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Sample records for ferrugineus coleoptera curculionidae

  1. Biological responses of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae).

    PubMed

    Manachini, Barbara; Schillaci, Domenico; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is becoming a serious problem in Mediterranean areas where it is well-adapted, and now is present even in the United States (California). The infestations are primarily in urban areas where chemical control is not advisable and million of Euros are spent to control it. The effects of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) on mortality, growth, as well as the immune activity of R. ferrugineus larvae, were investigated. R. ferrugineus mortality exhibited a positive trend with the dosage and duration of exposure to S. carpocapsae. The median lethal dose and median lethal time, important to optimize the treatments, were calculated. S. carpocapsae also had a detrimental effect on R. ferrugineus weight. In vivo and in vitro effects of S. carpocapsae on the phagocytic responses of R. ferrugineus hemocytes also were recorded. S. carpocapsae was not encapsulated by R.ferrugineus hemocytes. After 24 h, the number of hemocytes recorded in treated larvae was reduced. To investigate the defensive abilities of R. ferrugineus humoral and cellular immune systems, specifically against the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteraceae), the minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits bacterial growth was measured. This is the first time that this technique is applied to entomopathogenic bacteria.

  2. Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest’s life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594

  3. Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest's life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594

  4. Advances in the use of trapping systems for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): traps and attractants.

    PubMed

    Vacas, S; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-08-01

    Given the social importance related to the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), efforts are being made to develop new control methods, such as the deployment of trapping systems. In this work, the efficacy of a new black pyramidal trap design (Picusan) has been verified in comparison with white and black buckets. In addition, the attractant and synergistic effect of ethyl acetate (EtAc) at different release levels has been evaluated under field conditions. The results show that Picusan traps captured 45% more weevils than bucket-type traps, offering significantly better trapping efficacy. The addition of water to traps baited with palm tissues was found to be essential, with catches increasing more than threefold compared with dry traps. EtAc alone does not offer attractant power under field conditions, and the release levels from 57 mg/d to 1 g/d have no synergistic effect with ferrugineol. Furthermore, significantly fewer females were captured when EtAc was released at 2 g/d. The implications of using EtAc dispensers in trapping systems are discussed.

  5. Screening of tropical isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae for virulence to the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Yan, Wei; Qin, Weiquan; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Guangchang; Li, Fuheng

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of the palm tree in tropical regions of the world. One strain of Metarhizium sp. ZJ-1, isolated from Chinese soils, was evaluated for growth characteristics, and screened for its virulence to R. ferrugineus larvae in laboratory conditions. An approximately 685-bp fragment was amplified by ITS (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) PCR from strain ZJ-1, further phylogenetic analysis revealed that 93 % similarity to Metarhizium anisopliae. Inoculation of 1 × 10(8) conidia/mL caused 100 % mortality of R. ferrugineus, LT50 levels of ZJ-1 were 1.66 days (1 × 10(8) conidia/mL), indicating that the conidia of strain ZJ-1 were highly virulent. These results suggest that M. anisopliae ZJ-1 has potential as an effective and persistent biological control agent for R. ferrugineus. PMID:27468401

  6. The gut microbiota of larvae of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the major pests of palms. The larvae bore into the palm trunk and feed on the palm tender tissues and sap, leading the host tree to death. The gut microbiota of insects plays a remarkable role in the host life and understanding the relationship dynamics between insects and their microbiota may improve the biological control of insect pests. The purpose of this study was to analyse the diversity of the gut microbiota of field-caught RPW larvae sampled in Sicily (Italy). Results The 16S rRNA gene-based Temporal Thermal Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) of the gut microbiota of RPW field-trapped larvae revealed low bacterial diversity and stability of the community over seasons and among pools of larvae from different host trees. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region confirmed low complexity and assigned 98% of the 75,564 reads to only three phyla: Proteobacteria (64.7%) Bacteroidetes (23.6%) and Firmicutes (9.6%) and three main families [Enterobacteriaceae (61.5%), Porphyromonadaceae (22.1%) and Streptococcaceae (8.9%)]. More than half of the reads could be classified at the genus level and eight bacterial genera were detected in the larval RPW gut at an abundance ≥1%: Dysgonomonas (21.8%), Lactococcus (8.9%), Salmonella (6.8%), Enterobacter (3.8%), Budvicia (2.8%), Entomoplasma (1.4%), Bacteroides (1.3%) and Comamonas (1%). High abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was also detected by culturing under aerobic conditions. Unexpectedly, acetic acid bacteria (AAB), that are known to establish symbiotic associations with insects relying on sugar-based diets, were not detected. Conclusions The RPW gut microbiota is composed mainly of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria with a fermentative metabolism. These bacteria are supposedly responsible for palm tissue fermentation in the tunnels where RPW larvae thrive and might have a key role in the insect

  7. Lower temperature thresholds for oviposition and egg hatching of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in a Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Dembilio, O; Tapia, G V; Téllez, M M; Jacas, J A

    2012-02-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an economically important pest of palms worldwide. To better understand the phenology of R. ferrugineus populations in the Mediterranean basin, the objective of the present work has been to estimate the effect of temperatures within the range 10-25°C on the reproductive parameters of R. ferrugineus and to determine its lower temperature thresholds for oviposition and egg hatching. Our results confirm that oviposition in R. ferrugineus is strongly affected by temperature. Lower thresholds for oviposition and egg hatching (15.45° and 13.95°C, respectively) are below the mean monthly temperatures registered in winter in most of the northern shore of the Mediterranean basin. Under these circumstances, new palm infestations would be difficult during most of the winter. These results should be taken into account when planning some palm management practices, such as pruning or pesticide treatments, in areas under a Mediterranean climate.

  8. [Population fluctuation of Xyleborus ferrugineus and X. affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in ecosystems of Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rangel, Ricardo; Pérez, Manuel; Sánchez, Saúl; Capello, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    The Scolytinae insects are commonly known as bark or ambrosial beetles because of their feeding habits. Among them, some species restrict their reproductive activity to a host plant or a small number of them, whereas others are highly polyphagous. In order to evaluate the population dynamics of Scolytinae species, populations of Xyleborusferrugineus and X. affinis in ecosystems from Tabasco, Mexico were studied. The study was carried out from November 2010-July 2011, February 2010-January 2011 and 2007. The trapping methods used were alcohol traps, light traps and direct capture on their host plants. A total of 688 specimens ofX ferrugineus and 3 911 specimens of X. affinis were collected. The population dynamics of X. ferrugineus showed low size population in the studied ecosystems, without any marked seasonality. The highest population sizes were recorded both in dry season (March-May) and rainy season (September-December). Unlike the populations of X. ferrugineus, those of X. affinis were more abundant and showed the highest peaks during the rainy seasons (except in May at the Botanical Garden "José Narciso Rovisora"). Alcohol and light traps can be complementary methods for monitoring the populations of these types of insects. They occur most of the year and theirs population dynamics depends on food resources availability as well as environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Judging by the observed abundance it is suggested that X. affinis has been adapted and exploited resources in a better way than X. ferrugineus in those ecosystems. Correlations between abundance and climatic factors had both positive and negative values. The results reflect the behavior of populations. However, a detail assessment of the biological and abiotic factors that influence the fluctuations of these insects is required.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Among Populations of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) From Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Muhammad; Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Wakil, Waqas; Stouthamer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is a voracious pest of palm species. In recent decades its range has expanded greatly, particularly impacting the date palm industry in the Middle East. This has led to conjecture regarding the origins of invasive RPW populations. For example, in parts of the Middle East, RPW is commonly referred to as the "Pakistani weevil" in the belief that it originated there. We sought evidence to support or refute this belief. First reports of RPW in Pakistan were from the Punjab region in 1918, but it is unknown whether it is native or invasive there. We estimated genetic variation across five populations of RPW from two provinces of Pakistan, using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Four haplotypes were detected; two (H1 and H5) were abundant, accounting for 88% of specimens across the sampled populations, and were previously known from the Middle East. The remaining haplotypes (H51 and H52) were newly detected (in global terms) and there was no geographic overlap in their distribution within Pakistan. Levels of haplotype diversity were much lower than those previously recorded in accepted parts of the native range of RPW, suggesting that the weevil may be invasive in Pakistan. The affinity of Pakistani haplotypes to those reported from India (and the geographical proximity of the two countries), make the latter a likely "native" source. With regards the validity of the name "Pakistani weevil", we found little genetic evidence to justify it. PMID:27651423

  10. Susceptibility and Immune Defence Mechanisms of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) against Entomopathogenic Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan; AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 10⁷ conidia/mL). The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent). The results of nutritional index assays revealed a significant reduction in growth indices after infection with different isolates. Compared with control, B6884 and M9374 greatly decreased larval growth by reducing the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (36%-47%) and Efficacy of conversion of digested food (50%-63%). Furthermore, only isolate B6884 induced 100% mortality within 12 days. Compared with control, isolate I03011, possessing the lowest conidial hydrophobicity, only reduced 0.29% of the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and 0.48% of the efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD). Similarly, transcriptomic analysis of genes related to the Red palm weevil (RPW) immune response, including pathogen recognition receptors (C-type lectin and endo-beta-1,4-glucanse), signal modulator (Serine protease-like protein), signal transductors (Calmodulin-like protein and EF-hand domain containing protein) and effectors (C-type lysozyme, Cathepsin L., Defensin-like protein, Serine carboxypeptidase, and Thaumatin-like protein), was significantly increased in larval samples infected with B6884 and M9374. These results suggest that for an isolate to be virulent, conidial hydrophobicity and germination should also be considered during pathogen selection, as these factors could significantly impact host growth and immune defence mechanisms. PMID:27618036

  11. Susceptibility and Immune Defence Mechanisms of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) against Entomopathogenic Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan; AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 107 conidia/mL). The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent). The results of nutritional index assays revealed a significant reduction in growth indices after infection with different isolates. Compared with control, B6884 and M9374 greatly decreased larval growth by reducing the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (36%–47%) and Efficacy of conversion of digested food (50%–63%). Furthermore, only isolate B6884 induced 100% mortality within 12 days. Compared with control, isolate I03011, possessing the lowest conidial hydrophobicity, only reduced 0.29% of the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and 0.48% of the efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD). Similarly, transcriptomic analysis of genes related to the Red palm weevil (RPW) immune response, including pathogen recognition receptors (C-type lectin and endo-beta-1,4-glucanse), signal modulator (Serine protease-like protein), signal transductors (Calmodulin-like protein and EF-hand domain containing protein) and effectors (C-type lysozyme, Cathepsin L., Defensin-like protein, Serine carboxypeptidase, and Thaumatin-like protein), was significantly increased in larval samples infected with B6884 and M9374. These results suggest that for an isolate to be virulent, conidial hydrophobicity and germination should also be considered during pathogen selection, as these factors could significantly impact host growth and immune defence mechanisms. PMID:27618036

  12. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Among Populations of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) From Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Yasin, Muhammad; Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Wakil, Waqas; Stouthamer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is a voracious pest of palm species. In recent decades its range has expanded greatly, particularly impacting the date palm industry in the Middle East. This has led to conjecture regarding the origins of invasive RPW populations. For example, in parts of the Middle East, RPW is commonly referred to as the “Pakistani weevil” in the belief that it originated there. We sought evidence to support or refute this belief. First reports of RPW in Pakistan were from the Punjab region in 1918, but it is unknown whether it is native or invasive there. We estimated genetic variation across five populations of RPW from two provinces of Pakistan, using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Four haplotypes were detected; two (H1 and H5) were abundant, accounting for 88% of specimens across the sampled populations, and were previously known from the Middle East. The remaining haplotypes (H51 and H52) were newly detected (in global terms) and there was no geographic overlap in their distribution within Pakistan. Levels of haplotype diversity were much lower than those previously recorded in accepted parts of the native range of RPW, suggesting that the weevil may be invasive in Pakistan. The affinity of Pakistani haplotypes to those reported from India (and the geographical proximity of the two countries), make the latter a likely “native” source. With regards the validity of the name “Pakistani weevil”, we found little genetic evidence to justify it. PMID:27651423

  13. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Among Populations of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) From Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Yasin, Muhammad; Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Wakil, Waqas; Stouthamer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is a voracious pest of palm species. In recent decades its range has expanded greatly, particularly impacting the date palm industry in the Middle East. This has led to conjecture regarding the origins of invasive RPW populations. For example, in parts of the Middle East, RPW is commonly referred to as the “Pakistani weevil” in the belief that it originated there. We sought evidence to support or refute this belief. First reports of RPW in Pakistan were from the Punjab region in 1918, but it is unknown whether it is native or invasive there. We estimated genetic variation across five populations of RPW from two provinces of Pakistan, using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Four haplotypes were detected; two (H1 and H5) were abundant, accounting for 88% of specimens across the sampled populations, and were previously known from the Middle East. The remaining haplotypes (H51 and H52) were newly detected (in global terms) and there was no geographic overlap in their distribution within Pakistan. Levels of haplotype diversity were much lower than those previously recorded in accepted parts of the native range of RPW, suggesting that the weevil may be invasive in Pakistan. The affinity of Pakistani haplotypes to those reported from India (and the geographical proximity of the two countries), make the latter a likely “native” source. With regards the validity of the name “Pakistani weevil”, we found little genetic evidence to justify it.

  14. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  15. Xyleborus glabratus, X. affinis, and X. ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): electroantennogram responses to host-based attractants and temporal patterns in host-seeking flight.

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Deyrup, Mark A; Guillén, Larissa; Epsky, Nancy D

    2012-12-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Effective semiochemical-based detection and control programs for X. glabratus will require an understanding of the chemical ecology and host-seeking behaviors of this new invasive pest. This study 1) presents an electroantennography (EAG) method developed for assessment of olfactory responses in ambrosia beetles; 2) uses that new method to quantify EAG responses of X. glabratus, X. affinis, and X. ferrugineus to volatiles from three host-based attractants: manuka oil (essential oil extract from Leptospermum scoparium Forst. & Forst.), phoebe oil (extract from Phoebe porosa Mex.), and wood from silkbay (Persea humilis Nash); and 3) documents temporal differences in host-seeking flight of the sympatric Xyleborus species. Field observations revealed that X. glabratus engages in flight several hours earlier than X. affinis and X. ferrugineus, providing a window for selective capture of the target pest species. In EAG analyses with X. glabratus, antennal response to phoebe oil was equivalent to response to host Persea wood, but EAG response elicited with manuka oil was significantly less. In comparative studies, EAG response of X. glabratus was significantly higher than response of either X. affinis or X. ferrugineus to all three host-based substrates. Future research will use this EAG method to measure olfactory responses to synthetic terpenoids, facilitating identification of the specific kairomones used by X. glabratus for host location. PMID:23321108

  16. Acoustic assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...

  17. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  18. Temperature-dependent development of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a nonnative pest that vectors the pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt in trees of the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt is present in the commercial growing areas of avocado (Perse...

  19. Sex pheromone of Elater ferrugineus L. (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    PubMed

    Tolasch, Till; von Fragstein, Maximilian; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2007-11-01

    The rare European click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., develops exclusively in old, hollow deciduous trees. As a result of massive habitat loss caused by modern forestry, it is threatened throughout its entire distribution range and regarded as an indicator species for undamaged natural forests. As E. ferrugineus lives cryptically and its populations are frequently overlooked, we investigated its sex pheromone to develop a reliable detection tool. Pheromone gland extracts of single female E. ferrugineus were examined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All samples contained 7-methyloctyl 5-methylhexanoate, 7-methyloctyl octanoate, 7-methyloctyl 7-methyloctanoate, and 7-methyloctyl (Z)-4-decenoate in a ratio of approximately 1:1:3:3. Structures of all four esters, which have not been reported as pheromone compounds before, were confirmed by synthesis. A blend of the components was tested in the field and proved to be attractive for E. ferrugineus males, which were found to swarm exclusively during the day. This blend provides a noninvasive and effective monitoring method for this cryptic species, promising future collection records of E. ferrugineus in regions where it exists below the limit of detection by conventional collecting methods.

  20. Flight behaviour and dispersal of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) adults using mark-release-recapture method.

    PubMed

    Ávalos, J A; Balasch, S; Soto, A

    2016-10-01

    The flight ability and patterns of an insect influence its spread, and the study of its behaviour can be used to improve the strategies to control the pest. Regarding Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), one of the worst threats to palm trees worldwide, laboratory experiments have been conducted to analyze their flight potential. However, these data must be complemented with tests that allow us to know its flight behaviour and dispersal patterns under field conditions. Two mark-release-recapture experiments were conducted in areas with R. ferrugineus infestations. In the first, the effects of weevil sex, temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity, on the take-off and flight mobility of adults were analyzed. The second experiment aimed to determine the maximum flight distance covered by adults in field. The take-off rate for R. ferrugineus males was significantly greater than for females, and was positively influenced by temperature (optimum take-off around 25°C) and solar radiation, both factors being highly correlated. Female weevil recaptures were significantly higher, especially as temperatures increased (optimum recapture around 21°C). Dispersal distances of weevil adults increased when temperatures rose, and while this insect tended to fly short distances (<500 m), it was able to cover up to 7 km. The dispersal of R. ferrugineus adults mainly occurred during the first 7 days after their release, and when relative humidity increased, their dispersal time was reduced. The results obtained will permit a more effective implementation of certain measures used to control R. ferrugineus, such as olfactory trapping or intensive surveillance around pest outbreaks. PMID:27215794

  1. Flight behaviour and dispersal of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) adults using mark-release-recapture method.

    PubMed

    Ávalos, J A; Balasch, S; Soto, A

    2016-10-01

    The flight ability and patterns of an insect influence its spread, and the study of its behaviour can be used to improve the strategies to control the pest. Regarding Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), one of the worst threats to palm trees worldwide, laboratory experiments have been conducted to analyze their flight potential. However, these data must be complemented with tests that allow us to know its flight behaviour and dispersal patterns under field conditions. Two mark-release-recapture experiments were conducted in areas with R. ferrugineus infestations. In the first, the effects of weevil sex, temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity, on the take-off and flight mobility of adults were analyzed. The second experiment aimed to determine the maximum flight distance covered by adults in field. The take-off rate for R. ferrugineus males was significantly greater than for females, and was positively influenced by temperature (optimum take-off around 25°C) and solar radiation, both factors being highly correlated. Female weevil recaptures were significantly higher, especially as temperatures increased (optimum recapture around 21°C). Dispersal distances of weevil adults increased when temperatures rose, and while this insect tended to fly short distances (<500 m), it was able to cover up to 7 km. The dispersal of R. ferrugineus adults mainly occurred during the first 7 days after their release, and when relative humidity increased, their dispersal time was reduced. The results obtained will permit a more effective implementation of certain measures used to control R. ferrugineus, such as olfactory trapping or intensive surveillance around pest outbreaks.

  2. Apostasimerini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Baridinae). Rectification of authorship, year of publication, rank, and taxa included

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following nomenclatural changes are proposed in the Coleoptera, Curculionidae: the author of Apostasimerini is Schoenherr (1844), not Lacordaire (1866); Madopterini Lacordaire, 1866 is demoted to subtribe of Apostasimerini; Erirhinus mourei Bondar, 1943 is a new synonym of Apostasimerus serriros...

  3. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  4. Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) nematodes in a morphologically aberrant adult specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as Red Palm Weevil, the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the ...

  5. Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced.

  6. Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced. PMID:26743218

  7. Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....

  8. Biology and Management of Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Turfgrass

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Madeleine M.; Ramirez, Ricardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Sphenophorus spp.) are a complex of weevil pests affecting turfgrass throughout the United States. Billbug larvae cause damage by feeding in stems, on roots, and on the crowns of turf, causing severe discoloration and eventual plant death. Monitoring efforts have focused on nondestructive pitfall sampling of ground-active billbug adults and on destructive sampling using soil cores for larval stages in the soil. Given the cryptic nature of the susceptible larval stages, billbugs are typically managed by preventive applications of long-residual, systemic insecticides, including neonicotinoids and anthranilic diamides. Despite knowledge of effective management practices including pest-resistant turf varieties, irrigation management, and microbial controls that contribute to an IPM approach, billbug management continues to rely heavily on prophylactic synthetic insecticides. This review will summarize the identification and biology of billbugs and strategies for their management. PMID:27065080

  9. The complete mitogenome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoning; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing data with an average coverage of 1406.7X. The circular genome is 15,122 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop or control region. The tRNA-Ile gene was not found in the mitochondrial genome, as is identical to two other curculionidae species, i.e. Sphenophorus sp. (GU176342) and Naupactus xanthographus (GU176345). All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 started with TTG. Two PCGs (COI and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T. Two PCGs (ND4L and ND1) harbor the stop codon TAG, while all other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (38.7% A, 14.4% C, 9.2% G and 37.8% T) with an overall AT content of 76.5%.

  10. Non-constant thermal regimes enhance overwintering success and accelerate diapause development for Smicronyx fulvus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been inconsistent or declining, particularly in North Dakota. Consequently, field and laboratory research on weevil biology, including development of resistant germplasm, have been limited....

  11. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...

  12. Study of the flying ability of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) adults using a computer-monitored flight mill.

    PubMed

    Ávalos, J A; Martí-Campoy, A; Soto, A

    2014-08-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), native to tropical Asian regions, has become a serious threat to palm trees all over the world. Knowledge of its flight potential is vital to improving the preventive and curative measures currently used to manage this pest. As R. ferrugineus is a quarantine pest, it is difficult to study its flight potential in the field. A computer-monitored flight mill was adapted to analyse the flying ability of R. ferrugineus through the study of different flight parameters (number of flights, total distance flown, longest single flight, flight duration, and average and maximum speed) and the influence of the weevil's sex, age, and body size on these flight parameters. Despite significant differences in the adult body size (body weight and length) of males and females, the sex of R. ferrugineus adults did not have an influence on their flight potential. Neither adult body size nor age was found to affect the weevil's flying abilities, although there was a significantly higher percentage of individuals flying that were 8-23 days old than 1-7 days old. Compared to the longest single flight, 54% of the insects were classified as short-distance flyers (covering <100 m) and 36 and 10% were classified as medium- (100-5000 m) and long-distance (>5000 m), respectively. The results are compared with similar studies on different insect species under laboratory and field conditions. PMID:24739938

  13. Behavioral responses of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to different enantiomer concentrations and blends of the synthetic aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...

  14. Diversity abundance and seasonality of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionida) in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...

  15. Diversity of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attracted to avocado, lychee, and essential oil lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and native Persea species (redbay, swampbay). As part...

  16. Seasonal and spatial dispersal patterns of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionidae) from forest habitats into production nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...

  17. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...

  18. Factors affecting pheromone production by the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and collection efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...

  19. Species Relationships in the Genus Bryodaemon (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Wacławik, Beniamin; Skalski, Tomasz; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Establishing reliable taxonomy and phylogeny of similar, evolutionarily young species is among the greatest challenges in biology. Clearly the best approach is to use a combination of informative traits, including molecular markers and morphometric measurements. The objective of this study was to verify the taxonomy and phylogeny of four morphologically similar Carpathian species of Bryodaemon Podlussany, 1998 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Species relationships were studied using three molecular markers: two nuclear (ITS-2 and EF1-α) and one mitochondrial (COI, barcoding marker). We also took morphometric measurements of 35 taxonomically derived characteristics of body parts and genital apparatus. The potential presence of apomorphic features also was determined. We then compared our results with data concerning the ecology and geography of previously studied species. Our analyses confirmed the monophyly ofthis group and established a phylogeny for the genus. We propose that B. hanakii is the earliest derived species, based on morphometric measurements, apomorphies and the EF-lα phylogeny. The pattern ofnucleotide variation in this marker also indicates that B. rozneri and B. boroveci are the youngest species. This hypothesis is consistent with geographical ranges and ecological preferences of Carpathian Bryodaemon species. We also considered an alternative hypothesis based on the COI gene tree which indicated that B. rozneri was the oldest species. However, this arrangement is inconsistent with our morphological data.

  20. Species Relationships in the Genus Bryodaemon (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Wacławik, Beniamin; Skalski, Tomasz; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Establishing reliable taxonomy and phylogeny of similar, evolutionarily young species is among the greatest challenges in biology. Clearly the best approach is to use a combination of informative traits, including molecular markers and morphometric measurements. The objective of this study was to verify the taxonomy and phylogeny of four morphologically similar Carpathian species of Bryodaemon Podlussany, 1998 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Species relationships were studied using three molecular markers: two nuclear (ITS-2 and EF1-α) and one mitochondrial (COI, barcoding marker). We also took morphometric measurements of 35 taxonomically derived characteristics of body parts and genital apparatus. The potential presence of apomorphic features also was determined. We then compared our results with data concerning the ecology and geography of previously studied species. Our analyses confirmed the monophyly ofthis group and established a phylogeny for the genus. We propose that B. hanakii is the earliest derived species, based on morphometric measurements, apomorphies and the EF-lα phylogeny. The pattern ofnucleotide variation in this marker also indicates that B. rozneri and B. boroveci are the youngest species. This hypothesis is consistent with geographical ranges and ecological preferences of Carpathian Bryodaemon species. We also considered an alternative hypothesis based on the COI gene tree which indicated that B. rozneri was the oldest species. However, this arrangement is inconsistent with our morphological data. PMID:26103688

  1. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  2. Development and characterization of 11 microsatellite markers in the root-gall-forming weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...

  3. Monitoring attack and flight activity of Xylosandrus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae); the influence of temperature on activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood-boring ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), including Xylosandrus spp., are key pests in ornamental nurseries. Knowledge of their activity in spring is important for nursery growers to effectively time their protective sprays. We evaluated the reliability of ethanol-baite...

  4. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Red Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...

  5. Fungal symbionts in three exotic ambrosia beetles, Xylosandrus amputatus, Xyleborinus andrewesi, and Dryoxylon onoharaense (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract In nearly every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying trees. Some non-native ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody pla...

  6. Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) Nematodes in a Morphologically Aberrant Adult Specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Camerota, Manuela; Mazza, Giuseppe; Carta, Lynn K.; Paoli, Francesco; Torrini, Giulia; Benvenuti, Claudia; Carletti, Beatrice; Francardi, Valeria; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2016-01-01

    An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as red palm weevil (RPW), the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the presence of nematodes associated with a structured cuticle defect of the thorax. These nematodes were not able to be cultured, but were characterized by molecular analysis using 28S and 18S ribosomal DNA and shown to belong to the family Panagrolaimidae (Rhabditida), within a clade of Panagrellus. While most nematodes in the insect were juveniles, a single male adult was partially characterized by light microscopy. Morphometrics showed similarities to a species described from Germany. Excluding the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), only five other genera of entomophilic or saprophytic rhabditid nematodes are associated with this weevil. This is the first report of panagrolaimid nematodes associated with this invasive pest. Possible mechanisms of nematode-insect association are discussed. PMID:27168645

  7. Flight activity and dispersal of the cabbage seedpod weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are related to atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Tansey, James A; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Keddie, Andrew; Olfert, Owen

    2010-08-01

    The cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an invasive pest of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) in western Canada. Under current climatic conditions, C. obstrictus is spreading from established populations in southwestern Alberta at ≈ 55 km/yr. We studied the influence of climatic conditions on C. obstrictus flight behavior in 2007 and 2008 and eastward dispersal from the western border of Saskatchewan from 2002 to 2007. Positive linear relationships between increases in mean temperature and flight height and between greater mean maximum temperature and expanded dispersal distances were significant. Increases in relative humidity were associated with reduced flight heights and dispersal distances. We developed models that predict the relationships of temperature and relative humidity with flight height and with dispersal distance. We also discuss implications for C. obstrictus dispersal under current climatic conditions and in the context of predicted climate change.

  8. Establishing abiotic and biotic factors necessary for reliable male pheromone production and attraction to pheromones by female plum curculios Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of stone and pome fruit. Though grandisoic acid was identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone for this species, other components likely exist, as have been identified various curculionids. To determ...

  9. Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agents for the vector of the laurel wilt disease, the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  10. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the U.S.A., reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  11. A multilayer micromechanical model of the cuticle of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Andrew Jansen, M; Singh, Sudhanshu S; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Franz, Nico M

    2016-08-01

    Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a weevil species common throughout the southwestern United States that uses its rostrum - a very slender, curved, beak-like projection of the head - to excavate tunnels in plant organs (such as acorns) for egg laying (oviposition). Once the apical portion of the rostrum has been inserted into the preferred substrate for oviposition, the female begins rotating around the perimeter of the hole, elevating her head by extending the fore-legs, and rotating the head in place in a drilling motion. This action causes significant elastic deformation of the rostrum, which will bend until it becomes completely straight. To better understand the mechanical behavior of the cuticle as it undergoes deformation during the preparation of oviposition sites, we develop a comprehensive micro/macro model of the micromechanical structure and properties of the cuticle, spanning across all cuticular regions, and reliably mirroring the resultant macroscale properties of the cuticle. Our modeling approach relies on the use of multi-scale, hierarchical biomaterial representation, and employs various micromechanical schemata - e.g., Mori-Tanaka, effective field, and Maxwell - to calculate the homogenized properties of representative volume elements at each level in the hierarchy. We describe the configuration and behavior of this model in detail, and discuss the theoretical implications and limitations of this approach with emphasis on future biomechanical and comparative evolutionary research. Our detailed account of this approach can thereby serve as a methodological template for exploring the biomechanical behavior of new insect structures. PMID:27189867

  12. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  13. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus Derivatives: Extraction Methods and Bioactivity Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L P; Ansante, T F; Niculau, E S; Pavarini, R; Silva, M F G F; Seffrin, R C; Vendramim, J D

    2015-12-01

    Plant-based insecticides can play an important role in integrated insect pest management (IPM), especially in protecting stored grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of derivatives (powder, ethanolic extract, and essential oil (EO)) from the leaves of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae), a Brazilian native species, against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the main insect pest of stored corn. The powder and essential oil prepared from leaves showed a repellent effect. Moreover, the EO exhibited promising insecticidal activity through residual contact (LC50 = 1522 mg kg(-1)) and significantly decreased the F 1 progeny and the percentage of damaged grains. However, the essential oil obtained from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves did not result in significant mortality of S. zeamais adults after 72 h of exposure by fumigation in concentrations up to 400 μL L(-1) of air. Based on GC-MS analysis, 20 compounds were identified in the essential oil of P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves, being chavibetol (38.14%), methyl eugenol (11.35%), and terpinolene (9.17%) as the major constituents. Essential oil from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves is an interesting source of compounds with grain-protectant properties and should be analyzed in future studies aiming to develop new bioinsecticides to use in the IPM of stored grains.

  14. Volatiles released from Vaccinium corymbosum were attractive to Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an olfactometric bioassay.

    PubMed

    Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Ceballos, Ricardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of host volatiles in the relationship between a blueberry plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. and the raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the principal pest of blueberry in the south of Chile. Volatiles from the aerial part of different phenological stages of the host were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several chemical groups were identified including green leaf volatiles, aromatic compounds, and terpenes. The olfactometric responses of A. superciliosus toward different odor sources were studied in a four-arm olfactometer. Blueberry shoots at the phenological stages of fruit set, and blue-pink fruit color elicited the greatest behavioral responses from weevils. Five compounds (2-nonanone, eucalyptol, R- and S-limonene, and 4-ethyl benzaldehyde) elicited an attractant behavioral response from A. superciliosus. The results suggest the host location behavior of A. superciliosus could be mediated by volatiles derived from V. corymbosum. This work has identified a number of compounds with which it is possible to develop a lure for the principal pest of blueberry in southern Chile.

  15. Curative activity of insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in tart cherries.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2009-10-01

    Tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency, fruit were infested with plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and treated with insecticides to target late instars, neonates, and eggs. The organophosphates azinphos-methyl and phosmet and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam reduced larval emergence rates by >90% for all life stage targets; after >30 d, few surviving larvae were found inside fruit. Acetamiprid and thiacloprid also had curative activity and yielded >75% reductions in emergence and few surviving larvae in the fruit after >30 d. The juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen reduced larval emergence, but 66% of fruit that was treated to target late-instars still had live larvae inside of them after >30 d. Novaluron, chlorantraniliprole, and esfenvalerate had no curative activity. Indoxacarb had limited curative activity, and all targeted life stages had larval emergence. Internal and external residues were analyzed and are discussed in relation to their penetration and curative potential. The curative activity of azinphos-methyl has played an important role in meeting federal standards for infestation-free tart cherries at processing. Regulatory changes are eliminating the use of this compound, and new integrated pest management programs for plum curculio will need to address the loss of azinphos-methyl's curative activity. PMID:19886451

  16. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  18. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed. PMID:19253644

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts.

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  1. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.

  2. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  3. Factors influencing flight capacity of the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Whitehouse, C M; Sykes, J

    2014-02-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most damaging pest of mature pine (Pinaceae) in western North America. Although mountain pine beetles have an obligate dispersal phase during which adults must locate a new host for brood production, dispersal is a poorly understood aspect of its ecology. This flight mill study was designed to test the effects of beetle size, sex, and age on flight capacity. Energy use during flight was assessed through measurements of weight before and after flight and fat content of flown versus control beetles. The mean flight distance achieved by mountain pine beetles varied between 2.12 and 5.95 km over the 23-h bioassay, but the longest total flight of an individual beetle was >24 km. Beetle preflight weight influenced flight initiation, flight distance, and duration. Bigger beetles are more likely to fly and once in flight fly longer and farther than smaller beetles. There was no direct effect of beetle sex on flight capacity. Flight capacity of beetles declined with age postemergence. Although individual flight capacity was variable, flight velocity was relatively constant between 1.55 and 1.93 km/h. Lipids are used to power flight in mountain pine beetles, as lipid content was lower in beetles flown on the flight mills compared with beetles that did not fly. Flight distance was negatively correlated with beetle postflight lipid content. The baseline flight capacity data revealed in this study have implications for understanding the population dynamics of this eruptive forest pest.

  4. Reproductive biology of Fidiobia dominica (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), an egg parasitoid of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Rita E; Ulmer, Bryan J; Peña, Jorge E; Lapointe, Stephen L

    2007-04-01

    The reproductive biology of Fidiobia dominica Evans (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) was studied in the laboratory (25.6 +/- 1 degrees C) using host eggs of Diaprepes abbreviatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). F. dominica readily parasitized D. abbreviatus eggs on both host plant and wax paper substrates. The number of egg masses parasitized and the number of offspring produced were higher when females were offered more than one host egg mass but did not differ when either two or three egg masses were offered. Female parasitoids that were provided with host eggs and a honey food source lived significantly longer than those that were not provided a food source; however, they did not parasitize more D. abbreviatus eggs. Oviposition occurred in host eggs from 0 to 7 d old, and host mortality was relatively consistent for eggs 0-5 d old and lower for eggs 6-7 d old. Successful parasitoid emergence seldom occurred after host eggs were 4 d old, and by 7 d, no adults successfully emerged. Developmental time from egg to adult was 19.3 +/- 0.2 d for males, significantly more rapid than the females (20.4 +/- 0.1 d). The mean longevity of adult females was 8.0 +/- 0.4 d, with a mean oviposition period of 2.7 +/- 0.3 d; males survived 8.1 +/- 0.4 d. The demographic parameters including intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)), generation time (T), and net reproduction (R(o)) were 0.142/d, 22 d, and 22.4 female eggs/d, respectively.

  5. Nonconstant Thermal Regimes Enhance Overwintering Success and Accelerate Diapause Development for Smicronyx fulvus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Prasifka, Jarrad R; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, George D

    2015-08-01

    Recent populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been inconsistent or declining, particularly in North Dakota. Consequently, research on weevil biology, including development of resistant germplasm, has been limited. To determine whether cold storage of diapausing larvae could be improved, nonconstant temperature treatments (fluctuating thermal regime [FTR] and thermoperiod [TP]) were tested versus a constant 6°C for storage up to 365 d. Both alternate temperature treatments produced more adult weevils than constant 6°C for short (42, 91 d) storage, while all temperature treatments were good (≥60% adult emergence) at moderate term (182 d) cold storage, and FTR was best for long (365 d) periods. Excluding the 14-d storage period, which produced too few weevils for comparison, each doubling of cold storage time (e.g., from 42 to 91 d, 91 to 182 d), usually decreased the number of days to 50% relative emergence by ∼10 d. After 365 d of larval storage, emerged S. fulvus adults successfully infested sunflowers in a plant growth chamber, with damage per female similar to that observed in field trials. Compared with previous efforts to store weevil larvae, the method of collection and FTR storage is either more effective (greater adult emergence and reduced parasitism) or more time-efficient, and should permit year-round research using S. fulvus adults. Because successful emergence under FTR was >75% after 365 d, additional research would be required to determine the maximum effective duration of cold storage for S. fulvus. PMID:26470322

  6. Influence of tillage on adult and immature pea leaf weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) densities in pea.

    PubMed

    Hanavan, Ryan P; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Schotzko, Dennis J; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2010-06-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been a major pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in eastern Washington and northern Idaho since its introduction to the region in the early 1970s. Eggs are deposited in the spring on the soil surface and first instars hatch and move to pea root nodules, where larvae feed before they pupate and adults emerge in mid- to late summer. No-tillage practices are known to reduce pea leaf weevil colonization in pea, but the effects of tillage on larval densities and subsequent adult emergence have not been examined. During 2005, 2006, and 2007, we compared densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevils on pea plots grown using conventional tillage and no-tillage. In 2005 and 2006, emergence of adult pea leaf weevil was monitored in the same plots. Densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevil were significantly higher in conventional tillage plots. Larvae in conventional tillage were further along in development than larvae in no-tillage plots during June and July. Densities of emerging adult pea leaf weevil were significantly greater from conventional tillage than no-tillage plots. Based on densities of colonizing and subsequent emerging adults, survival of weevils from egg through adult was greater in conventional tillage plots. Soils under no-tillage are cooler, resulting in later emergence of the pea crop and delayed root nodule development, possibly affecting the ability of first-instar pea leaf weevil to locate host plant roots. Our results indicate no-tillage fields are less suitable for pea leaf weevil colonization and survival than conventional tillage fields.

