaxation time for symmetric configuration of FM leads.
Interfacial Coupling-Induced Ferromagnetic Insulator Phase in Manganite Film.
Zhang, Bangmin; Wu, Lijun; Yin, Wei-Guo; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Ping; Venkatesan, T; Chen, Jingsheng; Zhu, Yimei; Chow, Gan Moog
2016-07-13
Interfaces with subtle differences in atomic and electronic structures in perovskite ABO3 heterostructures often yield intriguingly different properties, yet their exact roles remain elusive. Here, we report an integrated study of unusual transport, magnetic, and structural properties of Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3 film on SrTiO3 substrate. The variations in the out-of-plane lattice constant and BO6 octahedral rotation across the Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3 interface strongly depend on the thickness of the Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3 film. In the 12 nm film, a new interface-sensitive ferromagnetic polaronic insulator (FI') phase is formed during the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition of SrTiO3, apparently due to the enhanced electron-phonon interaction and atomic disorder in the film. The transport properties of the FI' phase in the 30 nm film are masked because of the reduced interfacial coupling and smaller interface-to-volume ratio. This work demonstrates how thickness-dependent interfacial coupling leads to the formation of a theoretically predicted ferromagnetic-polaronic insulator, as illustrated in a new phase diagram, that is otherwise ferromagnetic metal (FM) in bulk form.
Superfluid Spin Transport through Easy-Plane Ferromagnetic Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2014-03-01
Superfluid spin transport | dissipationless transport of spin | is theoretically studied in a ferromagnetic insulator with easy-plane anisotropy. We consider an open geometry where spin current is injected into the ferromagnet from one side by a metallic reservoir with a nonequilibrium spin accumulation, and ejected into another metallic reservoir located downstream. Spin transport through the device is studied using a combination of magnetoelectric circuit theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, and microscopic linear-response theory. We discuss how spin superfluidity can be probed using a magnetically-mediated electron-drag experiment. This work was supported in part by FAME (an SRC STARnet center sponsored by MARCO and DARPA), the NSF under Grant No. DMR-0840965, and Grant No. 228481 from the Simons Foundation.
Tuning Ferromagnetism at Interfaces between Insulating Perovskite Oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguli, Nirmal; Kelly, Paul J.
2014-09-01
We use density functional theory calculations to show that the LaAlO3|SrTiO3 interface between insulating perovskite oxides is borderline in satisfying the Stoner criterion for itinerant ferromagnetism and explore other oxide combinations with a view to satisfying it more amply. The larger lattice parameter of a LaScO3|BaTiO3 interface is found to be less favorable than the greater interface distortion of LaAlO3|CaTiO3. Compared to LaAlO3|SrTiO3, the latter is predicted to exhibit robust magnetism with a larger saturation moment and a higher Curie temperature. Our results provide support for a "two phase" picture of coexistent superconductivity and ferromagnetism.
Tuning ferromagnetism at interfaces between insulating perovskite oxides.
Ganguli, Nirmal; Kelly, Paul J
2014-09-19
We use density functional theory calculations to show that the LaAlO3|SrTiO3 interface between insulating perovskite oxides is borderline in satisfying the Stoner criterion for itinerant ferromagnetism and explore other oxide combinations with a view to satisfying it more amply. The larger lattice parameter of a LaScO3|BaTiO3 interface is found to be less favorable than the greater interface distortion of LaAlO3|CaTiO3. Compared to LaAlO3|SrTiO3, the latter is predicted to exhibit robust magnetism with a larger saturation moment and a higher Curie temperature. Our results provide support for a "two phase" picture of coexistent superconductivity and ferromagnetism.
Domain wall of a ferromagnet on a three-dimensional topological insulator
Wakatsuki, Ryohei; Ezawa, Motohiko; Nagaosa, Naoto
2015-01-01
Topological insulators (TIs) show rich phenomena and functions which can never be realized in ordinary insulators. Most of them come from the peculiar surface or edge states. Especially, the quantized anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) without an external magnetic field is realized in the two-dimensional ferromagnet on a three-dimensional TI which supports the dissipationless edge current. Here we demonstrate theoretically that the domain wall of this ferromagnet, which carries edge current, is charged and can be controlled by the external electric field. The chirality and relative stability of the Neel wall and Bloch wall depend on the position of the Fermi energy as well as the form of the coupling between the magnetic moments and orbital of the host TI. These findings will pave a path to utilize the magnets on TI for the spintronics applications. PMID:26323943
Domain wall of a ferromagnet on a three-dimensional topological insulator.
Wakatsuki, Ryohei; Ezawa, Motohiko; Nagaosa, Naoto
2015-09-01
Topological insulators (TIs) show rich phenomena and functions which can never be realized in ordinary insulators. Most of them come from the peculiar surface or edge states. Especially, the quantized anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) without an external magnetic field is realized in the two-dimensional ferromagnet on a three-dimensional TI which supports the dissipationless edge current. Here we demonstrate theoretically that the domain wall of this ferromagnet, which carries edge current, is charged and can be controlled by the external electric field. The chirality and relative stability of the Neel wall and Bloch wall depend on the position of the Fermi energy as well as the form of the coupling between the magnetic moments and orbital of the host TI. These findings will pave a path to utilize the magnets on TI for the spintronics applications.
Interfacial Coupling-Induced Ferromagnetic Insulator Phase in Manganite Film
Zhang, Bangmin; Wu, Lijun; Yin, Wei-Guo; ...
2016-06-08
Interfaces with subtle differences in atomic and electronic structures in perovskite ABO3 heterostructures often yield intriguingly different properties, yet their exact roles remain elusive. Here, we report an integrated study of unusual transport, magnetic, and structural properties of Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3 film on SrTiO3 substrate. The variations in the out-of-plane lattice constant and BO6 octahedral rotation across the Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3 interface strongly depend on the thickness of the Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3 film. In the 12-nm film, a new interface-sensitive ferromagnetic polaronic insulator (FI') phase is formed during the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition of SrTiO3, apparently due to the enhanced electron–phonon interaction and atomic disorder in themore » film. The transport properties of the FI' phase in the 30-nm film are masked because of the reduced interfacial coupling and smaller interface-to-volume ratio. In conclusion, this work demonstrates how thickness-dependent interfacial coupling leads to the formation of a theoretically predicted ferromagnetic–polaronic insulator, as illustrated in a new phase diagram, that is otherwise ferromagnetic metal (FM) in bulk form.« less
Ferromagnetism in vanadium doped thin films of a topological insulator Bi2Te3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lukas; Chen, Zhiyi; Korzhovska, Inna; Deng, Haiming; Raoux, Simone; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Sarachik, Myriam; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia
2012-02-01
Recent first-principle calculations predict a new class of ferromagnetic systems that are distinctly different from the conventional dilute magnetic semiconductors. A novel ferromagnetic topological insulator (ferro-TI) state can be obtained when topological insulator are doped with certain transition metal elements. In the the quasi-2D limit these ferro-TIs are expected to support a quantized anomalous Hall effect. Here we report on electrical and magnetic characterization of vanadium doped thin (˜50 nm) films of a topological insulator Bi2Te3. Films were grown by rf sputtering on S3N4/Si substrates with lithographically pre-patterned contact pads. Low-temperature in-plane and Hall resistivity measurements were performed in magnetic fields up to 5 T fields. We find that below 100 K, V-doped films display negative linear magnetoresistance, which at lower temperatures becomes hysteretic. Hall resistivity is also hysteretic, suggesting an unusual ferromagnetic ordering below 10 K. Moreover, V-doping turns the p-type conduction in as-grown films into n-type. The doping and thickness dependence of these effects will be discussed.
Interfacial Coupling-Induced Ferromagnetic Insulator Phase in Manganite Film
Zhang, Bangmin; Wu, Lijun; Yin, Wei-Guo; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Ping; Venkatesan, T.; Chen, Jingsheng; Zhu, Yimei; Chow, Gan Moog
2016-06-08
Interfaces with subtle differences in atomic and electronic structures in perovskite ABO_{3} heterostructures often yield intriguingly different properties, yet their exact roles remain elusive. Here, we report an integrated study of unusual transport, magnetic, and structural properties of Pr_{0.67}Sr_{0.33}MnO_{3} film on SrTiO_{3} substrate. The variations in the out-of-plane lattice constant and BO_{6} octahedral rotation across the Pr_{0.67}Sr_{0.33}MnO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} interface strongly depend on the thickness of the Pr_{0.67}Sr_{0.33}MnO_{3} film. In the 12-nm film, a new interface-sensitive ferromagnetic polaronic insulator (FI') phase is formed during the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition of SrTiO_{3}, apparently due to the enhanced electron–phonon interaction and atomic disorder in the film. The transport properties of the FI' phase in the 30-nm film are masked because of the reduced interfacial coupling and smaller interface-to-volume ratio. In conclusion, this work demonstrates how thickness-dependent interfacial coupling leads to the formation of a theoretically predicted ferromagnetic–polaronic insulator, as illustrated in a new phase diagram, that is otherwise ferromagnetic metal (FM) in bulk form.
Magnon excitation and transport in Ferromagnetic Insulator/metal multilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tao; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jianwei
We studied magnon excitation and transport in a Ferromagnetic Insulator(FI) layer(such as YIG), which connected with Ferromagnetic/normal metal multilayers in two sides. In our modeling, we adopted self-consistent spin dependent Boltzmann equations in metal layers and magnon Boltzmann equation in FI layer. When applying an in-plane current in FM layer, a transverse spin current was generated due to Anomalous Hall effect, after crossing normal metal layer, it will produce magnon excitation at N/FI interface. With carrying spin information, magnon excitation in FI can eventually excite a new spin current at second F/N interface. This is so call magnon-drag effect. In our work, we focused on magnon propagation in FI, with all two-magnon, three magnon, and four magnon scattering. Associated with spin dependent Boltzmann equation, we can investigate magnon excitation and transport properties in FI layer from the interface to bulk scale. The magnon excitation in FI layer is dominated not only by the interface interaction at Normal/FI boundary, but also by the bulk scattering in FI. Our results show the magnon in FI layer has decay behaviors to low energy model. We also showed a new way to manipulate magnon transport in FI This work was supported by NSFC Grant No. 11274240 and 51471119.
Magnon excitation and decay in Ferromagnetic Insulator/metal multilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tao; Li, Jiaxi; Zhang, Jianwei
2014-03-01
We studied magnon excitation in a Ferromagnetic Insulator(FI) layer(such as YIG), which connected two Ferromagnetic/normal metal multilayers in two sides. In our modeling, we adopted self-consistent spin dependent Boltzmann equations in metal layers and magnon Boltzmann equation in FI layer. When applying an in-plane current in first FM layer, a transverse spin current was generated due to Anomalous Hall effect(AHE), after crossing normal metal layer, this transverse spin current will produce magnon excitation at N/FI interface. With carrying spin information, magnon excitations in FI can eventually excite a new spin current at second F/N interface. Although the FI cannot support any spin current propagation across it, but spin polarization information was passed through FI with propagation of magnon. Finally, the transverse spin current in second FM layer can also generate another in-plane spin current by AHE. The magnon excitation in FI layer is dominated by the interfacial interaction at Normal/FI boundary. Our results show the magnon in FI layer have decay behaviors to low energy model. We also showed that when applying a magnetic field on FI layer, spin current in final FM layer can be manipulated by varying magnon excitation.
Integration of the ferromagnetic insulator EuO onto graphene.
Swartz, Adrian G; Odenthal, Patrick M; Hao, Yufeng; Ruoff, Rodney S; Kawakami, Roland K
2012-11-27
We have demonstrated the deposition of EuO films on graphene by reactive molecular beam epitaxy in a special adsorption-controlled and oxygen-limited regime, which is a critical advance toward the realization of the exchange proximity interaction (EPI). It has been predicted that when the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuO is brought into contact with graphene, an overlap of electronic wave functions at the FMI/graphene interface can induce a large spin splitting inside the graphene. Experimental realization of this effect could lead to new routes for spin manipulation, which is a necessary requirement for a functional spin transistor. Furthermore, EPI could lead to novel spintronic behavior such as controllable magnetoresistance, gate tunable exchange bias, and quantized anomalous Hall effect. However, experimentally, EuO has not yet been integrated onto graphene. Here we report the successful growth of high-quality crystalline EuO on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and single-layer graphene. The epitaxial EuO layers have (001) orientation and do not induce an observable D peak (defect) in the Raman spectra. Magneto-optic measurements indicate ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature of 69 K, which is the value for bulk EuO. Transport measurements on exfoliated graphene before and after EuO deposition indicate only a slight decrease in mobility.
Ferromagnetism in chromium doped topological insulator thin films and nanoplate crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhiyi; Zhao, Lukas; Korzhovska, Inna; Deng, Haiming; Huang, Limin; Raoux, Simone; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; O'Brien, Stephen; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia
2012-02-01
The surface states of topological insulators are protected by time-reversal symmetry. Introducing magnetic impurities should break this symmetry and open a gap in the otherwise gapless surface states. Recent first-principle calculations predict that when topological insulators are doped with transition metal elements, such as Cr or Fe, a magnetically ordered insulating state will form -- a state that in thin (quasi-2D) samples may support a quantized Hall conductance. Here we report on electrical and magnetic characterization of thin Cr doped topological insulators: Sb2Te3 nanoplate crystals and ˜50 nm thin films of Bi2Te3. Electrical contacts to samples were lithographically defined, with rf sputtered films grown on pre-patterned substrates. Low-temperature in-plane resistivity, Hall, and magnetization measurements were performed in up to 5 T magnetic fields. For 5 at% Cr content, a distinct ferromagnetic hysteretic response is observed at temperatures below 10 K. Hysteretic loops, also observed in Hall resistivity, indicate low-T coercive fields of the order of 0.5 T. Correlation of transport and magnetic measurements indicating anomalous Hall effect, and strong dependence on dopant concentration and sample thickness will be presented.
Spin-dependent delay time in ferromagnet/insulator/ferromagnet heterostructures
Xie, ZhengWei; Zheng Shi, De; Lv, HouXiang
2014-07-07
We study theoretically spin-dependent group delay and dwell time in ferromagnet/insulator/ferromagnet (FM/I/FM) heterostructure. The results indicate that, when the electrons with different spin orientations tunnel through the FM/I/FM junction, the spin-up process and the spin-down process are separated on the time scales. As the self-interference delay has the spin-dependent features, the variations of spin-dependent dwell-time and spin-dependent group-delay time with the structure parameters appear different features, especially, in low incident energy range. These different features show up as that the group delay times for the spin-up electrons are always longer than those for spin-down electrons when the barrier height or incident energy increase. In contrast, the dwell times for the spin-up electrons are longer (shorter) than those for spin-down electrons when the barrier heights (the incident energy) are under a certain value. When the barrier heights (the incident energy) exceed a certain value, the dwell times for the spin-up electrons turn out to be shorter (longer) than those for spin-down electrons. In addition, the group delay time and the dwell time for spin-up and down electrons also relies on the comparative direction of magnetization in two FM layers and tends to saturation with the thickness of the barrier.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauter, Valeria; Katmis, Ferhat; Assaf, Badih; Heiman, Don; Moodera, Jagadeesh
2015-03-01
We examine the magnetic proximity-induced symmetry breaking via the exchange interaction in heterostructures of the topological insulator (TI) Bi2Se3 and the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuS. We observed the emergence of a ferromagnetic phase in TI with the excess of magnetic moment at the interface using depth and element sensitive Polarized Neutron Reflectometry (PNR). We find that the magnetization, penetrating into the TI originates through exchange interaction, without structural perturbation at the interface. Due to the different interlayer exchange coupling as well as the properties of the bulk and surface magnetizations, we investigated several different heterostructures after cooling in zero field (ZFC) and in an external magnetic field (FC). The significantly enhanced magnetic properties of the heterostructures as revealed by the PNR studies, as well as the temperature and external magnetic field dependence will be presented. This work was supported by the Scientific User Facilities Division, BES, DOE, NSF ECCS-1402738, DMR-1207469, ONR N00014-13-1-0301.
Zero-bias photocurrent in ferromagnetic topological insulator
Ogawa, N.; Yoshimi, R.; Yasuda, K.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.
2016-01-01
Magnetic interactions in topological insulators cause essential modifications in the originally mass-less surface states. They offer a mass gap at the Dirac point and/or largely deform the energy dispersion, providing a new path towards exotic physics and applications to realize dissipation-less electronics. The nonequilibrium electron dynamics at these modified Dirac states unveil additional functions, such as highly efficient photon to spin-current conversion. Here we demonstrate the generation of large zero-bias photocurrent in magnetic topological insulator thin films on mid-infrared photoexcitation, pointing to the controllable band asymmetry in the momentum space. The photocurrent spectra with a maximal response to the intra-Dirac-band excitations can be a sensitive measure for the correlation between Dirac electrons and magnetic moments. PMID:27435028
Zero-bias photocurrent in ferromagnetic topological insulator.
Ogawa, N; Yoshimi, R; Yasuda, K; Tsukazaki, A; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y
2016-07-20
Magnetic interactions in topological insulators cause essential modifications in the originally mass-less surface states. They offer a mass gap at the Dirac point and/or largely deform the energy dispersion, providing a new path towards exotic physics and applications to realize dissipation-less electronics. The nonequilibrium electron dynamics at these modified Dirac states unveil additional functions, such as highly efficient photon to spin-current conversion. Here we demonstrate the generation of large zero-bias photocurrent in magnetic topological insulator thin films on mid-infrared photoexcitation, pointing to the controllable band asymmetry in the momentum space. The photocurrent spectra with a maximal response to the intra-Dirac-band excitations can be a sensitive measure for the correlation between Dirac electrons and magnetic moments.
Qin, Wei; Zhang, Zhenyu
2014-12-31
At the interface of an s-wave superconductor and a three-dimensional topological insulator, Majorana zero modes and Majorana helical states have been proposed to exist respectively around magnetic vortices and geometrical edges. Here we first show that randomly distributed magnetic impurities at such an interface will induce bound states that broaden into impurity bands inside (but near the edges of) the superconducting gap, which remains open unless the impurity concentration is too high. Next we find that an increase in the superconducting gap suppresses both the oscillation magnitude and the period of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction between two magnetic impurities. Within a mean-field approximation, the ferromagnetic Curie temperature is found to be essentially independent of the superconducting gap, an intriguing phenomenon due to a compensation effect between the short-range ferromagnetic and long-range antiferromagnetic interactions. The existence of robust superconductivity and persistent ferromagnetism at the interface allows realization of a novel topological phase transition from a nonchiral to a chiral superconducting state at sufficiently low temperatures, providing a new platform for topological quantum computation.
Linear response theory for magnon transport in ferromagnetic insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Ryo
2012-02-01
We study transverse response of magnons in ferromagnetic insulators within linear response theory. In analogy with the corresponding theory for electrons [1], magnon transverse response is described, including the Hall effect, Nernst effect, and thermal Hall effect. As is also the case for electrons [1], the response functions for magnons consist of the Kubo-formula term, and the term corresponding to the orbital angular momentum. We can rewrite the response functions in terms of the Berry curvature in momentum space [2]. We apply this theory to the (quantum-mechanical) magnons and to the classical magnetostatic waves. For the magnetostatic waves, the eigenmodes are given by a generalized eigenvalue problem, giving rise to the special form of the Berry curvature [2]. We explain various properties of this Berry curvature for the generalized eigenvalue problem, and discuss its implications for the physical properties of magnetostatic modes. [1] L. Smrcka and P. Streda, J. Phys. C, 10, 2153 (1977); H. Oji, P. Streda, Phys. Rev. B 31, 7291 (1985); [2] R. Matsumoto and S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 197202 (2011); Phys. Rev. B 84, 184406 (2011).
B a2NiOs O6 : A Dirac-Mott insulator with ferromagnetism near 100 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Hai L.; Calder, Stuart; Ghimire, Madhav Prasad; Yuan, Ya-Hua; Shirako, Yuichi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Hu, Zhiwei; Kuo, Chang-Yang; Tjeng, Liu Hao; Pi, Tun-Wen; Soo, Yun-Liang; He, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masahiko; Katsuya, Yoshio; Richter, Manuel; Yamaura, Kazunari
2016-12-01
The ferromagnetic semiconductor B a2NiOs O6 (Tmag˜100 K ) was synthesized at 6 GPa and 1500 °C. It crystallizes into a double perovskite structure [F m -3 m ; a =8.0428 (1 )Å ], where the N i2 + and O s6 + ions are perfectly ordered at the perovskite B site. We show that the spin-orbit coupling of O s6 + plays an essential role in opening the charge gap. The magnetic state was investigated by density functional theory calculations and powder neutron diffraction. The latter revealed a collinear ferromagnetic order in a >21 kOe magnetic field at 5 K. The ferromagnetic gapped state is fundamentally different from that of known dilute magnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)As and (Cd,Mn)Te (Tmag<180 K ), the spin-gapless semiconductor M n2CoAl (Tmag˜720 K ), and the ferromagnetic insulators EuO (Tmag˜70 K ) and B i3C r3O11 (Tmag˜220 K ). It is also qualitatively different from known ferrimagnetic insulators and semiconductors, which are characterized by an antiparallel spin arrangement. Our finding of the ferromagnetic semiconductivity of B a2NiOs O6 should increase interest in the platinum group oxides, because this alternative class of materials should be useful in the development of spintronic, quantum magnetic, and related devices.
Ba2NiOsO6 : A Dirac-Mott insulator with ferromagnetism near 100 K
Feng, Hai L.; Calder, Stuart; Ghimire, Madhav Prasad; ...
2016-12-28
In this study, the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ba2NiOsO6 ( Tmag ~ 100 K ) was synthesized at 6 GPa and 1500 °C. It crystallizes into a double perovskite structure [Fm - 3m ; a = 8.0428 ( 1 ) Å], where the Ni2+ and Os6+ ions are perfectly ordered at the perovskite B site. We show that the spin-orbit coupling of Os6+ plays an essential role in opening the charge gap. The magnetic state was investigated by density functional theory calculations and powder neutron diffraction. The latter revealed a collinear ferromagnetic order in a > 21 kOe magnetic field at 5more » K. The ferromagnetic gapped state is fundamentally different from that of known dilute magnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)As and (Cd,Mn)Te ( Tmag < 180 K ), the spin-gapless semiconductor Mn2 CoAl ( Tmag ~ 720 K ), and the ferromagnetic insulators EuO ( Tmag ~ 70 K ) and Bi3Cr3O11 ( Tmag ~ 220 K ). It is also qualitatively different from known ferrimagnetic insulators and semiconductors, which are characterized by an antiparallel spin arrangement. Our finding of the ferromagnetic semiconductivity of Ba2NiOsO6 should increase interest in the platinum group oxides, because this alternative class of materials should be useful in the development of spintronic, quantum magnetic, and related devices.« less
Insulating Ferromagnetic LaCoO3-δ Films: A Phase Induced by Ordering of Oxygen Vacancies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biškup, Neven; Salafranca, Juan; Mehta, Virat; Oxley, Mark P.; Suzuki, Yuri; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Varela, Maria
2014-02-01
The origin of ferromagnetism in strained epitaxial LaCoO3 films has been a long-standing mystery. Here, we combine atomically resolved Z-contrast imaging, electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to demonstrate that, in epitaxial LaCoO3 films, oxygen-vacancy superstructures release strain, control the film's electronic properties, and produce the observed ferromagnetism via the excess electrons in the Co d states. Although oxygen vacancies typically dope a material n-type, we find that ordered vacancies induce Peierls-like minigaps which, combined with strain relaxation, trigger a nonlinear rupture of the energy bands, resulting in insulating behavior.
Gangopadhyay, Shruba; Pickett, Warren E.
2015-01-15
The double perovskite Ba2NaOsO6 (BNOO), an exotic example of a very high oxidation state (heptavalent) osmium d1 compound and also uncommon by being a ferromagnetic open d-shell (Mott) insulator without Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion, is modeled using a density functional theory based hybrid functional incorporating exact exchange for correlated electronic orbitals and including the large spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The experimentally observed narrow-gap ferromagnetic insulating ground state is obtained, but only when including spin-orbit coupling, making this a Dirac-Mott insulator. The calculated easy axis along [110] is in accord with experiment, providing additional support that this approach provides a realistic method formore » studying this system. The predicted spin density for [110] spin orientation is nearly cubic (unlike for other directions), providing an explanation for the absence of JT distortion. An orbital moment of –0.4μB strongly compensates the +0.5μB spin moment on Os, leaving a strongly compensated moment more in line with experiment. Remarkably, the net moment lies primarily on the oxygen ions. An insulator-metal transition, by rotating the magnetization direction with an external field under moderate pressure, is predicted as one consequence of strong SOC, and metallization under moderate pressure is predicted. In conclusion, a comparison is made with the isostructural, isovalent insulator Ba2LiOsO6, which, however, orders antiferromagnetically.« less
Critical thickness for ferromagnetism in insulating LaMnO3 films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renshaw Wang, X.; Poccia, N.; Leusink, D. P.; Paudel, Tura R.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Li, C. J.; Lv, W. M.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando, Ariando; Hilgenkamp, H.
2014-03-01
The interplay between exchange interactions, interfacial charges, and confinement effects controls the electronic, magnetic, and transport properties of complex oxide thin films. Here we report the emergence of ferromagnetism in insulating LaMnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 substrates beyond a critical thickness. LaMnO3 (001) films are deposited by a pulsed laser deposition technique with thicknesses varying from 1 unit cell to 24 unit cells. The position dependent local magnetization is then mapped with micrometer resolution using scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy. We find that the magnetic ground state switches from non-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic within a change of one unit cell above the critical thickness of 5 unit cells with characteristic domain size of about 20 μm. Further increase of film thickness up to 24 unit cells leads to reduction of the domain size to about 10 μm. The critical thickness is qualitatively explained in terms of the charge transfer in polar LaMnO3 (001) thin films based on results of additional experimental data, density-functional calculations, and the electrostatic modeling.
Microscopic derivation of magnon spin current in a topological insulator/ferromagnet heterostructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okuma, Nobuyuki; Nomura, Kentaro
2017-03-01
We investigate a spin-electricity conversion effect in a topological insulator/ferromagnet heterostructure. In the spin-momentum-locked surface state, an electric current generates nonequilibrium spin accumulation, which causes a spin-orbit torque that acts on the ferromagnet. When spins in the ferromagnet are completely parallel to the accumulated spin, this spin-orbit torque is zero. In the presence of spin excitations, however, a coupling between magnons and electrons enables us to obtain a nonvanishing torque. In this paper, we consider a model of the heterostructure in which a three-dimensional magnon gas is coupled with a two-dimensional massless Dirac electron system at the interface. We calculate the torque induced by an electric field, which can be interpreted as a magnon spin current, up to the lowest order of the electron-magnon interaction. We derive the expressions for high and low temperatures and estimate the order of magnitude of the induced spin current for realistic materials at room temperature.
Large anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic insulator-topological insulator heterostructures
Alegria, L. D.; Petta, J. R.; Ji, H.; Cava, R. J.; Yao, N.; Clarke, J. J.
2014-08-04
We demonstrate the van der Waals epitaxy of the topological insulator compound Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on the ferromagnetic insulator Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The layers are oriented with (001)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(001)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and (110)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(100)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy indicates the formation of a sharp interface. At low temperatures, bilayers consisting of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} exhibit a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE). Tilted field studies of the AHE indicate that the easy axis lies along the c-axis of the heterostructure, consistent with magnetization measurements in bulk Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The 61 K Curie temperature of Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and the use of near-stoichiometric materials may lead to the development of spintronic devices based on the AHE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenqing; He, Liang; Zhou, Yan; Murata, Koichi; Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Ross, Caroline A.; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yong; Xu, Yongbing; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Kang. L.
2016-05-01
One of the major obstacles of the magnetic topological insulators (TIs) impeding their practical use is the low Curie temperature (Tc). Very recently, we have demonstrated the enhancement of the magnetic ordering in Cr-doped Bi2Se3 by means of proximity to the high-Tc ferrimagnetic insulator (FMI) Y3Fe5O12 and found a large and rapidly decreasing penetration depth of the proximity effect, suggestive of a different carrier propagation process near the TI surface. Here we further present a study of the interfacial magnetic interaction of this TI/FMI heterostrucutre. The synchrotron-based X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) technique was used to probe the nature of the exchange coupling of the Bi2-xCrxSe3/Y3Fe5O12 interface. We found that the Bi2-xCrxSe3 grown on Y3Fe5O12(111) predominately contains Cr3+ cations, and the spin direction of the Cr3+ is aligned parallel to that of tetrahedral Fe3+ of the YIG, revealing a ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the Bi2-xCrxSe3 and the Y3Fe5O12.
Zhou, Benliang; Tang, Dongsheng; Zhou, Guanghui; Zhou, Benhu
2014-04-21
We investigate the energy band structure and the spin-dependent transport for a normal/ferromagnetic/normal two-dimension topological insulator (TI) junction. By diagonalizing Hamiltonian for the system, the band structure shows that the edge states on two sides are coupled resulting in a gap opening due to the transverse spatial confinement. Further, the exchange field induced by magnetic impurities can also modulate the band structure with two spin degenerate bands splitting. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, the dependence of spin-dependent conductance and spin-polarization on the Fermi energy, the exchange field strength and the ferromagnetic TI (FTI) length are also analyzed, respectively. Interestingly, the degenerate conductance plateaus for spin-up and -down channels are broken, and both the conductances are suppressed by magnetic impurities due to the time-reversal symmetry broken and inelastic scattering. The spin-dependent conductance shows different behaviors when the Fermi energy is tuned into different ranges. Moreover, the conductance can be fully spin polarized by tuning the Fermi energy and the exchange field strength, or by tuning the Fermi energy and the FTI length. Consequently, the junction can transform from a quantum spin Hall state to a quantum anomalous Hall state, which is very important to enable dissipationless charge current for designing perfect spin filter.
Visualization of a ferromagnetic metallic edge state in manganite strips.
Du, Kai; Zhang, Kai; Dong, Shuai; Wei, Wengang; Shao, Jian; Niu, Jiebin; Chen, Jinjie; Zhu, Yinyan; Lin, Hanxuan; Yin, Xiaolu; Liou, Sy-Hwang; Yin, Lifeng; Shen, Jian
2015-02-04
Recently, broken symmetry effect induced edge states in two-dimensional electronic systems have attracted great attention. However, whether edge states may exist in strongly correlated oxides is not yet known. In this work, using perovskite manganites as prototype systems, we demonstrate that edge states do exist in strongly correlated oxides. Distinct appearance of ferromagnetic metallic phase is observed along the edge of manganite strips by magnetic force microscopy. The edge states have strong influence on the transport properties of the strips, leading to higher metal-insulator transition temperatures and lower resistivity in narrower strips. Model calculations show that the edge states are associated with the broken symmetry effect of the antiferromagnetic charge-ordered states in manganites. Besides providing a new understanding of the broken symmetry effect in complex oxides, our discoveries indicate that novel edge state physics may exist in strongly correlated oxides beyond the current two-dimensional electronic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolting, W.; Borgiel, W.; Borstel, G.
1988-05-01
We present a method for calculating the temperature dependence of the electronic quasiparticle density of states (QDOS) of a ferromagnetic rare-earth insulator like EuO. Special attention is devoted to how the ``localized'' ferromagnetism manifests itself in x-ray photoemission and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectra. Our study includes the first six conduction bands of EuO (the first five are Eu 5d like, the sixth is mainly of Eu 6s character) as well as the rather flat 4f levels. The starting point is an extended d-f exchange model, the main parts of which are an exchange interaction between 4f moments and conduction electrons, a Coulomb repulsion between highly correlated 4f electrons, and a hybridization of 4f with conduction-band states. We use an exact T=0 relationship between spin-up quasiparticle energies and one-electron Bloch energies ɛm(k) for an optimal determination of the latter by performing a self-consistent, spin-polarized band-structure calculation based on density-functional theory. For finite temperatures the model is approximately solved by a many-body procedure. The QDOS exhibits a striking temperature dependence mainly due to the d-f exchange. Two 4f-like peaks appear in the spin-polarized QDOS, the low-energy one being occupied, the high-energy one being empty. The temperature dependence of the localized ferromagnetism appears in the QDOS as a temperature-dependent shift of spectral weight between the low- and the high-energy peak.
Ferromagnetism in the Mott insulator Ba2NaOsO6
Erickson, A.S.; Misra, S.; Miller, G.J.; Harrison, W.A.; Kim, J.M.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.
2010-01-15
Results are presented of single crystal structural, thermodynamic, and reflectivity measurements of the double-perovskite Ba{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 6}. These characterize the material as a 5d1 ferromagnetic Mott insulator with an ordered moment of {approx} 0.2 {micro}B per formula unit and T{sub C} = 6.8(3) K. The magnetic entropy associated with this phase transition is close to Rln2, indicating that the quartet groundstate anticipated from consideration of the crystal structure is split, consistent with a scenario in which the ferromagnetism is associated with orbital ordering.
Excitonic instabilities and insulating states in bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Kok Wee; Liang, Yung-Ching; Haas, Stephan
2012-11-01
The competing ground states of bilayer graphene are studied by applying renormalization group techniques to a bilayer honeycomb lattice with nearest neighbor hopping. In the absence of interactions, the Fermi surface of this model at half-filling consists of two nodal points with momenta K, K', where the conduction band and valence band touch each other, yielding a semimetal. Since near these two points the energy dispersion is quadratic with perfect particle-hole symmetry, excitonic instabilities are inevitable if interband interactions are present. Using a perturbative renormalization group analysis up to the one-loop level, we find different competing ordered ground states, including ferromagnetism, superconductivity, spin and charge density wave states with ordering vector Q=K-K', and excitonic insulator states. In addition, two states with valley symmetry breaking are found in the excitonic insulating and ferromagnetic phases. This analysis strongly suggests that the ground state of bilayer graphene should be gapped, and with the exception of superconductivity, all other possible ground states are insulating.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, N. C.; Samoilov, A. V.; Veasquez, R. P.; Li, Y.
1998-01-01
The effect of spin-polarized currents on the critical current densities of cuprate superconductors is investigated in perovskite ferromagnet-insulator-superconductor heterostructures with a pulsed current technique.
Adaptive microwave impedance memory effect in a ferromagnetic insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hanju; Friedman, Barry; Lee, Kiejin
2016-12-01
Adaptive electronics, which are often referred to as memristive systems as they often rely on a memristor (memory resistor), are an emerging technology inspired by adaptive biological systems. Dissipative systems may provide a proper platform to implement an adaptive system due to its inherent adaptive property that parameters describing the system are optimized to maximize the entropy production for a given environment. Here, we report that a non-volatile and reversible adaptive microwave impedance memory device can be realized through the adaptive property of the dissipative structure of the driven ferromagnetic system. Like the memristive device, the microwave impedance of the device is modulated as a function of excitation microwave passing through the device. This kind of new device may not only helpful to implement adaptive information processing technologies, but also may be useful to investigate and understand the underlying mechanism of spontaneous formation of complex and ordered structures.
Adaptive microwave impedance memory effect in a ferromagnetic insulator.
Lee, Hanju; Friedman, Barry; Lee, Kiejin
2016-12-14
Adaptive electronics, which are often referred to as memristive systems as they often rely on a memristor (memory resistor), are an emerging technology inspired by adaptive biological systems. Dissipative systems may provide a proper platform to implement an adaptive system due to its inherent adaptive property that parameters describing the system are optimized to maximize the entropy production for a given environment. Here, we report that a non-volatile and reversible adaptive microwave impedance memory device can be realized through the adaptive property of the dissipative structure of the driven ferromagnetic system. Like the memristive device, the microwave impedance of the device is modulated as a function of excitation microwave passing through the device. This kind of new device may not only helpful to implement adaptive information processing technologies, but also may be useful to investigate and understand the underlying mechanism of spontaneous formation of complex and ordered structures.
Microwave-induced spin currents in ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal bilayer system
Agrawal, Milan; Serga, Alexander A.; Lauer, Viktor; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I.
2014-09-01
A microwave technique is employed to simultaneously examine the spin pumping and the spin Seebeck effect processes in a YIG|Pt bilayer system. The experimental results show that for these two processes, the spin current flows in opposite directions. The temporal dynamics of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect exhibits that the effect depends on the diffusion of bulk thermal-magnons in the thermal gradient in the ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal system.
Thermodynamic transport theory of spin waves in ferromagnetic insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basso, Vittorio; Ferraro, Elena; Piazzi, Marco
2016-10-01
We use the Boltzmann transport theory in the relaxation time approximation to describe the thermal transport of spin waves in a ferromagnet. By treating spin waves as magnon excitations we are able to compute analytically and numerically the coefficients of the constitutive thermomagnetic transport equations. As a main result, we find that the absolute thermomagnetic power coefficient ɛM, relating the gradient of the potential of the magnetization current and the gradient of the temperature, in the limit of low temperature and low field, is a constant ɛM=-0.6419 kB/μB . The theory correctly describes the low-temperature and magnetic-field dependencies of spin Seebeck experiments. Furthermore, the theory predicts that in the limit of very low temperatures the spin Peltier coefficient ΠM, relating the heat and the magnetization currents, tends to a finite value which depends on the amplitude of the magnetic field. This indicates the possibility to exploit the spin Peltier effect as an efficient cooling mechanism in cryogenics.
Quantum Capacitance of a Topological Insulator-Ferromagnet Interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siu, Zhuo Bin; Chowdhury, Debashree; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Basu, Banasri
2017-03-01
We study the quantum capacitance in a topological insulator thin film system magnetized in the in-plane direction in the presence of an out-of-plane magnetic field and hexagonal warping. To first order, the modification in quantum capacitance due to hexagonal warping compared to the clean case, where both the in-plane magnetization and hexagonal warping are absent, is always negative, and increases in magnitude monotonically with the energy difference from the charge neutrality point. In contrast, the change in the quantum capacitance due to in-plane magnetization oscillates with the energy in general, except when a certain relation between the inter-surface coupling, out of plane Zeeman energy splitting and magnetic field strength is satisfied. In this special case, the quantum capacitance remains unchanged by the in-plane magnetization for all energies.
Quantum Capacitance of a Topological Insulator-Ferromagnet Interface
Siu, Zhuo Bin; Chowdhury, Debashree; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Basu, Banasri
2017-01-01
We study the quantum capacitance in a topological insulator thin film system magnetized in the in-plane direction in the presence of an out-of-plane magnetic field and hexagonal warping. To first order, the modification in quantum capacitance due to hexagonal warping compared to the clean case, where both the in-plane magnetization and hexagonal warping are absent, is always negative, and increases in magnitude monotonically with the energy difference from the charge neutrality point. In contrast, the change in the quantum capacitance due to in-plane magnetization oscillates with the energy in general, except when a certain relation between the inter-surface coupling, out of plane Zeeman energy splitting and magnetic field strength is satisfied. In this special case, the quantum capacitance remains unchanged by the in-plane magnetization for all energies. PMID:28337992
Quantum Capacitance of a Topological Insulator-Ferromagnet Interface.
Siu, Zhuo Bin; Chowdhury, Debashree; Jalil, Mansoor B A; Basu, Banasri
2017-03-24
We study the quantum capacitance in a topological insulator thin film system magnetized in the in-plane direction in the presence of an out-of-plane magnetic field and hexagonal warping. To first order, the modification in quantum capacitance due to hexagonal warping compared to the clean case, where both the in-plane magnetization and hexagonal warping are absent, is always negative, and increases in magnitude monotonically with the energy difference from the charge neutrality point. In contrast, the change in the quantum capacitance due to in-plane magnetization oscillates with the energy in general, except when a certain relation between the inter-surface coupling, out of plane Zeeman energy splitting and magnetic field strength is satisfied. In this special case, the quantum capacitance remains unchanged by the in-plane magnetization for all energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kioussis, Nicholas
2016-10-01
The realization of the MeRAM is based on the voltage control of the interfacial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of heavy-metal/ferromagnet/insulator (HM/FM/I) nanojunctions, where the non-magnetic HM contact electrode (Ta, Pd, Pt, Au) has strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Employing ab initio electronic structure calculations we have investigated the effect of electric-field (E-field) and epitaxial strain on the MCA of Ta/FeCo/MgO heterostructure. We predict that uniaxial strain leads to a wide range of interesting voltage behavior of the MCA ranging from linear behavior with positive or negative magnetoelectronic coefficient, to non-monotonic ⋁-shape or inverse-⋀-shape E-field dependence with asymmetric magnetoelectronic coefficients. The calculations reveal that under a 4% compressive strain on MgO reaches the giant value of 1126 fJ/(V.m). The underlying mechanism is the synergistic effects of strain and E-field on the orbital characters, the energy level shifts of the SOC d-states, and the dielectric constant of MgO. These results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of highly sensitive E-field-controlled MCA through strain engineering, which in turn open a viable pathway towards tailoring magnetoelectric properties for spintronic applications. * nick.kioussis@csun.edu This research was supported by NSF Grant No. ERC-TANMS-1160504
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Anamitra; Cole, William S.; Woodward, Patrick; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini
2013-04-01
We show that applying strain on half-doped manganites makes it possible to tune the system to the proximity of a metal-insulator transition and thereby generate a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) response. This phase competition not only allows control of CMR in ferromagnetic metallic manganites but can be used to generate CMR response in otherwise robust insulators at half-doping. Further, from our realistic microscopic model of strain and magnetotransport calculations within the Kubo formalism, we demonstrate a striking result of strain engineering that, under tensile strain, a ferromagnetic charge-ordered insulator, previously inaccessible to experiments, becomes stable.
Thin-film topological insulator-ferromagnet heterostructures for terahertz detection
Li, Xiaodong; Semenov, Yuriy G.; Kim, Ki Wook
2014-02-10
An atomically thin topological insulator is investigated theoretically for long-wavelength photodetection when it interacts with a magnetic material. Through the coupling between top and bottom surfaces as well as the exchange interaction with the proximate ferromagnet, the distribution of optically excited carriers exhibits unique patterns that depend sensitively on the frequency of the incoming light. This effect results in the generation of strong nonzero photocurrent, leading potentially to room-temperature detection of far-infrared/THz radiation with the advantage of low noise and fast response. The ease of frequency tuning by an external electrical bias offers an added versatility in the realistic implementation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zheng-Qin; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Deng, Ming-Xun; Hu, Liang-Bin
2015-06-01
We have investigated the transport properties of the Dirac fermions through a ferromagnetic barrier junction on the surface of a strong topological insulator. The current-voltage characteristic curve and the tunneling conductance are calculated theoretically. Two interesting transport features are predicted: observable negative differential conductances and linear conductances tunable from unit to nearly zero. These features can be magnetically manipulated simply by changing the spacial orientation of the magnetization. Our results may contribute to the development of high-speed switching and functional applications or electrically controlled magnetization switching. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11174088, 11175067, 11274124
Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, B. S.; Hsu, Y.-T.; Zeng, B.; Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Harrison, N.; Zhu, Z.; Hartstein, M.; Kiourlappou, M.; Srivastava, A.; Johannes, M. D.; Murphy, T. P.; Park, J.-H.; Balicas, L.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Balakrishnan, G.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.
2015-07-01
Insulators occur in more than one guise; a recent finding was a class of topological insulators, which host a conducting surface juxtaposed with an insulating bulk. Here, we report the observation of an unusual insulating state with an electrically insulating bulk that simultaneously yields bulk quantum oscillations with characteristics of an unconventional Fermi liquid. We present quantum oscillation measurements of magnetic torque in high-purity single crystals of the Kondo insulator SmB6, which reveal quantum oscillation frequencies characteristic of a large three-dimensional conduction electron Fermi surface similar to the metallic rare earth hexaborides such as PrB6 and LaB6. The quantum oscillation amplitude strongly increases at low temperatures, appearing strikingly at variance with conventional metallic behavior.
Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state
Harrison, Neil; Tan, B. S.; Hsu, Y. -T.; Zeng, B.; Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Zhu, Z.; Hartstein, M.; Kiourlappou, M.; Srivastava, A.; Johannes, M. D.; Murphy, T. P.; Park, J. -H.; Balicas, L.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Balakrishnan, G.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.
2015-07-17
Insulators occur in more than one guise; a recent finding was a class of topological insulators, which host a conducting surface juxtaposed with an insulating bulk. Here, we report the observation of an unusual insulating state with an electrically insulating bulk that simultaneously yields bulk quantum oscillations with characteristics of an unconventional Fermi liquid. We present quantum oscillation measurements of magnetic torque in high-purity single crystals of the Kondo insulator SmB_{6}, which reveal quantum oscillation frequencies characteristic of a large three-dimensional conduction electron Fermi surface similar to the metallic rare earth hexaborides such as PrB_{6} and LaB_{6}. As a result, the quantum oscillation amplitude strongly increases at low temperatures, appearing strikingly at variance with conventional metallic behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Bahniman; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Dey, Rik; Roy, Urmimala; Register, Leonard; Banerjee, Sanjay
2015-03-01
We propose and demonstrate, through simulation, an ultra low energy memory device on a topological insulator thin film. The device consists of a thin layer of Fe deposited on the surface of a topological insulator, Bi2Se3. The top surface of Fe is covered with MgO so that the ferromagnetic layer has perpendicular anisotropy. Current is passed on the surface of the topological insulator which switches the magnetization of the Fe ferromagnet through strong exchange interaction, between electrons contributing to the surface current on the Bi2Se3 and the d electrons in the ferromagnet, and spin transfer torque due to shunting of current through the ferromagnet. Voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy enables ultra low energy switching. Our micromagnetic simulations, predict switching time of the order of 2.4 ns and switching energy of the order of 0.16 fJ for a ferromagnetic bit with thermal stability of 90 kBT. The proposed structure combines the advantages of both large spin torque from topological insulators and those of perpendicular anisotropy materials. This work is supported by NRI SWAN and NSF NASCENT Center.
Spin pumping through a topological insulator probed by x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueroa, A. I.; Baker, A. A.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Hesjedal, T.; van der Laan, G.
2016-02-01
In the field of spintronics, the generation of a pure spin current (without macroscopic charge flow) through spin pumping of a ferromagnetic (FM) layer opens up the perspective of a new generation of dissipation-less devices. Microwave driven ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) can generate a pure spin current that enters adjacent layers, allowing for both magnetization reversal (through spin-transfer torque) and to probe spin coherence in non-magnetic materials. However, standard FMR is unable to probe multilayer dynamics directly, since the measurement averages over the contributions from the whole system. The synchrotron radiation-based technique of x-ray detected FMR (XFMR) offers an elegant solution to this drawback, giving access to element-, site-, and layer-specific dynamical measurements in heterostructures. In this work, we show how XFMR has provided unique information to understand spin pumping and spin transfer torque effects through a topological insulator (TI) layer in a pseudo-spin valve heterostructure. We demonstrate that TIs function as efficient spin sinks, while also allowing a limited dynamic coupling between ferromagnetic layers. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel class of materials, and suggest future directions for the development of room temperature TI-based spintronics.
Growth and characterization of insulating ferromagnetic semiconductor (Al,Fe)Sb
Anh, Le Duc Kaneko, Daiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Hai, Pham Nam
2015-12-07
We investigate the crystal structure, transport, and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin films up to x = 14% grown by molecular beam epitaxy. All the samples show p-type conduction at room temperature and insulating behavior at low temperature. The (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin films with x ≤ 10% maintain the zinc blende crystal structure of the host material AlSb. The (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin film with x = 10% shows intrinsic ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of 40 K. In the (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin film with x = 14%, a sudden drop of the hole mobility and T{sub C} was observed, which may be due to the microscopic phase separation. The observation of ferromagnetism in (Al,Fe)Sb paves the way to realize a spin-filtering tunnel barrier that is compatible with well-established III-V semiconductor devices.
Li, Mingda; Zhu, Yimei; Chang, Cui -Zu; Kirby, B. J.; Jamer, Michelle E.; Cui, Wenping; Wu, Lijun; Wei, Peng; Heiman, Don; Li, Ju; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Katmis, Ferhat
2015-08-17
Magnetic exchange driven proximity effect at a magnetic-insulator–topological-insulator (MI-TI) interface provides a rich playground for novel phenomena as well as a way to realize low energy dissipation quantum devices. In this study, we report a dramatic enhancement of proximity exchange coupling in the MI/magnetic-TI EuS/Sb_{2–x}V_{x}Te_{3} hybrid heterostructure, where V doping is used to drive the TI (Sb_{2}Te_{3}) magnetic. We observe an artificial antiferromagneticlike structure near the MI-TI interface, which may account for the enhanced proximity coupling. The interplay between the proximity effect and doping in a hybrid heterostructure provides insights into the engineering of magnetic ordering.
Li, Mingda; Zhu, Yimei; Chang, Cui -Zu; ...
2015-08-17
Magnetic exchange driven proximity effect at a magnetic-insulator–topological-insulator (MI-TI) interface provides a rich playground for novel phenomena as well as a way to realize low energy dissipation quantum devices. In this study, we report a dramatic enhancement of proximity exchange coupling in the MI/magnetic-TI EuS/Sb2–xVxTe3 hybrid heterostructure, where V doping is used to drive the TI (Sb2Te3) magnetic. We observe an artificial antiferromagneticlike structure near the MI-TI interface, which may account for the enhanced proximity coupling. The interplay between the proximity effect and doping in a hybrid heterostructure provides insights into the engineering of magnetic ordering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, R.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Aharony, A.; Müller-Hartmann, E.
2005-09-01
[Dedicated to Bernhard Mühlschlegel on the occasion ofhis 80th birthday]Using a point-charge calculation of the electrostatic crystal field, we determine the non-degenerate orbital ground state of the ferromagnetic Mott insulator YTiO3, which is found to agree perfectly with experiment. Based on the orbital order, we obtain by perturbation theory an effective spin Hamiltonian that describes the magnetic superexchange between nearest-neighbor Ti ions. The superexchange Hamiltonian includes, in addition to the isotropic Heisenberg coupling, antisymmetric (Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya) and symmetric anisotropy terms, caused by the spin-orbit interaction on the Ti ions. We find ferromagnetic Heisenberg couplings for Ti-Ti bonds in the crystallographic ab planes, but antiferromagnetic ones for Ti-Ti bonds between planes, in contradiction with experiment (which gives ferromagnetic couplings for both). Difficulties in calculating realistic values for the isotropic couplings of YTiO3 have been already reported in the literature. We discuss possible origins for these discrepancies. However, the much smaller values we obtain for the symmetric and antisymmetric anisotropies may be expected to be reliable. We therefore combine the experimentally-deduced isotropic coupling with the calculated anisotropic ones to determine the magnetic order of the Ti ions, which is found to be in satisfactory agreement with experiment. Based on this magnetic order, we derive the spin-wave spectrum. We find an acoustic branch with a very small zone-center gap and three optical spin-wave modes with sizeable zone-center gaps. The acoustic branch reproduces the one reported in experiment, and the optical ones are in a satisfactory agreement with experiment, upon a proper folding of the magnetic Brillouin zone.
Driving and detecting ferromagnetic resonance in insulators with the spin Hall effect.
Sklenar, Joseph; Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Chang, Houchen; Pearson, John E.; Wu, Mingzhong; Ketterson, John B.; Hoffmann, Axel
2015-11-06
We demonstrate the generation and detection of spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance in Pt/Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) bilayers. A unique attribute of this system is that the spin Hall effect lies at the heart of both the generation and detection processes and no charge current is passing through the insulating magnetic layer. When the YIG undergoes resonance, a dc voltage is detected longitudinally along the Pt that can be described by two components. One is the mixing of the spin Hall magnetoresistance with the microwave current. The other results from spin pumping into the Pt being converted to a dc current through the inverse spin Hall effect. The voltage is measured with applied magnetic field directions that range in-plane to nearly perpendicular. We find that for magnetic fields that are mostly out-of-plane, an imaginary component of the spin mixing conductance is required to model our data.
Thermal spin current and spin accumulation at ferromagnetic insulator/nonmagnetic metal interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Y. H.; Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.
2016-07-01
Spin current injection and spin accumulation near a ferromagnetic insulator (FI)/nonmagnetic metal (NM) bilayer film under a thermal gradient is investigated theoretically. By using the Fermi golden rule and the Boltzmann equations, we find that FI and NM can exchange spins via interfacial electron-magnon scattering because of the imbalance between magnon emission and absorption caused by either the deviation of the magnon number from the equilibrium Bose-Einstein distribution or the difference in magnon temperature and electron temperature. A temperature gradient in FI and/or a temperature difference across the FI/NM interface generates a spin current which carries angular momenta parallel to the magnetization of FI from the hotter side to the colder one. Interestingly, the spin current induced by a temperature gradient in NM is negligibly small due to the nonmagnetic nature of the nonequilibrium electron distributions. The results agree well with all existing experiments.
Spin thermoelectric efficiency across a normal-metal/ferromagnetic-insulator interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yonghong; Wu, Haifei; Jiang, Feng
2016-08-01
We investigate the spin and heat transport across a normal-metal/ferromagnetic-insulator (NM/FI) interface based on the s-d exchange model. Under a certain temperature gradient, the heat current carried by magnons partly flows into the metal, and is partly converted to spin power corresponding to spin current. We find that when the magnon dispersion of the FI (such as yttrium iron garnet) is quadratic, the conversion efficiency of heat current to spin power is about ηs ∼ 0.2ηC with ηC being the Carnot efficiency. The corresponding spin thermopower is roughly Ss ∼ 110 μ V / K . The efficiency and the spin thermopower can be enhanced by opening a gap via, for example, introducing a magnetic field. Effects of temperature in the presence of a gap and dimensionality are also discussed briefly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, X.; Ma, L.; Shi, Z.; Fan, W. J.; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Evans, R. F. L.; Zhou, S. M.
2015-08-01
We study the anomalous Hall-like effect (AHLE) and the effective anisotropic magnetoresistance (EAMR) in antiferromagnetic γ -IrMn3/Y3Fe5O12(YIG ) and Pt/YIG heterostructures. For γ -IrMn3/YIG , the EAMR and the AHLE resistivity change sign with temperature due to the competition between the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) and the magnetic proximity effect (MPE) induced by the interfacial antiferromagnetic uncompensated magnetic moment. In contrast, for Pt/YIG, the AHLE resistivity changes sign with temperature whereas no sign change is observed in the EAMR. This is because the MPE and the SMR play a dominant role in the AHLE and the EAMR, respectively. As different types of galvanomagnetic properties, the AHLE and the EAMR have proved vital in disentangling the MPE and the SMR in metal/insulating-ferromagnet heterostructures.
Carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in the magnetic topological insulator Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Mao; Li, Wei; Zhu, Siyuan; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Wang, Jiajia; Pan, Hong; Nurmamat, Munisa; Sumida, Kazuki; Ji, Fuhao; Liu, Zhen; Yang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhengtai; Shen, Dawei; Kimura, Akio; Qiao, Shan; Xie, Xiaoming
2015-11-01
Magnetically doped topological insulators, possessing an energy gap created at the Dirac point through time-reversal-symmetry breaking, are predicted to exhibit exotic phenomena including the quantized anomalous Hall effect and a dissipationless transport, which facilitate the development of low-power-consumption devices using electron spins. Although several candidates of magnetically doped topological insulators were demonstrated to show long-range magnetic order, the realization of the quantized anomalous Hall effect is so far restricted to the Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 system at extremely low temperature; however, the microscopic origin of its ferromagnetism is poorly understood. Here we present an element-resolved study for Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to unambiguously show that the long-range magnetic order is mediated by the p-hole carriers of the host lattice, and the interaction between the Sb(Te) p and Cr d states is crucial. Our results are important for material engineering in realizing the quantized anomalous Hall effect at higher temperatures.
Carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in the magnetic topological insulator Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3
Ye, Mao; Li, Wei; Zhu, Siyuan; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Wang, Jiajia; Pan, Hong; Nurmamat, Munisa; Sumida, Kazuki; Ji, Fuhao; Liu, Zhen; Yang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhengtai; Shen, Dawei; Kimura, Akio; Qiao, Shan; Xie, Xiaoming
2015-01-01
Magnetically doped topological insulators, possessing an energy gap created at the Dirac point through time-reversal-symmetry breaking, are predicted to exhibit exotic phenomena including the quantized anomalous Hall effect and a dissipationless transport, which facilitate the development of low-power-consumption devices using electron spins. Although several candidates of magnetically doped topological insulators were demonstrated to show long-range magnetic order, the realization of the quantized anomalous Hall effect is so far restricted to the Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 system at extremely low temperature; however, the microscopic origin of its ferromagnetism is poorly understood. Here we present an element-resolved study for Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to unambiguously show that the long-range magnetic order is mediated by the p-hole carriers of the host lattice, and the interaction between the Sb(Te) p and Cr d states is crucial. Our results are important for material engineering in realizing the quantized anomalous Hall effect at higher temperatures. PMID:26582485
Coupling of Crystal Structure and Magnetism in the Layered, Ferromagnetic Insulator CrI 3
McGuire, Michael A.; Dixit, Hemant; Cooper, Valentino R.; ...
2014-12-23
Here, we examine the crystallographic and magnetic properties of single crystals of CrI3, an easily cleavable, layered and insulating ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of 61 K. Our X-ray diffraction studies reveal a first-order crystallographic phase transition occurring near 210–220 K upon warming, with significant thermal hysteresis. The low-temperature structure is rhombohedral (Rmore » $$\\bar{3}$$, BiI3-type) and the high-temperature structure is monoclinic (C2/m, AlCl3-type). Evidence for coupling between the crystallographic and magnetic degrees of freedom in CrI3 was found; we observed an anomaly in the interlayer spacing at the Curie temperature and an anomaly in the magnetic susceptibility at the structural transition. First-principles calculations reveal the importance of proper treatment of the long-ranged interlayer forces, and van der Waals density functional theory does an excellent job of predicting the crystal structures and their relative stability. Our calculations suggest that the ferromagnetic order found in the bulk material may persist into monolayer form, suggesting that CrI3 and other chromium trihalides may be promising materials for spintronic and magnetoelectronic research.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Kentaro
2012-02-01
Topologically nontrivial gapped phases can be characterized by the bulk topological indices and the surface gapless modes. The topological magneto-electric (ME) effect is a novel manifestation of the bulk-surface correspondence in which the bulk magnetization is generated by a circulating quantized Hall current flowing at the surface of topological insulators. To realize the topological ME effect, there are two difficulties: (a) one needs to attach an insulating ferromagnetic layer with the magnetization normal to the surface all pointing out or in. (b) The Fermi energy must be tuned accurately within the small gap of the surface Dirac spectrum opened by the exchange interaction. In this talk we discuss the anomalous quantized Hall current on the surface of a magnetically doped topological insulator, basing on the two-dimensional surface Dirac Hamiltonian with magnetic disorder. The scaling analysis indicates that, in sharp contrast to the time-reversal-invariant cases, the all surface states tend to be localized while the Hall conductivity is quantized no matter whether the Fermi level resides within or out of the surface gap. This resolves problem(b). Furthermore it is shown that this also resolves problem (a) with the simultaneous application of magnetic and electric fields parallel or antiparallel to each other. By this method, doped local spins can be controlled by the bulk energy which can overcome the magnetic anisotropy and Zeeman splitting at the surface. We also comment on the generalization of the topological responses to the case of topological superconductors and superfluids. This work was done in collaboration with Naoto Nagaosa, Shinsei Ryu, and Akira Furusaki. K. Nomura and N. Nagaosa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 166802 (2011); K. Nomura, S. Ryu, A. Furusaki, N. Nagaosa, arXiv:1108.5054.
An Emergent Spin-Filter at the interface between Ferromagnetic and Insulating Layered Oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yaohua
2014-03-01
Complex oxide heterostructures are of keen interest because modified bonding at the interfaces can give rise to fundamentally new phenomena and valuable functionalities. Particularly, an induced magnetization is widely observed at epitaxial interfaces between layered transition-metal oxides; however, much less effort has been spent on investigating how it affects the charge transport properties. To this end, we have studied magnetic tunneling junctions consisting of ferromagnetic manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) and insulating cuprate PrBa2Cu3O7 (PBCO). Contrary to the typically observed steady increase of the tunnel magnetoresistance with decreasing temperature, this system exhibits an anomalous decrease at low temperatures. Polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) studies on LCMO/PBCO/LCMO trilayers show that the saturation magnetization of the LCMO contacts increase as the temperature decreases. In other words, degradation of the ferromagnetic contacts is ruled out as a cause. Interestingly, there exists induced net Cu moments, which indicates that the spin degeneracy of the conduction band of the PBCO barrier is lifted and thus the barrier becomes spin selective. Our calculations, within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, show that the complex temperature dependence can arise from a competition between the high positive spin polarization of the manganite electrodes and a negative spin-filter effect from the interfacial Cu magnetization. This work illustrates that the interface-induced magnetization in layered oxide heterostructures can have non-trivial effects on the macroscopic transport properties. Work performed in collaboration with FA Cuellar, Z Sefrioui, C Leon, J Santamaria (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), JW Freeland, SGE te Velthuis (ANL) and MR Fitzsimmons (LANL). Work at Argonne National Laboratory was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under contract no
Nonequilibrium Floquet States in Topological Kondo Insulators
2016-02-04
proposed state: the non-equilibrium Floquet topological metal. The main idea relies on the knowledge that the low - temperature insulating state of SmB6...is readily transformed to a metallic state by application of external pressure [Cooley 1995]. With low - temperature topological conduction occurring...reflecting on years of experience in performing low - temperature ultrasound measurements on single-crystal samples, both the Sapporo and UMD groups agree
Stone, P.R.; Alberi, K.; Tardif, S.K.Z.; Beeman, J.W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Dubon, O.D.
2008-02-07
We have investigated the effect of partial isovalent anion substitution in Ga1-xMnxAs on electrical transport and ferromagnetism. Substitution of only 2.4percent of As by P induces a metal-insulator transition at a constant Mn doping of x=0.046 while the replacement of 0.4 percent As with N results in the crossover from metal to insulator for x=0.037. This remarkable behavior is consistent with a scenario in which holes located within an impurity band are scattered by alloy disorder in the anion sublattice. The shorter mean free path of holes, which mediate ferromagnetism, reduces the Curie temperature TC from 113 K to 60 K (100 K to 65 K) upon the introduction of 3.1 percent P (1percent N) into the As sublattice.
Lee, Changmin; Katmis, Ferhat; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Gedik, Nuh
2016-01-01
When a topological insulator (TI) is in contact with a ferromagnet, both time-reversal and inversion symmetries are broken at the interface. An energy gap is formed at the TI surface, and its electrons gain a net magnetic moment through short-range exchange interactions. Magnetic TIs can host various exotic quantum phenomena, such as massive Dirac fermions, Majorana fermions, the quantum anomalous Hall effect and chiral edge currents along the domain boundaries. However, selective measurement of induced magnetism at the buried interface has remained a challenge. Using magnetic second-harmonic generation, we directly probe both the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetizations induced at the interface between the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuS and the three-dimensional TI Bi2Se3. Our findings not only allow characterizing magnetism at the TI–FMI interface but also lay the groundwork for imaging magnetic domains and domain boundaries at the magnetic TI surfaces. PMID:27344976
Lee, Changmin; Katmis, Ferhat; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Gedik, Nuh
2016-06-27
When a topological insulator (TI) is in contact with a ferromagnet, both time-reversal and inversion symmetries are broken at the interface. An energy gap is formed at the TI surface, and its electrons gain a net magnetic moment through short-range exchange interactions. Magnetic TIs can host various exotic quantum phenomena, such as massive Dirac fermions, Majorana fermions, the quantum anomalous Hall effect and chiral edge currents along the domain boundaries. However, selective measurement of induced magnetism at the buried interface has remained a challenge. Using magnetic second-harmonic generation, we directly probe both the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetizations induced at the interface between the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuS and the three-dimensional TI Bi2Se3. Our findings not only allow characterizing magnetism at the TI-FMI interface but also lay the groundwork for imaging magnetic domains and domain boundaries at the magnetic TI surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Changmin; Katmis, Ferhat; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Gedik, Nuh
2016-06-01
When a topological insulator (TI) is in contact with a ferromagnet, both time-reversal and inversion symmetries are broken at the interface. An energy gap is formed at the TI surface, and its electrons gain a net magnetic moment through short-range exchange interactions. Magnetic TIs can host various exotic quantum phenomena, such as massive Dirac fermions, Majorana fermions, the quantum anomalous Hall effect and chiral edge currents along the domain boundaries. However, selective measurement of induced magnetism at the buried interface has remained a challenge. Using magnetic second-harmonic generation, we directly probe both the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetizations induced at the interface between the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuS and the three-dimensional TI Bi2Se3. Our findings not only allow characterizing magnetism at the TI-FMI interface but also lay the groundwork for imaging magnetic domains and domain boundaries at the magnetic TI surfaces.
Topological insulator state in gated bilayer silicene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming-Ming; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun
2015-11-01
We investigate the topological insulator state of gated bilayer silicene in the presence of extrinsic Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling. The system exhibits a band insulator (BI) phase for small Rashba SO coupling, and then translate to a strong topological insulator (TI) phase with both spin and valley filtered at large Rashba SO coupling. The strong TI phase is robust in the presence of intrinsic SO and intrinsic Rashba SO couplings. When a titled electric field is introduced, the in-plane component of the electric field gives rise to an interlayer Rashba SO coupling, and the system turns to a BI phase no matter how large the Rashab SO coupling and bias voltage are. This will provide potential application in nanoelectronics based on silicene.
Voltage-Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy in Heavy Metal/Ferromagnet/Insulator-Based Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiang
Electric-field assisted writing of magnetic memory that exploits the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect offers a great potential for high density and low power applications. Magnetoelectric Random Access Memory (MeRAM) has been investigated due to its lower switching current, compared with traditional current-controlled devices utilizing spin transfer torque (STT) or spin-orbit torque (SOT) for magnetization switching. It is of great promise to integrate MeRAM into the advanced CMOS back-end-of-line (BEOL) processes for on-chip embedded applications, and enable non-volatile electronic systems with low static power dissipation and instant-on operation capability. In this thesis, different heavy metal|ferromagnet|insulator-based structures are grown by magnetron sputtering to improve the VCMA effect over the traditional Ta|CoFeB|MgO-based structures. We also established an accurate measurement technique for VCMA characterization. An improved thermal annealing stability of VCMA over 400°C is achieved in Mo|CoFeB|MgO-based structures. In addition, we observed a weak CoFeB thickness dependence of both VCMA coefficient and interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in both Ta|CoFeB|MgO and Mo|CoFeB|MgO-based structures.
Chui, S. T.
2015-05-14
We consider enhancing the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) absorption of very thin insulating magnetic films by placing it on top of a dielectric. We find that the signal is enhanced by at least an order of magnitude due to a new nonreciprocal interface resonance that is a mixture of the magnetic surface plasmon mode and a wave guide mode. This resonance occurs over a wide range of thicknesses of the dielectric that is still much less than the wavelength and is made possible by the negative magnetic susceptibility of the magnetic layer. The line width of absorption is reduced by an order of magnitude less than the Gilbert damping parameter. At some frequency, the group velocity of this resonance is negative. Experimentally, very thin yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are grown on a Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG) substrate which can be considered the dielectric. Our model applies to experiments performed in the YIG/GGG system. Indeed, our picture resolves the disagreement on the magnitude of the spin diffusion lengths obtained with the FMR and the Brillouin scattering techniques. It also provides for a way to make new adaptive thin film miniaturized photonic nonreciprocal devices with low loss.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moodera, Jagadeesh
Breaking time reversal symmetry (TRS) in a topological insulator (TI) with ferromagnetic perturbation can lead to many exotic quantum phenomena exhibited by Dirac surface states including the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect and dissipationless quantized Hall transport. The realization of the QAH effect in realistic materials requires ferromagnetic insulating materials and topologically non-trivial electronic band structures. In a TI, the ferromagnetic order and TRS breaking is achievable by conventional way, through doping with a magnetic element, or by ferromagnetic proximity coupling. Our experimental studies by both approaches will be discussed. In doped TI van Vleck ferromagnetism was observed. The proximity induced magnetism at the interface was stable, beyond the expected temperature range. We shall describe in a hard ferromagnetic TI system a robust QAH state and dissipationless edge current flow is achieved,1,2 a major step towards dissipationless electronic applications with no external fields, making such devices more amenable for metrology and spintronics applications. Our study of the gate and temperature dependences of local and nonlocal magnetoresistance, may elucidate the causes of the dissipative edge channels and the need for very low temperature to observe QAH. In close collaboration with: CuiZu Chang,2,3 Ferhat Katmis, 1 . 2 , 3 Peng Wei. 1 , 2 , 3 ; From Nuclear Eng. Dept. MIT, M. Li, J. Li; From Penn State U, W-W. Zhao, D. Y. Kim, C-x. Liu, J. K. Jain, M. H. W. Chan; From Oakridge National Lab, V. Lauter; From Northeastern U., B. A. Assaf, M. E. Jamer, D. Heiman; From Argonne Lab, J. W. Freeland; From Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany), F. S. Nogueira, I. Eremin; From Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (India), B. Satpati. Work supported by NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant DMR-1231319.
Wu, C. N.; Hung, H. Y.; Lin, H. Y.; Lin, P. H.; Kwo, J. E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw; Lin, Y. H.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Hong, M. E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw; Lin, J. G.; Lee, S. F.
2015-05-07
Spin pumping effect in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}Si and Fe/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} heterostructures was studied. High quality films of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(001) on ferromagnetic Fe{sub 3}Si(111) layer and Fe(111) films on Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(001) layer were grown epitaxially by molecular beam epitaxy. Using a microwave cavity source, large voltages due to the Inverse Spin Hall Effect (V{sub ISHE}) were detected in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(001)/Fe{sub 3}Si(111) bi-layer at room temperature. V{sub ISHE} of up to 63.4 ± 4.0 μV at 100 mW microwave power (P{sub MW}) was observed. In addition, Fe(111)/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(001) bi-layer also showed a large V{sub ISHE} of 3.0 ± 0.1 μV at P{sub MW} of 25 mW. V{sub ISHE} of both structures showed microwave linear power dependence in accordance with the theoretical model of spin pumping. The spin Hall angle was calculated to be 0.0053 ± 0.002 in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and was estimated to be 0.0068 ± 0.003 in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The charge current density (J{sub c}) of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}Si and Fe/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} structures are comparable and are about 2–5 times higher than the Fe{sub 3}Si/normal metal and Fe{sub 3}Si/GaAs results. The significant enhancement of spin current in topological insulator/ferromagnetic metal (TI/FM) and FM/TI bilayers is attributed to strong spin-orbit coupling inherent of TIs and demonstrates the high potential of exploiting TI-based structures for spintronic applications.
Ferromagnetic Ground States in Face-Centered Cubic Hubbard Clusters
Souza, T. X. R.; Macedo, C. A.
2016-01-01
In this study, the ground state energies of face-centered cubic Hubbard clusters are analyzed using the Lanczos method. Examination of the ground state energy as a function of the number of particle per site n showed an energy minimum for face-centered cubic structures. This energy minimum decreased in n with increasing coulombic interaction parameter U. We found that the ground state energy had a minimum at n = 0.6, when U = 3W, where W denotes the non-interacting energy bandwidth and the face-centered cubic structure was ferromagnetic. These results, when compared with the properties of nickel, shows strong similarity with other finite temperature analyses in the literature and supports the Hirsh’s conjecture that the interatomic direct exchange interaction dominates in driving the system into a ferromagnetic phase. PMID:27583653
Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Wang, Hailong; Manuilov, Sergei A; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Zhang, Chi; Pelekhov, Denis V; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P Chris
2014-10-24
We observe a dependence of the damping of a confined mode of precessing ferromagnetic magnetization on the size of the mode. The micron-scale mode is created within an extended, unpatterned yttrium iron garnet film by means of the intense local dipolar field of a micromagnetic tip. We find that the damping of the confined mode scales like the surface-to-volume ratio of the mode, indicating an interfacial damping effect (similar to spin pumping) due to the transfer of angular momentum from the confined mode to the spin sink of ferromagnetic material in the surrounding film. Though unexpected for insulating systems, the measured intralayer spin-mixing conductance g_↑↓=5.3×10(19) m(-2) demonstrates efficient intralayer angular momentum transfer.
Surface state transport suppression in topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reijnders, Anjan A.; Tian, Y.; Pohl, G.; Kivlichan, I. D.; Zhao, S. Y. Frank; Kim, Y.-J.; Jia, S.; Cava, R. J.; Kwok, D. C.; Lee, N.; Cheong, S. W.; Burch, Kenneth S.
2013-03-01
An unresolved question in experimental research on topological insulators (TI) is the suppression mechanism of a TI's surface state transport. While room temperature ARPES studies reveal clear evidence of surface states, their observation in transport measurements is limited to low temperatures. A better understanding of this suppression is of fundamental interest, and crucial for pushing the boundary of device applications towards room-temperature operation. In this talk, we report the temperature dependent optical properties of the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se (BTS), obtained by infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry, probing surface and bulk states simultaneously. We see clear evidence of coherent surface state transport at low temperature and find that electron-phonon coupling causes the gradual suppression of surface state transport as temperature rises to 43K. In the bulk, electron-phonon coupling enables the emergence of an indirect band gap transition, which peaks at 43K, and is limited by thermal ionization of the bulk valance band above 43K. For comparison with other resistive TIs, we also discuss the optical properties to BiSbSe2Te. Financially supported by NSERC CRSNG, Ontario Research Fund, Canadian Foundation for Innovation, Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds, NSF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Zhiyong; Wu, Biao; Zhang, Fei; Zhou, Guowei; Zang, Julu; Xu, Xiaohong
2017-02-01
The achievement of high temperature ferromagnetism in perovskite manganites has proved both fundamentally and technologically important for spintronics devices. However, high operating temperatures have not been achieved due to the depression of the Curie temperature and the rapid spin filtering efficiency loss, which are the main obstacles for practical applications. Here, we report unexpected room temperature insulating ferromagnetism in ultrathin (110) oriented La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) films. The relationships between room temperature ferromagnetism, charge transfer, and orbital occupancy are investigated, with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray linear dichroism (XLD) measurements. Our results suggest that the room temperature insulating ferromagnetism is originated from super-exchange interaction between Mn2+ and Mn3+. The formation of Mn2+ ions is related to the charge transfer induced by oxygen vacancies. Moreover, a preferential orbital occupancy of eg(3z2-r2) in Mn3+ ions is crucial to the in-plane super-exchange coupling in ultrathin (110) LSMO films, resulting in insulating ferromagnetic behavior. This work may lead to the development of barrier materials in spin filter tunnel junctions and understanding of ferromagnetic coupling in insulating perovskite films.
Core contribution to magnetotransport of ferromagnetic dots in vortex state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segal, A.; Gerber, A.
2012-04-01
We study the influence of the vortex core on magnetotransport of ferromagnetic dots in a vortex state. The extraordinary Hall effect generated in the core region has a different field symmetry compared to contributions of anisotropic magnetoresistance and the planar Hall effect, which can be used to detect chirality and polarity of the vortex. We propose a method for realization of two-bit per dot magnetic random access memory, in which two states are contributed by clockwise and counter-clockwise chirality and two by up and down core polarity. Dependence of the signal on vortex location, core diameter, and other parameters is discussed.
Ferromagnetism in neutron matter and its implication for the neutron star equation of state
Diener, J. P. W.; Scholtz, F. G.
2011-09-21
We investigate the possible contribution of the ferromagnetic phase of neutron matter in the neutron star interior to the star's magnetic field. We introduce a relativistic, self-consistent calculation of the ferromagnetic phase in neutron matter within the context of the relativistic mean-field approximation. The presence of the ferromagnetic phase stiffens the star's equation of state which implies a larger neutron star radius compared to the non-ferromagnetic case.
Ferromagnetism in neutron matter and its implication for the neutron star equation of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diener, J. P. W.; Scholtz, F. G.
2011-09-01
We investigate the possible contribution of the ferromagnetic phase of neutron matter in the neutron star interior to the star's magnetic field. We introduce a relativistic, self-consistent calculation of the ferromagnetic phase in neutron matter within the context of the relativistic mean-field approximation. The presence of the ferromagnetic phase stiffens the star's equation of state which implies a larger neutron star radius compared to the non-ferromagnetic case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, V. L.; Skorohodov, E. V.; Blackman, J. A.
2014-05-01
We present a theoretical investigation of magnetostatic interaction effects in geometrically frustrated arrays of anisotropic one-layer and multilayer ferromagnetic nanoparticles arranged in different spatially configured systems with triangular symmetry. The peculiarities of the magnetization reversal and microwave excitation of such systems are discussed. We show that the use of multilayer stacks significantly expands the opportunities to create magnetically frustrated systems due to additional interlayer interaction. In particular, the interlayer coupling leads to the considerable splitting of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrum. In addition, the magnetizing and remagnetizing of the two- and three-layer systems induce transitions between different states with ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or mixed ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic interlayer ordering that are accompanied by dramatic changes of FMR spectra. These effects can be potentially used in developing field controlled tunable microwave devices.
Lee, Changmin; Katmis, Ferhat; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; ...
2016-06-27
When a topological insulator (TI) is in contact with a ferromagnet, both time-reversal and inversion symmetries are broken at the interface. An energy gap is formed at the TI surface, and its electrons gain a net magnetic moment through short-range exchange interactions. Magnetic TIs can host various exotic quantum phenomena, such as massive Dirac fermions, Majorana fermions, the quantum anomalous Hall effect and chiral edge currents along the domain boundaries. However, selective measurement of induced magnetism at the buried interface has remained a challenge. Using magnetic second-harmonic generation, we directly probe both the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetizations induced at themore » interface between the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuS and the three-dimensional TI Bi2Se3. Furthermore, our findings not only allow characterizing magnetism at the TI–FMI interface but also lay the groundwork for imaging magnetic domains and domain boundaries at the magnetic TI surfaces.« less
Lee, Changmin; Katmis, Ferhat; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Gedik, Nuh
2016-06-27
When a topological insulator (TI) is in contact with a ferromagnet, both time-reversal and inversion symmetries are broken at the interface. An energy gap is formed at the TI surface, and its electrons gain a net magnetic moment through short-range exchange interactions. Magnetic TIs can host various exotic quantum phenomena, such as massive Dirac fermions, Majorana fermions, the quantum anomalous Hall effect and chiral edge currents along the domain boundaries. However, selective measurement of induced magnetism at the buried interface has remained a challenge. Using magnetic second-harmonic generation, we directly probe both the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetizations induced at the interface between the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuS and the three-dimensional TI Bi_{2}Se_{3}. Furthermore, our findings not only allow characterizing magnetism at the TI–FMI interface but also lay the groundwork for imaging magnetic domains and domain boundaries at the magnetic TI surfaces.
Reentrant Insulating State in Ultrathin Manganite Films
Bell, Christopher
2011-08-11
The transport and magnetic properties of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin-films grown by pulsed laser deposition on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(SrAl{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}){sub 0.7} single crystal substrates have been investigated. A systematic series with various thicknesses of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} was used to establish a phase diagram - which showed a clear difference compared to films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates, highlighting the importance of film thickness and substrate strain. At 8 unit cells, the boundary between the metallic and insulating ground states, a second abrupt metal-insulator transition was observed at low temperatures, which could be tuned with by magnetic field, and is interpreted as a signature of electronic phase separation.
Coherent transport of topological insulator surface states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adroguer, Pierre; Carpentier, David; Orignac, Edmond; Cayssol, Jerome
2012-02-01
Topological insulators (TIs) are a new state of matter recently predicted theoreticallyootnotetextC. L. Kane and E. J. Mele, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 226801 (2005).^,ootnotetextX.-L. Qi, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 78,195424 (2008). and realized experimentally. In 3D they are characterized by the presence of gapless surface states which exhibit a linear dispersion, typical of Dirac fermions. Moreover, contrary to conventionnal materials, these Dirac cones occur in an odd number of Dirac fermions at the surface: ARPES experimentsootnotetextY. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, Nature Physics 5, 398 (2009).^,ootnotetextY. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X.L.Qi,H.J.Zhang,D.H.Lu,X.Dai,Z.Fang,S.C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, Science 325, 178 (2009). have found a single Dirac cone at the surface of Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3. This work focuses on the electronic transport properties calculations in the diffusive limite of a single Dirac cone. Specificities of the TI surface states, like the hexagonal warping coupling are taken into account.
Saito, Y. Tanamoto, T.; Ishikawa, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Inokuchi, T.; Hamaya, K.; Tezuka, N.
2014-05-07
Local magnetoresistance (MR) through silicon (Si) and its bias voltage (V{sub bias}) (bias current (I{sub bias})) dependence in ferromagnet (FM)/MgO/silicon-on-insulator lateral spin valves are investigated. From the experimental measurements, we find that the local-MR through Si increases with increasing V{sub bias}. This anomalous increase of local-MR as a function of V{sub bias} can be understood by considering the standard drift-diffusion theory improved by taking into account the difference in the interface resistances and first order quantum effect between FM/MgO/Si (source) and Si/MgO/FM (drain) interfaces. The interface resistance dependence on experimentally obtained local-MR ratios also agrees with the improved standard spin diffusion theory. These results indicate that experimentally observed local-MR is certainly related to the spin signal through the Si bulk band.
Magnetotransport properties of topological surface states in the presence of ferromagnetic order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, Kunal; Coish, William; Pereg-Barnea, Tami
The surface of a 3D topological insulator hosts a two dimensional Dirac cone which is robust to weak, non-magnetic perturbation. Its presence will dominate low energy transport since the bulk is gapped. However, once magnetic impurities are introduced to the surface they may gap the Dirac dispersion, suppressing or modifying the system's surface transport properties. In particular, in the presence of uniform ferromagnetic order, the Dirac cone becomes massive and should not conduct for energies near the Dirac point. On the other hand, if the ferromagnetic order has domains with different magnetization directions, current may be carried on the domain walls where the Dirac mass vanishes. Our research aims to elucidate the transport properties of topological insulators in the presence of magnetic domain structures. Our work may be relevant to recent studies on the Kondo topological insulator SmB6.
Coupling of Crystal Structure and Magnetism in the Layered, Ferromagnetic Insulator CrI _{3}
McGuire, Michael A.; Dixit, Hemant; Cooper, Valentino R.; Sales, Brian C.
2014-12-23
Here, we examine the crystallographic and magnetic properties of single crystals of CrI_{3}, an easily cleavable, layered and insulating ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of 61 K. Our X-ray diffraction studies reveal a first-order crystallographic phase transition occurring near 210–220 K upon warming, with significant thermal hysteresis. The low-temperature structure is rhombohedral (R$\\bar{3}$, BiI_{3}-type) and the high-temperature structure is monoclinic (C2/m, AlCl_{3}-type). Evidence for coupling between the crystallographic and magnetic degrees of freedom in CrI_{3} was found; we observed an anomaly in the interlayer spacing at the Curie temperature and an anomaly in the magnetic susceptibility at the structural transition. First-principles calculations reveal the importance of proper treatment of the long-ranged interlayer forces, and van der Waals density functional theory does an excellent job of predicting the crystal structures and their relative stability. Our calculations suggest that the ferromagnetic order found in the bulk material may persist into monolayer form, suggesting that CrI_{3} and other chromium trihalides may be promising materials for spintronic and magnetoelectronic research.
Transition states of magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves-O'Flynn, Gabriel; Kent, Andrew; Stein, Daniel
2008-03-01
Thin ferromagnetic rings are of interest for fundamental studies of magnetization reversal, in part, because they are a rare example of a geometry for which an analytical solution for the rate of thermally induced switching has been determined [1]. The theoretical model predicts the transition state to be either a global magnetization rotation of constant azimuthal angle or a localized fluctuation, denoted the instanton saddle. Numerically we have confirmed that for a range of values of external magnetic field and ring size the instanton saddle is energetically favored [2]. The model takes the annular width to be small compared to the mean radius of the annulus; in which case the main contribution to the magnetization energy comes from the surface magnetostatic energy. We present numerical micromagnetic calculations of the activation energy for thermally induced magnetization reversal for the two different transition states for the case when the annular width is equal in magnitude to the mean radius of the ring. Results of the total and surface magnetostatic energies are compared for different ring sizes. [1] K. Martens, D.L. Stein, A.D. Kent, PRB 73, 054413 (2006) [2] G.D. Chaves-O'Flynn, K. Xiao, D.L. Stein, A. D. Kent, arXiv:0710.2546 (2007)
Park, Jihwey; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Aeppli, Gabriel; Feng, Xiao; Ou, Yunbo; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun
2015-06-30
Thin films of topological insulators are often capped with an insulating layer since topological insulators are known to be fragile to degradation. However, capping can hinder the observation of novel transport properties of the surface states. To understand the influence of capping on the surface states, it is crucial to understand the crystal structure and the atomic arrangement at the interfaces. Here, we use x-ray diffraction to establish the crystal structure of magnetic topological insulator Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 (CBST) films grown on SrTiO3 (1 1 1) substrates with and without a Te capping layer. We find that both the film and capping layer are single crystal and that the crystal quality of the film is independent of the presence of the capping layer, but that x-rays cause sublimation of the CBST film, which is prevented by the capping layer. Our findings show that the different transport properties of capped films cannot be attributed to a lower crystal quality but to a more subtle effect such as a different electronic structure at the interface with the capping layer. Our results on the crystal structure and atomic arrangements of the topological heterostructure will enable modelling the electronic structure and design of topological heterostructures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Inhee; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Liu, Tiansheng; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda; Davis, J. C. Seamus
2015-03-01
Topological insulators (TI) have a gapless surface state of Dirac fermions protected by the time reversal symmetry (TRS). However, TRS can be broken in the ferromagnetic state induced by magnetic doping. This leads to the opening of ``mass gap'' at the Dirac point. Such a gap is predicted to involve many exotic phenomena for which understanding the microscopic role of magnetic dopants is critical. But it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic TI Cr0.08(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.92 Te3. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate directly is related to fluctuations in n(r), the areal Cr atom density at the surface. The relationship of the surface-state Fermi wavevectors to both the correlation length and anisotropic structure of Δ(r) are found consistent with predictions for ferromagnetism mediated by the surface states.
Zvonarev, M B; Cheianov, V V; Giamarchi, T
2009-09-11
We investigate the dynamics of the one-dimensional strongly repulsive spin-1/2 Bose-Hubbard model for filling nu
Tuning the Weak Ferromagnetic States in Dysprosium Orthoferrite
Cao, Shixun; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Weiyao; Xu, Kai; Wang, Guohua; Yang, Yali; Kang, Baojuan; Zhao, Hongjian; Chen, Peng; Stroppa, Alessandro; Zheng, Ren-Kui; Zhang, Jincang; Ren, Wei; Íñiguez, Jorge; Bellaiche, L.
2016-01-01
RFeO3 orthoferrites, where R is a rare-earth ion of the lanthanide series, are attracting attention mostly because of their promising fast spin dynamics. The magnetic properties of these materials seem to crucially depend on whether the magnetizations of the R and Fe ions’ weak ferromagnetic (WFM) components are parallel or antiparallel to each other. Here, we report an extensive investigation of a high-quality DyFeO3 single crystal in which the induced Dy3+ magnetization (FDy) has a natural tendency to be antiparallel to Fe3+ sublattice magnetization (FFe) within a large temperature window. Moreover, we find that specific variations of temperature and applied magnetic fields allow us to make FDy parallel to FFe, or force a spin-flip transition in FFe, among other effects. We found three different magnetic states that respond to temperature and magnetic fields, i.e. linear versus constant or, alternatively, presenting either behavior depending on the history of the sample. An original magnetic field-versus-temperature phase diagram is constructed to indicate the region of stability of the different magnetic phases, and to reveal the precise conditions yielding sudden spin switching and reversals. Knowledge of such a phase diagram is of potential importance to applications in spintronics and magnetic devices. PMID:27886220
Tuning the Weak Ferromagnetic States in Dysprosium Orthoferrite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Shixun; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Weiyao; Xu, Kai; Wang, Guohua; Yang, Yali; Kang, Baojuan; Zhao, Hongjian; Chen, Peng; Stroppa, Alessandro; Zheng, Ren-Kui; Zhang, Jincang; Ren, Wei; Íñiguez, Jorge; Bellaiche, L.
2016-11-01
RFeO3 orthoferrites, where R is a rare-earth ion of the lanthanide series, are attracting attention mostly because of their promising fast spin dynamics. The magnetic properties of these materials seem to crucially depend on whether the magnetizations of the R and Fe ions’ weak ferromagnetic (WFM) components are parallel or antiparallel to each other. Here, we report an extensive investigation of a high-quality DyFeO3 single crystal in which the induced Dy3+ magnetization (FDy) has a natural tendency to be antiparallel to Fe3+ sublattice magnetization (FFe) within a large temperature window. Moreover, we find that specific variations of temperature and applied magnetic fields allow us to make FDy parallel to FFe, or force a spin-flip transition in FFe, among other effects. We found three different magnetic states that respond to temperature and magnetic fields, i.e. linear versus constant or, alternatively, presenting either behavior depending on the history of the sample. An original magnetic field-versus-temperature phase diagram is constructed to indicate the region of stability of the different magnetic phases, and to reveal the precise conditions yielding sudden spin switching and reversals. Knowledge of such a phase diagram is of potential importance to applications in spintronics and magnetic devices.
Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon J L; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A; Liu, Tiansheng; Valla, Tonica; Tranquada, John M; Gu, Genda; Davis, J C Séamus
2015-02-03
To achieve and use the most exotic electronic phenomena predicted for the surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs), it is necessary to open a "Dirac-mass gap" in their spectrum by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Use of magnetic dopant atoms to generate a ferromagnetic state is the most widely applied approach. However, it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale or, conversely, whether the ferromagnetic interactions between dopant atoms are influenced by the topological surface states. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic TI Cr0.08(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.92Te3. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate is directly related to fluctuations in n(r), the Cr atom areal density in the termination layer. We find the relationship of surface-state Fermi wavevectors to the anisotropic structure of Δ(r) not inconsistent with predictions for surface ferromagnetism mediated by those states. Moreover, despite the intense Dirac-mass disorder, the anticipated relationship [Formula: see text] is confirmed throughout and exhibits an electron-dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV·nm(2). These observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap locally and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.
Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; ...
2015-01-20
To achieve and use the most exotic electronic phenomena predicted for the surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs), it is necessary to open a “Dirac-mass gap” in their spectrum by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Use of magnetic dopant atoms to generate a ferromagnetic state is the most widely applied approach. However, it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale or, conversely, whether the ferromagnetic interactions between dopant atoms are influenced by the topological surface states. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in themore » ferromagnetic TI Cr₀.₀₈(Bi₀.₁Sb₀.₉)₁.₉₂Te₃. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate is directly related to fluctuations in n(r), the Cr atom areal density in the termination layer. We find the relationship of surface-state Fermi wavevectors to the anisotropic structure of Δ(r) not inconsistent with predictions for surface ferromagnetism mediated by those states. Moreover, despite the intense Dirac-mass disorder, the anticipated relationship Δ(r)∝n(r) is confirmed throughout and exhibits an electron–dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV·nm². In addition, these observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap locally and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.« less
Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Liu, Tiansheng; Valla, Tonica; Tranquada, John M.; Gu, Genda; Davis, J. C. Séamus
2015-01-01
To achieve and use the most exotic electronic phenomena predicted for the surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs), it is necessary to open a “Dirac-mass gap” in their spectrum by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Use of magnetic dopant atoms to generate a ferromagnetic state is the most widely applied approach. However, it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale or, conversely, whether the ferromagnetic interactions between dopant atoms are influenced by the topological surface states. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic TI Cr0.08(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.92Te3. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate is directly related to fluctuations in n(r), the Cr atom areal density in the termination layer. We find the relationship of surface-state Fermi wavevectors to the anisotropic structure of Δ(r) not inconsistent with predictions for surface ferromagnetism mediated by those states. Moreover, despite the intense Dirac-mass disorder, the anticipated relationship Δ(r)∝n(r) is confirmed throughout and exhibits an electron–dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV·nm2. These observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap locally and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential. PMID:25605947
In-surface confinement of topological insulator nanowire surface states
Chen, Fan W.; Jauregui, Luis A.; Tan, Yaohua; Manfra, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Chen, Yong P.; Kubis, Tillmann
2015-09-21
The bandstructures of [110] and [001] Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires are solved with the atomistic 20 band tight binding functionality of NEMO5. The theoretical results reveal: The popular assumption that all topological insulator (TI) wire surfaces are equivalent is inappropriate. The Fermi velocity of chemically distinct wire surfaces differs significantly which creates an effective in-surface confinement potential. As a result, topological insulator surface states prefer specific surfaces. Therefore, experiments have to be designed carefully not to probe surfaces unfavorable to the surface states (low density of states) and thereby be insensitive to the TI-effects.
Interplay of imperfections and surface states in topological crystalline insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plekhanov, Evgeny; Weber, Cedric
The conducting states, recently discovered at the surface of a special class of insulators - topological insulators - are distinguished for their insensitivity to local and non-magnetic surface defects. Their behavior in the presence of magnetic impurities and macroscopic imperfections of the surface is puzzling and hard to analyze quantitatively. Here, we present a systematic study of the imperfections (magnetic impurities and deviations from perfect surface cleavage) in topological crystalline insulators of the tin telluride family by using realistic first-principles-derived tight-binding models. The theoretical framework proposed is quite general and easily permits the extensions to other TI families and impurity types. The influence of the strong local correlations of the impurity atoms on the topological states stability is also discussed within the frame of the Dynamical Mean Field Theory.
Edge-states ferromagnetism of WS{sub 2} nanosheets
Huo, Nengjie; Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Renxiong; Xia, Qinglin; Li, Jingbo
2014-05-19
The multilayer WS{sub 2} nanosheets prepared from WO{sub 3} nanowires exhibit strong ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) of 0.0058 emu/g and coercive field (H{sub C}) of 92 Oe at room temperature. By decreasing the temperature down to 3 K the H{sub c} is increased up to 1115 Oe, revealing the existence of long-range magnetic ordering. Density functional theory spin-polarized calculations predict that strong ferromagnetic moments in WS{sub 2} nanosheets are attributed to the zigzag edge sulphur S and tungsten W atoms. Our findings also suggest that the WS{sub 2} nanosheets with a high density of edge spins could be used to fabricate spintronics devices, which are circuits utilizing the spin of the electron to process and store information.
Chern insulating state in laterally patterned semiconductor heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tommy; Sushkov, Oleg P.
2016-10-01
Hexagonally patterned two-dimensional p -type semiconductor systems are quantum simulators of graphene with strong and highly tunable spin-orbit interactions. We show that application of purely in-plane magnetic fields, in combination with the crystallographic anisotropy present in low-symmetry semiconductor interfaces, allows Chern insulating phases to emerge from an originally topologically insulating state after a quantum phase transition. These phases are characterized by pairs of co-propagating edge modes and Hall conductivities σx y=+2/e2 h ,-2/e2 h in the absence of Landau levels or cyclotron motion. With current lithographic technology, the Chern insulating transitions are predicted to occur in GaAs heterostructures at magnetic fields of ˜5 T .
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhea, Dennis
This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with insulation. Its objective is for the student to be able to determine insulation needs of new or existing structures, select type to use, use installation techniques, calculate costs, and apply safety factors. Some topics covered…
Voyles, Paul
2013-07-24
We report investigations of the synthesis, structure, and properties of new materials for spintronic applications integrated onto silicon substrates. Our primary focus is materials with very high, negative, intrinsic spin polarization of the density of states at the Fermi level. We have developed a new synthesis method for Fe3O4 thin films through selective oxidation of Fe, resulting in smooth, low-defect density films. We have synthesized Fe4N films and shown that they preferentially oxidize to Fe3O4. When integrated into magnetic tunnel junctions consisting of Fe4N / AlOx / Fe, oxidation at the Fe4N / AlOx interface creates Fe3O4, leading to negative tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Oxidation of Fe in nominally symmetric CoFe / AlOx / CoFe also produces Fe3O4 and negative TMR under selected oxidation conditions.
Ferromagnetic superexchange in insulating Cr2MoO6 by controlling orbital hybridization
Zhu, M.; Do, D.; Dela Cruz, Clarina R.; ...
2015-09-11
We report the magnetic and electronic structures of the newly synthesized inverse-trirutile compound Cr2MoO6. Despite the same crystal symmetry and similar bond-lengths and bond-angles to Cr2TeO6, Cr2MoO6 possesses a magnetic structure of the Cr2MoO6 type, different from that seen in Cr2TeO6. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations show that the sign and strength of the Cr-O-Cr exchange coupling is strongly influenced by the hybridization between Mo 4d and O 2p orbitals. This result further substantiates our recently proposed mechanism for tuning the exchange interaction between two magnetic atoms by modifying the electronic states of the non-magnetic atoms in the exchange path throughmore » orbital hybridization. This approach is fundamentally different from the conventional methods of controlling the exchange interaction by either carrier injection or through structural distortions.« less
Metal-insulator transition near a superconducting state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaveh, M.; Mott, N. F.
1992-03-01
We show that when the metal-insulation transition occurs near a superconducting state it results in a different critical behavior from that of amorphous metals or uncompensated doped semiconductors. This difference results from the enhancement of the effective electron-electron interaction caused by fluctuations to the superconducting state. This explains the recent experiments of Micklitz and co-workers on amorphous superconducting mixtures Ga-Ar and Bi-Kr.
The ground state of a spin-1 anti-ferromagnetic atomic condensate for Heisenberg limited metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ling-Na; You, Li
2016-05-01
The ground state of a spin-1 atomic condensate with anti-ferromagnetic interaction can be applied to quantum metrology approaching the Heisenberg limit. Unlike a ferromagnetic condensate state where individual atomic spins are aligned in the same direction, atoms in an anti-ferromagnetic ground state condensate exist as spin singlet pairs, whose inherent correlation promises metrological precisions beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL) for uncorrelated atoms. The degree of improvement over the SQL is measured by quantum Fisher information (QFI), whose dependence on the ratio of linear Zeeman shift p to spin-dependent atomic interaction c is studied. At a typical value of p = 0 . 4 c corresponding to a magnetic field of 28 . 6 μ G with c = h × 50 Hz (for 23 Na atom condensate in the F = 1 state at a typical density of ~1014cm-3), the scaled QFI can reach ~ 0 . 48 N , which is close to the limits of N for NooN state, or 0 . 5 N for twin-Fock state. We hope our work will stimulate experimental efforts towards reaching the anti-ferromagnetic condensate ground state at extremely low magnetic fields.
Gate control of ferromagnetic insulating phase in lightly-doped La0.875Sr0.125MnO3-δ film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, H.; Wang, J.; Hu, F. X.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Liu, Y.; Wu, R. R.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.
2016-02-01
The electric field effect on the lightly doped La0.875Sr0.125MnO3-δ (LSMO) thin film in electric double-layer transistors was investigated by measuring transport properties of the film under various gate voltages. It was found that the positive gate bias leads to an increase of the charge-orbital ordering (COO) transition temperature and a decrease of the Curie temperature TC, indicating the suppression of ferromagnetic metal (FMM) phases and preference of COO/ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) with the hole depletion by gate bias. Such different electric field effects can be ascribed to the weakening of the ferromagnetic interaction and enhancement of Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion caused by the transformation of JT inactive Mn4+-ions to JT active Mn3+-ions. Moreover, a step-like increase in the high temperature region of the ρ-T curve, which is related to the transition of cooperative JT distortion, was found to develop with increasing the positive bias, indicating that the cooperative JT distorted phase is stabilized by the depletion of holes in LSMO film. These results demonstrate that the modulation of holes via electric field strongly affects the balance between energy gains of different interactions and thus produce different effects on the competing FMI, FMM, and cooperative JT distorted phases in LSMO film.
Di Bernardo, A.; Diesch, S.; Gu, Y.; Linder, J.; Divitini, G.; Ducati, C.; Scheer, E.; Blamire, M.G.; Robinson, J.W.A.
2015-01-01
The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811
Di Bernardo, A; Diesch, S; Gu, Y; Linder, J; Divitini, G; Ducati, C; Scheer, E; Blamire, M G; Robinson, J W A
2015-09-02
The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces.
Magnon nodal-line semimetals and drumhead surface states in anisotropic pyrochlore ferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid
2017-01-01
We introduce a type of topological magnon matter: the magnonic pendant to electronic nodal-line semimetals. Magnon spectra of anisotropic pyrochlore ferromagnets feature twofold degeneracies of magnon bands along a closed loop in reciprocal space. These magnon nodal lines are topologically protected by the coexistence of inversion and time-reversal symmetry; they require the absence of spin-orbit interaction (no Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). We calculate the topological invariants of the nodal lines and show that details of the associated magnon drumhead surface states depend strongly on the termination of the surface. Magnon nodal-line semimetals complete the family of topological magnons in three-dimensional ferromagnetic materials.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Lee, Wei-Li; Nie, Tianxiao; Murata, Koichi; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Kang L.
2015-10-01
After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. Moreover, the universal QAHE phase diagram is confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different. In addition, the realization of the QAHE insulating state unveils new ways to explore quantum phase-related physics and applications.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Lee, Wei -Li; Nie, Tianxiao; Murata, Koichi; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou -Cheng; Wang, Kang L.
2015-10-07
After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr_{0.12}Bi_{0.26}Sb_{0.62})_{2}Te_{3} film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. Moreover, the universal QAHE phase diagram is confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different. Additionally, the realization of the QAHE insulating state unveils new ways to explore quantum phase-related physics and applications.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Jing; ...
2015-10-07
After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. Moreover, the universal QAHE phase diagram is confirmed through themore » angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different. Additionally, the realization of the QAHE insulating state unveils new ways to explore quantum phase-related physics and applications.« less
Topologically insulating states in ternary transition metal dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Xianqing; Ni, Jun
2017-01-01
The topological and electronic properties of monolayered monoclinic transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) alloys (1T '-M1-xNxX2 with M, N = Cr, Mo, W and X = S, Se) have been studied through calculations based on the projected Wannier functions obtained from first-principles calculations. We predict that the ternary compounds 1T '-Mo1-xCrxS2 with x up to 7/12 and all 1T '-Mo1-xWxSe2 host topologically insulating states with band gaps comparable to the pure systems. For Cr contained alloys, the mechanism of sign changing of Berry curvature is proposed to explain the trivial band topology of some configurations. The predicted topologically insulating ternary TMDs may be promising candidates for future realization of topological devices.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Lei; Kou, Xufeng; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou Cheng; Wang, Kang Lung
Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films as a form of dissipationless transport without external magnetic field. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2 Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. The universal QAHE phase diagram is further confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different.
2015-01-01
of topological insulator (TI) is an essential step towards observing other quantum states [1-3]. When the TI’s chiral Dirac surface state is gapped... chiral surface state and tune the corresponding transport properties [7, 8, 17-21]. In diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) doped with TM atoms, the
Phase states of a 2D easy-plane ferromagnet with strong inclined anisotropy
Fridman, Yu. A. Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A.; Meleshko, A. G.
2012-12-15
We investigate the spin states of a 2D film exhibiting easy-axis anisotropy and a strong single-ion inclined anisotropy whose axis forms a certain angle with the normal to the film surface. Such a system may have an angular ferromagnetic phase, a spatially inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase, whose realization depends substantially on the inclined anisotropy and the orientation of the wavevector in the film plane.
Interference in the Mott Insulator State of Distinguishable Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Lin; Fujiwara, Fumitaka; Byrnes, Tim; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2008-03-01
Particle statistics plays a crucial role in strongly interacting quantum many-body systems. Here, we study the Hubbard model for distinguishable particles at unit filling. We show that when on-site repulsive interaction dominates over tunneling, the ground state is a Mott insulator state with higher order coherence between the particles. This result can be experimentally confirmed by the recovery of the interference pattern in the density correlation functions and is robust against non- uniformity of the interaction and tunneling parameters. We also show that this state is a maximally entangled state, in contrast to its bosonic counterpart. L. Tian, F. Fujiwara, T. Byrnes, and Y. Yamamoto, preprint, arXiv/0705.2023.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Vasudha; Siwach, P. K.; Varma, G. D.; Awana, V. P. S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Singh, H. K.
2014-12-01
Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of oriented polycrystalline Pr0.58Ca0.42MnO3 thin films prepared in flowing oxygen (O2) and air ambient have been investigated. In the air, annealed film charge order (CO) is quenched and ferromagnetic (FM) transition, which appears at TC ≈ 148 K is followed by antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at TN ≈ 104 K. This film shows self-field insulator-metal transition (IMT) at {{T}IM}C ≈ 89 K and {{T}IM}W ≈ 148 K in the cooling and warming cycle, respectively. Magnetic field (H) enhances {{T}IM}C and {{T}IM}W, reduces the thermo-resistive hysteresis. The film annealed in O2 shows a CO transition at TCO ≈ 236 K, which is followed by FM and AFM transitions at TC ≈ 158 K and TN ≈ 140 K, respectively. No self-field IMT is observed in this film up to H = 20 kOe. At H ≥ 30 kOe, IMT having sharp resistivity jumps appears at {{T}IM}C ≈ 66 K and {{T}IM}W ≈ 144 K in the cooling and warming cycle, respectively. As H increases the resistivity jumps disappear and ΔTIM decreases. In the lower temperature regime (T = 5 K and 40 K) the H dependent resistivity (ρ-H) measurements show that the frozen cluster state is more robust in the O2 annealed film. At temperatures around TC, the ρ-H hysteresis and H induced drop in resistivity are more prominent in the O2 annealed film. At TC < T < TCO, higher H is required to induce IMT in the O2 annealed film. The magnetic and magnetotransport data clearly show that the film annealed in O2 has higher fraction of the AFM/COI phase, while the air annealed film has higher fraction of FMM phase. The microstructural analysis of the two set of films employing high resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the air annealed film has higher density of microstructural disorder and lattice defects, which could be responsible for CO quenching, FM transition and self-field IMT.
Feng, Hai L.; Calder, Stuart; Ghimire, Madhav Prasad; Yuan, Ya-Hua; Shirako, Yuichi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Hu, Zhiwei; Kuo, Chang-Yang; Tjeng, Liu Hao; Pi, Tun-Wen; Soo, Yun-Liang; He, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masahiko; Katsuya, Yoshio; Richter, Manuel; Yamaura, Kazunari
2016-12-28
In this study, the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ba_{2}NiOsO_{6} ( T_{mag} ~ 100 K ) was synthesized at 6 GPa and 1500 °C. It crystallizes into a double perovskite structure [Fm - 3m ; a = 8.0428 ( 1 ) Å], where the Ni^{2+} and Os^{6+} ions are perfectly ordered at the perovskite B site. We show that the spin-orbit coupling of Os^{6+} plays an essential role in opening the charge gap. The magnetic state was investigated by density functional theory calculations and powder neutron diffraction. The latter revealed a collinear ferromagnetic order in a > 21 kOe magnetic field at 5 K. The ferromagnetic gapped state is fundamentally different from that of known dilute magnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)As and (Cd,Mn)Te ( T_{mag} < 180 K ), the spin-gapless semiconductor Mn_{2} CoAl ( T_{mag} ~ 720 K ), and the ferromagnetic insulators EuO ( T_{mag} ~ 70 K ) and Bi_{3}Cr_{3}O_{11} ( T_{mag} ~ 220 K ). It is also qualitatively different from known ferrimagnetic insulators and semiconductors, which are characterized by an antiparallel spin arrangement. Our finding of the ferromagnetic semiconductivity of Ba_{2}NiOsO_{6} should increase interest in the platinum group oxides, because this alternative class of materials should be useful in the development of spintronic, quantum magnetic, and related devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, M. K.; Siwach, P. K.; Kaur, A.; Singh, H. K.
2010-11-01
Effect of quenched disorder (QD) caused by oxygen vacancy (OV) and substrate induced inhomogeneous compressive strain, on the magnetic and transport properties of oriented polycrystalline Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 thin films is investigated. QD is related intimately to the ordering/disordering of the OVs and controls the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic/insulator-metal transition. OV ordered films show enhanced TC/TIM˜165 K, which is depressed by oxygen annealing. OV disordering realized by quenching reduces TC/TIM. The first order IM transition observed in SSMO single crystals is transformed into nonhysteretic and continuous one in the OV ordered films. QD appears to be diluted by OV disorder/annihilation and results in stronger carrier localization.
Gangopadhyay, Shruba; Pickett, Warren E.
2015-01-15
The double perovskite Ba_{2}NaOsO_{6} (BNOO), an exotic example of a very high oxidation state (heptavalent) osmium d1 compound and also uncommon by being a ferromagnetic open d-shell (Mott) insulator without Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion, is modeled using a density functional theory based hybrid functional incorporating exact exchange for correlated electronic orbitals and including the large spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The experimentally observed narrow-gap ferromagnetic insulating ground state is obtained, but only when including spin-orbit coupling, making this a Dirac-Mott insulator. The calculated easy axis along [110] is in accord with experiment, providing additional support that this approach provides a realistic method for studying this system. The predicted spin density for [110] spin orientation is nearly cubic (unlike for other directions), providing an explanation for the absence of JT distortion. An orbital moment of –0.4μ_{B} strongly compensates the +0.5μ_{B} spin moment on Os, leaving a strongly compensated moment more in line with experiment. Remarkably, the net moment lies primarily on the oxygen ions. An insulator-metal transition, by rotating the magnetization direction with an external field under moderate pressure, is predicted as one consequence of strong SOC, and metallization under moderate pressure is predicted. In conclusion, a comparison is made with the isostructural, isovalent insulator Ba_{2}LiOsO_{6}, which, however, orders antiferromagnetically.
Frequency mixer having ferromagnetic film
Khitun, Alexander; Roshchin, Igor V.; Galatsis, Kosmas; Bao, Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L.
2016-03-29
A frequency conversion device, which may include a radiofrequency (RF) mixer device, includes a substrate and a ferromagnetic film disposed over a surface of the substrate. An insulator is disposed over the ferromagnetic film and at least one microstrip antenna is disposed over the insulator. The ferromagnetic film provides a non-linear response to the frequency conversion device. The frequency conversion device may be used for signal mixing and amplification. The frequency conversion device may also be used in data encryption applications.
Ni, Y.; Zhang, Z. Hadimani, R. L.; Tuttle, G.; Jiles, D. C.; Nlebedim, I. C.
2015-05-07
We investigated the effect of magnetic doping on magnetic and transport properties of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films. Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Te{sub 3} thin films with x = 0.03, 0.14, and 0.29 were grown epitaxially on mica substrate with low surface roughness (∼0.4 nm). It is found that Cr is an electron acceptor in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and increases the magnetization of Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Te{sub 3}. When x = 0.14 and 0.29, ferromagnetism appears in Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Te{sub 3} thin films, where anomalous Hall effect and weak localization of magnetoconductance were observed. The Curie temperature, coercivity, and remnant Hall resistance of thin films increase with increasing Cr concentration. The Arrott-Noakes plot demonstrates that the critical mechanism of the ferromagnetism can be described better with 3D-Heisenberg model than with mean field model. Our work may benefit for the practical applications of magnetic topological insulators in spintronics and magnetoelectric devices.
Fractional charge and spin states in topological insulator constrictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel
2015-09-01
We theoretically investigate the properties of two-dimensional topological insulator constrictions both in the integer and fractional regimes. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, the constriction functions as a spin filter with near-perfect efficiency and can be switched by electric fields only. Domain walls between different topological phases can be created in the constriction as an interface between tunneling, magnetic fields, charge density wave, or electron-electron interaction dominated regions. These domain walls host non-Abelian bound states with fractional charge and spin and result in degenerate ground states with parafermions. If a proximity gap is induced bound states give rise to an exotic Josephson current with 8 π periodicity.