  7. Tropical Plant Extracts as Sources of Grain-Protectant Compounds Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L P; Vendramim, J D; Andrade, M S; Bicalho, K U; Silva, M F G F; Vieira, P C; Fernandes, J B

    2014-10-01

    The toxicity of organic plant extracts to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was assessed for three tropical plant species: branches, leaves, and seeds of Annona montana (Annonaceae), branches of Aristolochia paulistana (Aristolochiaceae), and leaves and branches of Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae). The screening assay resulted that the extracts of A. montana seeds obtained with hexane (LC50 = 534.75 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 6.10 days) and with dichloromethane (LC50 = 424.67 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 5.03 days) were the most promising treatments, followed by the extract prepared from A. montana leaves with hexane (LC50 = 837.70 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 4.90 days). Moreover, extracts (at 1,500 mg kg(-1)) prepared from C. sylvestris branches with dichloromethane and A. paulistana with hexane caused significant mortality (37% and 41.5%, respectively) beyond sublethal effects on S. zeamais. Therefore, based on the biological assays, extraction yield, and evaluation of the chromatographic profile of the crude extracts by TLC, the hexane extract of A. montana seeds was selected and fractioned using liquid-liquid partitioning. The hydroalcoholic fraction caused mortality of 55.5%, significantly superior to dichloromethane fraction, which caused 35.5% of mortality. Chemical analyses ((1)H NMR, HPLC, and TLC) were performed, and the results showed the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in both active fractions, which have been associated with bioactivity. Therefore, extracts prepared from A. montana seeds (especially) is an interesting source of new compounds with promising grain-protectant properties. PMID:27193958

  8. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings. PMID:18330118

  9. Attack Pattern and Reproductive Ecology of Tomicus brevipilosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Pinus yunnanensis in Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Lu, Jun; Haack, Robert A.; Ye, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tomicus brevipilosus (Eggers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) was recently discovered as a new pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet) in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. However, little was known on its reproductive biology and pattern of trunk attack on Yunnan pine. The objectives of this study were to better understand the reproductive biology of T. brevipilosus by investigating the seasonality of trunk attacks by parent adults for the purpose of reproduction (i.e., breeding attacks) and the within-tree pattern of these attacks. Our results showed that T. brevipilosus breeding attacks in P. yunnanensis generally started in early March and ended in early June in Anning County, Yunnan. T. brevipilosus exhibited two general patterns of infestation. From early March to mid-April, T. brevipilosus bred preferentially in the trunks of Yunnan pine trees that were already infested by Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig), colonizing spaces along the trunk (mostly in the mid- and lower trunk) that were not already occupied by the other two Tomicus species. Later, from about mid-April to early June, when there were no Yunnan pine trees newly infested by T. yunnanensis and T. minor, T. brevipilosus attacked Yunnan pine by itself, infesting the lower parts of the trunk first and then infesting progressively upward along the trunk into the crown. Infestation by T. brevipilosus extends the total period that P. yunnanensis trees are under attack by Tomicus beetles in southwestern China, which helps explain why Yunnan pine has suffered high levels of tree mortality in recent decades. PMID:25881631

  10. Predicting Developmental Timing for Immature Canada Thistle Stem-Mining Weevils, Hadroplontus litura (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Gramig, Greta G; Burns, Erin E; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A

    2015-08-01

    Predictions of phenological development for insect biological control agents may facilitate post-release monitoring efforts by allowing land managers to optimize the timing of monitoring activities. A logistic thermal time model was tested to predict phenology of immature stem-mining weevils, Hadroplontus litura F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent for Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense L. (Asterales: Asteraceae). Weevil eggs and larvae were collected weekly from Canada thistle stems in eastern North Dakota from May through July during 2010 and 2011. Head capsule widths of sampled larvae were measured at the widest point and plotted on a frequency histogram to establish ranges of head capsule widths associated with each instar. We found head capsule width ranges for first-, second-, and third-instar H. litura larvae were 165-324 µm, 346-490 µm, and 506-736 µm, respectively. Logistic regression models were developed to estimate the proportions of H. litura eggs, first-, and second-instar larvae in the weevil population as a function of thermal time. Model estimates of median development time for eggs, first instars, and second instars ranged from 219 ± 23 degree-days (DD) to 255 ± 27 DD, 556 ± 77 DD to 595 ± 81 DD, and 595 ± 109 DD to 653 ± 108 DD, respectively. Based on model validation statistics, model estimates for development timing were the most accurate for eggs and first instars and somewhat less accurate for second instars. These model predictions will help biological control practitioners obtain more accurate estimates of weevil population densities during post-release monitoring. PMID:26314053

  11. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  12. Obrieniolus, a new monotypic genus of Naupactini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from the Peruvian Andes and its phylogenetic placement

    PubMed Central

    del Río, M. Guadalupe; Lanteri, Analía A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new monotypic genus of Naupactini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Obrieniolus del Río is described based on the new species Obrieniolus robustus del Río, endemic to Peru. This genus is easily recognized by the black, denuded and shiny integument, with imbricate microsculpture and the rounded body, with short, cordiform and moderately convex elytra. According to a cladistic analysis based on 69 continuous and discrete morphological characters, the new genus is the sister taxon of a group formed by Amitrus Schoenherr, Trichocyphus Heller, Amphideritus Schoenherr, Asymmathetes Wibmer & O’Brien and Galapaganus Lanteri. The paper includes habitus photographs, line drawings of genitalia, mouthparts, and other external features of taxonomic value, and a dichotomous key to the genera of Naupactini distributed in the South American Transition Zone. PMID:21747674

  13. A survey of the weevils of Ukraine. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae and Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Tatyana; Mandelshtam, Mikhail; Petrov, Alexander; Nazarenko, Vitalij; Yunakov, Nikolai

    2015-01-22

    Our knowledge of Ukrainian bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) is summarized as a baseline for future studies of the fauna, with a checklist including information on distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. One hundred twenty-two species are recorded from Ukraine, of which seven are recorded for the first time. One species is recorded for the first time from Europe. Previous records of 24 species are considered dubious and requiring confirmation. In contrast to the Palaearctic Catalogue (Knížek 2011b), we consider Anisandrus maiche to be first described by Kurentsov (1941) rather than by Eggers (1942); A. maiche (Eggers, 1942) is a junior synonym of A. maiche (Kurentsov, 1941). 

  14. Spinosad Induces Antioxidative Response and Ultrastructure Changes in Males of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah M.; Elmenshawy, Omar M.; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M.

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is of great concern worldwide, especially in the Middle East, where dates are a strategic crop. Despite their ecological hazard, insecticides remain the most effective means of control. A bioinsecticide of bacterial origin, spinosad is effective against several pests, and its efficacy against male R. ferrugineus was assessed in the present study. The antioxidative responses of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to spinosad were investigated in the midgut and testes, and the effects of this insecticide on the cell ultrastructure of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes were also determined. The lethal concentration 50 of spinosad was measured at 58.8 ppm, and the insecticide inhibited the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in the midgut. However, no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes were observed in the testes. Spinosad treatment resulted in concentration-dependent changes in the cellular organelles of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes of R. ferrugineus, and some of these effects were similar to those exerted by other xenobiotics. However, specific changes were observed as a result of spinosad treatment, including an increase in the number and size of concretions in Malpighian tubule cells and the occasional absence of the central pair of microtubules in the axonemes of sperm tails. This study introduces spinosad for potential use as an insecticide within an integrated control program against male red palm weevils. Additionally, the study provides biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for use in the development of bioindicators.

  15. A Novel Semiochemical Tool for Protecting Pinus contorta From Mortality Attributed to Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; Reinke, Michael; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2015-02-01

    Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregant of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a notable forest insect capable of causing extensive levels of tree mortality in western North America. Several formulations of verbenone are registered for tree protection, but failures in efficacy are not uncommon, particularly when applied during large infestations. A formulation of (-)-verbenone was developed (Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology [SPLAT] Verb, ISCA Technologies Inc., Riverside, CA) and evaluated for protecting individual lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon, and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae. SPLAT Verb applied to individual P. contorta resulted in complete tree protection, while 93.3% mortality occurred in the untreated controls. Significantly fewer P. contorta were killed by D. ponderosae within 0.041-ha circular plots surrounding P. contorta treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. In a second study, a smaller percentage of P. contorta were colonized and killed on 0.4-ha square plots treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. No significant differences in levels of tree mortality were observed between the untreated control and another formulation of verbenone (7-g pouch) or between the 7-g pouch and SPLAT Verb. In a trapping bioassay, no significant differences were observed among captures in multiple-funnel traps at 1, 2, or 4 m from the point of release of SPLAT Verb. Significantly fewer D. ponderosae were collected at 1 and 2 m compared with 8 m. Significantly more D. ponderosae were captured at the farthest distance evaluated (16 m) than at any other distance. Our data indicate that SPLAT Verb is effective for protecting individual P. contorta and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae at moderate doses. The high levels of tree

  16. A Novel Semiochemical Tool for Protecting Pinus contorta From Mortality Attributed to Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; Reinke, Michael; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2015-02-01

    Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregant of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a notable forest insect capable of causing extensive levels of tree mortality in western North America. Several formulations of verbenone are registered for tree protection, but failures in efficacy are not uncommon, particularly when applied during large infestations. A formulation of (-)-verbenone was developed (Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology [SPLAT] Verb, ISCA Technologies Inc., Riverside, CA) and evaluated for protecting individual lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon, and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae. SPLAT Verb applied to individual P. contorta resulted in complete tree protection, while 93.3% mortality occurred in the untreated controls. Significantly fewer P. contorta were killed by D. ponderosae within 0.041-ha circular plots surrounding P. contorta treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. In a second study, a smaller percentage of P. contorta were colonized and killed on 0.4-ha square plots treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. No significant differences in levels of tree mortality were observed between the untreated control and another formulation of verbenone (7-g pouch) or between the 7-g pouch and SPLAT Verb. In a trapping bioassay, no significant differences were observed among captures in multiple-funnel traps at 1, 2, or 4 m from the point of release of SPLAT Verb. Significantly fewer D. ponderosae were collected at 1 and 2 m compared with 8 m. Significantly more D. ponderosae were captured at the farthest distance evaluated (16 m) than at any other distance. Our data indicate that SPLAT Verb is effective for protecting individual P. contorta and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae at moderate doses. The high levels of tree

  17. Synergistic blends of monoterpenes for aggregation pheromones of the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Borden, John H; Pureswaran, Deepa S; Lafontaine, Jean Pierre

    2008-08-01

    The superiority of the host monoterpene myrcene as a synergist for trans-verbenol and exo-brevicomin, aggregation pheromone components of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), suggests that the ancestral host of the mountain pine beetle is a pine rich in myrcene. A field trapping experiment in British Columbia testing reconstituted bole oleoresin of whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis Engelmann, composed of mainly myrcene (20.7%), terpinolene (6.8%), and 3-carene (61.9%) showed it to be a better pheromone synergist than reconstituted bole oleoresin of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia Engelmann, which contained only 2.7, 1.0, and 6.0%, respectively, of the above-mentioned three compounds. In the same experiment myrcene alone was the best synergist. In subsequent experiments, testing myrcene, terpinolene and 3-carene alone and in all possible binary and ternary combinations, a 50:50 blend of myrcene and terpinolene released at the same rate as either compound alone generally resulted in trap catches approximately 3 times higher than with myrcene as a synergist. This result held as long as the terpinolene was free of contaminants, and the traps were in the open, well away from potential interference of semiochemicals emitted by newly attacked trees. 3-Carene seemed to be inert or slightly inhibitory. No single monoterpene tested alone or in binary or ternary combination in the absence of pheromones was attractive. There was no effect of doubling or tripling the release rate of myrcene or terpinolene. In five of nine experiments, adding terpinolene to myrcene caused a significant increase in the percentage of female mountain pine beetles captured. Among host pines, the presence of highly synergistic monoterpenes at various levels in combination with other monoterpenes that are apparently either inert or inhibitory could account for different degrees of pheromone synergism, and thus host preference. The

  18. Respiratory metabolic responsiveness during the pupal stage of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to certain plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Bream, A S; Ghoneim, K S; Tanani, M A; Nassar, M I

    2001-01-01

    The prepupae of Rhynchophorus ferrugineous were topically applied with one of three dose-levels (0.1, 0.005 or 0.001 microgram/insect) of Jojoba oil (Joj) or azadirachtin (Azt). The daily O2 consumption and CO2 respiratory output were determined and the respiratory quotient (RQ) was calculated. After Joj treatments, O2 consumption of early- and late pupae increased as the dose-level was decreased. The respiration curve did not assume an U-shaped pattern as common in the pupal stage of many insect species. Also, an inhibitory action of Azt on the pupal respiration has been clearly exhibited. A similar result of the respiration curve was observed by Azt. All dose levels of Joj, but only the higher two ones of Azt, suppressed the CO2 release. Both botanicals inhibited the RQ during the pupal stage. However, all RQ mean values of treated or control pupae were < 1.0 and > 0.7.

  19. Potential Distribution Predicted for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in China under Different Climate Warming Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xuezhen; He, Shanyong; Wang, Tao; Yan, Wei; Zong, Shixiang

    2015-01-01

    As the primary pest of palm trees, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has caused serious harm to palms since it first invaded China. The present study used CLIMEX 1.1 to predict the potential distribution of R. ferrugineus in China according to both current climate data (1981-2010) and future climate warming estimates based on simulated climate data for the 2020s (2011-2040) provided by the Tyndall Center for Climate Change Research (TYN SC 2.0). Additionally, the Ecoclimatic Index (EI) values calculated for different climatic conditions (current and future, as simulated by the B2 scenario) were compared. Areas with a suitable climate for R. ferrugineus distribution were located primarily in central China according to the current climate data, with the northern boundary of the distribution reaching to 40.1°N and including Tibet, north Sichuan, central Shaanxi, south Shanxi, and east Hebei. There was little difference in the potential distribution predicted by the four emission scenarios according to future climate warming estimates. The primary prediction under future climate warming models was that, compared with the current climate model, the number of highly favorable habitats would increase significantly and expand into northern China, whereas the number of both favorable and marginally favorable habitats would decrease. Contrast analysis of EI values suggested that climate change and the density of site distribution were the main effectors of the changes in EI values. These results will help to improve control measures, prevent the spread of this pest, and revise the targeted quarantine areas.

  20. Potential Distribution Predicted for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in China under Different Climate Warming Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xuezhen; He, Shanyong; Wang, Tao; Yan, Wei; Zong, Shixiang

    2015-01-01

    As the primary pest of palm trees, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has caused serious harm to palms since it first invaded China. The present study used CLIMEX 1.1 to predict the potential distribution of R. ferrugineus in China according to both current climate data (1981-2010) and future climate warming estimates based on simulated climate data for the 2020s (2011-2040) provided by the Tyndall Center for Climate Change Research (TYN SC 2.0). Additionally, the Ecoclimatic Index (EI) values calculated for different climatic conditions (current and future, as simulated by the B2 scenario) were compared. Areas with a suitable climate for R. ferrugineus distribution were located primarily in central China according to the current climate data, with the northern boundary of the distribution reaching to 40.1°N and including Tibet, north Sichuan, central Shaanxi, south Shanxi, and east Hebei. There was little difference in the potential distribution predicted by the four emission scenarios according to future climate warming estimates. The primary prediction under future climate warming models was that, compared with the current climate model, the number of highly favorable habitats would increase significantly and expand into northern China, whereas the number of both favorable and marginally favorable habitats would decrease. Contrast analysis of EI values suggested that climate change and the density of site distribution were the main effectors of the changes in EI values. These results will help to improve control measures, prevent the spread of this pest, and revise the targeted quarantine areas. PMID:26496438

  1. Potential Distribution Predicted for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in China under Different Climate Warming Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xuezhen; He, Shanyong; Wang, Tao; Yan, Wei; Zong, Shixiang

    2015-01-01

    As the primary pest of palm trees, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has caused serious harm to palms since it first invaded China. The present study used CLIMEX 1.1 to predict the potential distribution of R. ferrugineus in China according to both current climate data (1981–2010) and future climate warming estimates based on simulated climate data for the 2020s (2011–2040) provided by the Tyndall Center for Climate Change Research (TYN SC 2.0). Additionally, the Ecoclimatic Index (EI) values calculated for different climatic conditions (current and future, as simulated by the B2 scenario) were compared. Areas with a suitable climate for R. ferrugineus distribution were located primarily in central China according to the current climate data, with the northern boundary of the distribution reaching to 40.1°N and including Tibet, north Sichuan, central Shaanxi, south Shanxi, and east Hebei. There was little difference in the potential distribution predicted by the four emission scenarios according to future climate warming estimates. The primary prediction under future climate warming models was that, compared with the current climate model, the number of highly favorable habitats would increase significantly and expand into northern China, whereas the number of both favorable and marginally favorable habitats would decrease. Contrast analysis of EI values suggested that climate change and the density of site distribution were the main effectors of the changes in EI values. These results will help to improve control measures, prevent the spread of this pest, and revise the targeted quarantine areas. PMID:26496438

  2. Re-description and first host and biology records of Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a natural enemy of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), a pest of Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Gumovsky, Alex; De Little, Dave; Rothmann, Sergio; Jaques, Lorena; Mayorga, Sandra Elizabeth Ide

    2015-01-01

    Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae) is recorded as a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), significant pests of Eucalyptus trees. Entedon magnificus is re-described and illustrated based on females and males from Australia and Tasmania. PMID:26249097

  3. Re-description and first host and biology records of Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a natural enemy of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), a pest of Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Gumovsky, Alex; De Little, Dave; Rothmann, Sergio; Jaques, Lorena; Mayorga, Sandra Elizabeth Ide

    2015-05-19

    Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae) is recorded as a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), significant pests of Eucalyptus trees. Entedon magnificus is re-described and illustrated based on females and males from Australia and Tasmania.

  4. Intra-Annual Variation in Responses by Flying Southern Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to Pheromone Component endo-Brevicomin.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian T; Brownie, Cavell; Barrett, JoAnne P

    2016-08-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endo-brevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component spacing, and proximity of beetle infestations. Anecdotal observations have further suggested that the effects of endo-brevicomin vary during the year. We investigated this possibility under nonoutbreak conditions in southwestern Mississippi where for two-and-a-half years we monitored traps baited with frontalin and the host odor alpha-pinene either (a) alone, or with an endo-brevicomin release device either (b) located directly on the trap, or (c) displaced 6 m away. The endo-brevicomin devices in our tests increased D. frontalis catches during all times of year, and 6 m displacement of the endo-brevicomin release device from the trap did not significantly alter responses except during the spring flight peak when displacement increased catches. Our data suggest that flying D. frontalis have a stronger tendency to avoid the immediate proximity of a release point of endo-brevicomin during their springtime dispersal flight when catches are greatest. Catches of Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), a major predator of D. frontalis, were not altered by endo-brevicomin, and ratios of D. frontalis to T. dubius changed over the course of the year. We discuss the possible effects of intra-annual variation in D. frontalis response to endo-brevicomin both on beetle attack behavior and use of endo-brevicomin as a lure adjuvant in D. frontalis population monitoring. PMID:27207264

  5. Intra-Annual Variation in Responses by Flying Southern Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to Pheromone Component endo-Brevicomin.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian T; Brownie, Cavell; Barrett, JoAnne P

    2016-08-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endo-brevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component spacing, and proximity of beetle infestations. Anecdotal observations have further suggested that the effects of endo-brevicomin vary during the year. We investigated this possibility under nonoutbreak conditions in southwestern Mississippi where for two-and-a-half years we monitored traps baited with frontalin and the host odor alpha-pinene either (a) alone, or with an endo-brevicomin release device either (b) located directly on the trap, or (c) displaced 6 m away. The endo-brevicomin devices in our tests increased D. frontalis catches during all times of year, and 6 m displacement of the endo-brevicomin release device from the trap did not significantly alter responses except during the spring flight peak when displacement increased catches. Our data suggest that flying D. frontalis have a stronger tendency to avoid the immediate proximity of a release point of endo-brevicomin during their springtime dispersal flight when catches are greatest. Catches of Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), a major predator of D. frontalis, were not altered by endo-brevicomin, and ratios of D. frontalis to T. dubius changed over the course of the year. We discuss the possible effects of intra-annual variation in D. frontalis response to endo-brevicomin both on beetle attack behavior and use of endo-brevicomin as a lure adjuvant in D. frontalis population monitoring.

  6. Spatio-temporal analysis of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae [corrected] Scolytinae) invasion in eastern U.S. forests.

    PubMed

    Koch, F H; Smith, W D

    2008-04-01

    The non-native redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), has recently emerged as a significant pest of southeastern U.S. coastal forests. Specifically, a fungal symbiont (Raffaelea sp.) of X. glabratus has caused mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) trees in the region; several other Lauraceae species also seem susceptible. Although the range of X. glabratus continues to expand rapidly, little is known about the species' biology and behavior. In turn, there has been no broad-scale assessment of the threat it poses to eastern U.S. forests. To provide a basic information framework, we performed analyses exploiting relevant spatio-temporal data available for X. glabratus. First, we mapped the densities of redbay and sassafras from forest inventory data. Second, we used climate matching to delineate potential geographic limits for X. glabratus. Third, we used county infestation data to estimate the rate of spread and modeled spread through time, incorporating host density as a weighting factor. Our results suggest that (1) key areas with high concentrations of redbay have yet to be invaded, but some are immediately threatened; (2) climatic conditions may serve to constrain X. glabratus to the southeastern U.S. coastal region; and (3) if unchecked, X. glabratus may spread throughout the range of redbay in <40 yr. Disruption of anthropogenic, long-distance dispersal could reduce the likelihood of this outcome.

  7. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea).

    PubMed

    Case, Ashley E; Mayfield, Albert E; Clark, Stacy L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  8. Repellent Activity of the Essential Oil from the Heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin against Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Javier; Urzúa, Alejandro; Tampe, Jocelyne; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-04-22

    The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44'9″S, 72°35'25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems surrounding the implementation of the traditional control methods using organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, new strategies for controlling this pest are needed. In this communication, we evaluated the behavioral responses of male and female A. superciliosus to volatile compounds released from the essential oil (EO) obtained from the heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin using olfactometric bioassays. The composition of the EO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to these analyses, δ-cadinol (24.16%), cubenol (22.64%), 15-copaenol (15.46%) and δ-cadinene (10.81%) were the principal components of the EO. The Pilgerodendron uviferum EO, which is almost exclusively composed of sesquiterpenes (99.5%), exhibited a repellent effect against A. superciliosus adults, regardless of the sex or concentration used (56.6 mg/cm³ and 1.58 × 10(-2) mg/cm³). The EO has low volatility and greater persistence than the EOs composed of monoterpenes and is considered a good model in the search for raspberry weevil repellents.

  9. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of adults of raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odors released from conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Manosalva, Loreto; Palma, Rubén; Candia, Oscar; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    The raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in the south of Chile. In this study, we investigated the electroantennographic and behavioral responses of A. superciliosus to semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults, with particular attention to male attraction to females. Odors released from females significantly attracted males in a Y-tube olfactometer. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of female volatile extracts revealed the presence of limonene and α-pinene. Electroantennogram recordings from both sexes indicated that males of A. superciliosus possess olfactory sensitivity for the R isomer of limonene and α-pinene, whereas females only perceived R-limonene. Behavioral assays using synthetic compounds showed that only R-limonene elicited an attraction response from male weevils. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory results, showing that R-limonene was attractive to weevils. This is the first report of intraspecific chemical communication in this weevil. We discuss the origin of these compounds, their possible role in the sexual behavior of this species, and their potential use in a pest control strategy.

  10. Impact of trap architecture, adjacent habitats, abiotic factors, and host plant phenology on captures of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Gérald; Chouinard, Gérald; Vincent, Charles; Cormier, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    Pyramid traps, 2.44 m and 3.66 m in height, were compared with standard-sized pyramid traps, 1.22 m in height, to assess the impact of trap architecture on captures of adult plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in two apple (Malus spp.) orchards and a blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) planting. The effects of adjacent habitat (organic orchard versus wooded areas), abiotic factors, and phenological stages of apple also were assessed to determine whether these variables influenced trap captures. Standard-sized pyramidal traps captured significantly more adults than larger trap variants. In the apple orchards, most adults (70-80%) were captured before petal fall with the exception of blocks adjacent to the organic orchard (25%). Significantly more adults were captured along the edge of an apple orchard (managed using an integrated pest management strategy) facing an organic apple orchard (76%) than along the edge facing wooded areas (24%). There was a significant positive correlation between daily trap captures and mean daily temperatures before petal fall in apple orchards.

  11. Behavioral Responses of Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Different Enantiomer Concentrations and Blends of the Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Grandisoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Hock, Virginia; Chouinard, Gérald; Lucas, Éric; Cormier, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C; Wright, Starker E; Zhang, Aijun; Pichette, André

    2015-04-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important pest of fruit in North America. Males produce an aggregation pheromone (grandisoic acid) that attracts both sexes of the northern univoltine and the southern multivoltine strains. Grandisoic acid ((1R,2S)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclobutaneacetic acid) is a chiral molecule containing one chiral center. A synthetic racemic mixture will contain two optical isomers that are mirror images of each other with equal amounts of (+)- and (-)-enantiomeric isomers. Male plum curculio only produce the (+) enantiomer. Some enantiomers can have antagonistic effects on the attraction of weevils to pheromones. An understanding of the effect of both enantiomers on the behaviour of plum curculio is needed to develop more efficient trap baits. Behavioural bioassays were conducted in a dual-choice still-air vertical olfactometer using a quantity of 1.5 ml of both (+) and (-) synthetic enantiomers and the racemic mixture of grandisoic acid with live female responders to determine which concentration and enantiomeric purity is the most attractive and if there is an antagonistic effect of the unnatural (-) enantiomer. Results indicated that plum curculio were attracted to low concentrations of the (+) enantiomer at 72% enantiomeric excess, but that strains were attracted to different concentrations of the (+) enantiomer (2×10(-7) mg/ml for univoltine, 2×10(-9) mg/ml for multivoltine).

  12. Repellent Activity of the Essential Oil from the Heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin against Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Javier; Urzúa, Alejandro; Tampe, Jocelyne; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44'9″S, 72°35'25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems surrounding the implementation of the traditional control methods using organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, new strategies for controlling this pest are needed. In this communication, we evaluated the behavioral responses of male and female A. superciliosus to volatile compounds released from the essential oil (EO) obtained from the heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin using olfactometric bioassays. The composition of the EO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to these analyses, δ-cadinol (24.16%), cubenol (22.64%), 15-copaenol (15.46%) and δ-cadinene (10.81%) were the principal components of the EO. The Pilgerodendron uviferum EO, which is almost exclusively composed of sesquiterpenes (99.5%), exhibited a repellent effect against A. superciliosus adults, regardless of the sex or concentration used (56.6 mg/cm³ and 1.58 × 10(-2) mg/cm³). The EO has low volatility and greater persistence than the EOs composed of monoterpenes and is considered a good model in the search for raspberry weevil repellents. PMID:27110756

  13. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    PubMed Central

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  14. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea).

    PubMed

    Case, Ashley E; Mayfield, Albert E; Clark, Stacy L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests.

  15. Temporal variation in mycophagy and prevalence of fungi associated with developmental stages of Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Adams, Aaron S; Six, Diana L

    2007-02-01

    Mycophagy by bark beetles is widespread. However, little is known regarding which developmental stages of bark beetles actually feed on fungi. To study this question, we sampled fungi associated with Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) throughout development in naturally attacked trees. Isolations of fungi were made from phloem adjacent to brood and from brood exoskeletons and guts. Overall, the incidence of fungi with individual brood increased as brood development progressed. Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingf. and Ophiostoma montium (Rumbold) von Arx exhibited generally opposing trends in prevalence. G. clavigera was most likely to be found in phloem adjacent to prewintering third- and postwintering fourth-instar larvae. O. montium was most likely to be found in phloem adjacent to eggs, first-instar larvae, pupae, and teneral adults. In contrast to isolations made from phloem, fungi isolated from brood guts and exoskeletons were not observed to shift in prevalence. First- and third-instar larvae were often observed migrating to older portions of their galleries, indicating that they do not spend all of their time feeding at, and extending, the apex of the gallery. Our results suggest that not only are D. ponderosae brood in contact with and feeding on fungi throughout development, but also, that during development, contact of brood with a particular fungus is likely to change. Such temporal shifts in fungal symbionts may be environmentally driven and have important implications in how these fungi interact with their hosts within and across generations.

  16. Effect of planting date on Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) density-yield relationship on rice in southeastern Texas.

    PubMed

    Espino, L; Way, M O; Pearson, R; Nunez, M

    2009-08-01

    Results of planting date and insecticide efficacy experiments targeting Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on rice, Oryza sativa L., in southeastern Texas between 2002 and 2007 were used to determine density-yield relationships as a function of planting date. Soil core samples were collected on two dates during main crop development to estimate immature L. oryzophilus populations followed by main and ratoon crop harvests. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that planting date did not affect the density-main crop yield relationship during most years and that these relationships varied substantially among years. For ratoon crop yield, an effect of main crop L. oryzophilus immature infestation was detected during some years, but the real effect of these populations on ratoon crop yield remains unclear. Using estimates of yield reduction per L. oryzophilus immature, economic injury levels were calculated. Main crop yields from treated plots and first soil core sample L. oryzophilus immature populations from untreated plots were significantly higher in plots planted at recommended dates than in plots planted earlier or later. This suggests that the presence of high populations of reproductive L. oryzophilus coincides with the period when rice fields planted at optimum dates are flooded. Results from this study reinforce the importance of managing L. oryzophilus populations when planting rice at recommended dates in southeastern Texas.

  17. Biology and host preferences of Cryptorhynchus melastomae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a possible biocontrol agent for Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Elisabeth; Johnson, M Tracy; Chacón, Eduardo; Anderson, Robert S; Wheeler, Terry A

    2010-12-01

    The introduced plant Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) poses a grave threat to Hawaii's native ecosystems and biodiversity. One potential candidate for classical biological control is Cryptorhynchus melastomae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae), a stem-boring weevil from Central and South America. This weevil feeds on M. calvescens in its native Costa Rica and has been successfully reared under greenhouse conditions. Comparison of its environmental conditions in Costa Rica with those in the Miconia infested areas of Hawaii indicates the latter is a suitable habitat for C. melastomae. C. melastomae has one or two generations per year. Adults feed on new stems, petioles, leaf buds, veins, and lamina, whereas larvae mine the stem until pupation. Adults appear to prefer saplings for oviposition and feeding. Under greenhouse conditions both adults and larvae can seriously damage and kill small M. calvescens. Preliminary host testing indicates that C. melastomae may be family specific on Melastomataceae. However, because Hawaii lacks native melastomes and has many other serious melastome weeds, a family specific insect may be suitable as a biocontrol agent in this case. PMID:22182550

  18. Behavioral Responses of Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Different Enantiomer Concentrations and Blends of the Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Grandisoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Hock, Virginia; Chouinard, Gérald; Lucas, Éric; Cormier, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C; Wright, Starker E; Zhang, Aijun; Pichette, André

    2015-04-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important pest of fruit in North America. Males produce an aggregation pheromone (grandisoic acid) that attracts both sexes of the northern univoltine and the southern multivoltine strains. Grandisoic acid ((1R,2S)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclobutaneacetic acid) is a chiral molecule containing one chiral center. A synthetic racemic mixture will contain two optical isomers that are mirror images of each other with equal amounts of (+)- and (-)-enantiomeric isomers. Male plum curculio only produce the (+) enantiomer. Some enantiomers can have antagonistic effects on the attraction of weevils to pheromones. An understanding of the effect of both enantiomers on the behaviour of plum curculio is needed to develop more efficient trap baits. Behavioural bioassays were conducted in a dual-choice still-air vertical olfactometer using a quantity of 1.5 ml of both (+) and (-) synthetic enantiomers and the racemic mixture of grandisoic acid with live female responders to determine which concentration and enantiomeric purity is the most attractive and if there is an antagonistic effect of the unnatural (-) enantiomer. Results indicated that plum curculio were attracted to low concentrations of the (+) enantiomer at 72% enantiomeric excess, but that strains were attracted to different concentrations of the (+) enantiomer (2×10(-7) mg/ml for univoltine, 2×10(-9) mg/ml for multivoltine). PMID:26470165

  19. Repeated Cold Exposure Effects on Mortality and Feeding Activity of the Salvinia Weevil, Cyrtobagous salviniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Obeysekara, Piyumi T; Knutson, Allen; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Heinz, Kevin M

    2015-12-01

    Biological control of the aquatic fern, Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell, by Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in temperate regions has been less reliable relative to tropical and subtropical regions. High mortality of overwintering adults is presumed to be an important factor. At temperate sites, overwintering adult C. salviniae may experience multiple exposures to low temperatures that could compound to lethal levels. We examined the effects of repeated cold exposure (RCE) on the overwintering mortality and feeding rate of adult C. salviniae. Mortality rate of adults following exposure to 2, 4, and 6 cycles of RCE was 22, 70 and 82%, respectively. Mortality in the RCE treatment was similar to that in the matched-cold treatment for 2 and 6 cycles but was significantly less than in the matched-cold treatment for the 4 cycles. The relationship between the number of RCE and adult mortality rate was modeled and model results were compared to adult survival of caged weevils during four winters on two lakes in northeast Texas. Also, the feeding activity of adult weevils surviving RCE declined following exposure to 4 and 6 cycles of RCE. These results provide insight into how cold impacts overwintering survival of C. salviniae and should assist in anticipating the need for inoculative releases of C. salviniae the following spring to achieve consistent biological control of S. molesta at temperate locales. PMID:26314025

  20. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  1. Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A

    2013-08-01

    Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of

  2. Immediate and delayed mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults exposed to spinosad-treated commodities.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Anna Iversen; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2008-06-01

    A series of tests was conducted to characterize differences in the mortality of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), exposed to three commodities treated with a liquid and dry spinosad formulation. In laboratory bioassays, adults of the two insect species were exposed to untreated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., corn, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., and to commodities treated with 1 mg (AI)/kg of liquid and dry spinosad formulations. Mortality was assessed from independent samples examined at specific time intervals to determine immediate mortality and after 24 h of recovery on untreated grain at 28 degrees C and 65% RH to determine delayed mortality. Comparison of the time required for 50% (LT50) and 95% (LT95) mortality indicated that R. dominica adults were consistently and significantly more susceptible (died quickly) than S. oryzae adults when exposed to spinosad-treated commodities. In general, the toxicity of liquid and dry spinosad formulations was similar against R. dominica or S. oryzae. The toxicity of spinosad to each species varied slightly among the three commodities, and there were no consistent trends to suggest that spinosad was more effective on one commodity versus another. LT50 values based on immediate mortality for R. dominica on all commodities ranged from 0.45 to 0.74 d; corresponding values based on delayed mortality ranged from 0.04 to 0.23 d, suggesting delayed toxic action of spinosad in R. dominica. LT50 values based on immediate and delayed mortality for S. oryzae on all three commodities treated with the two spinosad formulations were essentially similar and ranged from 2.75 to 4.56 d. LT95 values for R. dominica based on immediate mortality on spinosad-treated commodities ranged from 1.75 to 3.36 d, and those based on delayed mortality ranged from 0.49 to 1.88 d. There were no significant differences in

  3. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  4. Precise and low-cost monitoring of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pest activity in pyramid traps with cameras.

    PubMed

    Selby, R D; Gage, S H; Whalon, M E

    2014-04-01

    Incorporating camera systems into insect traps potentially benefits insect phenology modeling, nonlethal insect monitoring, and research into the automated identification of traps counts. Cameras originally for monitoring mammals were instead adapted to monitor the entrance to pyramid traps designed to capture the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Using released curculios, two new trap designs (v.I and v.II) were field-tested alongside conventional pyramid traps at one site in autumn 2010 and at four sites in autumn 2012. The traps were evaluated on the basis of battery power, ease-of-maintenance, adaptability, required-user-skills, cost (including labor), and accuracy-of-results. The v.II design fully surpassed expectations, except that some trapped curculios were not photographed. In 2012, 13 of the 24 traps recorded every curculio entering the traps during the 18-d study period, and in traps where some curculios were not photographed, over 90% of the omissions could be explained by component failure or external interference with the motion sensor. Significantly more curculios entered the camera traps between 1800 and 0000 hours. When compared with conventional pyramid traps, the v.I traps collected a similar number of curculios. Two observed but not significant trends were that the v.I traps collected twice as many plum curculios as the v.II traps, while at the same time the v.II traps collected more than twice as many photos per plum curculio as the v.I traps. The research demonstrates that low-cost, precise monitoring of field insect populations is feasible without requiring extensive technical expertise.

  5. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  6. Simple and Efficient Trap for Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Facilitate Invasive Species Monitoring and Citizen Involvement.

    PubMed

    Steininger, M S; Hulcr, J; Šigut, M; Lucky, A

    2015-06-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae & Platypodinae) are among the most damaging forest pests worldwide, and monitoring is essential to damage prevention. Unfortunately, traps and attractants that are currently used are costly, and agencies rely on limited field personnel for deployment. The situation can be greatly aided by 1) the development of cost-effective trapping techniques, and 2) distribution of the effort through the Citizen Science approach. The goal of this study was to test a simple, effective trap that can be made and deployed by anyone interested in collecting bark and ambrosia beetles. Three trap types made from 2-liter soda bottles and, separately, four attractants were compared. Simple, one-window traps performed comparably at capturing species in traps painted or with multiple windows. A comparison of attractants in two-window traps found that 95% ethanol attracted the highest number of species but that Purell hand sanitizer (70% ethanol) and then Germ-X hand sanitizer (63% ethanol) were also effective. A perforated zip-top plastic bag containing Purell hanging over a trap filled with automobile antifreeze attracted the fewest species and individual specimens. Overall, >4,500 bark and ambrosia beetles, including 30 species were captured, representing a third of the regional species diversity. More than three quarters of the specimens were nonnative, representing nearly half of the known regional exotic species. These results suggest that simple one-window soda bottle traps baited with ethanol-based hand sanitizer will be effective and inexpensive tools for large-scale monitoring of bark and ambrosia beetles.

  7. Seasonal Phenology and Life-History of Dendroctonus simplex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Great Lakes Region of North America.

    PubMed

    McKee, Fraser R; Aukema, Brian H

    2016-08-01

    The eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is distributed throughout the North American boreal forest sympatric with its primary host, the eastern larch or tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch. Outbreaks of eastern larch beetles are typically small and associated with stressed tamaracks. Since 2000, however, an outbreak has killed >90,000 ha of tamarack in Minnesota and surrounding Great Lakes region. Identifying the causes of this epidemic is challenging due to knowledge gaps regarding the insect's biology. We present field data from 2011 to 2014 on degree days associated with spring emergence, dispersal, host colonization, and re-emergence from colonized hosts by mature adult beetles, as well as degree days associated with larval development, and prewinter emergence by adult progeny at study sites in northern Minnesota. After initial host colonization in early spring we found that a second brood was established in early summer by re-emerging parents. In 2012, a third brood was established. Across study years, first broods developed to adults by late summer, with many beetles relocating to the base of the host tree to overwinter. Second broods often reached adulthood and initiated prewinter emergence. The third brood of 2012 overwintered as adults, pupae, and late-instars, resuming development the following spring. Each spring, emergence of adult beetles from all broods established the previous year was highly synchronous. Knowledge of the biology of eastern larch beetles along the southern margin of their range aids in understanding how population dynamics may change with a changing climate. PMID:27333874

  8. Simple and Efficient Trap for Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Facilitate Invasive Species Monitoring and Citizen Involvement.

    PubMed

    Steininger, M S; Hulcr, J; Šigut, M; Lucky, A

    2015-06-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae & Platypodinae) are among the most damaging forest pests worldwide, and monitoring is essential to damage prevention. Unfortunately, traps and attractants that are currently used are costly, and agencies rely on limited field personnel for deployment. The situation can be greatly aided by 1) the development of cost-effective trapping techniques, and 2) distribution of the effort through the Citizen Science approach. The goal of this study was to test a simple, effective trap that can be made and deployed by anyone interested in collecting bark and ambrosia beetles. Three trap types made from 2-liter soda bottles and, separately, four attractants were compared. Simple, one-window traps performed comparably at capturing species in traps painted or with multiple windows. A comparison of attractants in two-window traps found that 95% ethanol attracted the highest number of species but that Purell hand sanitizer (70% ethanol) and then Germ-X hand sanitizer (63% ethanol) were also effective. A perforated zip-top plastic bag containing Purell hanging over a trap filled with automobile antifreeze attracted the fewest species and individual specimens. Overall, >4,500 bark and ambrosia beetles, including 30 species were captured, representing a third of the regional species diversity. More than three quarters of the specimens were nonnative, representing nearly half of the known regional exotic species. These results suggest that simple one-window soda bottle traps baited with ethanol-based hand sanitizer will be effective and inexpensive tools for large-scale monitoring of bark and ambrosia beetles. PMID:26470236

  9. Seasonal Phenology and Life-History of Dendroctonus simplex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Great Lakes Region of North America.

    PubMed

    McKee, Fraser R; Aukema, Brian H

    2016-08-01

    The eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is distributed throughout the North American boreal forest sympatric with its primary host, the eastern larch or tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch. Outbreaks of eastern larch beetles are typically small and associated with stressed tamaracks. Since 2000, however, an outbreak has killed >90,000 ha of tamarack in Minnesota and surrounding Great Lakes region. Identifying the causes of this epidemic is challenging due to knowledge gaps regarding the insect's biology. We present field data from 2011 to 2014 on degree days associated with spring emergence, dispersal, host colonization, and re-emergence from colonized hosts by mature adult beetles, as well as degree days associated with larval development, and prewinter emergence by adult progeny at study sites in northern Minnesota. After initial host colonization in early spring we found that a second brood was established in early summer by re-emerging parents. In 2012, a third brood was established. Across study years, first broods developed to adults by late summer, with many beetles relocating to the base of the host tree to overwinter. Second broods often reached adulthood and initiated prewinter emergence. The third brood of 2012 overwintered as adults, pupae, and late-instars, resuming development the following spring. Each spring, emergence of adult beetles from all broods established the previous year was highly synchronous. Knowledge of the biology of eastern larch beetles along the southern margin of their range aids in understanding how population dynamics may change with a changing climate.

  10. Efficacy of verbenone for protecting ponderosa pine stands from western pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in California.

    PubMed

    Fettig, Christopher J; McKelvey, Stephen R; Borys, Robert R; Dabney, Christopher P; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Nelson, Lori J; Seybold, Steven J

    2009-10-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., mortality in much of western North America. Currently, techniques for managing D. brevicomis infestations are limited. Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo [3.1.1] hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregation pheromone of several Dendroctonus spp., including D. brevicomis, and it has been registered as a biopesticide for control of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. We evaluated the efficacy of a 5-g verbenone pouch [82%-(-); 50 mg/d] applied at 125 Ulha for protecting P. ponderosa stands (2 ha) from D. brevicomis attack over a 3-yr period. No significant differences in levels of D. brevicomis-caused tree mortality or the percentage of unsuccessfully attacked trees were found between verbenone-treated and untreated plots during each year or cumulatively over the 3-yr period. Laboratory analyses of release rates and chemical composition of volatiles emanating from verbenone pouches after field exposure found no deterioration of the active ingredient or physical malfunction of the release device. The mean release rate of pouches from all locations and exposure periods was 44.5 mg/d. In a trapping bioassay, the range of inhibition of the 5-g verbenone pouch was determined to be statistically constant 2 m from the release device. We discuss the implications of these and other results to the development of verbenone as a semiochemical-based tool for management of D. brevicomis infestations in P. ponderosa stands.

  11. Monitoring attack and flight activity of Xylosandrus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): the influence of temperature on activity.

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B

    2013-08-01

    Wood-boring ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), including Xylosandrus spp., are key pests in ornamental nurseries. Knowledge of their activity in spring is important for nursery growers to effectively time their protective sprays. We measured the reliability of ethanol-baited bottle traps for monitoring emergence of overwintered Xylosandrus spp. in ornamental nurseries. Detection of initial flight activity by traps was compared with initial attacks on ethanol-injected trap trees. To develop tools for forecasting Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) activity, the relationships between temperature and their attack and flight activity were examined, and the bloom sequence of ornamental plants was examined as phenological indicators of X. germanus emergence in Ohio. Captures of X. germanus coincided with attacks on trap trees on seven of eight occasions over 2 yr in four nurseries. Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) were detected in only one nursery and captures coincided with attacks each year. There was a strong relationship between maximum daily temperatures 20 and 21degrees C and X. germanus attack and flight activity. No attack or flight activity were detected in a monitoring period unless there were 1 or 2 d of at least 20 degrees C. Emergence of X. germanus always began after and within 6 d of full bloom on Cornelian cherry dogwood, and usually after and within 4 d of first bloom on Norway maple and full bloom on border forsythia. The traps or phenological indicators can be used by growers to monitor emergence of X. germanus to time their initial protective sprays. The relationship between X. germanus activity and temperature can be used by growers to make decisions on timing subsequent treatments. PMID:24020293

  12. Biology and morphology of immature stages of Adosomus roridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Lixinae).

    PubMed

    Trnka, Filip; Stejskal, Robert; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Mature larva and pupa of Adosomus (s. str.) roridus (Pallas, 1781) (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Cleonini) are described and compared with ten other taxa of Cleonini with known larvae. This weevil is an oligophagous species on the Asteraceae family. From our observations in Slovakia, we found active adults from April to September in dry sunny places within extensively used or fallow vineyards and in ruderal vegetation with host plants. The weevil is a root borer--larvae, pupae and fresh adults were collected from the root necks and roots of Common Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) and rarely from Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.). Each plant was usually occupied by one larva, or more rarely with two or three larvae. The new generation of adult individuals appeared from early summer to autumn. Both larvae and some of the adults overwinter, which is quite unique within Cleonini. PMID:26624140

  13. Rediscovery and redescription of Centrodora damoni (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Australia, an egg parasitoid of Gonipterus spp (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), after nearly a century

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha E; Valente, Carlos; Gonçalves, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Centrodora is a relatively common and widespread genus of morphologically diverse species, and is the most polyphagous genus known within the Aphelinidae, attacking eggs of insects in addition to pupae of Diptera and Hymenoptera, and nymphs of Hemiptera (Polaszek 1991). There are currently about 60 valid species in the genus, but given its morphological and biological diversity, some elevation of species-groups and subgenera to genus-level might be useful in future. Centrodora is represented in Australia by twelve species (Noyes 2015). New information Centrodora damoni (Girault) is redescribed and diagnosed from recently collected specimens reared from the eucalyptus weevil Gonipterus sp. near scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Tasmania, Australia. A lectotype is designated from a syntype specimen. PMID:27226747

  14. Biology and morphology of immature stages of Lixus canescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Lixinae).

    PubMed

    Skuhrovec, Jiří; Volovnik, Semyon

    2015-10-23

    Mature larvae and pupae of Lixus (Eulixus) canescens Steven, 1829 (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Lixini) are described and compared with known larvae and pupae of other Lixus species. The biology of the species was studied in Ukraine. A species of Crambe (Brassicaceae) was identified as host plant of both larvae and adults of this weevil. The weevil is very likely oligophagous. Lixus canescens prefers dry, sunny places, such as open areas of sand close to sea shores with growing host plants. Overwintering beetles emerge in the late spring (mid-May), and then feed and mate on the host plants. The highest level of activity of the adults was observed at the end of May. Larvae are endophagous in the host plant stem. At the end of July, the larvae pupate within the stem inside a pupation cell. Adults leave the cells at the end of summer and do not hibernate on the host plants. They then, most likely, spend some time feeding on the host plants and looking for suitable shelter in which to overwinter.

  15. Biology and morphology of immature stages of Lixus canescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Lixinae).

    PubMed

    Skuhrovec, Jiří; Volovnik, Semyon

    2015-01-01

    Mature larvae and pupae of Lixus (Eulixus) canescens Steven, 1829 (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Lixini) are described and compared with known larvae and pupae of other Lixus species. The biology of the species was studied in Ukraine. A species of Crambe (Brassicaceae) was identified as host plant of both larvae and adults of this weevil. The weevil is very likely oligophagous. Lixus canescens prefers dry, sunny places, such as open areas of sand close to sea shores with growing host plants. Overwintering beetles emerge in the late spring (mid-May), and then feed and mate on the host plants. The highest level of activity of the adults was observed at the end of May. Larvae are endophagous in the host plant stem. At the end of July, the larvae pupate within the stem inside a pupation cell. Adults leave the cells at the end of summer and do not hibernate on the host plants. They then, most likely, spend some time feeding on the host plants and looking for suitable shelter in which to overwinter. PMID:26624410

  16. Elucidating the Common Generalist Predators of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an Organic Apple Orchard Using Molecular Gut-Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jason M; Szendrei, Zsofia; Grieshop, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), plum curculio, is a serious direct pest of North American tree fruit including, apples, cherries, peaches and plums. Historically, organophosphate insecticides were used for control, but this tool is no longer registered for use in tree fruit. In addition, few organically approved insecticides are available for organic pest control and none have proven efficacy as this time. Therefore, promoting biological control in these systems is the next step, however, little is known about the biological control pathways in this system and how these are influenced by current mechanical and cultural practices required in organic systems. We used molecular gut-content analysis for testing field caught predators for feeding on plum curculio. During the study we monitored populations of plum curculio and the predator community in a production organic apple orchard. Predator populations varied over the season and contained a diverse assemblage of spiders and beetles. A total of 8% of all predators (eight Araneae, two Hemiptera, and six Coleoptera species) assayed for plum curculio predation were observed positive for the presence of plum curculio DNA in their guts, indicating that these species fed on plum curculio prior to collection Results indicate a number of biological control agents exist for this pest and this requires further study in relation to cultural practices.

  17. Elucidating the Common Generalist Predators of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an Organic Apple Orchard Using Molecular Gut-Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jason M; Szendrei, Zsofia; Grieshop, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), plum curculio, is a serious direct pest of North American tree fruit including, apples, cherries, peaches and plums. Historically, organophosphate insecticides were used for control, but this tool is no longer registered for use in tree fruit. In addition, few organically approved insecticides are available for organic pest control and none have proven efficacy as this time. Therefore, promoting biological control in these systems is the next step, however, little is known about the biological control pathways in this system and how these are influenced by current mechanical and cultural practices required in organic systems. We used molecular gut-content analysis for testing field caught predators for feeding on plum curculio. During the study we monitored populations of plum curculio and the predator community in a production organic apple orchard. Predator populations varied over the season and contained a diverse assemblage of spiders and beetles. A total of 8% of all predators (eight Araneae, two Hemiptera, and six Coleoptera species) assayed for plum curculio predation were observed positive for the presence of plum curculio DNA in their guts, indicating that these species fed on plum curculio prior to collection Results indicate a number of biological control agents exist for this pest and this requires further study in relation to cultural practices. PMID:27348005

  18. Elucidating the Common Generalist Predators of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an Organic Apple Orchard Using Molecular Gut-Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jason M.; Szendrei, Zsofia; Grieshop, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), plum curculio, is a serious direct pest of North American tree fruit including, apples, cherries, peaches and plums. Historically, organophosphate insecticides were used for control, but this tool is no longer registered for use in tree fruit. In addition, few organically approved insecticides are available for organic pest control and none have proven efficacy as this time. Therefore, promoting biological control in these systems is the next step, however, little is known about the biological control pathways in this system and how these are influenced by current mechanical and cultural practices required in organic systems. We used molecular gut-content analysis for testing field caught predators for feeding on plum curculio. During the study we monitored populations of plum curculio and the predator community in a production organic apple orchard. Predator populations varied over the season and contained a diverse assemblage of spiders and beetles. A total of 8% of all predators (eight Araneae, two Hemiptera, and six Coleoptera species) assayed for plum curculio predation were observed positive for the presence of plum curculio DNA in their guts, indicating that these species fed on plum curculio prior to collection Results indicate a number of biological control agents exist for this pest and this requires further study in relation to cultural practices. PMID:27348005

  19. Non-linear degree day models for post-diapause development of the sunflower stem weevil (Curculionidae: Coleoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coloptera: Curculionidae), has caused yield losses across much of the western Great Plains. Little is known about the field biology of this pest. Simple prediction models, such as degree day models, are an integral tool for development...

  20. Xyleborus glabratus, X. affinis, and X. ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Electroantennogram responses to host-based attractants and temporal patterns in host-seeking flight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Effective semiochemical-based detection and control p...

  1. Synergism between demethylation inhibitor fungicides or gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a pyrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ramoutar, D; Cowles, R S; Requintina, E; Alm, S R

    2010-10-01

    In 2007-2008, the "annual bluegrass weevil," Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a serious pest of Poa annua L. (Poales: Poaceae) on U.S. golf courses, was shown to be resistant to two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. In 2008, we showed that bifenthrin resistance was principally mediated by oxidase detoxification (cytochrome P450 [P450]). P450s can be inhibited by demethylation inhibitor fungicides and gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators, both of which are commonly used on golf courses. We tested these compounds for synergistic activity with bifenthin against a pyrethroid-resistant population of L. maculicollis. The LD50 value for bifenthrin was significantly reduced from 87 ng per insect (without synergists) to 9.6-40 ng per insect after exposure to the fungicides fenarimol, fenpropimorph, prochloraz, propiconazole, and pyrifenox and the plant growth regulators flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Simulated field exposure with formulated products registered for use on turf revealed enhanced mortality when adult weevils were exposed to bifenthrin (25% mortality, presented alone) combined with field dosages of propiconizole, fenarimol, flurprimidol, or trinexapac-ethyl (range, 49-70% mortality).

  2. Mitochondrial nucleotide variability in invasive populations of the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) of Florida and preliminary assessment of Diaprepes sp. from Dominica.

    PubMed

    Ascunce, Marina S; Ernst, Joel A; Clark, Annemarie; Nigg, Herbert N

    2008-08-01

    Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a root weevil introduced into the United States from the Caribbean in 1964. It is associated with >300 plants, including citrus, sugarcane, and potatoes. D. abbreviatus is widespread in Florida, and it has recently been detected in limited areas of California and Texas. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the utility of 16S ribosomal (16S rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial markers for the delineation of genetic populations of D. abbreviatus in Florida and for the characterization of patterns of dispersion among these populations. We also assessed these markers as genetic tools for the clarification of taxonomic uncertainties in specimens from Dominica (Lesser Antilles). We analyzed 111 weevils from six Florida populations and six specimens from Dominica. In Florida, we found three haplotypes with only one haplotype in each population. Florida haplotypes differed by one to three nucleotide substitutions, possibly the result of a recent divergence from one source population or three different introductions from closely related populations from the Caribbean. In contrast, specimens from Dominica showed a high genetic variability with three 16S haplotypes and six unique COI haplotypes, delineating two mitochondrial clades. We show that these mitochondrial markers are useful for phylogeographic studies of D. abbreviatus.

  3. Cytogenetic analyses using C-banding and DAPI/CMA3 staining of four populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Alexandra A.; Braga, Lucas S.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Tavares, Mara G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic data avalaible for the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most destructive pests of stored cereal grains, are controversial. Earlier studies focused on single populations and emphasized chromosome number and sex determination system. In this paper, the karyotypes of four populations of Sitophilus zeamais were characterized by conventional staining, C-banding and sequential staining with the fluorochromes chromomycin-A3/4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (CMA3/DAPI). The analyses of metaphases obtained from the cerebral ganglia of last instar larvae and the testes of adults showed that the species had 2n = 22 chromosomes, with 10 autosomal pairs and a sex chromosome pair (XX in females and Xyp in males). Chromosome number, however, ranged from 2n = 22 to 26 due to the presence of 0–4 supernumerary chromosomes in individuals from the populations of Viçosa, Unai and Porto Alegre. With the exception of the Y chromosome, which was dot-like, all other chromosomes of this species were metacentric, including the supernumeraries. The heterochromatin was present in the centromeric regions of all autosomes and in the centromere of the X chromosome. The B chromosomes were partially or totally heterochromatic, and the Y chromosome was euchromatic. The heterochromatic regions were labeled with C-banding and DAPI, which showed that they were rich in AT base pairs. PMID:25893077

  4. Plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adult mortality and associated fruit injury after exposure to field-aged insecticides on tart cherry branches.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2010-08-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were exposed to field-aged residues of thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, indoxacarb, or azinphos-methyl on tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency. At 1, 3, 7, and 14 d postapplication, fruit were sampled for chemical residues, and bioassays were used to assess beetle mortality and plant tissue injury. Azinphos-methyl had lethal activity within 1 d of exposure at all postapplication intervals and significant fruit protection extended to 14 d postapplication. All of the neonicotinoids had lethal activity at 3 d posttreatment, with acetamiprid activity extending to 7 d. Antifeedant and oviposition deterrent effects were seen with thiamethoxam and thiacloprid; damage incidence was significantly reduced in the absence of significant beetle mortality or intoxication. Thiamethoxam and acetamiprid penetrated into leaf and fruit tissue and were detected in the interior tissues at 14 d postapplication, but interior thiacloprid residues were not detected after day 1. Indoxacarb provided some fruit protection out to 7 d postapplication, and 14-d-old residues intoxicated beetles, but the slow action of this compound allowed significant damage to occur before beetles were incapacitated. Indoxacarb was only detected as a surface residue after the first day postapplication. These data on the plant-insect-chemistry interactions will support use and management decisions as compounds with acute contact activity are phased out. PMID:20857728

  5. Preliminary studies on the susceptibility level of Ceutorchynhus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos in Poland and resistance mechanisms of the pest to acetamiprid.

    PubMed

    Zamojska, Joanna; Węgorek, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorchynhus assimilis (Paykull) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest that more and more often causes large financial losses for rapeseed cultivators in Poland and other European countries. One of the reasons of these problems is the resistance of the pest to certain active substances of insecticides. The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility level of the pest to chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate substance, and acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid, and to determine its enzymatic mechanisms of susceptibility to acetamiprid using synergists, i.e., blockers of particular enzyme groups. The presented research is the first to discuss the mechanisms of the resistance of the cabbage seed weevil to acetamiprid. The achieved results showed medium, high, or very high resistance of the cabbage seed weevil to acetamiprid and its lack of resistance to chlorpyrifos. The research on the mechanisms of the resistance of the pest to acetamiprid revealed the participation of hydrolytic enzymes blocked by S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate and glutathione transferases blocked by diethyl malonate in the metabolism of acetamiprid. The results did not show the participation of oxidative enzymes and esterases blocked by piperonyl butoxide in the detoxification of acetamiprid. PMID:25527578

  6. Effect of Chipping and Solarization on Emergence and Boring Activity of a Recently Introduced Ambrosia Beetle (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    Polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) has recently invaded southern California. The beetle, along with its associated fungi, Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp., and Acremonium sp., causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and box elder (Acer negundo L.). With the spread of the beetle through Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in California, there is increasing concern that felled trees and pruned branches infested with polyphagous shot hole borer should receive sanitation treatment to reduce the potential spread of the beetle from the movement of untreated wood. We tested two sanitation methods to reduce beetle populations, chipping with a commercial chipper and solarization by covering logs with clear or black plastic in full sun. Both chipping and solarization decreased beetle emergence and boring activity compared to untreated control logs. Chipping was most effective for chip sizes <5 cm. Solarization was most effective using clear polyethylene sheeting during hot summer months, particularly August, when daily maximum temperatures were ≥35°C. Beetles persisted for 2 mo or more when solarization was applied during the spring or fall. PMID:26470327

  7. Development of a meridic diet for Hylobius transversovittatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the role of carbohydrates in feeding, growth, and survival of larvae.

    PubMed

    Tomic-Carruthers, Nada

    2007-08-01

    The root-feeding weevil Hylobius transversovittatus Goeze (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is used for biological control of the invasive plant purple loosestrife, Luthrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae). A simple rearing system for this weevil was developed with the goals of improving production techniques and increasing the availability of insects for field introduction. Additionally, the dietary effects of digestible and indigestible carbohydrates were explored. A meridic diet for rearing H. transversovittatus was formulated through nutritional alterations of a boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, diet. Diet attractiveness was evaluated on two levels: first, by recording the incidence of initial tunneling, and second, by estimating the larval establishment rate. The performance of test diet formulations was further assessed by measuring developmental and survival rates of H. transversovittatus. Sucrose, starch, and three types of indigestible carbohydrates were tested as components to improve diet performance. Physical properties of the diet, modified by fillers in test formulations, produced major effects on the initial tunneling of hatchlings. The establishment of hatchlings was affected by chemical properties of the diet. Increases in sucrose concentration decreased larval establishment, decreased the rate of larval development, and decreased larval survival. However, omitting sucrose from the diet, or replacing it with starch, increased mortality of first instars. In advanced stages of larval development, omitting sucrose from the diet did not significantly affect larval survival. The developmental rate of larvae was increased when the amount of digestible carbohydrate was reduced. To date, seven generations of the univoltine H. transversovittatus have been successfully produced on this new meridic diet.

  8. Genetic profiling to determine potential origins of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) captured in a Texas eradication zone: endemicity, immigration, or sabotage?

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Sappington, Thomas W; Allen, Charles T

    2008-12-01

    Thirty-seven boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were captured in pheromone traps near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone during August-October 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earlier in the year, and only very low numbers had been captured in neighboring zones to the south and east. Therefore, the captures near Lubbock were unexpected. Five of the weevils captured the last week of August were preserved and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci for comparison with a database of genotypes for 22 boll weevil populations sampled from eight U.S. states and four locations in Mexico. The Lubbock population itself is an unlikely source, suggesting that the captured weevils probably did not originate from a low-level endemic population. Populations from eastern states, Mexico, and Big Spring, TX, can be confidently excluded as potential source regions. Although the Weslaco and Kingsville, TX, areas cannot be statistically excluded, they are unlikely sources. The most likely sources are nearby areas in New Mexico, TX, or southwest Oklahoma, or from areas of eastern Texas represented by Waxahachie and El Campo populations. Together, genetic and circumstantial evidence suggest either that the trapped boll weevils are the offspring of alone mated female that immigrated from eastern Texas earlier in the summer or that weevils originally captured near Waxahachie but now long-dead were planted in the traps by a disgruntled employee of the eradication program.

  9. Catalog of the coleoptera of America North of Mexico. Family: Curculionidae. Subfamily: Polydrosinae. Tribe: Tanymecini. Agriculture handbook (Research)

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, A.T.

    1993-09-01

    The Coleoptera, or beetles, are represented in the world by about 220,000 described species, of which about 24,000 occur in the United States and Canada. A comprehensive taxonomic catalog of beetles for this area has not been available except the series of world-based 'Coleopterorum Catalogus' volumes (1909-present, Junk, Berlin).

  10. Effect of essential oils from leaves of Ageratum conyzoides, Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata on the mortality of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Bouda; Tapondjou; Fontem; Gumedzoe

    2001-04-01

    Ageratum conyzoides, Chromolaena odorata, and Lantana camara, are common weed species in Cameroon. Essential oil extracts from their leaves were tested for efficacy on the morality of the maize grain weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Concentrations of the essential oils relative to the maize grains of 0.013, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1% (v/w) were used for A. conyzoides and 0.063, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.50% (v/w) for C. odorata and L. camara. Twenty 7-day old adult weevils were fed on maize grains treated with the above concentrations of the essential oils in Petri dishes. Control dishes contained insects and maize grains without essential oils. The experiment was repeated three times. Dishes were incubated in the laboratory for 7 days at 26 degrees C and 75-85% relative humidity. Insect mortality was recorded every 24 h. Graphs of percentage mortality versus the duration of exposure were constructed and the LD(50) was computed for each oil. Significant insect mortality was obtained with all the essential oils used. The mortality of S. zeamais increased with the concentration of the essential oils of the three plants and the duration of exposure of the weevils on the treated substrates. The essential oil extract of Ageratum conyzoides was the most effective insecticide (LD(50)=0.09% in 24 h), followed by that of L. camara (LD(50)=0.16%) and C. odorata (LD(50)=6.78%). These results show that the essential oils of the leaves of some of these weed species may be exploited for insect control in stored products.

  11. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults during early host colonization.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Caitlin; Robert, Jeanne A; Bonnett, Tiffany R; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle), structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton), and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction. PMID:25360753

  12. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    PubMed

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  13. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:23949716

  14. Comparative efficacy of plant-derived essential oils for managing ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their corresponding mass spectral characterization.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer

    2011-10-01

    Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) pose a significant challenge to producers of ornamental nursery stock. Conventional insecticides are commonly used for management purposes, but plant-derived essential oils also may discourage ambrosia beetles from initiating attacks. To identify promising commercially available products, field-based efficacy trials were conducted in Ohio in 2009 and 2010 with the following products: Armorex (Soil Technologies), Cinnacure (Proguard, Inc.), EcoTrol (EcoSMART Technologies, Inc.), and Veggie Pharm (Pharm Solutions, Inc.). Potted Magnolia virginiana L. were first injected with 75 ml of 5% ethanol to ensure ambrosia beetle pressure on experimental trees. Mixtures of each product (10% in water) and a water control were applied until runoff and attacks occurring under field conditions were quantified at 1, 4, 7, and 14 d after treatment (DAT). Ambrosia beetle attacks generally increased over time but at differing rates depending on the particular treatment. In 2009, Armorex and Veggie Pharm were associated with the lowest cumulative attacks 14 DAT. In 2010, Armorex and Cinnacure were associated with the fewest attacks 14 DAT. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to characterize the volatile compounds associated with each product. Allyl isothiocyanate, a compound with known repellent and insecticidal properties, was unique and predominant in Armorex. These experiments identified commercially available botanicals containing plant essential oils with activity against ambrosia beetles, along with demonstrating the usefulness of ethanol-injection to ensure ambrosia beetle pressure under field conditions. Characterizing the constituents of efficacious botanically based products could also lead to the development of improved botanical insecticides.

  15. Efficacy of verbenone and green leaf volatiles for protecting whitebark and limber pines from attack by mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Gillette, Nancy E; Kegley, Sandra J; Costello, Sheryl L; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Mehmel, Constance J; Wood, David L

    2014-08-01

    To develop safe and effective methods to protect whitebark pines, Pinus albicaulis Engelmann, and limber pines, Pinus flexilis James, from attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), we compared verbenone and verbenone plus green leaf volatiles (GLVs) for prevention of beetle attack. We used two strategies: area-wide protection where semiochemical-releasing flakes are dispersed over the forest floor, and individual tree tests where flakes are applied to tree trunks. The area-wide bioassays were conducted by applying verbenone- and GLV-releasing flakes without stickers to the forest floor on 0.81-ha plots dominated by whitebark pines in the State of Washington with four replicates. We conducted individual tree bioassays by applying the same formulations with stickers to whitebark and limber pines in Montana and Colorado, respectively. In all three situations, both verbenone-alone and verbenone plus GLVs significantly increased the proportion of trees escaping mass attack by beetles, but the two formulations were not significantly different from one another. Despite a lack of significance at a Bonferroni-adjusted α = 0.05, adding GLVs gave slightly greater absolute levels of tree protection in most cases. Monitoring traps placed in the area-wide treatments in Washington showed similar outcomes for numbers of beetles trapped: both treatments had significantly fewer beetles than controls, and they were not significantly different from one another. At peak flight, however, plots with GLVs combined with verbenone had roughly 40% fewer beetles than plots with verbenone alone. GLVs are considerably cheaper than verbenone, so tests of higher application rates may be warranted to achieve enhanced tree protection at reasonable cost.

  16. Effectiveness of bifenthrin (Onyx) and carbaryl (Sevin SL) for protecting individual, high-value conifers from bark beetle attack (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Fettig, Christopher J; Allen, Kurt K; Borys, Robert R; Christopherson, John; Dabney, Christopher P; Eager, Thomas J; Gibson, Kenneth E; Hebertson, Elizabeth G; Long, Daniel F; Munson, A Steven; Shea, Patrick J; Smith, Sheri L; Haverty, Michael I

    2006-10-01

    High-value trees, such as those located in residential, recreational, or administrative sites, are particularly susceptible to bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack as a result of increased amounts of stress associated with drought, soil compaction, mechanical injury, or vandalism. Tree losses in these unique environments generally have a substantial impact. The value of these individual trees, cost of removal, and loss of esthetics may justify protection until the main thrust of a bark beetle infestation subsides. This situation emphasizes the need for ensuring that effective insecticides are available for individual tree protection. In this study, we assess the efficacy of bifenthrin (Onyx) and carbaryl (Sevin SL) for protecting: ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws., from western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, in California; mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins in South Dakota; and Ips spp. in Arizona; lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., from D. ponderosae in Montana; pinyon, Pinus edulis Engelm. in Colorado and Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem. in Nevada from pinyon ips, Ips confusus (LeConte); and Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii Parry ex. Engelm. from spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) in Utah. Few trees were attacked by Ips spp. in Arizona and that study was discontinued. Sevin SL (2.0%) was effective for protecting P. ponderosa, P. contorta, and P. monophylla for two field seasons. Estimates of efficacy could not be made during the second field season in P. edulis and P. engelmannii due to insufficient mortality in untreated, baited control trees. Two field seasons of efficacy was demonstrated in P. ponderosa/D. brevicomis and P. monophylla for 0.06% Onyx. We conclude that Onyx is an effective individual tree protection tool, but repeated annual applications may be required in some systems if multiyear control is desired.

  17. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults during early host colonization.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Caitlin; Robert, Jeanne A; Bonnett, Tiffany R; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle), structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton), and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  18. The morphology of the immature stages of Metadonus vuillefroyanus (Capiomont, 1868) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Hyperini) and notes on its biology

    PubMed Central

    Skuhrovec, Jiří; Bogusch, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Last instar larva and pupa of Metadonus vuillefroyanus (Capiomont, 1868) (Curculionidae: Hyperini) are described and compared with known larvae of the other 43 hyperine taxa. The thorn-like setae located on distinct black protuberances on the larval body are characteristic features of the genus Metadonus and the subgenus Eririnomorphus of the genus Hypera. The biological singularity of this species was studied and described. The variable colouration of larvae has been confirmed in association with the variability of the host plant’s colouration at the studied localities. This species’ reported inability to spin cocoons has been disproven. A different type of cocoon with two layers, where the inner layer consists of proteins from Malpighian tubules while the outer layer contains soil particles, is described. This type of cocoon is unique compared with those known from other hyperines, which usually pupate on or above the ground and do not use substrate particles in building their cocoons. PMID:27408538

  19. The morphology of the immature stages of Metadonus vuillefroyanus (Capiomont, 1868) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Hyperini) and notes on its biology.

    PubMed

    Skuhrovec, Jiří; Bogusch, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Last instar larva and pupa of Metadonus vuillefroyanus (Capiomont, 1868) (Curculionidae: Hyperini) are described and compared with known larvae of the other 43 hyperine taxa. The thorn-like setae located on distinct black protuberances on the larval body are characteristic features of the genus Metadonus and the subgenus Eririnomorphus of the genus Hypera. The biological singularity of this species was studied and described. The variable colouration of larvae has been confirmed in association with the variability of the host plant's colouration at the studied localities. This species' reported inability to spin cocoons has been disproven. A different type of cocoon with two layers, where the inner layer consists of proteins from Malpighian tubules while the outer layer contains soil particles, is described. This type of cocoon is unique compared with those known from other hyperines, which usually pupate on or above the ground and do not use substrate particles in building their cocoons. PMID:27408538

  20. How Far Can the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Fly?: Computerized Flight Mill Studies With Field-Captured Weevils.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, M S; Hoddle, C D; Faleiro, J R; El-Shafie, H A F; Jeske, D R; Sallam, A A

    2015-12-01

    Adult Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) captured in pheromone-baited traps in commercial date palm orchards in the Al Ahsaa Directorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were used in computerized flight mill studies to determine the flight characteristics of this highly invasive and destructive palm pest. Flight mill studies were run at three different time periods, winter (December), spring (March), and summer (May). Of the 192 weevils tethered to flight mills ∼30% failed to fly > 1 km. Of those weevils flying > 1 km (n = 139), 55% flew > 10 km, and of these flyers 5% flew > 50 km in 24 h. Flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of 20-30% and nonflying control weevils lost ∼9-13% body weight in 24 h. Male and female weevils flying in summer (average laboratory temperature was ∼27°C) flew the longest average distances (∼25-35 km), exhibited highest weight reductions (∼30%), and greatest mortality rates (∼80%). Consequently, time of year not weevil sex or color morph had a consistent and significant effect on flight activity, weight loss, and survivorship rates. Flight activity was predominantly diurnal commencing around 5:00 a.m. and peaking between 9-11:00 a.m. before tapering off. The distribution of flight distances combined across season and sex was mesokurtic (i.e., normally distributed).

  1. THE TYPES OF PALAEARCTIC HIPPORHININI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae) CONSERVED AT THE MUSÉUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE, PARIS.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Massimo; Perrin, Hélène

    2015-11-30

    The Palaearctic species of Curculionidae: Cyclominae: Hipporhinini conserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were critically revised in order to recognise the type specimens, select lectotypes or, where necessary, designate neotypes. Out of 135 species whose types were presumably preserved in the MNHN, original type specimens of 116 could be found. The holotypes of 21 species were available, either because originally designated as such, or because the species was unequivocally based on a single specimen; a paratype of another taxon, whose holotype is preserved in another collection, was also examined. The lectotypes of 93 species were designated, and a syntype of another species was also seen. Neotypes of 10 more species were designated, thus leading to a total number of species whose type is conserved at the MNHN to 126. Type specimens of five more species described by French authors, not present in the MNHN but conserved in other museums, were found as well and were included in the paper, with the further designation of three lectotypes. All types treated herein were labelled and photographed.

  2. A new species of Diapus Chapuis from South-West China and North Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae).

    PubMed

    Knížek, M; Beaver, R A; Liu, L-Y

    2015-01-01

    The genus Diapus Chapuis was erected (Chapuis 1865) for four species of pinhole borer (Curculionidae: Platypodinae) from the Oriental region and New Guinea. It was distinguished from other platypodine genera primarily by the widely separated procoxae (Chapuis 1865). Hopkins (1914) designated Diapus quadrispinatus Chapuis, 1865 as the type species of the genus. The genus is currently placed in the platypodine tribe Tesserocerini, subtribe Diapodina (Alonso-Zarazaga & Lyal 2009). Only two genera are included in the Diapodina, Diapus and Genyocerus Motschulsky (Alonso-Zarazaga & Lyal 2009, Jordal 2015). Diapus is distinguished from Genyocerus by the following characters (Wood 1993, Beaver & Liu 2007): 1. In Diapus, the scutellum is narrower and more sunken, not flush with the elytral surface posteriorly as it is in Genyocerus. 2. The mycangial pores of Diapus are sometimes fused to form a transverse or crescentic bar on each side of the midline of the pronotum. This does not occur in Genyocerus. 3. The antennal club of Diapus sometimes has a median testaceous strip lacking sensillae on the anterior face. This strip is never present in Genyocerus. 4. The males of Diapus never possess a membranous extension of the apical margin of the fourth abdominal ventrite, present in some species of Genyocerus. 5. The females of Diapus often bear deciduous mandibular appendages, which are never present in Genyocerus (Beaver & Liu 2007).