Enhanced ferromagnetism and glassy state in phase separated La0.95Sr0.05MnO3 + δ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De, K.; Das, S.; Roy, A.; Dhak, P.; Willinger, M.; Amaral, J. S.; Amaral, V. S.; Giri, S.; Majumder, S.; Silva, C. J. R.; Gomes, M. J. M.; Mahapatra, P. K.
2012-11-01
Unusual high temperature ferromagentism is reported for La0.95Sr0.05MnO3+δ with Curie temperatures (TC1 and TC2) TC1 at 290 K and TC2 ˜ 150 K. Weak antiferromagnetism (AFM) is thought to give low moment, low temperature irreversibility, and non-saturation up to 10 T at 5 K. A short-range ferromagnetism is predicted from well-defined hysteresis at 5 K and field-cooled (FC) magnetization curves. Strong irreversibility between zero field-cooled (ZFC) and FC at 5 T is due to "hard" spins, not from ferromagnetic clusters. Field-dependent peak shift of spin freezing temperature in ZFC, memory effect, magnetic relaxation shows cluster glass like transition in the system. A metal-insulator transition at 115 K also implies a completion of percolation of short range ferromagnetic clusters, giving an onset of metallic state at 115 K. A complete magnetic phase diagram is presented showing its temperature dependent rich magnetic behavior.
Andreev bound states in superconductor/ferromagnet point contact Andreev reflection spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yates, K. A.; Olde Olthof, L. A. B.; Vickers, M. E.; Prabhakaran, D.; Egilmez, M.; Robinson, J. W. A.; Cohen, L. F.
2017-03-01
As charge carriers traverse a single superconductor ferromagnet interface, they experience an additional spin-dependent phase angle that results in spin mixing and the formation of a bound state called the Andreev bound state. Here we explore whether point contact Andreev reflection can be used to detect the Andreev bound state and, within the limits of our experiment, we extract the resulting spin mixing angle. By examining spectra taken from L a1.15S r1.85M n2O7-Pb junctions, together with a compilation of literature data on highly spin polarized systems, we suggest that the existence of the Andreev bound state would resolve a number of long standing controversies in the literature of Andreev reflection, as well as defining a route to quantify the strength of spin mixing at superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces. Intriguingly, we find that for high transparency junctions, the spin mixing angle appears to take a relatively narrow range of values across all the samples studied. The ferromagnets we have chosen to study share a common property in terms of their spin arrangement, and our observations may point to the importance of this property in determining the spin mixing angle under these circumstances.
Deformation effects of droplet fluctuations on dynamics in an Ising ferromagnetic state
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakanishi, Hiizu
1990-01-01
Deformation effects of droplet fluctuations on the dynamics in an Ising ferromagnetic state in two dimensions are studied in the case of an order-parameter-nonconserving system by investigating an equation of motion for a domain boundary. Analytic and numerical studies show that the deformation effects on the survival probability of the droplets simply result in changing the time scale or renormalizing a kinetic coefficient.
Tang, Jianshi; Chang, Li-Te; Kou, Xufeng; Murata, Koichi; Choi, Eun Sang; Lang, Murong; Fan, Yabin; Jiang, Ying; Montazeri, Mohammad; Jiang, Wanjun; Wang, Yong; He, Liang; Wang, Kang L
2014-09-10
Strong spin-orbit interaction and time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators enable the spin-momentum locking for the helical surface states. To date, however, there has been little report of direct electrical spin injection/detection in topological insulator. In this Letter, we report the electrical detection of spin-polarized surface states conduction using a Co/Al2O3 ferromagnetic tunneling contact in which the compound topological insulator (Bi0.53Sb0.47)2Te3 was used to achieve low bulk carrier density. Resistance (voltage) hysteresis with the amplitude up to about 10 Ω was observed when sweeping the magnetic field to change the relative orientation between the Co electrode magnetization and the spin polarization of surface states. The two resistance states were reversible by changing the electric current direction, affirming the spin-momentum locking in the topological surface states. Angle-dependent measurement was also performed to further confirm that the abrupt change in the voltage (resistance) was associated with the magnetization switching of the Co electrode. The spin voltage amplitude was quantitatively analyzed to yield an effective spin polarization of 1.02% for the surface states conduction in (Bi0.53Sb0.47)2Te3. Our results show a direct evidence of spin polarization in the topological surface states conduction. It might open up great opportunities to explore energy-efficient spintronic devices based on topological insulators.
Ryzhov, V A; Lazuta, A V; Khavronin, V P; Molkanov, P L; Mukovskii, Ya M
2014-02-19
The transport and magnetic properties (ac linear and nonlinear (second and third orders) susceptibilities) are presented for La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 and La0.8Ca0.2CoO3 single crystals with insulator ground states. The ferromagnetic (FM) clusters with similar magnetic characteristics originate in the paramagnetic phases of both compounds below some temperature T(∗). At high temperatures the FM clusters arise at the preferable sites that can be attributed to the chemical inhomogeneities, their density being weakly T-dependent. On cooling a homogeneous nucleation of the FM clusters develops below a definite temperature T(#) that is characterized by a fast growth of their density. These two stages are observed in both compounds. At the third stage a coalescence of the FM clusters starts in the doped cobaltite, whereas in the manganite the development of matrix FM ordering occurs which changes a cluster's behavior. The indicated features support the common nature of the cluster state in the doped cobaltite and manganite. The difference in their evolution is a consequence of the different magnetic properties of the matrices in the manganite and cobaltite.
Type-II Dirac surface states in topological crystalline insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiu, Ching-Kai; Chan, Y.-H.; Li, Xiao; Nohara, Y.; Schnyder, A. P.
2017-01-01
Recently, it has been realized that topological Weyl semimetals come in two different varieties: (i) with standard Weyl cones with pointlike Fermi surfaces (type I) and (ii) with tilted Weyl cones that appear at the contact of electron and hole pockets (type II). These two types of Weyl semimetals have very different physical properties, in particular, in their thermodynamics and magnetotransport. Here, we show that Dirac cone surface states of topological crystalline insulators can be distinguished in a similar way. We demonstrate this in terms of a general surface theory and then apply this knowledge to a family of antiperovskites of the form A3E O , where A denotes an alkaline earth metal, while E stands for Pb or Sn. Using ab initio DFT calculations, we investigate the bulk and surface topology of these antiperovskites and show that they exhibit type-I as well as type-II Dirac surface states protected by reflection symmetry. We find that the type-II Dirac states, as opposed to the type-I Dirac states, exhibit characteristic van Hove singularities in their dispersion, which lead to different thermodynamic properties, and which can serve as an experimental fingerprint of type-II surface states. The different magnetotransport characteristics between type-I and type-II surface states are discussed. In addition, we show that both type-I and type-II surface states exhibit an unusual helical spin polarization, which could lead to topological surface superconductivity.
Coexistence of metallic and insulating-like states in graphene
Wu, Fang; Huang, Jing; Li, Qunxiang; Deng, Kaiming; Kan, Erjun
2015-01-01
Since graphene has been taken as the potential host material for next-generation electric devices, coexistence of high carrier mobility and an energy gap has the determining role in its real applications. However, in conventional methods of band-gap engineering, the energy gap and carrier mobility in graphene are seemed to be the two terminals of a seesaw, which limit its rapid development in electronic devices. Here we demonstrated the realization of insulating-like state in graphene without breaking Dirac cone. Using first-principles calculations, we found that ferroelectric substrate not only well reserves the Dirac fermions, but also induces pseudo-gap states in graphene. Calculated transport results clearly revealed that electrons cannot move along the ferroelectric direction. Thus, our work established a new concept of opening an energy gap in graphene without reducing the high mobility of carriers, which is a step towards manufacturing graphene-based devices. PMID:25754862
Optical Properties of a Vibrationally Modulated Solid State Mott Insulator
Kaiser, S.; Clark, S. R.; Nicoletti, D.; Cotugno, G.; Tobey, R. I.; Dean, N.; Lupi, S.; Okamoto, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.
2014-01-01
Optical pulses at THz and mid-infrared frequencies tuned to specific vibrational resonances modulate the lattice along chosen normal mode coordinates. In this way, solids can be switched between competing electronic phases and new states are created. Here, we use vibrational modulation to make electronic interactions (Hubbard-U) in Mott-insulator time dependent. Mid-infrared optical pulses excite localized molecular vibrations in ET-F2TCNQ, a prototypical one-dimensional Mott-insulator. A broadband ultrafast probe interrogates the resulting optical spectrum between THz and visible frequencies. A red-shifted charge-transfer resonance is observed, consistent with a time-averaged reduction of the electronic correlation strength U. Secondly, a sideband manifold inside of the Mott-gap appears, resulting from a periodically modulated U. The response is compared to computations based on a quantum-modulated dynamic Hubbard model. Heuristic fitting suggests asymmetric holon-doublon coupling to the molecules and that electron double-occupancies strongly squeeze the vibrational mode. PMID:24448171
Properties of an excitonic insulator in the superconducting state
Batyev, E. G.
2012-01-15
The properties of an excitonic insulator with embedded (nondissipative) current are studied using the self-consistent field approximation, in which the wavefunction of the system has the form of the known Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer trial function with time-dependent coefficients; the equations for these coefficients are derived. Such a formulation holds for the homogeneous case (in the absence of a coordinate dependence). We consider two problems: (i) time evolution of the system in the case when an embedded current exists at the initial instant; and (ii) the response of the system to an abrupt perturbation (the vector potential changes jumpwise from zero to a certain finite value). In both cases, the state of the system depends on time, but some characteristics (e.g., undamped current) tend to a constant value. For a weak perturbation, the system behaves as an insulator. If the perturbation is not small (on the order of the gap in the spectrum), nonlinear effects lead to substantial differences: a certain part of the embedded current is preserved in the former case, while the initial current in the latter case acquires a certain addition.
Accessing Rashba states in electrostatically gated topological insulator devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Abhishek; Sundaresh, Ananthesh; Majhi, Kunjalata; Ganesan, R.; Anil Kumar, P. S.
2016-12-01
We study the low temperature electrical transport in gated BiSbTe1.25Se1.75/hexagonal-Boron Nitride van der Waals heterostructure devices. Our experiments indicate the presence of Rashba spin-split states confined to the sample surface. While such states have been observed previously in photo-emission spectroscopy and STM experiments, it has not been possible to unambiguously detect them by electrical means and their transport properties remain mostly unknown. We show that these states support high mobility conduction with Hall effect mobilities ˜2000 to 3000 cm2/V-s that are paradoxically much larger than the mobilities of the topological surface states ˜300 cm2/V-s at T = 2 K. The spin-split nature of these states is confirmed by magneto-resistance measurements that reveal multi-channel weak anti-localization. Our work shows that Rashba spin split states can be electrically accessed in Topological insulators paving the way for future spintronic applications.
Edge states of a three-dimensional topological insulator.
Deb, Oindrila; Soori, Abhiram; Sen, Diptiman
2014-08-06
We use the bulk Hamiltonian for a three-dimensional topological insulator such as Bi(2) Se(3) to study the states which appear on its various surfaces and along the edge between two surfaces. We use both analytical methods based on the surface Hamiltonians (which are derived from the bulk Hamiltonian) and numerical methods based on a lattice discretization of the bulk Hamiltonian. We find that the application of a potential barrier along an edge can give rise to states localized at that edge. These states have an unusual energy-momentum dispersion which can be controlled by applying a potential along the edge; in particular, the velocity of these states can be tuned to zero. The scattering and conductance across the edge is studied as a function of the edge potential. We show that a magnetic field in a particular direction can also give rise to zero energy states on certain edges. We point out possible experimental ways of looking for the various edge states.
Edge states of a three-dimensional topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deb, Oindrila; Soori, Abhiram; Sen, Diptiman
2014-08-01
We use the bulk Hamiltonian for a three-dimensional topological insulator such as Bi2 Se3 to study the states which appear on its various surfaces and along the edge between two surfaces. We use both analytical methods based on the surface Hamiltonians (which are derived from the bulk Hamiltonian) and numerical methods based on a lattice discretization of the bulk Hamiltonian. We find that the application of a potential barrier along an edge can give rise to states localized at that edge. These states have an unusual energy-momentum dispersion which can be controlled by applying a potential along the edge; in particular, the velocity of these states can be tuned to zero. The scattering and conductance across the edge is studied as a function of the edge potential. We show that a magnetic field in a particular direction can also give rise to zero energy states on certain edges. We point out possible experimental ways of looking for the various edge states.
Particle-hole asymmetry in gapped topological insulator surface states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabert, C. J.; Carbotte, J. P.
2015-06-01
We consider the combined effect of a gap and the Zeeman interaction on the helical Dirac fermions that exist on the surface of a topological insulator. Magneto-optical properties, the magnetization, Hall effect, and the density of states are considered with emphasis on the particle-hole asymmetry, which arises when a subdominant Schrödinger piece is included along with the dominant Dirac part of the Hamiltonian. When appropriate, we compare our results with those of a single-valley gapped graphene system for which Zeeman splitting behaves differently. We provide a derivation of the phase offset in the magnetic oscillations brought about by the combined effect of the gap and Schrödinger term without requiring the semiclassical Onsager quantization condition. Our results agree with previous discussions based on semiclassical arguments.
Floquet Fractional Chern Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grushin, Adolfo G.; Gómez-León, Álvaro; Neupert, Titus
2014-04-01
We show theoretically that periodically driven systems with short range Hubbard interactions offer a feasible platform to experimentally realize fractional Chern insulator states. We exemplify the procedure for both the driven honeycomb and the square lattice, where we derive the effective steady state band structure of the driven system by using the Floquet theory and subsequently study the interacting system with exact numerical diagonalization. The fractional Chern insulator state equivalent to the 1/3 Laughlin state appears at 7/12 total filling (1/6 filling of the upper band). The state also features spontaneous ferromagnetism and is thus an example of the spontaneous breaking of a continuous symmetry along with a topological phase transition. We discuss light-driven graphene and shaken optical lattices as possible experimental systems that can realize such a state.
Exotic Ground State Phases of S=1/2 Heisenberg Δ-Chain with Ferromagnetic Main Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hida, Kazuo
2008-04-01
The ground state phase diagram of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg frustrated Δ-chain with a ferromagnetic main chain is investigated. In addition to the ferromagnetic phase, various nonmagnetic ground states are found. If the ferromagnetic coupling between apical spins and the main chain is strong, this model is approximated by a spin-1 bilinear-biquadratic chain and the spin quadrupolar phase with spin-2 gapless excitation is realized in addition to the Haldane and ferromagnetic phases. In the regime where the coupling between the apical spins and the main chain is weak, the numerical results which suggest the possibility of a series of phase transitions among different nonmagnetic phases are obtained. Physical pictures of these phases are discussed based on the numerical results.
Thickness Dependence of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulator Films.
Feng, Xiao; Feng, Yang; Wang, Jing; Ou, Yunbo; Hao, Zhenqi; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhang, Liguo; Lin, Chaojing; Liao, Jian; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Li-Li; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun
2016-08-01
The evolution of the quantum anomalous Hall effect with the thickness of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2 Te3 magnetic topological insulator films is studied, revealing how the effect is caused by the interplay of the surface states, band-bending, and ferromagnetic exchange energy. Homogeneity in ferromagnetism is found to be the key to high-temperature quantum anomalous Hall material.
Radu, I; Vahaplar, K; Stamm, C; Kachel, T; Pontius, N; Dürr, H A; Ostler, T A; Barker, J; Evans, R F L; Chantrell, R W; Tsukamoto, A; Itoh, A; Kirilyuk, A; Rasing, Th; Kimel, A V
2011-04-14
Ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin ordering is governed by the exchange interaction, the strongest force in magnetism. Understanding spin dynamics in magnetic materials is an issue of crucial importance for progress in information processing and recording technology. Usually the dynamics are studied by observing the collective response of exchange-coupled spins, that is, spin resonances, after an external perturbation by a pulse of magnetic field, current or light. The periods of the corresponding resonances range from one nanosecond for ferromagnets down to one picosecond for antiferromagnets. However, virtually nothing is known about the behaviour of spins in a magnetic material after being excited on a timescale faster than that corresponding to the exchange interaction (10-100 fs), that is, in a non-adiabatic way. Here we use the element-specific technique X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to study spin reversal in GdFeCo that is optically excited on a timescale pertinent to the characteristic time of the exchange interaction between Gd and Fe spins. We unexpectedly find that the ultrafast spin reversal in this material, where spins are coupled antiferromagnetically, occurs by way of a transient ferromagnetic-like state. Following the optical excitation, the net magnetizations of the Gd and Fe sublattices rapidly collapse, switch their direction and rebuild their net magnetic moments at substantially different timescales; the net magnetic moment of the Gd sublattice is found to reverse within 1.5 picoseconds, which is substantially slower than the Fe reversal time of 300 femtoseconds. Consequently, a transient state characterized by a temporary parallel alignment of the net Gd and Fe moments emerges, despite their ground-state antiferromagnetic coupling. These surprising observations, supported by atomistic simulations, provide a concept for the possibility of manipulating magnetic order on the timescale of the exchange interaction.
Ferromagnets-induced splitting of molecular states of T-shaped double quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wójcik, Krzysztof P.
2015-05-01
The exchange field for molecular states of double quantum dot, induced by two ferromagnets coupled to the device in T-shaped configuration, is defined and calculated. It is found, that in the regime of strong coupling between quantum dots, the dependence of the exchange field on this coupling becomes nontrivial. In particular, it changes the sign a few times to eventually vanish in the limit of infinite inter-dot coupling. The excitation energies of double quantum dot are calculated and the results used to predict the conditions for suppression of the two-stage Kondo effect in the considered nanostructure.
Effective Hamiltonian for surface states of topological insulator nanotubes.
Siu, Zhuo Bin; Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B A
2017-04-03
In this work we derive an effective Hamiltonian for the surface states of a hollow topological insulator (TI) nanotube with finite width walls. Unlike a solid TI cylinder, a TI nanotube possesses both an inner as well as outer surface on which the states localized at each surface are coupled together. The curvature along the circumference of the nanotube leads to a spatial variation of the spin orbit interaction field experienced by the charge carriers as well as an asymmetry between the inner and outer surfaces of the nanotube. Both of these features result in terms in the effective Hamiltonian for a TI nanotube absent in that of a flat TI thin film of the same thickness. We calculate the numerical values of the parameters for a Bi2Se3 nanotube as a function of the inner and outer radius, and show that the differing relative magnitudes between the parameters result in qualitatively differing behaviour for the eigenstates of tubes of different dimensions.
Effective Hamiltonian for surface states of topological insulator nanotubes
Siu, Zhuo Bin; Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.
2017-01-01
In this work we derive an effective Hamiltonian for the surface states of a hollow topological insulator (TI) nanotube with finite width walls. Unlike a solid TI cylinder, a TI nanotube possesses both an inner as well as outer surface on which the states localized at each surface are coupled together. The curvature along the circumference of the nanotube leads to a spatial variation of the spin orbit interaction field experienced by the charge carriers as well as an asymmetry between the inner and outer surfaces of the nanotube. Both of these features result in terms in the effective Hamiltonian for a TI nanotube absent in that of a flat TI thin film of the same thickness. We calculate the numerical values of the parameters for a Bi2Se3 nanotube as a function of the inner and outer radius, and show that the differing relative magnitudes between the parameters result in qualitatively differing behaviour for the eigenstates of tubes of different dimensions. PMID:28367970
Electrically Tunable Magnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao
2015-03-01
The external controllability of the magnetic properties in topological insulators would be important both for fundamental and practical interests. Here we predict the electric-field control of ferromagnetism in a thin film of insulating magnetic topological insulators. The decrease of band inversion by the application of electric fields results in a reduction of magnetic susceptibility, and hence in the modication of magnetism. Remarkably, the electric field could even induce the magnetic quantum phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. We further propose a topological transistor device in which the dissipationless charge transport of chiral edge states is controlled by an electric field. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and chiral edge transport in such a device may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for topological insulators. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babu, S. Harinath; Kaleemulla, S.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Rao, G. Venugopal; Krishnamoorthi, C.
2016-11-01
Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) (In0.95Sn0.05)2O3 and Cr doped indium-tin-oxide (In0.90Sn0.05Cr0.05)2O3 nanoparticles were prepared using simple low cost solid state reaction method and characterized by different techniques to study their structural, optical and magnetic properties. Microstructures, surface morphology, crystallite size of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). From these methods it was found that the particles were about 45 nm. Chemical composition and valence states of the nanoparticles were studied using energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From these techniques it was observed that the elements of indium, tin, chromium and oxygen were present in the system in appropriate ratios and they were in +3, +4, +3 and -2 oxidation states. Raman studies confirmed that the nanoparticle were free from unintentional impurities. Two broad emission peaks were observed at 330 nm and 460 nm when excited wavelength of 300 nm. Magnetic studies were carried out at 300 K and 100 K using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and found that the ITO nanoparticles were ferromagnetic at 100 K and 300 K. Where-as the room temperature ferromagnetism completely disappeared in Cr doped ITO nanoparticles at 100 K and 300 K.
Effects of Co doping on the metamagnetic states of the ferromagnetic fcc Fe-Co alloy.
Ortiz-Chi, Filiberto; Aguayo, Aarón; de Coss, Romeo
2013-01-16
The evolution of the metamagnetic states in the ferromagnetic face centered cubic (fcc) Fe(1-x)Co(x) alloy as a function of Co concentration has been studied by means of first-principles calculations. The ground state properties were obtained using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave method and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation functional. The alloying was modeled using the virtual crystal approximation and the magnetic states were obtained from the calculations of the total energy as a function of the spin moment, using the fixed spin moment method. For ferromagnetic fcc Fe, the binding-energy curve shows metamagnetic behavior, with two minima corresponding to a small-volume, low-spin (LS) state and a large-volume, high-spin (HS) state, which are separated by a small energy (E(LS) ≲ E(HS)). The evolution of the magnetic moment, the exchange integral (J), and the binding-energy curve is analyzed in the whole range of Co concentrations (x). The magnetic moment corresponding to the HS state decreases monotonically from 2.6 μ(B)/atom in fcc Fe to 1.7 μ(B)/atom in fcc Co. In contrast, the exchange integral for the HS state shows a maximum at around x = 0.45. The thermal dependence of the lattice parameter is evaluated with a method based on statistical mechanics using the binding-energy curve as an effective potential. It is observed that the behavior of the lattice parameter with temperature is tuned by Co doping, from negative thermal expansion in fcc Fe to positive thermal expansion in fcc Co, through the modification of the energetics of the metamagnetic states.
Ando, Yuichiro; Hamasaki, Takahiro; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Ichiba, Kouki; Yang, Fan; Novak, Mario; Sasaki, Satoshi; Segawa, Kouji; Ando, Yoichi; Shiraishi, Masashi
2014-11-12
We detected the spin polarization due to charge flow in the spin nondegenerate surface state of a three-dimensional topological insulator by means of an all-electrical method. The charge current in the bulk-insulating topological insulator Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3 (BSTS) was injected/extracted through a ferromagnetic electrode made of Ni80Fe20, and an unusual current-direction-dependent magnetoresistance gave evidence for the appearance of spin polarization, which leads to a spin-dependent resistance at the BSTS/Ni80Fe20 interface. In contrast, our control experiment on Bi2Se3 gave null result. These observations demonstrate the importance of the Fermi-level control for the electrical detection of the spin polarization in topological insulators.
Quantum filter of spin polarized states: Metal–dielectric–ferromagnetic/semiconductor device
Makarov, Vladimir I.; Khmelinskii, Igor
2014-02-01
Highlights: • Development of a new spintronics device. • Development of quantum spin polarized filters. • Development of theory of quantum spin polarized filter. - Abstract: Recently we proposed a model for the Quantum Spin-Polarized State Filter (QSPSF). The magnetic moments are transported selectively in this model, detached from the electric charge carriers. Thus, transfer of a spin-polarized state between two conductors was predicted in a system of two levels coupled by exchange interaction. The strength of the exchange interaction between the two conductive layers depends on the thickness of the dielectric layer separating them. External magnetic fields modulate spin-polarized state transfer, due to Zeeman level shift. Therefore, a linearly growing magnetic field generates a series of current peaks in a nearby coil. Thus, our spin-state filter should contain as least three nanolayers: (1) conductive or ferromagnetic; (2) dielectric; and (3) conductive or semiconductive. The spectrum of spin-polarized states generated by the filter device consists of a series of resonance peaks. In a simple case the number of lines equals S, the total spin angular momentum of discrete states in one of the coupled nanolayers. Presently we report spin-polarized state transport in metal–dielectric–ferromagnetic (MDF) and metal–dielectric–semiconductor (MDS) three-layer sandwich devices. The exchange-resonance spectra in such devices are quite specific, differing also from spectra observed earlier in other three-layer devices. The theoretical model is used to interpret the available experimental results. A detailed ab initio analysis of the magnetic-field dependence of the output magnetic moment averaged over the surface of the device was carried out. The model predicts the resonance structure of the signal, although at its present accuracy it cannot predict the positions of the spectral peaks.
Optical study of nonuniform quantum-Hall ferromagnetic states in bilayer and trilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrette, Manuel; Côté, René
2015-03-01
The chiral two-dimensional electron gas in the N = 0 Landau level of a Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene is host to a variety of broken-symmetry ground states that can be described as layer, spin, or orbital quantum Hall ferromagnets (QHFs). At filling factors ν = 1 , 3 , an externally applied electric field between the two layers can induce a transition from uniform to nonuniform orbital QHF states with an helical or skyrmionic texture of electric dipoles. A similar skyrmionic texture can also arise in the N = 0 Landau level of an ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. In this talk, we discuss the optical properties of these textured ground states. We compute their electromagnetic absorption as well as the Kerr and Faraday rotations induced by their collective excitations and show that each textured phase has a distinct optical signature.
Steady-state and transient results on insulation materials
Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; McElroy, D.L.; Fine, H.A.
1991-01-01
The Unguarded Thin-Heater Apparatus (UTHA, ASTM C 1114) was used to determine the thermal conductivity (k), specific heat (C), and thermal diffusivity ({alpha}) of selected building materials from 24 to 50{degree}C. Steady-state and transient measurements yielded data on four types of material: gypsum wall board containing 0, 15, and 30 wt % wax; calcium silicate insulations with densities ({rho}) of 307, 444, and 605 kg/m{sup 3}; three wood products: southern yellow pine flooring (575 kg/m{sup 3}), Douglas fir plywood (501 kg/m{sup 3}), and white spruce flooring (452 kg/m{sup 3}); and two cellular plastic foams: extruded polystyrene (30 kg/m{sup 3}) blown with HCFC-142b and polyisocyanurate rigid board (30.2 kg/m{sup 3}) blown with CFC-11. The extruded polystyrene was measured several times after production (25 days, 45 days, 74 days, 131 days, and 227 days). The UTHA is an absolute technique that yields k with an uncertainty of less than {plus minus}2% as determined by modeling, by determinate error analyses, and by use of Standard Reference Materials SRM-1450b and SRM-1451. 37 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.
Interplay between chemical state, electric properties, and ferromagnetism in Fe-doped ZnO films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, G.; Peng, J. J.; Song, C.; Zeng, F.; Pan, F.
2013-03-01
Valence state of Fe ions plays an important role in the physical properties of Fe doped ZnO films. Here, a series of Zn1-xFexO films with different Fe concentrations (x = 0, 2.3, 5.4, 7.1, and 9.3 at. %) were prepared to investigate their structural, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, bipolar resistive switching properties, and electrical-control of ferromagnetism at room temperature. The structure characterizations indicate that the chemical state of Fe ions substituting Zn2+ site changes from Fe3+ to Fe2+ with the increase of Fe dopant concentration. We found enhanced piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in Zn0.977Fe0.023O films with more Fe3+ due to the smaller Fe3+ ionic size in comparison with Zn2+ while the increase of Fe2+ concentration by a larger amount of Fe dopant results in the worse ferroelectric and piezoelectric performance. All Pt/Zn1-xFexO/Pt devices show bipolar resistive switching properties. Especially, devices with lower Fe dopant concentration exhibit better endurance properties due to their higher crystalline quality. The variation of oxygen vacancies during resistive switching provides an opportunity to tune ferromagnetism of Fe-doped ZnO films, giving rise to the integration of charge and spin into a simple Pt/Zn1-xFexO/Pt devices. The multifunctional properties of Fe-doped ZnO films are promising for communication systems and information storage devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estes, William E.; Losee, D. Bruce; Hatfield, William E.
1980-01-01
Magnetic susceptibility measurements on powdered samples of bis(benzylammonium) tetrachlorocuprate (II), bis(phenethylammonium) tetrachlorocuprate(II), bis(3-phenyl-1-propylammonium) tetrachlorocuprate(II), and bis(benzylammonium) tetrabromocuprate(II) have shown that these four substances order ferromagnetically with Curie temperatures of 8.0±0.5, 9.0±0.2, 7.0±0.5, and 12.3±1.0 K, respectively. Fits of a series expansion for a two-dimensional lattice to the magnetic susceptibility data obtained from powdered samples in the paramagnetic region yielded exchange constants J for the chloride compounds in the range 16.7-18.8 K, and a value of 25.3 K for the bromide compound. For these fits the
Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing
Vinegar, Harold J.; Harris, Christopher Kelvin; Mason, Stanley Leroy
2010-09-14
Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for electrically insulating an overburden portion of a heater wellbore is described. The system may include a heater wellbore located in a subsurface formation and an electrically insulating casing located in the overburden portion of the heater wellbore. The casing may include at least one non-ferromagnetic material such that ferromagnetic effects are inhibited in the casing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhen; Wei, Xinyuan; Wang, Jiajia; Pan, Hong; Ji, Fuhao; Ye, Mao; Yang, Zhongqin; Qiao, Shan
2015-09-01
The local atomic and electronic structures around the dopants in Cr-doped (BixSb1 -x )2Te3 are studied by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements and first-principles calculations. Both Cr and Bi are confirmed substituting Sb sites (CrSb and BiSb). The six nearest Te atoms around Cr move towards Cr and shorten the Cr-Te bond lengths to 2.76 Å and 2.77 Å for x =0.1 and x =0.2 , respectively. Importantly, we reveal the hybridization between the Sb/Te p states and Cr d states by the presence of a pre-edge peak at Cr K -absorption edge, which is also supported by our ab initio calculations. These findings provide important clues to understand the mechanism of ferromagnetic order in this system with quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Hierarchy of Hofstadter states and replica quantum Hall ferromagnetism in graphene superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, G. L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Tu, J. S.; Kretinin, A. V.; Cao, Y.; Jalil, R.; Withers, F.; Ponomarenko, L. A.; Piot, B. A.; Potemski, M.; Elias, D. C.; Chen, X.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Fal'Ko, V. I.; Geim, A. K.; Mishchenko, A.
2014-07-01
Self-similarity and fractals have fascinated researchers across various disciplines. In graphene placed on boron nitride and subjected to a magnetic field, self-similarity appears in the form of numerous replicas of the original Dirac spectrum, and their quantization gives rise to a fractal pattern of Landau levels, referred to as the Hofstadter butterfly. Here we employ capacitance spectroscopy to probe directly the density of states (DoS) and energy gaps in this spectrum. Without a magnetic field, replica spectra are seen as pronounced DoS minima surrounded by van Hove singularities. The Hofstadter butterfly shows up as recurring Landau fan diagrams in high fields. Electron-electron interactions add another twist to the self-similar behaviour. We observe suppression of quantum Hall ferromagnetism, a reverse Stoner transition at commensurable fluxes and additional ferromagnetism within replica spectra. The strength and variety of the interaction effects indicate a large playground to study many-body physics in fractal Dirac systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, C.-C.; Yeh, N.-C.; Samoilov, A. V.; Vakili, K.; Li, Y.; Vasquez, R. P.
1999-01-01
The effect of spin-polarized quasiparticle currents on the critical current density (J-c) of cuprate superconductors is studied in perovskite F-I-S heterostructures as a function of insulator thickness and of underlying magnetic materials. A pulsed current technique is employed to minimize extraneous Joule heating on the superconductor. At temperatures near T-c, F-I-S samples with insulator thicknesses\\1e2nm show precipitous decrease in J_c as current injection (I_m) is increased. In contrast, J_c in a controlled sample with a substituted non-magnetic material (N-I-S) exhibit no dependence on I_m. Similarly, a F-I-S sample with a 10 mn insulating barrier also show little J_c effect versus I_m. At low temperatures with I_m = 0, significant suppression of J-c is observed only in the thin barrier F-I-S samples, although T_c and the normal-state resistivity of all samples are comparable. These phenomena can be attributed to the Cooper pair breaking induced by externally-injected and internally-reflected spin-polarized quasiparticle currents. We estimate an order of magnitude range for the spin diffusion length of 100 nm to 100\\ mum.
Ground state study of the thin ferromagnetic nano-islands for artificial spin ice arrays
Vieira Júnior, D. S.; Leonel, S. A. Dias, R. A. Toscano, D. Coura, P. Z. Sato, F.
2014-09-07
In this work, we used numerical simulations to study the magnetic ground state of the thin elongated (elliptical) ferromagnetic nano-islands made of Permalloy. In these systems, the effects of demagnetization of dipolar source generate a strong magnetic anisotropy due to particle shape, defining two fundamental magnetic ground state configurations—vortex or type C. To describe the system, we considered a model Hamiltonian in which the magnetic moments interact through exchange and dipolar potentials. We studied the competition between the vortex states and aligned states—type C—as a function of the shape of each elliptical nano-islands and constructed a phase diagram vortex—type C state. Our results show that it is possible to obtain the elongated nano-islands in the C-state with aspect ratios less than 2, which is interesting from the technological point of view because it will be possible to use smaller islands in spin ice arrays. Generally, the experimental spin ice arrangements are made with quite elongated particles with aspect ratio approximately 3 to ensure the C-state.
Evolution of ferromagnetic interactions from cluster spin glass state in Co-Ga alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammad Yasin, Sk.; Saha, Ritwik; Srinivas, V.; Kasiviswanathan, S.; Nigam, A. K.
2016-11-01
Low temperature magnetic properties of binary CoxGa100-x (x=54-57) alloy have been investigated. Analysis of frequency dependence of ac susceptibility provided a conclusive evidence for the existence of cluster spin glass like behavior with the freezing temperature ~8, 14 K for x=54, 55.5 respectively. The parameters for conventional 'slowing down' of the spin dynamics have been extracted from the acs data, which confirm the presence of glassy phase. The magnitude of Mydosh parameter obtained from the fits is larger than that reported for typical canonical spin glasses and smaller than those for non-interacting ideal superparamagnetic systems but comparable to those of known cluster-glass systems. Memory phenomena using specific cooling protocols also support the spin-glass features in Co55.5Ga44.5 composition. Further the development of ferromagnetic clusters from the cluster spin glass state has been observed in x=57 composition.
Influence of the Sn oxidation state in ferromagnetic Sn-doped In2O3 nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maloney, Francis Scott; Wang, Wenyong
2016-12-01
Sn-doped indium oxide nanowires were grown using a vapor-liquid-solid technique (VLS). The Sn content of the nanowires was tunable based on the source powder ratios used in the VLS process. The oxidation state of the Sn ions was examined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that Sn2+ was the dominant ionic species in samples over 6% (atomic percentage) Sn. The nanowires were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization increased with increasing Sn concentration, which could be associated with the spin-splitting of a defect band that was encouraged by the imbalance of Sn2+ to Sn4+ species at high Sn concentrations.
Mahanti, S D; Jha, Sudhanshu S
2007-12-01
We obtain the best upper bound for the ground-state energy of a system of chargeless fermions of mass m, spin s=1/2 , and magnetic moment mus[over ] as a function of its density in the fully spin-polarized Hartree-Fock determinantal state, specified by a prolate spheroidal plane-wave single-particle occupation function n_(k[over ]) , by minimizing the total energy E at each density with respect to the variational spheroidal deformation parameter beta(2),0< or =beta(2)< or =1 . We find that at high densities, this spheroidal ferromagnetic state is the most likely ground state of the system, but it is still unstable towards the infinite-density collapse. This optimized ferromagnetic state is shown to be a stable ground state of the dipolar system at high densities, if one has an additional repulsive short-range hardcore interaction of sufficient strength and nonvanishing range.
Schor; O'Carroll
2000-08-01
We obtain different properties of general d dimensional lattice ferromagnetic spin systems with nearest neighbor interactions in the high temperature region (beta<1). Each model is characterized by a single site a priori spin distribution, taken to be even. We state our results in terms of the parameter alpha=-3(2) where denotes the kth moment of the a priori distribution. Associated with the model is a lattice quantum field theory that is known to contain particles. We show that for alpha>0, beta small, there exists a bound state with mass below the two-particle threshold. For alpha<0, bound states do not exist. The existence of the bound state has implications on the decay of correlations, i.e., the four-point function decays at a slower rate than twice that of the two-point function. These results are obtained using a lattice version of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation. The existence and nonexistence results generalize to N-component models with rotationally invariant a priori spin distributions.
Interaction-induced insulating state in thick multilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Youngwoo; Ki, Dong-Keun; Koshino, Mikito; McCann, Edward; Morpurgo, Alberto F.
2016-12-01
Close to charge neutrality, the low-energy properties of high-quality suspended devices based on atomically thin graphene layers are determined by electron-electron interactions. Bernal-stacked layers, in particular, have shown a remarkable even-odd effect with mono- and tri-layers remaining gapless conductors, and bi- and tetra-layers becoming gapped insulators. These observations—at odds with the established notion that (Bernal) trilayers and thicker multilayers are semi-metals—have resulted in the proposal of a physical scenario leading to a surprising prediction, namely that even-layered graphene multilayers remain insulating irrespective of their thickness. Here, we present data from two devices that conform ideally to this hypothesis, exhibiting the behavior expected for Bernal-stacked hexa- and octa-layer graphene. Despite their large thickness, these multilayers are insulating for carrier density |n| < 2-3 × 1010 cm-2, possess an energy gap of approximately 1.5 meV at charge neutrality—in virtually perfect agreement with what is observed in bi- and tetra-layer graphene—and exhibit the expected integer quantum Hall effect. These findings indicate the soundness of our basic insights on the effect of electron interactions in Bernal graphene multilayers, show that graphene multilayers exhibit unusual and interesting physics that remains to be understood, and pose ever more pressing questions as to the microscopic mechanisms behind the semimetallic behavior of bulk graphite.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Yingfei; Lee, Ching Hua; Wen, Xueda; Cho, Gil Young; Ryu, Shinsei; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2016-09-01
In this paper, we study (2 +1 ) -dimensional quantum anomalous Hall states, i.e., band insulators with quantized Hall conductance, using exact holographic mapping. Exact holographic mapping is an approach to holographic duality which maps the quantum anomalous Hall state to a different state living in (3 +1 ) -dimensional hyperbolic space. By studying topological response properties and the entanglement spectrum, we demonstrate that the holographic dual theory of a quantum anomalous Hall state is a (3 +1 ) -dimensional topological insulator. The dual description enables a characterization of topological properties of a system by the quantum entanglement between degrees of freedom at different length scales.
High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirohi, Anshu; Singh, Chandan K.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Kabir, Mukul; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Sheet, Goutam
2016-06-01
CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (˜47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.
Ferromagnetic superexchange in insulating Cr_{2}MoO_{6} by controlling orbital hybridization
Zhu, M.; Do, D.; Dela Cruz, Clarina R.; Dun, Zhiling; Cheng, J. -G.; Goto, H.; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Zou, T.; Zhou, Haidon D.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Ke, Xianglin
2015-09-11
We report the magnetic and electronic structures of the newly synthesized inverse-trirutile compound Cr_{2}MoO_{6}. Despite the same crystal symmetry and similar bond-lengths and bond-angles to Cr_{2}TeO_{6}, Cr_{2}MoO_{6} possesses a magnetic structure of the Cr_{2}MoO_{6} type, different from that seen in Cr_{2}TeO_{6}. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations show that the sign and strength of the Cr-O-Cr exchange coupling is strongly influenced by the hybridization between Mo 4d and O 2p orbitals. This result further substantiates our recently proposed mechanism for tuning the exchange interaction between two magnetic atoms by modifying the electronic states of the non-magnetic atoms in the exchange path through orbital hybridization. This approach is fundamentally different from the conventional methods of controlling the exchange interaction by either carrier injection or through structural distortions.
Quantum Hall states stabilized in semi-magnetic bilayers of topological insulators
Yoshimi, R.; Yasuda, K.; Tsukazaki, A.; Takahashi, K. S.; Nagaosa, N.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.
2015-01-01
By breaking the time-reversal symmetry in three-dimensional topological insulators with the introduction of spontaneous magnetization or application of magnetic field, the surface states become gapped, leading to quantum anomalous Hall effect or quantum Hall effect, when the chemical potential locates inside the gap. Further breaking of inversion symmetry is possible by employing magnetic topological insulator heterostructures that host non-degenerate top and bottom surface states. Here we demonstrate the tailored-material approach for the realization of robust quantum Hall states in the bilayer system, in which the cooperative or cancelling combination of the anomalous and ordinary Hall responses from the respective magnetic and non-magnetic layers is exemplified. The appearance of quantum Hall states at filling factor 0 and +1 can be understood by the relationship of energy band diagrams for the two independent surface states. The designable heterostructures of magnetic topological insulator may explore a new arena for intriguing topological transport and functionality. PMID:26497065
Persistent coherence and spin polarization of topological surface states on topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Z.-H.; Vescovo, E.; Fedorov, A. V.; Gu, G. D.; Valla, T.
2013-07-01
Gapless surface states on topological insulators are protected from elastic scattering on nonmagnetic impurities, which makes them promising candidates for low-power electronic applications. However, for widespread applications, these states should remain coherent and significantly spin polarized at ambient temperatures. Here, we studied the coherence and spin structure of the topological states on the surface of a model topological insulator, Bi2Se3, at elevated temperatures in spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We found an extremely weak broadening and essentially no decay of spin polarization of the topological surface state up to room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the topological states on surfaces of topological insulators could serve as a basis for room-temperature electronic devices.
Quantum Hall states stabilized in semi-magnetic bilayers of topological insulators.
Yoshimi, R; Yasuda, K; Tsukazaki, A; Takahashi, K S; Nagaosa, N; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y
2015-10-26
By breaking the time-reversal symmetry in three-dimensional topological insulators with the introduction of spontaneous magnetization or application of magnetic field, the surface states become gapped, leading to quantum anomalous Hall effect or quantum Hall effect, when the chemical potential locates inside the gap. Further breaking of inversion symmetry is possible by employing magnetic topological insulator heterostructures that host non-degenerate top and bottom surface states. Here we demonstrate the tailored-material approach for the realization of robust quantum Hall states in the bilayer system, in which the cooperative or cancelling combination of the anomalous and ordinary Hall responses from the respective magnetic and non-magnetic layers is exemplified. The appearance of quantum Hall states at filling factor 0 and +1 can be understood by the relationship of energy band diagrams for the two independent surface states. The designable heterostructures of magnetic topological insulator may explore a new arena for intriguing topological transport and functionality.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-08-25
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
Metal-insulator transitions of bulk and domain-wall states in pyrochlore iridates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueda, Kentaro
A family of pyrochlore iridates R2Ir2O7 offers an ideal platform to explore intriguing phases such as topological Mott insulator and Weyl semimetal. Here we report transport and spectroscopic studies on the metal-insulator transition (MIT) induced by the modulations of effective electron correlation and magnetic structures, which is finely tuned by external pressure, chemical substitutions (R = Nd1-x Prx and SmyNd1-y) , and magnetic field. A reentrant insulator-metal-insulator transition is observed near the paramagnetic insulator-metal phase boundary reminiscent of a first-order Mott transition for R = SmyNd1-y compounds (y~0.8). The metallic states on the magnetic domain walls (DWs), which are observed for R = Nd in real space as well as in transport properties, is simultaneously turned into the insulating one. These findings imply that the DW electronic state is intimately linked to the bulk states. For the mixed R = Nd1-x Prx compounds, the divergent behavior of resistivity with antiferromagnetic order is significantly suppressed by applying a magnetic field along [001] direction. It is attributed to the phase transition from the antiferromagnetic insulating state to the novel Weyl (semi-)metal state accompanied by the change of magnetic structure. The present study combined with experiment and theory suggests that there are abundant exotic phases with physical parameters such as electron correlation and Ir-5 d magnetic order pattern. Work performed in collaboration with J. Fujioka, B.-J. Yang, C. Terakura, N. Nagaosa, Y. Tokura (University of Tokyo, RIKEN CEMS), J. Shiogai, A. Tsukazaki, S. Nakamura, S. Awaji (Tohoku University). 1This work was supported by JSPS FIRST Program and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grants No. 80609488 and No. 24224009).
NMR probe of metallic states in nanoscale topological insulators.
Koumoulis, Dimitrios; Chasapis, Thomas C; Taylor, Robert E; Lake, Michael P; King, Danny; Jarenwattananon, Nanette N; Fiete, Gregory A; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Bouchard, Louis-S
2013-01-11
A 125Te NMR study of bismuth telluride nanoparticles as a function of particle size revealed that the spin-lattice relaxation is enhanced below 33 nm, accompanied by a transition of NMR spectra from the single to the bimodal regime. The satellite peak features a negative Knight shift and higher relaxivity, consistent with core polarization from p-band carriers. Whereas nanocrystals follow a Korringa law in the range 140-420 K, micrometer particles do so only below 200 K. The results reveal increased metallicity of these nanoscale topological insulators in the limit of higher surface-to-volume ratios.
Nature of the insulating ground state of the 5d postperovskite CaIrO3
Kim, Sun -Woo; Liu, Chen; Kim, Hyun -Jung; ...
2015-08-26
In this study, the insulating ground state of the 5d transition metal oxide CaIrO3 has been classified as a Mott-type insulator. Based on a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study with local, semilocal, and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, we reveal that the Ir t2g states exhibit large splittings and one-dimensional electronic states along the c axis due to a tetragonal crystal field. Our hybrid DFT calculation adequately describes the antiferromagnetic (AFM) order along the c direction via a superexchange interaction between Ir4+ spins. Furthermore, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) hybridizes the t2g states to open an insulating gap. These results indicate thatmore » CaIrO3 can be represented as a spin-orbit Slater insulator, driven by the interplay between a long-range AFM order and the SOC. Such a Slater mechanism for the gap formation is also demonstrated by the DFT + dynamical mean field theory calculation, where the metal-insulator transition and the paramagnetic to AFM phase transition are concomitant with each other.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Shantanu; Lee, Wei-Cheng
2015-12-01
The quasiparticle interferences (QPIs) of the featureless Mott insulators are investigated by a T -matrix formalism implemented with the dynamical mean field theory (T -DMFT). In the Mott insulating state, due to the singularity at zero frequency in the real part of the electron self-energy [Re Σ (ω )˜η /ω ] predicted by DMFT, where η can be considered as the "order parameter" for the Mott insulating state, QPIs are completely washed out at small bias voltages. However, a further analysis shows that Re Σ (ω ) serves as an energy-dependent chemical potential shift. As a result, the effective bias voltage seen by the system is e V'=e V -Re Σ (e V ) , which leads to a critical bias voltage e Vc˜√{η } satisfying e V'=0 if and only if η is nonzero. Consequently, the same QPI patterns produced by the noninteracting Fermi surfaces appear at this critical bias voltage e Vc in the Mott insulating state. We propose that this reentry of noninteracting QPI patterns at e Vc could serve as an experimental signature of the Mott insulating state, and the order parameter can be experimentally measured as η ˜(eVc) 2 .
Characterizing Featureless Mott Insulating State by Quasiparticle Interferences - A DMFT Prospect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Shantanu; Lee, Wei-Cheng
In this talk we discuss the quasiparticle interferences (QPIs) of a Mott insulator using a T-matrix formalism implemented with the dynamical mean-field theory (T-DMFT). In the Mott insulating state, the DMFT predicts a singularity in the real part of electron self energy s (w) at low frequencies, which completely washes out the QPI at small bias voltage. However, the QPI patterns produced by the non-interacting Fermi surfaces can appear at a critical bias voltage in Mott insulating state. The existence of this non-zero critical bias voltage is a direct consequence of the singular behavior of Re[s (w)] /sim n/w with n behaving as the 'order parameter' of Mott insulating state. We propose that this reentry of non-interacting QPI patterns could serve as an experimental signature of Mott insulating state, and the 'order parameter' can be experimentally measured W.C.L acknowledges financial support from start up fund from Binghamton University.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, T.; Koswattage, K. R.; Nakayama, Y.; Ishii, H.
2017-03-01
Although the contact electrification of insulating polymers has been widely used in various technologies, the mechanism of electrification is still not well understood and several models have been proposed to explain the mechanism. Some of the models assume the existence of bandgap states that can store or release electrons to charge the polymer; however, the density of states in the bandgap region is not well examined. In this study, an approach to directly measure the density of state of insulating polymers using hν-dependent high-sensitivity ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy is proposed. Demonstration of the approach to a representative insulating polymer, nylon-6,6, is reported with the estimation of the charge density and charge penetration depth as a function of the work function difference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morán, O.; Saldarriaga, W.; Baca, E.
2010-01-01
Current transport through thin antiferromagnetic (AF) barriers of the perovskite manganite La 1/3Ca 2/3MnO 3 (LCMO) was studied with respect to its dependence on temperature and voltage. Planar-type La 2/3Ca 1/3MnO 3(∼80 nm)/La 1/3Ca 2/3MnO 3(∼7 nm)/YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ(∼100 nm) heterojunctions were used as basic structures. The current-voltage ( I- V) measurements were carried out on test junctions with a standard area of 20 × 40 μm 2 in a four-terminal configuration. In spite of the carefully controlled growth conditions, barriers with the same nominal thickness showed different electrical behavior varying from elastic tunneling to Mott variable range hopping (VRH) via localized states. Fitting the VRH model to the experimental data, allowed for estimating important physical parameters of the barrier as the density of states at the Fermi level N( EF) and with this the average distance between two localized states ℓ0. The different transport characteristics seem to be related to intrinsic difference in microstructure as the average surface roughness of the constituent layers may already be larger than the thickness of the barrier itself. Independent of the barrier quality, the active presence of the diamagnetic and ferromagnetic phases in the heterostructure was corroborated by transport measurements in magnetic fields and in-plane/out-of-plane magnetization hysteresis loops below the superconducting critical temperature, Tc (∼80 K). The values of the critical magnetic field Hc1 estimated from these experiments were in good accordance with those reported in the literature.
Origin of Transitions between Metallic and Insulating States in Simple Metals
Naumov, Ivan I.; Hemley, Russell J.
2015-04-17
Unifying principles that underlie recently discovered transitions between metallic and insulating states in elemental solids under pressure are developed. Using group theory arguments and first principles calculations, we show that the electronic properties of the phases involved in these transitions are controlled by symmetry principles not previously recognized. The valence bands in these systems are described by simple and composite band representations constructed from localized Wannier functions centered on points unoccupied by atoms, and which are not necessarily all symmetrical. The character of the Wannier functions is closely related to the degree of s-p(-d) hybridization and reflects multi-center chemical bondingmore » in these insulating states. The conditions under which an insulating state is allowed for structures having an integer number of atoms per primitive unit cell as well as re-entrant (i.e., metal-insulator-metal) transition sequences are detailed, resulting in predictions of novel behavior such as phases having three-dimensional Dirac-like points. The general principles developed are tested and applied to the alkali and alkaline earth metals, including elements where high-pressure insulating phases have been identified or reported (e.g., Li, Na, and Ca).« less
Origin of Transitions between Metallic and Insulating States in Simple Metals
Naumov, Ivan I.; Hemley, Russell J.
2015-04-17
Unifying principles that underlie recently discovered transitions between metallic and insulating states in elemental solids under pressure are developed. Using group theory arguments and first principles calculations, we show that the electronic properties of the phases involved in these transitions are controlled by symmetry principles not previously recognized. The valence bands in these systems are described by simple and composite band representations constructed from localized Wannier functions centered on points unoccupied by atoms, and which are not necessarily all symmetrical. The character of the Wannier functions is closely related to the degree of s-p(-d) hybridization and reflects multi-center chemical bonding in these insulating states. The conditions under which an insulating state is allowed for structures having an integer number of atoms per primitive unit cell as well as re-entrant (i.e., metal-insulator-metal) transition sequences are detailed, resulting in predictions of novel behavior such as phases having three-dimensional Dirac-like points. The general principles developed are tested and applied to the alkali and alkaline earth metals, including elements where high-pressure insulating phases have been identified or reported (e.g., Li, Na, and Ca).
Origin of Transitions between Metallic and Insulating States in Simple Metals.
Naumov, Ivan I; Hemley, Russell J
2015-04-17
Unifying principles that underlie recently discovered transitions between metallic and insulating states in elemental solids under pressure are developed. Using group theory arguments and first-principles calculations, we show that the electronic properties of the phases involved in these transitions are controlled by symmetry principles. The valence bands in these systems are described by simple and composite band representations constructed from localized Wannier functions centered on points unoccupied by atoms, and which are not necessarily all symmetrical. The character of the Wannier functions is closely related to the degree of s-p(-d) hybridization and reflects multicenter chemical bonding in these insulating states. The conditions under which an insulating state is allowed for structures having an integer number of atoms per primitive unit cell as well as reentrant (i.e., metal-insulator-metal) transition sequences are detailed, resulting in predictions of behavior such as phases having band-contact lines. The general principles developed are tested and applied to the alkali and alkaline earth metals, including elements where high-pressure insulating phases have been reported (e.g., Li, Na, and Ca).
Shi, Xiaoyan; Logvenov, G; Bollinger, A T; Božović, I; Panagopoulos, C; Popović, Dragana
2013-01-01
A central issue for copper oxides is the nature of the insulating ground state at low carrier densities and the emergence of high-temperature superconductivity from that state with doping. Even though this superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) is a zero-temperature transition, measurements are not usually carried out at low temperatures. Here we use magnetoresistance to probe both the insulating state at very low temperatures and the presence of superconducting fluctuations in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) films, for doping levels that range from the insulator to the superconductor (x = 0.03-0.08). We observe that the charge glass behaviour, characteristic of the insulating state, is suppressed with doping, but it coexists with superconducting fluctuations that emerge already on the insulating side of the SIT. The unexpected quenching of the superconducting fluctuations by the competing charge order at low temperatures provides a new perspective on the mechanism for the SIT.
Ferromagnetism beyond Lieb's theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Natanael C.; Mendes-Santos, Tiago; Paiva, Thereza; Santos, Raimundo R. dos; Scalettar, Richard T.
2016-10-01
The noninteracting electronic structures of tight-binding models on bipartite lattices with unequal numbers of sites in the two sublattices have a number of unique features, including the presence of spatially localized eigenstates and flat bands. When a uniform on-site Hubbard interaction U is turned on, Lieb proved rigorously that at half-filling (ρ =1 ) the ground state has a nonzero spin. In this paper we consider a "CuO2 lattice" (also known as "Lieb lattice," or as a decorated square lattice), in which "d orbitals" occupy the vertices of the squares, while "p orbitals" lie halfway between two d orbitals; both d and p orbitals can accommodate only up to two electrons. We use exact determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations to quantify the nature of magnetic order through the behavior of correlation functions and sublattice magnetizations in the different orbitals as a function of U and temperature; we have also calculated the projected density of states, and the compressibility. We study both the homogeneous (H) case, Ud=Up , originally considered by Lieb, and the inhomogeneous (IH) case, Ud≠Up . For the H case at half-filling, we found that the global magnetization rises sharply at weak coupling, and then stabilizes towards the strong-coupling (Heisenberg) value, as a result of the interplay between the ferromagnetism of like sites and the antiferromagnetism between unlike sites; we verified that the system is an insulator for all U . For the IH system at half-filling, we argue that the case Up≠Ud falls under Lieb's theorem, provided they are positive definite, so we used DQMC to probe the cases Up=0 ,Ud=U and Up=U ,Ud=0 . We found that the different environments of d and p sites lead to a ferromagnetic insulator when Ud=0 ; by contrast, Up=0 leads to to a metal without any magnetic ordering. In addition, we have also established that at density ρ =1 /3 , strong antiferromagnetic correlations set in, caused by the presence of one fermion on each
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagiwara, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuyuki
2016-11-01
The positron states for Li- and O-adsorbed Fe(001) ferromagnetic surfaces are studied by using two-component density functional theory. Positron surface lifetimes and positron binding energies are found to be sensitive to changes in the surface structure and the dipole barrier induced by adatoms, which can be understood by the positron density distribution and surface potential. Spin-dependent positron lifetime fractions are in excellent agreement with spin-polarization fractions at the topmost surface, because the localized positrons at the surface are sensitive to the surface magnetic state. Therefore, the present results show that spin-polarized positron annihilation spectroscopy can extract the outermost surface magnetic state.