  3. Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Mayfield, Albert E; Fraedrich, Stephen W; Rabaglia, Robert J

    2008-08-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern United States responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., trees. In 2006 and 2007, we investigated the seasonal flight activity of X. glabratus, its host associations, and population levels at eight locations in South Carolina and Georgia where infestations ranged from very recent to at least several years old. Adults were active throughout the year with peak activity in early September. Brood development seems to take 50-60 d. Wood infested with beetles and infected with the Raffaelea sp. was similar in attraction to uninfested redbay wood, whereas both were more attractive than a nonhost species. Sassafras, Sassafras albidium (Nutt.) Nees, another species of Lauraceae, was not attractive to X. glabratus and very few beetle entrance holes were found in sassafras wood compared with redbay. Conversely, avocado, Persea americana Mill., was as attractive to X. glabratus as swampbay, P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and both were more attractive than the nonhost red maple, Acer rubrum L. However, avocado had relatively few entrance holes in the wood. In 2007, we compared X. glabratus populations in areas where all mature redbay have died to areas where infestations were very active and more recent. Trap catches of X. glabratus and numbers of entrance holes in trap bolts of redbay were correlated with the number of dead trees with leaves attached. Older infestations where mature host trees had been eliminated by the wilt had low numbers of beetles resulting in trap catches ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 beetles per trap per d compared with 4-7 beetles per trap per d in areas with numerous recently dead trees. Our results indicate beetle populations drop dramatically after suitable host material is gone and provide hope that management strategies can be developed to restore

  4. Responses of Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in behavioral assays: implications to development of a semiochemical-based tool for tree protection.

    PubMed

    Fettig, Christopher J; McKelvey, Stephen R; Dabney, Christopher P; Huber, Dezene P W

    2012-02-01

    Currently, techniques for managing western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), infestations are limited to tree removals (thinning) that reduce stand density and presumably host susceptibility, and/or the use of insecticides to protect individual trees. There continues to be significant interest in developing an effective semiochemical-based tool for protecting trees from D. brevicomis attack, largely as an alternative to conventional insecticides. The responses of D. brevicomis to tree volatiles and verbenone were documented in eight experiments (trapping assays) conducted over a 4-yr period in which 88,942 individuals were collected. Geraniol, a tree volatile unique to Pinus ponderosa that elicits female-specific antennal responses in D. brevicomis, did not affect D. brevicomis behavior. Blends of two green leaf alcohols [hexanol + (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol] tested at two release rates (5.0 and 100.0 mg/d) had no effect on the response of D. brevicomis to attractant-baited traps. A nine-component blend [benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, guaiacol, nonanal, salicylaldehyde, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (-) -verbenone; NAVV] and subsequent revisions of this blend disrupted the response of D. brevicomis to attractant-baited traps in all experiments. The inhibitory effect of a revised five-component blend [nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (-)-verbenone; NAVV5] on the response of mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae Hopkins, to attractant-baited traps was also documented. Acetophenone significantly reduced D. brevicomis attraction, but was not as effective as verbenone alone. Acetophenone increased the effectiveness of NAVV5 in one of two experiments. Furthermore, by adding acetophenone to NAVV5 we were able to remove the aldehydes from NAVV5 without compromising effectiveness, resulting in a novel four-component blend [acetophenone, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol + (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and

  5. Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Mayfield, Albert E; Fraedrich, Stephen W; Rabaglia, Robert J

    2008-08-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern United States responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., trees. In 2006 and 2007, we investigated the seasonal flight activity of X. glabratus, its host associations, and population levels at eight locations in South Carolina and Georgia where infestations ranged from very recent to at least several years old. Adults were active throughout the year with peak activity in early September. Brood development seems to take 50-60 d. Wood infested with beetles and infected with the Raffaelea sp. was similar in attraction to uninfested redbay wood, whereas both were more attractive than a nonhost species. Sassafras, Sassafras albidium (Nutt.) Nees, another species of Lauraceae, was not attractive to X. glabratus and very few beetle entrance holes were found in sassafras wood compared with redbay. Conversely, avocado, Persea americana Mill., was as attractive to X. glabratus as swampbay, P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and both were more attractive than the nonhost red maple, Acer rubrum L. However, avocado had relatively few entrance holes in the wood. In 2007, we compared X. glabratus populations in areas where all mature redbay have died to areas where infestations were very active and more recent. Trap catches of X. glabratus and numbers of entrance holes in trap bolts of redbay were correlated with the number of dead trees with leaves attached. Older infestations where mature host trees had been eliminated by the wilt had low numbers of beetles resulting in trap catches ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 beetles per trap per d compared with 4-7 beetles per trap per d in areas with numerous recently dead trees. Our results indicate beetle populations drop dramatically after suitable host material is gone and provide hope that management strategies can be developed to restore

  6. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Anthribidae, Brentidae, Dryophthoridae, Brachyceridae, and Curculionidae, with additions to the fauna of Quebec, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Anderson, Robert S.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report 63 species of Curculionoidea that are new to New Brunswick (three species of Anthribidae, four species of Brentidae, three species of Dryophthoridae, three species of Brachyceridae, 50 species of Curculionidae). Among these are 27 species (two Anthribidae, two Brenthidae, one Brachyceridae, 22 Curculionidae) that are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces, and one species, Plesiobaris disjuncta Casey (Curculionidae) that is newly recorded for Canada from New Brunswick and Quebec. Bagous planatus LeConte is reinstated to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Two species of Curculionidae are newly recorded from Nova Scotia and the Maritime provinces, and two others are reported for the first time for Prince Edward Island. PMID:22539901

  7. The morphology of the immature stages of two rare Lixus species (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Lixinae) and notes on their biology

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Filip; Stejskal, Robert; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mature larvae and pupae of Lixus (Ortholixus) bituberculatus Smreczyński, 1968 and Lixus (Dilixellus) neglectus Fremuth, 1983 (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Lixini) are described and compared with known larvae of 21 other Lixus and 2 Hypolixus taxa. The mature larva and pupa of Lixus bituberculatus are the first immature stages described representing the subgenus Ortholixus. The larva of Lixus neglectus, in the subgenus Dilixellus, is distinguished from the known larvae of four species in this subgenus by having more pigmented sclerites on the larval body. All descriptions of mature larvae from the tribe Lixini, as do all known species from the tribe Cleonini, fit the diagnosis of the mature larva of the Lixinae subfamily. Furthermore, new biological information of these species in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania is provided. For Lixus bituberculatus, a chicory, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), is identified as a host plant, and Lixus neglectus is found on dock Rumex thyrsiflorus Fingerh. (Polygonaceae). Both species are probably monophagous or oligophagous. Adults of Lixus bituberculatus often inhabit host plants growing in active, dry and sunny pastures with sparse patches without vegetation, being mostly active during the night in April/May and then again in September, when the highest activity levels are observed. Adults of Lixus neglectus inhabit dry grasslands on sandy soils with host plants, being active during the day from May to September, with the highest level of activity in May/June and September. The larvae of both species are borers in the stem and root of the host plant, and they pupate in root or root neck. Adults leave the pupation cells at the end of summer and do not hibernate in the host plants. Finally, Romania is a new geographic record for Lixus bituberculatus. PMID:27551208

  8. The morphology of the immature stages of two rare Lixus species (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Lixinae) and notes on their biology.

    PubMed

    Trnka, Filip; Stejskal, Robert; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The mature larvae and pupae of Lixus (Ortholixus) bituberculatus Smreczyński, 1968 and Lixus (Dilixellus) neglectus Fremuth, 1983 (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Lixini) are described and compared with known larvae of 21 other Lixus and 2 Hypolixus taxa. The mature larva and pupa of Lixus bituberculatus are the first immature stages described representing the subgenus Ortholixus. The larva of Lixus neglectus, in the subgenus Dilixellus, is distinguished from the known larvae of four species in this subgenus by having more pigmented sclerites on the larval body. All descriptions of mature larvae from the tribe Lixini, as do all known species from the tribe Cleonini, fit the diagnosis of the mature larva of the Lixinae subfamily. Furthermore, new biological information of these species in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania is provided. For Lixus bituberculatus, a chicory, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), is identified as a host plant, and Lixus neglectus is found on dock Rumex thyrsiflorus Fingerh. (Polygonaceae). Both species are probably monophagous or oligophagous. Adults of Lixus bituberculatus often inhabit host plants growing in active, dry and sunny pastures with sparse patches without vegetation, being mostly active during the night in April/May and then again in September, when the highest activity levels are observed. Adults of Lixus neglectus inhabit dry grasslands on sandy soils with host plants, being active during the day from May to September, with the highest level of activity in May/June and September. The larvae of both species are borers in the stem and root of the host plant, and they pupate in root or root neck. Adults leave the pupation cells at the end of summer and do not hibernate in the host plants. Finally, Romania is a new geographic record for Lixus bituberculatus. PMID:27551208

  9. Phylogenetic revision of Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. Jansen & Franz, 2015 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using taxonomic concept annotations and alignments.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M Andrew; Franz, Nico M

    2015-01-01

    This contribution adopts the taxonomic concept annotation and alignment approach. Accordingly, and where indicated, previous and newly inferred meanings of taxonomic names are individuated according to one specific source. Articulations among these concepts and pairwise, logically consistent alignments of original and revisionary classifications are also provided, in addition to conventional nomenclatural provenance information. A phylogenetic revision of the broad-nosed weevil genera Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982), and Piscatopus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) (Curculionidae [non-focal]: Entiminae [non-focal]: Tanymecini [non-focal]) is presented. Prior to this study, Minyomerus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) contained seven species, whereas the monotypic Piscatopus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) was comprised solely of Piscatopus griseus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982). We thoroughly redescribe these recognized species-level entities and furthermore describe ten species as new to science: Minyomerus bulbifrons sec. Jansen & Franz (2015) (henceforth: [JF2015]), sp. n., Minyomerus aeriballux [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus cracens [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus gravivultus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus imberbus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus reburrus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus politus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus puticulatus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015], sp. n., and Minyomerus trisetosus [JF2015], sp. n. A cladistic analysis using 46 morphological characters of 22 terminal taxa (5/17 outgroup/ingroup) yielded a single most-parsimonious cladogram (L = 82, CI = 65, RI = 82). The analysis strongly supports the monophyly of Minyomerus [JF2015] with eight unreversed synapomorphies, and places Piscatopus griseus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) within the genus as sister to Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015]. Accordingly, Piscatopus sec. Sleeper (1960), syn. n. is changed to junior synonymy of Minyomerus [JF2015], and

  10. Phylogenetic revision of Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. Jansen & Franz, 2015 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using taxonomic concept annotations and alignments

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, M. Andrew; Franz, Nico M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This contribution adopts the taxonomic concept annotation and alignment approach. Accordingly, and where indicated, previous and newly inferred meanings of taxonomic names are individuated according to one specific source. Articulations among these concepts and pairwise, logically consistent alignments of original and revisionary classifications are also provided, in addition to conventional nomenclatural provenance information. A phylogenetic revision of the broad-nosed weevil genera Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982), and Piscatopus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) (Curculionidae [non-focal]: Entiminae [non-focal]: Tanymecini [non-focal]) is presented. Prior to this study, Minyomerus sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) contained seven species, whereas the monotypic Piscatopus sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) was comprised solely of Piscatopus griseus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982). We thoroughly redescribe these recognized species-level entities and furthermore describe ten species as new to science: Minyomerus bulbifrons sec. Jansen & Franz (2015) (henceforth: [JF2015]), sp. n., Minyomerus aeriballux [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus cracens [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus gravivultus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus imberbus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus reburrus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus politus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus puticulatus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015], sp. n., and Minyomerus trisetosus [JF2015], sp. n. A cladistic analysis using 46 morphological characters of 22 terminal taxa (5/17 outgroup/ingroup) yielded a single most-parsimonious cladogram (L = 82, CI = 65, RI = 82). The analysis strongly supports the monophyly of Minyomerus [JF2015] with eight unreversed synapomorphies, and places Piscatopus griseus sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) within the genus as sister to Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015]. Accordingly, Piscatopus sec. Sleeper (1960), syn. n. is changed to junior synonymy of

  11. Phylogenetic revision of Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. Jansen & Franz, 2015 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using taxonomic concept annotations and alignments.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M Andrew; Franz, Nico M

    2015-01-01

    This contribution adopts the taxonomic concept annotation and alignment approach. Accordingly, and where indicated, previous and newly inferred meanings of taxonomic names are individuated according to one specific source. Articulations among these concepts and pairwise, logically consistent alignments of original and revisionary classifications are also provided, in addition to conventional nomenclatural provenance information. A phylogenetic revision of the broad-nosed weevil genera Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982), and Piscatopus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) (Curculionidae [non-focal]: Entiminae [non-focal]: Tanymecini [non-focal]) is presented. Prior to this study, Minyomerus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) contained seven species, whereas the monotypic Piscatopus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) was comprised solely of Piscatopus griseus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982). We thoroughly redescribe these recognized species-level entities and furthermore describe ten species as new to science: Minyomerus bulbifrons sec. Jansen & Franz (2015) (henceforth: [JF2015]), sp. n., Minyomerus aeriballux [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus cracens [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus gravivultus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus imberbus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus reburrus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus politus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus puticulatus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015], sp. n., and Minyomerus trisetosus [JF2015], sp. n. A cladistic analysis using 46 morphological characters of 22 terminal taxa (5/17 outgroup/ingroup) yielded a single most-parsimonious cladogram (L = 82, CI = 65, RI = 82). The analysis strongly supports the monophyly of Minyomerus [JF2015] with eight unreversed synapomorphies, and places Piscatopus griseus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) within the genus as sister to Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015]. Accordingly, Piscatopus sec. Sleeper (1960), syn. n. is changed to junior synonymy of Minyomerus [JF2015], and

  12. Survival of Seasonal Flooding in the Amazon by the Terrestrial Insect Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien & Couturier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a Pest of the Camu-Camu Plant, Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Delgado, C; Couturier, G; Fine, P V A

    2014-08-01

    The weevil Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien & Couturier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of an economically important Amazonian fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae). This tree grows in seasonally flooded environments, and how weevil larvae survive flooding has not been studied. From December 2004 to May 2009, five experiments were conducted in natural conditions and in the laboratory, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms that allow the survival of C. dubiae larvae in seasonal floods in Amazonia. The larvae of C. dubiae were kept under water for over 93 days. Older instars exposed to periodic circulation of water survived better than younger instars in addition to all larvae that were kept continuously under uncirculated water. Individuals that were collected from plots of M. dubia located in flooded soils and non-flooded soils did not exhibit statistically significant differences in their levels of survival indicating that the variation in survival of flooding events is due to phenotypic plasticity of the species and not to local adaptation by the populations in different environments. We speculate that larvae can survive floods without major physiological changes as larvae appear to obtain oxygen from water by cutaneous diffusion, assisted by caudal movements. PMID:27193817

  13. Evaluation of screen barriers on redbay trees to protect them from Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and distribution of initial attacks in relation to stem moisture content, diameter, and height.

    PubMed

    Maner, M Lake; Hanula, James L; Braman, S Kristine

    2013-08-01

    Fine mesh screen was used to create a physical barrier to prevent redbay ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), from accessing various parts of the boles of redbay trees, Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel, and infecting them with the laurel wilt fungus, Raffaelea lauricola (T.C. Harrington, Fraedrich, & Aghayeva). Screen barriers prevented beetles from attacking boles of mature redbay trees from the ground to 1 or to 3 m and from 1 to 3 m above ground. Untreated control trees were sampled more extensively to determine how location of initial attacks varied with height, diameter, and moisture content of the wood. Screening did not affect tree survival, and all of the trees died within 243 d from the beginning of observation. Initial points of attack by X. glabratus varied from ground level to heights of at least 6.6 m. Trees showed characteristic laurel wilt symptoms with as few as two X. glabratus entry points. The number of attacks exhibited nonlinear relationships with diameter (P = 0.0004; r2 = 0.82) and height (P = 0.0013; r2 = 0.69) but were not correlated with moisture content. Attacks increased gradually with increasing stem diameter up to approximately 10 cm after which the attacks became more numerous. X. glabratus attacks were most numerous on the tree bole near the ground. Attacks then declined as tree height reached 2-3 m. From 3 to 8 m, attacks were relatively consistent.

  14. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    PubMed

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. PMID:27231258

  15. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    PubMed

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed.

  16. Variation in C:N:S stoichiometry and nutrient storage related to body size in a holometabolous insect (Curculio davidi) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larva.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Small, Gaston E; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Donger; Li, Hongwang; Liu, Chunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Body size can be an important factor controlling consumer stoichiometry. In holometabolous insects, body size is typically associated with nutrient storage. Consumer stoichiometry is known to vary within species across a range of body sizes; however, the contribution of nutrient storage to this variation is not well understood. We used the fifth-instar larvae of the oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculio davidi Fairmaire), which is characterized by a high capacity for nutrient storage, to investigate the effect of shifts in nutrient storage with body mass on variations in larva stoichiometry. Our results showed that weevil larvae with larger body mass had a lower carbon (C) content, reflecting decreases in the sequestration rate of C-rich lipids. Larger larvae had elevated concentrations of nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and protein. The similar patterns of variation in elemental composition and macromolecule storage with body weight indicate that the shift in nutrient storage is the main factor causing the variation in larval stoichiometry with body weight. This finding was further supported by the low variation in residual larval biomass C, N, and S concentrations after lipid extraction. These results help decipher the physiological mechanism of stoichiometric regulation in growing organisms.

  17. Variation in C:N:S Stoichiometry and Nutrient Storage Related to Body Size in a Holometabolous Insect (Curculio davidi) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larva

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; Small, Gaston E.; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Donger; Li, Hongwang; Liu, Chunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Body size can be an important factor controlling consumer stoichiometry. In holometabolous insects, body size is typically associated with nutrient storage. Consumer stoichiometry is known to vary within species across a range of body sizes; however, the contribution of nutrient storage to this variation is not well understood. We used the fifth-instar larvae of the oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculio davidi Fairmaire), which is characterized by a high capacity for nutrient storage, to investigate the effect of shifts in nutrient storage with body mass on variations in larva stoichiometry. Our results showed that weevil larvae with larger body mass had a lower carbon (C) content, reflecting decreases in the sequestration rate of C-rich lipids. Larger larvae had elevated concentrations of nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and protein. The similar patterns of variation in elemental composition and macromolecule storage with body weight indicate that the shift in nutrient storage is the main factor causing the variation in larval stoichiometry with body weight. This finding was further supported by the low variation in residual larval biomass C, N, and S concentrations after lipid extraction. These results help decipher the physiological mechanism of stoichiometric regulation in growing organisms. PMID:25843579

  18. A Rapid Decision Sampling Plan for Implementing Area—Wide Management of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, in Coconut Plantations of India

    PubMed Central

    Faleiro, J. R.; Ashok Kumar, J.

    2008-01-01

    The red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Curculionidae/Rhynchophoridae/Dryophthoridae) is a lethal pest of young coconut palms, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), with a highly aggregated population distribution pattern. R. ferrugineus is managed in several coconut growing countries using area-wide pheromone based programmes that need a substantial commitment of funds over a period of time. Often, decisions to implement area-wide management of R. ferrugineus are based on pheromone trap captures in surveillance traps and or infestation reports. Implementing area-wide management of this pest on the basis of such data can be inaccurate, as it may either under or over estimate the pest intensity in the field. This study presents sampling plans for rapid and accurate classification of R. ferrugineus infestation in coconut plantations of India by inspecting palms to detect infestation in a sequence until a decision to either implement or not to initiate area-wide management of R. ferrugineus can be made. The sampling plans are based on a common aggregation index of 3.45, assumed action threshold values of either 1.0 (plan A) or 0.5 (plan B) per cent infested palms and a risk factor of making the wrong decision set at 0.05. Using plans A and B, if the cummulative number of infested palms in a young 1 hectare coconut plantation is zero out of 150 palms for both plans, then area-wide management is not required, while on the other hand, if the cummulative number of infested palms for the same area is 6 (plan A), or 5 (plan B), then area-wide management of R. ferrugineus is essential. The proposed sampling plans are efficient tools in decision making, particularly at very low and high levels of infestation and can also be used to assess the performance of R. ferrugineus IPM programmes that are in progress. These plans not only save time and money as only a small area needs to be sampled to arrive at a correct decision, but are also efficient in rating the

  19. A rapid decision sampling plan for implementing area-wide management of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, in coconut plantations of India.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, J R; Ashok Kumar, J

    2008-01-01

    The red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Curculionidae/Rhynchophoridae/Dryophthoridae) is a lethal pest of young coconut palms, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), with a highly aggregated population distribution pattern. R. ferrugineus is managed in several coconut growing countries using area-wide pheromone based programmes that need a substantial commitment of funds over a period of time. Often, decisions to implement area-wide management of R. ferrugineus are based on pheromone trap captures in surveillance traps and or infestation reports. Implementing area-wide management of this pest on the basis of such data can be inaccurate, as it may either under or over estimate the pest intensity in the field. This study presents sampling plans for rapid and accurate classification of R. ferrugineus infestation in coconut plantations of India by inspecting palms to detect infestation in a sequence until a decision to either implement or not to initiate area-wide management of R. ferrugineus can be made. The sampling plans are based on a common aggregation index of 3.45, assumed action threshold values of either 1.0 (plan A) or 0.5 (plan B) per cent infested palms and a risk factor of making the wrong decision set at 0.05. Using plans A and B, if the cumulative number of infested palms in a young 1 hectare coconut plantation is zero out of 150 palms for both plans, then area-wide management is not required, while on the other hand, if the cumulative number of infested palms for the same area is 6 (plan A), or 5 (plan B), then area-wide management of R. ferrugineus is essential. The proposed sampling plans are efficient tools in decision making, particularly at very low and high levels of infestation and can also be used to assess the performance of R. ferrugineus IPM programmes that are in progress. These plans not only save time and money as only a small area needs to be sampled to arrive at a correct decision, but are also efficient in rating the

  20. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P

    2013-01-01

    The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon - Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories - Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut - Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta - Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan - Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba - Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876; Scolytus schevyrewi

  1. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S.; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories – Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta – Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan – Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba – Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876

  2. Loranthus ferrugineus: a Mistletoe from Traditional Uses to Laboratory Bench

    PubMed Central

    Omar Z., Ameer; Ibrahim M., Salman; Ko Jin, Quek; Mohd. Z., Asmawi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Loranthus ferrugineus (L. ferrugineus) from Loranthaceae, a mistletoe, is a medicinal herb used for a variety of human ailments. Traditionally, decoctions of this parasitic shrub have been mainly used to treat high blood pressure (BP) and gastrointestinal complaints; usage which is supported by experimental based pharmacological investigations. Nonetheless, there is still limited data available evaluating this plant’s traditions, and few studies have been scientifically translated toward evidence based phytomedicine. We therefore provide a concise review of the currently available L. ferrugineus literature and discuss potential directions for future areas of investigation. Methods: We surveyed available literature covering ethnopharmacological usage of L. ferrugineus and discussed relevant findings, including important future directions and shortcomings for the medicinal values of this parasitic shrub. Results: Evidence based pharmacological approaches significantly covered the medicinal application of L. ferrugineus for hypertension and gastrointestinal complaint management, with a particular focus on the active hydrophilic extract of this herb. Conclusion: Understanding the sites of action of this plant and its beneficial effects will provide justification for its use in old traditional treatments, and potentially lead to the development of therapies. Other medicinal applicative areas of this parasitic shrub, such as wound healing, gerontological effects, and antiviral and anticancer activities, are yet to be researched. PMID:25830054

  3. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S.; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories – Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta – Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan – Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba – Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876

  4. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  5. A taxonomic monograph of Nearctic Scolytus Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sarah M.; Cognato, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Nearctic bark beetle genus Scolytus Geoffroy was revised based in part on a molecular and morphological phylogeny. Monophyly of the native species was tested using mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S, CAD, ArgK) genes and 43 morphological characters in parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Parsimony analyses of molecular and combined datasets provided mixed results while Bayesian analysis recovered most nodes with posterior probabilities >90%. Native hardwood- and conifer-feeding Scolytus species were recovered as paraphyletic. Native Nearctic species were recovered as paraphyletic with hardwood-feeding species sister to Palearctic hardwood-feeding species rather than to native conifer-feeding species. The Nearctic conifer-feeding species were monophyletic. Twenty-five species were recognized. Four new synonyms were discovered: Scolytus praeceps LeConte, 1868 (= Scolytus abietis Blackman, 1934; = Scolytus opacus Blackman, 1934), Scolytus reflexus Blackman, 1934 (= Scolytus virgatus Bright, 1972; = Scolytus wickhami Blackman, 1934). Two species were reinstated: Scolytus fiskei Blackman, 1934 and Scolytus silvaticus Bright, 1972. A diagnosis, description, distribution, host records and images were provided for each species and a key is presented to all species. PMID:25408617

  6. [Sexual dimorphism of guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)].

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Gilson; Bailez, Omar E; Viana-Bailez, Ana M

    2007-01-01

    We investigate structural and behavioral differences between male and female adults of guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii Marshall, 1922 to help in sex determination. Weevils collected from a commercial guava orchard were individually caged and maintained under laboratory conditions. Every day ten individuals were grouped and their behavior was observed. During mating the males and females were identified. Fifty weevils of each sex were killed and they were observed with stereoscopic microscope. The antenna insertion on the rostrum and hair on the thorax and abdomen surfaces were examined. Length and width of body, pronotum, last abdominal sternite and rostrum were also taken. Behaviorally, the male weevils produce audible sound by stridulation of abdomen while females do not. In the females, the body and pronotum width and body a rostrum length were higher than in the males, but the last abdominal sternite was smaller. Three other structural differences were visible with the naked eye: 1) the anterior region of pronotum have scarce hair or have not in the females and hair is dense in the males; 2) the last tergite of females is hidden by the penultimate tergite whereas in the males is visible; 3) the first abdominal sternite of females is more prominent, very convex and without or with little bristle. In the males it is slightly concave and with abundant hair. The male-female differences found in this work allow, without hurt or change insect behavior, an efficient sex determination of guava weevil. PMID:17934614

  7. Midgut morphophysiology in Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Géssica; Conte, Helio

    2013-08-01

    Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most aggressive pests of stored grains, causing a significant decrease in the nutritional quality of the grains and major losses in economic trade. The foraging capacity of this pest is assigned to its highly efficient digestive system. Investigations on the morphofunctional features of the midgut, which is the most active region of the alimentary canal, are fundamental to understand the feeding habits of this species. In this study, the midgut of adult insects was isolated, processed, and analyzed on light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, protein and enzymatic activities determination, including analyses of the starch hydrolysis products. In S. zeamais, the midgut was differentiated into anterior midgut and posterior midgut, and consisted of digestive, regenerative and endocrine cells. The anterior midgut showed high density of regenerative crypts. Cells containing organelles associated with protein synthesis and presence of amylases and lipases indicated that majority of the digestion process occurred in the anterior midgut. The posterior midgut exhibited numerous gastric caeca and peritrophic membrane. Cells with poorly differentiated cytoplasmic into organelles, elongated microvilli, and low enzymatic activities indicated that the posterior midgut was mainly involved in absorption.

  8. Vertical movement of adult rusty grain beetles, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, in stored corn and wheat at uniform moisture content.

    PubMed

    Jian, Fuji; Jayas, Digvir S; White, Noel D G

    2006-01-01

    Vertical movement and distribution of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) adults in stored wheat and corn were studied in small (0.1 x 0.1 x 1 m) and large (0.6 m diameter and 1.12 m high) columns. The adults were introduced at the top, middle, and bottom of the small columns with a uniform moisture content (wheat: 14.5 +/- 0.1%, corn 13.5 +/- 0.1%, 15.5 +/- 0.1%, and 17.5 +/- 0.1%) at 27.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C. When introduced at different locations, adults showed a similar distribution in stored grain bulk with a uniform temperature and moisture content of 14.5% for wheat or 15.5% for corn. Adults showed downward displacement over 24 h when corn moisture was lower than 15.5%, but they did not show downward displacement when moisture content was 17.5%. The upward or downward movement might partially be caused by a drift effect due to beetles sliding between seeds and the displacement of the adults might be the combined effect of walking and falling during their movement. The hydrophilic behavior plus the drift effect explain why the beetles had a faster downward dispersal in the 13.5% corn than in the 15.5% and 17.5% corn and a slight upward displacement in 17.5% corn because they were more active at the lower moisture contents. Adults had a similar movement and distribution in both the small and large wheat columns.

  9. Non-destructive equations to estimate the leaf area of Styrax pohlii and Styrax ferrugineus.

    PubMed

    Souza, M C; Habermann, G

    2014-02-01

    We developed linear equations to predict the leaf area (LA) of the species Styrax pohlii and Styrax ferrugineus using the width (W) and length (L) leaf dimensions. For both species the linear regression (Y=α+bX) using LA as a dependent variable vs. W × L as an independent variable was more efficient than linear regressions using L, W, L2 and W2 as independent variables. Therefore, the LA of S. pohlii can be estimated with the equation LA=0.582+0.683WL, while the LA of S. ferrugineus follows the equation LA=-0.666+0.704WL.

  10. Gastrointestinal and external parasites of Enicognathus ferrugineus and Enicognathus leptorhynchus (Aves, Psittacidae) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Valdebenito, José Osvaldo; Moreno, Lucila; Landaeta-Aqueveque, Carlos; Kinsella, John Mike; Mironov, Sergey; Cicchino, Armando; Troncoso, Ignacio; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Parasite species are important components of biodiversity, as they provide valuable information about host health, evolutionary relationships, population structures, trophic interactions, the existence of environmental stresses, and climatic conditions. With the aim of describing the parasites associated with parrots of the genus Enicognathus Gray 1840 from central Chile, thirteen austral parakeets, Enicognathus ferrugineus, and five slender-billed parakeets, E. leptorhynchus, were examined between September 2007 and March 2014. The prevalence of ectoparasites and endoparasites was 88.9% and 22.2%, respectively. On eleven of the E. ferrugineus (84.6%) analyzed, and on all of the E. leptorhynchus analyzed (100%), five feather mite species (Pararalichus hastifolia, Genoprotolichus major, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp.) were collected. On ten E. ferrugineus (76.9%) and two E. leptorhynchus (40%), the chewing lice Heteromenopon macrurum, Psittacobrossus patagoni, and Paragoniocotes enicognathidis were collected. The nematode Capillaria plagiaticia was collected from three E. ferrugineus (23.1%), and the nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita was found in one E. leptorhynchus (20%). The presence of C. plagiaticia, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp. from the two Enicognathus spp. are new records for Chile and represent new parasite-host associations. PMID:26648008

  11. Streptomyces ferrugineus sp. nov., isolated from mangrove soil in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chang-ying; Zhang, Li; Ye, Wan-wan; Xie, Xiu-chao; Srivibool, Rattanaporn; Duangmal, Kannika; Pathom-aree, Wasu; Deng, Zi-xin; Hong, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strain HV38(T) was isolated from mangrove soil, which was collected from Thailand. Chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics were found to be typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. The strain was found to form a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree and to be closely associated with the type strains of Streptomyces coeruleofuscus CGMCC 4.1667(T) (98.84 % sequence similarity), Streptomyces chromofuscus CGMCC 4.1451(T) (98.63 %) and Streptomyces albidoflavus CGMCC 4.1291(T) (98.56 %). The major menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H10). Its major cellular fatty acids were found to be iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:1ω8c, C16:0, anteiso-C16:1ω8c, iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C16:0. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain HV38(T) with S. coeruleofuscus CGMCC 4.1667(T), S. chromofuscus CGMCC 4.1451(T) and S. albidoflavus CGMCC 4.1291(T) were 32.7 ± 0.9, 21.8 ± 0.3 and 19.9 ± 0.9 %, respectively, which clearly supported the conclusion that they belong to separate genomic species. Cumulatively, the data indicated that strain HV38(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces ferrugineus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HV38(T) (=CCTCC AA2014009(T )= DSM 42152(T)). PMID:25331336

  12. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  13. Contact Toxicity of Deltamethrin Against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Adults.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, S; Opit, G P; Arthur, F H; Bingham, G V; Gautam, S G

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, to evaluate the response to deltamethrin concentrations for adults of three stored-product insects, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). In insect toxicological studies, knockdown is the state of intoxication and partial paralysis as a result of exposure to an insecticide. Deltamethrin concentrations ranging from 0.48 to 140 mg/m(2) (1 to 3,000 ppm) were sprayed on glass Petri dishes. After the dishes dried, 20 adult insects of each species were placed on the treated dishes to determine the contact toxicity of deltamethrin. Assessments for knockdown were made at 15-min intervals for up to 8 h after initial exposure and then again after 24 or 48 h. Insects were then transferred to clean untreated Petri dishes with diet and observed from 0.5 to 72 h. Mortality was assessed 72 h after transfer to untreated dishes with food material. Deltamethrin was highly effective against all three species tested and achieved 99% knockdown of insects of all species within 4 h after exposure at concentrations ≥1.2 mg/m(2) Although some insects recovered from initial knockdown at concentrations ≤48 mg/m(2), nearly all the insects were killed at 140 mg/m(2) when exposed for 48 h. LC95 values for all species tested, for the 48-h exposure period, were <140 mg/m(2), the concentration of deltamethrin that could potentially be present in new ZeroFly Storage Bag fabric. ZeroFly bags are used for stored-product insect pest control.

  14. Contact Toxicity of Deltamethrin Against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Adults.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, S; Opit, G P; Arthur, F H; Bingham, G V; Gautam, S G

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, to evaluate the response to deltamethrin concentrations for adults of three stored-product insects, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). In insect toxicological studies, knockdown is the state of intoxication and partial paralysis as a result of exposure to an insecticide. Deltamethrin concentrations ranging from 0.48 to 140 mg/m(2) (1 to 3,000 ppm) were sprayed on glass Petri dishes. After the dishes dried, 20 adult insects of each species were placed on the treated dishes to determine the contact toxicity of deltamethrin. Assessments for knockdown were made at 15-min intervals for up to 8 h after initial exposure and then again after 24 or 48 h. Insects were then transferred to clean untreated Petri dishes with diet and observed from 0.5 to 72 h. Mortality was assessed 72 h after transfer to untreated dishes with food material. Deltamethrin was highly effective against all three species tested and achieved 99% knockdown of insects of all species within 4 h after exposure at concentrations ≥1.2 mg/m(2) Although some insects recovered from initial knockdown at concentrations ≤48 mg/m(2), nearly all the insects were killed at 140 mg/m(2) when exposed for 48 h. LC95 values for all species tested, for the 48-h exposure period, were <140 mg/m(2), the concentration of deltamethrin that could potentially be present in new ZeroFly Storage Bag fabric. ZeroFly bags are used for stored-product insect pest control. PMID:27270576

  15. Contact toxicity of deltamethrin against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate deltamethrin-incorporated ZeroFly® Storage Bags for efficacy against stored-product insect pests. We evaluated response to deltamethrin concentrations for adults of three stored-product insects, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Rhyzoperth...

  16. Taxonomic redescription and biological notes on Diaugia angusta (Diptera, Tachinidae): parasitoid of the palm boring weevils Metamasius ensirostris and M. hemipterus (Coleoptera, Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Pavarini, Ronaldo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Diaugia angusta Perty, 1833 is a Neotropical species of Tachinidae (Diptera) reported here as a parasitoid of Metamasius ensirostris (Germar, 1824) and Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) in Brazil. Several species of Dryophthoridae and Curculionidae cause damage to bromeliad and palm species, and most are regarded as pests. In the present study, the male and female of Diaugia angusta are morphologically characterized and illustrated to provide a means for the identification of this parasitoid. Data obtained from preliminary field research show that natural parasitism of Metamasius pupae by Diaugia angusta varies by year but can reach nearly 30%. A network of parasitoid-host interactions among tachinid parasitoids and coleopteran hosts reported as bromeliad and palm pests (Dryophthoridae and Curculionidae) in the Americas indicates that the species of the tribe Dexiini sensu lato (including Diaugia angusta) might be promising as biological control agents of these pests. PMID:21594164

  17. Identification of pheromone synergists for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus trapping systems from Phoenix canariensis palm volatiles.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; Abad-Payá, María; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2014-07-01

    Trapping systems for the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, rely on the use of natural plant odor sources to boost the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone. The identification of the key odorants involved in attraction is essential in the development of a synthetic pheromone synergist to replace the nonstandardized use of plant material in traps. Canary Islands date palms (Phoenix canariensis) have become preferred hosts for R. ferrugineus in Europe; thus, the volatile profile of different P. canariensis plant materials, including healthy and infested tissues, is investigated in the present work by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC-MS), aimed to identify pheromone synergists. The electroantennography (EAG) response of the compounds identified was recorded, as well as the preliminary field response of several EAG-active compounds. The so-called "palm esters" (ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, and propyl butyrate) elicit the strongest EAG responses but performed poorly in the field. Mixtures of esters and alcohols give evidence of better performance, but release rates need further optimization. PMID:24930773

  18. Identification of pheromone synergists for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus trapping systems from Phoenix canariensis palm volatiles.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; Abad-Payá, María; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2014-07-01

    Trapping systems for the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, rely on the use of natural plant odor sources to boost the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone. The identification of the key odorants involved in attraction is essential in the development of a synthetic pheromone synergist to replace the nonstandardized use of plant material in traps. Canary Islands date palms (Phoenix canariensis) have become preferred hosts for R. ferrugineus in Europe; thus, the volatile profile of different P. canariensis plant materials, including healthy and infested tissues, is investigated in the present work by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC-MS), aimed to identify pheromone synergists. The electroantennography (EAG) response of the compounds identified was recorded, as well as the preliminary field response of several EAG-active compounds. The so-called "palm esters" (ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, and propyl butyrate) elicit the strongest EAG responses but performed poorly in the field. Mixtures of esters and alcohols give evidence of better performance, but release rates need further optimization.

  19. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. I. Select beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionoidea excluding Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Danielle M.; Schnepp, Kyle E.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Ozark Mountains are a region with high endemism and biodiversity, yet few invertebrate inventories have been made and few sites extensively studied. We surveyed a site near Steel Creek Campground, along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas, using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction for eight and half months. New information We provide collection records of beetle species belonging to eight families collected at the site. Thirty one species represent new state records: (Buprestidae) Actenodes acornis, Agrilus cephalicus, Agrilus ohioensis, Agrilus paracelti, Taphrocerus nicolayi; (Carabidae) Agonum punctiforme, Synuchus impunctatus; (Curculionidae) Acalles clavatus, Acalles minutissimus, Acoptus suturalis, Anthonomus juniperinus, Anametis granulata, Idiostethus subcalvus, Eudociminus mannerheimii, Madarellus undulatus, Magdalis armicollis, Magdalis barbita, Mecinus pascuorum, Myrmex chevrolatii, Myrmex myrmex, Nicentrus lecontei, Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus, Piazorhinus pictus, Phyllotrox ferrugineus, Plocamus hispidulus, Pseudobaris nigrina, Pseudopentarthrum simplex, Rhinoncus pericarpius, Sitona lineatus, Stenoscelis brevis, Tomolips quericola. Additionally, three endemic carabids, two of which are known only from the type series, were collected. PMID:26752967

  20. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  1. Attaching lures to multiple-funnel traps targeting saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) in pine stands: inside or outside funnels?

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel R; Crowe, Christopher M; Barnes, Brittany F; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Duerr, Donald A

    2013-02-01

    We conducted two field trapping experiments with multiple-funnel traps in 2008 and one experiment in 2010 to determine the effects of lure placement (inside or outside funnels) on catches of saproxylic species of beetles (Coleoptera). The experiments were conducted in southern pine (Pinus spp.) stands in central Georgia using combinations of ethanol, alpha-pinene, ipsenol, and ipsdienol lures. We report on a modification to the multiple-funnel trap that allows placement of large lures inside the confines of the funnels with minimal blockage. In general, catches of five species of common longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae), two species of regeneration weevils (Curculionidae), four species of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and seven species of beetle predators and ectoparasites (Cleridae, Histeridae, Tenebrionidae, Trogossitidae, and Zopheridae) were higher in funnel traps with lures attached inside the funnels than in those with lures attached outside of the funnels. Catches of the remaining species were unaffected by lure placement. In no instance were catches of any species lower in funnel traps with lures attached inside the funnels than in those with lures attached outside of the funnels. For most species, catches in modified funnel traps with ethanol, alpha-pinene, ipsenol, and ipsdienol lures attached inside funnels were comparable with those in cross-vane panel traps.

  2. Host suitability analysis of the bark beetle Scolytus amygdali (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Zeiri, A; Ahmed, M Z; Braham, M; Qiu, B-L

    2015-08-01

    Scolytus amygdali is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on fruit trees and forest trees. Our study assessed the host preference and reproductive potential of S. amygdali on four tree species: almond (Prunus dulcis), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica). Females of S. amygdali produced maternal galleries that were longer on peach than the other three trees, and female fecundity was highest on peach. Females with longer maternal galleries produced more eggs, indicating a positive correlation between maternal gallery length and female fertility. The under-bark development time of S. amygdali is significantly shorter on plum (45 days) and almond (56 days) than on apricot (65 days) and peach (64 days). Despite this longer development time on peach, our results still suggest that, of the four types of tree tested, peach is the most preferred host for S. amygdali.

  3. Moreiba gen. n., a new Canarian genus in Laparocerini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus Moreiba is described for Strophosoma canariense Franz, 1995 (type species) and placed in Laparocerini. It differs from Laparocerus Schoenherr, 1834 by the small size, the strongly transverse rostrum, the dense longitudinal strigosity on head and rostrum, the body covered by dense, adpressed scales and short, semierect subspatulate to parallel setae, the slender antennae with bisinuate scape and short oval club, the granulate pronotum and all tibiae lacking a mucro in both sexes. Moreiba canariensis (Franz, 1995), comb. n., is the only described species, distributed in El Hierro and Gran Canaria. The tribal placement of the genera Aphyonotus Faust, 1895, Asmaratrox Heller, 1909, Straticus Pascoe, 1886 and Cyrtozemia Pascoe, 1872 is discussed. PMID:24146559

  4. Biological Control of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. T.; Georgis, R.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Miller, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) strain A11, S. feltiae (Filipjev) strain SN, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar strains HP88 and Georgia were tested for their efficacy as biological control agents of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), in pecan orchard soil-profile containers under greenhouse conditions. Percentage C. caryae parasitism by S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora strain HP88 and Georgia was consistently poor when applied either prior to or following C. caryae entry into the soil, suggesting that these nematode species and (or) their enterobacteria are poor biological control agents of weevil larvae. Soil taken 21 days following application of S. carpocapsae or H. bacteriophora strain HP88 induced a low rate of infection of Galleria mellonella larvae, whereas soil that had been similarily treated with H. bacteriophora strain Georgia induced a moderate rate of infection. Percentage C. caryae parasitism by S. feltiae was consistently low when applied following C. caryae entry into the soil and was inconsistent when applied as a barrier prior to entry of weevil larvae into the soil. Soil taken 21 days following application of S. feltiae induced a high rate of infection of G. mellonella larvae. PMID:19279746

  5. Phytosanitation Methods Influence Posttreatment Colonization of Juglans nigra Logs by Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Audley, J; Mayfield, A E; Myers, S W; Taylor, A; Klingeman, W E

    2016-02-01

    Several North American walnut species (Juglans spp.) are threatened by thousand cankers disease which is caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and its associated fungal plant pathogen, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarík, E. Freeland, C. Utley and N. Tisserat sp. nov. Spread of this disease may occur via movement of infested black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) wood. This study evaluated the ability of P. juglandis to colonize J. nigra wood previously treated with various phytosanitation methods. Steam-heated and methyl bromide-fumigated J. nigra logs, as well as kiln-dried natural wane J. nigra lumber (with and without bark) were subsequently exposed to P. juglandis colonization pressure in two exposure scenarios. Following a pheromone-mediated, high-pressure scenario in the canopy of infested trees, beetles readily colonized the bark of steam-heated and methyl bromide-fumigated logs, and were also recovered from kiln-dried lumber on which a thin strip of bark was retained. In the simulated lumberyard exposure experiment, during which samples were exposed to lower P. juglandis populations, beetles were again recovered from bark-on steam-heated logs, but were not recovered from kiln-dried bark-on lumber. These data suggest logs and bark-on lumber treated with phytosanitation methods should not be subsequently exposed to P. juglandis populations. Further beetle exclusion efforts for phytosanitized, bark-on walnut wood products transported out of quarantined areas may be necessary to ensure that these products do not serve as a pathway for the spread of P. juglandis and thousand cankers disease.

  6. Does White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abundance in Temperate Pastures Determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Populations?

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, Mark R.; van Koten, Chikako; Cave, Vanessa M.; Chapman, David; Hodgson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012–2015 were 310, 38, 59, and 31 larvae m-2, respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3, and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October) larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April) found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012–2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted, but the numbers came closer to predicted for the 2013 and 2014 populations. These differences are attributed to a CRW population decline that was not accounted by % white clover changes, the CRW decline most likely due to biological control by the Braconid endoparasitoid Microctonus aethiopoides, which showed incremental increases in parasitism between 2012 and 2015, which in 2015 averaged 93%. PMID:27695472

  7. Dispersal of Warren root collar weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in three types of habitat.

    PubMed

    Machial, Laura A; Lindgren, B Staffan; Steenweg, Robin W; Aukema, Brian H

    2012-06-01

    Warren root collar weevil, Hylobius warreni Wood, is a native, flightless insect distributed throughout the boreal forest of North America. It is an emerging problem in young plantings of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia, in western Canada, where larval feeding can kill young trees by girdling the root collar. Susceptible plantings are becoming more abundant following salvage harvesting and replanting activities in the wake of an ongoing epidemic of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Hopkins). Previous studies using mark-trap-recapture methods found that movement rates of adult H. warreni were elevated in areas with high numbers of dead trees, consistent with a hypothesis that the insects immigrate from stands with high mountain pine beetle-caused tree mortality to young plantings in search of live hosts. Sampling methods were necessarily biased to insects captured in traps; however, potentially missing individuals that had died, left the study area, or simply remained stationary. Here, we used harmonic radar to examine weevil movement in three different habitats: open field, forest edge, and within a forest. We were able to reliably monitor all but two of 36 insects initially released, over 96 h (4 d). Weevils released in the open field had the highest rates of movement, followed by weevils released at the forest edge, then weevils released within the forest. Movement declined with decreasing ambient air temperature. Our results suggest that weevils tend to be relatively stationary in areas of live hosts, and hence may concentrate in a suitable area once such habitat is found. PMID:22732616

  8. Antennal sensilla of the pine weevil Pissodes nitidus Roel. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Shan-Chun; Meng, Zhao-Jun; Peng, Lu; Liu, Dan

    2011-05-01

    The antennal sensilla of the pine weevil (Pissodes nitidus Roel.) were observed with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The weevil antenna consists of a long scape, a pedicel, and a flagellum with 10 segments; the last four flagellum segments are fused, forming the antennal club, which is densely covered by various sensilla. In both sexes, six types of sensilla, sensilla palmate 1-4, sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichoid, sensilla basiconic 1-2, sensilla rod-like 1-3, sensilla falciform, were identified. Sensilla palmate represent a unique sensillum type in the Pissodes genus, and named here after their palmate shape, also represent the most abundant sensillum type. The TEM analysis of sensilla palmate represents the first such analysis of this sensillum type, and we speculate that the sensilla have an olfactory function. The sensilla trichoid and chaetica were evenly distributed on the three or four hair bands of the club, with much lower numbers than the palmate sensilla. No significant sexual differences in the types, numbers, and distribution of the antennal sensilla were found except for the size. TEM observation indicated that sensilla chaetica and trichoid may function as olfactory sensors. The putative functions of other sensilla type were also discussed with reference to their morphology, distribution, and ultrastructure.

  9. Two species of Cleonini new for Pakistan and new synonymies Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Lixinae).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Meregalli, Massimo; Fatima, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The superfamily Curculionoidea contains over 60,000 described species worldwide (Oberprieler et al. 2007). Knowledge of their distribution is still incomplete, with particular regard for several poorly or not yet completely investigated countries. Moreover, a large number of unidentified specimens of various geographical origin are conserved in museums throughout the world, and further unpublished data for many species can be recovered from the study of public and private collections. PMID:27615914

  10. Occurrence of Microsporidium sp. and other pathogens in Ips amitinus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Holuša, Jaroslav; Lukášová, Karolina; Žižka, Zdenek; Händel, Uwe; Haidler, Bernhard; Wegensteiner, Rudolf

    2016-09-01

    A new microsporidium is reported from the small spruce bark beetle, Ips amitinus: Microsporidium sp. with uninucleate oval spores measuring 3.5 × 2.5 μm; infecting cells of the midgut epithelium, midgut muscles, the fat body, the Malpighian tubules, and the gonads of adult beetles collected in Austria. Seven other pathogens were found in beetles collected from Austria, the Czech Republic, and Finland. Six of them were already known from I. amitinus. Nosema cf. typographi is recorded for the first time in the overwintering generation of I. amitinus from the Czech Republic. PMID:27447229

  11. A taxonomic monograph of the genus Tylodinus Champion (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae: Tylodina) of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Luna-Cozar, Jesús; Anderson, Robert S; Jones, Robert W; León-Corté, Jorge L

    2014-04-15

    The species of the genus Tylodinus from the Mexican state of Chiapas are revised. We examined 989 specimens representing 36 species; 23 species are grouped into eight species groups with 13 species considered as Incertae sedis. A total of 32 species are described as new and one species is a new record for México. Species groups  (numbers of species in parentheses) and species are: Tylodinus buchanani species group (6) T. buchanani new species (type locality: Chiapas, Unión Juárez, Volcán Tacan), T. exiguus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, 7 km SSW Motozintla de Mendoza), T. ixchel new species (type locality: Chiapas, Unión Juarez, Volcán Tacan), T. jonesi new species (type locality: Chiapas, Angel Albino Corzo, Reserva de la Biosfera el Triunfo, Campamento el Quetzal), T. variabilis new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec), T. wibmeri new species (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, 7 km SSW Motozintla de Mendoza); Tylodinus canaliculatus species group (3) T. canaliculatus Champion (Chiapas, Unión Juárez, Volcán Tacan, new record for  México), T. sepulturaensis new species (Type locality: Chiapas, Villa Corzo, Ejido Sierra Morena), T. triumforium new species (Type locality: Chiapas, La Concordia, 4 km SE Custepec); Tylodinus cavicrus species group (3) T. cavicrus Champion, T. pseudocavicrus new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec), T. rugosus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Flores, Sierra Morena); Tylodinus coapillensis species group (2) T. coapillensis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Coapilla, ca. 10.5 km NE Coapilla), T. leoncortesi new species (type locality: Chiapas, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacán, La Yerbabuena); Tylodinus mutabilis species group (2) Tylodinus mutabilis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Corzo, Ejido Sierra Morena), T. parvus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Trinitaria, Lagunas de Montebello); Tylodinus nodulosus species group (3) T. andersoni new species (Chiapas, Ángel Albino Corzo, Reserva El Triunfo, Polígono 1), T. nodulosus (Boheman), T. zilchi Kuschel; Tylodinus pusillus species group (2) T. porvenirensis new species (type locality: Chiapas, El Porvenir, El Porvenir (2 km NE)), T. pusillus new species (type locality: Chiapas, 4 km SE Custepec); Tylodinus spiniventris species group (2) T. lum new species (Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec), and T. spiniventris new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Reserva Huitepec); Incertae sedis (13) T. pinguis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Ángel Albino Corzo, Reserva El Triunfo, Polígono 1) , T. kissingeri new species (type locality: Chiapas, Tapalapa, ca. 14 km NE Coapilla), T. complicatus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacán, La Yerbabuena), T. dominicus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Corzo, Reserva de la Biósfera La Sepultura), T. noctis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Coapilla, ca. 10.5 km NE Coapilla), T. rufus new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec); T. branstetteri new species (type locality: Chiapas, La Concordia, 4 km SE Custepec), T. kuscheli new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Flores, Ejido Sierra Morena), T. pappi new species (type locality: Chiapas, Unión Juárez, Volcán Tacan), T. gibbosus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacán, Yerbabuena Reserve), T. immundus new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas Cerro Huitepec), T. intzin new species (type locality: Chiapas, Tenejapa, Yashanal), T. elongatus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Ángel Albino Corzo, Reserva El Triunfo, Polígono 1). Three species (T. nodulosus (Boheman), T. zilchi Kuschel and T. cavicrus Champion) are not known to occur in Chiapas but were included in this study to be more representative of inter- and intraspecific variation and to provide a better definition of the taxonomic limits of species and species groups.        Species groups are characterized and taxonomic composition and general distribution and ecological correlates summarized. Diagnoses and distributions are given for all species and ecological information is presented where available. Immature stages, life history and food habits are not known for any of the species. 

  12. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications, primarily carbaryl and pyrethroids (e.g., cypermethrin). Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic...

  13. Take me to your leader: does early successional nonhost vegetation spatially inhibit Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Jordan M; De La Giroday, Honey-Marie C; Lindgren, B Staffan; Aukema, Brian H

    2009-08-01

    The spatial influences of host and nonhost trees and shrubs on the colonization patterns of white pine weevil Pissodes strobi (Peck) were studied within a stand of planted interior hybrid spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii (Parry) ex Engelm.]. Planted spruce accounted for one third of all trees within the stand, whereas the remaining two thirds were comprised of early-successional nonhost vegetation, such as alder (Alnus spp.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black cottonwood [Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa (T. Ng.) Brayshaw], lodgepole pine [Pinus contorta (Dougl.) ex Loud.], trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), willow (Salix spp.), and Canadian buffaloberry [Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.]. Unlike the spruce trees, nonhost vegetation in the stand was not uniformly distributed. Spatial point process models showed that Canadian buffaloberry, paper birch, black cottonwoood, and trembling aspen had negative associations with damage caused by the weevil, even though the density of the insects' hosts in these areas did not change. Moreover, knowing the locations of these nonhost trees provided as much, or more, inference about the locations of weevil-attacked trees as knowing the locations of suitable or preferred host trees (i.e., those larger in size). Nonhost volatiles, the alteration of soil composition, and overstory shade are discussed as potential explanatory factors for the patterns observed. New research avenues are suggested to determine whether nonhost vegetation in early successional stands might be an additional tool in the management of these insects in commercially important forests.

  14. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap distance from cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Once populations of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) are suppressed, eradication programs rely on pheromone trap-based monitoring for timely detection of weevil populations in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Delayed detection may increase the costs of remedial treatments, and permit rep...

  15. Boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) continue to release pheromone following host removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  16. Host plant recognition by the root feeding clover weevil, Sitona lepidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, S N; Gregory, P J; Murray, P J; Zhang, X; Young, I M

    2004-10-01

    This study investigated the ability of neonatal larvae of the root-feeding weevil, Sitona lepidus Gyllenhal, to locate white clover Trifolium repens L. (Fabaceae) roots growing in soil and to distinguish them from the roots of other species of clover and a co-occurring grass species. Choice experiments used a combination of invasive techniques and the novel technique of high resolution X-ray microtomography to non-invasively track larval movement in the soil towards plant roots. Burrowing distances towards roots of different plant species were also examined. Newly hatched S. lepidus recognized T. repens roots and moved preferentially towards them when given a choice of roots of subterranean clover, Trifolium subterraneum L. (Fabaceae), strawberry clover Trifolium fragiferum L. (Fabaceae), or perennial ryegrass Lolium perenneL. (Poaceae). Larvae recognized T. repens roots, whether released in groups of five or singly, when released 25 mm (meso-scale recognition) or 60 mm (macro-scale recognition) away from plant roots. There was no statistically significant difference in movement rates of larvae.

  17. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Ayres, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  18. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  19. Movement of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Ornamental Nurseries and Surrounding Habitats.

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M; Sampson, Blair J; Werle, Christopher T; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Some exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental nurseries. Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) is the most problematic ambrosia beetle in Ohio nurseries. Movement of X. germanus in nurseries has not been characterized, and knowledge is lacking on whether infestations originate from within nurseries or surrounding habitats. Flight activity of X. germanus was monitored in nurseries and adjacent wooded areas to determine the source of beetles infesting nurseries, and characterize their movement within nurseries. Ethanol-baited bottle traps were positioned within wooded areas adjacent to commercial nurseries and within nurseries at various distances from the nursery woodlot interface. Flight activity of overwintered X. germanus occurred in wooded areas adjacent to nurseries before occurrence within nurseries. There was a direct relationship between degree-days and the distance from woodlots when X. germanus were first found in traps in spring, with earlier captures closest to wooded areas and latest ones furthest away into the nursery. X. germanus appeared to move into nurseries from adjacent wooded areas, with numbers trapped within nurseries decreasing with distance away from wooded areas. Trees in the interior of nurseries would appear to be subjected to less attack pressure than trees near the nursery border. Intercepting beetles as they move into nurseries might be an effective strategy to reduce attack pressure on valuable trees.

  20. Review of Odontocorynus Schonherr (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Baridinae) with descriptions of four new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odontocorynus Schönherr is revised and transferred from Madopterini, Zygobaridina to Madarini, Leptoschoinina (new placement). The various species included occur from southern Canada to Costa Rica, but are absent on the Pacific side of the Rocky Mountains. Previous records from Brazil are rejected, ...

  1. The new genus Pheude (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cossoninae) with description of a new species from mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Youssef M.; Zhang, Runzhi; Davis, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new weevil, Pheude punctatus gen. et sp. n., of the tribe Dryotribini in Cossoninae, is described from Guangdong Province, South China. It differs from the related genera Dryotribus Horn and Microtribodes Morimoto in having antennae with seven articles and a distinct scutellum, and from Ochronanus Pascoe and Stenomimus Wollaston in having long antennae, a rostrum with a medio-longitudinal furrow beginning at the posterior margin of the eyes and extending approximately midway on the rostrum, and a moderately elevated, medio-longitudinal carina extending the full length of the pronotum. Other diagnostic characters and illustrations are provided. A key to the genera of Dryotribini known from China is given. PMID:25610334

  2. Does White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abundance in Temperate Pastures Determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Populations?

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, Mark R.; van Koten, Chikako; Cave, Vanessa M.; Chapman, David; Hodgson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012–2015 were 310, 38, 59, and 31 larvae m-2, respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3, and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October) larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April) found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012–2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted, but the numbers came closer to predicted for the 2013 and 2014 populations. These differences are attributed to a CRW population decline that was not accounted by % white clover changes, the CRW decline most likely due to biological control by the Braconid endoparasitoid Microctonus aethiopoides, which showed incremental increases in parasitism between 2012 and 2015, which in 2015 averaged 93%.

  3. Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) captures using colored traps in southeast Tennessee and south Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetles have become a major problem for nursery production, with controls centered around an accurate monitoring program. While the use of semiochemicals by ambrosia beetles is well understood, their potential use of visual cues including color remains relatively understudied. Field tests...

  4. Do Phoretic Mites Influence the Reproductive Success of Ips grandicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-12-01

    Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff) can be an important pest of plantation trees in the Great Lakes region. Mites commonly occur in phoretic association with this beetle, but little is known about their effects on beetle population dynamics. We assessed the effects of phoretic mites on the reproductive success of I. grandicollis using complementary correlative and manipulative approaches. First, we allowed beetles to colonize Pinus resinosa (Ait) logs from sites across Wisconsin, reared them in a common environment, and related the species identities and abundances of mites with beetle production from each log. We found a positive relationship between I. grandicollis abundance and the presence of five mite species, Histiostoma spp., Dendrolaelaps quadrisetus (Berlese), Iponemus confusus (Lindquist), Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann, and Tarsonemus spp. While the abundance of individual mite species was positively correlated with beetle abundance, assessments of mite community structure did not explain beetle reproduction. Next, we introduced beetles that either had a natural complement of mites or whose mites were mechanically reduced into logs, and compared reproductive success between these beetles. We found no difference in colonization rates or beetle emergence between mite-present and mite-reduced treatments. Collectively, these results suggest a correlative, rather than causal, link between beetle reproductive success and mite incidence and abundances. These mites and beetles likely benefit from mutually suitable environments rather than exerting strong reciprocal impacts. Although mites may have some effects on I. grandicollis reproductive success, they likely play a minimal role compared to factors such as tree quality, beetle predation, and weather.

  5. Three new species of Anchylorhynchus Schoenherr, 1836 from Colombia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae; Curculioninae; Acalyptini).

    PubMed

    De Medeiros, Bruno A S; Núñez-Avellaneda, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Anchylorhynchus from Colombia, are described: Anchylorhynchus pinocchio sp. nov., A. centrosquainatus sp. nov. and A. luteobrunneus sp. nov.. A morphological description, including the male genitalia, is provided for each species as well as a comparison with similar species within the genus. All three species are found in inflorescences of species of Syagrus Mart. (Arecaceae). The adults are pollinators and the larvae develop inside fruits and feed on the endosperm, interrupting seed formation and causing fruit abortion.

  6. Ecologia quimica y expansion geografica del gorgojo polifago Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), has been a pest of citrus and ornamental plants since its introduction into Lake County, FL in 1964. Since then, it has colonized the Florida peninsula to the south of its point of introduction, but has not expanded its range to the north. A lowe...

  7. A new species of Sicoderus Vanin from Bolivia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Otidocephalini).

    PubMed

    Vanin, Sergio A; De Medeiros, Bruno A S

    2013-11-04

    Sicoderus robini sp. nov. (type locality: Bolivia, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Buena Vista, El Cairo) is described and illustrated. The new species is assigned to the Sicoderus appendiculatus species group, compared with similar species of the group and with the two other species of Sicoderus that occur in Bolivia. The previously published key for species identification of the S. appendiculatus group is updated to include the new species.

  8. Evidence of contact pheromone use in mating behavior of the raspberry weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Palma, Rubén; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-02-01

    Numerous studies of insect species have shown that a subset of female cuticular hydrocarbons is used as short-range or contact pheromones. Here, we studied the possible use of contact pheromones in the mating behavior of the weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus, a native species of Chile. Males mounted females only after antennal contact with the female's cuticle, and only 33% of the males attempted to mate with dead females washed with solvent. When a glass rod (dummy) was coated with female cuticular extracts, males exhibited behaviors similar to those observed with females. A preliminary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of cuticular extracts indicated that males and females share a series of aliphatic hydrocarbons but that the relative abundance of some of these compounds differ between the sexes. These results suggest that cuticular lipids mediate mating behavior of the raspberry weevil and provide the first evidence of contact pheromones in curculionids.

  9. Coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): searching for sustainable control strategies.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, J; Borgemeister, C; Baker, P

    2006-06-01

    The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious pest of the world's most valuable tropical export crop. Since the last review on this insect was published six years ago, many new studies have contributed to an improved insight into the biology and ecology of the beetle, and have indicated new avenues for integrated and biological control. The latest developments in research, both laboratory and field, on the pest, its natural enemies and their implications for integrated control of H. hampei are summarized, with a particular focus on the situation in The Americas. Lately, the global coffee industry has changed radically; it has suffered a long cycle of lowest-ever world market prices caused by overproduction and technological change. At the same time, the advent of sustainable certification schemes has had a major impact on the industry. The role of integrated pest management and biological control of H. hampei in an era of changes in the coffee industry is discussed.

  10. A new genus and nine new species of Eugnomini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Miłosz A

    2016-01-01

    The genus Rasilinus gen. n. is described (type species Rasilinus tchambicus sp. n.). Nine new species: Rasilinus bicolor sp. n., Rasilinus bifurcatus sp. n., Rasilinus bimaculatus sp. n., Rasilinus grandidens sp. n., Rasilinus longulus sp. n., Rasilinus subgemellus sp. n., Rasilinus subnodulus sp. n., Rasilinus tchambicus sp. n., Rasilinus virgatus sp. n. are described from New Caledonia. Illustrations of the external morphology, male and female terminalia, dorsal habitus colour photographs of the adults, key to species and distribution map of the new genus Rasilinus are provided. PMID:26877681

  11. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Héctor A; Herle, Carolyn E; Lupwayi, Newton Z

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs. PMID:26106086

  12. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Orientation and Distance From Brush Lines.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-04-01

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestation. Therefore, improvements in the effectiveness of trapping would enhance efforts to achieve and maintain eradication. Association of pheromone traps with woodlots and other prominent vegetation are reported to increase captures of weevils, but the spatial scale over which this effect occurs is unknown. The influences of trap distance (0, 10, and 20 m) and orientation (leeward or windward) to brush lines on boll weevil captures were examined during three noncropping seasons (October to February) in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Differences in numbers of captured weevils and in the probability of capture between traps at 10 or 20 m from brush, although often statistically significant, were generally small and variable. Variations in boll weevil population levels, wind directions, and wind speeds apparently contributed to this variability. In contrast, traps closely associated with brush (0 m) generally captured larger numbers of weevils, and offered a higher probability of weevil capture compared with traps away from brush. These increases in the probability of weevil capture were as high as 30%. Such increases in the ability of traps to detect low-level boll weevil populations indicate trap placement with respect to prominent vegetation is an important consideration in maximizing the effectiveness of trap-based monitoring for the boll weevil. PMID:26719592

  13. Development-inhibiting activity of some tropical plants against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Haque; Nakakita; Ikenaga; Sota

    2000-07-01

    Thirteen tropical plants were evaluated for development-inhibiting activity against Sitophilus zeamais. The bioassays were carried out by incorporating seeds or leaves at various dose levels into an artificial diet for the test insect. It was found that seeds of Basella alba and leaves of Operculina turpethum and Calotropis gigantea were potent in delaying development and in reducing adult emergence, and hence the capacity for population increase. At 0.5% concentration, adult emergence in tests with B. alba, O. turpethum and C. gigantea was reduced by 62, 95 and 70%, respectively. In B. alba and C. gigantea, the development periods were 2.2 and 1.8 times those in the control and the capacities for increase/day were only 0.0324 and 0.0328 compared with 0.1004 in the control. B. alba, O. turpethum and C. gigantea were active at concentrations as low as 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1%. The potential of these materials in insect pest management is discussed.

  14. A new genus and nine new species of Eugnomini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Miłosz A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Rasilinus gen. n. is described (type species Rasilinus tchambicus sp. n.). Nine new species: Rasilinus bicolor sp. n., Rasilinus bifurcatus sp. n., Rasilinus bimaculatus sp. n., Rasilinus grandidens sp. n., Rasilinus longulus sp. n., Rasilinus subgemellus sp. n., Rasilinus subnodulus sp. n., Rasilinus tchambicus sp. n., Rasilinus virgatus sp. n. are described from New Caledonia. Illustrations of the external morphology, male and female terminalia, dorsal habitus colour photographs of the adults, key to species and distribution map of the new genus Rasilinus are provided. PMID:26877681

  15. Effects of soil moisture and temperature on overwintering survival of Curculio larvae (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Weckerly, F.W.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Few studies to date have investigated factors, other than mast crop size, that influence the dynamics of Curculio populations.W e examined the effects of varying levels of soil moisture (0.35, 0.4 and 0.5 g water/g soil) and temperature (8, 14 and 20 C) on over wintering survival of Curculio larvae collected from Quercus michauxii acorns. Survival of larvae, analyzed using log-linear analysis, was adversely affected by soil moisture but not by soil temperature. Larvae that overwinter in drier soil may have higher probabilities of successfully metamorphosing.

  16. New records for Euhrychiopsis Lecontei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their densities in Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jester, L.L.; Bozek, Michael A.; Sheldon, S.P.; Helsel, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The native aquatic weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei is currently being researched as a potential biological control for the exotic aquatic macrophyte Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), yet little is known about its specific distribution in North America. In this study, E. lecontei was collected in 25 of 27 lakes surveyed for the weevil in Wisconsin, greatly increasing the known distribution of the species in this state. E. lecontei densities evaluated in 14 Wisconsin lakes ranged from <0.01 to 1.91 weevils per apical stem of milfoil. These new records indicate that E. lecontei is widespread throughout Wisconsin and is associated with natural declines of M. spicatum in some lakes. Additional sampling for E. lecontei and research on its ecology and life history are needed to understand the role of this organism in aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Beauveria bassiana strains for biological control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in plantain.

    PubMed

    Fancelli, Marilene; Dias, Alex Batista; Delalibera, Italo; de Jesus, Sandra Cerqueira; do Nascimento, Antonio Souza; Silva, Sebastião de Oliveira e; Caldas, Ranulfo Correa; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) in plantain farms (cv. Terra) of the "Recôncavo" and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416) were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4 g/trap) and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months. PMID:24187659

  18. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Smicronyx Sodidus, the Gray Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gray sunflower seed weevil (GSSW) Smicronyx sordidus, native to North America, is one of the major seed pests of cultivated sunflowers in the Central and Northern Great Plains. The larvae of GSSW feed on the kernels of the sunflower seeds, and may cause severe damage to this economically importa...

  19. Egg distribution and sampling of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on silver buttonwood

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, J.E.; Mannion, C.; Amalin, D.; Hunsberger, A.

    2007-03-15

    Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression were used to analyze spatial distribution of eggs of the Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), on silver buttonwood trees, Conocarpus erectus, during 1997 and 1998. Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression provided similar descriptions of variance-mean relationship for egg distribution within trees. Sample size requirements were determined. Information presented in this paper should help to improve accuracy and efficiency in sampling of the weevil eggs in the future. (author) [Spanish] Se utilizaron la ley de Taylor y la regresion de Iwao para analizar la distribucion de los huevos del picudo Diaprepes, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) en arboles de boton plateado, Conocarpus erectus. Los estudios fueron realizados durante 1997 y 1998. Tanto la ley de Taylor como la regression de Iwao dieron resultados similares en cuanto a la relacion de la varianza y el promedio para la distribucion de huevos del picudo en los arboles. Se determinaron los requerimentos del tamano del numero de muestras. En un futuro, la informacion que se presenta en este articulo puede ayudar a mejorar la eficiencia del muestreo de huevos de este picudo. (author)

  20. Comparative morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla on Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The non-native ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) are destructive pests of plants and trees growing in ornamental nurseries and tree fruit orchards. Olfaction plays an important role in aiding female X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in locat...

  1. Interactions Between the Bud Rot Disease of Oil Palm and Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; de Sousa Ramalho, Francisco; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) causes great losses to the oil palm plantations, and therefore, the spatial and temporal distribution of this insect should be studied, to manage its populations. Insect sampling was done for 2 yr in an oil palm plantation from Colombia. In total, 60 pheromone traps were used in healthy palm trees and infected ones with the Bud Rot disease. On the other hand, developmental stages of this insect were quantified on healthy and diseased palms for two consecutive years. Number of adult R. palmarum per sampling was higher in the plantation with diseased palm trees, 3.85 and 74.7 insects per trap, than in those with healthy ones, 1.91 and 9.48 insects per trap, in the first and second years, respectively. After the integration of pheromone traps, there was a significant increase in the infestation level at all stages of development of the insect. For the first time, the presence of R. palmarum attracted to diseased palms is reported. The association between R. palmarum and the Bud Rot disease is a cause of death and great loss to the oil palm plantations.

  2. Ethyl Formate: A Potential Disinfestation Treatment for Eucalyptus Weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Apples.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manjree; Ren, Yonglin; Newman, James; Learmonth, Stewart

    2015-12-01

    Export of Pink Lady apples from Australia has been significantly affected by infestations of adult eucalyptus weevils (Gonipterus platensis Marelli). These weevils cling tenaciously to the pedicel of apple fruit when selecting overwintering sites. As a result, apples infested with live G. platensis adults lead to rejection for export. Since the Montreal Protocol restricted use of methyl bromide as postharvest treatment, it was necessary to consider alternative safer fumigants for disinfestation of eucalyptus weevil. Laboratory experiments were conducted using concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 80 mg/liter of ethyl formate. Complete control (100% mortality) was achieved at 25-30 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure without apples. However, with 90-95% of the volume full of apples, complete control was achieved at 40 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure. No phytotoxicity was observed and after one day aeration, residue of ethyl formate declined to natural levels (0.05-0.2 mg/kg). Five ethyl formate field trials were conducted in cool storages (capacity from 250-900 tons) and 100% kill of eucalyptus weevils were achieved at 50-55 mg/liter at 7-10°C for 24 h. Ethyl formate has great potential for preshipment treatment of apples. Its use is considerably cheaper and safer than already existing fumigants like methyl bromide and phosphine.

  3. New subgenus and new species of Oriental Omophorus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Molytinae, Metatygini)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiliang; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Ren, Li; Zhang, Runzhi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Omophorus Schoenherr, 1835 is recorded for the first time from the Oriental Region and a new subgenus and species, Omophorus (Sinomophorus subgen. n.) rongshu sp. n. is described from Yunnan province (P.R. China). The new subgenus differs from the subgenus Omophorus by the longer antennal club, the bifid vestiture of the ventral parts, the elongate subtrapezoidal scutellum, the very small size of sclerotizations in the endophallus, the absence of styli in the ovipositor and the absence of the spiculum ventrale on the VIII female sternite, and from the subgenus Pangomophorus Voss, 1960 by the developed metatibial uncus and the lack of a subhumeral tubercle. A detailed description and figures are provided to allow interpretation of characters in ongoing phylogenetic analyses. PMID:21594097

  4. Morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ali, S A I; Diakite, M M; Ali, S; Wang, M-Q

    2016-08-01

    Sensilla are sense organs in insects, typically consisting of a group of cuticle or epidermal cells that appear as hairs or rod-shaped structures. Sensilla serve as the functional elements of sensory systems. The goal of this study was to determine the type and distribution of sensilla in the antennae of Sitophilus granarius (L.) using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is one of the first studies in which the morphology and distribution patterns of sensilla on antennal segments of male and female S. granarius have been investigated using SEM, followed by TEM. Different morphological sensilla types, including two sensilla basiconica (SB) types, with two subtypes, four sensilla coeloconica (SC) types and five sensilla chaetica (SCH) types, with one subtype, have been identified on S. granarius antennae, whose external structure and shape are peculiar. TEM micrographs of SB on the antennae of S. granarius are characterized by strongly corrugated pores around the cuticle, while micrographs of SC longitudinal sections showed flat-tipped and smooth-surfaced pegs bearing an apical pore that is suggestive of a gustatory function. TEM micrographs of SCH longitudinal sections showed dendrite branches and cuticular pore arrow heads that may be involved in the perception of humidity, temperature, heat and CO2. Because SCH of different sizes were distributed around the head and rostrum, these may function as contact-chemoreceptors .These results are discussed in relation to the possible roles of the sensilla types in the host location behavior of S. granarius. PMID:27019274

  5. Conophthorin enhances the electroantennogram and field behavioral response of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol acts as a long range cue that aids Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) in locating living, but weakened trees. Conophthorin is associated with a variety of deciduous trees and enhances X. germanus’ attraction to vulnerable trees. Electroantennogram (EAG) and field trapping experiments were cond...

  6. Phytosanitation Methods Influence Posttreatment Colonization of Juglans nigra Logs by Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Audley, J; Mayfield, A E; Myers, S W; Taylor, A; Klingeman, W E

    2016-02-01

    Several North American walnut species (Juglans spp.) are threatened by thousand cankers disease which is caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and its associated fungal plant pathogen, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarík, E. Freeland, C. Utley and N. Tisserat sp. nov. Spread of this disease may occur via movement of infested black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) wood. This study evaluated the ability of P. juglandis to colonize J. nigra wood previously treated with various phytosanitation methods. Steam-heated and methyl bromide-fumigated J. nigra logs, as well as kiln-dried natural wane J. nigra lumber (with and without bark) were subsequently exposed to P. juglandis colonization pressure in two exposure scenarios. Following a pheromone-mediated, high-pressure scenario in the canopy of infested trees, beetles readily colonized the bark of steam-heated and methyl bromide-fumigated logs, and were also recovered from kiln-dried lumber on which a thin strip of bark was retained. In the simulated lumberyard exposure experiment, during which samples were exposed to lower P. juglandis populations, beetles were again recovered from bark-on steam-heated logs, but were not recovered from kiln-dried bark-on lumber. These data suggest logs and bark-on lumber treated with phytosanitation methods should not be subsequently exposed to P. juglandis populations. Further beetle exclusion efforts for phytosanitized, bark-on walnut wood products transported out of quarantined areas may be necessary to ensure that these products do not serve as a pathway for the spread of P. juglandis and thousand cankers disease. PMID:26318005

  7. Movement of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in ornamental nurseries and surrounding habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental nurseries. Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) is the most problematic ambrosia beetle in Ohio nurseries. Movement of X. germanus in nurseries has not been characterized, and knowledge is lacking on whether infestations originate from within nu...