Surface plasmon resonance phenomenon of the insulating state polyaniline
Umiati, Ngurah Ayu Ketut; Triyana, Kuwat; Kamsul
2015-04-16
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) phenomenon of the insulating polyaniline (PANI) is has been observed. Surface Plasmon (SP) is the traveled electromagnetic wave that passes through the interface of dielectric metal and excited by attenuated total reflection (ATR) method in Kretschmannn configuration (Au-PANI prism). The resonance condition is observed through the angle of SPR in such condition that SP wave is coupled by the evanescent constant of laser beam. In this research, the laser beam was generated by He–Ne and its wavelength (λ) was 632,8 nm. SPR curve is obtained through observation of incidence angles of the laser beam in prism. SPR phenomenon at the boundary between Au – PANI layer has showed by reflection dip when the laser beam passes through the prism. In this early study, the observation was carried out through simulation Winspall 3.02 software and preliminary compared with some experimental data reported in other referred literatures. The results shows that the optimum layer of Au and polyaniline are 50 and 1,5 nm thick respectively. Our own near future experimental work would be further performed and reported elsewhere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Akshay
We study several quantum phases that are related to the quantum Hall effect. Our initial focus is on a pair of quantum Hall ferromagnets where the quantum Hall ordering occurs simultaneously with a spontaneous breaking of an internal symmetry associated with a semiconductor valley index. In our first example ---AlAs heterostructures--- we study domain wall structure, role of random-field disorder and dipole moment physics. Then in the second example ---Si(111)--- we show that symmetry breaking near several integer filling fractions involves a combination of selection by thermal fluctuations known as "order by disorder" and a selection by the energetics of Skyrme lattices induced by moving away from the commensurate fillings, a mechanism we term "order by doping". We also study ground state of such systems near filling factor one in the absence of valley Zeeman energy. We show that even though the lowest energy charged excitations are charge one skyrmions, the lowest energy skyrmion lattice has charge > 1 per unit cell. We then broaden our discussion to include lattice systems having multiple Chern number bands. We find analogs of quantum Hall ferromagnets in the menagerie of fractional Chern insulator phases. Unlike in the AlAs system, here the domain walls come naturally with gapped electronic excitations. We close with a result involving only topology: we show that ABC stacked multilayer graphene placed on boron nitride substrate has flat bands with non-zero local Berry curvature but zero Chern number. This allows access to an interaction dominated system with a non-trivial quantum distance metric but without the extra complication of a non-zero Chern number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cedergren, K.; Kafanov, S.; Smirr, J.-L.; Cole, J. H.; Duty, T.
2015-09-01
We have made a systematic investigation of charge transport in one-dimensional chains of Josephson junctions where the characteristic Josephson energy is much less than the single-junction Cooper-pair charging energy, EJ≪EC P . Such chains are deep in the insulating state, where superconducting phase coherence across the chain is absent, and a voltage threshold for conduction is observed at the lowest temperatures. We find that Cooper-pair tunneling in such chains is completely suppressed. Instead, charge transport is dominated by tunneling of single electrons, which is very sensitive to the presence of BCS quasiparticles on the superconducting islands of the chain. Consequently, we observe a strong parity effect, where the threshold voltage vanishes sharply at a characteristic parity temperature T*, which is significantly lower than the critical temperature Tc. A measurable and thermally activated zero-bias conductance appears above T*, with an activation energy equal to the superconducting gap, confirming the role of thermally excited quasiparticles. Conduction below T* and above the voltage threshold occurs via injection of single electrons/holes into the Cooper-pair insulator, forming a nonequilibrium steady state with a significantly enhanced effective temperature. Our results explicitly show that single-electron transport dominates deep in the insulating state of Josephson junction arrays. This conduction process has mostly been ignored in previous studies of both superconducting junction arrays and granular superconducting films below the superconductor-insulator quantum phase transition.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. In this report, I will talk about the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under a strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect as a result of the interplay of magnetic field and structure inversion asymmetry. We also reveal that the edge states exist only for the integer Hall conductance while no edge-state solution can be found for the ''half-integer'' Hall conductance. The addition of top and bottom surface Dirac fermions always form well-defined edge states, and gives an integer quantum Hall effect. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
Skyrmion-induced bound states on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrikopoulos, Dimitrios; Sorée, Bart; De Boeck, Jo
2016-05-01
The interaction between the surface of a 3D topological insulator and a skyrmion/anti-skyrmion structure is studied in order to investigate the possibility of electron confinement due to the skyrmion presence. Both hedgehog (Néel) and vortex (Bloch) skyrmions are considered. For the hedgehog skyrmion, the in-plane components cannot be disregarded and their interaction with the surface state of the topological insulator (TI) has to be taken into account. A semi-classical description of the skyrmion chiral angle is obtained using the variational principle. It is shown that both the hedgehog and the vortex skyrmion can induce bound states on the surface of the TI. However, the number and the properties of these states depend strongly on the skyrmion type and the skyrmion topological number NSk. The probability densities of the bound electrons are also derived where it is shown that they are localized within the skyrmion region.
Quantum Oscillations and Hall Anomaly of Surface States in the Topological Insulator Bi2Te3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Dong-Xia; Hor, Y. S.; Xiong, Jun; Cava, R. J.; Ong, N. P.
2010-08-01
Topological insulators are insulating materials that display massless, Dirac-like surface states in which the electrons have only one spin degree of freedom on each surface. These states have been imaged by photoemission, but little information on their transport parameters, for example, mobility, is available. We report the observation of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations arising from the surface states in nonmetallic crystals of Bi2Te3. In addition, we uncovered a Hall anomaly in weak fields, which enables the surface current to be seen directly. Both experiments yield a surface mobility (9000 to 10,000 centimeter2 per volt-second) that is substantially higher than in the bulk. The Fermi velocity of 4 × 105 meters per second obtained from these transport experiments agrees with angle-resolved photoemission experiments.
Robust spin-polarized midgap states at step edges of topological crystalline insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sessi, Paolo; Di Sante, Domenico; Szczerbakow, Andrzej; Glott, Florian; Wilfert, Stefan; Schmidt, Henrik; Bathon, Thomas; Dziawa, Piotr; Greiter, Martin; Neupert, Titus; Sangiovanni, Giorgio; Story, Tomasz; Thomale, Ronny; Bode, Matthias
2016-12-01
Topological crystalline insulators are materials in which the crystalline symmetry leads to topologically protected surface states with a chiral spin texture, rendering them potential candidates for spintronics applications. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we uncover the existence of one-dimensional (1D) midgap states at odd-atomic surface step edges of the three-dimensional topological crystalline insulator (Pb,Sn)Se. A minimal toy model and realistic tight-binding calculations identify them as spin-polarized flat bands connecting two Dirac points. This nontrivial origin provides the 1D midgap states with inherent stability and protects them from backscattering. We experimentally show that this stability results in a striking robustness to defects, strong magnetic fields, and elevated temperature.
Topological origin of edge states in two-dimensional inversion-symmetric insulators and semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Miert, Guido; Ortix, Carmine; Morais Smith, Cristiane
2017-03-01
Symmetries play an essential role in identifying and characterizing topological states of matter. Here, we classify topologically two-dimensional (2D) insulators and semimetals with vanishing spin-orbit coupling using time-reversal ({ T }) and inversion ({ I }) symmetry. This allows us to link the presence of edge states in { I } and { T } symmetric 2D insulators, which are topologically trivial according to the Altland-Zirnbauer table, to a {{{Z}}}2 topological invariant. This invariant is directly related to the quantization of the Zak phase. It also predicts the generic presence of edge states in Dirac semimetals, in the absence of chiral symmetry. We then apply our findings to bilayer black phosphorus and show the occurrence of a gate-induced topological phase transition, where the {{{Z}}}2 invariant changes.
Effect of Dielectric Materials on the Topological Insulator Bi2 Se 3 Surface States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Jiwon; Register, Leonard; Banerjee, Sanjay; Sahu, Bhagawan
2011-03-01
We study the effects of crystalline dielectric materials on the electronic surface states of a strong topological band insulator (TI) Bi 2 Se 3 using a density functional based electronic structure method [1]. We will discuss the sensitivity of Dirac point degeneracy and linear band dispersion of the TI with respect to different dielectric surface terminations as well as different relative atom positions of the dielectric and the TI. Both passivated and non-passivated substrate surfaces will be considered. Two representative dielectrics Si O2 and boron nitride will be chosen to understand the physics of interplay of interface potential, linear band dispersion and the chemical environments of the TI surface states. Our findings have implications in interpreting experiments and designing novel nanoelectronics device concepts based on TIs. ``Intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations on the surface states of topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 ,'' J. Chang, P. Jadaun, L. F. Register, S. K. Banerjee and B. Sahu (In preparation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Tsuneya; Kawakami, Norio
2016-08-01
We study a bilayer Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with lattice distortion and interlayer spin exchange interaction under cylinder geometry. Our analysis based on real-space dynamical mean field theory with continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo demonstrates the emergence of a topological edge Mott insulating (TEMI) state which hosts gapless edge modes only in collective spin excitations. This is confirmed by the numerical calculations at finite temperatures for the spin-Hall conductivity and the single-particle excitation spectrum; the spin-Hall conductivity is almost quantized, σspinx y˜2 (e /2 π ) , predicting gapless edge modes carrying the spin current, while the helical edge modes in the single-particle spectrum are gapped out with respecting symmetry. It is clarified how the TEMI state evolves from the ordinary spin-Hall insulating state with increasing the Hubbard interaction at a given temperature and then undergoes a phase transition to a trivial Mott insulating state. With a bosonization approach at zero temperature, we further address which collective modes host gapless edge modes in the TEMI state.
Magnetic states, correlation effects and metal-insulator transition in FCC lattice.
Timirgazin, M A; Igoshev, P A; Arzhnikov, A K; Yu Irkhin, V
2016-12-21
The ground-state magnetic phase diagram (including collinear and spiral states) of the single-band Hubbard model for the face-centered cubic lattice and related metal-insulator transition (MIT) are investigated within the slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein. The correlation-induced electron spectrum narrowing and a comparison with a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation allow one to estimate the strength of correlation effects. This, as well as the MIT scenario, depends dramatically on the ratio of the next-nearest and nearest electron hopping integrals [Formula: see text]. In contrast with metallic state, possessing substantial band narrowing, insulator one is only weakly correlated. The magnetic (Slater) scenario of MIT is found to be superior over the Mott one. Unlike simple and body-centered cubic lattices, MIT is the first order transition (discontinuous) for most [Formula: see text]. The insulator state is type-II or type-III antiferromagnet, and the metallic state is spin-spiral, collinear antiferromagnet or paramagnet depending on [Formula: see text]. The picture of magnetic ordering is compared with that in the standard localized-electron (Heisenberg) model.
Magnetic states, correlation effects and metal-insulator transition in FCC lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timirgazin, M. A.; Igoshev, P. A.; Arzhnikov, A. K.; Irkhin, V. Yu
2016-12-01
The ground-state magnetic phase diagram (including collinear and spiral states) of the single-band Hubbard model for the face-centered cubic lattice and related metal-insulator transition (MIT) are investigated within the slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein. The correlation-induced electron spectrum narrowing and a comparison with a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation allow one to estimate the strength of correlation effects. This, as well as the MIT scenario, depends dramatically on the ratio of the next-nearest and nearest electron hopping integrals {{t}\\prime}/t . In contrast with metallic state, possessing substantial band narrowing, insulator one is only weakly correlated. The magnetic (Slater) scenario of MIT is found to be superior over the Mott one. Unlike simple and body-centered cubic lattices, MIT is the first order transition (discontinuous) for most {{t}\\prime}/t . The insulator state is type-II or type-III antiferromagnet, and the metallic state is spin-spiral, collinear antiferromagnet or paramagnet depending on {{t}\\prime}/t . The picture of magnetic ordering is compared with that in the standard localized-electron (Heisenberg) model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokado, Satoshi; Sakuraba, Yuya; Tsunoda, Masakiyo
2016-10-01
We derive a simple relational expression between the spin polarization ratio of resistivity, Pρ, and the anisotropic magnetoresistance ratio Δρ/ρ, and that between the spin polarization ratio of the density of states at the Fermi energy, PDOS, and Δρ/ρ for nearly half-metallic ferromagnets. We find that Pρ and PDOS increase with increasing |Δρ/ρ| from 0 to a maximum value. In addition, we roughly estimate Pρ and PDOS for a Co2FeGa0.5Ge0.5 Heusler alloy by substituting its experimentally observed Δρ/ρ into the respective expressions.
Superferromagnetic domain state of a discontinuous metal insulator multilayer
Bedanta, S.; Petracic, O.; Kleemann, W.; Kentzinger, E.; Ruecker, U.; Paul, A.; Brueckel, Th.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P.P.
2005-07-01
Polarized neutron reflectivity (PNR) and magnetometry studies have been performed on the granular multilayer [Co{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}(1.3 nm)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(3 nm)]{sub 10}. Due to strong interparticle interactions, a collective superferromagnetic state is encountered. Cole-Cole plots drawn from the complex ac susceptibility are measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and field amplitudes that hint at the relaxation, creep, sliding, and switching regimes of pinned domain walls that are in close agreement with results obtained from simulations. Very slow switching with exponential relaxation under near-coercive fields is confirmed by PNR measurements. The complete absence of spin-flip scattering confirms that the magnetization reversal is achieved merely by domain nucleation and growth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaudet, J.; Ross, K. A.; Kermarrec, E.; Butch, N. P.; Ehlers, G.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.
2016-02-01
The ground state of the quantum spin ice candidate magnet Yb2Ti2O7 is known to be sensitive to weak disorder at the ˜1 % level which occurs in single crystals grown from the melt. Powders produced by solid state synthesis tend to be stoichiometric and display large and sharp heat capacity anomalies at relatively high temperatures, TC˜0.26 K. We have carried out neutron elastic and inelastic measurements on well characterized and equilibrated stoichiometric powder samples of Yb2Ti2O7 which show resolution-limited Bragg peaks to appear at low temperatures, but whose onset correlates with temperatures much higher than TC. The corresponding magnetic structure is best described as an icelike splayed ferromagnet. The spin dynamics in Yb2Ti2O7 are shown to be gapless on an energy scale <0.09 meV at all temperatures and organized into a continuum of scattering with vestiges of highly overdamped ferromagnetic spin waves present. These excitations differ greatly from conventional spin waves predicted for Yb2Ti2O7 's mean field ordered state, but appear robust to weak disorder as they are largely consistent with those displayed by nonstoichiometric crushed single crystals and single crystals, as well as by powder samples of Yb2Ti2O7 's sister quantum magnet Yb2Sn2O7 .
Gaudet, J.; Ross, K. A.; Kermarrec, E.; ...
2016-02-03
We know the ground state of the quantum spin ice candidate magnet Yb2Ti2O7 to be sensitive to weak disorder at the similar to 1% level which occurs in single crystals grown from the melt. Powders produced by solid state synthesis tend to be stoichiometric and display large and sharp heat capacity anomalies at relatively high temperatures, T-C similar to 0.26 K. We have carried out neutron elastic and inelastic measurements on well characterized and equilibrated stoichiometric powder samples of Yb2Ti2O7 which show resolution-limited Bragg peaks to appear at low temperatures, but whose onset correlates with temperatures much higher than T-C.more » The corresponding magnetic structure is best described as an icelike splayed ferromagnet. In the spin dynamics of Yb2Ti2O7 we see the gapless on an energy scale <0.09 meV at all temperatures and organized into a continuum of scattering with vestiges of highly overdamped ferromagnetic spin waves present. These excitations differ greatly from conventional spin waves predicted for Yb2Ti2O7's mean field ordered state, but appear robust to weak disorder as they are largely consistent with those displayed by nonstoichiometric crushed single crystals and single crystals, as well as by powder samples of Yb2Ti2O7's sister quantum magnet Yb2Ti2O7.« less
Anomalous Aharonov-Bohm conductance oscillations from topological insulator surface states.
Zhang, Yi; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2010-11-12
We study Aharonov-Bohm (AB) conductance oscillations arising from the surface states of a topological insulator nanowire, when a magnetic field is applied along its length. With strong surface disorder, these oscillations are predicted to have a component with anomalous period Φ(0)=hc/e, twice the conventional period. The conductance maxima are achieved at odd multiples of 1/2Φ(0), implying that a π AB phase for electrons strengthens the metallic nature of surface states. This effect is special to topological insulators, and serves as a defining transport property. A key ingredient, the surface curvature induced Berry phase, is emphasized here. We discuss similarities and differences from recent experiments on Bi2Se3 nanoribbons, and optimal conditions for observing this effect.
Tunneling Planar Hall Effect in Topological Insulators: Spin Valves and Amplifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scharf, Benedikt; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Žutić, Igor
2016-10-01
We investigate tunneling across a single ferromagnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. In the presence of a magnetization component along the bias direction, a tunneling planar Hall conductance (TPHC), transverse to the applied bias, develops. Electrostatic control of the barrier enables a giant Hall angle, with the TPHC exceeding the longitudinal tunneling conductance. By changing the in-plane magnetization direction, it is possible to change the sign of both the longitudinal and transverse differential conductance without opening a gap in the topological surface state. The transport in a topological-insulator-ferromagnet junction can, thus, be drastically altered from a simple spin valve to an amplifier.
Tunneling Planar Hall Effect in Topological Insulators: Spin Valves and Amplifiers.
Scharf, Benedikt; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Han, Jong E; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M; Žutić, Igor
2016-10-14
We investigate tunneling across a single ferromagnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. In the presence of a magnetization component along the bias direction, a tunneling planar Hall conductance (TPHC), transverse to the applied bias, develops. Electrostatic control of the barrier enables a giant Hall angle, with the TPHC exceeding the longitudinal tunneling conductance. By changing the in-plane magnetization direction, it is possible to change the sign of both the longitudinal and transverse differential conductance without opening a gap in the topological surface state. The transport in a topological-insulator-ferromagnet junction can, thus, be drastically altered from a simple spin valve to an amplifier.
The electrical behavior of GaAs-insulator interfaces - A discrete energy interface state model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kazior, T. E.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.
1983-01-01
The relationship between the electrical behavior of GaAs Metal Insulator Semiconductor (MIS) structures and the high density discrete energy interface states (0.7 and 0.9 eV below the conduction band) was investigated utilizing photo- and thermal emission from the interface states in conjunction with capacitance measurements. It was found that all essential features of the anomalous behavior of GaAs MIS structures, such as the frequency dispersion and the C-V hysteresis, can be explained on the basis of nonequilibrium charging and discharging of the high density discrete energy interface states.
Chen, Chaoyu; He, Shaolong; Weng, Hongming; Zhang, Wentao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Haiyun; Jia, Xiaowen; Mou, Daixiang; Liu, Shanyu; He, Junfeng; Peng, Yingying; Feng, Ya; Xie, Zhuojin; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaoyang; Peng, Qinjun; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Shenjin; Yang, Feng; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhou, X J
2012-03-06
The physical property investigation (like transport measurements) and ultimate application of the topological insulators usually involve surfaces that are exposed to ambient environment (1 atm and room temperature). One critical issue is how the topological surface state will behave under such ambient conditions. We report high resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements to directly probe the surface state of the prototypical topological insulators, Bi(2)Se(3) and Bi(2)Te(3), upon exposing to various environments. We find that the topological order is robust even when the surface is exposed to air at room temperature. However, the surface state is strongly modified after such an exposure. Particularly, we have observed the formation of two-dimensional quantum well states near the exposed surface of the topological insulators. These findings provide key information in understanding the surface properties of the topological insulators under ambient environment and in engineering the topological surface state for applications.
Zeljkovic, Ilija; Walkup, Daniel; Assaf, Badih A; Scipioni, Kane L; Sankar, R; Chou, Fangcheng; Madhavan, Vidya
2015-10-01
The unique crystalline protection of the surface states in topological crystalline insulators has led to a series of predictions of strain-generated phenomena, from the appearance of pseudo-magnetic fields and helical flat bands to the tunability of Dirac surface states by strain that may be used to construct 'straintronic' nanoswitches. However, the practical realization of this exotic phenomenology via strain engineering is experimentally challenging and is yet to be achieved. Here, we have designed an experiment to not only generate and measure strain locally, but also to directly measure the resulting effects on Dirac surface states. We grew heteroepitaxial thin films of topological crystalline insulator SnTe in situ and measured them using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy to determine picoscale changes in the atomic positions, which reveal regions of both tensile and compressive strain. Simultaneous Fourier-transform scanning tunnelling spectroscopy was then used to determine the effects of strain on the Dirac electrons. We find that strain continuously tunes the momentum space position of the Dirac points, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our work demonstrates the fundamental mechanism necessary for using topological crystalline insulators in strain-based applications.
Spin-patterned plasmonics: towards optical access to topological-insulator surface states.
Spektor, Grisha; David, Asaf; Bartal, Guy; Orenstein, Meir; Hayat, Alex
2015-12-14
Topological insulators (TI) are new phases of matter with topologically protected surface states (SS) possessing novel physical properties such as spin-momentum locking. Coupling optical angular momentum to the SS is of interest for both fundamental understanding and applications in future spintronic devices. However, due to the nanoscale thickness of the surface states, the light matter interaction is dominated by the bulk. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic cavity enabling both nanoscale light confinement and control of surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) spin angular momentum (AM)--towards coupling to topological-insulator SS. The resulting SPP field components within the cavity are arranged in a chess-board-like pattern. Each chess-board square exhibits approximately a uniform circular polarization (spin AM) of the local in-plane field interleaved by out-of-plane field vortices (orbital AM). As the first step, we demonstrate the predicted pattern experimentally by near-field measurements on a gold-air interface, with excellent agreement to our theory. Our results pave the way towards efficient optical access to topological-insulator surface states using plasmonics.
Insulating state in tetralayers reveals an even-odd interaction effect in multilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grushina, Anya L.; Ki, Dong-Keun; Koshino, Mikito; Nicolet, Aurelien A. L.; Faugeras, Clément; McCann, Edward; Potemski, Marek; Morpurgo, Alberto F.
2015-03-01
Close to charge neutrality, the electronic properties of graphene and its multilayers are sensitive to electron-electron interactions. In bilayers, for instance, interactions are predicted to open a gap between valence and conduction bands, turning the system into an insulator. In mono and (Bernal-stacked) trilayers, which remain conducting at low temperature, interactions do not have equally drastic consequences. It is expected that interaction effects become weaker for thicker multilayers, whose behaviour should converge to that of graphite. Here we show that this expectation does not correspond to reality by revealing the occurrence of an insulating state close to charge neutrality in Bernal-stacked tetralayer graphene. The phenomenology—incompatible with the behaviour expected from the single-particle band structure—resembles that observed in bilayers, but the insulating state in tetralayers is visible at higher temperature. We explain our findings, and the systematic even-odd effect of interactions in Bernal-stacked layers of different thickness that emerges from experiments, in terms of a generalization of the interaction-driven, symmetry-broken states proposed for bilayers.
Dirac cones in the gapless interface states between two topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Ryuji; Murakami, Shuichi
2012-02-01
When two topological insulators are attached together, the states on the interface become gapped due to the hybridization between the surface states. We have shown that if the two topological insulators have the opposite signs for the Dirac velocities, there exist gapless interface states [1]. In the last March meeting we showed a general proof for the existence of the gapless states using the mirror Chern number, which fixes the chirality of the surface states. In this presentation, we report the dispersions of these gapless interface states. They are in general a collection of Dirac cones. For example, if the system has threefold rotational symmetry, the interface states have six Dirac cones. By using the Fu-Kane-Mele model, which is the tight-binding model on the diamond lattice with the spin-orbit interaction, we calculate the dispersion of this gapless interface states, and discuss the relationship with the mirror Chern number.[4pt] [1] R. Takahashi, S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107,166805 (2011).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Y.; Zhou, C.; Sun, L.; Chui, S. T.; Wu, Y. Z.
2016-11-01
Magnetization excitation in micron sized FeNi disks with different diameters is studied by broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement. Except the main FMR peak, additional adsorption peaks with lower energies are observed. Both micromagnetic simulation and quantum spin wave calculation confirm that the low-energy excitation states are attributed to backward volume magnetostatic (BVM) spin waves. The size dependence of the low-energy states is systematically studied in 50-nm-thick Py disks with diameters larger than 500 nm, and the linewidth of the first BVM state is found to be obviously smaller than that of the FMR absorption peak. Through a quantitative comparison with experimental results, the quantum spin wave calculation is proven to be a reliable method to get the susceptibility and is much faster than the classical micromagnetic simulations.
A Langmuir Blodgett film presenting a ferromagnetic state below 25 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lafuente, C.; Mingotaud, C.; Delhaes, P.
1999-03-01
A positively charged monolayer spread on a sub-phase containing copper hexacyanoferrate leads to hybrid inorganic-organic LB films. Those multilayers present a spin ordering below 25 K. The Curie temperature of the LB films is found to be independent of the multilayer thickness. Their magnetization is clearly proportional to the number of transferred layers, demonstrating that the deposition process is perfectly regular. These results show that a bulk ferromagnetic behavior can be observed in this hybrid material, even if the distance between magnetic layers is considered as large.
Thermodynamically self-consistent non-stochastic micromagnetic model for the ferromagnetic state
Dvornik, Mykola Vansteenkiste, Arne; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel
2014-10-20
In this work, a self-consistent thermodynamic approach to micromagnetism is presented. The magnetic degrees of freedom are modeled using the Landau-Lifshitz-Baryakhtar theory, which separates the different contributions to the magnetic damping, and thereby allows them to be coupled to the electron and phonon systems in a self-consistent way. We show that this model can quantitatively reproduce ultrafast magnetization dynamics in Nickel suggesting that in ferromagnetic metals the ultrafast angular momentum transfer happens via the relativistic spin-electron scattering.
Direct observation of spin-resolved full and empty electron states in ferromagnetic surfaces
Berti, G. Calloni, A.; Brambilla, A.; Bussetti, G.; Duò, L.; Ciccacci, F.
2014-07-15
We present a versatile apparatus for the study of ferromagnetic surfaces, which combines spin-polarized photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopies. Samples can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy and analyzed in situ. Spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy analysis is done with a hemispherical electron analyzer coupled to a 25 kV-Mott detector. Inverse photoemission spectroscopy experiments are performed with GaAs crystals as spin-polarized electron sources and a UV bandpass photon detector. As an example, measurements on the oxygen passivated Fe(100)-p(1×1)O surface are presented.
Surface states in a 3D topological insulator: The role of hexagonal warping and curvature
Repin, E. V.; Burmistrov, I. S.
2015-09-15
We explore a combined effect of hexagonal warping and a finite effective mass on both the tunneling density of electronic surface states and the structure of Landau levels of 3D topological insulators. We find the increasing warping to transform the square-root van Hove singularity into a logarithmic one. For moderate warping, an additional logarithmic singularity and a jump in the tunneling density of surface states appear. By combining the perturbation theory and the WKB approximation, we calculate the Landau levels in the presence of hexagonal warping. We predict that due to the degeneracy removal, the evolution of Landau levels in the magnetic field is drastically modified.
Glaser, Thorsten; Heidemeier, Maik; Grimme, Stefan; Bill, Eckhard
2004-08-23
The trinuclear Cu(II) complex [(talen)Cu(II)(3)] (1) using the new triplesalen ligand H(6)talen has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The three Cu(II) ions are bridged in a m-phenylene linkage by the phloroglucinol backbone of the ligand. This m-phenylene bridging mode results in ferromagnetic couplings with an S(t) = (3)/(2) spin ground state, which has been analyzed by means of EPR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The EPR spectrum exhibits an unprecedented pattern of 10 hyperfine lines due to the coupling of three Cu(II) ions (I = (3)/(2)). Resonances around g = 4 in both perpendicular and parallel mode EPR spectra demonstrate a zero-field splitting of D approximately 74 x 10(-4) cm(-1) arising from anisotropic/antisymmetric exchange interactions. The DFT calculations show an alteration in the sign of the spin densities of the central benzene ring corroborating the spin-polarization mechanism as origin for the ferromagnetic coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callewaert, Vincent; Shastry, K.; Saniz, Rolando; Makkonen, Ilja; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Assaf, Badih A.; Heiman, Donald; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Partoens, Bart; Bansil, Arun; Weiss, A. H.
2016-09-01
Topological insulators are attracting considerable interest due to their potential for technological applications and as platforms for exploring wide-ranging fundamental science questions. In order to exploit, fine-tune, control, and manipulate the topological surface states, spectroscopic tools which can effectively probe their properties are of key importance. Here, we demonstrate that positrons provide a sensitive probe for topological states and that the associated annihilation spectrum provides a technique for characterizing these states. Firm experimental evidence for the existence of a positron surface state near Bi2Te2Se with a binding energy of Eb=2.7 ±0.2 eV is presented and is confirmed by first-principles calculations. Additionally, the simulations predict a significant signal originating from annihilation with the topological surface states and show the feasibility to detect their spin texture through the use of spin-polarized positron beams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakane, R.; Sugahara, S.; Tanaka, M.
2015-04-01
We systematically investigate the structural and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic Fe1-xSix (0.18 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) films formed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates. During RTA of an Fe film deposited on a SOI substrate (consisting of a top Si layer, a buried oxide SiO2 layer, and a Si substrate), an Fe1-xSix film is synthesized by the thermal reaction of the deposited Fe film and the top Si layer, but the reaction is limited by the buried oxide layer in the SOI substrate, thus the Si concentration x in Fe1-xSix can be controlled by both the initial thicknesses of the Fe film and the top Si layer. A variety of characteristics show that single-phase Fe1-xSix (x = 0.18, 0.22, and 0.25) films with D03 + B2 structure are successfully obtained by choosing the optimum annealing temperature and time. Furthermore, the ordering fraction of D03 and B2 structures in these films is found to be more than 87%, indicating that the crystalline quality of these films is comparable to that of bulk Fe1-xSix materials reported so far. On the other hand, it is found that the Fe1-xSix (x = 0.33) film has Fe3Si and FeSi phases as in the case of bulk Fe1-xSix with x = 0.33. The film production technique and the quality of the ferromagnetic Fe1-xSix presented in this study are very attractive and useful for silicon-based spintronic devices which are compatible with the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.
Ground state of underdoped cuprates in vicinity of superconductor-to-insulator transition
Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie; ...
2016-08-15
When an insulating underdoped cuprate is doped beyond a critical concentration (xc), high-temperature superconductivity emerges. We have synthesized a series of La2–xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) samples using the combinatorial spread technique that allows us to traverse the superconductor-to-insulator transition (SIT) in extremely fine doping steps, Δx≈0.00008. We have measured the Hall resistivity (ρH) as a function of temperature down to 300 mK in magnetic fields up to 9 T. At very low temperatures, ρH shows an erratic behavior, jumps and fluctuations exceeding 100%, hysteresis, and memory effects, indicating that the insulating ground state is a charge-cluster glass (CCG). Furthermore, based on themore » phase diagram depicted in our experiment, we propose a unified picture to account for the anomalous electric transport in the vicinity of the SIT, suggesting that the CCG is in fact a disordered and glassy version of the charge density wave.« less
Ground state of underdoped cuprates in vicinity of superconductor-to-insulator transition
Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan
2016-08-15
When an insulating underdoped cuprate is doped beyond a critical concentration (x_{c}), high-temperature superconductivity emerges. We have synthesized a series of La_{2–x}Sr_{x}CuO_{4} (LSCO) samples using the combinatorial spread technique that allows us to traverse the superconductor-to-insulator transition (SIT) in extremely fine doping steps, Δx≈0.00008. We have measured the Hall resistivity (ρ_{H}) as a function of temperature down to 300 mK in magnetic fields up to 9 T. At very low temperatures, ρ_{H} shows an erratic behavior, jumps and fluctuations exceeding 100%, hysteresis, and memory effects, indicating that the insulating ground state is a charge-cluster glass (CCG). Furthermore, based on the phase diagram depicted in our experiment, we propose a unified picture to account for the anomalous electric transport in the vicinity of the SIT, suggesting that the CCG is in fact a disordered and glassy version of the charge density wave.
Dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors: Physics and spintronic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietl, Tomasz; Ohno, Hideo
2014-01-01
This review compiles results of experimental and theoretical studies on thin films and quantum structures of semiconductors with randomly distributed Mn ions, which exhibit spintronic functionalities associated with collective ferromagnetic spin ordering. Properties of p-type Mn-containing III-V as well as II-VI, IV-VI, V2-VI3, I-II-V, and elemental group IV semiconductors are described, paying particular attention to the most thoroughly investigated system (Ga,Mn)As that supports the hole-mediated ferromagnetic order up to 190 K for the net concentration of Mn spins below 10%. Multilayer structures showing efficient spin injection and spin-related magnetotransport properties as well as enabling magnetization manipulation by strain, light, electric fields, and spin currents are presented together with their impact on metal spintronics. The challenging interplay between magnetic and electronic properties in topologically trivial and nontrivial systems is described, emphasizing the entangled roles of disorder and correlation at the carrier localization boundary. Finally, the case of dilute magnetic insulators is considered, such as (Ga,Mn)N, where low-temperature spin ordering is driven by short-ranged superexchange that is ferromagnetic for certain charge states of magnetic impurities.
Magnetic gating of a 2D topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J. D.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.
2016-09-01
Deterministic control of transport properties through manipulation of spin states is one of the paradigms of spintronics. Topological insulators offer a new playground for exploring interesting spin-dependent phenomena. Here, we consider a ferromagnetic ‘gate’ representing a magnetic adatom coupled to the topologically protected edge state of a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator to modulate the electron transmission of the edge state. Due to the locked spin and wave vector of the transport electrons the transmission across the magnetic gate depends on the mutual orientation of the adatom magnetic moment and the current. If the Fermi energy matches an exchange-split bound state of the adatom, the electron transmission can be blocked due to the full back scattering of the incident wave. This antiresonance behavior is controlled by the adatom magnetic moment orientation so that the transmission of the edge state can be changed from 1 to 0. Expanding this consideration to a ferromagnetic gate representing a 1D chain of atoms shows a possibility to control the spin-dependent current of a strip of a 2D topological insulator by magnetization orientation of the ferromagnetic gate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhari, Tarun; Deo, Nivedita
2017-01-01
A superconductor-topological insulator-superconductor (S/TI/S) junction having normal region at angle θ is studied theoretically to investigate the junction angle dependency of the Andreev reflection and the formation of the Andreev bound states in the step and planar S/TI/S structures. It is found that the Andreev reflection becomes θ dependent only in the presence of the potential barrier at the TI/S interface. In particular, the step and planar TI/S junction have totally different conductive behavior with bias voltage and potential barrier in the regime of retro and specular Andreev reflection. Interestingly, we find that the elliptical cross section of Dirac cone, an important feature of topological insulator with step surface defect, affects the Fabry-Perot resonance of the Andreev reflection induced Andreev bound states (which become Majorana zero energy states at low chemical potential) in the step S/TI/S structure. Unlike the usual planar S/TI/S structures, we find these ellipticity affected Andreev bound states lead to non-monotonic Josephson super-current in the step S/TI/S structure whose non-monotonicity can be controlled with the use of the potential barrier, which may find applications in nanoelectronics.
Multiple Coexisting Dirac Surface States in Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator PbBi₆Te₁₀.
Papagno, Marco; Eremeev, Sergey V; Fujii, Jun; Aliev, Ziya S; Babanly, Mahammad B; Mahatha, Sanjoy Kr; Vobornik, Ivana; Mamedov, Nazim T; Pacilé, Daniela; Chulkov, Evgueni V
2016-03-22
By means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements, we unveil the electronic band structure of three-dimensional PbBi6Te10 topological insulator. ARPES investigations evidence multiple coexisting Dirac surface states at the zone-center of the reciprocal space, displaying distinct electronic band dispersion, different constant energy contours, and Dirac point energies. We also provide evidence of Rashba-like split states close to the Fermi level, and deeper M- and V-shaped bands coexisting with the topological surface states. The experimental findings are in agreement with scanning tunneling microscopy measurements revealing different surface terminations according to the crystal structure of PbBi6Te10. Our experimental results are supported by density functional theory calculations predicting multiple topological surface states according to different surface cleavage planes.
Exotic topological states near a quantum metal-insulator transition in pyrochlore iridates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Zhaoming
Pyrochlore iridates have attracted great interest as prime candidates that may host topologically nontrivial states, spin ice ordering and quantum spin liquid states, in particular through the interplay between different degrees of freedom, such as local moments and mobile electrons. Based on our extensive study using our high quality single crystals, we will discuss such examples, i.e. chiral spin liquid in a quadratic band touching state, Weyl semimetallic state and chiral domain wall transport nearby a quantum insulator-semimetal transition in pyrochlore iridates. This work is based on the collaboration with Nakatsuji Satoru, Kohama Yoshimitsu, Tomita Takahiro, Kindo Koichi, Jun J. Ishikawa, Balents Leon, Ishizuka Hiroaki, Timothy H. Hsieh. ZM. Tian was supported by JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship (No.P1402).
A strong ferroelectric ferromagnet created by means of spin-lattice coupling.
Lee, June Hyuk; Fang, Lei; Vlahos, Eftihia; Ke, Xianglin; Jung, Young Woo; Kourkoutis, Lena Fitting; Kim, Jong-Woo; Ryan, Philip J; Heeg, Tassilo; Roeckerath, Martin; Goian, Veronica; Bernhagen, Margitta; Uecker, Reinhard; Hammel, P Chris; Rabe, Karin M; Kamba, Stanislav; Schubert, Jürgen; Freeland, John W; Muller, David A; Fennie, Craig J; Schiffer, Peter; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Schlom, Darrell G
2010-08-19
Ferroelectric ferromagnets are exceedingly rare, fundamentally interesting multiferroic materials that could give rise to new technologies in which the low power and high speed of field-effect electronics are combined with the permanence and routability of voltage-controlled ferromagnetism. Furthermore, the properties of the few compounds that simultaneously exhibit these phenomena are insignificant in comparison with those of useful ferroelectrics or ferromagnets: their spontaneous polarizations or magnetizations are smaller by a factor of 1,000 or more. The same holds for magnetic- or electric-field-induced multiferroics. Owing to the weak properties of single-phase multiferroics, composite and multilayer approaches involving strain-coupled piezoelectric and magnetostrictive components are the closest to application today. Recently, however, a new route to ferroelectric ferromagnets was proposed by which magnetically ordered insulators that are neither ferroelectric nor ferromagnetic are transformed into ferroelectric ferromagnets using a single control parameter, strain. The system targeted, EuTiO(3), was predicted to exhibit strong ferromagnetism (spontaneous magnetization, approximately 7 Bohr magnetons per Eu) and strong ferroelectricity (spontaneous polarization, approximately 10 microC cm(-2)) simultaneously under large biaxial compressive strain. These values are orders of magnitude higher than those of any known ferroelectric ferromagnet and rival the best materials that are solely ferroelectric or ferromagnetic. Hindered by the absence of an appropriate substrate to provide the desired compression we turned to tensile strain. Here we show both experimentally and theoretically the emergence of a multiferroic state under biaxial tension with the unexpected benefit that even lower strains are required, thereby allowing thicker high-quality crystalline films. This realization of a strong ferromagnetic ferroelectric points the way to high
A strong ferroelectric ferromagnet created by means of spin-lattice coupling.
Lee, J. H.; Fang, L.; Vlahos, E.; Ke, X.; Jung, Y.W.; Fitting Kourkaoutis, L.; Kim, J. W.; Ryan, P.; Heeg, T.; Roeckerath, M.; Goian, V.; Bernhagen, M.; Uecker, R.; Hammel, P.C.; Rabe, K. M.; Kamba, S.; Schubert, J.; Freeland, J.W.; Muller, D.A.; Fennie, C.J.; Schiffer, P.; Gopalan, V.; Johnston-Halperin, E.; Schlom, D. G.
2010-08-19
Ferroelectric ferromagnets are exceedingly rare, fundamentally interesting multiferroic materials that could give rise to new technologies in which the low power and high speed of field-effect electronics are combined with the permanence and routability of voltage-controlled ferromagnetism. Furthermore, the properties of the few compounds that simultaneously exhibit these phenomena are insignificant in comparison with those of useful ferroelectrics or ferromagnets: their spontaneous polarizations or magnetizations are smaller by a factor of 1,000 or more. The same holds for magnetic- or electric-field-induced multiferroics. Owing to the weak properties of single-phase multiferroics, composite and multilayer approaches involving strain-coupled piezoelectric and magnetostrictive components are the closest to application today. Recently, however, a new route to ferroelectric ferromagnets was proposed by which magnetically ordered insulators that are neither ferroelectric nor ferromagnetic are transformed into ferroelectric ferromagnets using a single control parameter, strain. The system targeted, EuTiO{sub 3}, was predicted to exhibit strong ferromagnetism (spontaneous magnetization, {approx}7 Bohr magnetons per Eu) and strong ferroelectricity (spontaneous polarization, {approx}10 {micro}C cm{sup -2}) simultaneously under large biaxial compressive strain. These values are orders of magnitude higher than those of any known ferroelectric ferromagnet and rival the best materials that are solely ferroelectric or ferromagnetic. Hindered by the absence of an appropriate substrate to provide the desired compression we turned to tensile strain. Here we show both experimentally and theoretically the emergence of a multiferroic state under biaxial tension with the unexpected benefit that even lower strains are required, thereby allowing thicker high-quality crystalline films. This realization of a strong ferromagnetic ferroelectric points the way to high
Barraud, Clément; Bouzehouane, Karim; Deranlot, Cyrile; Fusil, Stéphane; Jabbar, Hashim; Arabski, Jacek; Rakshit, Rajib; Kim, Dong-Jik; Kieber, Christophe; Boukari, Samy; Bowen, Martin; Beaurepaire, Eric; Seneor, Pierre; Mattana, Richard; Petroff, Frédéric
2015-05-22
Organic or molecular spintronics is a rising field of research at the frontier between condensed matter physics and chemistry. It aims to mix spin physics and the richness of chemistry towards designing new properties for spin electronics devices through engineering at the molecular scale. Beyond the expectation of a long spin lifetime, molecules can be also used to tailor the spin polarization of the injected current through the spin-dependent hybridization between molecules and ferromagnetic electrodes. In this Letter, we provide direct evidence of a hybrid interface spin polarization reversal due to the differing hybridization between phthalocyanine molecules and each cobalt electrode in Co/CoPc/Co magnetic tunnel junctions. Tunnel magnetoresistance and anisotropic tunnel magnetoresistance experiments show that interfacial hybridized electronic states have a unidirectional anisotropy that can be controlled by an electric field and that spin hybridization at the bottom and top interfaces differ, leading to an inverse tunnel magnetoresistance.
Surface state dominated transport in topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires
Hamdou, Bacel Gooth, Johannes; Dorn, August; Nielsch, Kornelius; Pippel, Eckhard
2013-11-04
We report on low temperature magnetoresistance measurements on single-crystalline Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires synthesized via catalytic growth and post-annealing in a Te-rich atmosphere. The observation of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations indicates the presence of topological surface states. Analyses of Subnikov-de Haas oscillations in perpendicular magnetoresistance yield extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentrations and effective electron masses, and very high carrier mobilities. All our findings are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions of massless Dirac fermions at the surfaces of topological insulators.
Large Fermi Surface of Heavy Electrons at the Border of Mott Insulating State in NiS2
Friedemann, S.; Chang, H.; Gamża, M. B.; ...
2016-05-12
One early triumph of quantum physics is the explanation why some materials are metallic whereas others are insulating. While a treatment based on single electron states is correct for most materials this approach can fail spectacularly, when the electrostatic repulsion between electrons causes strong correlations. Not only can these favor new and subtle forms of matter, such as magnetism or superconductivity, they can even cause the electrons in a half-filled energy band to lock into position, producing a correlated, or Mott insulator. The transition into the Mott insulating state raises important fundamental questions. Foremost among these is the fate ofmore » the electronic Fermi surface and the associated charge carrier mass, as the Mott transition is approached. We report the first direct observation of the Fermi surface on the metallic side of a Mott insulating transition by high pressure quantum oscillatory measurements in NiS2. We find our results point at a large Fermi surface consistent with Luttinger's theorem and a strongly enhanced quasiparticle effective mass. These two findings are in line with central tenets of the Brinkman-Rice picture of the correlated metal near the Mott insulating state and rule out alternative scenarios in which the carrier concentration vanishes continuously at the metal-insulator transition.« less
Large Fermi Surface of Heavy Electrons at the Border of Mott Insulating State in NiS2
Friedemann, S.; Chang, H.; Gamża, M. B.; Reiss, P.; Chen, X.; Alireza, P.; Coniglio, W. A.; Graf, D.; Tozer, S.; Grosche, F. M.
2016-01-01
One early triumph of quantum physics is the explanation why some materials are metallic whereas others are insulating. While a treatment based on single electron states is correct for most materials this approach can fail spectacularly, when the electrostatic repulsion between electrons causes strong correlations. Not only can these favor new and subtle forms of matter, such as magnetism or superconductivity, they can even cause the electrons in a half-filled energy band to lock into position, producing a correlated, or Mott insulator. The transition into the Mott insulating state raises important fundamental questions. Foremost among these is the fate of the electronic Fermi surface and the associated charge carrier mass, as the Mott transition is approached. We report the first direct observation of the Fermi surface on the metallic side of a Mott insulating transition by high pressure quantum oscillatory measurements in NiS2. Our results point at a large Fermi surface consistent with Luttinger’s theorem and a strongly enhanced quasiparticle effective mass. These two findings are in line with central tenets of the Brinkman-Rice picture of the correlated metal near the Mott insulating state and rule out alternative scenarios in which the carrier concentration vanishes continuously at the metal-insulator transition. PMID:27174799
Large Fermi Surface of Heavy Electrons at the Border of Mott Insulating State in NiS_{2}
Friedemann, S.; Chang, H.; Gamża, M. B.; Reiss, P.; Chen, X.; Alireza, P.; Coniglio, W. A.; Graf, D.; Tozer, S.; Grosche, F. M.
2016-05-12
One early triumph of quantum physics is the explanation why some materials are metallic whereas others are insulating. While a treatment based on single electron states is correct for most materials this approach can fail spectacularly, when the electrostatic repulsion between electrons causes strong correlations. Not only can these favor new and subtle forms of matter, such as magnetism or superconductivity, they can even cause the electrons in a half-filled energy band to lock into position, producing a correlated, or Mott insulator. The transition into the Mott insulating state raises important fundamental questions. Foremost among these is the fate of the electronic Fermi surface and the associated charge carrier mass, as the Mott transition is approached. We report the first direct observation of the Fermi surface on the metallic side of a Mott insulating transition by high pressure quantum oscillatory measurements in NiS_{2}. We find our results point at a large Fermi surface consistent with Luttinger's theorem and a strongly enhanced quasiparticle effective mass. These two findings are in line with central tenets of the Brinkman-Rice picture of the correlated metal near the Mott insulating state and rule out alternative scenarios in which the carrier concentration vanishes continuously at the metal-insulator transition.
Vicente, R; El Fallah, M S; Casanovas, B; Font-Bardia, M; Escuer, A
2016-06-20
One new Mn(II)2Mn(III)6 cluster exhibiting an S = 17 spin ground state and single-molecule-magnet properties has been designed linking Mn(III)3-salicylaldoximate triangles and tetracoordinated Mn(II) cations by means of end-on azido bridges. The ferromagnetic coupling has been rationalized as a function of their structural parameters.
Scaffold State Switching Amplifies, Accelerates, and Insulates Protein Kinase C Signaling*
Greenwald, Eric C.; Redden, John M.; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly L.; Saucerman, Jeffrey J.
2014-01-01
Scaffold proteins localize two or more signaling enzymes in close proximity to their downstream effectors. A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are a canonical family of scaffold proteins known to bind protein kinase A (PKA) and other enzymes. Several AKAPs have been shown to accelerate, amplify, and specify signal transduction to dynamically regulate numerous cellular processes. However, there is little theory available to mechanistically explain how signaling on protein scaffolds differs from solution biochemistry. In our present study, we propose a novel kinetic mechanism for enzymatic reactions on protein scaffolds to explain these phenomena, wherein the enzyme-substrate-scaffold complex undergoes stochastic state switching to reach an active state. This model predicted anchored enzymatic reactions to be accelerated, amplified, and insulated from inhibition compared with those occurring in solution. We exploited a direct interaction between protein kinase C (PKC) and AKAP7α as a model to validate these predictions experimentally. Using a genetically encoded PKC activity reporter, we found that both the strength and speed of substrate phosphorylation were enhanced by AKAP7α. PKC tethered to AKAP7α was less susceptible to inhibition from the ATP-competitive inhibitor Gö6976 and the substrate-competitive inhibitor PKC 20-28, but not the activation-competitive inhibitor calphostin C. Model predictions and experimental validation demonstrated that insulation is a general property of scaffold tethering. Sensitivity analysis indicated that these findings may be applicable to many other scaffolds as well. Collectively, our findings provide theoretical and experimental evidence that scaffold proteins can amplify, accelerate, and insulate signal transduction. PMID:24302730
Nontrivial surface state transport in Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Haiyang; Zhang, Kang; Wei, Zhongxia; Wang, Jue; Han, Min; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Baigeng; Zhang, Rong
2017-01-01
Topological insulator nanostructures have the larger surface-to-volume ratios than the bulk materials, which enhances the surface state contribution to the electrical transport. Here, we report on the single-crystalline Bi2Se3 narrow nanoribbons synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition method. The surface state induced Aharonov-Bohm effect was observed in the parallel magnetic field. The weak antilocalization (WAL) at various temperatures can be well fitted by the 1D localization theory, and the fitting coherence length is larger than the cross section size of the nanoribbon. The amplitude of WAL after subtracting the bulk background is only dependent on the vertical component of the magnetic field at various angles, revealing the surface nature of WAL. All these signatures indicate the nontrivial surface state transport in our Bi2Se3 narrow nanoribbons.
Kato, Shinya; Inaba, Kensuke; Sugawa, Seiji; Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Yamashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-04-20
A system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice has been regarded as an ideal quantum simulator for a Hubbard model with extremely high controllability of the system parameters. While making use of the controllability, a comprehensive measurement across the weakly to strongly interacting regimes in the Hubbard model to discuss the quantum many-body state is still limited. Here we observe a great change in the excitation energy spectra across the two regimes in an atomic Bose-Hubbard system by using a spectroscopic technique, which can resolve the site occupancy in the lattice. By quantitatively comparing the observed spectra and numerical simulations based on sum rule relations and a binary fluid treatment under a finite temperature Gutzwiller approximation, we show that the spectra reflect the coexistence of a delocalized superfluid state and a localized insulating state across the two regimes.
Kato, Shinya; Inaba, Kensuke; Sugawa, Seiji; Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Yamashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-01-01
A system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice has been regarded as an ideal quantum simulator for a Hubbard model with extremely high controllability of the system parameters. While making use of the controllability, a comprehensive measurement across the weakly to strongly interacting regimes in the Hubbard model to discuss the quantum many-body state is still limited. Here we observe a great change in the excitation energy spectra across the two regimes in an atomic Bose–Hubbard system by using a spectroscopic technique, which can resolve the site occupancy in the lattice. By quantitatively comparing the observed spectra and numerical simulations based on sum rule relations and a binary fluid treatment under a finite temperature Gutzwiller approximation, we show that the spectra reflect the coexistence of a delocalized superfluid state and a localized insulating state across the two regimes. PMID:27094083
Subpicosecond spin dynamics of excited states in the topological insulator Bi2Te3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez-Barriga, J.; Battiato, M.; Krivenkov, M.; Golias, E.; Varykhalov, A.; Romualdi, A.; Yashina, L. V.; Minár, J.; Kornilov, O.; Ebert, H.; Held, K.; Braun, J.
2017-03-01
Using time-, spin-, and angle-resolved photoemission, we investigate the ultrafast spin dynamics of hot electrons on the surface of the topological insulator Bi2Te3 following optical excitation by femtosecond-infrared pulses. We observe two surface-resonance states above the Fermi level coexisting with a transient population of Dirac fermions that relax in ˜2 ps. One state disperses up to ˜0.4 eV just above the bulk continuum, and the other one at ˜0.8 eV inside a projected bulk band gap. At the onset of the excitation, both states exhibit a reversed spin texture with respect to that of the transient Dirac bands, in agreement with our one-step photoemission calculations. Our data reveal that the high-energy state undergoes spin relaxation within ˜0.5 ps, a process that triggers the subsequent spin dynamics of both the Dirac cone and the low-energy state, which behave as two dynamically locked electron populations. We discuss the origin of this behavior by comparing the relaxation times observed for electrons with opposite spins to the ones obtained from a microscopic Boltzmann model of ultrafast band cooling introduced into the photoemission calculations. Our results demonstrate that the nonequilibrium surface dynamics is governed by electron-electron rather than electron-phonon scattering, with a characteristic time scale unambiguously determined by the complex spin texture of excited states above the Fermi level. Our findings reveal the critical importance of detecting momentum and energy-resolved spin textures with femtosecond resolution to fully understand the subpicosecond dynamics of transient electrons on the surface of topological insulators.
Topological spin texture in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator.
Wu, Jiansheng; Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiong-Jun
2014-09-26
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has been recently discovered in an experiment using a thin-film topological insulator with ferromagnetic ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. Here we investigate the spin degree of freedom of a QAH insulator and uncover the fundamental phenomenon that the edge states exhibit a topologically stable spin texture in the boundary when a chiral-like symmetry is present. This result shows that edge states are chiral in both the orbital and spin degrees of freedom, and the chiral edge spin texture corresponds to the bulk topological states of the QAH insulator. We also study the potential applications of the edge spin texture in designing topological-state-based spin devices, which might be applicable to future spintronic technologies.
Volume-wise destruction of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state through quantum tuning
Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Liu, Lian; Cheung, Sky C.; Guguchia, Zurab; Khasanov, Rustem; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Munsie, Timothy J. S.; Hallas, Alannah M.; Wilson, Murray N.; Cai, Yipeng; Luke, Graeme M.; Chen, Bijuan; Li, Wenmin; Jin, Changqing; Ding, Cui; Guo, Shengli; Ning, Fanlong; Ito, Takashi U.; Higemoto, Wataru; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Sakamoto, Shoya; Fujimori, Atsushi; Murakami, Taito; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Kotliar, Gabriel; Imada, Masatoshi; Uemura, Yasutomo J.