  8. How Far Can the Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Fly?

    PubMed

    Hoddle, M S; Hoddle, C D

    2016-04-01

    The palm weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, is native to Southeast Asia and was recovered from an infested Canary Islands date palm in Laguna Beach, California, USA, in 2010. The detection of this potentially destructive palm pest initiated a detection, containment, and eradication program that was reliant, in part, on the deployment of bucket traps loaded with aggregation pheromone and baited with fermenting fruit. A key question that pertained to the deployment of traps was “how far can R. vulneratus fly?” This question could not be answered and in response to this knowledge deficit, computerized flight mill studies were conducted with field-captured R. vulneratus in an outdoor screen house in Sumatra, Indonesia. Of the 63 weevils tethered to flight mills, ∼27% failed to fly >1 km in 24 h and were excluded from analyses. In total, 46 weevils (35 females and 11 males) flew >1 km on flight mills and of these adults, the average total distance flown in 24 h was significantly greater for females (∼32 km) when compared with males (∼15 km). A small proportion of females (∼16%) flew 50-80 km, and one female flew 100.1 km in 24 h. Flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of ∼13–17% and non-flying control weevils (n=27) lost 10–13% body weight in 24 h. The distribution of flight distances for female and male weevils combined was leptokurtic, which suggests that faster than expected spread by R. vulneratus may be possible in invaded areas. PMID:26791820

  9. Imaging and automated detection of Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pupae in hard red winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Toews, Michael D; Pearson, Tom C; Campbell, James F

    2006-04-01

    Computed tomography, an imaging technique commonly used for diagnosing internal human health ailments, uses multiple x-rays and sophisticated software to recreate a cross-sectional representation of a subject. The use of this technique to image hard red winter wheat, Triticum aestivm L., samples infested with pupae of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) was investigated. A software program was developed to rapidly recognize and quantify the infested kernels. Samples were imaged in a 7.6-cm (o.d.) plastic tube containing 0, 50, or 100 infested kernels per kg of wheat. Interkernel spaces were filled with corn oil so as to increase the contrast between voids inside kernels and voids among kernels. Automated image processing, using a custom C language software program, was conducted separately on each 100 g portion of the prepared samples. The average detection accuracy in the five infested kernels per 100-g samples was 94.4 +/- 7.3% (mean +/- SD, n = 10), whereas the average detection accuracy in the 10 infested kernels per 100-g sample was 87.3 +/- 7.9% (n = 10). Detection accuracy in the 10 infested kernels per 100-g samples was slightly less than the five infested kernels per 100-g samples because of some infested kernels overlapping with each other or air bubbles in the oil. A mean of 1.2 +/- 0.9 (n = 10) bubbles (per tube) was incorrectly classed as infested kernels in replicates containing no infested kernels. In light of these positive results, future studies should be conducted using additional grains, insect species, and life stages.

  10. Anoxia tolerance and anaerobic metabolism in two tropical weevil species (Coleoptera, Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Kölsch, G

    2001-10-01

    Although the two curculionid beetle species Cosmopolites sordidus and Temnoschoita nigroplagiata are found in the same habitat (banana plantation), they differ with respect to their microhabitat preference and thereby in their risk of being submerged after rain. The physiological characteristics of the two species that might be important in this context were investigated. As expected, C. sordidus is more resistant to submergence (faster recovery, lower mortality: 30% after 9 days submergence at 20 degrees C); this can be attributed to a generally lower metabolic rate, higher glycogen reserves (135 micromol glycosyl units x g FW(-1)) and a moderate lactate production under anoxia. In T. nigroplagiata, the glycogen reserves are almost completely depleted after 1 day submergence at 20 degrees C and a higher proportion of this glycogen can recovered as lactate (16%). During submergence, the adenylate energy charge falls in both species to 0.2 or below, whereas the total adenine nucleotide content decreases only slowly, especially in C. sordidus.

  11. Four new species of Trigonopterus Fauvel from the island of New Britain (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Van Dam, Matthew H.; Laufa, Raymond; Riedel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The hyperdiverse genus Trigonopterus has its center of diversity in Melanesia, but only a single species is recorded from the Bismarck Archipelago to date. Here we describe four new species from the island of New Britain: Trigonopterus chewbacca sp. n., Trigonopterus obsidianus sp. n., Trigonopterus puncticollis sp. n. and Trigonopterus silaliensis sp. n. We provide cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) sequences of the new species and a key to all five species known from the Bismarck Archipelago. PMID:27199589

  12. A synopsis of the scolytine ambrosia beetles of Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Beaver, R A; Sittichaya, W; Liu, L-Y

    2014-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of the scolytine ambrosia beetles of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry, timber production and crop tree plantations. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host tree and altitudinal preferences of species are discussed. One hundred and sixty-one species are recorded from Thailand, 67 of them for the first time. The following new synonym is proposed: Euwallacea wallacei (Blandford) (= Xyleborus barbatomorphus Schedl n.syn.). The following new combinations are given: Ambrosiophilus cristatulus (Schedl), Ambrosiophilus latisulcatus (Eggers), Beaverium dihingensis (Eggers), Beaverium lantanae (Eggers) and Immanus desectus (Eggers) are transferred from their present position in Ambrosiodmus; Ancipitis depressus (Eggers) and Ancipitis punctatissimus (Eichhoff) are transferred from Leptoxyleborus; Cyclorhipidion armipenne (Schedl), Cyclorhipidion inarmatum (Eggers), Euwallacea semiermis (Schedl), Fortiborus macropterus (Schedl), Microperus nudibrevis (Schedl) and Wallacellus minutus (Blandford) are transferred from Xyleborus. PMID:25544343

  13. A new species of Oromia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Machado, Antonio; López, Heriberto

    2015-01-01

    The weevil Oromia thoracica n. sp. from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) is described and compared to its closest allies. It can easily be distinguished by less sculptured elytra, its differently shaped antennal scrobe, and by the pronotum not constricted anteriorly and expanded over the head. Some ecological data are also provided, and considerations on the fauna occurring in the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS) from the locality of this new species are made. Additional records and comments on other Oromia species as well as an identification key to the species of the genus are given. PMID:25781818

  14. Artificial diet optimized to produce normative adults of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect diets are often complex mixtures of vitamins, salts, preservatives, and nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins). To determine the effect of varying the doses of multiple components, the traditional approach requires large factorial experiments resulting in very large numbers of treat...

  15. Chemical control of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesting avocado (Persea americana) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three trials were undertaken to determine the effectiveness of insecticides against Scolytinae infesting avocado between 2010 and 2011. These included contact and systemic insecticides applied either to trees or to avocado logs. Efficacy of the insecticides was determined either by the number of ent...

  16. Odor-baited trap trees: a new approach to monitoring plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Prokopy, Ronald J; Chandler, Bradley W; Dynok, Sara A; Piñero, Jaime C

    2003-06-01

    We compared a trap approach with a trap-tree approach to determine the need and timing of insecticide applications against overwintered adult plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst.), in commercial apple orchards in Massachusetts in 2002. All traps and trap trees were baited with benzaldehyde (attractive fruit odor) plus grandisoic acid (attractive pheromone). Sticky clear Plexiglas panel traps placed at orchard borders, designed to intercept adults immigrating from border areas by flight, captured significantly more adults than similarly placed black pyramid traps, which are designed to capture adults immigrating primarily by crawling, or Circle traps wrapped around trunks of perimeter-row trees, which are designed to intercept adults crawling up tree trunks. None of these trap types, however, exhibited amounts of captures that correlated significantly with either weekly or season-long amounts of fresh ovipositional injury to fruit by adults. Hence, none appears to offer high promise as a tool for effectively monitoring the seasonal course of plum curculio injury to apples in commercial orchards in Massachusetts. In contrast, baiting branches of selected perimeter-row trees with benzaldehyde plus grandisoic acid led to significant aggregation (14-15-fold) of ovipositional injury, markedly facilitating monitoring of the seasonal course of injury to apples. A concurrent experiment revealed that addition of other synthetic fruit odor attractants to apple trees baited with benzaldehyde plus grandisoic acid did not enhance aggregation of ovipositional injury above that of this dual combination. We conclude that monitoring apples on odor-baited trap trees for fresh ovipositional injury could be a useful new approach for determining need and timing of insecticide application against plum curculio in commercial orchards.

  17. The effect of temperature on survival of Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Luna, E K; Sitz, R A; Cranshaw, W S; Tisserat, N A

    2013-10-01

    The walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) vectors Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in Juglans, and is particularly damaging to Juglans nigra L. (black walnut). Native hosts of P. juglandis are distributed in the southwestern United States where winter temperatures tend to be higher than those found within the native range of black walnut. To better understand temperature effects on survival of P. juglandis, we initiated studies to determine: 1) seasonal variations in cold tolerance, as measured by the supercooling point (SCP), and 2) upper and lower lethal temperatures (LT). In the lower LT study, Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeberg) was tested for comparison. Insects were either exposed to increasing or decreasing temperatures and then checked for survival. Upper and lower LTs were estimated using a logistic model. For the SCP study, data were grouped into seasons. Seasonal mean SCPs were highest in summer (-15.4°C) and lowest in fall (-18.1°C). The upper lethal limit estimations required to kill 99% of the population (LT99) for adults and larvae were 52.7 and 48.1°C, respectively, and lower limit LT99 estimations for adults and larvae were -18.1 and -18.7°C, respectively. The lower median LT (LT50) of X. saxeseni was -24.7°C. These studies, as well as beetle survival in infested Colorado trees where temperatures reached -29°C in February 2011, suggest P. juglandis could survive the winter in much of the native range of black walnut, but may be limited in trees where temperatures regularly exceed the lower LT. PMID:24331619

  18. Fungal Associates of the Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) Are Spatially Segregated on the Insect Body.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Craig; Šigut, Martin; Skelton, James; Smith, Katherine E; Hulcr, Jiri

    2016-08-01

    Studies of symbioses have traditionally focused on explaining one-to-one interactions between organisms. In reality, symbioses are often much more dynamic. They can involve many interacting members, and change depending on context. In studies of the ambrosia symbiosis-the mutualism between wood borer beetles and fungi-two variables have introduced uncertainty when explaining interactions: imprecise symbiont identification, and disregard for anatomical complexity of the insects. The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff, is a globally invasive ambrosia beetle that infests >200 plant species. Despite many studies on this beetle, reports of its primary symbionts are conflicting. We sampled adult X. compactus and infested plant material in central Florida to characterize the fungal symbiont community using dilution series, beetle partitioning, and DNA-based identification. X. compactus was consistently associated with two fungal taxa, Fusarium spp. and Ambrosiella xylebori Multivariate analyses revealed that A. xylebori was strongly associated with the beetle mycangium while Fusarium spp. were associated with the abdomen and external surfaces. The Fusarium spp. carried by X. compactus are not members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade, and are probably not mutualists. Fungal community composition of the mycangium was less variable than external body surfaces, thus providing a more consistent fungal inoculum. This is the first report of spatial partitioning as a mechanism for maintenance of a multimember ambrosia fungus community. Our results provide an explanation for discrepancies among previous reports, and suggest that conflicting results are not due to differences in symbiont communities, but due to inconsistent and incomplete sampling. PMID:27357160

  19. A synopsis of the pin-hole borers of Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae).

    PubMed

    Beaver, R A; Liu, L Y

    2013-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of the pin-hole borers of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry and timber production. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host preferences of species are discussed. Ninety-two species have now been recorded in Thailand, of which forty-three are recorded here for the first time. Three species are endemic to Thailand. The following new combinations are given: Dinoplatypus piniperda (Schedl), Treptoplatypusfulgens (Schedl), both transferred from Platypus. PMID:26213774

  20. A review of the genus Carchesiopygus Schedl (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae), with keys to species.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Roger A; Sanguansub, Sunisa

    2015-01-01

    The ten species included by Schedl (1972) in the Oriental platypodine genus Carchesiopygus Schedl are reviewed. The genus is rediagnosed and restricted to the following species: Carchesiopygus wollastoni (Chapuis) (type species), C. alternantes Schedl, C. assamensis (Beeson), C. impariporus (Beeson), C. multidentatus (Strohmeyer) and C. oculatus (Beeson), and distinguished from Crossotarsus Chapuis and related genera. The following species are transferred to Platypus Herbst: Carchesiopygus dentipennis Schedl, Carchesiopygus lobacanthus Schedl, Crossotarsus acanthurus Beeson, Crossotarsus psilacanthurus Beeson. Keys are provided to males and females of Carchesiopygus. The taxonomy, distribution and biology of the species are briefly reviewed, and some new records included. PMID:25781834

  1. Temperature extremes, density dependence, and southern pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) population dynamics in east Texas.

    PubMed

    Friedenberg, Nicholas A; Sarkar, Sudipta; Kouchoukos, Nicholas; Billings, Ronald F; Ayres, Matthew P

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm., established that its population in east Texas responds to a delayed density-dependent process, whereas no clear role of climate has been determined. We tested two biological hypotheses for the influence of extreme temperatures on annual southern pine beetle population growth in the context of four alternative hypotheses for density-dependent population regulation. The significance of climate variables and their interaction with population regulation depended on the model of density dependence. The best model included both direct and delayed density dependence of a cubic rather than linear form. Population growth declined with the number of days exceeding 32 degrees C, temperatures previously reported to reduce brood survival. Density dependence also changed with the number of hot days. Growth was highest in years with average minimum winter temperatures. Severely cold winters may reduce survival, whereas warm winters may reduce the efficiency of spring infestation formation. Whereas most previous studies have incorporated climate as an additive effect on growth, we found that the form of delayed density dependence changed with the number of days >32 degrees C. The interaction between temperature and regulation, a potentially common phenomenon in ecology, may explain why southern pine beetle outbreaks do not occur at perfectly regular intervals. Factors other than climate, such as forest management and direct suppression, may have contributed significantly to the timing, severity, and eventual cessation of outbreaks since the mid-1950s.

  2. Early-season colonization patterns of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Central Texas cotton.

    PubMed

    Reardon, B J; Spurgeon, D W

    2003-04-01

    It is commonly believed that colonization of early-season cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., by overwintered boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is concentrated on field margins. However, supporting experimental evidence is not available. In 1999 and 2000, we examined colonization patterns of overwintered boll weevils in Central Texas cotton on the bases of adult collections by a pneumatic sampler and hand collections of abscised infested squares. Samples were taken from sites arranged in a grid that extended inward >70 m from the field margin. Adults were collected from shortly after seedling emergence until the flowering stage, and infested squares were collected during the one-third grown square stage. Despite numerical trends, the numbers of adult weevils collected were not significantly different between years or sexes, or among plant phenological stages. Field-to-field variation among collections was considerable and likely prevented detection of differences among these factors. Spatial patterns represented by adult weevil and infested square collections were examined by logistic regressions fitted to the respective probabilities of weevil detection at each designated sample site. Although we observed trends for slightly decreased probability of weevil detection with increased distance from the field margin, these trends were too weak to be demonstrated statistically. Our results indicate the boll weevil does not consistently exhibit a strong edge-oriented colonization pattern, and that management tactics that are predicated on these patterns, such as border sprays, should be used with caution.

  3. An Electroantennogram Technique for the Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable electroantennogram (EAG) responses were obtained from the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), by using a whole-body mount with glass electrodes filled with KCl saturated AgCl solution that penetrated the antennal club (recording electrode) and the membrane attached to the cervic...

  4. [Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes].

    PubMed

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F; Dantas, Jorge L L; Morales, Cinara F G; Caldas, Ranulfo C

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lenghtwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil on V. cauliflora.

  5. New species and records of Cactopinus Schwarz with a key to species (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    H. Atkinson, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Three new species in the genus Cactopinus Schwarz are described from Mexico and the U.S., bringing the total of known species to 21. New host and distribution records and a new key to species are included. PMID:21594169

  6. Beauveria bassiana strains for biological control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in plantain.

    PubMed

    Fancelli, Marilene; Dias, Alex Batista; Delalibera, Italo; de Jesus, Sandra Cerqueira; do Nascimento, Antonio Souza; Silva, Sebastião de Oliveira e; Caldas, Ranulfo Correa; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) in plantain farms (cv. Terra) of the "Recôncavo" and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416) were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4 g/trap) and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months.

  7. Imaging and automated detection of Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pupae in hard red winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Toews, Michael D; Pearson, Tom C; Campbell, James F

    2006-04-01

    Computed tomography, an imaging technique commonly used for diagnosing internal human health ailments, uses multiple x-rays and sophisticated software to recreate a cross-sectional representation of a subject. The use of this technique to image hard red winter wheat, Triticum aestivm L., samples infested with pupae of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) was investigated. A software program was developed to rapidly recognize and quantify the infested kernels. Samples were imaged in a 7.6-cm (o.d.) plastic tube containing 0, 50, or 100 infested kernels per kg of wheat. Interkernel spaces were filled with corn oil so as to increase the contrast between voids inside kernels and voids among kernels. Automated image processing, using a custom C language software program, was conducted separately on each 100 g portion of the prepared samples. The average detection accuracy in the five infested kernels per 100-g samples was 94.4 +/- 7.3% (mean +/- SD, n = 10), whereas the average detection accuracy in the 10 infested kernels per 100-g sample was 87.3 +/- 7.9% (n = 10). Detection accuracy in the 10 infested kernels per 100-g samples was slightly less than the five infested kernels per 100-g samples because of some infested kernels overlapping with each other or air bubbles in the oil. A mean of 1.2 +/- 0.9 (n = 10) bubbles (per tube) was incorrectly classed as infested kernels in replicates containing no infested kernels. In light of these positive results, future studies should be conducted using additional grains, insect species, and life stages. PMID:16686163

  8. The effect of temperature on survival of Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Luna, E K; Sitz, R A; Cranshaw, W S; Tisserat, N A

    2013-10-01

    The walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) vectors Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in Juglans, and is particularly damaging to Juglans nigra L. (black walnut). Native hosts of P. juglandis are distributed in the southwestern United States where winter temperatures tend to be higher than those found within the native range of black walnut. To better understand temperature effects on survival of P. juglandis, we initiated studies to determine: 1) seasonal variations in cold tolerance, as measured by the supercooling point (SCP), and 2) upper and lower lethal temperatures (LT). In the lower LT study, Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeberg) was tested for comparison. Insects were either exposed to increasing or decreasing temperatures and then checked for survival. Upper and lower LTs were estimated using a logistic model. For the SCP study, data were grouped into seasons. Seasonal mean SCPs were highest in summer (-15.4°C) and lowest in fall (-18.1°C). The upper lethal limit estimations required to kill 99% of the population (LT99) for adults and larvae were 52.7 and 48.1°C, respectively, and lower limit LT99 estimations for adults and larvae were -18.1 and -18.7°C, respectively. The lower median LT (LT50) of X. saxeseni was -24.7°C. These studies, as well as beetle survival in infested Colorado trees where temperatures reached -29°C in February 2011, suggest P. juglandis could survive the winter in much of the native range of black walnut, but may be limited in trees where temperatures regularly exceed the lower LT.

  9. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W

    2011-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin occur naturally in southeastern U.S. pecan orchards and have shown promise as alternative control agents for C. caryjae. Conceivably, the chemical and microbial agents occur simultaneously within pecan orchards or might be applied concurrently. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions between two chemical insecticides that are used in commercial C. caryae control (i.e., carbaryl and cypermethrin applied below field rates) and the microbial agents B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae. In laboratory experiments, pecan weevil larval or adult mortality was assessed after application of microbial or chemical treatments applied singly or in combination (microbial + chemical agent). The nature of interactions (antagonism, additivity, or synergy) in terms of weevil mortality was evaluated over 9 d (larvae) or 5 d (adults). Results for B. bassiana indicated synergistic activity with carbaryl and antagonism with cypermethrin in C. caryae larvae and adults. For S. carpocapsae, synergy was detected with both chemicals in C. caryae larvae, but only additive effects were detected in adult weevils. Our results indicate that the chemical-microbial combinations tested are compatible with the exception of B. bassiana and cypermethrin. In addition, combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions may provide enhanced C. caryae control in commercial field applications; thus, their potential merits further exploration. PMID:21404833

  10. [Parisoschoenus obesulus Casey (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is not a pest of young coconut tree fruits].

    PubMed

    Moura, José I L; Ferreira, Joana M S; Sgrillo, Ricardo B; Valle, Raul R; De Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Cividanes, Francisco J; Delabie, Jacques H C

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if Parisoschoenus obesulus Casey only attacks naturally aborting coconuts and, consequently, is not a pest of young fruits of coconut tree. Aiming to test this hypothesis, inflorescences at diverse stages of physiological development were offered to individuals of P. obesulus. The results showed that only aborting fruits were colonized by P. obesulus corroborating the established hypothesis.

  11. Host suitability analysis of the bark beetle Scolytus amygdali (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Zeiri, A; Ahmed, M Z; Braham, M; Qiu, B-L

    2015-08-01

    Scolytus amygdali is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on fruit trees and forest trees. Our study assessed the host preference and reproductive potential of S. amygdali on four tree species: almond (Prunus dulcis), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica). Females of S. amygdali produced maternal galleries that were longer on peach than the other three trees, and female fecundity was highest on peach. Females with longer maternal galleries produced more eggs, indicating a positive correlation between maternal gallery length and female fertility. The under-bark development time of S. amygdali is significantly shorter on plum (45 days) and almond (56 days) than on apricot (65 days) and peach (64 days). Despite this longer development time on peach, our results still suggest that, of the four types of tree tested, peach is the most preferred host for S. amygdali. PMID:25809539

  12. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo, Héctor A.; Herle, Carolyn E.; Lupwayi, Newton Z.

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs. PMID:26106086

  13. Taxonomic revision of the genus Stenocyphus Marshall (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guadalupe del Río, M.; Lanteri, Analía A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Stenocyphus Marshall, 1922 (Entiminae, Naupactini) includes three species: the type species S. bituberosus (Gyllenhal, 1833), S. tuberculatus (Hustache, 1938), comb. n. herein transferred from Neoericydeus Hustache, 1938, and S. sextuberosus sp. n. The genus is endemic to the Atlantic forests of the states of Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil andis mainly characterized by the presence of humped elytra bearing large conical tubercles on the intervals 5, or 3 and 5, or 3, 5 and 7. It shares some external morphological characters with Hadropus Schoenherr, 1826 and the Brazilian species of Cyrtomon Schoenherr 1823, but its phylogenetic position is uncertain. Herein we provide a diagnostic key to separate Stenocyphus from those genera, generic and species redescriptions or descriptions, a key to species, habitus photographs, line drawings of genitalia, and a discussion of the patterns of elytral tubercles in unrelated genera of Neotropical broad-nosed weevils. PMID:24363577

  14. Effect of neem seed extract on feeding, growth, survival, and reproduction of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Weathersbee, A A; Tang, Y Q

    2002-08-01

    A commercially available neem seed extract, Neemix 4.5, containing 4.5% azadirachtin (AZA), was assessed for biological activity against the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), an important exotic insect pest of Florida citrus. Laboratory bioassays against neonatal and 3-wk-old larvae fed sliced carrot treated with Neemix produced dose-dependent larval mortality and reduced fresh weights among survivors of treatments. The weight response was greater than the mortality response for both larval age groups. Neonates treated with 45 mg/liter AZA weighed 60% less than those in the control after 4 wk. Three-week-old larvae treated with 45 mg/ liter AZA weighed 30% less than those in the control after 5 wk. When neonates were exposed to insect diet incorporated with Neemix, reductions in larval survival and weight were observed at concentrations as low as 4.8 mg/liter AZA after 6 wk. Larval growth was inhibited by >97% with 42.9 mg/liter AZA in the diet. A soil drench containing 30 mg/liter AZA reduced the survival and weight gain of neonates added to potted citrus and provided protection to the roots in a greenhouse experiment. A concentration of 90 mg/liter AZA was required to provide protection of citrus roots against 4-wk-old larvae. Reproductive effects were observed when adult weevils were fed foliage treated with Neemix. The numbers of larvae hatching per egg mass were reduced by 27% and 68% at 30 and 90 mg/liter AZA, respectively. These results suggest that Neemix should be further evaluated for use in integrated pest management (IPM) programs of citrus. PMID:12216804

  15. [Attraction of Sphenophorus levis Vaurie adults (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to vegetal tissues at different conservation levels].

    PubMed

    Girón-Pérez, Katherine; Nakano, Octávio; Silva, Amanda C; Oda-Souza, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis Vaurie is important in sugarcane in some regions in Brazil. Damage is caused by the larvae as they bore into the nodes and can reach 30 ton/ha/year. Many control alternatives have been attempted, but none were satisfactory, except for the use of toxic baits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize their efficiency or to propose new techniques. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the attractiveness of adults of S. levis to sugarcane nodes and pineapple peelings in an 'Y' tube olfactometer. The sugarcane internodes were treated with 10% molasses, and tested after different periods of fermentation (24, 48 e 72h), at different times of the day (diurnal and nocturnal) and with both sexes. These tests were carried out in order to correlate the response of S. levis to ethyl acetate and ethanol release as a result of the fermentation process. The release of both compounds was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data indicated that sugarcane internodes mixed with 10% molasses fermented for 24h and 48h were the most attractive to S. levis (up to 90%). Pineapple peelings attracted 62.5% of the tested insects. The olfactory response was higher during the day, and no differences were found between the sexes. The production of ethanol in all plant substrates was higher than ethyl acetate, but we could not establish a clear correlation with the insect response to baits. PMID:20098932

  16. Basil oil fumigation increases radiation sensitivity in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil was tested against the stored product pest rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae(L.). Adult weevils were exposed to seven different concentrations of basil oil ranging from 0.12 µl/ml-0.60 µl/ml in Petri dishes and mortality was assessed at 3,4 and...

  17. Efficacy of current lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its introduction into the USA in 2002, the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest, currently established in eight southeastern states. Females are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt....

  18. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in coffee.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Robert C; Jang, Eric B; Follett, Peter A

    2013-04-01

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. Although it is already present in most of the world's major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent reintroductions that might include hyperparasites or improve the genetic base of existing populations. Green coffee is shipped around the world for custom blending and roasting and such shipments carry the risk of spreading H. hampei. We used heavily infested coffee berries as a surrogate for green coffee to test the freezing tolerance of H. hampei. After freezing, all life stages of H. hampei were dissected from coffee berries and mortality was assessed. Counting all life stages, > 15,000 insects were measured in this study. A temperature of approximately -15 degrees C (range, -13.9 to -15.5) for 48 h provided 100% control of all life stages. A logit regression model predicted < or = 1 survivor in a million for treatments of -20 degrees C for 5 d or -15 degrees C for 6 d. A freezing treatment for green coffee might be more economical and acceptable compared with fumigation with methyl bromide, especially for small-scale and organic growers and millers in Hawaii who ship green coffee beans to other islands for custom roasting. Freezing treatments could also be used to kill H. hampei in coffee seeds before export with minimal effects on seed germination if coffee seeds are first dried to critical water content levels in accordance with published methods.

  19. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2013-02-01

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

  20. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Héctor A; Herle, Carolyn E; Lupwayi, Newton Z

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs.

  1. Identification of plant odours activating receptor neurones in the weevil Pissodes notatus F. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Bichão, H; Borg-Karlson, A-K; Araújo, J; Mustaparta, H

    2003-03-01

    Plants release complex mixtures of volatiles important in the interaction with insects and other organisms. In the search for compounds that contribute to the perception of odour quality in the weevil Pissodes notatus, single olfactory receptor neurones on the antennae were screened for sensitivity to naturally produced plant volatiles by the use of gas chromatography linked to single cell recordings. We here present 60 olfactory neurones responding to 25 of the numerous compounds released by host and non-host plants. All the neurones show high selectivity and are classified into 12 distinct types. The two most abundant types respond to alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and 3-carene ( n=17), and to isopinocamphone and pinocamphone ( n=17), respectively. Other neurone types respond to limonene ( n=9), beta-phellandrene ( n=3), and fenchone ( n=4). Responses to beta-caryophyllene ( n=1) and to ethanol ( n=4) are also shown. Except for two pairs, the neurone types do not show overlap of the molecular receptive range. The active compounds are present in the host, Pinus pinaster, as well as in non-hosts, supporting the idea that plant odour quality is mediated by the ratio of the compounds rather than specific odorants.

  2. Gallery productivity, emergence, and flight activity of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Maner, M Lake; Hanula, James L; Braman, S Kristine

    2013-08-01

    Flight and emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, were monitored from March 2011 through August 2012 using Lindgren funnel traps baited with manuka oil and emergence traps attached over individual beetle galleries on infested redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel) trees. Of the 432 gallery entrances covered with emergence traps, 235 (54.4%) successfully produced at least two adults. Gallery success rates and time until adult emergence were highly variable and strongly depended on time of year galleries were initiated. Successful galleries produced 23.4 ± 2.50 (x ± SE) adult X. glabratus but one had 316 adults emerge from it. Galleries were active for an average of 231.9 ± 6.13 d but five were active for over 1 yr and one gallery produced beetles for 497 d. In total, 5,345 female and 196 males were collected during the study resulting in a sex ratio of ~27:1 (female:male) emerging from galleries. Ambrosia beetles other than X. glabratus were recovered from 18 galleries or ~4% of those studied. Beetles that attacked larger diameter trees were more likely to be successful and produce more brood. Lindgren trap captures reflected emergence trap collections but with a delay of about 1 mo between peaks in emergence and capture in traps. Peaks of activity occurred in fall 2011 and spring 2012, but at least some adult beetles were collected using both methods in every month of the year.

  3. Taxonomic revision of the East Asian genus Scleropteroides Colonnelli, 1979 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Ceutorhynchinae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junhao; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Zhang, Runzhi; Ito, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Scleropteroides Colonnelli, 1979 (Ceutorhynchinae: Scleropterini) was revised on the basis of detailed morphological observations. The genus was redefined to include three species from East Asia: S. hypocrita (Hustache, 1916) is redescribed and recorded from northeastern China and northern Korea for the first time; S. horridulus (Voss, 1958) is redescribed with new records from southern Korea; S. insularis Voss, 1971 was moved from synonymy with S. hypocrita to that with S. horridulus (syn. n.), and S. longiprocessus Huang & Yoshitake, sp. n. is described as new, sympatric with S. hypocrita in Japan. All the species are associated with woody Rubus species (Rosaceae). A key to species, habitus photographs, illustrations of important characters, and distribution maps are provided for each species. PMID:25197212

  4. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Westbrook, John K; Eyster, Ritchie S; Allen, Charles T

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas/Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud in response to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier attacks

    PubMed Central

    Giovino, Antonio; Bertolini, Edoardo; Fileccia, Veronica; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Labra, Massimo; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) threatens most palm species worldwide. Until now, no studies have analyzed the gene regulatory networks of Phoenix canariensis (Chabaud) in response to RPW attacks. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Providing this basic knowledge is very important to improve its management. Results: A deep transcriptome analysis was performed on fully expanded leaves of healthy non-infested trees and attacked trees at two symptom stages (middle and late infestation). A total of 54 genes were significantly regulated during middle stage. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that phenylpropanoid-related pathways were induced at this stage. More than 3300 genes were affected during late stage of attacks. Higher transcript abundances were observed for lipid fatty acid metabolism (fatty acid and glycerolipids), tryptophan metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism. Key RPW-modulated genes involved in innate response mediated by hormone crosstalk were observed belonging to auxin, jasmonate and salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Among transcription factors, some WRKYs were clearly induced. qRT-PCR validation confirmed the upregulation of key genes chosen as validation of transcriptomic analysis. Conclusion: A subset of these genes may be further analyzed in future studies to confirm their specificity to be induced by RPW infestations. PMID:26528297

  6. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus midgut cell line to evaluate insecticidal potency of different plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Aljabr, Ahmed Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Cell cultures can be a potent and strong tool to evaluate the insecticidal efficiency of natural products. Plant essential oils have long been used as the fragrance or curative products around the world which means that they are safer to be used in close proximity of humans and mammals. In this study, a midgut cell line, developed from Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (RPW-1), was used for screening essential oils from nine different plants. Assays revealed that higher cell mortality was observed at 500 ppm which reached to 86, 65, 60, 59, 56, 54, 54, 53, and 53%, whereas lowest cell mortality at 1 ppm remained at 41, 23, 20, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, and 10%, for Azadirachta indica, Piper nigrum, Mentha spicata, Cammiphora myrrha, Elettaria cardamomum, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Schinus molle, and Rosmarinus officinalis, respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay revealed the percentage of cell growth inhibition was highest at 500 ppm and remained at 48, 45, 42, 37, 34, 29, 24, 22, and 18% against A. indica, P. nigrum, M. spicata, C. myrrha, E. cardamomum, Z. officinale, C. longa, S. molle, and R. officinalis, respectively. Lowest LC50 value (7.98 ppm) was found for A. indica, whereas the highest LC50 (483.11 ppm) was against R. officinalis. Thus, in this study, essential oils of A. indica exhibited the highest levels of toxicity, whereas those from R. officinalis exhibited the lowest levels of toxicity toward RPW-1 cells. PMID:25381034

  7. Transcriptomic identification of chemoreceptor genes in the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Liu, L; Qin, W Q; Li, C X; Peng, Z Q

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is crucial for insects' survival because it enables them to recognize various environmental information. It is primarily mediated by a large family of chemoreceptors, including olfactory receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), and ionotropic receptors (IRs). Here, we assembled the transcriptome of the economically important pest of palms, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, to reveal its chemoreceptor gene repertoire. About 8.08 Gbp data were generated using a HiSeq platform and their assembly led to a total of 24,439 unigenes. Among the transcripts, 12,523 (51.24%) showed significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Nr database. From these sequences, 18 candidate genes of ORs were identified. Nine putative transcripts were homologous to GR genes, while 9 were similar to IR genes. The expression profiles of all identified chemoreceptor genes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR in antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, and legs of both sexes. Most chemoreceptor genes were antenna-enriched. This study demonstrated a successful application of a transcriptome for discovering a large number of divergent chemoreceptor genes of a non-model organism. The findings provide a valuable sequence resource and gene tissue distribution information for systematic functional analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying chemoreception in this pest.

  8. Transcriptomic identification of chemoreceptor genes in the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Liu, L; Qin, W Q; Li, C X; Peng, Z Q

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is crucial for insects' survival because it enables them to recognize various environmental information. It is primarily mediated by a large family of chemoreceptors, including olfactory receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), and ionotropic receptors (IRs). Here, we assembled the transcriptome of the economically important pest of palms, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, to reveal its chemoreceptor gene repertoire. About 8.08 Gbp data were generated using a HiSeq platform and their assembly led to a total of 24,439 unigenes. Among the transcripts, 12,523 (51.24%) showed significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Nr database. From these sequences, 18 candidate genes of ORs were identified. Nine putative transcripts were homologous to GR genes, while 9 were similar to IR genes. The expression profiles of all identified chemoreceptor genes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR in antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, and legs of both sexes. Most chemoreceptor genes were antenna-enriched. This study demonstrated a successful application of a transcriptome for discovering a large number of divergent chemoreceptor genes of a non-model organism. The findings provide a valuable sequence resource and gene tissue distribution information for systematic functional analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying chemoreception in this pest. PMID:26214426

  9. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus midgut cell line to evaluate insecticidal potency of different plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Aljabr, Ahmed Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Cell cultures can be a potent and strong tool to evaluate the insecticidal efficiency of natural products. Plant essential oils have long been used as the fragrance or curative products around the world which means that they are safer to be used in close proximity of humans and mammals. In this study, a midgut cell line, developed from Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (RPW-1), was used for screening essential oils from nine different plants. Assays revealed that higher cell mortality was observed at 500 ppm which reached to 86, 65, 60, 59, 56, 54, 54, 53, and 53%, whereas lowest cell mortality at 1 ppm remained at 41, 23, 20, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, and 10%, for Azadirachta indica, Piper nigrum, Mentha spicata, Cammiphora myrrha, Elettaria cardamomum, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Schinus molle, and Rosmarinus officinalis, respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay revealed the percentage of cell growth inhibition was highest at 500 ppm and remained at 48, 45, 42, 37, 34, 29, 24, 22, and 18% against A. indica, P. nigrum, M. spicata, C. myrrha, E. cardamomum, Z. officinale, C. longa, S. molle, and R. officinalis, respectively. Lowest LC50 value (7.98 ppm) was found for A. indica, whereas the highest LC50 (483.11 ppm) was against R. officinalis. Thus, in this study, essential oils of A. indica exhibited the highest levels of toxicity, whereas those from R. officinalis exhibited the lowest levels of toxicity toward RPW-1 cells.

  10. Acoustic detectability of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The palmetto weevil, Rhynchophorus cruentatus Fabricius, native to Florida, attacks palm trees. Like its economically destructive relatives, R. ferrugineus (Olivier) and R. palmarum L., it feeds internally and often is not detected until irreparable damage occurs. Acoustic methods previously used su...

  11. Injuries from Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Southcott, R V

    The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed.

  12. Injuries from Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Southcott, R V

    The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed. PMID:2593912

  13. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    PubMed

    Soffan, Alan; Antony, Binu; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies. PMID:27606688

  14. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

    PubMed Central

    Soffan, Alan; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies. PMID:27606688

  15. Morphology of the male reproductive system, sperm ultrastructure and γ-irradiation of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Francesco; Dallai, Romano; Cristofaro, Massimo; Arnone, Silvia; Francardi, Valeria; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-08-01

    In the present study we describe the morphology of the male reproductive apparatus and sperm ultrastructure of the red palm weevil - an invasive pest of several palm tree species - as well as the most important steps of spermatogenesis. The reproductive apparatus consists of a pair of testes (each formed by two lobes) a long tube-like accessory gland, a prostate gland and a small accessory gland. Characteristic features of the sperm are 90-100 μm total length, 10 μm nucleus, two mitochondrial derivatives, two accessory bodies, one well-developed puff-like structure and a typical insect 9+9+2 flagellar axoneme. One of the methods used for the biological control of pests is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), for the evaluation of which we make a preliminary comparison of the sperm ultrastructure of non-irradiated and irradiated weevils (at a dose of 80 Gray).

  16. Naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungi infecting stored grain insect species in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wakil, Waqas; Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad; Yasin, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from stored grain insect pests sampled from various geographical regions of Punjab, Pakistan, was investigated. In total, 25,720 insects from six different species were evaluated, and 195 isolates from 24 different fungal species were recovered. These included the Ascomycetes Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thorn) Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae), and Lecanicillium attenuatum (Zare and W. Gams) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The cadavers of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were significantly infected with the fungi followed by rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), rusty grain beetle Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae), and cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae); however, the least were recovered from khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The geographical attributes (altitude, longitude, and latitude) greatly influenced the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi with highest number of isolates found from >400 (m) altitude, 33°-34' N latitude, and 73°-74' E longitude. The findings of the current surveys clearly indicated that the entomopathogenic fungi are widely distributed in the insect cadavers, which may later be used in successful Integrated Pest Management programs.

  17. Molecular evidence of facultative intraguild predation by Monochamus titillator larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on members of the southern pine beetle guild

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeller, Erich N.; Husseneder, Claudia; Allison, Jeremy D.

    2012-11-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild (SPBG) is arguably the most destructive group of forest insects in the southeastern USA. This guild contains five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus terebrans, Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis. A diverse community of illicit receivers is attracted to pheromones emitted by the SPBG, including the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These woodborers have been traditionally classified as resource competitors; however, laboratory assays suggest that larval M. carolinensis may be facultative intraguild predators of SPBG larvae. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular gut content analyses to characterize subcortical interactions between M. titillator and members of the SPBG. The half-lives of SPBG DNA were estimated in the laboratory prior to examining these interactions in the field. A total of 271 field-collected M. titillator larvae were analyzed and 26 (9.6 %) tested positive for DNA of members of the SPBG. Of these larvae, 25 (96.2 %) tested positive for I. grandicollis and one (3.8 %) for I. calligraphus. Failure to detect D. terebrans and D. frontalis was likely due to their absence in the field. I. avulsus was present, but primers developed using adult tissues failed to amplify larval tissue. Results from this study support the hypothesis that larval Monochamus spp. are facultative intraguild predators of bark beetle larvae. Additionally, this study demonstrates the capabilities of PCR in elucidating the interactions of cryptic forest insects and provides a tool to better understand mechanisms driving southern pine beetle guild population fluctuations.

  18. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  19. Effect of temperature and commodity on insecticidal efficacy of spinosad dust against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae).

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Chintzoglou, George J; Peteinatos, Gerassimos G; Boukouvala, Maria C; Petrou, Stamatina S; Panoussakis, Emmanouel C

    2008-06-01

    The insecticidal effect of spinosad dust, a formulation that contains 0.125% spinosad, was evaluated against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30 degrees C) and four commodities (wheat, Triticum aestivum L.; barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; rice, Oryza sativa L.; and maize, Zea mays L.). For this purpose, quantities of the above-mentioned grains were treated with spinosad at two dose rates (20 and 50 ppm of the formulation, corresponding to 0.025 and 0.06 ppm AI, respectively), and mortality of the exposed adults in the treated grains was measured after 7 and 14 d, whereas progeny production was assessed 65 d later. Generally, for both species, mortality increased with dose, exposure interval, and temperature. For S. oryzae, adult survival and progeny production were lower on wheat than the other grains. After 14 d of exposure, mortality of S. oryzae adults on wheat treated with 50 ppm ranged between 61 and 98%, whereas in the other three commodities it did not exceed 42%. Mortality of R. dominica after 14 d on grains treated 50 ppm ranged between 91 and 100%. For this species, progeny production from exposed parental adults was low in all commodities regardless of temperature. Results indicate that spinosad dust can be used as an alternative to traditional grain protectants, but its effectiveness is highly determined by the target species, commodity, dose, and temperature.

  20. Effect of exposure period on degree of dominance of phosphine resistance in adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Daglish, Gregory J

    2004-08-01

    Degree of dominance of phosphine resistance was investigated in adults of Rhyzopertha dominica F and Sitophilus oryzae L. Efficacy of the grain fumigant phosphine depends on both concentration and exposure period, which raises the possibility that dominance levels vary with exposure period. New and published data were used to test this possibility in adults of R dominica and S oryzae fumigated for periods of up to 144 h. The concentrations required for control of homozygous resistant and susceptible strains and their F1 hybrids decreased with increasing exposure period. For both species the response lines for the homozygous resistant and susceptible strains and their F1 hybrids were parallel. Therefore, neither dominance level nor resistance factor was affected by exposure period. Resistance was incompletely recessive and the level of dominance, calculated at 50% mortality level, was -0.59 for R dominica and -0.65 for S oryzae. The resistant R dominica strain was 30.9 times more resistant than the susceptible strain, compared with 8.9 times for the resistant S oryzae strain. The results suggest that developing discriminating doses for detecting heterozygote adults of either species will be difficult.

  1. Frequency and time pattern differences in acoustic signals produced by Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)in stored maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acoustic signals emitted by the last stage larval instars and adults of Prostephanus truncatus and Sitophilus zeamais in stored maize were investigated. Analyses were performed to identify brief, 1-10-ms broadband sound impulses of five different frequency patterns produced by larvae and adults,...

  2. Praecocilenchus rhaphidophorus n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoidea) Parasitizing Rhynchophorus bilineatus (Montrouzier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in New Britain

    PubMed Central

    Poinar, G. O.

    1969-01-01

    Praecocilenchus rhaphidophorus n. gen., n. sp. is described as a new endoparasitic aphelenchoid nematode parasitizing adults of the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus bilineatus (Montrouzier). P. rhaphidophorus is unusual in that juveniles develop to maturity within the female uterus and thin, needle-shaped crystals form in the intestines of mature parasitic females. Hundreds of parasitic female nematodes were found in the body cavity of infected hosts. The role of this parasite as a biological control agent of Rhynchophorus weevils is discussed. PMID:19325682

  3. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were positively correlated with attraction, and EAG analyses confirmed chemoreception of terpenoids by antennal receptors of X. glabratus.

  4. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and cubeb oil as an alternative attractant.

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David

    2013-04-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures.

  5. Susceptibility of the Filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) And Filbert Weevil (Curculio occidentalis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is an important nut crop produced around the world including the United States. Oregon’s Willamette Valley accounts for about 99% of hazelnuts grown in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the two primary direct insect...

  6. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy. PMID:23321106

  7. Overwintering, Oviposition, and Larval Survival of Hunting Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Implications for Adult Damage in North Carolina Turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Diane Silcox; Reynolds, William Casey; Brandenburg, Rick L

    2016-02-01

    The hunting billbug, Sphenophorus venatus vestitus Chittenden, is one of the most widely recognized billbug turfgrass pests. Since 2000, damage to warm-season turfgrass caused by hunting bill bugs has increased and a need for information on hunting billbug biology is necessary for the development of management plans. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to collect data on overwintering, oviposition behavior, larval survival at various levels of soil moisture, and adult damage. Turfgrass samples from ‘Tifway 419’ bermudagrass(Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers x Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt Davy) on golf courses were collected to determine overwintering behavior, and 10 female adult billbugs were collected weekly to determine oviposition behavior.Survival of medium-sized larvae (head capsule width: 1.0 and 1.7 mm) was evaluated in containers with 20, 40,60, or 80% of the total pore space occupied by water. Zero, two, four, or six adult billbugs were placed in bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, or tall fescue containers and images were collected for 4 weeks to determine adult damage. We observed that hunting billbugs overwinter as adults and all larval sizes. Adults became active in March and began to oviposit, which continued through October. Larval mortality was lowest with 20% of the total pores pace occupied by water, while increases in moisture caused significant mortality. Adults caused a greater reduction in warm-season turfgrass cover than cool-season turfgrass cover. This research builds on the existing biological information for the hunting billbug biology in transition zones and will be pivotal in developing practical and sustainable management plans.

  8. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  9. Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its interactions with Azteca instabilis and Pheidole synanthropica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a shade coffee agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Soto, Estelí; Cruz-Rodríguez, Juan A; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2013-10-01

    The coffee berry borer is currently the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide. In shaded coffee farms such as Finca Irlanda in Chiapas, Mexico, natural enemies limit coffee berry borer and potentially prevent outbreaks. This research aimed to determine the effect of ants on coffee berry borer damage and to describe behaviors of Azteca instabilis F. Smith and Pheidole synanthropica (Longino 2009) when encountering the coffee berry borer. To these ends, an ant survey was conducted in a 2,500-m(2) plot within the farm. A 4- by 4-m coordinate system was established, and the coffee plant or shade tree closest to the coordinate point was sampled using tuna fish for a total of 168 coffee plants and 46 shade trees sampled. In addition, up to 100 berries were harvested from 138 coffee plants to measure damage and verify the presence of the coffee berry borer. Behavior was determined in the field by placing live coffee berry borer adults on berries and video recording all attacks. Results showed that plants with ants had less percentage of damaged berries and shorter coffee berry borer galleries than plants without ants. However, the length of galleries in plants with A. instabilis showed no significant differences from plants without ants. P. synanthropica was observed carrying coffee berry borer to the nest in 50% of the cases, whereas A. instabilis threw coffee berry borer off of the coffee plant in 79% of the cases. Results indicate that the presence of these species of ants reduce coffee berry borer damage and suggest that different behaviors could explain the pattern of coffee berry borer attack in this agroecosystem. PMID:24331603

  10. Assessment of bacterial endosymbiont diversity in Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae using a multitag 454 pyrosequencing approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus are regarded as devastating pests in a wide variety of horticultural crops worldwide. So far, little is known on the presence of endosymbionts in Otiorhynchus spp.. Investigation of endosymbiosis in this genus may help to understand the evolution of different reproductive strategies in these weevils (parthenogenesis or sexual reproduction), host-symbiont interactions, and may provide a future basis for novel pest management strategy development. Here, we used a multitag 454 pyrosequencing approach to assess the bacterial endosymbiont diversity in larvae of four economically important Otiorhynchus species. Results High-throughput tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing of a bacterial 16S rDNA fragment was used to characterise bacterial communities associated with different Otiorhynchus spp. larvae. By sequencing a total of ~48,000 PCR amplicons, we identified 49 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as bacterial endosymbionts in the four studied Otiorhynchus species. More than 90% of all sequence reads belonged either to the genus Rickettsia or showed homology to the phylogenetic group of “Candidatus Blochmannia” and to endosymbionts of the lice Pedicinus obtusus and P. badii. By using specific primers for the genera Rickettsia and “Candidatus Blochmannia”, we identified a new phylogenetic clade of Rickettsia as well as “Candidatus Nardonella” endosymbionts in Otiorhynchus spp. which are closely related to “Candidatus Blochmannia” bacteria. Conclusions Here, we used multitag 454 pyrosequencing for assessment of insect endosymbiotic communities in weevils. As 454 pyrosequencing generates only quite short sequences, results of such studies can be regarded as a first step towards identifying respective endosymbiotic species in insects. In the second step of our study, we analysed sequences of specific gene regions for a more detailed phylogeny of selected endosymbiont genera. As a result we identified the presence of Rickettsia and “Candidatus Nardonella” endosymbionts in Otiorhynchus spp.. This knowledge is an important step in exploring bacteria-insect associations for potential use in insect pest control. PMID:22376125

  11. Efficacy of a-copaene, cubeb, and eucalyptol lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a wood-boring pest that has now invaded nine states in the southeastern USA. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont (Raffaelea lauricola) is phytopathogenic, inducing laurel wilt in trees within the family Lauraceae. Members of the genus Pers...

  12. Cubeb oil lures:terpenoid emissions, trapping efficacy, and longevity for attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera:Curculionidae:Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-borer and the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. This lethal disease has decimated native redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) throughout southeastern U.S. forests, and curr...

  13. Cubeb oil Lures: sesquiterpene emissions and efficacy for attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus(Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. This lethal disease has decimated native redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees throughout the southeastern U.S., and...

  14. North American Lauraceae: Terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, t...

  15. [Influence of fruit size of Camellia meiocarpa on growth of oil tea weevil, Curculio chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-wen; He, Li-hong; Ma, Ling; Xia, Jiao; Zeng, Ai-ping

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between mature larval mass of oil tea weevil (Curculio chinensis) and fruit volume of its host plant oil tea (Camellia meiocarpa) was fitted with Logistic equation in order to understand the restriction of host fruit size on large larval growth and development of the weevil. The results showed that the larval mass increased with the increasing host fruit volume, which was in good conformity with the Logistic model. The weevil larval growth followed the principle of diminishing marginal utility, and it could be divided into two periods, the fast-growing period (<3.216 cm3, one larva per fruit; <4.747 cm3, two larvae per fruit ) and the asymptotic growing period (>3.216 cm3, one larva per fruit; >4.747 cm3, two larvae per fruit). The minimum fruit size threshold was 1500 cm3 for one larva per fruit, and 2.539 cm3 for two larvae per fruit. The temporal pattern that the mature larvae exited from their host fruits was established, the number of larvae escaping from their host fruits decreased daily after the fruit collection, and the larval escaping peak largely appeared from 6:00 to 10:00 AM with 43.9% of total escaping number, and especially from 7:00 to 8:00 AM with 21.1% of total escaping number. The bigger the larvae, the earlier exited from their host fruits. The restriction of fruit size on growth and development of oil tea weevil was observed, and it should be a behavioral adaptation strategy to increase the offspring' s fitness for the parental weevil adults to oviposit on the bigger fruits.

  16. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Barton, Diane M; Philip, Bruce A; Ferguson, Colin M; Goldson, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

  17. Evaluation of host-plant resistance of selected rice genotypes to the rice water weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice water weevil (RWW), Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is the most important economic insect pest of rice in the United States. Currently, management of RWW mainly depends upon the use of insecticides due to the lack of effective alternate management tactics. A three year field study was co...

  18. Flightless Notaris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Brachycerinae: Erirhinini) in Southwest China: monophyly, mtDNA phylogeography and evolution of habitat associations.

    PubMed

    Grebennikov, Vasily V; Kolov, Sergey V

    2016-04-26

    This paper reports the recent discovery of flightless populations of weevils of the genus Notaris in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China. Specimens were found in the middle or high altitude mountains (2440-4195 m), by either sifting leaf litter in the deciduous forest and among alpine Rhododendron shrubs, or by turning rocks in the alpine zone. These finds extend southwards the Asian range of this Holarctic genus and report its highest altitudinal records. DNA barcodes of 127 specimens were phylogenetically analysed, of them 42 are those of newly discovered Notaris from Southwest China. The genera Notaris and Tournotaris consistently formed a clade, with Tournotaris nested inside Notaris in Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) analysis. The newly discovered flightless Notaris from Southwest China were either monophyletic (MP) or paraphyletic with respect to volant Holarctic N. aethiops (ML); the latter placement being likely an artefact. A strict linear molecular clock approach suggests a pre-Pliocene separation of Notaris populations in Southwest China. Habitat associations of these high-altitude flightless Notaris contrast sharply with that of the predominantly volant lowland riparian Notaris and other Erirhinini. We hypothesis that evolution of habitat selection in Notaris went from lowland riparian, to high altitude (via uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions of Central Asia), and then to forest leaf litter (via subsequent erosions of isolated mountains such as Emei Shan in Sichuan losing the alpine zone and forcing Notaris into the forest floor). Taxonomic uncertainty of Asian Notaris is addressed and remains unresolved due to uninformative morphology and conflicting DNA signal. Identities of two obscure and likely closely related species, Notaroides brevirostris and Notaris kozlovi from nearby SE Qinghai and NW Sichuan, respectively, are discussed and illustrated. Pending further research, all reported flightless Notaris from Yunnan and Sichuan are hypothesised to form a clade, for which the available name N. kozlovi is used. Habitus and genitalia of Notaris specimens from the newly detected populations are illustrated.

  19. Biology and Seasonality of the Reemergent Pest Rhynchaenus pallicornis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Methods for Monitoring Its Abundance.

    PubMed

    Pote, John M; Nielsen, Anne L; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    Rhynchaenus pallicornis (Say) is a pest of commercially grown apples in the upper Midwest. This historic pest has resurged and caused severe yield loss on farms using certified organic production practices. The life history and potential monitoring methods of R. pallicornis are presented. Seasonal abundance data were collected through beat and visual sampling. A phenological model was developed for R. pallicornis. The minimum developmental threshold of R. pallicornis was determined to be 3.5°C with a required degree-day accumulation of 125°D for first adult emergence. Larval damage was observed on >60% of leaves in unmanaged orchards and affected significantly fewer basal leaf clusters (near the trunk), than medially or apically located clusters. Of 2,900 R. pallicornis larval mines collected over two years at three different sites, 18.0% produced at least one adult parasitoid, but the targeted larval stage is unknown. Measurements of R. pallicornis larval head capsules and the simple frequency method were used to determine three larval instars of R. pallicornis The number of larval instars could also be accurately determined by observing the presence or absence of two sets of thoracic sclerites. Pyramid traps, yellow sticky cards baited with olfactory cues (pear essence, benzaldehyde, and an aggregation of adult R. pallicornis) were evaluated as R. pallicornis monitoring tools. None of the traps or lures tested significantly affected the number of adult R. pallicornis per trap. PMID:27288674

  20. History of the Exotic Ambrosia Beetles Euwallacea interjectus and Euwallacea validus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Xyleborini) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cognato, Anthony I; Hoebeke, E Richard; Kajimura, Hisashi; Smith, Sarah M

    2015-06-01

    Exotic insects are constantly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry. Of these, wood-boring beetles, particularly xyleborine ambrosia beetles, are sometimes missed during port inspections and become established in the United States. Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff) and Euwallacea interjectus (Blandford) are morphologically similar Asian ambrosia beetle species that vary by their fungal associates and their potential to cause economic damage. Euwallacea validus and E. interjectus were first discovered in New York (1975) and Hawaii (1976), respectively. Euwallacea validus was collected multiple times from widely separated localities and is assumed to have spread throughout the eastern United States. The discovery of E. interjectus in Florida (2011) and Texas (2011) prompted our review of the E. validus specimens because of the potential misidentification of the species. In addition, using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA data and phylogenetic analysis, we tested the hypothesis that multiple introductions account for the U.S. populations of E. interjectus and E. validus. Our review of 7,184 specimens revealed an earlier introduction to the mainland for E. interjectus, which was first collected from Louisiana in 1984. This species is distributed in the South while E. validus occurs in the North with a known area of syntopy in northeastern Georgia. The extent of the syntopy within the United States is unknown and further investigation is required. Phylogenetic analysis of 24 E. interjectus and 20 E. validus individuals resolved clades that associated with each species and gross geographic provenance. Four well-supported clades represented E. interjectus which included the following localities: 1) Hawaii and Thailand; 2) Vietnam, Taiwan, and Texas; 3) Okinawa (Japan); and 4) Japan and several southern U.S. states. One clade comprised all E. validus specimens from Japan and the mainland United States. Four and two haplotypes were found for the E. interjectus and E. validus specimens, respectively, in mainland United States. Except for the Texas specimen, the haplotypes differed by one nucleotide. The relationship of the haplotypes and their sequence similarity suggested that the provenance of E. validus and the majority of E. interjectus haplotypes was Japan while the Texas haplotype originated later and from a location near Taiwan. Given the high nucleotide sequence difference between the Hawaiian and Thai haplotypes, the exact origin of the Hawaiian E. interjectus is unknown but likely Southeast Asia. A broader investigation including more SE Asian individuals will help to further explain the introduction of E. interjectus into Hawaii and Texas. PMID:26470238

  1. Efficacy of Rice Insecticide Seed Treatments at Selected Nitrogen Rates for Control of the Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Everett, Mallory; Lorenz, Gus; Slaton, Nathan; Hardke, Jarrod

    2015-08-01

    Seed-applied insecticides are the standard control method used in the United States to minimize rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) injury to rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots, and often results in greater yields than rice that receives no seed-applied insecticide. Yield increases from seed-applied insecticides often occur even when insect pressure is low and should not cause yield loss. The research objective was to evaluate the effect of urea-nitrogen rate and seed-applied insecticide on number of rice water weevil larvae, nitrogen uptake, and rice grain yield. Six trials were conducted at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) and the Rice Research Extension Center (RREC) to examine the response of rice plants receiving different insecticide-seed treatments and urea-nitrogen rate combinations. Insecticide-seed treatments included label rates of clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and a no-insecticide (fungicide only) control, in combination with season-total nitrogen rates of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg urea-nitrogen/ha. Rice seed that was treated with clothianidin or thiamethoxam generally had equal numbers of rice water weevil larvae, which were significantly fewer compared with rice that received no insecticide with an equivalent urea-nitrogen rate. Nitrogen uptake at panicle differentiation was not affected by insecticide-seed treatments at four of six sites and usually increased positively and linearly as urea-nitrogen rate increased. As urea-nitrogen rate increased, grain yield increased either linearly or nonlinearly. Averaged across urea-nitrogen rates, both insecticide seed treatments had similar yields that were 4 to 7% greater than the grain yields of rice that received no insecticide at four of the five harvested sites. PMID:26470317

  2. Ethanol-injection induces attacks by ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) on a variety of tree species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles have become serious pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Injecting Magnolia virginiana L. with ethanol has reliably induced attacks by exotic ambrosia beetles to facilitate research on their biology and management. In the current study, ethanol-injection was tested on a vari...

  3. Resurrection of Dryotomicus Wood and description of two new species from the Amazon River Basin (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae, Phloeotribini).

    PubMed

    Cognato, Anthony I; Smith, Sarah M

    2010-09-17

    A cladistic analysis based on 20 morphological characters was conducted for 11 species representing two valid and two synonymized Phloeotribini genera. One hundred-eighty most-parsimonious trees were recovered and the Dryotomicus Wood species were monophyletic in a mostly unresolved strict-consensus tree. The unusual antennal morphology, with the length of the first two funicular segments equal to the last three segments and a scape which is twice the length of the funicle, distinguish Dryotomicus from the other Phloeotribini genera. Hence this genus is resurrected because of monophyly and diagnostic characters. Dryotomicus oenophilissp. n. and Dryotomicus woodrexsp. n. are described from Guyana and Peru, respectively. In the male specimen of Dryotomicus oenophilis, the frons has one median and two large lateral carinae and in the male specimen of Dryotomicus woodrex, the frons has three smaller median tubercles arranged transversely. Phloeotribus puberulus Chapuis and Phloeotribus tuberculatus (Eggers) were monophyletic with the new Dryotomicus species and thus are transferred to this genus. Keys to the Phloeotribini genera and Dryotomicus species are given.

  4. Modeling Landscape-Level Spatial Variation in Sex Ratio Skew in the Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    James, Patrick M A; Janes, Jasmine K; Roe, Amanda D; Cooke, Barry J

    2016-08-01

    Through their influence on effective population sizes, sex ratio skew affects population dynamics. We examined spatial variation in female-biased sex ratios in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak in western Canada to better understand how environmental context affects sex ratio skew. Our specific objectives were to: 1) characterize spatial variation in mountain pine beetle sex ratio; 2) test previously asserted hypotheses that beetle sex ratio varies with tree diameter and year in outbreak; and 3) develop predictive models of sex ratio skew for larval and adult populations. Using logistic regression, we modeled the probability that an individual beetle (n = 2,369) was female as a function of multiple environmental variables across 34 stands in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. We identified a consistent female-biased sex ratio with significantly greater skew in adults (2:1, n = 713) than in larvae (1.76:1, n = 1,643). We found that the proportion of larval females increased with decreasing tree size and with outbreak age. However, adults did not respond to tree size and larvae did not respond to outbreak age. Predictive models differed between larvae and adults. All identified models perform well and included predictors related to weather, tree diameter, and year in outbreak. Female-biased sex ratios appear to originate from differential male mortality during development rather than from sex-biased oviposition, suggesting sex ratio skew is not the cause of outbreaks, but rather a consequence. PMID:27209334

  5. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported. PMID:27470760

  6. Larinus minutus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Urophora quadrifasciata (Diptera: Tephritidae), evidence for interaction and impact on spotted knapweed in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition between seed-feeding insects is well noted in the literature, with many of these interactions being asymmetrical and causing a disadvantage for one of the species involved. While often effective, the use of the “cumulative stress” approach to biological control (where multiple natural e...

  7. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Barbara I. P.; Barton, Diane M.; Philip, Bruce A.; Ferguson, Colin M.; Goldson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants. PMID:27507979

  8. Larval growth of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and resulting root injury to three citrus varieties in two soil types.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S; Mccoy, C W; Graham, J H

    2000-04-01

    Larval growth and intraspecific competition of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) larvae and consequent root injury in container-grown citrus in the greenhouse were evaluated. Roots of Carrizo citrange, Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.; Cleopatra mandarin, C. reticulata Blanco, and Swingle citrumelo, C. paradisi Macf. x P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. rootstock seedlings grown in Candler fine sand and potting soil were colonized with different populations of D. abbreviatus larvae. Larvae were exposed to the seedlings for 79 d. Larval growth and development increased steadily for approximately 70 d on all rootstock-soil combinations, at which time most larvae were instars 6-8. Most feeding injury occurred to roots when larvae were between instars 3 and 6. Larval weight reached a plateau at approximately 70 d, but often declined between 70 and 79 d. When larvae were small, injury to seedlings developed slowly, primarily on fibrous roots, then feeding increased rapidly, often resulting in total consumption of both fibrous root and bark tissue. Although not statistically significant, root injury developed slightly slower on Swingle citrumelo compared with Carrizo and Cleopatra rootstocks, but damage was comparable by 79 d. Little or no difference in consumptive benefit to the larvae was found between the rootstocks. Based on larval weight days, little feeding injury occurred during the first 21 d, but increased rapidly between 21 and 60 d. Soil type affected the rate of larval growth and development, with potting soil contributing to greater growth rates. Detritus in potting soil provided little or no nutritional resource, suggesting that the effect of potting soil on larval development was primarily physical. In addition, fewer inoculated larvae per seedling exhibited greater weight gains than higher infestation densities, suggesting that intraspecific competition for nutritional resources influenced larval development.

  9. The Role of Rainfall in Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adult Emergence From the Soil After Its Winter Dormant Period.

    PubMed

    Guillermina Socías, M; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Casmuz, Augusto S; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report the effect of rainfall on Sternechus subsignatus Boheman, 1836, adult emergence after winter dormancy. This weevil is a univoltine soybean pest found in northwestern Argentina, a subtropical region with dry winters and rainy summers. Before harvest, fully grown larvae burrow into the soil where they overwinter. In the spring, they emerge as adults and recolonize the crop during its planting and early vegetative stages. Our study examines the seasonal timing of adult emergence with the aim of improving chemical control strategies and avoiding unnecessary pesticide applications. To do so, we developed a regression model to predict adult emergence onset as a function of cumulated rainfall after 1st November. The regression with the highest coefficient of determination between cumulated rainfall and adult emergence onset was Emergence onset (Julian day) = -7.98 Ln(cumulative rainfall) + 65.7. The negative relationship showed that adults emerged earlier in wet years than in dry years. Also it was observed that adults emerged from late November to mid-March, in pulses following periods of rainfall. Males were more abundant than females at first, but then the reverse was true toward the end of the period. In most cases, there was a suggestion of relationship (though not significantly) between peaks of adult emergence with peaks of rainfall 15 d before adult emergence. These results reveal that rainfall has a significant impact on the beginning and dynamics of adult emergence from the soil. PMID:27235846

  10. Comparison of pathogens infection level in Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) beetles sampled in pheromone traps and at place of overwintering.

    PubMed

    Lukášová, Karolina; Holuša, Jaroslav

    2015-09-01

    The importance of pathogens in the population dynamics of Ips typographus remains a subject of ongoing debate. The main objective of our experiment was to compare the pathogen infection levels of individuals overwintering in bark with the levels of individuals from the same population captured with pheromone traps and thereby to determine primary answers as to whether it can be confirmed that pathogenic organisms affect the flight ability of bark beetles or their ability to leave their places of overwintering. A total of 402 I. typographus individuals were analyzed at a study location under limited management. Three pathogens were confirmed to be present: the gregarine Gregarina typographi, the virus ItEPV, and the microsporidium Nosema typographi. Infection levels of Gregarina typographi and ItEPV were the same in beetles collected at places of overwintering and in those beetles collected in pheromone traps within the immediate vicinity. As these pathogens infect the host's intestine, the tendency to leave the places of overwintering is apparently not diminished. A similar analysis and comparison of pathogens located in the fat body might bring different results, as our study only detected N. typographi in a single dissected adult spruce bark beetle.

  11. Efficacy of Rice Insecticide Seed Treatments at Selected Nitrogen Rates for Control of the Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Everett, Mallory; Lorenz, Gus; Slaton, Nathan; Hardke, Jarrod

    2015-08-01

    Seed-applied insecticides are the standard control method used in the United States to minimize rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) injury to rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots, and often results in greater yields than rice that receives no seed-applied insecticide. Yield increases from seed-applied insecticides often occur even when insect pressure is low and should not cause yield loss. The research objective was to evaluate the effect of urea-nitrogen rate and seed-applied insecticide on number of rice water weevil larvae, nitrogen uptake, and rice grain yield. Six trials were conducted at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) and the Rice Research Extension Center (RREC) to examine the response of rice plants receiving different insecticide-seed treatments and urea-nitrogen rate combinations. Insecticide-seed treatments included label rates of clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and a no-insecticide (fungicide only) control, in combination with season-total nitrogen rates of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg urea-nitrogen/ha. Rice seed that was treated with clothianidin or thiamethoxam generally had equal numbers of rice water weevil larvae, which were significantly fewer compared with rice that received no insecticide with an equivalent urea-nitrogen rate. Nitrogen uptake at panicle differentiation was not affected by insecticide-seed treatments at four of six sites and usually increased positively and linearly as urea-nitrogen rate increased. As urea-nitrogen rate increased, grain yield increased either linearly or nonlinearly. Averaged across urea-nitrogen rates, both insecticide seed treatments had similar yields that were 4 to 7% greater than the grain yields of rice that received no insecticide at four of the five harvested sites.

  12. The Effect of Acclimation to Sublethal Temperature on Subsequent Susceptibility of Sitophilus zeamais Mostchulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to High Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jianhua; Zhang, Huina

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatment is a popular alternative to synthetic pesticides in disinfesting food-processing facilities and empty grain storages. Sitophilus zeamais Mostchulsky is one of the most cosmopolitan and destructive insects found in empty grain storage facilities and processing facilities. The effect of acclimation in S. zeamais adults to sublethal high temperature on their subsequent susceptibility to high temperatures was investigated. S. zeamais adults were acclimated to 36°C for 0 (as a control), 1, 3, and 5 h, and then were exposed at 43, 47, 51, and 55°C for different time intervals respectively. Acclimation to sublethal high temperature significantly reduced subsequent susceptibility of S. zeamais adults to lethal high temperatures of 43, 47, 51, and 55°C, although the mortality of S. zeamais adults significantly increased with increasing exposure time at lethal high temperatures. The mortality of S. zeamais adults with 1, 3, and 5 h of acclimation to 36°C was significantly lower than that of S. zeamais adults without acclimation when exposed to the same lethal high temperatures. The present results suggest that the whole facility should be heated to target lethal high temperature as soon as possible, avoiding decreasing the control effectiveness of heat treatment due to the acclimation in stored product insects to sublethal temperature. PMID:27462906

  13. Identification of rice cultivars resistant to Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and their use in an integrated management program.

    PubMed

    Stout, M J; Rice, W C; Linscombe, S D; Bollich, P K

    2001-08-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States and is a particularly severe pest in Louisiana. The current management program for this insect in Louisiana relies heavily on insecticides, most notably the seed treatment fipronil (Icon). Diversification of the management program by incorporation of alternative strategies is needed to improve the effectiveness and long-term stability of the program. In the three experiments reported here, three components of a diversified management program for the rice water weevil in Louisiana--host plant resistance, treatment of seeds with Icon, aid the cultural practice of delayed flooding--were investigated. Comparison of the densities of weevil larvae on the roots of several commercial cultivars indicated that the long-grain cultivar 'Jefferson' was more resistant to infestation by the rice water weevil than the other cultivars. The medium-grain cultivars 'Bengal', 'Earl' and 'Mars' and the long-grain variety 'Cocodrie' were the most susceptible to infestation. Comparison of yield data from untreated plots and plots treated with Icon indicated that the long-grain cultivars Cocodrie, Lemont, and Jefferson were more tolerant of weevil injury than the other cultivars. A 2-wk delay in flooding was associated with yield benefits in plots not treated with Icon. Treatment of seeds with Icon controlled weevils in all three screening experiments. The implications of these results for the development of an integrated management program for the rice water weevil are discussed.

  14. Evidence of establishment of Bagous hydrillae Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitales: Hydirocharitaceae) in North America?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The semi-aquatic weevil Bagous hydrillae was released during 1991-1996 at 19 sites in four states in attempts to control the aquatic weed hydrilla, Hydrilla verticillata. Fourteen of the sites were in Florida, two each in Texas and Georgia and one site in Alabama. Over 320,000 adult weevils were i...

  15. Impact of Water Management on Efficacy of Insecticide Seed Treatments Against Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Mississippi Rice

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Catchot, A.; Walker, T.; Awuni, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, MS, during 2011 and 2012 to determine the impact of water management practices on the efficacy of insecticidal seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. Larval densities and yield were compared for plots treated with labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin and an untreated control. In the first experiment, plots were subjected to flood initiated at 6 and 8 wk after planting. Seed treatments significantly reduced larval densities with the 8-wk flood timing, but not the 6-wk flood timing. Overall, the treated plots yielded higher than the control plots. In the second experiment, the impact of multiple flushes on the efficacy of insecticidal seed treatments was evaluated. Plots were subjected to zero, one, or two flushes with water. All seed treatments reduced larval densities compared with the untreated control. Significantly fewer larvae were observed in plots that received one or two flushes compared with plots that did not receive a flush. All seed treatments resulted in higher yields compared to the untreated control in the zero and one flush treatments. When two flushes were applied, yield from the thiamethoxam and clothianidin treated plots was not significantly different from those of the control plots, while the chlorantraniliprole treated plots yielded significantly higher than the control. These data suggest that time from planting to flood did not impact the efficacy of seed treatments, but multiple flushes reduced the efficacy of thiamethoxam and clothianidin. PMID:26470232

  16. Impact of Water Management on Efficacy of Insecticide Seed Treatments Against Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Mississippi Rice.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Gore, J; Musser, F; Cook, D; Catchot, A; Walker, T; Awuni, G A

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, MS, during 2011 and 2012 to determine the impact of water management practices on the efficacy of insecticidal seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. Larval densities and yield were compared for plots treated with labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin and an untreated control. In the first experiment, plots were subjected to flood initiated at 6 and 8 wk after planting. Seed treatments significantly reduced larval densities with the 8-wk flood timing, but not the 6-wk flood timing. Overall, the treated plots yielded higher than the control plots. In the second experiment, the impact of multiple flushes on the efficacy of insecticidal seed treatments was evaluated. Plots were subjected to zero, one, or two flushes with water. All seed treatments reduced larval densities compared with the untreated control. Significantly fewer larvae were observed in plots that received one or two flushes compared with plots that did not receive a flush. All seed treatments resulted in higher yields compared to the untreated control in the zero and one flush treatments. When two flushes were applied, yield from the thiamethoxam and clothianidin treated plots was not significantly different from those of the control plots, while the chlorantraniliprole treated plots yielded significantly higher than the control. These data suggest that time from planting to flood did not impact the efficacy of seed treatments, but multiple flushes reduced the efficacy of thiamethoxam and clothianidin. PMID:26470232

  17. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W; Eyun, Seong-Il; Noriega, Daniel D; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest. PMID:26949943

  18. Modeling Landscape-Level Spatial Variation in Sex Ratio Skew in the Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    James, Patrick M A; Janes, Jasmine K; Roe, Amanda D; Cooke, Barry J

    2016-08-01

    Through their influence on effective population sizes, sex ratio skew affects population dynamics. We examined spatial variation in female-biased sex ratios in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak in western Canada to better understand how environmental context affects sex ratio skew. Our specific objectives were to: 1) characterize spatial variation in mountain pine beetle sex ratio; 2) test previously asserted hypotheses that beetle sex ratio varies with tree diameter and year in outbreak; and 3) develop predictive models of sex ratio skew for larval and adult populations. Using logistic regression, we modeled the probability that an individual beetle (n = 2,369) was female as a function of multiple environmental variables across 34 stands in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. We identified a consistent female-biased sex ratio with significantly greater skew in adults (2:1, n = 713) than in larvae (1.76:1, n = 1,643). We found that the proportion of larval females increased with decreasing tree size and with outbreak age. However, adults did not respond to tree size and larvae did not respond to outbreak age. Predictive models differed between larvae and adults. All identified models perform well and included predictors related to weather, tree diameter, and year in outbreak. Female-biased sex ratios appear to originate from differential male mortality during development rather than from sex-biased oviposition, suggesting sex ratio skew is not the cause of outbreaks, but rather a consequence.