2016-01-01
RENiO3 (RE=rare-earth element) and V2O3 are archetypal Mott insulator systems. When tuned by chemical substitution (RENiO3) or pressure (V2O3), they exhibit a quantum phase transition (QPT) between an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state and a paramagnetic metallic state. Because novel physics often appears near a Mott QPT, the details of this transition, such as whether it is first or second order, are important. Here, we demonstrate through muon spin relaxation/rotation (μSR) experiments that the QPT in RENiO3 and V2O3 is first order: the magnetically ordered volume fraction decreases to zero at the QPT, resulting in a broad region of intrinsic phase separation, while the ordered magnetic moment retains its full value until it is suddenly destroyed at the QPT. These findings bring to light a surprising universality of the pressure-driven Mott transition, revealing the importance of phase separation and calling for further investigation into the nature of quantum fluctuations underlying the transition. PMID:27531192
Gapless Andreev bound states in the quantum spin Hall insulator HgTe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bocquillon, Erwann; Deacon, Russell S.; Wiedenmann, Jonas; Leubner, Philipp; Klapwijk, Teunis M.; Brüne, Christoph; Ishibashi, Koji; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.
2016-08-01
In recent years, Majorana physics has attracted considerable attention because of exotic new phenomena and its prospects for fault-tolerant topological quantum computation. To this end, one needs to engineer the interplay between superconductivity and electronic properties in a topological insulator, but experimental work remains scarce and ambiguous. Here, we report experimental evidence for topological superconductivity induced in a HgTe quantum well, a 2D topological insulator that exhibits the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect. The a.c. Josephson effect demonstrates that the supercurrent has a 4π periodicity in the superconducting phase difference, as indicated by a doubling of the voltage step for multiple Shapiro steps. In addition, this response like that of a superconducting quantum interference device to a perpendicular magnetic field shows that the 4π-periodic supercurrent originates from states located on the edges of the junction. Both features appear strongest towards the QSH regime, and thus provide evidence for induced topological superconductivity in the QSH edge states.
Volume-wise destruction of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state through quantum tuning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Liu, Lian; Cheung, Sky C.; Guguchia, Zurab; Khasanov, Rustem; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Munsie, Timothy J. S.; Hallas, Alannah M.; Wilson, Murray N.; Cai, Yipeng; Luke, Graeme M.; Chen, Bijuan; Li, Wenmin; Jin, Changqing; Ding, Cui; Guo, Shengli; Ning, Fanlong; Ito, Takashi U.; Higemoto, Wataru; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Sakamoto, Shoya; Fujimori, Atsushi; Murakami, Taito; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Kotliar, Gabriel; Imada, Masatoshi; Uemura, Yasutomo J.
2016-08-01
RENiO3 (RE=rare-earth element) and V2O3 are archetypal Mott insulator systems. When tuned by chemical substitution (RENiO3) or pressure (V2O3), they exhibit a quantum phase transition (QPT) between an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state and a paramagnetic metallic state. Because novel physics often appears near a Mott QPT, the details of this transition, such as whether it is first or second order, are important. Here, we demonstrate through muon spin relaxation/rotation (μSR) experiments that the QPT in RENiO3 and V2O3 is first order: the magnetically ordered volume fraction decreases to zero at the QPT, resulting in a broad region of intrinsic phase separation, while the ordered magnetic moment retains its full value until it is suddenly destroyed at the QPT. These findings bring to light a surprising universality of the pressure-driven Mott transition, revealing the importance of phase separation and calling for further investigation into the nature of quantum fluctuations underlying the transition.
Volume-wise destruction of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state through quantum tuning
B. A. Frandsen; Liu, L.; Cheung, S. C.; ...
2016-08-17
RENiO3 (RE=rare-earth element) and V2O3 are archetypal Mott insulator systems. When tuned by chemical substitution (RENiO3) or pressure (V2O3), they exhibit a quantum phase transition (QPT) between an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state and a paramagnetic metallic state. Because novel physics often appears near a Mott QPT, the details of this transition, such as whether it is first or second order, are important. Here, we demonstrate through muon spin relaxation/rotation (μSR) experiments that the QPT in RENiO3 and V2O3 is first order: the magnetically ordered volume fraction decreases to zero at the QPT, resulting in a broad region of intrinsic phasemore » separation, while the ordered magnetic moment retains its full value until it is suddenly destroyed at the QPT. These findings bring to light a surprising universality of the pressure-driven Mott transition, revealing the importance of phase separation and calling for further investigation into the nature of quantum fluctuations underlying the transition.« less
Volume-wise destruction of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state through quantum tuning
B. A. Frandsen; Liu, L.; Cheung, S. C.; Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Morenzoni, E.; Munsie, T. J.S.; Hallas, A. M.; Wilson, M. N.; Cai, Y.; Luke, G. M.; Chen, B.; Li, W.; Jin, C.; Ding, C; Guo, S.; Ning, F.; Ito, T. U.; Higemoto, W.; Billinge, S. J.L.; Sakamoto, S.; Fujimori, A.; Murakami, T.; Kageyama, H.; Alonso, J. A.; Kotliar, G.; Imada, M.; Uemura, Y. J.
2016-08-17
RENiO_{3} (RE=rare-earth element) and V_{2}O_{3} are archetypal Mott insulator systems. When tuned by chemical substitution (RENiO_{3}) or pressure (V_{2}O_{3}), they exhibit a quantum phase transition (QPT) between an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state and a paramagnetic metallic state. Because novel physics often appears near a Mott QPT, the details of this transition, such as whether it is first or second order, are important. Here, we demonstrate through muon spin relaxation/rotation (μSR) experiments that the QPT in RENiO_{3} and V_{2}O_{3} is first order: the magnetically ordered volume fraction decreases to zero at the QPT, resulting in a broad region of intrinsic phase separation, while the ordered magnetic moment retains its full value until it is suddenly destroyed at the QPT. These findings bring to light a surprising universality of the pressure-driven Mott transition, revealing the importance of phase separation and calling for further investigation into the nature of quantum fluctuations underlying the transition.
Scarpulla, M.A.; Stone, P.R.; Sharp, I.D.; Haller, E.E.; Dubon, O.D.; Beeman, J.W.; Yu, K.M.
2008-02-05
The electronic and magnetic effects of intentional compensation with non-magnetic donors are investigated in the ferromagnetic semiconductors Ga1-xMnxAs and Ga1-xMnxP synthesized using ion implantation and pulsed-laser melting (II-PLM). It is demonstrated that compensation with non-magnetic donors and MnI have similarqualitative effects on materials properties. With compensation TC decreases, resistivity increases, and stronger magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect attributed to skew scattering are observed. Ga1-xMnxAs can be controllably compensated with Te through a metal-insulator transition through which the magnetic and electrical properties vary continuously. The resistivity of insulating Ga1-xMnxAs:Te can be described by thermal activation to the mobility edge and simply-activated hopping transport. Ga1-xMnxP doped with S is insulating at all compositions but shows decreasing TC with compensation. The existence of a ferromagnetic insulating state in Ga1-xMnxAs:Te and Ga1-xMnxP:S having TCs of the same order as the uncompensated materials demonstrates that localized holes are effective at mediating ferromagnetism in ferromagnetic semiconductors through the percolation of ferromagnetic 'puddles' which at low temperatures.
Band structure and spin texture of Bi2Se3 3 d ferromagnetic metal interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jia; Velev, Julian P.; Dang, Xiaoqian; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.
2016-07-01
The spin-helical surface states in a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), such as Bi2Se3 , are predicted to have superior efficiency in converting charge current into spin polarization. This property is said to be responsible for the giant spin-orbit torques observed in ferromagnetic metal/TI structures. In this work, using first-principles and model tight-binding calculations, we investigate the interface between the topological insulator Bi2Se3 and 3 d -transition ferromagnetic metals Ni and Co. We find that the difference in the work functions of the topological insulator and the ferromagnetic metals shift the topological surface states down about 0.5 eV below the Fermi energy where the hybridization of these surface states with the metal bands destroys their helical spin structure. The band alignment of Bi2Se3 and Ni (Co) places the Fermi energy far in the conduction band of bulk Bi2Se3 , where the spin of the carriers is aligned with the magnetization in the metal. Our results indicate that the topological surface states are unlikely to be responsible for the huge spin-orbit torque effect observed experimentally in these systems.
Skyrmion-induced bound states on the surface of 3D Topological Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrikopoulos, Dimitrios; Soree, Bart
In this work, we study the interaction between the surface state of a 3D Topological Insulator and a skyrmion magnetic texture. The skyrmion texture couples to the spin of the surface state electron with strength ΔS. Vortex and hedgehog skyrmion and anti-skyrmion structures are considered and their interaction is compared. Due to the vortex structure, the interaction of the in-plane components can be neglected and a step function is used to describe the skyrmion magnetization profile. In the hedgehog case, it is shown that the in-plane components cannot be disregarded and thus a realistic description for the skyrmion is required. Working in the micromagnetic framework, we derive a macrospin description for the skyrmion using the variational principle and then numerically solve for the bound states. It is shown that the existense and properties of these states as a function of skyrmion size, strongly depend on the skyrmion type. Both vortex and hedgehog skyrmions or anti-skyrmions can induce bound states with energies | E | < ΔS . For the hedgehog skyrmion case however, bound state appearance depends on the chirality. Finally, the probability densities in these states are computed and it is demonstrated that the electrons are localized throughout the skyrmion region. Also affiliated with imec, Belgium.
Geometric Effect on Quantum Anomalous Hall State in Magnetic Topological Insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Yanxia
An intriguing observation on the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in a magnetic topological insulator (MTI) is the dissipative edge states. With the aid of non-equilibrium Green's functions,the QAH effect in an MTI with a three dimensional effective tight-binding model is studied.We predict that due to geometric structure in the third dimension z,the unideal contact between terminal leads and central scattering region induces the backscattering in the central Hall bar,as the function of split gates. Such backscattering leads to a nonzero longitudinal resistance and quantized Hall resistance, which would explain the dissipative edge states in experiments.A further numerical simulation prove above prediction as well.These results are rewarding on future experimental observations and transport calculations based on first principe.
Mapping the effect of defect-induced strain disorder on the Dirac states of topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Storz, Oliver; Cortijo, Alberto; Wilfert, Stefan; Kokh, K. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Vozmediano, María A. H.; Bode, Matthias; Guinea, Francisco; Sessi, Paolo
2016-09-01
We provide a detailed microscopic characterization of the influence of defect-induced disorder on the Dirac spectrum of three-dimensional topological insulators. By spatially resolved Landau-level spectroscopy measurements, we reveal the existence of nanoscale fluctuations of both the Dirac point energy as well as of the Dirac-fermion velocity which is found to spatially change in opposite direction for electrons and holes, respectively. These results evidence a scenario which goes beyond the existing picture based on chemical potential fluctuations. The findings are consistently explained by considering the microscopic effects of local stain introduced by defects, which our model calculations show to effectively couple to topological states, reshaping their Dirac-like dispersion over a large energy range. In particular, our results indicate that the presence of microscopic spatially varying stain, inevitably present in crystals because of the random distribution of defects, effectively couple to topological states and should be carefully considered for correctly describing the effects of disorder.
Z2 topology in nonsymmorphic crystalline insulators: Möbius twist in surface states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiozaki, Ken; Sato, Masatoshi; Gomi, Kiyonori
2015-04-01
It has been known that an antiunitary symmetry such as time-reversal or charge conjugation is needed to realize Z2 topological phases in noninteracting systems. Topological insulators and superconducting nanowires are representative examples of such Z2 topological matters. Here we report the Z2 topological phase protected by only unitary symmetries. We show that the presence of a nonsymmorphic space group symmetry opens a possibility to realize Z2 topological phases without assuming any antiunitary symmetry. The Z2 topological phases are constructed in various dimensions, which are closely related to each other by Hamiltonian mapping. In two and three dimensions, the Z2 phases have a surface consistent with the nonsymmorphic space group symmetry, and thus they support topological gapless surface states. Remarkably, the surface states have a unique energy dispersion with the Möbius twist, which identifies the Z2 phases experimentally. We also provide the relevant structure in the K theory.
Shift charge and spin photocurrents in Dirac surface states of topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kun Woo; Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto
2017-01-01
The generation of photocurrent in condensed matter is of main interest for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Shift current, a nonlinear photoresponse, has attracted recent intensive attention as a dominant player of bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials. In three-dimensional topological insulators Bi2X3 (X =Te , Se), we find that Dirac surface states with a hexagonal warping term support shift current by linearly polarized light. Moreover, we study "shift spin current" that arises in Dirac surface states by introducing time-reversal symmetry breaking perturbation. The estimate for the magnitudes of the shift charge and spin current densities are 0.13 I0 and 0.40 I0 (nA/m) for Bi2Te3 with the intensity of light I0 measured in (W/m2) , respectively, which can offer a useful method to generate these currents efficiently.
The surface-state of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 revealed by cyclotron resonance
Mcdonald, Ross D; Ayala - Valenzuela, Oscar E; Altarawneh, Moaz M; Analytis, James G
2011-01-14
Transport measurements of topological insulators are dominated by the conductivity of the bulk, leading to substantial difficulties in resolving the properties of the surface. To this end, we use high magnetic field, rf- and microwave-spectroscopy to selectively couple to the surface conductivity of Bi2Se3 at high frequency. In the frequency range of a few GHz we observe a crossover from quantum oscillations indicative of a small 3D Fermi surface, to cyclotron resonance indicative of a 2D surface state. By probing the conductivity at reduced skin depths, we have observed a 2D cyclotron resonance from a material whose bulk Fermi-surface is 3D. The frequency-magnetic field scaling of this resonance is inconsistent with the bulk effective mass, but more consistent with the dispersion and band filling of a Dirac-like surface state as observed by ARPES, with substantial manybody renormalization.
Nature of the insulating ground state of the 5d postperovskite CaIrO_{3}
Kim, Sun -Woo; Liu, Chen; Kim, Hyun -Jung; Lee, Jun -Ho; Yao, Yongxin; Ho, Kai -Ming; Cho, Jun -Hyung
2015-08-26
In this study, the insulating ground state of the 5d transition metal oxide CaIrO_{3} has been classified as a Mott-type insulator. Based on a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study with local, semilocal, and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, we reveal that the Ir t_{2g} states exhibit large splittings and one-dimensional electronic states along the c axis due to a tetragonal crystal field. Our hybrid DFT calculation adequately describes the antiferromagnetic (AFM) order along the c direction via a superexchange interaction between Ir^{4+} spins. Furthermore, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) hybridizes the t_{2g} states to open an insulating gap. These results indicate that CaIrO_{3} can be represented as a spin-orbit Slater insulator, driven by the interplay between a long-range AFM order and the SOC. Such a Slater mechanism for the gap formation is also demonstrated by the DFT + dynamical mean field theory calculation, where the metal-insulator transition and the paramagnetic to AFM phase transition are concomitant with each other.
Phase segregation of superconductivity and ferromagnetism at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface.
Mohanta, N; Taraphder, A
2014-01-15
The highly conductive two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface between insulating SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 shows low-temperature superconductivity coexisting with inhomogeneous ferromagnetism. The Rashba spin-orbit interaction with the in-plane Zeeman field of the system favors p(x) ± ip(y)-wave superconductivity at finite momentum. Owing to the intrinsic disorder at the interface, the role of spatial inhomogeneity in the superconducting and ferromagnetic states becomes important. We find that, for strong disorder, the system breaks up into mutually excluded regions of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. This inhomogeneity-driven electronic phase separation accounts for the unusual coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism observed at the interface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Li; Li, Zhi-Jian; Hou, Hai-Yan; Niu, Pengbin; Nie, Yi-Hang
2016-10-01
We theoretically analyze the thermoelectric properties of the single-spin state based on the resonant tunneling of electron in the ferromagnetic-normal junction with artificial magnetic impurities. The thermoelectric coefficients, such as electrical conductance G, thermal conductance K, thermopower S and effective figure of merit Y, have been calculated using the nonequilibrium Green function in the linear regime. It is found that the thermoelectric coefficients can achieve considerable values by adjusting key parameters of the hybrid mesoscopic structure, such as the level detuning, the interdot hopping coefficient, the external magnetic field and the angle θ. When the level detuning changes, the spectra of electrical conductance and thermal conductance exhibit the electronic Dicke-like effect in the low temperature. Two valleys of electrical conductance and thermal conductance are always located at the single-spin level of QD2 ({{\\varepsilon}2\\uparrow} and ~{{\\varepsilon}2\\downarrow} ), and can achieve the antiresonant point by adjusting the interdot hopping coefficient. Thermoelectric coefficients can achieve considerable values near valleys because the Wiedemann-Franz law is strongly violated. Thermopower S and effective figure of merit Y can get larger values in the vicinity of {{\\varepsilon}2\\uparrow} by adjusting key parameters of the hybrid mesoscopic structure, such as the level detuning, the interdot hopping coefficient and the polarization. But the thermoelectric effect is reversed by changing the angle θ. When the angle θ increases, S and Y are suppressed in the vicinity of {{\\varepsilon}2\\uparrow}, meanwhile, S and Y are enhanced in the vicinity of {{\\varepsilon}2\\downarrow}. {χ+}=\\cos \\fracθ{2}|\\uparrow >+\\sin \\fracθ{2}|\\downarrow > shows that an electron in the state {χ+} can virtually tunnel into the spin-up (or spin-down) state of the ferromagnet. The amplitude of electron tunneling is \\cos \\fracθ{2} (or \\sin \\fracθ{2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belovs, M.; Cěbers, A.
2009-05-01
The self-propelling motion of the flexible ferromagnetic swimmer is described. Necessary symmetry breaking is achieved by the buckling instability at field inversion. The characteristics of self-propulsion are in good agreement with the numerical calculations of the Floquet multipliers for the ferromagnetic filament under the action of ac magnetic field. In the low frequency range the power stroke of self-propelling motion is similar to that used by the unicellular green algae chlamydomonas and in the high frequency region the self-propulsion is due to the undulation waves propagating from the free ends perpendicularly to ac magnetic field.
Belovs, M; Cēbers, A
2009-05-01
The self-propelling motion of the flexible ferromagnetic swimmer is described. Necessary symmetry breaking is achieved by the buckling instability at field inversion. The characteristics of self-propulsion are in good agreement with the numerical calculations of the Floquet multipliers for the ferromagnetic filament under the action of ac magnetic field. In the low frequency range the power stroke of self-propelling motion is similar to that used by the unicellular green algae chlamydomonas and in the high frequency region the self-propulsion is due to the undulation waves propagating from the free ends perpendicularly to ac magnetic field.
Double perovskite heterostructures: magnetism, Chern bands, and Chern insulators.
Cook, Ashley M; Paramekanti, Arun
2014-08-15
Experiments demonstrating the controlled growth of oxide heterostructures have raised the prospect of realizing topologically nontrivial states of correlated electrons in low dimensions. Here, we study heterostructures consisting of {111} bilayers of double perovskites separated by inert band insulators. In bulk, these double perovskites have well-defined local moments interacting with itinerant electrons leading to high temperature ferromagnetism. Incorporating spin-orbit coupling in the two-dimensional honeycomb geometry of a {111} bilayer, we find a rich phase diagram with tunable ferromagnetic order, topological Chern bands, and a C=±2 Chern insulator regime. Our results are of broad relevance to oxide materials such as Sr_{2}FeMoO_{6}, Ba_{2}FeReO_{6}, and Sr_{2}CrWO_{6}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magarill, L. I.; Entin, M. V.
2016-12-01
The electron absorption and the edge photocurrent of a 2D topological insulator are studied for transitions between edge states to 2D states. The circular polarized light is found to produce the edge photocurrent, the direction of which is determined by light polarization and edge orientation. It is shown that the edge-state current is found to exceed the 2D current owing to the topological protection of the edge states.
Stationary states of extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borich, M. A.; Smagin, V. V.; Tankeev, A. P.
2007-02-01
Structure of nonlinear stationary states of the extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation (ENSE) with a source has been analyzed with allowance for both third-order and nonlinearity dispersion. A new class of particular solutions (solitary waves) of the ENSe has been obtained. The scenario of the destruction of these states under the effect of an external perturbation has been investigated analytically and numerically. The results obtained can be used to interpret experimental data on the weakly nonlinear dynamics of the magnetostatic envelope in heterophase ferromagnet-insulator-metal, metal-insulator-ferromagnet-insulator-metal, and other similar structures and upon the simulation of nonlinear processes in optical systems.
Koirala, Nikesh; Han, Myung -Geun; Brahlek, Matthew; Salehi, Maryam; Wu, Liang; Dai, Jixia; Waugh, Justin; Nummy, Thomas; Moon, Jisoo; Zhu, Yimei; Dessau, Daniel; Wu, Weida; Armitage, N. Peter; Oh, Seongshik
2015-11-19
Material defects remain as the main bottleneck to the progress of topological insulators (TIs). In particular, efforts to achieve thin TI samples with dominant surface transport have always led to increased defects and degraded mobilities, thus making it difficult to probe the quantum regime of the topological surface states. Here, by utilizing a novel buffer layer scheme composed of an In_{2}Se_{3}/(Bi_{0.5}In_{0.5})_{2}Se_{3} heterostructure, we introduce a quantum generation of Bi_{2}Se_{3} films with an order of magnitude enhanced mobilities than before. Furthermore, this scheme has led to the first observation of the quantum Hall effect in Bi_{2}Se_{3}.
Koirala, Nikesh; Han, Myung -Geun; Brahlek, Matthew; ...
2015-11-19
Material defects remain as the main bottleneck to the progress of topological insulators (TIs). In particular, efforts to achieve thin TI samples with dominant surface transport have always led to increased defects and degraded mobilities, thus making it difficult to probe the quantum regime of the topological surface states. Here, by utilizing a novel buffer layer scheme composed of an In2Se3/(Bi0.5In0.5)2Se3 heterostructure, we introduce a quantum generation of Bi2Se3 films with an order of magnitude enhanced mobilities than before. Furthermore, this scheme has led to the first observation of the quantum Hall effect in Bi2Se3.
Sum-Rule Constraints on the Surface State Conductance of Topological Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Post, K. W.; Chapler, B. C.; Liu, M. K.; Wu, J. S.; Stinson, H. T.; Goldflam, M. D.; Richardella, A. R.; Lee, J. S.; Reijnders, A. A.; Burch, K. S.; Fogler, M. M.; Samarth, N.; Basov, D. N.
2015-09-01
We report the Drude oscillator strength D and the magnitude of the bulk band gap Eg of the epitaxially grown, topological insulator (Bi ,Sb )2Te3 . The magnitude of Eg, in conjunction with the model independent f -sum rule, allows us to establish an upper bound for the magnitude of D expected in a typical Dirac-like system composed of linear bands. The experimentally observed D is found to be at or below this theoretical upper bound, demonstrating the effectiveness of alloying in eliminating bulk charge carriers. Moreover, direct comparison of the measured D to magnetoresistance measurements of the same sample supports assignment of the observed low-energy conduction to topological surface states.
Koirala, Nikesh; Brahlek, Matthew; Salehi, Maryam; Wu, Liang; Dai, Jixia; Waugh, Justin; Nummy, Thomas; Han, Myung-Geun; Moon, Jisoo; Zhu, Yimei; Dessau, Daniel; Wu, Weida; Armitage, N Peter; Oh, Seongshik
2015-12-09
Material defects remain as the main bottleneck to the progress of topological insulators (TIs). In particular, efforts to achieve thin TI samples with dominant surface transport have always led to increased defects and degraded mobilities, thus making it difficult to probe the quantum regime of the topological surface states. Here, by utilizing a novel buffer layer scheme composed of an In2Se3/(Bi0.5In0.5)2Se3 heterostructure, we introduce a quantum generation of Bi2Se3 films with an order of magnitude enhanced mobilities than before. This scheme has led to the first observation of the quantum Hall effect in Bi2Se3.
Sum-rule constraints on the surface state conductance of topological insulators.
Post, K W; Chapler, B C; Liu, M K; Wu, J S; Stinson, H T; Goldflam, M D; Richardella, A R; Lee, J S; Reijnders, A A; Burch, K S; Fogler, M M; Samarth, N; Basov, D N
2015-09-11
We report the Drude oscillator strength D and the magnitude of the bulk band gap E_{g} of the epitaxially grown, topological insulator (Bi,Sb)_{2}Te_{3}. The magnitude of E_{g}, in conjunction with the model independent f-sum rule, allows us to establish an upper bound for the magnitude of D expected in a typical Dirac-like system composed of linear bands. The experimentally observed D is found to be at or below this theoretical upper bound, demonstrating the effectiveness of alloying in eliminating bulk charge carriers. Moreover, direct comparison of the measured D to magnetoresistance measurements of the same sample supports assignment of the observed low-energy conduction to topological surface states.
Superconductor-ferromagnet bilayer under external drive: The role of vortex-antivortex matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frota, D. A.; Chaves, A.; Ferreira, W. P.; Farias, G. A.; Milošević, M. V.
2016-03-01
Using advanced Ginzburg-Landau simulations, we study the superconducting state of a thin superconducting film under a ferromagnetic layer, separated by an insulating oxide, in applied external magnetic field and electric current. The taken uniaxial ferromagnet is organized into a series of parallel domains with alternating polarization of out-of-plane magnetization, sufficiently strong to induce vortex-antivortex pairs in the underlying superconductor in absence of other magnetic field. We show the organization of such vortex-antivortex matter into rich configurations, some of which are not matching the periodicity of the ferromagnetic film. The variety of possible configurations is enhanced by applied homogeneous magnetic field, where additional vortices in the superconductor may lower the energy of the system by either annihilating the present antivortices under negative ferromagnetic domains or by lowering their own energy after positioning under positive ferromagnetic domains. As a consequence, both the vortex-antivortex reordering in increasing external field and the evolution of the energy of the system are highly nontrivial. Finally, we reveal the very interesting effects of applied dc electric current on the vortex-antivortex configurations, since resulting Lorentzian force has opposite direction for vortices and antivortices, while direction of the applied current with respect to ferromagnetic domains is of crucial importance for the interaction of the applied and the Meissner current, as well as the consequent vortex-antivortex dynamics—both of which are reflected in the anisotropic critical current of the system.
Angular and Linear Momentum of Excited Ferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Peng; Kamra, Akashdeep; Cao, Yunshan; Bauer, Gerrit
2014-03-01
The angular momentum vector of a Heisenberg ferromagnet with isotropic exchange interaction is conserved, while under uniaxial crystalline anisotropy the projection of the total spin along the easy axis is a constant of motion. Using Noether's theorem, we prove that these conservation laws persist in the presence of dipole-dipole interactions. However, spin and orbital angular momentum are not conserved separately anymore. We also define the linear momentum of ferromagnetic textures. We illustrate the general principles with special reference to spin transfer torques and identify the emergence of a non-adiabatic effective field acting on domain walls in ferromagnetic insulators
Plasma-Wave Terahertz Detection Mediated by Topological Insulators Surface States.
Viti, Leonardo; Coquillat, Dominique; Politano, Antonio; Kokh, Konstantin A; Aliev, Ziya S; Babanly, Mahammad B; Tereshchenko, Oleg E; Knap, Wojciech; Chulkov, Evgueni V; Vitiello, Miriam S
2016-01-13
Topological insulators (TIs) represent a novel quantum state of matter, characterized by edge or surface-states, showing up on the topological character of the bulk wave functions. Allowing electrons to move along their surface, but not through their inside, they emerged as an intriguing material platform for the exploration of exotic physical phenomena, somehow resembling the graphene Dirac-cone physics, as well as for exciting applications in optoelectronics, spintronics, nanoscience, low-power electronics, and quantum computing. Investigation of topological surface states (TSS) is conventionally hindered by the fact that in most of experimental conditions the TSS properties are mixed up with those of bulk-states. Here, we activate, probe, and exploit the collective electronic excitation of TSS in the Dirac cone. By engineering Bi2Te(3-x)Sex stoichiometry, and by gating the surface of nanoscale field-effect-transistors, exploiting thin flakes of Bi2Te2.2Se0.8 or Bi2Se3, we provide the first demonstration of room-temperature terahertz (THz) detection mediated by overdamped plasma-wave oscillations on the "activated" TSS of a Bi2Te2.2Se0.8 flake. The reported detection performances allow a realistic exploitation of TSS for large-area, fast imaging, promising superb impacts on THz photonics.
A General Theorem Relating the Bulk Topological Number to Edge States in Two-dimensional Insulators
Qi, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Yong-Shi; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Tsinghua U., Beijing
2010-01-15
We prove a general theorem on the relation between the bulk topological quantum number and the edge states in two dimensional insulators. It is shown that whenever there is a topological order in bulk, characterized by a non-vanishing Chern number, even if it is defined for a non-conserved quantity such as spin in the case of the spin Hall effect, one can always infer the existence of gapless edge states under certain twisted boundary conditions that allow tunneling between edges. This relation is robust against disorder and interactions, and it provides a unified topological classification of both the quantum (charge) Hall effect and the quantum spin Hall effect. In addition, it reconciles the apparent conflict between the stability of bulk topological order and the instability of gapless edge states in systems with open boundaries (as known happening in the spin Hall case). The consequences of time reversal invariance for bulk topological order and edge state dynamics are further studied in the present framework.
Decoupling of the antiferromagnetic and insulating states in Tb-doped S r2Ir O4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J. C.; Aswartham, S.; Ye, Feng; Terzic, J.; Zheng, H.; Haskel, Daniel; Chikara, Shalinee; Choi, Yong; Schlottmann, P.; Custelcean, Radu; Yuan, S. J.; Cao, G.
2015-12-01
S r2Ir O4 is a spin-orbit-coupled insulator with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at TN=240 K . We report results of a comprehensive study of single-crystal S r2I r1 -xT bxO4(0 ≤x ≤0.03 ) . This study found that a mere 3% (x =0.03 ) of tetravalent T b4 +(4 f7 ) substituting for I r4 + (rather than S r2 + ) completely suppresses the long-range collinear AFM transition but retains the insulating state, leading to a phase diagram featuring a decoupling of the magnetic interactions and charge gap. The insulating state at x =0.03 is characterized by an unusually large specific heat at low temperatures and an incommensurate magnetic state having magnetic peaks at (0.95,0,0) and (0,0.95,0) in the neutron diffraction, suggesting a spiral or spin-density-wave order. It is apparent that Tb doping effectively changes the relative strength of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and the tetragonal crystal electric field and enhances the Hund's rule coupling that competes with the SOI, and destabilizes the AFM state. However, the disappearance of the AFM is accompanied by no metallic state chiefly because an energy level mismatch for the Ir and Tb sites weakens charge carrier hopping and causes a persistent insulating state. This work highlights an unconventional correlation between the AFM and insulating states in which the magnetic transition plays no critical role in the formation of the charge gap in the iridate.
Decoupling of the antiferromagnetic and insulating states in Tb-doped Sr2IrO4
Wang, J. C.; Aswartham, S.; Ye, Feng; ...
2015-12-08
Sr2IrO4 is a spin-orbit coupled insulator with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at TN = 240 K. We report results of a comprehensive study of single-crystal Sr2Ir1-xTbxO4 (0≤x≤0.03). This study found that mere 3% (x=0.03) tetravalent Tb4+(4f7) substituting for Ir4+ (rather than Sr2+) completely suppresses the long-range collinear AFM transition but retains the insulating state, leading to a phase diagram featuring a decoupling of magnetic interactions and charge gap. The insulating state at x = 0.03 is characterized by an unusually large specific heat at low temperatures and an incommensurate magnetic state having magnetic peaks at (0.95, 0, 0) and (0,more » 0.95, 0) in the neutron diffraction, suggesting a spiral or spin density wave order. It is apparent that Tb doping effectively changes the relative strength of the SOI and the tetragonal CEF and enhances the Hund’s rule coupling that competes with the SOI, and destabilizes the AFM state. However, the disappearance of the AFM accompanies no metallic state chiefly because an energy level mismatch for the Ir and Tb sites weakens charge carrier hopping and renders a persistent insulating state. Furthermore, this work highlights an unconventional correlation between the AFM and insulating states in which the magnetic transition plays no critical role in the formation of the charge gap in the iridate.« less
Experimental Realizations of Magnetic Topological Insulator and Topological Crystalline Insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Suyang
2013-03-01
Over the past few years the experimental research on three-dimensional topological insulators have emerged as one of the most rapidly developing fields in condensed matter physics. In this talk, we report on two new developments in the field: The first part is on the dynamic interplay between ferromagnetism and the Z2 topological insulator state (leading to a magnetic topological insulator). We present our spin-resolved photoemission and magnetic dichroic experiments on MBE grown films where a hedgehog-like spin texture is revealed on the magnetically ordered surface of Mn-Bi2Se3 revealing a Berry's phase gradient in energy-momentum space of the crystal. A chemically/electrically tunable Berry's phase switch is further demonstrated via the tuning of the spin groundstate in Mn-Bi2Se3 revealed in our data (Nature Physics 8, 616 (2012)). The second part of this talk describes our experimental observation of a new topological phase of matter, namely a topological crystalline insulator where space group symmetries replace the role of time-reversal symmetry in an otherwise Z2 topological insulator predicted in theory. We experimentally investigate the possibility of a mirror symmetry protected topological phase transition in the Pb1-xSnxTe alloy system, which has long been known to contain an even number of band inversions based on band theory. Our experimental results show that at a composition below the theoretically predicted band inversion, the system is fully gapped, whereas in the band-inverted regime, the surface exhibits even number of spin-polarized Dirac cone states revealing mirror-protected topological order (Nature Communications 3, 1192 (2012)) distinct from that observed in Z2 topological insulators. We discuss future experimental possibilities opened up by these new developments in topological insulators research. This work is in collaboration with M. Neupane, C. Liu, N. Alidoust, I. Belopolski, D. Qian, D.M. Zhang, A. Richardella, A. Marcinkova, Q
State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review
Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian
2007-01-01
This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The
Quantum transport in ferromagnetic graphene: Role of Berry curvature
Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, Banasri
2014-12-10
The magnetic effects in ferromagnetic graphene basically depend on the principle of exchange interaction when ferromagntism is induced by depositing an insulator layer on graphene. Here we deal with the consequences of non-uniformity in the exchange coupling strength of the ferromagnetic graphene. We discuss how the in- homogeneity in the coordinate and momentum of the exchange vector field can provide interesting results in the conductivity analysis of the ferromagnetic graphene. Our analysis is based on the Kubo formalism of quantum transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baidya, Santu; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Paramekanti, Arun; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri
2016-10-01
Towards the goal of realizing topological phases in thin films of correlated oxide and heterostructures, we propose here a quantum anomalous Hall insulator (QAHI) in ultrathin films of double perovskites based on mixed 3 d -5 d or 3 d -4 d transition-metal ions, grown along the [111] direction. Considering the specific case of ultrathin Ba2FeReO6 , we present a theoretical analysis of an effective Hamiltonian derived from first principles. We establish that a strong spin-orbit coupling at the Re site, t2 g symmetry of the low-energy d bands, polarity of its [111] orientation of perovskite structure, and mixed 3 d -5 d chemistry results in room temperature magnetism with a robust QAHI state of Chern number C =1 and a large band gap. We uncover and highlight a nonrelativistic orbital Rashba-type effect in addition to the spin-orbit coupling, that governs this QAHI state. With a band gap of ˜100 meV in electronic structure and magnetic transition temperature Tc˜300 K estimated by Monte Carlo simulations, our finding of the QAHI state in ultrathin Ba2FeReO6 is expected to stimulate experimental verification along with possible practical applications of its dissipationless edge currents.
High-field magnetic behavior and forced-ferromagnetic state in an ErF e11TiH single crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostyuchenko, N. V.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Tereshina, E. A.; Skourski, Y.; Doerr, M.; Drulis, H.; Pelevin, I. A.; Tereshina, I. S.
2015-09-01
The crystal-field and exchange parameters are determined for the single-crystalline hydride ErF e11TiH compound by analyzing the experimental magnetization curves obtained in magnetic fields of up to 60 T. By using the calculated parameters we succeeded in modeling theoretical magnetization curves for ErF e11TiH up to 200 S and to study in detail the transition from ferrimagnetic to a ferromagnetic state in the applied magnetic field.
Magnetically Defined Qubits on 3D Topological Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Gerson J.; Loss, Daniel
2013-09-01
We explore potentials that break time-reversal symmetry to confine the surface states of 3D topological insulators into quantum wires and quantum dots. A magnetic domain wall on a ferromagnet insulator cap layer provides interfacial states predicted to show the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE). Here, we show that confinement can also occur at magnetic domain heterostructures, with states extended in the inner domain, as well as interfacial QAHE states at the surrounding domain walls. The proposed geometry allows the isolation of the wire and dot from spurious circumventing surface states. For the quantum dots, we find that highly spin-polarized quantized QAHE states at the dot edge constitute a promising candidate for quantum computing qubits.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Argyriou, D. N.; Mitchell, J. F.; Chmaissem, O.; Short, S.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Goodenough, J. B.
1997-03-01
The crystal structure of the layered perovskite La{sub 1.2}Sr{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been studied under hydrostatic pressure up to {approximately} 6 kbar, in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states, with neutron powder diffraction. The compressibility of the Mn-O apical bonds in the double layer of MnO{sub 6} octahedra changes sign from the paramagnetic insulator (PI) to the ferromagnetic metal (FM) state; in the Fm state the Mn-O-Mn linkage between MnO{sub 2} planes expands under applied pressure, whereas they contract in the PI state. This counterintuative behavior is interpreted in terms of exchange striction, which reflect the competition between super- and double-exchange. An increase of the Mn-moment with applied pressure in the FM state is consistent with a positive dT{sub C}/dP, as well as a cant angle {theta}{sub 0} between the magnetizations of neighboring MnO{sub 2} sheets that decreases with pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitagawa, Shunsaku; Sekiya, Taishi; Araki, Shingo; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C.; Ishida, Kenji; Kambe, Takashi; Kimura, Takumi; Nishimoto, Naoki; Kudo, Kazutaka; Nohara, Minoru
2015-09-01
The mineral tetrahedrite Cu12Sb4S13 exhibits a first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT) at TMI = 85 K and ambient pressure. We measured the 63Cu-NMR at ambient pressure and the resistivity and magnetic susceptibility at high pressures. 63Cu-NMR results indicate a nonmagnetic insulating ground state in this compound. The MIT is monotonically suppressed by pressure and disappears at ˜1.0 GPa. Two other anomalies are observed in the resistivity measurements, and the pressure-temperature phase diagram of Cu12Sb4S13 is constructed.
Li, Guijiang; Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente
2015-12-07
We have found that thermodynamic state and kinetic process co-determine the dual ferromagnetic (FM) orders in high-Si content FeMnP{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} (0.25 < x < 0.5). Alloys undergoing high temperature annealing and quenching process prefer a high magnetic moment FM state in a chemically partial disordered structure with low c/a ratio. This mechanism is suggested to be responsible for the often discussed virgin effect as well. A chemically ordered structure obtained by a slow cooling process from a relatively low annealing temperature and the increase in Si content stabilize a metastable lattice with high c/a ratio and FM order with low magnetic moment. The non-simultaneity of the magnetic and structural transitions can be responsible for the occurrence of FM state in the high c/a range. Thus, a c/a ratio that changes from high to low is physically plausible to stabilize the metastable FM order at low temperature. Our theoretical observations indicate that suitable thermodynamic state and kinetic diffusion process is crucial for optimizing magnetocaloric properties and exploring feasible magnetocaloric materials.
Non-destructive testing of biaxial stress state in ferromagnetic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vengrinovich, V. L.; Vintov, D. A.; Dmitrovich, D. V.
2014-02-01
The technique for biaxial stress state quantitative non destructive testing using magnetic, namely Barkhausen Noise, measurements is developed and checked experimentally. The main elaboration concerns the application of uni-axial calibration data for bi-axial stress measurement in the material which treatment pre-history is not definitely known. The article is aimed to get over difficulties, accompanying factual nondestructive stress evaluation, implied from its tensor nature. The developed technique of stress calibration and measurement assumes the bi-axial stress components recovery from uni-axial magnetic and Barkhausen noise measurement results. The complete technology, based on new calibration procedure with grid diagrams is considered in the article.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odkhuu, Dorj; Rhim, Sonny H.; Shin, Dongbin; Park, Noejung
2016-04-01
The epitaxial atomistic interfaces of two insulating oxides, LaAlO3 (LAO)/SrTiO3 (STO), have attracted great interest owing to rich emergent phenomena such as interface metallicity, thickness dependent insulator-metal transition, superconductivity, ferromagnetism, and even their coexistence. However, the physics origin of ferromagnetic ordering in the n-type LAO/STO interface is in debate. Here, we propose that the polar distortion of La atom can ignite the ferromagnetism at the interface even without oxygen vacancy. The induced hybridization between La dz2 and O px,y states can mediate double-exchange like interaction between Ti dxy electrons. We further suggest that the structural and electrical modification of the outermost surface of LAO or switching the polarization direction of ferroelectric overlayers on LAO/STO can promote such La displacement.
Wang, Y. L.; Liu, M. F.; Xie, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Dong, S.; Liu, J.-M.
2015-09-28
The concurrent ferromagnetic and metal-insulator transitions via the double-exchange route and electronic phase separation scenario represent the core ingredients of the physics of manganites. In this work, a Ca{sup 2+} and Ru{sup 4+} co-substitution of Pr{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 3+} in narrow-bandwidth and insulating PrMnO{sub 3}, namely, Pr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x}O{sub 3} (PCMRO, x ≤ 0.6), is carried out in order to investigate an alternative approach to effectively manipulate the ferromagnetism of PrMnO{sub 3}-based manganites. It is revealed that PCMRO over the whole substitution range is homogeneous solid solution with increased lattice distortion. The preference of Ru{sup 4+} valence state and the absence of Mn{sup 4+} valence state disable the Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} e{sub g}-orbital double-exchange, and the random occupation of Ru{sup 4+} in the lattice excludes the charge ordering and electronic phase separation. While all these consequences should favor antiferromagnetic insulating states, nevertheless, a high-temperature ferromagnetic transition is triggered by the co-substitution and the magnetization can reach up to ∼1.0 μ{sub B}/f.u. at x ∼ 0.2–0.3, much bigger than the moment (<0.1 μ{sub B}/f.u.) of Pr{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} in the weak ferromagnetic insulator state. It is suggested that this strong ferromagnetism is substantially ascribed to the Mn{sup 3+}-Ru{sup 4+} t{sub 2g}-orbital ferromagnetic super-exchange, and a simple geometric network illustration of the magnetism and electrical transport is presented.
Magnetically Defined Qubits on 3D Topological Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Gerson J.; Loss, Daniel
2014-03-01
We explore potentials that break time-reversal symmetry to confine the surface states of 3D topological insulators into quantum wires and quantum dots. A magnetic domain wall on a ferromagnet insulator cap layer provides interfacial states predicted to show the quantum anomalous Hall effect. Here, we show that confinement can also occur at magnetic domain heterostructures, with states extended in the inner domain, as well as interfacial QAHE states at the surrounding domain walls. The proposed geometry allows the isolation of the wire and dot from spurious circumventing surface states. For the quantum dots, we find that highly spin-polarized quantized QAHE states at the dot edge constitute a promising candidate for quantum computing qubits. See [Ferreira and Loss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 106802 (2013)]. We explore potentials that break time-reversal symmetry to confine the surface states of 3D topological insulators into quantum wires and quantum dots. A magnetic domain wall on a ferromagnet insulator cap layer provides interfacial states predicted to show the quantum anomalous Hall effect. Here, we show that confinement can also occur at magnetic domain heterostructures, with states extended in the inner domain, as well as interfacial QAHE states at the surrounding domain walls. The proposed geometry allows the isolation of the wire and dot from spurious circumventing surface states. For the quantum dots, we find that highly spin-polarized quantized QAHE states at the dot edge constitute a promising candidate for quantum computing qubits. See [Ferreira and Loss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 106802 (2013)]. We acknowledge support from the Swiss NSF, NCCR Nanoscience, NCCR QSIT, and the Brazillian Research Support Center Initiative (NAP Q-NANO) from Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa (PRP/USP).
Tu, Chien-Ming; Yeh, Tien-Tien; Tzeng, Wen-Yen; Chen, Yi-Ru; Chen, Hsueh-Ju; Ku, Shin-An; Luo, Chih-Wei; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Cheng, Cheng-Maw; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Berger, Helmuth; Sankar, Raman; Chou, Fang-Cheng
2015-01-01
Topological insulators (TIs) are interesting quantum matters that have a narrow bandgap for bulk and a Dirac-cone-like conducting surface state (SS). The recent discovered second Dirac surface state (SS) and bulk bands (BBs) located ~1.5 eV above the first SS are important for optical coupling in TIs. Here, we report on the time-domain measurements of THz radiation generated from TIs n-type Cu0.02Bi2Se3 and p-type Bi2Te3 single crystals by ultrafast optical pulse excitation. The observed polarity-reversal of the THz pulse originated from transient current is unusual, and cannot be reconciled with the photo-Dember effect. The second SS and BBs are found to be indispensable for the explanation of the unusual phenomenon. Thanks to the existence of the second SS and BBs, TIs manifest an effective wide band gap in THz generation. The present study demonstrates that time-domain THz spectroscopy provide rich information of the optical coupling and the electronic structure of TIs. PMID:26370337
Surface states scattering from a step defect in the topological insulator Bi2Te3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Jin; Ting, C. S.
2012-10-01
We study theoretically, using a quantum-mechanical approach, the general scattering problem of a straight step defect on the surface of the topological insulator Bi2Te3 with a strong warping effect. At high energy where the warping effect is large, an electron incident on a step defect running along Γ-M may exhibit perfect transmission whereas an electron incident on a defect running along Γ-K has a finite probability of being reflected and may even exhibit resonant total reflection. The transmission in the latter case is also sensitive to whether there is particle-hole symmetry in the system. Although backscattering is prohibited by time-reversal symmetry, an electron incident nearly normally on a defect running along Γ-K has a finite reflection. This is interpreted as the consequence of the existence of decaying modes localized at the defect, acting as a magnetic barrier for the propagating modes. The predicted Friedel oscillations and the power-law decay behavior of the local density of states (LDOS) near the defect are in good agreement with recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on Bi2Te3. The high-energy LDOS of the surface states is also found to show multiperiodic Friedel oscillations, caused by the competing characteristic scattering processes.
Exotic surface states in hybrid structures of topological insulators and Weyl semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juergens, Stefan; Trauzettel, Björn
2017-02-01
Topological insulators (TIs) and Weyl semimetals (WSMs) are two realizations of topological matter usually appearing separately in nature. However, they are directly related to each other via a topological phase transition. In this paper, we investigate the question whether these two topological phases can exist together at the same time, with a combined, hybrid surface state at the joint boundaries. We analyze effective models of a three-dimensional TI and an inversion symmetric WSM and couple them in a way that certain symmetries, like inversion, are preserved. A tunnel coupling approach enables us to obtain the hybrid surface state Hamiltonian analytically. This offers the possibility of a detailed study of its dispersion relation depending on the investigated couplings. For spin-symmetric coupling, we find that two Dirac nodes can emerge out of the combination of a single Dirac node and a Fermi arc. For spin-asymmetric coupling, the dispersion relation is gapped and the former Dirac node gets spin-polarized. We propose different experimental realization of the hybrid system, including compressively strained HgTe as well as heterostructures of TI and WSM materials.
Evidence of topological insulator state in the semimetal LaBi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lou, R.; Fu, B.-B.; Xu, Q. N.; Guo, P.-J.; Kong, L.-Y.; Zeng, L.-K.; Ma, J.-Z.; Richard, P.; Fang, C.; Huang, Y.-B.; Sun, S.-S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, L.; Shi, Y.-G.; Lei, H. C.; Liu, K.; Weng, H. M.; Qian, T.; Ding, H.; Wang, S.-C.
2017-03-01
By employing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy combined with first-principles calculations, we performed a systematic investigation on the electronic structure of LaBi, which exhibits extremely large magnetoresistance (XMR), and is theoretically predicted to possess band anticrossing with nontrivial topological properties. Here, the observations of the Fermi-surface topology and band dispersions are similar to previous studies on LaSb [L.-K. Zeng, R. Lou, D.-S. Wu, Q. N. Xu, P.-J. Guo, L.-Y. Kong, Y.-G. Zhong, J.-Z. Ma, B.-B. Fu, P. Richard, P. Wang, G. T. Liu, L. Lu, Y.-B. Huang, C. Fang, S.-S. Sun, Q. Wang, L. Wang, Y.-G. Shi, H. M. Weng, H.-C. Lei, K. Liu, S.-C. Wang, T. Qian, J.-L. Luo, and H. Ding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 127204 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.127204], a topologically trivial XMR semimetal, except the existence of a band inversion along the Γ -X direction, with one massless and one gapped Dirac-like surface state at the X and Γ points, respectively. The odd number of massless Dirac cones suggests that LaBi is analogous to the time-reversal Z2 nontrivial topological insulator. These findings open up a new series for exploring novel topological states and investigating their evolution from the perspective of topological phase transition within the family of rare-earth monopnictides.
Werner states and the two-spinors Heisenberg anti-ferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batle, J.; Casas, M.; Plastino, A.; Plastino, A. R.
2005-08-01
We ascertain, following ideas of Arnesen, Bose, and Vedral concerning thermal entanglement [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 017901] and using the statistical tool called entropic non-triviality [P.W. Lamberti, M.T. Martin, A. Plastino, O.A. Rosso, Physica A 334 (2004) 119], that there is a one-to-one correspondence between (i) the mixing coefficient x of a Werner state, on the one hand, and (ii) the temperature T of the one-dimensional Heisenberg two-spin chain with a magnetic field B along the z-axis, on the other one. This is true for each value of B below a certain critical value B. The pertinent mapping depends on the particular B-value one selects within such a range.
Substitution-induced spin-splitted surface states in topological insulator (Bi1−xSbx)2Te3
He, Xiaoyue; Li, Hui; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui
2015-01-01
We present a study on surface states of topological insulator (Bi1−xSbx)2Te3 by imaging quasiparticle interference patterns (QPI) using low temperature scanning tunneling microscope. Besides the topological Dirac state, we observed another surface state with chiral spin texture within the conduction band range. The quasiparticle scattering in this state is selectively suppressed. Combined with first-principles calculations, we attribute this state to a spin-splitted band induced by the substitution of Bi with Sb atoms. Our results demonstrate that the coexistence of topological order and alloying may open wider tunability in quantum materials. PMID:25743262
Spin-orbit driven magnetic insulating state with Jeff=1/2 character in a 4d oxide
Calder, S.; Li, Ling; Okamoto, Satoshi; ...
2015-11-30
The unusual magnetic and electronic ground states of 5d iridates has been shown to be driven by intrinsically enhanced spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The influence of appreciable but reduced SOC in creating the manifested magnetic insulating states in 4d oxides is less clear, with one hurdle being the existence of such compounds. Here we present experimental and theoretical results on Sr4RhO6 that reveal SOC dominated behavior. Neutron measurements show the octahedra are both spatially separated and locally ideal, making the electronic ground state susceptible to alterations by SOC. Magnetic ordering is observed with a similar structure to an analogous Jeff=1/2 Mottmore » iridate. We consider the underlying role of SOC in this rhodate with density functional theory and x-ray absorption spectroscopy and find a magnetic insulating ground state with Jeff =1/2 character.The unusual magnetic and electronic ground states of 5d iridates have been shown to be driven by intrinsically enhanced spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The influence of appreciable but reduced SOC in creating the manifested magnetic insulating states in 4d oxides is less clear, with one hurdle being the existence of such compounds. Here, we present experimental and theoretical results on Sr4RhO6 that reveal SOC dominated behavior. Neutron measurements show the octahedra are both spatially separated and locally ideal, making the electronic ground state susceptible to alterations by SOC. Magnetic ordering is observed with a similar structure to an analogous Jeff=1/2 Mott iridate. We consider the underlying role of SOC in this rhodate with density functional theory and x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and find a magnetic insulating ground state with Jeff=12 character.« less
The public health benefits of insulation retrofits in existing housing in the United States
Levy, Jonathan I; Nishioka, Yurika; Spengler, John D
2003-01-01
Background Methodological limitations make it difficult to quantify the public health benefits of energy efficiency programs. To address this issue, we developed a risk-based model to estimate the health benefits associated with marginal energy usage reductions and applied the model to a hypothetical case study of insulation retrofits in single-family homes in the United States. Methods We modeled energy savings with a regression model that extrapolated findings from an energy simulation program. Reductions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions and particle precursors (SO2 and NOx) were quantified using fuel-specific emission factors and marginal electricity analyses. Estimates of population exposure per unit emissions, varying by location and source type, were extrapolated from past dispersion model runs. Concentration-response functions for morbidity and mortality from PM2.5 were derived from the epidemiological literature, and economic values were assigned to health outcomes based on willingness to pay studies. Results In total, the insulation retrofits would save 800 TBTU (8 × 1014 British Thermal Units) per year across 46 million homes, resulting in 3,100 fewer tons of PM2.5, 100,000 fewer tons of NOx, and 190,000 fewer tons of SO2 per year. These emission reductions are associated with outcomes including 240 fewer deaths, 6,500 fewer asthma attacks, and 110,000 fewer restricted activity days per year. At a state level, the health benefits per unit energy savings vary by an order of magnitude, illustrating that multiple factors (including population patterns and energy sources) influence health benefit estimates. The health benefits correspond to $1.3 billion per year in externalities averted, compared with $5.9 billion per year in economic savings. Conclusion In spite of significant uncertainties related to the interpretation of PM2.5 health effects and other dimensions of the model, our analysis demonstrates that a risk-based methodology is viable
Topological insulator states in a honeycomb lattice of s-triazines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Aizhu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen
2014-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) graphitic carbon nitride materials have been drawing increasing attentions in energy conversion, environment protection and spintronic devices. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the already-synthesized honeycomb lattice of s-triazines with a chemical formula of C6N6 (g-C6N6) has topologically nontrivial electronic states characterized by px,y-orbital band structures with a topological invariant of Z2 = 1, and stronger spin-orbital coupling (SOC) than both graphene and silicene. The band gaps opened in the px,y-orbital bands due to SOC are 5.50 meV (K points) and 8.27 eV (Γ point), respectively, implying that the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) could be achieved in this 2D graphitic carbon nitride material at a temperature lower than 95 K. This offers a viable approach for searching for 2D Topological Insulators (TIs) in metal-free organic materials.Two-dimensional (2D) graphitic carbon nitride materials have been drawing increasing attentions in energy conversion, environment protection and spintronic devices. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the already-synthesized honeycomb lattice of s-triazines with a chemical formula of C6N6 (g-C6N6) has topologically nontrivial electronic states characterized by px,y-orbital band structures with a topological invariant of Z2 = 1, and stronger spin-orbital coupling (SOC) than both graphene and silicene. The band gaps opened in the px,y-orbital bands due to SOC are 5.50 meV (K points) and 8.27 eV (Γ point), respectively, implying that the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) could be achieved in this 2D graphitic carbon nitride material at a temperature lower than 95 K. This offers a viable approach for searching for 2D Topological Insulators (TIs) in metal-free organic materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A ruby model and the relevant tight-binding Hamiltonian, parity tables for the g-C6N6 lattice and the
Magnetic impurities on the surface of a topological insulator
Liu, Qin; Liu, Chao-Xing; Xu, Cenke; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-25
The surface states of a topological insulator are described by an emergent relativistic massless Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions. In contrast to graphene, there is an odd number of Dirac points, and the electron spin is directly coupled to the momentum. We show that a magnetic impurity opens up a local gap and suppresses the local density of states. Furthermore, the Dirac electronic states mediate an RKKY interaction among the magnetic impurities which is always ferromagnetic, whenever the chemical potential lies near the Dirac point. These effects can be directly measured in STM experiments. We also study the case of quenched disorder through a renormalization group analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brando, M.; Belitz, D.; Grosche, F. M.; Kirkpatrick, T. R.
2016-04-01
An overview of quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in metallic ferromagnets, discussing both experimental and theoretical aspects, is given. These QPTs can be classified with respect to the presence and strength of quenched disorder: Clean systems generically show a discontinuous, or first-order, QPT from a ferromagnetic to a paramagnetic state as a function of some control parameter, as predicted by theory. Disordered systems are much more complicated, depending on the disorder strength and the distance from the QPT. In many disordered materials the QPT is continuous, or second order, and Griffiths-phase effects coexist with QPT singularities near the transition. In other systems the transition from the ferromagnetic state at low temperatures is to a different type of long-range order, such as an antiferromagnetic or a spin-density-wave state. In still other materials a transition to a state with glasslike spin dynamics is suspected. The review provides a comprehensive discussion of the current understanding of these various transitions and of the relation between experiment and theory.
Ramp-edge structured tunneling devices using ferromagnet electrodes
Kwon, Chuhee; Jia, Quanxi
2002-09-03
The fabrication of ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet magnetic tunneling junction devices using a ramp-edge geometry based on, e.g., (La.sub.0.7 Sr.sub.0.3) MnO.sub.3, ferromagnetic electrodes and a SrTiO.sub.3 insulator is disclosed. The maximum junction magnetoresistance (JMR) as large as 23% was observed below 300 Oe at low temperatures (T<100 K). These ramp-edge junctions exhibited JMR of 6% at 200 K with a field less than 100 Oe.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic insulator heterostructure.
Xu, Gang; Wang, Jing; Felser, Claudia; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2015-03-11
On the basis of ab initio calculations, we predict that a monolayer of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and GdI2 heterostructure is a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a nontrivial band gap up to 38 meV. The principle behind our prediction is that the band inversion between two topologically trivial ferromagnetic insulators can result in a nonzero Chern number, which offers a better way to realize the quantum anomalous Hall state without random magnetic doping. In addition, a simple effective model is presented to describe the basic mechanism of spin polarized band inversion in this system. Moreover, we predict that 3D quantum anomalous Hall insulator could be realized in (Bi2/3Cr1/3)2Te3 /GdI2 superlattice.
Park, Wan Kyu; Sun, Lunan; Noddings, Alexander; Kim, Dae-Jeong; Fisk, Zachary; Greene, Laura H.
2016-01-01
Samarium hexaboride (SmB6), a well-known Kondo insulator in which the insulating bulk arises from strong electron correlations, has recently attracted great attention owing to increasing evidence for its topological nature, thereby harboring protected surface states. However, corroborative spectroscopic evidence is still lacking, unlike in the weakly correlated counterparts, including Bi2Se3. Here, we report results from planar tunneling that unveil the detailed spectroscopic properties of SmB6. The tunneling conductance obtained on the (001) and (011) single crystal surfaces reveals linear density of states as expected for two and one Dirac cone(s), respectively. Quite remarkably, it is found that these topological states are not protected completely within the bulk hybridization gap. A phenomenological model of the tunneling process invoking interaction of the surface states with bulk excitations (spin excitons), as predicted by a recent theory, provides a consistent explanation for all of the observed features. Our spectroscopic study supports and explains the proposed picture of the incompletely protected surface states in this topological Kondo insulator SmB6. PMID:27233936
Wu, Liang; Tse, Wang-Kong; Brahlek, M; Morris, C M; Aguilar, R Valdés; Koirala, N; Oh, S; Armitage, N P
2015-11-20
We have utilized time-domain magnetoterahertz spectroscopy to investigate the low-frequency optical response of the topological insulator Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} and Bi_{2}Se_{3} films. With both field and frequency dependence, such experiments give sufficient information to measure the mobility and carrier density of multiple conduction channels simultaneously. We observe sharp cyclotron resonances (CRs) in both materials. The small amount of Cu incorporated into the Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} induces a true bulk insulator with only a single type of conduction with a total sheet carrier density of ~4.9×10^{12}/cm^{2} and mobility as high as 4000 cm^{2}/V·s. This is consistent with conduction from two virtually identical topological surface states (TSSs) on the top and bottom of the film with a chemical potential ~145 meV above the Dirac point and in the bulk gap. The CR broadens at high fields, an effect that we attribute to an electron-phonon interaction. This assignment is supported by an extended Drude model analysis of the zero-field Drude conductance. In contrast, in normal Bi_{2}Se_{3} films, two conduction channels were observed, and we developed a self-consistent analysis method to distinguish the dominant TSSs and coexisting trivial bulk or two-dimensional electron gas states. Our high-resolution Faraday rotation spectroscopy on Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} paves the way for the observation of quantized Faraday rotation under experimentally achievable conditions to push the chemical potential in the lowest Landau level.
Disorder-induced density of states on the surface of a spherical topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durst, Adam C.
2016-06-01
We consider a topological insulator (TI) of spherical geometry and numerically investigate the influence of disorder on the density of surface states. The energy spectrum of the spherical TI surface is discrete, for a sphere of finite radius, and can be truncated by imposing a high-energy cutoff at the scale of the bulk band gap. To this clean system we add a surface disorder potential of the most general Hermitian form, V =V0(θ ,ϕ ) 1 +V (θ ,ϕ ) .σ , where V0 describes the spin-independent part of the disorder and the three components of V describe the spin-dependent part. We expand these four disorder functions in spherical harmonics and draw the expansion coefficients randomly from a four-dimensional, zero-mean Gaussian distribution. Different strengths and classes of disorder are realized by specifying the 4 ×4 covariance matrix. For each instantiation of the disorder, we solve for the energy spectrum via exact diagonalization. Then we compute the disorder-averaged density of states, ρ (E ) , by averaging over 200 000 different instantiations. Disorder broadens the Landau-level delta functions of the clean density of states into peaks that decay and merge together. If the spin-dependent term is dominant, these peaks split due to the breaking of the degeneracy between time-reversed partner states. Increasing disorder strength pushes states closer and closer to zero energy (the Dirac point), resulting in a low-energy density of states that becomes nonzero for sufficient disorder, typically approaching an energy-independent saturation value, for most classes of disorder. But for purely spin-dependent disorder with V either entirely out-of-surface or entirely in-surface, we identify intriguing disorder-induced features in the vicinity of the Dirac point. In the out-of-surface case, a new peak emerges at zero energy. In the in-surface case, we see a symmetry-protected zero at zero energy, with ρ (E ) increasing linearly toward nonzero-energy peaks. These
Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhu, Zhiyong; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Cui, Yi
2012-03-27
Topological insulator is a new state of matter attracting tremendous interest due to its gapless linear dispersion and spin momentum locking topological states located near the surface. Heterostructures, which have traditionally been powerful in controlling the electronic properties of semiconductor devices, are interesting for topological insulators. Here, we studied the spatial distribution of the topological state in Sb(2)Se(3)-Bi(2)Se(3) heterostructures by first-principle simulation and discovered that an exotic topological state exists. Surprisingly, the state migrates from the nontrivial Bi(2)Se(3) into the trivial Sb(2)Se(3) region and spreads across the entire Sb(2)Se(3) slab, extending beyond the concept of "surface" state while preserving all of the topological surface state characteristics. This unusual topological state arises from the coupling between different materials and the modification of electronic structure near Fermi energy. Our study demonstrates that heterostructures can open up opportunities for controlling the real-space distribution of the topological state and inducing quantum phase transitions between topologically trivial and nontrivial states.
Zhong, Ruidan; He, Xugang; Schneeloch, J. A.; ...
2015-05-29
Three-dimensional topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators represent new quantum states of matter, which are predicted to have insulating bulk states and spin-momentum-locked gapless surface states. Experimentally, it has proven difficult to achieve the high bulk resistivity that would allow surface states to dominate the transport properties over a substantial temperature range. Here we report a series of indium-doped Pb1-xSnxTe compounds that manifest huge bulk resistivities together with evidence consistent with the topological character of the surface states for x ≳ 0.35, based on thickness-dependent transport studies and magnetoresistance measurements. For these bulk-insulating materials, the surface states determine the resistivitymore » for temperatures beyond 20 K.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Ruidan; He, Xugang; Schneeloch, J. A.; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Tiansheng; Pletikosić, I.; Yilmaz, T.; Sinkovic, B.; Li, Qiang; Ku, Wei; Valla, T.; Tranquada, J. M.; Gu, Genda
2015-05-01
Three-dimensional topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators represent new quantum states of matter, which are predicted to have insulating bulk states and spin-momentum-locked gapless surface states. Experimentally, it has proven difficult to achieve the high bulk resistivity that would allow surface states to dominate the transport properties over a substantial temperature range. Here we report a series of indium-doped Pb1 -xSnxTe compounds that manifest huge bulk resistivities together with evidence consistent with the topological character of the surface states for x ≳0.35 , based on thickness-dependent transport studies and magnetoresistance measurements. For these bulk-insulating materials, the surface states determine the resistivity for temperatures beyond 20 K.
Zhong, Ruidan; He, Xugang; Schneeloch, J. A.; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Tiansheng; Pletikosić, I.; Yilmaz, T.; Sinkovic, B.; Li, Qiang; Ku, Wei; Valla, T.; Tranquada, J. M.; Gu, Genda
2015-05-29
Three-dimensional topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators represent new quantum states of matter, which are predicted to have insulating bulk states and spin-momentum-locked gapless surface states. Experimentally, it has proven difficult to achieve the high bulk resistivity that would allow surface states to dominate the transport properties over a substantial temperature range. Here we report a series of indium-doped Pb_{1-x}Sn_{x}Te compounds that manifest huge bulk resistivities together with evidence consistent with the topological character of the surface states for x ≳ 0.35, based on thickness-dependent transport studies and magnetoresistance measurements. For these bulk-insulating materials, the surface states determine the resistivity for temperatures beyond 20 K.
Spintronics Based on Topological Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yabin; Wang, Kang L.
2016-10-01
Spintronics using topological insulators (TIs) as strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) materials have emerged and shown rapid progress in the past few years. Different from traditional heavy metals, TIs exhibit very strong SOC and nontrivial topological surface states that originate in the bulk band topology order, which can provide very efficient means to manipulate adjacent magnetic materials when passing a charge current through them. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the TI-based magnetic spintronics research field. In particular, we focus on the spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced magnetization switching in the magnetic TI structures, spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements in the TI/ferromagnet structures, spin pumping and spin injection effects in the TI/magnet structures, as well as the electrical detection of the surface spin-polarized current in TIs. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in the TI-based spintronics field and its potential applications in ultralow power dissipation spintronic memory and logic devices.
Topological properties of ferromagnetic superconductors
Cheung, Alfred K. C.; Raghu, S.
2016-04-27
Here, a variety of heavy fermion superconductors, such as UCoGe, UGe2, and URhGe exhibit a striking coexistence of bulk ferromagnetism and superconductivity. In the first two materials, the magnetic moment decreases with pressure, and vanishes at a ferromagnetic quantum critical point (qcp). Remarkably, the superconductivity in UCoGe varies smoothly with pressure across the qcp and exists in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic regimes. We argue that in UCoGe, spin-orbit interactions stabilize a time-reversal invariant odd-parity superconductor in the high pressure paramagnetic regime. Based on a simple phenomenological model, we predict that the transition from the paramagnetic normal state to themore » phase where superconductivity and ferromagnetism coexist is a first-order transition.« less
Topological properties of ferromagnetic superconductors
Cheung, Alfred K. C.; Raghu, S.
2016-04-27
Here, a variety of heavy fermion superconductors, such as UCoGe, UGe^{2}, and URhGe exhibit a striking coexistence of bulk ferromagnetism and superconductivity. In the first two materials, the magnetic moment decreases with pressure, and vanishes at a ferromagnetic quantum critical point (qcp). Remarkably, the superconductivity in UCoGe varies smoothly with pressure across the qcp and exists in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic regimes. We argue that in UCoGe, spin-orbit interactions stabilize a time-reversal invariant odd-parity superconductor in the high pressure paramagnetic regime. Based on a simple phenomenological model, we predict that the transition from the paramagnetic normal state to the phase where superconductivity and ferromagnetism coexist is a first-order transition.
Origin of bulk quantum oscillations in the bulk Kondo insulating ground state of SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sebastian, Suchitra; Tan, B. S.; Hsu, Y.-T.; Zeng, B.; Ciomaga Hatnean, M.; Harrison, N.; Zhu, Z.; Hartstein, M.; Kiourlappou, M.; Srivastava, M.; Johannes, M. D.; Murphy, T. P.; Park, J.-H.; Balicas, L.; Shitsevalova, N.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Balakrishnan, G.
I will discuss our recent observation of quantum oscillations corresponding to a bulk Fermi surface in the Kondo insulator SmB6, and consider their possible origin. New complementary experimental results will be presented which raise the interesting question of whether the underlying ground state corresponds to a novel Kondo regime in which the spin channel is gapless while the charge channel is gapped.
Sobota, Jonathan
2012-03-14
Using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the nonequilibrium dynamics of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. We studied p-type Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, in which the metallic Dirac surface state and bulk conduction bands are unoccupied. Optical excitation leads to a meta-stable population at the bulk conduction band edge, which feeds a nonequilibrium population of the surface state persisting for >10 ps. This unusually long-lived population of a metallic Dirac surface state with spin texture may present a channel in which to drive transient spin-polarized currents.
The direct magnetoelectric effect in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic epitaxial heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fina, I.; Dix, N.; Rebled, J. M.; Gemeiner, P.; Martí, X.; Peiró, F.; Dkhil, B.; Sánchez, F.; Fàbrega, L.; Fontcuberta, J.
2013-08-01
Ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) materials engineered in horizontal heterostructures allow interface-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. The so-called converse magnetoelectric effect (CME) has been already demonstrated by electric-field poling of the ferroelectric layers and subsequent modification of the magnetic state of adjacent ferromagnetic layers by strain effects and/or free-carrier density tuning. Here we focus on the direct magnetoelectric effect (DME) where the dielectric state of a ferroelectric thin film is modified by a magnetic field. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) and ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) oxide thin films have been used to create epitaxial FE/FM and FM/FE heterostructures on SrTiO3(001) substrates buffered with metallic SrRuO3. It will be shown that large ferroelectric polarization and DME can be obtained by appropriate selection of the stacking order of the FE and FM films and their relative thicknesses. The dielectric permittivity, at the structural transitions of BTO, is strongly modified (up to 36%) when measurements are performed under a magnetic field. Due to the insulating nature of the ferromagnetic layer and the concomitant absence of the electric-field effect, the observed DME effect solely results from the magnetostrictive response of CFO elastically coupled to the BTO layer. These findings show that appropriate architecture and materials selection allow overcoming substrate-induced clamping in multiferroic multi-layered films.Ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) materials engineered in horizontal heterostructures allow interface-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. The so-called converse magnetoelectric effect (CME) has been already demonstrated by electric-field poling of the ferroelectric layers and subsequent modification of the magnetic state of adjacent ferromagnetic layers by strain effects and/or free-carrier density tuning. Here we focus on the direct magnetoelectric effect (DME) where the dielectric state of a
Surface States Transport in Topological Insulator Bi_{0.83}Sb_{0.17} Nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Huber, T. E.; Ansermet, J.-P.
2016-12-01
We investigate the transport properties of topological insulator (TI) Bi_{0.83}Sb_{0.17} nanowires. Single-crystal nanowire samples with diameters ranging from 75 nm to 1.1 μ m are prepared using high frequency liquid phase casting in a glass capillary; cylindrical single crystals with (10bar{1}1) orientation along the wire axis are produced. Bi_{0.83}Sb_{0.17} is a narrow-gap semiconductor with an energy gap at the L point of the Brillouin zone, Δ E = 21 meV. The resistance of the samples increases with decreasing temperature, but a decrease in resistance is observed at low temperatures. This effect is a clear manifestation of TI properties (i.e., the presence of a highly conducting zone on the TI surface). When the diameter of the nanowire decreases, the energy gap Δ E grows as 1 / d (for diameter d = 1.1 μ m and d =75 nm Δ E = 21 and 45 meV, respectively), which proves the presence of the quantum size effect in these samples. We investigate the magnetoresistance of Bi_{0.83}Sb_{0.17} nanowires at various magnetic field orientations. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are observed in Bi_{0.83}Sb_{0.17} nanowires at T = 1.5 K, demonstrating the existence of high mobility (μ_S = 26{,}700-47{,}000 cm^2V^{-1}s^{-1}) two-dimensional (2D) carriers in the surface areas of the nanowires, which are nearly perpendicular to the C_3 axis. From the linear dependence of the nanowire conductance on nanowire diameter at T = 4.2 K, the square resistance R_sq of the surface states of the nanowires is obtained (R_sq =70 Ohm).
Owerre, S A
2016-06-15
We investigate an ultra-thin film of topological insulator (TI) multilayer as a model for a three-dimensional (3D) Weyl semimetal. We introduce tunneling parameters t S, [Formula: see text], and t D, where the former two parameters couple layers of the same thin film at small and large momenta, and the latter parameter couples neighbouring thin film layers along the z-direction. The Chern number is computed in each topological phase of the system and we find that for [Formula: see text], the tunneling parameter [Formula: see text] changes from positive to negative as the system transits from Weyl semi-metallic phase to insulating phases. We further study the chiral magnetic effect (CME) of the system in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field. We compute the low-temperature dependence of the chiral magnetic conductivity and show that it captures three distinct phases of the system separated by plateaus. Furthermore, we propose and study a 3D lattice model of Porphyrin thin film, an organic material known to support topological Frenkel exciton edge states. We show that this model exhibits a 3D Weyl semi-metallic phase and also supports a 2D Weyl semi-metallic phase. We further show that this model recovers that of 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. Thus, paving the way for simulating a 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. We obtain the surface states (Fermi arcs) in the 3D model and the chiral edge states in the 2D model and analyze their topological properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owerre, S. A.
2016-06-01
We investigate an ultra-thin film of topological insulator (TI) multilayer as a model for a three-dimensional (3D) Weyl semimetal. We introduce tunneling parameters t S, {{t}\\bot} , and t D, where the former two parameters couple layers of the same thin film at small and large momenta, and the latter parameter couples neighbouring thin film layers along the z-direction. The Chern number is computed in each topological phase of the system and we find that for {{t}\\text{S}},{{t}\\text{D}}>0 , the tunneling parameter {{t}\\bot} changes from positive to negative as the system transits from Weyl semi-metallic phase to insulating phases. We further study the chiral magnetic effect (CME) of the system in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field. We compute the low-temperature dependence of the chiral magnetic conductivity and show that it captures three distinct phases of the system separated by plateaus. Furthermore, we propose and study a 3D lattice model of Porphyrin thin film, an organic material known to support topological Frenkel exciton edge states. We show that this model exhibits a 3D Weyl semi-metallic phase and also supports a 2D Weyl semi-metallic phase. We further show that this model recovers that of 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. Thus, paving the way for simulating a 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. We obtain the surface states (Fermi arcs) in the 3D model and the chiral edge states in the 2D model and analyze their topological properties.
Strong nonlinear terahertz response induced by Dirac surface states in Bi2Se3 topological insulator.
Giorgianni, Flavio; Chiadroni, Enrica; Rovere, Andrea; Cestelli-Guidi, Mariangela; Perucchi, Andrea; Bellaveglia, Marco; Castellano, Michele; Di Giovenale, Domenico; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Ferrario, Massimo; Pompili, Riccardo; Vaccarezza, Cristina; Villa, Fabio; Cianchi, Alessandro; Mostacci, Andrea; Petrarca, Massimo; Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Oh, Seongshik; Lupi, Stefano
2016-04-26
Electrons with a linear energy/momentum dispersion are called massless Dirac electrons and represent the low-energy excitations in exotic materials such as graphene and topological insulators. Dirac electrons are characterized by notable properties such as a high mobility, a tunable density and, in topological insulators, a protection against backscattering through the spin-momentum locking mechanism. All those properties make graphene and topological insulators appealing for plasmonics applications. However, Dirac electrons are expected to present also a strong nonlinear optical behaviour. This should mirror in phenomena such as electromagnetic-induced transparency and harmonic generation. Here we demonstrate that in Bi2Se3 topological insulator, an electromagnetic-induced transparency is achieved under the application of a strong terahertz electric field. This effect, concomitantly determined by harmonic generation and charge-mobility reduction, is exclusively related to the presence of Dirac electron at the surface of Bi2Se3, and opens the road towards tunable terahertz nonlinear optical devices based on topological insulator materials.
Strong nonlinear terahertz response induced by Dirac surface states in Bi2Se3 topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giorgianni, Flavio; Chiadroni, Enrica; Rovere, Andrea; Cestelli-Guidi, Mariangela; Perucchi, Andrea; Bellaveglia, Marco; Castellano, Michele; di Giovenale, Domenico; di Pirro, Giampiero; Ferrario, Massimo; Pompili, Riccardo; Vaccarezza, Cristina; Villa, Fabio; Cianchi, Alessandro; Mostacci, Andrea; Petrarca, Massimo; Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Oh, Seongshik; Lupi, Stefano
2016-04-01
Electrons with a linear energy/momentum dispersion are called massless Dirac electrons and represent the low-energy excitations in exotic materials such as graphene and topological insulators. Dirac electrons are characterized by notable properties such as a high mobility, a tunable density and, in topological insulators, a protection against backscattering through the spin-momentum locking mechanism. All those properties make graphene and topological insulators appealing for plasmonics applications. However, Dirac electrons are expected to present also a strong nonlinear optical behaviour. This should mirror in phenomena such as electromagnetic-induced transparency and harmonic generation. Here we demonstrate that in Bi2Se3 topological insulator, an electromagnetic-induced transparency is achieved under the application of a strong terahertz electric field. This effect, concomitantly determined by harmonic generation and charge-mobility reduction, is exclusively related to the presence of Dirac electron at the surface of Bi2Se3, and opens the road towards tunable terahertz nonlinear optical devices based on topological insulator materials.
A study of changes in foundation insulation levels in the United States
Christian, J.E. ); Voss, M.K. )
1992-10-01
For almost 10 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a small research effort with. the objective of working with the building industry to see that cost-effective foundation insulation levels are installed in all US buildings. One of the first discoveries in 1983--1984 was that less than 5% of the existing buildings had foundation insulation and less than 30% of new construction included foundation insulation. After producing foundation handbooks, actively working with energy code and standards groups (ASHRAE and Council of American Building Officials: Model Energy Code Committee) conducting told experiments, and developing computer models for predicting energy savings has any measurable progress been made toward the fulfillment of this DOE objective Also, in order to derive maximum energy savings impact for this ongoing research activity, market feedback of progress toward attainment of the objective is needed. Using the network of building experts available to the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials program, a short mail survey was developed, administered, and results analyzed. This study concludes that foundation insulation usage on new residential buildings has increased from 1982 levels of around 25% to 1992 levels of around 50%. Government handbooks and recent changes in local enforced codes and standards are identified as major contributors to this improvement. Progress has been made but more is needed to capture the remaining 40% of the foundations that should be insulated. Several issues are reported as obstacles that need to be overcome to capture the remainder of the foundation market.
A study of changes in foundation insulation levels in the United States
Christian, J.E.; Voss, M.K.
1992-10-01
For almost 10 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a small research effort with. the objective of working with the building industry to see that cost-effective foundation insulation levels are installed in all US buildings. One of the first discoveries in 1983--1984 was that less than 5% of the existing buildings had foundation insulation and less than 30% of new construction included foundation insulation. After producing foundation handbooks, actively working with energy code and standards groups (ASHRAE and Council of American Building Officials: Model Energy Code Committee) conducting told experiments, and developing computer models for predicting energy savings has any measurable progress been made toward the fulfillment of this DOE objective? Also, in order to derive maximum energy savings impact for this ongoing research activity, market feedback of progress toward attainment of the objective is needed. Using the network of building experts available to the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials program, a short mail survey was developed, administered, and results analyzed. This study concludes that foundation insulation usage on new residential buildings has increased from 1982 levels of around 25% to 1992 levels of around 50%. Government handbooks and recent changes in local enforced codes and standards are identified as major contributors to this improvement. Progress has been made but more is needed to capture the remaining 40% of the foundations that should be insulated. Several issues are reported as obstacles that need to be overcome to capture the remainder of the foundation market.
Strong nonlinear terahertz response induced by Dirac surface states in Bi2Se3 topological insulator
Giorgianni, Flavio; Chiadroni, Enrica; Rovere, Andrea; Cestelli-Guidi, Mariangela; Perucchi, Andrea; Bellaveglia, Marco; Castellano, Michele; Di Giovenale, Domenico; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Ferrario, Massimo; Pompili, Riccardo; Vaccarezza, Cristina; Villa, Fabio; Cianchi, Alessandro; Mostacci, Andrea; Petrarca, Massimo; Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Oh, Seongshik; Lupi, Stefano
2016-01-01
Electrons with a linear energy/momentum dispersion are called massless Dirac electrons and represent the low-energy excitations in exotic materials such as graphene and topological insulators. Dirac electrons are characterized by notable properties such as a high mobility, a tunable density and, in topological insulators, a protection against backscattering through the spin–momentum locking mechanism. All those properties make graphene and topological insulators appealing for plasmonics applications. However, Dirac electrons are expected to present also a strong nonlinear optical behaviour. This should mirror in phenomena such as electromagnetic-induced transparency and harmonic generation. Here we demonstrate that in Bi2Se3 topological insulator, an electromagnetic-induced transparency is achieved under the application of a strong terahertz electric field. This effect, concomitantly determined by harmonic generation and charge-mobility reduction, is exclusively related to the presence of Dirac electron at the surface of Bi2Se3, and opens the road towards tunable terahertz nonlinear optical devices based on topological insulator materials. PMID:27113395
Zheng, Guolin; Wang, Ning; Yang, Jiyong; Wang, Weike; Du, Haifeng; Ning, Wei; Yang, Zhaorong; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Zhang, Yuheng; Tian, Mingliang
2016-01-01
Many exotic physics anticipated in topological insulators require a gap to be opened for their topological surface states by breaking time reversal symmetry. The gap opening has been achieved by doping magnetic impurities, which however inevitably create extra carriers and disorder that undermine the electronic transport. In contrast, the proximity to a ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic insulator may improve the device quality, thus promises a better way to open the gap while minimizing the side-effects. Here, we grow thin single-crystal Sb1.9Bi0.1Te3 micro flakes on insulating ferrimagnet BaFe12O19 by using the van der Waals epitaxy technique. The micro flakes show a negative magnetoresistance in weak perpendicular fields below 50 K, which can be quenched by increasing temperature. The signature implies the weak localization effect as its origin, which is absent in intrinsic topological insulators, unless a surface state gap is opened. The surface state gap is estimated to be 10 meV by using the theory of the gap-induced weak localization effect. These results indicate that the magnetic proximity effect may open the gap for the topological surface attached to BaM insulating ferrimagnet. This heterostructure may pave the way for the realization of new physical effects as well as the potential applications of spintronics devices. PMID:26891682
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Guolin; Wang, Ning; Yang, Jiyong; Wang, Weike; Du, Haifeng; Ning, Wei; Yang, Zhaorong; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Zhang, Yuheng; Tian, Mingliang
2016-02-01
Many exotic physics anticipated in topological insulators require a gap to be opened for their topological surface states by breaking time reversal symmetry. The gap opening has been achieved by doping magnetic impurities, which however inevitably create extra carriers and disorder that undermine the electronic transport. In contrast, the proximity to a ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic insulator may improve the device quality, thus promises a better way to open the gap while minimizing the side-effects. Here, we grow thin single-crystal Sb1.9Bi0.1Te3 micro flakes on insulating ferrimagnet BaFe12O19 by using the van der Waals epitaxy technique. The micro flakes show a negative magnetoresistance in weak perpendicular fields below 50 K, which can be quenched by increasing temperature. The signature implies the weak localization effect as its origin, which is absent in intrinsic topological insulators, unless a surface state gap is opened. The surface state gap is estimated to be 10 meV by using the theory of the gap-induced weak localization effect. These results indicate that the magnetic proximity effect may open the gap for the topological surface attached to BaM insulating ferrimagnet. This heterostructure may pave the way for the realization of new physical effects as well as the potential applications of spintronics devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, James Jun; Zhou, Tong; Gu, Z. C.; Law, K. T.
When a magnetic field is applied to a quantum spin Hall insulator (QSHI) without inversion symmetry, the edge states become gapful due to the breaking of time reversal symmetry (TRS) and the QSHI becomes a trivial spin Hall insulator (SHI) whose Chern number is N = 0 . In this work we show that disorder can drive such a SHI to a Chern insulator (CI) with N = 1 which supports a gapless chiral edge state. This CI exists in a finite range of disorder strength. Interestingly, the edge state is protected by the bulk mobility gap instead of an energy gap. For this reason, the new phase is called an Anderson Chern insulator (ACI).
Reiff, W M; Frommen, C M; Yee, G T; Sellers, S P
2000-05-15
The origins of the extraordinarily large internal hyperfine field (62.4 T) for the three-dimensional (weak) ferromagnetically ordered ground state of alpha-Fe(OETAP) are discussed semiquantitatively in terms of existing physical theory. In particular, the classical Fermi-contact contribution to the internal field is found to be highly enhanced by a very large orbital contribution and a significant dipolar term of the same sign. A rationale for the unexpected ordering of this S = 1 non-Kramers system is also presented.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng
2015-08-25
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We present the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. Furthermore, we discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng
2015-08-25
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We presentmore » the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. Furthermore, we discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.« less
Magnetism and Metal-Insulator Transition in Fe(Sb1−xTex)2
Petrovic, C.; Hu, R.; Mitrovic, V.F.
2009-02-09
We have investigated structural, magnetic, and transport properties of Fe(Sb{sub 1-x}Te{sub x}){sub 2} single crystals. Whereas metallic ground state is induced for x = 0.001, canted antiferromagnetism is observed for 0.1 {le} x {le} 0.4 with an intermediate ferromagnetic phase for x = 0.2. With higher Te doping, semiconducting behavior is restored and the variable range hopping conduction mechanism dominates at low temperatures for 0.4 {le} x {le} 0.6. We discuss our results within the framework of inverted metal to insulator in correlated electron insulators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngabonziza, Prosper; Stehno, Martin, P.; Myoren, Hiroaki; Brinkman, Alexander
In recent years, extensive efforts have been made to improve the coupling between topological insulators and s-wave superconductors in topological insulator Josephson devices (TIJDs). Despite significant progress, essential questions remain open such as the bulk contribution to the Josephson critical current or the existence (and number) of 4 π -periodic bound states (Majoranas) in TIJDs. To address these issues, we fabricated Nb/Bi2Te3/Nb Josephson junctions alongside Hall bar devices on MBE-grown Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films. Using the SrTiO3 [111] substrate as a gate dielectric, we tuned the carrier density electrostatically and measured the Josephson supercurrent and the normal state transport properties of our thin film devices. We identify three gate voltage ranges with distinct behavior: A region of intermediate gate bias where the measured quantities change rapidly with the applied electric field, and two saturation regions for large bias of either polarity. We discuss carrier distribution and band alignment in the material as well as implications for the effective Josephson coupling in TIJDs. This work is financially supported by the Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), and by the European Research Council (ERC).
Reversible tuning of the surface state in a pseudobinary Bi2(Te-Se)3 topological insulator
Jiang, Rui; Wang, Lin-Lin; Huang, Mianliang; Dhaka, Rajendra S.; Johnson, Duane D.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Kaminski, Adam
2012-08-10
We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study a nontrivial surface state in a pseudobinary Bi2Te2.8Se0.2 topological insulator. We show that, unlike previously studied binaries, this is an intrinsic topological insulator with the conduction bulk band residing well above the chemical potential. Our data indicate that under a good vacuum condition there are no significant aging effects for more than two weeks after cleaving. We also demonstrate that the shift of the Kramers point at low temperature is caused by UV-assisted absorption of molecular hydrogen. Our findings pave the way for applications of these materials in devices and present an easy scheme to tune their properties.
Josephson current in a graphene SG/ferromagnetic barrier/SG junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soodchomshom, Bumned; Tang, I.-Ming; Hoonsawat, Rassmidara
2008-12-01
The Josephson current passing through a SG1/FB/SG2 graphene junction, where SG and FB are those parts of a graphene layer which are induced into the superconducting state and into the ferromagnetic state, respectively, and where the small thickness of the FB layer L is studied. The ferromagnetic barrier strength is taken to be given by χH ∼ HL/ℏvF, where H is the strength of the exchange energy and vF ∼ 106m/s is the Fermi velocity of quasiparticles. The eigenstates of the relativistic quasiparticles in the graphene are taken to be the solutions of the Dirac Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. It is found that the energy levels of the Andreev bound states for the Weyl-Dirac particles in the SG1/FB/SG2 junction are independent of the direction of the spins and that they depend on the strength of ferromagnetic barrier potential. The critical supercurrent is seen to vary in an oscillatory (periodic) manner as χH is varied. The oscillatory behavior of the critical supercurrent carried by the Cooper pairs formed by massless the Weyl-Dirac particles is different from the behavior of the supercurrent carried by the Cooper pairs formed by non-relativistic particles in a conventional SC/FI/SC (FI being a ferromagnetic insulator) junction. In those types of junctions, the supercurrent does not exhibit a similar oscillatory dependence.
Evidence of superconductivity on the border of quasi-2D ferromagnetism in Ca2RuO4 at high pressure.
Alireza, Patricia Lebre; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Goh, Swee Kuan; Maeno, Yoshiteru; Nakatsuji, Satoru; Ko, Yuen Ting Chris; Sutherland, Michael; Julian, Stephen; Lonzarich, Gilbert George
2010-02-10
The layered perovskite Ca(2)RuO(4) is a spin-one Mott insulator at ambient pressure and exhibits metallic ferromagnetism at least up to ∼ 80 kbar with a maximum Curie temperature of 28 K. Above ∼ 90 and up to 140 kbar, the highest pressure reached, the resistivity and ac susceptibility show pronounced downturns below ∼ 0.4 K in applied magnetic fields of up to ∼ 10 mT. This indicates that our specimens of Ca(2)RuO(4) are weakly superconducting on the border of a quasi-2D ferromagnetic state.
Mirror-symmetry protected non-TRIM surface state in the weak topological insulator Bi2TeI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rusinov, I. P.; Menshchikova, T. V.; Isaeva, A.; Eremeev, S. V.; Koroteev, Yu. M.; Vergniory, M. G.; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E. V.
2016-02-01
Strong topological insulators (TIs) support topological surfaces states on any crystal surface. In contrast, a weak, time-reversal-symmetry-driven TI with at least one non-zero v1, v2, v3 ℤ2 index should host spin-locked topological surface states on the surfaces that are not parallel to the crystal plane with Miller indices (v1 v2 v3). On the other hand, mirror symmetry can protect an even number of topological states on the surfaces that are perpendicular to a mirror plane. Various symmetries in a bulk material with a band inversion can independently preordain distinct crystal planes for realization of topological states. Here we demonstrate the first instance of coexistence of both phenomena in the weak 3D TI Bi2TeI which (v1 v2 v3) surface hosts a gapless spin-split surface state protected by the crystal mirror-symmetry. The observed topological state has an even number of crossing points in the directions of the 2D Brillouin zone due to a non-TRIM bulk-band inversion. Our findings shed light on hitherto uncharted features of the electronic structure of weak topological insulators and open up new vistas for applications of these materials in spintronics.
Mirror-symmetry protected non-TRIM surface state in the weak topological insulator Bi2TeI
Rusinov, I. P.; Menshchikova, T. V.; Isaeva, A.; Eremeev, S. V.; Koroteev, Yu. M.; Vergniory, M. G.; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E. V.
2016-01-01
Strong topological insulators (TIs) support topological surfaces states on any crystal surface. In contrast, a weak, time-reversal-symmetry-driven TI with at least one non-zero v1, v2, v3 ℤ2 index should host spin-locked topological surface states on the surfaces that are not parallel to the crystal plane with Miller indices (v1 v2 v3). On the other hand, mirror symmetry can protect an even number of topological states on the surfaces that are perpendicular to a mirror plane. Various symmetries in a bulk material with a band inversion can independently preordain distinct crystal planes for realization of topological states. Here we demonstrate the first instance of coexistence of both phenomena in the weak 3D TI Bi2TeI which (v1 v2 v3) surface hosts a gapless spin-split surface state protected by the crystal mirror-symmetry. The observed topological state has an even number of crossing points in the directions of the 2D Brillouin zone due to a non-TRIM bulk-band inversion. Our findings shed light on hitherto uncharted features of the electronic structure of weak topological insulators and open up new vistas for applications of these materials in spintronics. PMID:26864814
Song, Qi; Mi, Jian; Zhao, Dan; Su, Tang; Yuan, Wei; Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Tianyu; Wu, Tao; Chen, Xian Hui; Xie, X C; Zhang, Chi; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei
2016-11-11
There has been considerable interest in exploiting the spin degrees of freedom of electrons for potential information storage and computing technologies. Topological insulators (TIs), a class of quantum materials, have special gapless edge/surface states, where the spin polarization of the Dirac fermions is locked to the momentum direction. This spin-momentum locking property gives rise to very interesting spin-dependent physical phenomena such as the Edelstein and inverse Edelstein effects. However, the spin injection in pure surface states of TI is very challenging because of the coexistence of the highly conducting bulk states. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the spin injection and observe the inverse Edelstein effect in the surface states of a topological Kondo insulator, SmB6. At low temperatures when only surface carriers are present, a clear spin signal is observed. Furthermore, the magnetic field angle dependence of the spin signal is consistent with spin-momentum locking property of surface states of SmB6.
Weak Anti-localization and Quantum Oscillations of Surface States in Topological Insulator Bi2Se2Te
He, Liang; Meyer, Nicholas; Kou, Xufeng; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Zhi-gang; Fedorov, Alexei V.; Zou, Jin; Riedemann, Trevor M.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Wang, Kang L.; Tuttle, Gary; Xiu, Faxian
2012-01-01
Topological insulators, a new quantum state of matter, create exciting opportunities for studying topological quantum physics and for exploring spintronic applications due to their gapless helical metallic surface states. Here, we report the observation of weak anti-localization and quantum oscillations originated from surface states in Bi2Se2Te crystals. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements on cleaved Bi2Se2Te crystals show a well-defined linear dispersion without intersection of the conduction band. The measured weak anti-localization effect agrees well with the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model and the extracted phase coherent length shows a power-law dependence with temperature (∼T−0.44), indicating the presence of the surface states. More importantly, the analysis of a Landau-level fan diagram of Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations yields a finite Berry phase of ∼0.42π, suggesting the Dirac nature of the surface states. Our results demonstrate that Bi2Se2Te can serve as a suitable topological insulator candidate for achieving intrinsic quantum transport of surface Dirac fermions. PMID:23061009
Weak anti-localization and quantum oscillations of surface states in topological insulator Bi₂Se₂Te.
Bao, Lihong; He, Liang; Meyer, Nicholas; Kou, Xufeng; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Fedorov, Alexei V; Zou, Jin; Riedemann, Trevor M; Lograsso, Thomas A; Wang, Kang L; Tuttle, Gary; Xiu, Faxian
2012-01-01
Topological insulators, a new quantum state of matter, create exciting opportunities for studying topological quantum physics and for exploring spintronic applications due to their gapless helical metallic surface states. Here, we report the observation of weak anti-localization and quantum oscillations originated from surface states in Bi₂Se₂Te crystals. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements on cleaved Bi₂Se₂Te crystals show a well-defined linear dispersion without intersection of the conduction band. The measured weak anti-localization effect agrees well with the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model and the extracted phase coherent length shows a power-law dependence with temperature (l(Φ)∼T⁻⁰·⁴⁴), indicating the presence of the surface states. More importantly, the analysis of a Landau-level fan diagram of Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations yields a finite Berry phase of ∼0.42π, suggesting the Dirac nature of the surface states. Our results demonstrate that Bi₂Se₂Te can serve as a suitable topological insulator candidate for achieving intrinsic quantum transport of surface Dirac fermions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Qi; Mi, Jian; Zhao, Dan; Su, Tang; Yuan, Wei; Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Tianyu; Wu, Tao; Chen, Xian Hui; Xie, X. C.; Zhang, Chi; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei
2016-11-01
There has been considerable interest in exploiting the spin degrees of freedom of electrons for potential information storage and computing technologies. Topological insulators (TIs), a class of quantum materials, have special gapless edge/surface states, where the spin polarization of the Dirac fermions is locked to the momentum direction. This spin-momentum locking property gives rise to very interesting spin-dependent physical phenomena such as the Edelstein and inverse Edelstein effects. However, the spin injection in pure surface states of TI is very challenging because of the coexistence of the highly conducting bulk states. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the spin injection and observe the inverse Edelstein effect in the surface states of a topological Kondo insulator, SmB6. At low temperatures when only surface carriers are present, a clear spin signal is observed. Furthermore, the magnetic field angle dependence of the spin signal is consistent with spin-momentum locking property of surface states of SmB6.
Song, Qi; Mi, Jian; Zhao, Dan; Su, Tang; Yuan, Wei; Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Tianyu; Wu, Tao; Chen, Xian Hui; Xie, X. C.; Zhang, Chi; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei
2016-01-01
There has been considerable interest in exploiting the spin degrees of freedom of electrons for potential information storage and computing technologies. Topological insulators (TIs), a class of quantum materials, have special gapless edge/surface states, where the spin polarization of the Dirac fermions is locked to the momentum direction. This spin–momentum locking property gives rise to very interesting spin-dependent physical phenomena such as the Edelstein and inverse Edelstein effects. However, the spin injection in pure surface states of TI is very challenging because of the coexistence of the highly conducting bulk states. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the spin injection and observe the inverse Edelstein effect in the surface states of a topological Kondo insulator, SmB6. At low temperatures when only surface carriers are present, a clear spin signal is observed. Furthermore, the magnetic field angle dependence of the spin signal is consistent with spin–momentum locking property of surface states of SmB6. PMID:27834378
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majd, Nayereh; Ghasemi, Zahra
2016-10-01
We have investigated a TPTQ state as an input state of a non-ideal ferromagnetic detectors. Minimal spin polarization required to demonstrate spin entanglement according to entanglement witness and CHSH inequality with respect to (w.r.t.) their two free parameters have been found, and we have numerically shown that the entanglement witness is less stringent than the direct tests of Bell's inequality in the form of CHSH in the entangled limits of its free parameters. In addition, the lower limits of spin detection efficiency fulfilling secure cryptographic key against eavesdropping have been derived. Finally, we have considered TPTQ state as an output of spin decoherence channel and the region of ballistic transmission time w.r.t. spin relaxation time and spin dephasing time has been found.
van der Laan, G.; Edmonds, K. W.; Arenholz, E.; Farley, N. R. S.; Gallagher, B. L.
2010-03-30
We present a valence-state model to explain the characteristics of a recently observed pre-edge feature in Mn L{sub 3} x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) of ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As and (Al,Ga,Mn)As thin films. The prepeak XMCD shows a uniaxial anisotropy, contrary to the cubic symmetry of the main structures induced by the crystalline electric field. Reversing the strain in the host lattice reverses the sign of the uniaxial anisotropy. With increasing carrier localization, the prepeak height increases, indicating an increasing 3d character of the hybridized holes. Hence, the feature is ascribed to transitions from the Mn 2p core level to unoccupied p-d hybridized valence states. The characteristics of the prepeak are readily reproduced by the model calculation taking into account the symmetry of the strain-, spin-orbit-, and exchange-split valence states around the zone center.
Emergent incommensurate correlations in frustrated ferromagnetic spin-1 chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyeong Jun; Choi, MooYoung; Jeon, Gun Sang
2017-01-01
We study frustrated ferromagnetic spin-1 chains, where the ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor coupling competes with the antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor coupling. We use the density-matrix renormalization group to obtain the ground states. Through the analysis of spin-spin correlations we identify the double Haldane phase as well as the ferromagnetic phase. It is shown that the ferromagnetic coupling leads to incommensurate correlations in the double Haldane phase. Such short-range correlations transform continuously into the ferromagnetic instability at the transition to the ferromagnetic phase. We also compare the results with the spin-1/2 and classical spin systems and discuss the string orders in the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yalcin, Battal Gazi
2016-06-01
The ground state properties namely structural, mechanical, electronic and magnetic properties and thermoelectric behavior of Ru2VZ (Z=Si, Ge and Sn) half-metallic ferromagnetic full-Heusler compounds are systematically investigated. These compounds are ferromagnetic and crystallize in the Heusler type L21 structure (prototype: Cu2MnAl, Fm-3m 225). This result is confirmed for Ru2VSi and Ru2VSn by experimental work reported by Yin and Nash using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The studied materials are half-metallic ferromagnets with a narrow direct band gap in the minority spin channel that amounts to 31 meV, 66 meV and 14 meV for Ru2VSi, Ru2VGe, and Ru2VSn, respectively. The total spin magnetic moment (Mtot) of the considered compounds satisfies a Slater-Pauling type rule for localized magnetic moment systems (Mtot=(NV-24)μB), where NV=25 is the number of valence electrons in the primitive cell. The Curie temperature within the random phase approximation (RPA) is found to be 23 K, 126 K and 447 K for Ru2VSi, Ru2VGe and Ru2VSn, respectively. Semi-classical Boltzmann transport theories have been used to obtain thermoelectric constants, such as Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical (σ/τ) and thermal conductivity (κ/τ), power factor (PF) and the Pauli magnetic susceptibility (χ). ZTMAX values of 0.016 (350 K), 0.033 (380 K) and 0.063 (315 K) are achieved for Ru2VSi, Ru2VGe and Ru2VSn, respectively. It is expected that the obtained results might be a trigger in future experimentally interest in this type of full-Heusler compounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Rohr, Fabian; Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Grundmann, Henrik; Guguchia, Zurab; Schnick, Wolfgang; Schilling, Andreas
2016-07-01
We report on the magnetic properties of CsCo2Se2 with ThCr2Si2 structure, which we have characterized through a series of magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. We find that CsCo2Se2 undergoes a phase transition to an antiferromagnetically ordered state with a Néel temperature of {{T}\\text{N}}≈ 66 K. The nearest neighbour interactions are ferromagnetic as observed by the positive Curie-Weiss temperature of \\Theta≈ 51.0 K. We find that the magnetic structure of CsCo2Se2 consists of ferromagnetic sheets, which are stacked antiferromagnetically along the tetragonal c-axis, generally referred to as A-type antiferromagnetic order. The observed magnitude of the ordered magnetic moment at T = 1.5 K is found to be only 0.20(1){μ\\text{Bohr}} / Co. Already in comparably small magnetic fields of {μ0}H{{}\\text{MM}}(5~K)≈ 0.3 T, we observe a metamagnetic transition that can be attributed to spin-rearrangements of CsCo2Se2, with the moments fully ferromagnetically saturated in a magnetic field of {μ0}{{H}\\text{FM}}(5~K)≈ 6.4 T. We discuss the entire experimentally deduced magnetic phase diagram for CsCo2Se2 with respect to its unconventionally weak magnetic coupling. Our study characterizes CsCo2Se2, which is chemically and electronically posed closely to the A x Fe2-y Se2 superconductors, as a host of versatile magnetic interactions.
Anomalous charge and negative-charge-transfer insulating state in cuprate chain compound KCuO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhury, D.; Rivero, P.; Meyers, D.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Middey, S.; Whitaker, M. J.; Barraza-Lopez, S.; Freeland, J. W.; Greenblatt, M.; Chakhalian, J.
2015-11-01
Using a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that insulating KCuO2 contains Cu in an unusually high formal 3+ valence state, and the ligand-to-metal (O-to-Cu) charge-transfer energy is intriguingly negative (Δ ˜-1.5 eV) and has a dominant (˜60 % ) ligand-hole character in the ground state akin to the high Tc cuprate Zhang-Rice state. Unlike most other formal Cu3 + compounds, the Cu 2 p XAS spectra of KCuO2 exhibit pronounced 3 d8 (Cu3 +) multiplet structures, which account for ˜40 % of its ground state wave function. Ab initio calculations elucidate the origin of the band gap in KCuO2 as arising primarily from strong intracluster Cu 3 d -O 2 p hybridizations (tpd); the value of the band gap decreases with a reduced value of tpd. Further, unlike conventional negative-charge-transfer insulators, the band gap in KCuO2 persists even for vanishing values of Coulomb repulsion U , underscoring the importance of single-particle band-structure effects connected to the one-dimensional nature of the compound.
Topological magnon bands in ferromagnetic star lattice.
Owerre, S A
2017-05-10
The experimental observation of topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect in a kagomé lattice ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc) has inspired the search for topological magnon effects in various insulating ferromagnets that lack an inversion center allowing a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction. The star lattice (also known as the decorated honeycomb lattice) ferromagnet is an ideal candidate for this purpose because it is a variant of the kagomé lattice with additional links that connect the up-pointing and down-pointing triangles. This gives rise to twice the unit cell of the kagomé lattice, and hence more interesting topological magnon effects. In particular, the triangular bridges on the star lattice can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically which is not possible on the kagomé lattice ferromagnets. Here, we study DM-induced topological magnon bands, chiral edge modes, and thermal magnon Hall effect on the star lattice ferromagnet in different parameter regimes. The star lattice can also be visualized as the parent material from which topological magnon bands can be realized for the kagomé and honeycomb lattices in some limiting cases.
To the problem of positron states in metal-insulator nanosandwiches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babich, A. V.; Vakula, P. V.; Pogosov, V. V.
2015-01-01
The potential profiles, wave functions, energies of surface subbands, and lifetimes of positrons in aluminum nanofilms bordering insulators (solid inert gases and SiO2) have been calculated self-consistently in the previously proposed models. The size effects and the influence of the effective masses of electrons and positrons on the energy and annihilation characteristics in systems with double potential wells formed by image potentials have been investigated. The possibility of localizing a positronium atom in nanosandwiches has been discussed.
A suggestion for making the ferromagnetism at perovskite oxide interfaces robust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguli, Nirmal; Kelly, Paul
2014-03-01
LaAlO3 | SrTiO3 heterostructures have received much attention following observations of ferromagnetism, superconductivity and of an insulator to metal transition at the interface between otherwise conventional band insulators. One of the challenges posed by recent observations is to understand how high mobility charge carriers and local magnetic moments can coexist at n-type interfaces where the lack of a detailed knowledge of the interface structure from experiment is a major impediment to understanding these physical properties. A more extensive first principles study of the ferromagnetically ordered state found for modest values of Hubbard U in the presence of GdFeO3-type octahedral tilts at the interface suggests that it should be possible to make the interface ferromagnetism more robust by enhancing the octahedral tilts. We screened a number of oxide interfaces with first principles calculations and identified the LaAlO3 | CaTiO3 (001) interface as the most promising candidate in the large charge transfer limit, owing to the large intrinsic tilt of TiO6 octahedra in CaTiO3.
Strain induced Z{sub 2} topological insulating state of β-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}
Pal, Koushik; Waghmare, Umesh V.
2014-08-11
Topological insulators are non-trivial quantum states of matter which exhibit a gap in the electronic structure of their bulk form, but a gapless metallic electronic spectrum at the surface. Here, we predict a uniaxial strain induced electronic topological transition (ETT) from a band to topological insulating state in the rhombohedral phase (space group: R3{sup ¯}m) of As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (β-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) through first-principles calculations including spin-orbit coupling within density functional theory. The ETT in β-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is shown to occur at the uniaxial strain ϵ{sub zz} = −0.05 (σ{sub zz} = 1.77 GPa), passing through a Weyl metallic state with a single Dirac cone in its electronic structure at the Γ point. We demonstrate the ETT through band inversion and reversal of parity of the top of the valence and bottom of the conduction bands leading to change in the ℤ{sub 2} topological invariant ν{sub 0} from 0 to 1 across the transition. Based on its electronic structure and phonon dispersion, we propose ultra-thin films of As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} to be promising for use in ultra-thin stress sensors, charge pumps, and thermoelectrics.
Thermomagnonic spin transfer and Peltier effects in insulating magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalev, Alexey A.
2012-02-01
The recent discovery of the spin Seebeck effect [1] in metals, insulators and semiconductors stimulated development of spincaloritronics [2]. The possibility of measuring the Onsager reciprocal spin Peltier effect has been investigated recently as well. In our theoretical work [3], we study the fictitious electromagnetic fields induced by magnetic textures which may offer an alternative route for observing the spin Peltier effect. Particularly, in an insulating ferromagnet a moving magnetic texture should effectively drive the spin (wave) current which in turn should lead to the heat current by the spin Peltier effect. We further study the coupled magnon energy transport and collective magnetization dynamics in ferromagnets with magnetic textures. We conclude that the analogy between the fictitious electromagnetic fields and real fields should lead to magnonic counterparts of such effects as the Hall effect, the Ettingshausen effect, the Nernst effect, and the Righi-Leduc effect. By constructing a phenomenological theory based on irreversible thermodynamics, we describe motion of domain walls by thermal gradients and generation of heat flows by magnetization dynamics. From microscopic description based on magnon kinetics, we estimate the transport coefficients and analyze the feasibility of energy-related applications (e.g. nanoscale heat pumps [4]) in insulating ferromagnets, such as yttrium iron garnet and europium oxide. Our estimates show that the viscous coupling effects between magnetization dynamics and magnon flows can be strong in materials with low spin densities (e.g. dilute magnetic systems) and narrow domain walls, which can allow the magnonic manipulation of magnetization dynamics and heat pumping.[4pt] [1] K. Uchida et al. Nature 455, 778 (2008).[0pt] [2] G. E. W. Bauer, A. H. MacDonald, S. Maekawa, Solid State Commun. 150, 459 (2010).[0pt] [3] A. A. Kovalev and Y. Tserkovnayk, arXiv:1106.3135.[0pt] [4] A. A. Kovalev and Y. Tserkovnyak, Solid State
Takagaki, Y.
2015-08-07
The helical edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) experience appreciable quantum mechanical scattering in narrow channels when the width changes abruptly. The interference of the geometry scattering in narrow-wide-narrow waveguide structures is shown to give rise to the strong suppression of transmission when the incident energy is barely above the propagation threshold. Periodic resonant transmission takes place in this high reflection regime while the length of the wide section is varied. The resonance condition is governed by the transverse confinement in the wide section, where the form of quantization is manifested to differ for the two orthogonal directions. The confined energy levels in TI quantum dots are derived based on this observation. In addition, the off-diagonal spin-orbit term is found to produce an anomalous resonance state, which merges with the bottom ordinary resonance state to annihilate.
Theory of disordered Heisenberg ferromagnets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stubbs, R. M.
1973-01-01
A Green's function technique is used to calculate the magnetic properties of Heisenberg ferromagnets in which the exchange interactions deviate randomly in strength from the mean interaction. Systems of sc, bcc, and fcc topologies and of general spin values are treated. Disorder produces marked effects in the density of spin wave states, in the form of enhancement of the low-energy density and extension of the energy band to higher values. The spontaneous magnetization and the Curie temperature decrease with increasing disorder. The effects of disorder are shown to be more pronounced in the ferromagnetic than in the paramagnetic phase.
Interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity in tunneling currents.
Grønsleth, M S; Linder, J; Børven, J-M; Sudbø, A
2006-10-06
We study tunneling currents in a model consisting of two nonunitary ferromagnetic spin-triplet superconductors separated by a thin insulating layer. We find a novel interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity, manifested in the Josephson effect. This offers the possibility of tuning dissipationless currents of charge and spin in a well-defined manner by adjusting the magnetization direction on either side of the junction.
Ferromagnetism in multiband Hubbard models: From weak to strong Coulomb repulsion
Penc, K.; Shiba, H.; Mila, F.; Tsukagoshi, T.
1996-08-01
We propose a mechanism which can lead to ferromagnetism in Hubbard models containing triangles with different on-site energies. It is based on an effective Hamiltonian that we derive in the strong coupling limit. Considering a one-dimensional realization of the model, we show that in the quarter-filled, insulating case the ground state is actually ferromagnetic in a very large parameter range going from Tasaki{close_quote}s flatband limit to the strong coupling limit of the effective Hamiltonian. This result has been obtained using a variety of analytical and numerical techniques. Finally, the same results are shown to apply away from quarter-filling, in the metallic case. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Strain controlled orbital state and magnetization in insulating LaMnO3+δ films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, A. M.; Cheng, S. L.; Lin, J. G.; Wu, X. S.
2015-05-01
LaMnO3+δ films with various thicknesses were grown on LaAlO3 (001) single crystal substrate to investigate the effect of in-plane compressive strain (˜-0.57%) on magnetic properties. All films exhibit a blocking temperature Tb at which the zero field cooled magnetization reaches a maximum, indicating the ferromagnetic (FM) nanoclusters are embedded in the background of antiferromagnetic (AFM) matrix. The onset temperature of FM transition Tc and Tb is increased by 24% and 89%, respectively, with the thickness decreasing from 82.4 nm to 9.2 nm. Simultaneously, the saturation magnetization greatly increases by 309%, which is ascribed to the strain-induced transition of AFM to FM phase due to the orbital order structure switching from x2- 1/y2-1 [A-type] to (x2- y2) + (z2- 1) [F-type].
Asymmetric Ferromagnet-Superconductor-Ferromagnet Switch
Cadden-Zimansky, P.; Bazaliy, Ya.B.; Litvak, L.M.; Jiang, J.S.; Pearson, J.; Gu, J.Y.; You, Chun-Yeol; Beasley, M.R.; Bader, S.D.
2011-11-04
In layered ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet F{sub 1} /S/F{sub 2} structures, the critical temperature T{sub c} of the superconductors depends on the magnetic orientation of the ferromagnetic layers F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} relative to each other. So far, the experimentally observed magnitude of change in T{sub c} for structures utilizing weak ferromagnets has been 2 orders of magnitude smaller than is expected from calculations. We theoretically show that such a discrepancy can result from the asymmetry of F/S boundaries, and we test this possibility by performing experiments on structures where F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} are independently varied. Our experimental results indicate that asymmetric boundaries are not the source of the discrepancy. If boundary asymmetry is causing the suppressed magnitude of T{sub c} changes, it may only be possible to detect in structures with thinner ferromagnetic layers.
Control of magnetic direction in multi-layer ferromagnetic devices by bias voltage
You, Chun-Yeol; Bader, Samuel D.
2001-01-01
A system for controlling the direction of magnetization of materials comprising a ferromagnetic device with first and second ferromagnetic layers. The ferromagnetic layers are disposed such that they combine to form an interlayer with exchange coupling. An insulating layer and a spacer layer are located between the first and second ferromagnetic layers. A direct bias voltage is applied to the interlayer exchange coupling, causing the direction of magnetization of the second ferromagnetic layer to change. This change of magnetization direction occurs in the absence of any applied external magnetic field.
Li, Yuan; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Tan, S. G.; Zhao, W.; Bai, R.; Zhou, G. H.
2014-01-01
Time-periodic perturbation can be used to modify the transport properties of the surface states of topological insulators, specifically their chiral tunneling property. Using the scattering matrix method, we study the tunneling transmission of the surface states of a topological insulator under the influence of a time-dependent potential and finite gate bias voltage. It is found that perfect transmission is obtained for electrons which are injected normally into the time-periodic potential region in the absence of any bias voltage. However, this signature of Klein tunneling is destroyed when a bias voltage is applied, with the transmission probability of normally incident electrons decreasing with increasing gate bias voltage. Likewise, the overall conductance of the system decreases significantly when a gate bias voltage is applied. The characteristic left-handed helicity of the transmitted spin polarization is also broken by the finite gate bias voltage. In addition, the time-dependent potential modifies the large-angle transmission profile, which exhibits an oscillatory or resonance-like behavior. Finally, time-dependent transport modes (with oscillating potential in the THz frequency) can result in enhanced overall conductance, irrespective of the presence or absence of the gate bias voltage. PMID:24713634
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Bing; Wu, Liang; Kushwaha, S. K.; Cava, R. J.; Armitage, N. P.
2016-11-01
Topological surface states have been extensively observed via optics in thin films of topological insulators. However, in typical thick single crystals of these materials, bulk states are dominant and it is difficult for optics to verify the existence of topological surface states definitively. In this Rapid Communication, we study the charge dynamics of the newly formulated bulk-insulating Sn-doped Bi1.1Sb0.9Te2S crystal by using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. This compound shows much better insulating behavior than any other bulk-insulating topological insulators reported previously. The transmission can be enhanced an amount which is 5 % of the zero-field transmission by applying magnetic field to 7 T, an effect which we believe is due to the suppression of topological surface states. This suppression is essentially independent of the thicknesses of the samples, showing the two-dimensional nature of the transport. The suppression of surface states in field allows us to use the crystal slab itself as a reference sample to extract the surface conductance, mobility, charge density, and scattering rate. Our measurements set the stage for the investigation of phenomena out of the semiclassical regime, such as the topological magnetoelectric effect.
Direct search for a ferromagnetic phase in a heavily overdoped nonsuperconducting copper oxide.
Sonier, J E; Kaiser, C V; Pacradouni, V; Sabok-Sayr, S A; Cochrane, C; MacLaughlin, D E; Komiya, S; Hussey, N E
2010-10-05
The doping of charge carriers into the CuO(2) planes of copper oxide Mott insulators causes a gradual destruction of antiferromagnetism and the emergence of high-temperature superconductivity. Optimal superconductivity is achieved at a doping concentration p beyond which further increases in doping cause a weakening and eventual disappearance of superconductivity. A potential explanation for this demise is that ferromagnetic fluctuations compete with superconductivity in the overdoped regime. In this case, a ferromagnetic phase at very low temperatures is predicted to exist beyond the doping concentration at which superconductivity disappears. Here we report on a direct examination of this scenario in overdoped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) using the technique of muon spin relaxation. We detect the onset of static magnetic moments of electronic origin at low temperature in the heavily overdoped nonsuperconducting region. However, the magnetism does not exist in a commensurate long-range ordered state. Instead it appears as a dilute concentration of static magnetic moments. This finding places severe restrictions on the form of ferromagnetism that may exist in the overdoped regime. Although an extrinsic impurity cannot be absolutely ruled out as the source of the magnetism that does occur, the results presented here lend support to electronic band calculations that predict the occurrence of weak localized ferromagnetism at high doping.
Current-voltage characteristics of tunnel Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasenko, A. S.; Kawabata, S.; Golubov, A. A.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Lacroix, C.; Bergeret, F. S.; Hekking, F. W. J.
2011-07-01
We present a quantitative study of the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) of diffusive superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor (SIFS) tunnel Josephson junctions. In order to obtain the CVC we calculate the density of states (DOS) in the F/S bilayer for arbitrary length of the ferromagnetic layer, using quasiclassical theory. For a ferromagnetic layer thickness larger than the characteristic penetration depth of the superconducting condensate into the F layer, we find an analytical expression which agrees with the DOS obtained from a self-consistent numerical method. We discuss general properties of the DOS and its dependence on the parameters of the ferromagnetic layer. In particular we focus our analysis on the DOS oscillations at the Fermi energy. Using the numerically obtained DOS we calculate the corresponding CVC and discuss their properties. Finally, we use CVC to calculate the macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) escape rate for the current biased SIFS junctions by taking into account the dissipative correction due to the quasiparticle tunneling. We show that the influence of the quasiparticle dissipation on the macroscopic quantum dynamics of SIFS junctions is small, which is an advantage of SIFS junctions for superconducting qubits applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Ning; Zhang, Shengli; Liu, Daqing
2016-10-01
Recent experiments reveal that the strained bulk HgTe can be regarded as a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI). We further explore the strain effects on magnetotransport in HgTe at magnetic field. We find that the substrate strain associated with the surface index of carriers, can remove the surfaces degeneracy in Landau levels. This accordingly induces the well separated surface quantum Hall plateaus and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. These results can be used to generate and detect surface polarization, not only in HgTe but also in a broad class of TIs, which would be very great news for electronic applications of TIs.
The linear magnetoresistance from surface state of the Sb2SeTe2 topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Shiu-Ming; Yu, Shih-Hsun; Chou, Mitch
2016-06-01
A non-saturating linear magnetoresistance (MR) is observed in Sb2SeTe2 topological insulator. The results show that the MR slope and the critical magnetic field of the linear MR are proportional to the carrier mobility and inverse mobility, respectively. These are consistent with the prediction of a model, which is constructed by Parish and Littlewood [Nature 426, 162 (2003)], in the weak mobility fluctuation condition. The Kohler plot of the magnetoresistance does not collapse onto a single curve that supports the multi-carriers scattering mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gvozdenac, Dušan
2015-02-01
A method for determining k-value of insulated bodies at variable external temperatures is proposed, theoretically described and results of experimental verification are presented in this paper. Theoretical analyses include descriptions of both physical and mathematical models and definition of the extrapolation formula. The method is tested in laboratory conditions on a simple model of insulated chamber and compliance with all testing conditions prescribed by Agreement on Transport of Perishables. The advantage of this method in comparison to any other unsteady- or steady-state method is that it enables k-value determination out of the specialized test stations. This further makes it possible to carry out cheaper and more frequent k-value measurements/control in insulated bodies. Also, the proposed method can be used for testing the k-value of stationary insulated chambers which cannot be objectively tested by means of stationary methods.
Guo, J.-H.; Gupta, Amita; Sharma, Parmanand; Rao, K.V.; Marcus,M.A.; Dong, C.L.; Guillen, J.M.O.; Butorin, S.M.; Mattesini, M.; Glans,P.A.; Smith, K.E.; Chang, C.L.; Ahuja, R.
2007-08-07
The charge state and local ordering of Mn doped into a pulsed laser deposited single-phase thin film of ZnO are investigated by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O K-, Mn K- and L-edges, and X-ray emission spectroscopy at the O K- and Mn L-edge. This film is found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature. EXAFS measurement shows that Mn{sup 2+} replaces Zn site in tetrahedral symmetry, and there is no evidence for either metallic Mn or MnO in the film. Upon Mn doping, the top of O 2p valence band extends into the bandgap indicating additional charge carries being created.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misawa, Tetsuro; Yokoyama, Takehito; Murakami, Shuichi
2012-02-01
Recent photoelectron spectroscopy experiments have revealed the presence of the Dirac cone on the surface of the topological insulator and its spin-splitting due to the spin-orbit interaction. In general, on spin-orbit coupled systems, electric fields induce spin polarizations as linear and nonlinear responses. Here we investigate the inverse Faraday effect on the surface of the topological insulator. The inverse Faraday effect is a non-linear optical effect where a circularly polarized light induces a dc spin polarization. We employ the Keldysh Green's function method to calculate the induced spin polarization and discuss its frequency dependence. In particular, in the low frequency limit, our analytical result gives the spin polarization proportional to the frequency and the square of the lifetime. As for the finite frequency regime, we employ numerical methods to discuss the resonance due to interband transitions. We also discuss the photogalvanic effect, where an illumination of a circular polarized light generates the dc charge current. Lastly, we evaluate those quantities with realistic parameters.[4pt] [1] T. Misawa, T. Yokoyama, S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. B84, 165407 (2011).
Quantum Hall Effect on Surface States of Topological Insulator (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 Thin Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshimi, Ryutaro; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kozuka, Yusuke; Falson, Joseph; Takahashi, Kei; Checkelsky, Joseph; Nagaosa, Naoto; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori
2015-03-01
The three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) is a novel state of matter as characterized by two-dimensional metallic Dirac states on its surface. Quantum transport in Dirac systems has been attracting much attention for the half-integer quantum Hall effect (QHE), as typically observed in graphene. Unlike the case of graphene, the Dirac states of TIs have no degeneracy including spin degree of freedom. Instead, both top and bottom surfaces host Dirac states with opposite spin-momentum locked modes. Such a helicity degree of freedom in real space is expected to yield intriguing quantum phenomena in 3D TIs. Bi-based chalcogenides such as Bi2Se3,Bi2Te3,Sb2Te3 and their compounds are candidates where the Dirac features can be detected via quantum transport phenomena in thin films form. Here, we report the realization of the QHE on the surface Dirac states in (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films (x = 0.84 and 0.88). With electrostatic gate-tuning of Fermi level under magnetic fields, QH states with filling factor ν = +/- 1 are resolved with quantized Hall resistance of Ryx = +/- h /e2 and zero Rxx, owing to the chiral edge modes at top/bottom surface Dirac states. The significant technical advance in 3D TI films may pave a way toward TI-based electronics.
Controlling the metal-to-insulator relaxation of the metastable hidden quantum state in 1T-TaS2
Vaskivskyi, Igor; Gospodaric, Jan; Brazovskii, Serguei; Svetin, Damjan; Sutar, Petra; Goreshnik, Evgeny; Mihailovic, Ian A.; Mertelj, Tomaz; Mihailovic, Dragan
2015-01-01
Controllable switching between metastable macroscopic quantum states under nonequilibrium conditions induced either by light or with an external electric field is rapidly becoming of great fundamental interest. We investigate the relaxation properties of a “hidden” (H) charge density wave (CDW) state in thin single crystals of the layered dichalcogenide 1T-TaS2, which can be reached by either a single 35-fs optical laser pulse or an ~30-ps electrical pulse. From measurements of the temperature dependence of the resistivity under different excitation conditions, we find that the metallic H state relaxes to the insulating Mott ground state through a sequence of intermediate metastable states via discrete jumps over a “Devil’s staircase.” In between the discrete steps, an underlying glassy relaxation process is observed, which arises because of reciprocal-space commensurability frustration between the CDW and the underlying lattice. We show that the metastable state relaxation rate may be externally stabilized by substrate strain, thus opening the way to the design of nonvolatile ultrafast high-temperature memory devices based on switching between CDW states with large intrinsic differences in electrical resistance. PMID:26601218
Faraday Rotation Due to Surface States in the Topological Insulator (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3.
Shao, Yinming; Post, Kirk W; Wu, Jhih-Sheng; Dai, Siyuan; Frenzel, Alex J; Richardella, Anthony R; Lee, Joon Sue; Samarth, Nitin; Fogler, Michael M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Kharzeev, Dmitri E; Basov, D N
2017-02-08
Using magneto-infrared spectroscopy, we have explored the charge dynamics of (Bi,Sb)2Te3 thin films on InP substrates. From the magneto-transmission data we extracted three distinct cyclotron resonance (CR) energies that are all apparent in the broad band Faraday rotation (FR) spectra. This comprehensive FR-CR data set has allowed us to isolate the response of the bulk states from the intrinsic surface states associated with both the top and bottom surfaces of the film. The FR data uncovered that electron- and hole-type Dirac Fermions reside on opposite surfaces of our films, which paves the way for observing many exotic quantum phenomena in topological insulators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, M.-T.; Magnani, N.; Oppeneer, P. M.
2013-11-01
The electronic states of the actinide dioxides AnO2 (with An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) are investigated employing first-principles calculations within the framework of the local density approximation +U (LDA+U) approach, implemented in a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave scheme. A systematic analysis of the An-5f states is performed which provides intuitive connections between the electronic structures and the local crystalline fields of the f states in the AnO2 series. Particularly the mechanisms leading to the experimentally observed insulating ground states are investigated. These are found to be caused by the strong spin-orbit and Coulomb interactions of the 5f orbitals; however, as a result of the different configurations, this mechanism works in distinctly different ways for each of the AnO2 compounds. In agreement with experimental observations, the nonmagnetic states of plutonium and curium dioxide are computed to be insulating, whereas those of uranium, neptunium, and americium dioxides require additional symmetry breaking to reproduce the insulator ground states, a condition which is met with magnetic phase transitions. We show that the occupancy of the An-f orbitals is closely connected to each of the appearing insulating mechanisms. We furthermore investigate the detailed constitution of the noncollinear multipolar moments for transverse 3q magnetic ordered states in UO2 and longitudinal 3q high-rank multipolar ordered states in NpO2 and AmO2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Anil K.; Majhi, Kunjalata; Banerjee, Abhishek; Devi, Poonam; Ganesan, R.; Mishra, P.; Lohani, H.; Sekhar, B. R.; Kumar, P. S. Anil
2016-05-01
Recently discovered, Topological Insulators (TIs) have garnered enormous amount of attention owing to its unique surface properties which has potential applications in the field of spintronics and other modern technologies. For all this, it should require a very good quality samples. There are a number of techniques suggested by people for the growth of good quality TIs. Here, we are reporting the growth of high quality single crystals of Bi2Se3 (a TI) by slow cooling solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction measurements performed on a cleaved flake of single crystal Bi2Se3 showed up with proper orientations of the crystal planes. High energy X-ray diffraction has been performed to confirm the stoichiometry of the compound and also recorded Laue patterns prove the single crystalline nature of Bi2Se3. Moreover, angle resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (ARPES) carried out on a flat crystal flake shows distinct Dirac dispersion of surface bands at the gamma point clarifying it as a 3D topological insulator.
Exact many-electron ground states on the diamond Hubbard chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulacsi, Zsolt; Kampf, Arno; Vollhardt, Dieter
2008-03-01
Exact ground states of interacting electrons on the diamond Hubbard chain in a magnetic field are constructed which exhibit a wide range of properties such as flat-band ferromagnetism, correlation induced metallic, half-metallic, or insulating behavior [1]. The properties of these ground states can be tuned by changing the magnetic flux, local potentials, or electron density.The results show that the studied simple one-dimensional structure displays remarkably complex physical properties. The virtue of tuning different ground states through external parameters points to new possibilities for the design of electronic devices which can switch between insulating or conducting and nonmagnetic or (fully or partially spin polarized) ferromagnetic states, open new routes for the design of spin-valve devices and gate induced ferromagnetism. [1] Z. Gulacsi, A. Kampf, D. Vollhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026404(2007).
Diop, L V B; Amara, M; Isnard, O
2013-10-16
Intrinsic magnetic properties and magnetovolume effects have been investigated for the Hf0.825Ta0.175Fe2 itinerant-electron system, which exhibits a temperature-induced first-order transition from the ferromagnetic (FM) to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) state. The spontaneous volume magnetostriction contraction due to this transition from the high-volume FM state to the low-volume AFM state is about 0.66%. Applying a magnetic field increases significantly the FM-AFM transition temperature T(FM-AFM), with a rate of 7.2 K T(-1). At temperatures T > T(FM-AFM) a first-order metamagnetic transition between the AFM and FM states has been observed from isothermal magnetization curves, a result attributed to the itinerant-electron character of the Fe magnetism. This AFM-FM transition is accompanied by a huge field-induced volume magnetostriction. The change in ΔV/V due to the AFM-FM transition is about 0.75%.
Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors
Gupta, Amita
2004-06-01
for Zn a 2^{+} state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2^{+} state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.
Topological insulators: Engineered heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hesjedal, Thorsten; Chen, Yulin
2017-01-01
The combination of topological properties and magnetic order can lead to new quantum states and exotic physical phenomena. In particular, the coupling between topological insulators and antiferromagnets enables magnetic and electronic structural engineering.
Quantum Hall effect on top and bottom surface states of topological insulator (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films.
Yoshimi, R; Tsukazaki, A; Kozuka, Y; Falson, J; Takahashi, K S; Checkelsky, J G; Nagaosa, N; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y
2015-04-14
The three-dimensional topological insulator is a novel state of matter characterized by two-dimensional metallic Dirac states on its surface. To verify the topological nature of the surface states, Bi-based chalcogenides such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3 and their combined/mixed compounds have been intensively studied. Here, we report the realization of the quantum Hall effect on the surface Dirac states in (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films. With electrostatic gate-tuning of the Fermi level in the bulk band gap under magnetic fields, the quantum Hall states with filling factor ±1 are resolved. Furthermore, the appearance of a quantum Hall plateau at filling factor zero reflects a pseudo-spin Hall insulator state when the Fermi level is tuned in between the energy levels of the non-degenerate top and bottom surface Dirac points. The observation of the quantum Hall effect in three-dimensional topological insulator films may pave a way toward topological insulator-based electronics.
Control of magnetism across metal to insulator transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Venta, J.; Wang, Siming; Ramirez, J. G.; Schuller, Ivan K.
2013-03-01
Magnetic properties (coercivity and magnetization) of ferromagnetic films are strongly affected by the proximity to materials that undergo a metal to insulator transition. Here, we show that stress associated with structural changes across the metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 and V2O3 produces a magnetoelastic anisotropy in ferromagnetic films (Co and Ni) deposited on top of the oxides. The changes in coercivity are as large as 168% and occur in a very narrow temperature range. This effect can be controlled and inverted by the thickness and the deposition temperature of the ferromagnetic films, which is very flexible for important technological applications.
Modeling of ferromagnetic semiconductor devices for spintronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebedeva, N.; Kuivalainen, P.
2003-06-01
We develop physical models for magnetic semiconductor devices, where a part of the device structure consists of a ferromagnetic semiconductor layer. First we calculate the effect of the exchange interaction between the charge carrier spins and the spins of the localized magnetic electrons on the electronic states, recombination processes, and charge transport in ferromagnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)As. Taking into account, e.g., the splitting of the conduction and valence bands due to the exchange interaction, we model the electrical characteristics of the basic magnetic semiconductor devices such as Schottky diodes consisting of a nonmagnetic metal/ferromagnetic semiconductor interface, pn diodes consisting of a ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic junction and bipolar transistors having a ferromagnetic emitter. The models predict that at temperatures close to the Curie temperature TC the electrical properties of the magnetic semiconductor devices become strongly dependent on the average spin polarization of the magnetic atoms. A feature in the models is that many device parameters such as diffusion lengths or potential barriers become spin dependent in magnetic semiconductor devices. In a ferromagnetic Schottky diode the sensitivity of the device current I to the external magnetic field may be as large as (∂I/∂B)I-1≈1/T at temperatures close to TC. In a ferromagnetic pn diode both the ideal and recombination currents become magnetic field dependent. In a ferromagnetic bipolar transistor the current gain shows the same sensitivity to the spin polarization as the dc current in the ferromagnetic pn diodes. According to our model calculations optimal structures showing the largest magnetization dependence of the electrical characteristics in III-V ferromagnetic semiconductor devices would be those where the magnetic side of the junction is of n type.
Luo, Yongkang; Chen, Hua; Dai, Jianhui; ...
2015-02-25
Motivated by the high sensitivity to Fermi surface topology and scattering mechanisms in magnetothermoelectric transport, we have measured the thermopower and Nernst effect on the (011) plane of the proposed topological Kondo insulator SmB6. These experiments, together with electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements, suggest that the (011) plane also harbors a metallic surface with an effective mass on the order of 10–102 m0. The surface and bulk conductances are well distinguished in these measurements and are categorized into metallic and nondegenerate semiconducting regimes, respectively. As a result, electronic correlations play an important role in enhancing scattering and also contributemore » to the heavy surface state.« less
Unusual high-spin Fe5 +-Ni3 + state and strong ferromagnetism in the mixed perovskite SrFe0.5Ni0.5O3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Zhao, Zhen; Yang, Ke; Wu, Hua
2016-12-01
The charge-spin-orbital state plays a vital role in correlated oxides with mixed transition-metal elements, and it is often a matter of debate. Here, we address this issue for the newly synthesized unusual high-valence perovskite SrFe1 -xNixO3 , using an analysis of crystal-field level diagrams, density functional calculations, and Monte Carlo simulations. We have identified the formal high-spin Fe5 +(t2g 3, S =3 /2 ) and high-spin Ni3 +(t2g 5eg2 , S =3 /2 ) state for SrFe0.5Ni0.5O3 , rather than the previously suggested high-spin Fe4 +(t2g 3eg1, S =2 ) and low-spin Ni4 + (t2g 6, S =0 ) state. Moreover, our model and the present results well explain the observed small lattice variation of SrFe1 -xNixO3 (0 ≤x ≤0.5 ) and the above room temperature ferromagnetic order in SrFe0.5Ni0.5O3 regardless of a Fe-Ni atomic order or disorder.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoegl, Petra; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Zutic, Igor; Fabian, Jaroslav
2016-10-01
Andreev reflection spectroscopy of ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) junctions is a sensitive probe of the junction interface as well as the spin polarization. We theoretically investigate spin-polarized transport in F/S junctions in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus interfacial spin-orbit fields and show that Andreev reflection can be controlled by changing the magnetization orientation. This suggests a similar control of the superconducting proximity effect and Majorana states. We predict a giant in- and out-of-plane magnetoanisotropy of the junction conductance. If the ferromagnet is highly spin polarized - in the half-metal limit - the magnetoanisotropic Andreev reflection depends universally on the spin-orbit fields only. Our results show that Andreev reflection spectroscopy can be used for sensitive probing of interfacial spin-orbit fields in F/S junction. This work has been supported by DFG SFB 689, the International Doctorate Program Topological Insulators of the Elite Network of Bavaria, DOE-BES Grant DE-SC0004890, and ONR N000141310754. P. Högl, A. Matos-Abiague, Igor Žutić, J. Fabian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 116601 (2015)
Electromagnetic effect on disordered surface of topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Shintani, Kunitaka; Tanaka, Yukio
2016-02-01
We theoretically study electromagnetic effects due to magnetization on disordered surface of topological insulators with attaching a ferromagnetic insulator junction by using the result of the magnetization dynamics induced charge flow. We find that the electric polarization is induced by not only the magnetization but also the spatial derivative of the magnetization with the diffusion on the disordered surface.
Electron transport in ferromagnetic nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sungbae
As the size of a physical system decreases toward the nanoscale, quantum mechanical effects such as the discretization of energy levels and the interactions of the electronic spins become readily observable. To understand what happens within submicrometer scale samples is one of the goals of modern condensed matter physics. Electron transport phenomena drew a lot of attention over the past two decades or so, not only because quantum corrections to the classical transport theory, but also they allow us to probe deeply into the microscopic nature of the system put to test. Although a significant amount of research was done in the past and thus extended our understanding in this field, most of these works were concentrated on simpler examples. Electron transport in strongly correlated systems is still a field that needs to be explored more thoroughly. In fact, experimental works that have been done so far to characterize coherence physics in correlated systems such as ferromagnetic metals are far from conclusive. One reason ferromagnetic samples draw such attention is that there exist correlations that lead to excitations (e.g. spin waves, domain wall motions) not present in normal metals, and these new environmental degrees of freedom can have profound effects on decoherence processes. In this thesis, three different types of magnetic samples were examined: a band ferromagnetism based metallic ferromagnet, permalloy, a III-V diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor with ferromagnetism from a hole-mediated exchange interaction, and magnetite nanocrystals and films. The first observation of time-dependent universal conductance fluctuations (TD-UCF) in permalloy is presented and our observations lead to three major conclusions. First, the cooperon contribution to the conductance is suppressed in this material. This is consistent with some theoretical expectations, and implies that weak localization will be suppressed as well. Second, we see evidence that domain wall motion
Decoupling of the antiferromagnetic and insulating states in Tb-doped Sr_{2}IrO_{4}
Wang, J. C.; Aswartham, S.; Ye, Feng; Terzic, J.; Zheng, H.; Haskel, Daniel; Chikara, Shalinee; Choi, Yong; Schlottmann, P.; Custelcean, Radu; Yuan, S. J.; Cao, G.
2015-12-08
Sr_{2}IrO_{4} is a spin-orbit coupled insulator with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at T_{N} = 240 K. We report results of a comprehensive study of single-crystal Sr_{2}Ir_{1-x}Tb_{x}O_{4} (0≤x≤0.03). This study found that mere 3% (x=0.03) tetravalent Tb^{4+}(4f^{7}) substituting for Ir^{4+} (rather than Sr^{2+}) completely suppresses the long-range collinear AFM transition but retains the insulating state, leading to a phase diagram featuring a decoupling of magnetic interactions and charge gap. The insulating state at x = 0.03 is characterized by an unusually large specific heat at low temperatures and an incommensurate magnetic state having magnetic peaks at (0.95, 0, 0) and (0, 0.95, 0) in the neutron diffraction, suggesting a spiral or spin density wave order. It is apparent that Tb doping effectively changes the relative strength of the SOI and the tetragonal CEF and enhances the Hund’s rule coupling that competes with the SOI, and destabilizes the AFM state. However, the disappearance of the AFM accompanies no metallic state chiefly because an energy level mismatch for the Ir and Tb sites weakens charge carrier hopping and renders a persistent insulating state. Furthermore, this work highlights an unconventional correlation between the AFM and insulating states in which the magnetic transition plays no critical role in the formation of the charge gap in the iridate.
Li, Wen-Hsien; Karna, Sunil K.; Hsu, Han; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Sankar, Raman; Cheng Chou, Fang
2015-01-01
The general picture established so far for the links between superconductivity and magnetic ordering in iron chalcogenide Fe1+y(Te1-xSex) is that the substitution of Se for Te directly drives the system from the antiferromagnetic end into the superconducting regime. Here, we report on the observation of a ferromagnetic component that developed together with the superconducting transition in Fe-excess Fe1.12Te1-xSex crystals using neutron and x-ray diffractions, resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements. The superconducting transition is accompanied by a negative thermal expansion of the crystalline unit cell and an electronic charge redistribution, where a small portion of the electronic charge flows from around the Fe sites toward the Te/Se sites. First-principles calculations show consistent results, revealing that the excess Fe ions play a more significant role in affecting the magnetic property in the superconducting state than in the normal state and the occurrence of an electronic charge redistribution through the superconducting transition. PMID:26077466
Ising-Type Ferromagnetic Ground State Driven by Anisotropic c-f Hybridization in CeRu2Al2B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuno, Haruki; Kotegawa, Hisashi; Matsuoka, Eiichi; Tomiyama, Yo; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Tou, Hideki
2014-10-01
The magnetic correlations between Ce 4f electrons and conduction electrons in the new tetragonal compound CeRu2Al2B have been investigated by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The 27Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 exhibits a large magnetic anisotropy for field directions. Within a localized moment picture, the Ce 4f spin-fluctuation rates Γ|| for the c-axis and Γ⊥ for the c-plane are evaluated by taking account of the magnetic anisotropy. The relation of Γ allel ≫ Γ bot , which holds in the entire temperature range, indicates that the c-f hybridization between the ligand conduction electrons and the Ce 4f electrons with the Γ 7(1) crystal electric field ground state is anisotropic. From the temperature dependence of Γ, it is found that the Kondo effect dominates the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction at high temperatures, whereas below 60 K the RKKY interaction overcomes the Kondo effect and causes the magnetic order. These results indicate that the anisotropic c-f hybridization plays a vital role in realization of the Ising-type ferromagnetic magnetic ground state in CeRu2Al2B.
Wu, Liang; Tse, Wang-Kong; Morris, C. M.; Brahlek, M.; Koirala, N.; Oh, S.; Armitage, N. P.
2015-02-05
We have utilized magneto-optical time-domain spectroscopy to investigate the low frequency optical response of topological insulator Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} and Bi_{2}Se_{3} films. With both field and frequency depedence, such experiments give sufficient information to measure the mobility and carrier density of multiple conduction channels simultaneously. We observe sharp cyclotron resonances (CRs) in both samples. The small amount of Cu substitution into the Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} induces a true bulk insulator with only a single conduction channel with total sheet carrier density 4.9 x 10^{12}/cm^{2} and mobility as large as 4000 cm^{2}/V s. This is consistent with pure topological surface state (TSSs) conduction with a chemical potential 150 meV above the Dirac point. Hence, a true topological insulator with an insulating bulk is realized. The CR broadens at high fields, an e ect that we attribute to an electron-phonon interaction. This assignment is supported by an extended Drude model analysis on the zero field data. In contrast to Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3}, two charge channels were observed in normal Bi_{2}Se_{3} films. We demonstrate a method to distinguish between the dominant TSSs and trivial bulk/2DEG states. The dominant channel exhibits a CR with a carrier density of ~2.0 x 10^{13}/cm^{2} and mobility ~3200 cm^{2}/V s, consistent with TSSs with a chemical potential ~350meV above the Dirac point.
Fu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Mu; Wang, Zhigang; Zheng, Fa-Wei; Lin, Hai-Qing
2014-07-02
The peculiar nature of topological surface states, such as absence of backscattering, weak anti-localization, and quantum anomalous Hall effect, has been demonstrated mainly in bulk and film of topological insulator (TI), using surface sensitive probes and bulk transport probes. However, it is equally important and experimentally challenging to confine massless Dirac fermions with nano-steps on TI surfaces. This potential structure has similar ground with linearly-dispersed photons in Fabry-Pérot resonators, while reserving fundamental differences from well-studied Fabry-Pérot resonators and quantum corrals on noble metal surfaces. In this paper, we study the massless Dirac fermions confined within steps along the x (Γ-K) or y (Γ-M) direction on the TI surface, and the Fabry-Pérot-like resonances in the electronic local density of states (LDOS) between the steps are found. Due to the remarkable warping effect in the topological surface states, the LDOS confined in the step-well running along Γ-M direction exhibit anisotropic resonance patterns as compared to those in the step-well along Γ-K direction. The transmittance properties and spin orientation of Dirac fermion in both cases are also anisotropic in the presence of warping effect.
Conductance spectra of asymmetric ferromagnet/ferromagnet/ferromagnet junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasanai, K.
2017-01-01
A theory of tunneling spectroscopy of ferromagnet/ferromagnet/ferromagnet junctions was studied. We applied a delta-functional approximation for the interface scattering properties under a one-dimensional system of a free electron approach. The reflection and transmission probabilities were calculated in the ballistic regime, and the conductance spectra were then calculated using the Landauer formulation. The magnetization directions were set to be either parallel (P) or anti-parallel (AP) alignments, for comparison. We found that the conductance spectra was suppressed when increasing the interfacial scattering at the interfaces. Moreover, the electron could exhibit direct transmission when the thickness was rather thin. Thus, there was no oscillation in this case. However, in the case of a thick layer the conductance spectra oscillated, and this oscillation was most prominent when the middle layer thickness increased. In the case of direct transmission, the conductance spectra of P and AP systems were definitely suppressed with increased exchange energy of the middle ferromagnet. This also refers to an increase in the magnetoresistance of the junction. In the case of oscillatory behavior, the positions of the resonance peaks were changed as the exchange energy was changed.
Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets
Si, M. S.; Gao, Daqiang E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z. Y.; Xue, Desheng E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn; Liu, Yushen; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, G. P.
2014-05-28
Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.
Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets.
Si, M S; Gao, Daqiang; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z Y; Xue, Desheng; Liu, Yushen; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, G P
2014-05-28
Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.
Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, M. S.; Gao, Daqiang; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z. Y.; Xue, Desheng; Liu, Yushen; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, G. P.
2014-05-01
Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.
A scheme for a topological insulator field effect transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vali, Mehran; Dideban, Daryoosh; Moezi, Negin
2015-05-01
We propose a scheme for a topological insulator field effect transistor. The idea is based on the gate voltage control of the Dirac fermions in a ferromagnetic topological insulator channel with perpendicular magnetization connecting to two metallic topological insulator leads. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed device displays a switching effect with high on/off current ratio and a negative differential conductance with a good peak to valley ratio.
The Elusive Organic Ferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letts, Nathan Percy
A new thermally stable triplet, hexa(adamantylmethylene)hexaazatritetralin dication (ACH_2)HAT^ {+2} has been prepared as a test of the Breslow-McConnell model for organic ferromagnetism. Liquid helium Curie studies to 7.5 K are consistent with it being a ground state triplet or nearly degenerate triplet. Salts of (ACH_2)HAT were isolated and characterized as tests of the Wudl and Torrance models for an organic ferromagnet. Magnetic susceptibility studies were done on (ACH_2)HAT ^{+1}BF_4^ {-1}, (ACH_2)HAT ^{+1}SbF_6 ^{-1}, (ACH_2)HAT ^{+1}PF_6 ^{-1}, (ACH_2)HAT ^{+1.6}(SbF_6 ^{-1})_{1.6}, and (ACH_2)HAT^{+2 }(SbF_6^{-1}) _2. All are paramagnetic solids. The mixed valence compound shows antiferromagnetic interactions, which would be consistent with weakly interacting radicals. It was not a ferrimagnet as predicted by the Buchachenko model. Without a crystal structure it is impossible to know whether this is a valid test of these models. The parent compound H_6HAT was isolated and characterized. Two new discotic liquid crystals were synthesized by preparing the dodecanoyl and palmitoyl derivatives of H_6HAT. They show only narrow mesophases (2 and 5 degrees, respectively). Lastly semiempirical calculations were done on the following antiaromatic systems with D_{rm nh} symmetry: cyclopropenyl anion, cyclobutadiene, cyclopentadienyl cation and benzene dication. They all demonstrated triplet ground states by 37.0, 14.4, 7.0 and 6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Stacks of the cyclopropenyl anion and radical were also high spin including the infinite chain. In the infinite chain the monomer (C_3H_3) _2^{-1} quartet is the ground state by 14.7 kcal/mol. Stacks in the cyclopentadienyl series are not high spin, but the trimer (C_5 H_5)_3^{+2} is a ground state quartet by 7.0 kcal/mol. The spin state of the cyclopentadienyl trimer is consistent with a Buchachenko model ferrimagnetic stack.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Liu, Tiansheng; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda; Davis, J. C.
2015-03-01
We present Part II of the spectroscopic imaging - scanning tunneling microscopy (SI-STM) study of ferromagnetic Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3 single crystals measured at 4.5 K. As Part II we show how both spectroscopic analysis in real and momentum space demonstrate the coincident Dirac mass gap identified. Distribution of gap width, gap center, and gap anisotropy will be discussed. The anticipated relationship Δ (r) ~ n (r) is confirmed throughout, and exhibits an electron-dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV .nm2. These observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal-symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.
Metal-insulator-metal transition in NdNiO3 films capped by CoFe2O4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saleem, M. S.; Song, C.; Peng, J. J.; Cui, B.; Li, F.; Gu, Y. D.; Pan, F.
2017-02-01
Metal-insulator transition features as a transformation from a highly charge conductive state to another state where the charge conductivity is greatly suppressed when decreasing the temperature. Here, we demonstrate two consecutive transitions in NdNiO3 films with CoFe2O4 capping, in which the metal-insulator transition occurs at ˜85 K, followed by an unprecedented insulator-metal transition below 40 K. The emerging insulator-metal transition associated with a weak antiferromagnetic behavior is observed in 20 unit cell-thick NdNiO3 with more than 5 unit cell CoFe2O4 capping. Differently, the NdNiO3 films with thinner CoFe2O4 capping only exhibit metal-insulator transition at ˜85 K, accompanied by a strong antiferromagnetic state below 40 K. Charge transfer from Co to Ni, instead of from Fe to Ni, formulates the ferromagnetic interaction between Ni-Ni and Ni-Co atoms, thus suppressing the antiferromagnetic feature and producing a metallic conductive behavior. Furthermore, a phase diagram for the metal-insulator-metal transition in this system is drawn.
Imaging of room-temperature ferromagnetic nano-domains at the surface of a non-magnetic oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taniuchi, T.; Motoyui, Y.; Morozumi, K.; Rödel, T. C.; Fortuna, F.; Santander-Syro, A. F.; Shin, S.
2016-06-01
Two-dimensional electron gases at oxide surfaces or interfaces show exotic ordered states of matter, like superconductivity, magnetism or spin-polarized states, and are a promising platform for alternative oxide-based electronics. Here we directly image a dense population of randomly distributed ferromagnetic domains of ~40 nm typical sizes at room temperature at the oxygen-deficient surface of SrTiO3, a non-magnetic transparent insulator in the bulk. We use laser-based photoemission electron microscopy, an experimental technique that gives selective spin detection of the surface carriers, even in bulk insulators, with a high spatial resolution of 2.6 nm. We furthermore find that the Curie temperature in this system is as high as 900 K. These findings open perspectives for applications in nano-domain magnetism and spintronics using oxide-based devices, for instance through the nano-engineering of oxygen vacancies at surfaces or interfaces of transition-metal oxides.
James Valles
2016-07-12
Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.Â
Unique topological surface states of full-Heusler topological crystalline insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Anh; Li, Sean
2017-03-01
Our theoretical analysis reveals that a family of full-Heusler materials exhibit unique topological surface states with type-I and type-II Dirac quasiparticles. The type-I Dirac surface state is characterized by an enclosed Fermi surface, while the type-II Dirac surfaces occur at the touching of the electron and hole pockets. In addition, due to the layered nature of the full-Heusler crystals structured with a wide range of various elements, such structures induce multiple Dirac surface states with different Lifshitz transitions protected by more than one mirror plane.
Direct spectroscopic observation of a shallow hydrogenlike donor state in insulating SrTiO3.
Salman, Z; Prokscha, T; Amato, A; Morenzoni, E; Scheuermann, R; Sedlak, K; Suter, A
2014-10-10
We present a direct spectroscopic observation of a shallow hydrogenlike muonium state in SrTiO(3) which confirms the theoretical prediction that interstitial hydrogen may act as a shallow donor in this material. The formation of this muonium state is temperature dependent and appears below ∼ 70K. From the temperature dependence we estimate an activation energy of ∼ 50 meV in the bulk and ∼ 23 meV near the free surface. The field and directional dependence of the muonium precession frequencies further supports the shallow impurity state with a rare example of a fully anisotropic hyperfine tensor. From these measurements we determine the strength of the hyperfine interaction and propose that the muon occupies an interstitial site near the face of the oxygen octahedron in SrTiO(3). The observed shallow donor state provides new insight for tailoring the electronic and optical properties of SrTiO(3)-based oxide interface systems.
A metallic mosaic phase and the origin of Mott-insulating state in 1T-TaS2
Ma, Liguo; Ye, Cun; Yu, Yijun; Lu, Xiu Fang; Niu, Xiaohai; Kim, Sejoong; Feng, Donglai; Tománek, David; Son, Young-Woo; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo
2016-01-01
Electron–electron and electron–phonon interactions are two major driving forces that stabilize various charge-ordered phases of matter. In layered compound 1T-TaS2, the intricate interplay between the two generates a Mott-insulating ground state with a peculiar charge-density-wave (CDW) order. The delicate balance also makes it possible to use external perturbations to create and manipulate novel phases in this material. Here, we study a mosaic CDW phase induced by voltage pulses, and find that the new phase exhibits electronic structures entirely different from that of the original Mott ground state. The mosaic phase consists of nanometre-sized domains characterized by well-defined phase shifts of the CDW order parameter in the topmost layer, and by altered stacking relative to the layers underneath. We discover that the nature of the new phase is dictated by the stacking order, and our results shed fresh light on the origin of the Mott phase in 1T-TaS2. PMID:26961788
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rancourt, D. G.; Christie, I. A. D.; Lamarche, G.; Swainson, I.; Flandrois, S.
1994-11-01
We have studied the magnetism of annite mica (the Fe-end-member layer silicate having ideal structural formula: {K +}[Fe 32+]
Spin-orbit driven magnetic insulating state with J_{eff}=1/2 character in a 4d oxide
Calder, S.; Li, Ling; Okamoto, Satoshi; Choi, Yongseong; Mukherjee, Rupam; Haskel, Daniel; Mandrus, D.
2015-11-30
The unusual magnetic and electronic ground states of 5d iridates has been shown to be driven by intrinsically enhanced spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The influence of appreciable but reduced SOC in creating the manifested magnetic insulating states in 4d oxides is less clear, with one hurdle being the existence of such compounds. Here we present experimental and theoretical results on Sr_{4}RhO_{6} that reveal SOC dominated behavior. Neutron measurements show the octahedra are both spatially separated and locally ideal, making the electronic ground state susceptible to alterations by SOC. Magnetic ordering is observed with a similar structure to an analogous J_{eff}=1/2 Mott iridate. We consider the underlying role of SOC in this rhodate with density functional theory and x-ray absorption spectroscopy and find a magnetic insulating ground state with J_{eff} =1/2 character.The unusual magnetic and electronic ground states of 5d iridates have been shown to be driven by intrinsically enhanced spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The influence of appreciable but reduced SOC in creating the manifested magnetic insulating states in 4d oxides is less clear, with one hurdle being the existence of such compounds. Here, we present experimental and theoretical results on Sr_{4}RhO_{6} that reveal SOC dominated behavior. Neutron measurements show the octahedra are both spatially separated and locally ideal, making the electronic ground state susceptible to alterations by SOC. Magnetic ordering is observed with a similar structure to an analogous J_{eff}=1/2 Mott iridate. We consider the underlying role of SOC in this rhodate with density functional theory and x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and find a magnetic insulating ground state with J_{eff}=12 character.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.
Out-of-plane magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/graphene/ferromagnet spin-valve junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hu-Jong
2014-04-01
Out-of-plane spin-injection and detection through naturally stacked graphene layers were investigated in ferromagnet/graphene/ferromagnet (FGF) junctions. We obtained a maximum magnetoresistance (MR) of 4.6% at T =4.2 K in the junction of a four-layer graphene insertion, having a very small area-junction-resistance product of 0.2 Ωμm2. According to resistance-temperature and current-voltage characteristics, the graphene layer in the FGF junction acted as a metal-like insertion rather than as an insulating barrier. A lower value for the interfacial spin asymmetry coefficient (γ =0.25±0.05) obtained from the fitting of variations with interfacial resistance implies that the spin-injection efficiency along the out-of-plane direction was reduced by spin-flip scattering at graphene/ferromagnet interfaces. Our results showed that highly transparent graphene/ferromagnet interfaces with crystalline ferromagnet (FM) electrodes are required to achieve higher spin-injection efficiency through the graphene layer in a FGF junction along the out-of-plane direction.
The birth of topological insulators.
Moore, Joel E
2010-03-11
Certain insulators have exotic metallic states on their surfaces. These states are formed by topological effects that also render the electrons travelling on such surfaces insensitive to scattering by impurities. Such topological insulators may provide new routes to generating novel phases and particles, possibly finding uses in technological applications in spintronics and quantum computing.
Local electronic structure and ferromagnetic interaction in La(Co,Ni)O3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Meng-Jie; Nagel, Peter; Fuchs, Dirk; von Loehneysen, Hilbert; Merz, Michael; Schuppler, Stefan
Perovskite-related transition-metal oxides exhibit a wide range of properties from insulating to superconducting as well as many peculiar magnetic phases, and cobaltites, in particular, have been known for their proximity to spin-state transitions. How this changes with partial substitution by Ni is the topic of the present study. The local electronic structure and the ferromagnetic interaction in La(Co1-xNix) O3 has been studied by x-ray absorption (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). XAS clearly indicates a mixed-valence state for both Co and Ni, with both valences changing systematically with Ni content, x. While the gradual spin-state transition of Co3+ from low-spin (LS) to high-spin (HS) is preserved for low x it is suppressed in the high Ni-content samples. Regarding the spin configuration of Ni we find it stabilized in a ``mixed'' spin state, unlike the purely LS state of Ni in LaNiO3. XMCD identifies the element-specific contributions to the magnetic moment and interactions. In particular, we find that it must be the coexistence of the HS state in both Co3+ and Ni3 + that induces t2 g-based ferromagnetic interaction via the double-exchange mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Ohkura, Masa-aki; Ishige, Yu; Nogami, Yoshio; Okamoto, Hiroshi
2015-06-01
A photoinduced phase transition was investigated in an organic charge-transfer (CT) complex M2P -TCNQ F4 , [M2P : 5,10-dihydro-5,10-dimethylphenazine, donor (D) molecule; TCNQ F4 : 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, acceptor (A) molecule] by means of femtosecond pump-probe reflection spectroscopy. This is an ionic compound and has a peculiar two-dimensional (2D) molecular arrangement; the same A (or D) molecules arrange along the [100] direction, and A and D molecules alternately arrange along the [111] direction. It results in a strongly anisotropic two-dimensional electronic structure. This compound shows a structural and magnetic phase transition at 122 K below which the two neighboring molecules are dimerized along both the [100] and [111] directions. We demonstrate that two kinds of photoinduced phase transitions occur by irradiation of a femtosecond laser pulse; in the high-temperature lattice-uniform phase, a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) metallic state along the AA(DD) stack is generated, and in the low-temperature lattice-dimerized phase, a quasi-2D metallic state is initially produced and molecular dimerizations are subsequently released. Mixed-stack CT compounds consisting of DA stacks are generally insulators or semiconductors in the ground state. Here, such a dynamical metallization in the DA stack is demonstrated. The release of the dimerizations drives several kinds of coherent oscillations which play an important role in the stabilization of the lattice-dimerized phase. The mechanisms of those photoinduced phase transitions are discussed in terms of the magnitudes of the anisotropic bandwidths and molecular dimerizations along two different directions of the molecular stacks.
Control of spin-orbit torques through crystal symmetry in WTe2/ferromagnet bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacNeill, D.; Stiehl, G. M.; Guimaraes, M. H. D.; Buhrman, R. A.; Park, J.; Ralph, D. C.
2016-11-01
Recent discoveries regarding current-induced spin-orbit torques produced by heavy-metal/ferromagnet and topological-insulator/ferromagnet bilayers provide the potential for dramatically improved efficiency in the manipulation of magnetic devices. However, in experiments performed to date, spin-orbit torques have an important limitation--the component of torque that can compensate magnetic damping is required by symmetry to lie within the device plane. This means that spin-orbit torques can drive the most current-efficient type of magnetic reversal (antidamping switching) only for magnetic devices with in-plane anisotropy, not the devices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that are needed for high-density applications. Here we show experimentally that this state of affairs is not fundamental, but rather one can change the allowed symmetries of spin-orbit torques in spin-source/ferromagnet bilayer devices by using a spin-source material with low crystalline symmetry. We use WTe2, a transition-metal dichalcogenide whose surface crystal structure has only one mirror plane and no two-fold rotational invariance. Consistent with these symmetries, we generate an out-of-plane antidamping torque when current is applied along a low-symmetry axis of WTe2/Permalloy bilayers, but not when current is applied along a high-symmetry axis. Controlling spin-orbit torques by crystal symmetries in multilayer samples provides a new strategy for optimizing future magnetic technologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolcini, Fabrizio
2017-02-01
The effects of Rashba interaction and electromagnetic field on the edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator are investigated in a nonperturbative way. We show that the electron dynamics is equivalent to a problem of massless Dirac fermions propagating with an inhomogeneous velocity, enhanced by the Rashba profile with respect to the bare Fermi value vF. Despite the inelastic and time-reversal breaking processes induced by the electromagnetic field, no backscattering occurs without interaction. The photoexcited electron densities are explicitly obtained in terms of the electric field and the Rashba interaction, and are shown to fulfill generalized chiral anomaly equations. The case of a Gaussian electromagnetic pulse is analyzed in detail. When the photoexcitation occurs far from the Rashba region, the latter effectively acts as a "superluminal gate" boosting the photoexcited wave packet outside the light-cone determined by vF. In contrast, for an electric pulse overlapping the Rashba region, the emerging wave packets are squeezed in a manner that depends on the overlap area. The electron-electron interaction effects are also discussed, for both intraspin and interspin density-density coupling. The results suggest that Rashba interaction, often considered as an unwanted disorder effect, may be exploited to tailor the shape and the propagation time of photoexcited spin-polarized wave packets.
Electrical Probing of Inherent Spin Polarization in a Topological Insulator with Electrical Gating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Joon Sue; Richardella, Anthony; Samarth, Nitin
2015-03-01
The hallmark of a time-reversal symmetry protected three-dimensional topological insulator is the helically spin-textured surface state. Although electrical detection of spin polarization in topological insulators has been demonstrated very recently, there have not been any electrical measurements to demonstrate the entire mapping of the spin polarization throughout the surface state. We report the electrical probing of the spin-polarized surface state using a magnetic tunnel junction as a spin detector while the chemical potential of a topological insulator (Bi,Sb)2Te3 is tuned by back gating. Hysteretic spin signals were observed as the magnetization of the detector ferromagnet (permalloy) switches with in-plane magnetic field. Changing the direction of bias current through the topological insulator channel flips the direction of the spin polarization, resulting in the reverse of sign of the detected spin signals. We demonstrate the control of the Fermi energy, which has importance not only in further understanding of the spin-momentum locking in the surface state but also in possible electrical tuning of the spin polarization for potential spin-based devices. Supported by C-SPIN & DARPA/SRC.
Collapse of the low temperature insulating state in Cr-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films
Homm, P. Dillemans, L.; Menghini, M.; Van Bilzen, B.; Bakalov, P.; Su, C.-Y.; Lieten, R.; Houssa, M.; Locquet, J.-P.; Nasr Esfahani, D.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.; Seo, J. W.
2015-09-14
We have grown epitaxial Cr-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films with Cr concentrations between 0% and 20% on (0001)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by oxygen-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. For the highly doped samples (>3%), a regular and monotonous increase of the resistance with decreasing temperature is measured. Strikingly, in the low doping samples (between 1% and 3%), a collapse of the insulating state is observed with a reduction of the low temperature resistivity by up to 5 orders of magnitude. A vacuum annealing at high temperature of the films recovers the low temperature insulating state for doping levels below 3% and increases the room temperature resistivity towards the values of Cr-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals. It is well-know that oxygen excess stabilizes a metallic state in V{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals. Hence, we propose that Cr doping promotes oxygen excess in our films during deposition, leading to the collapse of the low temperature insulating state at low Cr concentrations. These results suggest that slightly Cr-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 3} films can be interesting candidates for field effect devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neupane, Madhab; Xu, S.-Y.; Alidoust, N.; Bian, G.; Liu, C.; Belopolski, I.; Chang, T.-R.; Jeng, H. T.; Durakiewicz, T.; Lin, H.; Bansil, A.; Kim, D. J.; Fisk, Z.; Hasan, M. Z.
2015-03-01
We present angle-resolved photoemission studies on the rare-earth hexaboride YbB6, which has recently been predicted to be a topological Kondo insulator. Our data do not agree with the prediction and instead show that YbB6 exhibits a novel topological insulator state in the absence of a Kondo mechanism. We find that the Fermi level electronic structure of YbB6 has three 2D Dirac cone surface states enclosing the Kramers' points, while the f - orbital which would be relevant for the Kondo mechanism is about 1 eV below the Fermi level. Our first-principles calculation shows that the topological state which we observe in YbB6 is due to an inversion between Yb d and B p bands. I will also present some of our recent results on other member of hexaborides. These experimental and theoretical results provide a new approach for realizing novel correlated topological insulator states in rare-earth materials. The work at Princeton and Princeton-led synchrotron-based ARPES measurements is supported by U.S. DOE DE-FG-02-05ER46200.
PREFACE: Half Metallic Ferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowben, Peter
2007-08-01
Since its introduction by de Groot and colleagues in the early 1980s [1], the concept of half metallic ferromagnetism has attracted great interest. Idealized, half-metals have only one spin channel for conduction: the spin-polarized band structure exhibits metallic behavior for one spin channel, while the other spin band structure exhibits a gap at the Fermi level. Due to the gap for one spin direction, the density of states at the Fermi level has, theoretically, 100 & spin polarization. This gap in the density of states in one spin at the Fermi level, for example ↓ so N↓ (EF) = 0, also causes the resistance of that channel to go to infinity. At zero or low temperatures, the nonquasiparticle density of states (electron correlation effects), magnons and spin disorder reduce the polarization from the idealized 100 & polarization. At higher temperatures magnon-phonon coupling and irreversible compositional changes affect polarization further. Strategies for assessing and reducing the effects of finite temperatures on the polarization are now gaining attention. The controversies surrounding the polarization stability of half metallic ferromagnets are not, however, limited to the consideration of finite temperature effects alone. While many novel half metallic materials have been predicted, materials fabrication can be challenging. Defects, surface and interface segregation, and structural stability can lead to profound decreases in polarization, but can also suppress long period magnons. There is a 'delicate balance of energies required to obtain half metallic behaviour: to avoid spin flip scattering, tiny adjustments in atomic positions might occur so that a gap opens up in the other spin channel' [2]. When considering 'spintronics' devices, a common alibi for the study of half metallic systems, surfaces and interfaces become important. Free enthalpy differences between the surface and the bulk will lead to spin minority surface and interface states, as well as
Electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance
Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Schink, S. W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Boger, A.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Keizer, R. S.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Gupta, A.; Huebl, H.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.
2007-04-16
We study the magnetoresistance properties of thin ferromagnetic CrO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films under microwave irradiation. Both the sheet resistance {rho} and the Hall voltage V{sub Hall} characteristically change when a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs in the film. The electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance (EDFMR) signals closely match the conventional FMR, measured simultaneously, in both resonance fields and line shapes. The sign and the magnitude of the resonant changes {delta}{rho}/{rho} and {delta}V{sub Hall}/V{sub Hall} can be consistently described in terms of a Joule heating effect. Bolometric EDFMR thus is a powerful tool for the investigation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetoresistive phenomena in ferromagnetic micro- or nanostructures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhe; Wang, Q.; Douglas, J. F.; Lin, H.; Sahrakorpi, S.; Barbiellini, B.; Markiewicz, R. S.; Bansil, A.; Fedorov, A. V.; Rotenberg, E.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Dessau, D. S.
2013-03-01
Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we investigate the electronic band structure and Fermi surface of ferromagnetic La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (x =0.38). Besides the expected two hole pockets and one electron pocket of majority-spin eg electrons, we show an extra electron pocket around the Γ point. A comparison with first-principles spin-polarized band-structure calculations shows that the extra electron pocket arises from t2g electrons of minority-spin character, indicating this compound is not a complete half-metallic ferromagnet, with similar expectations for lightly-doped cubic manganites. However, our data suggest that a complete half-metallic state is likely to be reached as long as the bandwidth is mildly reduced. Moreover, the band-resolved capability of ARPES enables us to investigate the band structure effects on spin polarization for different experimental conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Z.; Wang, Q.; Douglas, J. F.; Lin, H.; Sahrakorpi, S.; Barbiellini, B.; Markiewicz, R. S.; Bansil, A.; Fedorov, A. V.; Rotenberg, E.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Dessau, D. S.
2013-11-01
A half-metal is a material with conductive electrons of one spin orientation. This type of substance has been extensively searched for due to the fascinating physics as well as the potential applications for spintronics. Ferromagnetic manganites are considered to be good candidates, though there is no conclusive evidence for this notion. Here we show that the ferromagnet La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (x = 0.38) possesses minority-spin states, challenging whether any of the manganites may be true half-metals. However, when electron transport properties are taken into account on the basis of the electronic band structure, we found that the La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (x = 0.38) can essentially behave like a complete half metal.
Sun, Z; Wang, Q; Douglas, J F; Lin, H; Sahrakorpi, S; Barbiellini, B; Markiewicz, R S; Bansil, A; Fedorov, A V; Rotenberg, E; Zheng, H; Mitchell, J F; Dessau, D S
2013-11-07
A half-metal is a material with conductive electrons of one spin orientation. This type of substance has been extensively searched for due to the fascinating physics as well as the potential applications for spintronics. Ferromagnetic manganites are considered to be good candidates, though there is no conclusive evidence for this notion. Here we show that the ferromagnet La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (x = 0.38) possesses minority-spin states, challenging whether any of the manganites may be true half-metals. However, when electron transport properties are taken into account on the basis of the electronic band structure, we found that the La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (x = 0.38) can essentially behave like a complete half metal.
Sun, Z.; Wang, Q.; Douglas, J. F.; Lin, H.; Sahrakorpi, S.; Barbiellini, B.; Markiewicz, R. S.; Bansil, A.; Fedorov, A. V.; Rotenberg, E.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Dessau, D. S.
2013-01-01
A half-metal is a material with conductive electrons of one spin orientation. This type of substance has been extensively searched for due to the fascinating physics as well as the potential applications for spintronics. Ferromagnetic manganites are considered to be good candidates, though there is no conclusive evidence for this notion. Here we show that the ferromagnet La2−2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (x = 0.38) possesses minority-spin states, challenging whether any of the manganites may be true half-metals. However, when electron transport properties are taken into account on the basis of the electronic band structure, we found that the La2−2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (x = 0.38) can essentially behave like a complete half metal. PMID:24196704
Arpino, K. E.; Wasser, B. D.; McQueen, T. M.
2015-04-01
The structural, superconducting, and electronic phase diagram of [Tl{sub 4}]Tl{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}Te{sub 3} is reported. Magnetization and specific heat measurements show bulk superconductivity exists for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4. Resistivity measurements indicate a crossover from a metallic state at x = 0 to a doped insulator at x = 1. Universally, there is a large non-Debye specific heat contribution, characterized by an Einstein temperature of θ{sub E} ≈ 35 K. Density functional theory calculations predict x = 0 to be a topological metal, while x = 1 is a topological crystalline insulator. The disappearance of superconductivity correlates with the transition between these distinct topological states.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Under a Space Act Agreement between Boeing North America and BSR Products, Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials are now used to insulate race cars. BSR has created special TPS blanket insulation kits for use on autos that take part in NASCAR events, and other race cars through its nationwide catalog distribution system. Temperatures inside a race car's cockpit can soar to a sweltering 140 to 160 degrees, with the extreme heat coming through the engine firewall, transmission tunnel, and floor. It is common for NASCAR drivers to endure blisters and burns due to the excessive heat. Tests on a car insulated with the TPS material showed a temperature drop of some 50 degrees in the driver's cockpit. BSR-TPS Products, Inc. now manufactures insulation kits for distribution to race car teams around the world.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
Commercially known as Solimide, Temptronics, Inc.'s thermal insulation has application in such vehicles as aircraft, spacecraft and surface transportation systems (i.e. rapid transit cars, trains, buses, and ships) as acoustical treatment for door, wall, and ceiling panels, as a means of reducing vibrations, and as thermal insulation (also useful in industrial equipment). Product originated from research conducted by Johnson Space Center on advanced flame-resistant materials for minimizing fire hazard in the Shuttle and other flight vehicles.
Magnetic Topological Insulators and Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kou, Xufeng
The engineering of topological surface states is a key to realize applicable devices based on topological insulators (TIs). Among various proposals, introducing magnetic impurities into TIs has been proven to be an effective way to open a surface gap and integrate additional ferromagnetism with the original topological order. In this Dissertation, we study both the intrinsic electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic TI thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By doping transition element Cr into the host tetradymite-type V-VI semiconductors, we achieve robust ferromagnetic order with a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. With additional top-gating capability, we realize the electric-field-controlled ferromagnetism in the magnetic TI systems, and demonstrate such magneto-electric effects can be effectively manipulated, depending on the interplays between the band topology, magnetic exchange coupling, and structural engineering. Most significantly, we report the observation of quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the Cr-doped (BiSb)2Te3 samples where dissipationless chiral edge conduction is realized in the macroscopic millimeter-size devices without the presence of any external magnetic field, and the stability of the quantized Hall conductance of e2/h is well-maintained as the film thickness varies across the 2D hybridization limit. With additional quantum confinement, we discover the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE states, and reveal the universal QAHE phase diagram in the thin magnetic TI samples. In addition to the uniform magnetic TIs, we further investigate the TI/Cr-doped TI bilayer structures prepared by the modulation-doped growth method. By controlling the magnetic interaction profile, we observe the Dirac hole-mediated ferromagnetism and develop an effective way to manipulate its strength. Besides, the giant spin-orbit torque in such magnetic TI-based heterostructures enables us to demonstrate the current
Ferromagnetism in Hubbard models: Low density route
Mueller-Hartmann, E.
1995-05-01
Thirty years ago the Hubbard model was introduced by Gutzwiller, Hubbard and Kanamori with the main purpose of mimicking the ferromagnetism of transition metals. Soon after, Nagaoka and Thouless pointed out a basic mechanism for ferromagnetism in strongly correlated electron systems by studying the motion of a single hole in a half-filled Hubbard model. This important work was hoped to shed light onto metallic ferromagnetism from the low doping regime. Unfortunately, this low doping route towards ferromagnetism has not been successful as far as rigorous results for finite doping concentrations are concerned. In the work presented, we start from the opposite limit of low particle concentrations. In this limit we provide the first proof of a fully polarized metallic ground state for a Hubbard model. The proof proceeds by mapping Hubbard {open_quotes}zigzag{close_quotes} chains onto a continuum model with an additional degree of freedom and local first Hund`s rule coupling. For this model the maximum total spin multiplet is shown to be the unique ground state for infinite Hubbard coupling. Our proof may open a low density route towards the understanding of the ferromagnetism of Hubbard models.
Thermomagnonic spin transfer and Peltier effects in insulating magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2012-03-01
We study the coupled magnon energy transport and collective magnetization dynamics in ferromagnets with magnetic textures. By constructing a phenomenological theory based on irreversible thermodynamics, we describe the motion of domain walls by thermal gradients and the generation of heat flows by magnetization dynamics. From a microscopic description based on magnon kinetics, we estimate the transport coefficients and analyze the feasibility of energy-related applications in insulating ferromagnets, such as yttrium iron garnet and europium oxide.
Simple and advanced ferromagnet/molecule spinterfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruber, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Djedhloul, F.; Barraud, C.; Garreau, G.; Boukari, S.; Isshiki, H.; Joly, L.; Urbain, E.; Peter, M.; Studniarek, M.; Da Costa, V.; Jabbar, H.; Bulou, H.; Davesne, V.; Halisdemir, U.; Chen, J.; Xenioti, D.; Arabski, J.; Bouzehouane, K.; Deranlot, C.; Fusil, S.; Otero, E.; Choueikani, F.; Chen, K.; Ohresser, P.; Bertran, F.; Le Fèvre, P.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Wulfhekel, W.; Hajjar-Garreau, S.; Wetzel, P.; Seneor, P.; Mattana, R.; Petroff, F.; Scheurer, F.; Weber, W.; Alouani, M.; Beaurepaire, E.; Bowen, M.
2016-10-01
Spin-polarized charge transfer between a ferromagnet and a molecule can promote molecular ferromagnetism 1, 2 and hybridized interfacial states3, 4. Observations of high spin-polarization of Fermi level states at room temperature5 designate such interfaces as a very promising candidate toward achieving a highly spin-polarized, nanoscale current source at room temperature, when compared to other solutions such as half-metallic systems and solid-state tunnelling over the past decades. We will discuss three aspects of this research. 1) Does the ferromagnet/molecule interface, also called an organic spinterface, exhibit this high spin-polarization as a generic feature? Spin-polarized photoemission experiments reveal that a high spin-polarization of electronics states at the Fermi level also exist at the simple interface between ferromagnetic cobalt and amorphous carbon6. Furthermore, this effect is general to an array of ferromagnetic and molecular candidates7. 2) Integrating molecules with intrinsic properties (e.g. spin crossover molecules) into a spinterface toward enhanced functionality requires lowering the charge transfer onto the molecule8 while magnetizing it1,2. We propose to achieve this by utilizing interlayer exchange coupling within a more advanced organic spinterface architecture. We present results at room temperature across the fcc Co(001)/Cu/manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) system9. 3) Finally, we discuss how the Co/MnPc spinterface's ferromagnetism stabilizes antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature onto subsequent molecules away from the spinterface, which in turn can exchange bias the Co layer at low temperature10. Consequences include tunnelling anisotropic magnetoresistance across a CoPc tunnel barrier11. This augurs new possibilities to transmit spin information across organic semiconductors using spin flip excitations12.
Jamali, Mahdi; Lee, Joon Sue; Jeong, Jong Seok; Mahfouzi, Farzad; Lv, Yang; Zhao, Zhengyang; Nikolić, Branislav K; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Samarth, Nitin; Wang, Jian-Ping
2015-10-14
Three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators are known for their strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and the existence of spin-textured surface states that might be potentially exploited for "topological spintronics." Here, we use spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect to demonstrate successful spin injection at room temperature from a metallic ferromagnet (CoFeB) into the prototypical 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3. The spin pumping process, driven by the magnetization dynamics of the metallic ferromagnet, introduces a spin current into the topological insulator layer, resulting in a broadening of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line width. Theoretical modeling of spin pumping through the surface of Bi2Se3, as well as of the measured angular dependence of spin-charge conversion signal, suggests that pumped spin current is first greatly enhanced by the surface SOC and then converted into a dc-voltage signal primarily by the inverse spin Hall effect due to SOC of the bulk of Bi2Se3. We find that the FMR line width broadens significantly (more than a factor of 5) and we deduce a spin Hall angle as large as 0.43 in the Bi2Se3 layer.
Tunable Magnon Weyl Points in Ferromagnetic Pyrochlores.
Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid
2016-10-07
The dispersion relations of magnons in ferromagnetic pyrochlores with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction are shown to possess Weyl points, i. e., pairs of topologically nontrivial crossings of two magnon branches with opposite topological charge. As a consequence of their topological nature, their projections onto a surface are connected by magnon arcs, thereby resembling closely Fermi arcs of electronic Weyl semimetals. On top of this, the positions of the Weyl points in reciprocal space can be tuned widely by an external magnetic field: rotated within the surface plane, the Weyl points and magnon arcs are rotated as well; tilting the magnetic field out of plane shifts the Weyl points toward the center Γ[over ¯] of the surface Brillouin zone. The theory is valid for the class of ferromagnetic pyrochlores, i. e., three-dimensional extensions of topological magnon insulators on kagome lattices. In this Letter, we focus on the (111) surface, identify candidates of established ferromagnetic pyrochlores which apply to the considered spin model, and suggest experiments for the detection of the topological features.
Robust ferromagnetism carried by antiferromagnetic domain walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirose, Hishiro T.; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Hiroi, Zenji
2017-02-01
Ferroic materials, such as ferromagnetic or ferroelectric materials, have been utilized as recording media for memory devices. A recent trend for downsizing, however, requires an alternative, because ferroic orders tend to become unstable for miniaturization. The domain wall nanoelectronics is a new developing direction for next-generation devices, in which atomic domain walls, rather than conventional, large domains themselves, are the active elements. Here we show that atomically thin magnetic domain walls generated in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cd2Os2O7 carry unusual ferromagnetic moments perpendicular to the wall as well as electron conductivity: the ferromagnetic moments are easily polarized even by a tiny field of 1 mT at high temperature, while, once cooled down, they are surprisingly robust even in an inverse magnetic field of 7 T. Thus, the magnetic domain walls could serve as a new-type of microscopic, switchable and electrically readable magnetic medium which is potentially important for future applications in the domain wall nanoelectronics.
Robust ferromagnetism carried by antiferromagnetic domain walls
Hirose, Hishiro T.; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Hiroi, Zenji
2017-01-01
Ferroic materials, such as ferromagnetic or ferroelectric materials, have been utilized as recording media for memory devices. A recent trend for downsizing, however, requires an alternative, because ferroic orders tend to become unstable for miniaturization. The domain wall nanoelectronics is a new developing direction for next-generation devices, in which atomic domain walls, rather than conventional, large domains themselves, are the active elements. Here we show that atomically thin magnetic domain walls generated in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cd2Os2O7 carry unusual ferromagnetic moments perpendicular to the wall as well as electron conductivity: the ferromagnetic moments are easily polarized even by a tiny field of 1 mT at high temperature, while, once cooled down, they are surprisingly robust even in an inverse magnetic field of 7 T. Thus, the magnetic domain walls could serve as a new-type of microscopic, switchable and electrically readable magnetic medium which is potentially important for future applications in the domain wall nanoelectronics. PMID:28195565
Tunable Magnon Weyl Points in Ferromagnetic Pyrochlores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid
2016-10-01
The dispersion relations of magnons in ferromagnetic pyrochlores with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction are shown to possess Weyl points, i. e., pairs of topologically nontrivial crossings of two magnon branches with opposite topological charge. As a consequence of their topological nature, their projections onto a surface are connected by magnon arcs, thereby resembling closely Fermi arcs of electronic Weyl semimetals. On top of this, the positions of the Weyl points in reciprocal space can be tuned widely by an external magnetic field: rotated within the surface plane, the Weyl points and magnon arcs are rotated as well; tilting the magnetic field out of plane shifts the Weyl points toward the center Γ ¯ of the surface Brillouin zone. The theory is valid for the class of ferromagnetic pyrochlores, i. e., three-dimensional extensions of topological magnon insulators on kagome lattices. In this Letter, we focus on the (111) surface, identify candidates of established ferromagnetic pyrochlores which apply to the considered spin model, and suggest experiments for the detection of the topological features.
Robust ferromagnetism carried by antiferromagnetic domain walls.
Hirose, Hishiro T; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Hiroi, Zenji
2017-02-14
Ferroic materials, such as ferromagnetic or ferroelectric materials, have been utilized as recording media for memory devices. A recent trend for downsizing, however, requires an alternative, because ferroic orders tend to become unstable for miniaturization. The domain wall nanoelectronics is a new developing direction for next-generation devices, in which atomic domain walls, rather than conventional, large domains themselves, are the active elements. Here we show that atomically thin magnetic domain walls generated in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cd2Os2O7 carry unusual ferromagnetic moments perpendicular to the wall as well as electron conductivity: the ferromagnetic moments are easily polarized even by a tiny field of 1 mT at high temperature, while, once cooled down, they are surprisingly robust even in an inverse magnetic field of 7 T. Thus, the magnetic domain walls could serve as a new-type of microscopic, switchable and electrically readable magnetic medium which is potentially important for future applications in the domain wall nanoelectronics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ä; rrälä, Minna; Hafiz, Hasnain; Mou, Daixiang; Wu, Yun; Jiang, Rui; Riedemann, Trevor; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Kaminski, Adam; Bansil, Arun; Lindroos, Matti
2016-10-01
We have obtained angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) spectra from single crystals of the topological insulator material Bi2Te3 using a tunable laser spectrometer. The spectra were collected for 11 different photon energies ranging from 5.57 to 6.70 eV for incident light polarized linearly along two different in-plane directions. Parallel first-principles, fully relativistic computations of photointensities were carried out using the experimental geometry within the framework of the one-step model of photoemission. A reasonable overall accord between theory and experiment is used to gain insight into how properties of the initial- and final-state band structures as well as those of the topological surface states and their spin textures are reflected in the laser-ARPES spectra. Our analysis reveals that laser-ARPES is sensitive to both the initial-state kz dispersion and the presence of delicate gaps in the final-state electronic spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waki, T.; Kajinami, Y.; Tabata, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Yoshida, M.; Takigawa, M.; Watanabe, I.
2010-01-01
Muon spin relaxation (μSR) and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments revealed that the spin-singlet state with an excitation gap of ˜200K is realized from S=1/2Nb4 tetrahedral clusters in a cluster Mott insulator GaNb4S8 . The intercluster cooperative phenomenon to the singlet state at TS=32k is triggered by intracluster Jahn-Teller type structural instability developed from ˜3TS . Referring to the lattice symmetry, the formation of Nb8 octamer ( Nb4-Nb4 bond) is suggested.
Giant anisotropic magneto-resistance in the magnetic topological insulator Cry(Bi1-xSbx)2-yTe3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandala, Abhinav; Richardella, Anthony; Liu, Chaoxing; Samarth, Nitin
2015-03-01
We demonstrate magnetization control of edge state transport and report the observation of a gate-tunable giant anisotropic magneto-resistance (GAMR) effect in the magnetic topological insulator Cry(Bi1-xSbx)2-yTe3 as an external field (and the magnetization M) is rotated from out-of-plane (polar angle θ =0°) to in-plane (θ =90°). The angular dependence of the GAMR deviates from the standard cos2 ϕ form (where ϕ is the angle between M and the current density J), and is instead explained by a Landauer-Buttiker formalism that accounts for bulk-edge mixing. However, the rotation of the magnetization in-plane produces a weak, conventional AMR. These results serve as evidence for a field tilt-tuned crossover between an ``imperfect'' quantum anomalous Hall insulator (QAH) and a gapless, ferromagnetic topological insulator. We expect the GAMR to become stronger in the ideal QAH regime where edge state conduction dominates over bulk conduction, thus providing a route toward proof-of-concept ferromagnetic topological insulator transistors and magnetic field sensors. Funded by DARPA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, X. K.; Zou, T.; Wang, F.; Zhang, Q. H.; Sun, Y.; Gu, L.; Hirata, A.; Chen, M. W.; Yao, Y.; Jin, C. Q.; Yu, R. C.
2012-04-01
In dilute magnetic oxide hexagonal Ba(Ti0.9Fe0.1)O2.81 bulk ceramic, we report on combined ferromagnetism and improper ferroelectricity as well as cross-controlled magnetoelectric effects at room temperature. The annular-bright-field (ABF) imaging technique in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) demonstrates an oxygen vacancy ordering in the hexagonal closest-packed Ba1-O1 layers and severe distortion of the octahedra and pyramids. Strong dependencies of the susceptibility on temperature and magnetic field as well as the frequency dependence of magnetization under an ac electric field reveal that the intrinsic ferromagnetism of the highly insulating system dynamically evolves from a paramagnetic ground state, and dynamic exchanges of trapped electrons in the ordered polarons are attributed to the ferromagnetic interaction. Accordingly, aided by the motion of oxygen vacancies, responses of the trapped electrons to the ac magnetic field result in the reversal of magnetically induced voltages between high and low states. Our results not only expand our understanding on the magnetoelectric coupling mechanism, but also provide a grand opportunity toward designing novel multiferroic materials through introducing ordered point defects into a centrosymmetric matrix.
Itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting Fermi gas with mass imbalance
Keyserlingk, C. W. von; Conduit, G. J.
2011-05-15
We study the emergence of itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas with a variable mass ratio between the up- and down-spin species. Mass imbalance breaks the SU(2) spin symmetry, leading to a modified Stoner criterion. We first elucidate the phase behavior in both the grand canonical and canonical ensembles. Second, we apply the formalism to a harmonic trap to demonstrate how a mass imbalance delivers unique experimental signatures of ferromagnetism. These could help future experiments to better identify the putative ferromagnetic state. Furthermore, we highlight how a mass imbalance suppresses the three-body loss processes that handicap the formation of a ferromagnetic state. Finally, we study the time-dependent formation of the ferromagnetic phase following a quench in the interaction strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Dung-Hai; Kivelson, Steven A.
2003-01-01
There are two classes of Mott insulators in nature, distinguished by their responses to weak doping. With increasing chemical potential, type I Mott insulators undergo a first order phase transition from the undoped to the doped phase. In the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions, this leads to an inhomogeneous state exhibiting “micro-phase separation.” In contrast, in type II Mott insulators charges go in continuously above a critical chemical potential. We show that if the insulating state has a broken symmetry, this increases the likelihood that it will be type I. There exists a close analogy between these two types of Mott insulators and the familiar type I and type II superconductors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
The Apollo and subsequent spacecraft have had highly effective radiation barriers; made of aluminized polymer film, they bar or let in heat to maintain consistent temperatures inside. Tech 2000, formerly Quantum International Corporation used the NASA technology in its insulating materials, Super "Q" Radiant Barrier, for home, industry and mobile applications. The insulation combines industrial aluminum foil overlaid around a core of another material, usually propylene or mylar. The outer layer reflects up to 97 percent of heat; the central layer creates a thermal break in the structure and thus allows low radiant energy emission. The Quantum Cool Wall, used in cars and trucks, takes up little space while providing superior insulation, thus reducing spoilage and costs. The panels can also dampen sound and engine, exhaust and solar heat.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
Manufactured by Hitco Materials Division of Armco, Inc. a ceramic fiber insulation material known as Refrasil has been used extensively as a heat-absorbing ablative reinforcement for such space systems as rocket motor nozzles, combustion chambers, and re-entry shields. Refrasil fibers are highly porous and do not melt or vaporize until fibers exceed 3,100 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to these and other properties, Refrasil has found utility in a number of industrial high temperature applications where glass, asbestos and other materials fail. Hitco used this insulation to assist Richardson Co., Inc. in the manufacturing of hard rubber and plastic molded battery cases.
Theory of magnon motive force in chiral ferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güngördü, Utkan; Kovalev, Alexey A.
2016-07-01
We predict that magnon motive force can lead to temperature dependent, nonlinear chiral damping in both conducting and insulating ferromagnets. We estimate that this damping can significantly influence the motion of skyrmions and domain walls at finite temperatures. We also find that in systems with low Gilbert damping moving chiral magnetic textures and resulting magnon motive forces can induce large spin and energy currents in the transverse direction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
Apex Mills Corporation's superinsulators are used by makers of cold weather apparel, parkas, jackets, boots and outdoor gear such as sleeping bags. Their attraction in such applications is that radiant barrier insulation offers excellent warmth retention at minimal weight and bulk.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
Radiation insulation technology from Apollo and subsequent spacecraft was used to develop superinsulators, used by makers of cold weather apparel, to make parkas, jackets, boots and outdoor gear such as sleeping bags. The radiant barrier technology offers warmth retention at minimal weight and bulk.
Nesbitt, W. A.
1985-10-01
An insulator for mounting to a window. A pair of plastic layers including a plurality of partitions positioned therebetween form air pockets between the layers. A plurality of suction cups and suction grooves arranged in rows on one outer surface of the sheet removably secure the sheet to a window. The sheet includes a circumferentially extending recessed portion receiving the window frame.
Microsphere insulation systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.
Magnetically insulated opening switch research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGeoch, M. W.; Kraft, R.
1987-01-01
We examine the feasibility of an opening switch concept based on magnetic insulation in a coaxial thermionic diode. It is found that the impedance ratio between closed and open states of the diode is marginal for efficient energy transfer via this type of switch. The open, or insulated state of the diode is characterized by current leakage across the magnetic field which is associated with the presence of plasma waves.
Topological Insulators from Electronic Superstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugita, Yusuke; Motome, Yukitoshi
2016-07-01
The possibility of realizing topological insulators by the spontaneous formation of electronic superstructures is theoretically investigated in a minimal two-orbital model including both the spin-orbit coupling and electron correlations on a triangular lattice. Using the mean-field approximation, we show that the model exhibits several different types of charge-ordered insulators, where the charge disproportionation forms a honeycomb or kagome superstructure. We find that the charge-ordered insulators in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling can be topological insulators showing quantized spin Hall conductivity. Their band gap is dependent on electron correlations as well as the spin-orbit coupling, and even vanishes while showing the massless Dirac dispersion at the transition to a trivial charge-ordered insulator. Our results suggest a new route to realize and control topological states of quantum matter by the interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and electron correlations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baskaran, G.
2016-12-01
Doped band insulators, HfNCl, WO3, diamond, Bi2Se3, BiS2 families, STO/LAO interface, gate doped SrTiO3, MoS2 and so on are unusual superconductors. With an aim to build a general theory for superconductivity in doped band insulators, we focus on the BiS2 family which was discovered by Mizuguchi et al in 2012. While maximum Tc is only ˜11 K in {{LaO}}1-{{x}}{{{F}}}{{x}}{{BiS}}2, a number of experimental results are puzzling and anomalous in the sense that they resemble high T c and unconventional superconductors. Using a two orbital model of Usui, Suzuki and Kuroki, we show that the uniform low density free Fermi sea in {{LaO}}{0,5}{{{F}}}0.5{{BiS}}2 is unstable towards formation of the next nearest neighbor Bi-S-Bi diagonal valence bond (charged -2e Cooper pair) and their Wigner crystallization. Instability to this novel state of matter is caused by unscreened nearest neighbor coulomb repulsions (V ˜ 1 eV) and a hopping pattern with sulfur mediated diagonal next nearest neighbor Bi-S-Bi hopping t’ ˜ 0.88 eV, as well as larger than nearest neighbor Bi-Bi hopping, t ˜ 0.16 eV. Wigner crystals of Cooper pairs quantum melt for doping around x = 0.5 and stabilize certain resonating valence bond states and superconductivity. We study a few variational RVB states and suggest that BiS2 family members are latent high Tc superconductors, but challenged by competing orders and the fragile nature of many body states sustained by unscreened Coulomb forces. One of our superconducting states has d XY symmetry and a gap. We also predict a 2d Bose metal or vortex liquid normal state, as charged -2e valence bonds survive in the normal state.
Emergent Momentum-Space Skyrmion Texture on the Surface of Topological Insulators
Mohanta, Narayan; Kampf, Arno P.; Kopp, Thilo
2017-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect has been theoretically predicted and experimentally verified in magnetic topological insulators. In addition, the surface states of these materials exhibit a hedgehoglike “spin” texture in momentum space. Here, we apply the previously formulated low-energy model for Bi2Se3, a parent compound for magnetic topological insulators, to a slab geometry in which an exchange field acts only within one of the surface layers. In this sample set up, the hedgehog transforms into a skyrmion texture beyond a critical exchange field. This critical field marks a transition between two topologically distinct phases. The topological phase transition takes place without energy gap closing at the Fermi level and leaves the transverse Hall conductance unchanged and quantized to e2/2h. The momentum-space skyrmion texture persists in a finite field range. It may find its realization in hybrid heterostructures with an interface between a three-dimensional topological insulator and a ferromagnetic insulator. PMID:28378779
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Satoki; Katsube, Shota; Zheng, Guo-qing
2017-02-01
The In-doped topological crystalline insulator Sn1-xInxTe is a promising candidate for a topological superconductor, where it is theoretically suggested that In creates an impurity state responsible for superconductivity. We synthesized high purity Sn1-xInxTe samples and performed 125Te-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. The NMR spectra under a magnetic field of H0 = 5 T show a broadening characteristic due to a localized impurity state. The spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) divided by temperature shows a Curie-Weiss like temperature-dependence under H0 = 0.1 T but is temperature-independent under H0 = 5 T. These results indicate the existence of quasi-localized impurity states due to In doping.
Magnetic fluctuations driven insulator-to-metal transition in Ca(Ir1−xRux)O3
Gunasekera, J.; Harriger, L.; Dahal, A.; Heitmann, T.; Vignale, G.; Singh, D. K.
2015-01-01
Magnetic fluctuations in transition metal oxides are a subject of intensive research because of the key role they are expected to play in the transition from the Mott insulator to the unconventional metallic phase of these materials, and also as drivers of superconductivity. Despite much effort, a clear link between magnetic fluctuations and the insulator-to-metal transition has not yet been established. Here we report the discovery of a compelling link between magnetic fluctuations and the insulator-to-metal transition in Ca(Ir1−xRux)O3 perovskites as a function of the substitution coefficient x. We show that when the material turns from insulator to metal, at a critical value of x ~ 0.3, magnetic fluctuations tend to change their character from antiferromagnetic, a Mott insulator phase, to ferromagnetic, an itinerant electron state with Hund’s orbital coupling. These results are expected to have wide-ranging implications for our understanding of the unconventional properties of strongly correlated electrons systems. PMID:26647965
Magnetic fluctuations driven insulator-to-metal transition in Ca(Ir1-xRux)O3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunasekera, J.; Harriger, L.; Dahal, A.; Heitmann, T.; Vignale, G.; Singh, D. K.
2015-12-01
Magnetic fluctuations in transition metal oxides are a subject of intensive research because of the key role they are expected to play in the transition from the Mott insulator to the unconventional metallic phase of these materials, and also as drivers of superconductivity. Despite much effort, a clear link between magnetic fluctuations and the insulator-to-metal transition has not yet been established. Here we report the discovery of a compelling link between magnetic fluctuations and the insulator-to-metal transition in Ca(Ir1-xRux)O3 perovskites as a function of the substitution coefficient x. We show that when the material turns from insulator to metal, at a critical value of x ~ 0.3, magnetic fluctuations tend to change their character from antiferromagnetic, a Mott insulator phase, to ferromagnetic, an itinerant electron state with Hund’s orbital coupling. These results are expected to have wide-ranging implications for our understanding of the unconventional properties of strongly correlated electrons systems.
Evolution of competing magnetic order in the Jeff=1/2 insulating state of Sr2Ir1-xRuxO4
Calder, Stuart A.; Kim, Jong-Woo; Cao, Guixin; ...
2015-10-27
We investigate the magnetic properties of the series Sr2Ir1-xRuxO4 with neutron, resonant x-ray and magnetization measurements. The results indicate an evolution and coexistence of magnetic structures via a spin flop transition from ab-plane to c-axis collinear order as the 5d Ir4+ ions are replaced with an increasing concentration of 4d Ru4+ ions. The magnetic structures within the ordered regime of the phase diagram (x<0.3) are reported. Despite the changes in magnetic structure no alteration of the Jeff=1/2 ground state is observed. This behavior of Sr2Ir1-xRuxO4 is consistent with electronic phase separation and diverges from a standard scenario of hole doping.more » The role of lattice alterations with doping on the magnetic and insulating behavior is considered. Our results presented here provide insight into the magnetic insulating states in strong spin-orbit coupled materials and the role perturbations play in altering the behavior.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sangkook; Lee, Dung-Hai; Louie, Steven G.; Clarke, John
2010-03-01
The origin of magnetic flux noise in dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) with a power spectrum scaling as 1/f (f is frequency) has been a puzzle for over 25 years. This noise limits both the low frequency performance of SQUIDs and the decoherence time of flux-sensitive superconducting qubits, making scaling-up for quantum computing problematic. Recent calculations and experiments indicate that the noise is generated by electrons that randomly reverse their spin directions. Their areal density of ˜ 5 x 10^17 m-2 is relatively insensitive to the nature of the superconductor and substrate. Here, we propose that the local magnetic moments originate in metal-induced gap states (MIGSs) localized by potential disorder at the metal-insulator interface. MIGSs are particularly sensitive to such disorder, so that the localized states have a Coulomb repulsion sufficiently large to make them singly occupied. Our calculations demonstrate that a modest level of disorder generates the required areal density of localized moments. This result suggests that magnetic flux noise could be reduced by fabricating superconductor-insulator interfaces with less disorder. Support: NSF DMR07-05941, US DOE De-AC02-05CH11231, Samsung Foundation, Teragrid, NERSC.
SINTEF Building and Infrastructure; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Bergh, Sofie Van Den; Hart, Robert; Jelle, Bjrn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild
2013-01-31
Insulating glass (IG) units typically consist of multiple glass panes that are sealed and held together structurally along their perimeters. This report describes a study of edge seals in IG units. First, we summarize the components, requirements, and desired properties of edge construction in IG units, based on a survey of the available literature. Second, we review commercially available window edge seals and describe their properties, to provide an easily accessible reference for research and commercial purposes. Finally, based on the literature survey and review of current commercial edge seal systems, we identify research opportunities for future edge seal improvements and solutions.
Crossover from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic ground state in the (Ce1- xUx)2Pd2.05Sn0.95 system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laffargue, D.; Bordère, S.; Bourée, F.; Chevalier, B.; Etourneau, J.; Roisnel, T.
1999-07-01
The (Ce1- xUx)2Pd2.05Sn0.95 solid solution has been investigated by means of x-ray powder diffraction and magnetization measurements. All the compounds crystallize in the tetragonal U2Fe2Sn-type structure, P4/mbm space group. A crossover from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic behaviour at low temperature is observed around xicons/Journals/Common/simeq" ALT="simeq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0.30: in the composition range 0icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> x<0.30, the Curie tempertaure TC goes through a maximum at xicons/Journals/Common/simeq" ALT="simeq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0.10-0.15 whereas for 0.30icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> x<1.0 the Néel temperature TN increases continuously with x. Neutron powder diffraction performed on (Ce0.85U0.15)2Pd2.05Sn0.95 (x = 0.15) confirms the existence of a ferromagnetic structure below TC = 4.6(1) K, with (Ce, U) magnetic moments parallel to the tetragonal c-axis. The magnetic phase diagram ((TC, TN) against x) of this system is discussed considering a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida model based on a non-spherical Fermi surface.
Magnetically controlled ferromagnetic swimmers
Hamilton, Joshua K.; Petrov, Peter G.; Winlove, C. Peter; Gilbert, Andrew D.; Bryan, Matthew T.; Ogrin, Feodor Y.
2017-01-01
Microscopic swimming devices hold promise for radically new applications in lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic technology, diagnostics and drug delivery etc. In this paper, we demonstrate the experimental verification of a new class of autonomous ferromagnetic swimming devices, actuated and controlled solely by an oscillating magnetic field. These devices are based on a pair of interacting ferromagnetic particles of different size and different anisotropic properties joined by an elastic link and actuated by an external time-dependent magnetic field. The net motion is generated through a combination of dipolar interparticle gradient forces, time-dependent torque and hydrodynamic coupling. We investigate the dynamic performance of a prototype (3.6 mm) of the ferromagnetic swimmer in fluids of different viscosity as a function of the external field parameters (frequency and amplitude) and demonstrate stable propulsion over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. We show that the direction of swimming has a dependence on both the frequency and amplitude of the applied external magnetic field, resulting in robust control over the speed and direction of propulsion. This paves the way to fabricating microscale devices for a variety of technological applications requiring reliable actuation and high degree of control. PMID:28276490
Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.
Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry
2016-05-13
A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.
Magnetically controlled ferromagnetic swimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, Joshua K.; Petrov, Peter G.; Winlove, C. Peter; Gilbert, Andrew D.; Bryan, Matthew T.; Ogrin, Feodor Y.
2017-03-01
Microscopic swimming devices hold promise for radically new applications in lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic technology, diagnostics and drug delivery etc. In this paper, we demonstrate the experimental verification of a new class of autonomous ferromagnetic swimming devices, actuated and controlled solely by an oscillating magnetic field. These devices are based on a pair of interacting ferromagnetic particles of different size and different anisotropic properties joined by an elastic link and actuated by an external time-dependent magnetic field. The net motion is generated through a combination of dipolar interparticle gradient forces, time-dependent torque and hydrodynamic coupling. We investigate the dynamic performance of a prototype (3.6 mm) of the ferromagnetic swimmer in fluids of different viscosity as a function of the external field parameters (frequency and amplitude) and demonstrate stable propulsion over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. We show that the direction of swimming has a dependence on both the frequency and amplitude of the applied external magnetic field, resulting in robust control over the speed and direction of propulsion. This paves the way to fabricating microscale devices for a variety of technological applications requiring reliable actuation and high degree of control.
Superconductivity-related insulating behavior.
Sambandamurthy, G; Engel, L W; Johansson, A; Shahar, D
2004-03-12
We present the results of an experimental study of superconducting, disordered, thin films of amorphous indium oxide. These films can be driven from the superconducting phase to a reentrant insulating state by the application of a perpendicular magnetic field (B). We find that the high-B insulator exhibits activated transport with a characteristic temperature, TI. TI has a maximum value (TpI) that is close to the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) at B=0, suggesting a possible relation between the conduction mechanisms in the superconducting and insulating phases. Tp(I) and Tc display opposite dependences on the disorder strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stamopoulos, D.; Zeibekis, M.; Vertsioti, G.; Zhang, S. J.
2014-08-01
Low-dimensional hybrid structures of heterogeneous constituents usually exhibit abnormal properties, a fact that makes such hybrids attractive for various cryogenic and room-temperature applications. Here, we studied Co/(1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3/Co (Co/PMN-xPT/Co) with x = 0.29 and 0.30, specifically focusing on the evolution of the remanent ferromagnetic state, mrem of the Co outer layers in the whole temperature range from 300 K down to 10 K, upon application of an external electric field, Eex. We observed that mrem was vulnerable to degradation through the occurrence of electric field-induced magnetic instabilities (EMIs) that appeared only when Eex ≠ 0 kV/cm and were facilitated as Eex increases. However, EMIs completely ceased below a characteristic temperature Tces = 170 K even for the maximum |Eex| = 5 kV/cm applied in this work. A direct comparison of the magnetization data of the Co/PMN-xPT/Co hybrids reported here with the electromechanical properties of the parent PMN-xPT crystals plausibly indicates that EMIs are motivated by the coupling of the ferromagnetic domains of the Co outer layers with the ferroelectric domains of the PMN-xPT crystal. These results highlight the drawback of EMIs in relevant hybrids and delimit the temperature regime for the reliable operation of the Co/PMN-xPT/Co ones studied here.
Li, C. H.; van ‘t Erve, O.M.J.; Rajput, S.; Li, L.; Jonker, B. T.
2016-01-01
Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) exhibit time-reversal symmetry protected, linearly dispersing Dirac surface states with spin–momentum locking. Band bending at the TI surface may also lead to coexisting trivial two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) states with parabolic energy dispersion. A bias current is expected to generate spin polarization in both systems, although with different magnitude and sign. Here we compare spin potentiometric measurements of bias current-generated spin polarization in Bi2Se3(111) where Dirac surface states coexist with trivial 2DEG states, and in InAs(001) where only trivial 2DEG states are present. We observe spin polarization arising from spin–momentum locking in both cases, with opposite signs of the measured spin voltage. We present a model based on spin dependent electrochemical potentials to directly derive the sign expected for the Dirac surface states, and show that the dominant contribution to the current-generated spin polarization in the TI is from the Dirac surface states. PMID:27853143
Li, C H; van 't Erve, O M J; Rajput, S; Li, L; Jonker, B T
2016-11-17
Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) exhibit time-reversal symmetry protected, linearly dispersing Dirac surface states with spin-momentum locking. Band bending at the TI surface may also lead to coexisting trivial two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) states with parabolic energy dispersion. A bias current is expected to generate spin polarization in both systems, although with different magnitude and sign. Here we compare spin potentiometric measurements of bias current-generated spin polarization in Bi2Se3(111) where Dirac surface states coexist with trivial 2DEG states, and in InAs(001) where only trivial 2DEG states are present. We observe spin polarization arising from spin-momentum locking in both cases, with opposite signs of the measured spin voltage. We present a model based on spin dependent electrochemical potentials to directly derive the sign expected for the Dirac surface states, and show that the dominant contribution to the current-generated spin polarization in the TI is from the Dirac surface states.
Room Temperature Electrical Detection of Spin Polarized Currents in Topological Insulators.
Dankert, André; Geurs, Johannes; Kamalakar, M Venkata; Charpentier, Sophie; Dash, Saroj P
2015-12-09
Topological insulators (TIs) are a new class of quantum materials that exhibit a current-induced spin polarization due to spin-momentum locking of massless Dirac Fermions in their surface states. This helical spin polarization in three-dimensional (3D) TIs has been observed using photoemission spectroscopy up to room temperatures. Recently, spin polarized surface currents in 3D TIs were detected electrically by potentiometric measurements using ferromagnetic detector contacts. However, these electric measurements are so far limited to cryogenic temperatures. Here we report the room temperature electrical detection of the spin polarization on the surface of Bi2Se3 by employing spin sensitive ferromagnetic tunnel contacts. The current-induced spin polarization on the Bi2Se3 surface is probed by measuring the magnetoresistance while switching the magnetization direction of the ferromagnetic detector. A spin resistance of up to 70 mΩ is measured at room temperature, which increases linearly with current bias, reverses sign with current direction, and decreases with higher TI thickness. The magnitude of the spin signal, its sign, and control experiments, using different measurement geometries and interface conditions, rule out other known physical effects. These findings provide further information about the electrical detection of current-induced spin polarizations in 3D TIs at ambient temperatures and could lead to innovative spin-based technologies.
Saleh, Na'il; Al-Trawneh, Salah; Al-Dmour, Hmoud; Al-Taweel, Samir; Graham, John P
2015-01-01
The performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) that is based on the host-guest encapsulation of 5-[4-diphenylamino)phenyl]thiophene-2-cyanoacrylic acid (L1) inside β-cyclodextrin hosts has been tested. The formation of the complex in the solid state and when adsorbed on TiO(2) was characterized using steady and picosecond time-resolved emission techniques, as well as time dependent DFT calculations. The molecular-level insulation has led to a small enhancement in the energy-conversion performance of the fabricated DSSC with the best results being an increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) from 0.7 to 0.8 V. The importance of the present investigation lies in the unique spectroscopic characterizations of the examined materials in the solid state.
Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; Seki, Mitsuro; Saito, Kazuya; Hiraki, Ko-ichi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Kanoda, Kazushi; Sorai, Michio
2002-02-18
Heat capacity measurements of a charge-ordered organic conductor (DI-DCNQI)2Ag have been performed in a temperature range between 0.3 and 14 K. We found no thermal anomaly at the Néel temperature ( T(N) = 5.5 K) but instead a T-linear term suggestive of the spin excitations of one-dimensional character in the charge-ordered insulating state. The analysis of the T-linear term and the excess entropy indicates that the charge fluctuations in the charge-ordered state influence the growth of spin excitations at elevated temperatures, which seems to be a peculiar aspect of a 1D charge-ordered system.
Stovall, Therese K; Biswas, Kaushik; Song, Bo; Zhang, Sisi
2012-08-01
In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and
Possibility of ferromagnetic neutron matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji
2015-04-01
We study ferromagnetism at high density of neutrons in the QCD hadron phase, by using the simplest chiral effective model incorporating magnetic fields and the chiral anomaly. Under the assumption of spatial homogeneity, we calculate the energy density as a function of neutron density, with a magnetization and a neutral pion condensation in the style of Dautry and Neyman. We find that at a high density the energy of the ferromagnetic order is lower than that of the ordinary neutron matter, and the reduction effect is enhanced by the anomaly. Compared to the inhomogeneous phase with the alternating layer structure, our ferromagnetic phase turns out to be unfavored. However, once an axial vector meson condensation is taken into account in our simplest model, the ferromagnetic energy density is lowered significantly, which still leaves some room for a possible realization of a QCD ferromagnetic phase and ferromagnetic magnetars.
Metal-insulator transition in the Hollandite vanadate K2V8O16 investigated by 51V NMR measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okai, Katsunori; Itoh, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Masahiko; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Yutaka
2009-03-01
51V NMR measurements have been made on powdered samples to investigate the metal-insulator (MI) transition and the local magnetic properties of the Hollandite vanadate K2V8O16 which undergoes the MI transition at TMI~170 K. An asymmetric 51V NMR spectrum in the metallic phase has the T-dependent negative Knight shift K. The two NMR spectra appears around TMI, showing the coexistence of the metallic and insulating phases in consistent with the two-step first-order transition. The temperature dependence of K and the 51V nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate indicates the presence of the ferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the metallic phase. A 51V NMR spectrum observed below TMI has the temperature-independent K~0.35%, showing the presence of the nonmagnetic ground state.
Nonlinear dynamics induced anomalous Hall effect in topological insulators.
Wang, Guanglei; Xu, Hongya; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2016-01-28
We uncover an alternative mechanism for anomalous Hall effect. In particular, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics of an insulating ferromagnet (FM) deposited on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), subject to an external voltage. The spin-polarised current on the TI surface induces a spin-transfer torque on the magnetisation of the top FM while its dynamics can change the transmission probability of the surface electrons through the exchange coupling and hence the current. We find a host of nonlinear dynamical behaviors including multistability, chaos, and phase synchronisation. Strikingly, a dynamics mediated Hall-like current can arise, which exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the channel conductance. We develop a physical understanding of the mechanism that leads to the anomalous Hall effect. The nonlinear dynamical origin of the effect stipulates that a rich variety of final states exist, implying that the associated Hall current can be controlled to yield desirable behaviors. The phenomenon can find applications in Dirac-material based spintronics.
Nonlinear dynamics induced anomalous Hall effect in topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guanglei; Xu, Hongya; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2016-01-01
We uncover an alternative mechanism for anomalous Hall effect. In particular, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics of an insulating ferromagnet (FM) deposited on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), subject to an external voltage. The spin-polarised current on the TI surface induces a spin-transfer torque on the magnetisation of the top FM while its dynamics can change the transmission probability of the surface electrons through the exchange coupling and hence the current. We find a host of nonlinear dynamical behaviors including multistability, chaos, and phase synchronisation. Strikingly, a dynamics mediated Hall-like current can arise, which exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the channel conductance. We develop a physical understanding of the mechanism that leads to the anomalous Hall effect. The nonlinear dynamical origin of the effect stipulates that a rich variety of final states exist, implying that the associated Hall current can be controlled to yield desirable behaviors. The phenomenon can find applications in Dirac-material based spintronics.
Ferromagnetic ordering in an insulator by itinerant electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, J. N. B.; Lin, Aigu L.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Adam, S.; Wee, Andrew T. S.
2014-03-01
Motivated by recent experimental work of variable range hopping of electrons between magnetic nanoparticles in oxidized graphene, we consider theoretically an ensemble of randomly oriented classical Heisenberg magnetic moments which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and have negligible magnetostatic coupling. Itinerant electrons hopping through random sites experience a Zeeman coupling with these moments. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that this generates an effective electron-mediated coupling between the Heisenberg moments giving rise to spontaneous magnetization of the sample. We make predictions for the temperature dependence of this magnetization and compare with experimental data. We thank the financial support from Singapore NRF-CRP award R-144-000-295-281, from Singapore NRF Fellowship award R-144-000-302-281, and from the Singapore MOE ARF Grant No. R-398-000-056-112.
Ärrälä, Minna; Hafiz, Hasnain; Mou, Daixiang; ...
2016-10-27
Here, we have obtained angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) spectra from single crystals of the topological insulator material Bi2Te3 using tunable laser spectrometer. The spectra were collected for eleven different photon energies ranging from 5.57 to 6.70 eV for incident light polarized linearly along two different in-plane directions. Parallel first-principles, fully relativistic computations of photo-intensities were carried out using the experimental geometry within the framework of the one-step model of photoemission. Good overall accord between theory and experiment is used to gain insight into how properties of the initial and final state band structures as well as those of the topological surfacemore » states and their spin-textures are reflected in the laser-ARPES spectra. In conclusion, our analysis reveals that laser-ARPES is sensitive to both the initial state kz dispersion and the presence of delicate gaps in the final state electronic spectrum.« less
Role of superexchange interactions in the ferromagnetism of manganites
Troyanchuk, I. O. Bushinsky, M. V.; Volkov, N. V.; Sikolenko, V.; Efimova, E. A.; Ritter, C.
2015-01-15
Compound La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.85}Nb{sub 0.15}O{sub 3}, in which manganese ions are in an oxidation state close to 3+, are studied by neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. This compound is shown to be a ferromagnet with T{sub C} = 145 K and a magnetic moment of 3.1 μ{sub B}/Mn at T = 10 K. No signs of cooperative orbital ordering are detected. When Mg{sup 2+} ions substitute for some Nb{sup 5+} ions, Mn{sup 4+} ions appear but ferromagnetism is not enhanced. An increase in the structural distortions leads to a decrease in the ferromagnetic component. The ferromagnetic state is assumed to be caused by substantial hybridization of the e{sub g} orbitals of manganese and oxygen, which increases the positive part of the superexchange interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert J.; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Zubko, Pavlo; Balandeh, Shadi; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Sawatzky, George; Schmitt, Thorsten
2016-10-01
The metal-insulator transition and the intriguing physical properties of rare-earth perovskite nickelates have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Nonetheless, a complete understanding of these materials remains elusive. Here we combine X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopies to resolve important aspects of the complex electronic structure of rare-earth nickelates, taking NdNiO3 thin film as representative example. The unusual coexistence of bound and continuum excitations observed in the RIXS spectra provides strong evidence for abundant oxygen holes in the ground state of these materials. Using cluster calculations and Anderson impurity model interpretation, we show that distinct spectral signatures arise from a Ni 3d8 configuration along with holes in the oxygen 2p valence band, confirming suggestions that these materials do not obey a conventional positive charge-transfer picture, but instead exhibit a negative charge-transfer energy in line with recent models interpreting the metal-insulator transition in terms of bond disproportionation.
Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert J.; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Zubko, Pavlo; Balandeh, Shadi; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Sawatzky, George; Schmitt, Thorsten
2016-10-11
The metal-insulator transitions and the intriguing physical properties of rare-earth perovskite nickelates have attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, a complete understanding of these materials remains elusive. Here, taking a NdNiO_{3} thin film as a representative example, we utilize a combination of x-ray absorption (XAS) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopies to resolve important aspects of the complex electronic structure of the rare-earth nickelates. The unusual coexistence of bound and continuum excitations observed in the RIXS spectra provides strong evidence for the abundance of oxygen 2p holes in the ground state of these materials. Using cluster calculations and Anderson impurity model interpretation, we show that these distinct spectral signatures arise from a Ni 3d^{8} configuration along with holes in the oxygen 2p valence band, confirming suggestions that these materials do not obey a “conventional” positive charge-transfer picture, but instead exhibit a negative charge-transfer energy, in line with recent models interpreting the metal to insulator transition in terms of bond disproportionation.
Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert J.; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Zubko, Pavlo; Balandeh, Shadi; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Sawatzky, George; Schmitt, Thorsten
2016-01-01
The metal–insulator transition and the intriguing physical properties of rare-earth perovskite nickelates have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Nonetheless, a complete understanding of these materials remains elusive. Here we combine X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopies to resolve important aspects of the complex electronic structure of rare-earth nickelates, taking NdNiO3 thin film as representative example. The unusual coexistence of bound and continuum excitations observed in the RIXS spectra provides strong evidence for abundant oxygen holes in the ground state of these materials. Using cluster calculations and Anderson impurity model interpretation, we show that distinct spectral signatures arise from a Ni 3d8 configuration along with holes in the oxygen 2p valence band, confirming suggestions that these materials do not obey a conventional positive charge-transfer picture, but instead exhibit a negative charge-transfer energy in line with recent models interpreting the metal–insulator transition in terms of bond disproportionation. PMID:27725665
Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert J.; ...
2016-10-11
The metal-insulator transitions and the intriguing physical properties of rare-earth perovskite nickelates have attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, a complete understanding of these materials remains elusive. Here, taking a NdNiO3 thin film as a representative example, we utilize a combination of x-ray absorption (XAS) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopies to resolve important aspects of the complex electronic structure of the rare-earth nickelates. The unusual coexistence of bound and continuum excitations observed in the RIXS spectra provides strong evidence for the abundance of oxygen 2p holes in the ground state of these materials. Using cluster calculations andmore » Anderson impurity model interpretation, we show that these distinct spectral signatures arise from a Ni 3d8 configuration along with holes in the oxygen 2p valence band, confirming suggestions that these materials do not obey a “conventional” positive charge-transfer picture, but instead exhibit a negative charge-transfer energy, in line with recent models interpreting the metal to insulator transition in terms of bond disproportionation.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mildenberger, A.; Evers, F.; Mirlin, A. D.; Chalker, J. T.
2007-06-01
We investigate numerically the quasiparticle density of states ϱ(E) for a two-dimensional, disordered superconductor in which both time-reversal and spin-rotation symmetries are broken. As a generic single-particle description of this class of systems (symmetry class D), we use the Cho-Fisher version of the network model. This has three phases: a thermal insulator, a thermal metal, and a quantized thermal Hall conductor. In the thermal metal, we find a logarithmic divergence in ϱ(E) as E→0 , as predicted from sigma model calculations. Finite-size effects lead to superimposed oscillations, as expected from random-matrix theory. In the thermal insulator and quantized thermal Hall conductor, we find that ϱ(E) is finite at E=0 . At the plateau transition between these phases, ϱ(E) decreases toward zero as ∣E∣ is reduced, in line with the result ϱ(E)˜∣E∣ln(1/∣E∣) derived from calculations for Dirac fermions with random mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimme, Lukas; Hyart, Timo
2016-01-01
We consider the effects of impurities on topological insulators and superconductors. We start by identifying the general conditions under which the eigenenergies of an arbitrary Hamiltonian H belonging to one of the Altland-Zirnbauer symmetry classes undergo a robust zero energy crossing as a function of an external parameter which can be, for example, the impurity strength. We define a generalized root of detH and use it to predict or rule out robust zero-energy crossings in all symmetry classes. We complement this result with an analysis based on almost degenerate perturbation theory, which allows a derivation of the asymptotic low-energy behavior of the ensemble averaged density of states ρ ˜Eα for all symmetry classes and makes it transparent that the exponent α does not depend on the choice of the random matrix ensemble. Finally, we show that a lattice of impurities can drive a topologically trivial system into a nontrivial phase, and in particular we demonstrate that impurity bands carrying extremely large Chern numbers can appear in different symmetry classes of two-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors. We use the generalized root of detH (k ) to reveal a spiderweblike momentum space structure of the energy gap closings that separate the topologically distinct phases in px+i py superconductors in the presence of an impurity lattice.