  19. Isolation and characterization of 16 microsatellite loci in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Davis, C S; Mock, K E; Bentz, B J; Bromilow, S M; Bartell, N V; Murray, B W; Roe, A D; Cooke, J E K

    2009-05-01

    We isolated 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and developed conditions for amplifying these markers in four multiplex reactions. Three to 14 alleles were detected per locus across two sampled populations. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.902 and from 0.100 to 0.830, respectively. Three loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in one sampled population. One of these loci may be sex linked. These markers will be useful in the study of population structure in this important pest species.

  20. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy.

  1. Cubeb Oil Lures: Terpenoid Emissions, Trapping Efficacy, and Longevity for Attraction of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Niogret, Jerome; Montgomery, Wayne S; Deyrup, Mark A; Epsky, Nancy D

    2015-02-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood borer and the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. This lethal disease has decimated native redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel] and swampbay [Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent] throughout southeastern U.S. forests, and currently threatens avocado (Persea americana Miller) in Florida. To curtail the spread of laurel wilt, effective attractants are needed for early detection of the vector. Phoebe oil lures were the best known attractant for X. glabratus, but they are no longer available. The current detection system uses manuka oil lures, but previous research indicated that manuka lures have a short field life in Florida. Recently, cubeb oil was identified as a new attractant for X. glabratus, and cubeb bubble lures are now available commercially. This study compared trapping efficacy and field longevity of cubeb and manuka lures with phoebe lures that had been in storage since 2010 over a 12-wk period in south Florida. In addition, terpenoid emissions were quantified from cubeb and manuka lures aged outdoors for 12 wk. Captures were comparable with all three lures for 3 wk, but by 4 wk, captures with manuka were significantly less. Equivalent captures were obtained with cubeb and phoebe lures for 7 wk, but captures with cubeb were significantly greater from 8 to 12 wk. Our results indicate that cubeb bubble lures are the most effective tool currently available for detection of X. glabratus, with a field life of 3 months due to extended low release of attractive sesquiterpenes, primarily α-copaene and α-cubebene. PMID:26470139

  2. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were positively correlated with attraction, and EAG analyses confirmed chemoreception of terpenoids by antennal receptors of X. glabratus. PMID:25007073

  3. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and cubeb oil as an alternative attractant.

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David

    2013-04-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures. PMID:23575024

  4. Genetic and behavioral differences among purported species of the weevil Trichosirocalus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for biological control of thistles (Asteraceae, Cardueae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract and Interpretive Summary: Provide electronically in Word. Trichosirocalus horridus was introduced to North America, New Zealand and Australia for biological control of Carduus nutans. Since then two more species of Trichosirocalus have been described (Alonso-Zarazaga and Sánchez-...

  5. The Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis spp. galleriae Against Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Integrated Pest Management in California Rice.

    PubMed

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Godfrey, Larry D

    2015-02-01

    Rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kushel) is the most damaging insect pest of rice in the United States. Larval feeding on the roots stunt growth and reduce yield. Current pest management against the weevil in California relies heavily on pyrethroids that can be damaging to aquatic food webs. Examination of an environmentally friendly alternative biopesticide based on Bacillus thuringiensis spp. galleriae chemistry against rice water weevil larvae showed moderate levels of activity in pilot studies. We further examined the performance of different formulations of Bt.galleriae against the leading insecticide used in California rice, λ-cyhalothrin. The granular formulation performed as well as the λ-cyhalothrin in use in California in some of our greenhouse and field studies. This is the first reported use of B. thuringiensis spp. galleriae against rice water weevil.

  6. Mass rearing the weevil Hylobius transversovittatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biological control agent of Lythrum salicaria, on semiartificial diet.

    PubMed

    Blossey, B; Eberts, D; Morrison, E; Hunt, T R

    2000-12-01

    Lythrum salicaria L., purple loosestrife, an invasive Eurasian perennial, is degrading wetlands across temperate North America. Chemical, physical, and mechanical methods failed to provide long-term control. Therefore, four host-specific insect species (two leaf feeders, a root feeder, and a flower feeder) were introduced as biological control agents. To increase the availability of adults of the root feeding weevil Hylobius transversovittatus Goeze for field releases, we developed a semiartificial diet. Suitability of different diet formulations (varying vitamin mixes, salt mixes, antimicrobials, water content, root content) and temperatures for larval development were evaluated. We also monitored how rearing on artificial diet and the number of larvae per container affected larval development time, larval survival, adult weight, and incidences of deformities. Rearing larvae on artificial diet reduced development time from 1-2 yr to 2-3 mo. Larval development was fastest and survival rates highest under constant temperatures of 25 degrees C. Hatch rate and larval survival decreased if eggs were surface sterilized. Using FABCO antimicrobials could not prevent fungal contamination; use of methyl paraben and sorbic acid was successful in suppressing fungal and bacterial growth throughout larval development time to <10%. The moisture content of the diet did not significantly affect larval survival, development, or adult weight. Decreasing the proportion of purple loosestrife roots in the diet reduced adult weight and the proportion of larvae completing development, and increased development time; no larvae were able to complete development in root-free diet. With an increase in the number of larvae per cup, survival rates were reduced. The experiments revealed a female biased sex ratio: females consistently developed faster and were heavier than males. Incidence of adult deformities was consistently below 5%. Increased availability of adults for field release as a result of mass production using the semiartificial diet will accelerate the biocontrol program targeting purple loosestrife. We are able to produce several hundred weevils per week and have adapted the diet to rear other root-feeding weevils.

  7. Laboratory virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to two ornamental plant pests, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) and Stethobaris nemesis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we evaluated the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control two important ornamental pests: 1) Corythucha ciliata, a native lace bug that attacks the foliage of sycamore trees, and 2) the recently described exotic pest, Stethobaris nemesis, a weevil that attacks amaryllis leave...

  8. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W; Eyun, Seong-Il; Noriega, Daniel D; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest.

  9. Enrichment of alpha-copaene content results in improved lure for redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA, now established in seven southeastern states. Females are the primary vectors of a fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt. This vascular disease has caused extensi...

  10. Host use and crop impacts of Oribius Marshall species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Wesis, P; Niangu, B; Ero, M; Masamdu, R; Autai, M; Elmouttie, D; Clarke, A R

    2010-04-01

    Oribius species are small flightless weevils endemic to the island of New Guinea and far northern Cape York, Australia. The adults feed externally on leaves, developing fruit and green bark, but their impact as pests and general host use patterns are poorly known. Working in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea, we carried out structured host use surveys, farmer surveys, shade-house growth trials and on-farm and on-station impact trials to: (i) estimate the host range of the local Oribius species; (ii) understand adult daily activity patterns; (iii) elucidate feeding habits of the soil dwelling larvae; and (iv) quantify the impacts of adult feeding damage. Oribius inimicus and O. destructor accounted for nearly all the Oribius species encountered locally, of these two O. inimicus was the most abundant. Weevils were collected from 31 of 33 plants surveyed in the Aiyura Valley, and a combination of farmer interviews and literature records provided evidence for the beetles being pestiferous on 43 crops currently or previously grown in the Highlands. Adult weevils had a distinct diurnal pattern of being in the upper plant canopy early in the morning and, to a lesser extent, again late in the afternoon. For the remainder of the day, beetles resided within the canopy, or possibly off the plant. Movement of adults between plants appeared frequent. Pot trials confirmed the larvae are root feeders. Quantified impact studies showed that the weevils are damaging to a range of vegetable and orchard crops (broccoli, capsicum, celery, French bean, Irish potato, lettuce, orange and strawberry), causing average yield losses of around 30-40%, but up to 100% on citrus. Oribius weevils pose a significant and, apparently, growing problem for Highland's agriculture. PMID:19366475

  11. Overwintering, Oviposition, and Larval Survival of Hunting Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Implications for Adult Damage in North Carolina Turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Diane Silcox; Reynolds, William Casey; Brandenburg, Rick L

    2016-02-01

    The hunting billbug, Sphenophorus venatus vestitus Chittenden, is one of the most widely recognized billbug turfgrass pests. Since 2000, damage to warm-season turfgrass caused by hunting bill bugs has increased and a need for information on hunting billbug biology is necessary for the development of management plans. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to collect data on overwintering, oviposition behavior, larval survival at various levels of soil moisture, and adult damage. Turfgrass samples from ‘Tifway 419’ bermudagrass(Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers x Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt Davy) on golf courses were collected to determine overwintering behavior, and 10 female adult billbugs were collected weekly to determine oviposition behavior.Survival of medium-sized larvae (head capsule width: 1.0 and 1.7 mm) was evaluated in containers with 20, 40,60, or 80% of the total pore space occupied by water. Zero, two, four, or six adult billbugs were placed in bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, or tall fescue containers and images were collected for 4 weeks to determine adult damage. We observed that hunting billbugs overwinter as adults and all larval sizes. Adults became active in March and began to oviposit, which continued through October. Larval mortality was lowest with 20% of the total pores pace occupied by water, while increases in moisture caused significant mortality. Adults caused a greater reduction in warm-season turfgrass cover than cool-season turfgrass cover. This research builds on the existing biological information for the hunting billbug biology in transition zones and will be pivotal in developing practical and sustainable management plans. PMID:26567333

  12. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited. PMID:23575015

  13. Comparison of application methods for suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with Beauveria bassiana under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2008-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin is pathogenic to C. caryae. One approach to managing C. caryae may be application of B. bassiana directed toward adult weevils as they emerge from the soil to attack nuts in the tree canopy. Our objective was to compare different application methods for suppression of C. caryae adults. Treatments included direct application of B. bassiana (GHA strain) to soil under the tree canopy, soil application followed by cultivation, soil application in conjunction with a cover crop (Sudan grass), direct application to the tree trunk, and application to the trunk with an UV radiation-protecting adjuvant. The study was conducted in a pecan orchard in Byron, GA, in 2005 and 2006. Naturally emerging C. caryae adults, caught after crawling to the trunk, were transported to the laboratory to determine percentage mortality and signs of mycosis. When averaged over the 15-d sampling period, weevil mortality and signs of mycosis were greater in all treatments than in the nontreated control in 2005 and 2006; >75% average mortality was observed with the trunk application both years and in the trunk application with UV protection in 2005. Results indicated trunk applications can produce superior efficacy relative to ground application, particularly if the ground application is followed by cultivation. Efficacy in the cover crop treatment, however, did not differ from other application approaches. Future research should focus on elucidating the causes for treatment differences we observed and the extent to which B. bassiana-induced C. caryae mortality reduces crop damage. PMID:18348807

  14. Occurrence of species of the genus Pityophthorus Eichhoff (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in the province of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Valentin; Morneau, Louis; Piché, Céline; Deshaies, André; Bauce, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Twig beetles in the genus Pityophthorus Eichhoff, 1864 include more than 300 species worldwide, with maximum diversity in tropical and subtropical regions. To date, approximately 50 species of Pityophthorus have been recorded in Canada, and these species are associated mainly with coniferous trees. Since 1981, no comprehensive study on this difficult taxonomic group has been conducted in Quebec, Canada, most likely due to their limited significance as forest pests. Based on data gathered from five years of field sampling in conifer seed orchards and compiled from various entomological collections, the distribution of Pityophthorus species in Quebec is presented. Approximately 291 new localities were recorded for the Pityophthorus species. Five species-group taxa, namely Pityophthorus puberulus (LeConte, 1868), Pityophthorus pulchellus pulchellus Eichhoff, 1869, Pityophthorus pulicarius (Zimmermann, 1868), Pityophthorus nitidus Swaine, 1917,and Pityophthorus cariniceps LeConte&Horn, 1876 were the most widespread. In contrast, Pityophthorus consimilis LeConte, 1878, Pityophthorus intextus Swaine, 1917, Pityophthorus dentifrons Blackman, 1922, Pityophthorus ramiperda Swaine, 1917, and Pityophthorus concavus Blackman, 1928 display a notably limited distribution. In addition, the first distribution records of Pityophthorus intextus and Pityophthorus biovalis Blackman, 1922 are furnished, and the subspecies Pityophthorus murrayanae murrayanae Blackman, 1922is reported from Quebec for the second time. Moreover, distribution maps are provided for all Pityophthorus species recorded in the province of Quebec. PMID:24294076

  15. Genetic diversity of Brazilian natural populations of Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the major cotton pest in the New World.

    PubMed

    Martins, W F S; Ayres, C F J; Lucena, W A

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five RAPD loci and 6 isozyme loci were studied to characterize the genetic variability of natural populations of Anthonomus grandis from two agroecosystems of Brazil. The random-amplified polymorphic DNA data disclosed a polymorphism that varied from 52 to 84% and a heterozygosity of 0.189 to 0.347. The index of genetic differentiation (GST) among the six populations was 0.258. The analysis of isozymes showed a polymorphism and a heterozygosity ranging from 25 to 100% and 0.174 to 0.277, respectively. The genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations obtained by isozyme data was 0.544. It was possible to observe rare alleles in the populations from the Northeast region. The markers examined allowed us to distinguish populations from large-scale, intensive farming region (cotton belts) versus populations from areas of small-scale farming

  16. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  17. Species diversity, phenology, and temporal flight patterns of Hypothenemus pygmy borers (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypothenemus are some of the most common and diverse bark beetles in natural as well as urban habitats, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Despite their ecological success and ubiquitous presence, very little is known about the habits of this genus. This study aimed to understand sp...

  18. History of the Exotic Ambrosia Beetles Euwallacea interjectus and Euwallacea validus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Xyleborini) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cognato, Anthony I; Hoebeke, E Richard; Kajimura, Hisashi; Smith, Sarah M

    2015-06-01

    Exotic insects are constantly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry. Of these, wood-boring beetles, particularly xyleborine ambrosia beetles, are sometimes missed during port inspections and become established in the United States. Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff) and Euwallacea interjectus (Blandford) are morphologically similar Asian ambrosia beetle species that vary by their fungal associates and their potential to cause economic damage. Euwallacea validus and E. interjectus were first discovered in New York (1975) and Hawaii (1976), respectively. Euwallacea validus was collected multiple times from widely separated localities and is assumed to have spread throughout the eastern United States. The discovery of E. interjectus in Florida (2011) and Texas (2011) prompted our review of the E. validus specimens because of the potential misidentification of the species. In addition, using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA data and phylogenetic analysis, we tested the hypothesis that multiple introductions account for the U.S. populations of E. interjectus and E. validus. Our review of 7,184 specimens revealed an earlier introduction to the mainland for E. interjectus, which was first collected from Louisiana in 1984. This species is distributed in the South while E. validus occurs in the North with a known area of syntopy in northeastern Georgia. The extent of the syntopy within the United States is unknown and further investigation is required. Phylogenetic analysis of 24 E. interjectus and 20 E. validus individuals resolved clades that associated with each species and gross geographic provenance. Four well-supported clades represented E. interjectus which included the following localities: 1) Hawaii and Thailand; 2) Vietnam, Taiwan, and Texas; 3) Okinawa (Japan); and 4) Japan and several southern U.S. states. One clade comprised all E. validus specimens from Japan and the mainland United States. Four and two haplotypes were found for the E. interjectus and E. validus specimens, respectively, in mainland United States. Except for the Texas specimen, the haplotypes differed by one nucleotide. The relationship of the haplotypes and their sequence similarity suggested that the provenance of E. validus and the majority of E. interjectus haplotypes was Japan while the Texas haplotype originated later and from a location near Taiwan. Given the high nucleotide sequence difference between the Hawaiian and Thai haplotypes, the exact origin of the Hawaiian E. interjectus is unknown but likely Southeast Asia. A broader investigation including more SE Asian individuals will help to further explain the introduction of E. interjectus into Hawaii and Texas.

  19. Improving the evaluation process of Cosmobaris scolopacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a prospective biocontrol agent of Salsola tragus, using a molecular approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian thistle, Salsola tragus L. (sensu lato), (Chenopodiaceae) is a weed native to Central Asia that was accidentally introduced in the U.S. in the early 1870s with seeds imported from Russia. Due to the dramatic impacts of its invasiveness on ecology and human activities, the weed has been targe...

  20. Expression of Heat Shock Protein Genes in Different Developmental Stages and After Temperature Stress in the Maize Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Tungjitwitayakul, Jatuporn; Tatun, Nujira; Vajarasathira, Boongeua; Sakurai, Sho

    2015-06-01

    The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, is a major pest of rice and other postharvest grain stocks in tropical countries. Heating and cooling treatments have been adopted to control this pest. Because heat shock protein (hsp) genes respond to temperature stress, we examined the association of hsp genes with development and thermal stress in S. zeamais. The temperature response of the insect to heat and cold treatments was assessed at four developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. LT50 values at high temperatures were similar among the four developmental stages, while adults were the most tolerant to low temperatures, and eggs, larvae, and pupae exhibited similar LT50 values. Expression levels of three hsps--Szhsp70, Szhsc70, and Szhsp90--fluctuated substantially throughout the four stages at a rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat shock and cold shock increased the expression of all three hsps, and the highest upregulation was observed at 40°C, although the intensity of upregulation varied among the three genes: strongly in Szhsp70, moderately in Szhsp90, and slightly in Szhsc70. Basal expression of the three hsps at 28°C and gene responses to heat and cold shock also varied significantly at the tissue level.

  1. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited.

  2. North American Lauraceae: Terpenoid Emissions, Relative Attraction and Boring Preferences of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Kendra, Paul E.; Montgomery, Wayne S.; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ploetz, Randy C.; Epsky, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were positively correlated with attraction, and EAG analyses confirmed chemoreception of terpenoids by antennal receptors of X. glabratus. PMID:25007073

  3. The subtribes and genera of the tribe Listroderini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae): Phylogenetic analysis with systematic and biogeographical accounts

    PubMed Central

    Morrone, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The phylogenetic relationships of the genera of Listroderini LeConte, 1876 are analyzed based on 58 morphological characters. The genera are grouped in four clades, which are given subtribal status: Macrostyphlina new subtribe (Adioristidius, Amathynetoides, Andesianellus, Macrostyphlus, Nacodius and Puranius), Palaechthina Brinck, 1948 (Anorthorhinus, Gunodes, Haversiella, Inaccodes, Listronotus, Neopachytychius, Palaechthus, Palaechtodes, Steriphus and Tristanodes), Falklandiina new subtribe (Falklandiellus, Falklandiopsis, Falklandius, Gromilus, Lanteriella, Liparogetus, Nestrius and Telurus), and Listroderina (Acroriellus, Acrorius, Acrostomus, Antarctobius, Germainiellus, Hyperoides, Lamiarhinus, Listroderes, Methypora, Philippius, Rupanius and Trachodema). The subtribes are characterized and keys to identify them and their genera are provided. Listroderini have four main biogeographical patterns: Andean (Macrostyphlina), Andean-New Zealand (Falklandiina), Andean-Neotropical-Australian (Listroderina) and Andean-Neotropical-Australian-New Zealand-Nearctic-Tristan da Cunha-Gough islands (Palaechthina). Geographical paralogy, particularly evident in the Subantarctic subregion of the Andean region, suggests that Listroderini are an ancient Gondwanic group, in which several extinction events might have obscured relationships among the areas. PMID:23794805

  4. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W.; Eyun, Seong-il; Noriega, Daniel D.; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest. PMID:26949943

  5. Molecular systematics and evolution in an African cycad-weevil interaction: Amorphocerini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae) weevils on Encephalartos.

    PubMed

    Downie, D A; Donaldson, J S; Oberprieler, R G

    2008-04-01

    Weevils in the tribe Amorphocerini have been implicated in pollination of Encephalartos species in southern Africa. The services they render these plants and the unique attributes of the cycad-weevil interaction make them important from both conservation and evolutionary standpoints. Oberprieler [Oberprieler, R.G., 1996. Systematics and evolution of the tribe Amorphocerini, with a review of the cycad weevils of the world. Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa], using morphological characters, proposed a tentative hypothesis of relationships among the Amorphocerini which is tested here using DNA sequence data. Sequences from one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were used to infer phylogenetic relationships, levels of sequence divergence, evolution of host associations, and patterns of speciation in this tribe. The results are reasonably consistent with the morphological hypothesis of relationships and species concepts, though important differences are observed, particularly in relationships among a Porthetes hispidus Boheman species group, which is indicated to have experienced recent divergences. In general, low levels of sequence divergence among species within two of the three genera indicate a recent radiation of this tribe onto African cycads, thus while cycad-insect interactions have often been considered ancient this may not be the case for some extant interactions. A complex pattern of host shifts onto both closely related and more distantly related hosts is suggested. PMID:18328737

  6. Flightless Notaris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Brachycerinae: Erirhinini) in Southwest China: monophyly, mtDNA phylogeography and evolution of habitat associations.

    PubMed

    Grebennikov, Vasily V; Kolov, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the recent discovery of flightless populations of weevils of the genus Notaris in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China. Specimens were found in the middle or high altitude mountains (2440-4195 m), by either sifting leaf litter in the deciduous forest and among alpine Rhododendron shrubs, or by turning rocks in the alpine zone. These finds extend southwards the Asian range of this Holarctic genus and report its highest altitudinal records. DNA barcodes of 127 specimens were phylogenetically analysed, of them 42 are those of newly discovered Notaris from Southwest China. The genera Notaris and Tournotaris consistently formed a clade, with Tournotaris nested inside Notaris in Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) analysis. The newly discovered flightless Notaris from Southwest China were either monophyletic (MP) or paraphyletic with respect to volant Holarctic N. aethiops (ML); the latter placement being likely an artefact. A strict linear molecular clock approach suggests a pre-Pliocene separation of Notaris populations in Southwest China. Habitat associations of these high-altitude flightless Notaris contrast sharply with that of the predominantly volant lowland riparian Notaris and other Erirhinini. We hypothesis that evolution of habitat selection in Notaris went from lowland riparian, to high altitude (via uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions of Central Asia), and then to forest leaf litter (via subsequent erosions of isolated mountains such as Emei Shan in Sichuan losing the alpine zone and forcing Notaris into the forest floor). Taxonomic uncertainty of Asian Notaris is addressed and remains unresolved due to uninformative morphology and conflicting DNA signal. Identities of two obscure and likely closely related species, Notaroides brevirostris and Notaris kozlovi from nearby SE Qinghai and NW Sichuan, respectively, are discussed and illustrated. Pending further research, all reported flightless Notaris from Yunnan and Sichuan are hypothesised to form a clade, for which the available name N. kozlovi is used. Habitus and genitalia of Notaris specimens from the newly detected populations are illustrated. PMID:27394798

  7. The Effect of Acclimation to Sublethal Temperature on Subsequent Susceptibility of Sitophilus zeamais Mostchulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to High Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jianhua; Zhang, Huina

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatment is a popular alternative to synthetic pesticides in disinfesting food-processing facilities and empty grain storages. Sitophilus zeamais Mostchulsky is one of the most cosmopolitan and destructive insects found in empty grain storage facilities and processing facilities. The effect of acclimation in S. zeamais adults to sublethal high temperature on their subsequent susceptibility to high temperatures was investigated. S. zeamais adults were acclimated to 36°C for 0 (as a control), 1, 3, and 5 h, and then were exposed at 43, 47, 51, and 55°C for different time intervals respectively. Acclimation to sublethal high temperature significantly reduced subsequent susceptibility of S. zeamais adults to lethal high temperatures of 43, 47, 51, and 55°C, although the mortality of S. zeamais adults significantly increased with increasing exposure time at lethal high temperatures. The mortality of S. zeamais adults with 1, 3, and 5 h of acclimation to 36°C was significantly lower than that of S. zeamais adults without acclimation when exposed to the same lethal high temperatures. The present results suggest that the whole facility should be heated to target lethal high temperature as soon as possible, avoiding decreasing the control effectiveness of heat treatment due to the acclimation in stored product insects to sublethal temperature. PMID:27462906

  8. Taxonomic review of the genus Rhinoncomimus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Ceutorhynchinae) with description of a new species from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junhao; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Zhang, Runzhi; Ito, Motomi

    2013-12-18

    The genus Rhinoncomimus Wagner, 1940 includes seven species from Eastern Asia. One new species, Rh. continuus sp. nov. from Yunnan, China, is described. Habitus photos, illustrations and descriptions of all species except Rh. rubripes Korotyaev, 2006 (a possible junior synonym of R. niger Chûjô and Morimoto, 1959) are provided in detail, as well as key to species and distribution maps. In addition, the host plant of the type species Rh. klapperichi Wagner, 1940, Polygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae) is newly recorded.

  9. Species composition of leaf beetle assemblages in the canopies of apple and pear orchards in Hungary and Great Britain (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Vig, K; Markó, V

    2004-01-01

    The species richness and species composition of Coleoptera assemblages were investigated in the canopies of apple and pear orchards in Hungary and in the apple orchards in Great Britain. The investigations were carried out in Hungary (Nagykovácsi: 3 plots, Kecskemét: 5 plots, Sárospatak: 4 plots) between 1990-94, and in Great Britain in Kent (East Malling, Marden and Robertsbridge) in 2001 and 2002. Former investigations in Hungary revealed that the diversity of Coleoptera assemblages in the canopy of apple and pear orchard were surprisingly high. As a result of our investigations it was found that altogether 324 species, almost 3% of the Hungarian beetle fauna were represented: 253 species in apple orchards and 188 species in pear orchards. Similar results were obtained in the investigations carried out in Great Britain between 2001-2002. In Hungary, the majority of the species belonged to the families Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae and Coccinelidae. The proportion of leaf beetles varied between 15 and 20%. The most common leaf beetle species in the canopy of the commercial orchards were Phyllotreta vittula, Phyllotreta atra, Phyllotreta nigripes, Oulemta melanopus, and Aphthona euphorbiae. In the abandoned orchards the most common species were Luperus xanthopoda, Smaragdina salicina and Orsodacne liieola. In Great Britain 44 leaf beetle species were found in the canopies of the investigated orchards. The species with higher abundance were Aphthona euphorbiae. Chaetocnema concinna and Longitarsus parvulus. We concluded, that leaf beetles give high part of the orchard canopy biodiversity and sometimes occur with high species richness and abundance. However, the reasons of their occurrence and their potential role are poorly known.

  10. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.

  11. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera. PMID:26911160

  12. Revision of Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alpine flea beetle genus Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) is revised. Twenty new species, namely B. chilalla, B. dochula, B. ha, B. nobding, B. thumsila and B. yatongla from Bhutan, B. belousovi, B. cangshanicus, B. kabaki, B. kurbatovi, B. nigrinus, B. sichuanensis a...

  13. Methiini and Oemini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Methiini (Tessaropa hispaniolae Lingafelter, Methia dolichoptera) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Hispaniola are diagnosed, described, and illustrated. The Dominican Republic represents a New Country Record for Malacopterus tenellus (Fabricius) (Oemini), and all hispaniolan local...

  14. New synonymy in Cuban Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....

  15. Tumidusternus, a new genus of Aspidimerini from China (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Lizhi; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Xiaosheng; Wang, Xingmin; Ren, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tumidusternus gen. n., along with Tumidusternus fujianensis sp. n. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Aspidimerini) from China is described and illustrated. A key to the tribe Aspidimerini is given. PMID:26257552

  16. The Lesser of Two Weevils: Molecular-Genetics of Pest Palm Weevil Populations Confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a Valid Species Distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and Reveal the Global Extent of Both

    PubMed Central

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Hoddle, Christina D.; Hoddle, Mark S.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW) is a major pest of palms. It is native to southeast Asia and Melanesia, but in recent decades has vastly expanded its range as the result of multiple accidental anthropogenic introductions into the Middle East, Mediterranean Basin, Caribbean, and U.S.A. Currently regarded as a single species, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), RPW displays remarkable color variation across its range, and consequently has a taxonomic history littered with new species descriptions and synonymization. We compared DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from RPW populations throughout the native and invaded ranges, to investigate the specific status and invasion history of this serious economic pest, and to identify possible common routes of entry. Analyses of COI haplotype data provide conclusive support, corroborated by sequences of additional nuclear gene regions, for the existence of at least two predominantly allopatric species. The true R. ferrugineus is native only to the northern and western parts of continental southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and the Philippines, and is responsible for almost all invasive populations worldwide. In contrast, the second species, which is currently synonymized under R. ferrugineus and should be resurrected under the name R. vulneratus (Panzer), has a more southern distribution across Indonesia, and is responsible for only one invasive population; that in California, U.S.A. The distribution of COI haplotypes is used to discuss the possible existence of further cryptic species, sources and routes of entry of different invasive populations, and the implications of our findings for current control methods. PMID:24143263

  17. Efficacy of deltamethrin against stored-product beetles at short exposure intervals or on a partially-treated rice mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stored product insects can potentially be exposed to grain protectants for variable time periods. Adults of six species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the red flour beetle, ...

  18. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization.

  19. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L

    2012-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs.

  20. Capture of Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford), Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), and other Scolytinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in response to green light emitting diodes, ethanol, and conophthorin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-native ambrosia beetles are increasingly being recognized as significant pests of ornamental trees, particularly, Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky). Olfactory and visual cues play an important role during host location by ambrosia beetles. Ethanol-baited t...

  1. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  2. Irradiation as a methyl bromide alternative for postharvest control of Omphisa anastomosalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Euscepes postfasciatus and Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    Irradiation studies were conducted with three sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., pests to determine an effective dose for quarantine control. Dose-response tests indicated that the most radiotolerant stage occurring in roots was the pupa of sweetpotato vine borer, Omphisa anastomosalis (Guenee), and the adult of West Indian sweetpotato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), and sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers). In large-scale confirmatory tests, irradiation of 60,000 C. formicarius elegantulus adults, 62,323 E. postfasciatus adults, and 30,282 O. anastomosalis pupae at a dose of 150 Gy resulted in no production of F1 adults, demonstrating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a basic Cysteine-like protease (Cathespsin L1) expressed in the gut of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus is an important pest that causes extensive damage to citrus in the USA. Analysis of an expressed sequence tag (EST) library from the digestive tract of larvae and adult D. abbreviatus identified cathepsins as major putative digestive enzymes. One class, sharing amino acid seque...

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitogenome sequence of the raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), supports monophyly of the tribe Aterpini.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Brandt, Marco A; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan D

    2015-10-25

    The superfamily Curculionoidea is one of the most diverse groups of insects in the world, including many species which are crop pests. Within this group, the native raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin, 1830), is an important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in southern South America. Using a 454 sequencing approach, we sequenced and annotated the mitogenome of A. superciliosus, it, providing the first such information for any species in the tribe Aterpini, subfamily Cyclominae. The assembled mitogenome is a circular DNA molecule 15,121bp in length containing all 37 genes normally found in metazoans. Mitogenome organization and transcriptional orientation in A. superciliosus showed the same pattern that characterizes the suborder Polyphaga. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of the tribe Aterpini and the subfamily Cyclominae, recovering this clade in a sister group relationship with Entiminae and Hyperinae. The monophyly of these three subfamilies defines a critical transition to an ectophagous lifestyle in the larvae, from an ancestrally endophagous larval lifestyle in all other lineages. The sequenced mitogenome of A. superciliosus can provide basic data for future studies investigating population history, molecular systematics, stress ecophysiology and phylogeography.

  5. Effects of tillage practices on pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L., Coleoptera: Curculionidae) biology and crop damage: a farm-scale study in the US Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Hanavan, R P; Bosque-Pérez, N A

    2012-12-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L., is periodically a significant pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in the Palouse region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA. Previous on-station research demonstrated significantly greater adult pea leaf weevil colonization, immature survival, adult emergence and plant damage in conventional-tillage compared to no-tillage plots of pea. In experiments conducted during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, aerial and ground adult pea leaf weevil colonization of large-scale commercial pea fields under different tillage regimes in northern Idaho and eastern Washington was examined for the first time. Initial pea leaf weevil feeding damage, immature weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence from the fields were also assessed. During both years, significantly more adult pea leaf weevils were captured in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage fields during the crop establishment period in May. No-tillage soils remained wet longer in the spring and could not be planted by growers until later than conventional-tillage fields. Pea planted under conventional-tillage emerged earlier and had significantly greater feeding damage by the pea leaf weevil than no-tillage pea. Significantly, greater immature pea leaf weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence were observed in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage pea fields. Delayed development of root nodules in the cooler, moister conditions of no-tillage pea fields likely resulted in escape from attack and injury during the critical growth stages that ultimately influence yield. Results indicate that large-scale commercial no-tillage pea fields are less suitable for colonization and survival of the pea leaf weevil and suffer less weevil damage than fields under conventional tillage.

  6. Morphology and identification of the mature larvae of several species of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from Central Europe with an update of the life history traits.

    PubMed

    Gosik, Rafał; Sprick, Peter; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Deruś, Magdalena; Hommes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The mature larvae of 14 Otiorhynchus taxa are described: O. (Otiorhynchus) armadillo (Rossi, 1792), O. (Nehrodistus) armatus Boheman, 1846, O. (Otiorhynchus) aurifer Boheman, 1843, O. (Pocodalemes) crataegi Germar, 1824, Otiorhynchus (Arammichnus) indefinitus Reitter, 1912 (syn. O. dieckmanni Magnano, 1979), O. (Choilisanus) raucus (Fa-bricius, 1777) and 3 taxa of the O. (Otiorhynchus) tenebricosus complex (Herbst, 1784), O. (Otiorhynchus) clavipes (Bonsdorff, 1785), O. (Otiorhynchus) fuscipes (Olivier, 1807) and O. (Otiorhynchus) lugdunensis Boheman, 1843, are described and illustrated for the first time. The larvae of (Otiorhynchus) meridionalis Gyllenhal, 1834, O. (Pendragon) ovatus (Linnaeus, 1758), O. (Zustalestus) rugosostriatus (Goeze, 1777), O. (Metopiorrhynchus) singularis (Linnaeus, 1767), and O. (Dorymerus) sulcatus (Fabricius, 1775) are redescribed and illustrated, and new characters are added. Important characters of the mature larvae (e.g. chaetotaxy, shape of head and body) are explained in detail and illustrated. A key to the identification of the mature larvae of 19 Otiorhynchus taxa is provided. Breeding and collecting data of the larvae are given, and the study is completed by a current overview on the life histories of all treated species. PMID:27394846

  7. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) response to and volitilization rates of grandlure when combined with varying doses of eugenol in the extended-life pheromone lure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevil extended-life pheromone lures, impregnated with 25 mg grandlure and 30 mg eugenol, are replacing standard pheromone lures (10 mg grandlure) in boll weevil eradication programs, to increase the changing interval from 2 weeks, to 3 or 4 weeks, which reduces labor and material costs. The a...

  8. Revision of Bondariella Hustache & Bondar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with descriptions of the first species from the Amazon and notes on natural history.

    PubMed

    Valente, Roberta De Melo; Cordeiro Júnior, Mariano Brandão

    2015-09-15

    Bondariella Hustache & Bondar, 1942 is revised. In addition to the redescription of the genus and its four previously known species, we report and describe the first species from the Amazonian region: Bondariella rudicula sp. nov. and Bondariella crenata sp. nov. We also provide a key to the species, illustrations and notes on natural history. All six species of Bondariella have been collected on palm flowers from Brazil, with the previously known species having only been recorded from species of Syagrus Mart. from the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga biomes. The two new species have only been recorded from species of Euterpe Mart. from the Amazon biome. Future work may prove if the associations with Syagrus and Euterpe are specific to the biomes.

  9. Electroantennographic responses of the lesser chestnut weevil curculio sayi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to volatile organic compounds identified from chestnut reproductive plant tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary insect pest of the developing chestnut industry in the central United States is the lesser chestnut weevil, Curculio sayi (Gyllenhal), which is a specialist on only Castanea trees. Recent research has shown this insect is attracted to and feeds upon the reproductive tissues of the chestn...

  10. Efficiency of Tank-Mixing Insecticide with Defoliant Against Adult Boll Weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) Populations as Determined by Late-Season Field Disturbance Trapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large commercial field plots were used to assess the effect of tank-mixing cyfluthrin with a defoliant applied in preparation for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., harvest on adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, populations in south Texas during 2002 and 2003. The defoliant-insectici...

  11. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  12. Severe White Pine Blister Rust Infection in Whitebark Pine Alters Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack Density, Emergence Rate, and Body Size.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Edith M; Six, Diana L

    2015-10-01

    Exotic tree pathogens can cause devastating ecological effects on forests that can be exacerbated when infections increase the likelihood of attack by insects. Current high rates of mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) are due to white pine blister rust caused by the exotic fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch, and the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). These two mortality agents interact in whitebark pine; mountain pine beetle preferentially selects white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine over healthy trees, and likelihood of attack has been observed to increase with infection severity. We examined attack and emergence rates, and size and sex ratio of mountain pine beetle in whitebark pines exhibiting varying white pine blister rust infection severities. Mountain pine beetle attack density was lowest on the most severely infected trees, but emergence rates and size of beetles from these trees were greater than those from uninfected and less severely infected trees. Low attack rates on severely infected whitebark pine may indicate these trees have lower defenses and that fewer beetle attacks are needed to kill them. Higher beetle emergence rates from severely infected trees may be due to low intraspecific competition resulting from low attack rates or differences in nutrient quality.

  13. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in this new host. PMID:24688833

  14. Sublethal Exposure to Clove and Cinnamon Essential Oils Induces Hormetic-Like Responses and Disturbs Behavioral and Respiratory Responses in Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Faroni, Lêda R A; Guedes, Daniela C; Miranda, Natalie N S

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils have been suggested as suitable alternatives for controlling insect pests. However, the potential adaptive responses elicited in insects for mitigating the actions of these compounds have not received adequate attention. Furthermore, as is widely reported with traditional insecticides, sublethal exposure to essential oils might induce stimulatory responses or contribute to the development of resistance strategies that can compromise the management of insect pests. The current study evaluated the locomotory and respiratory responses as well as the number of larvae per grain produced by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, after being sublethally exposed to the essential oils of clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. The essential oils showed similar insecticidal toxicity (exposure route: contact with dried residues; Clove LC95 = 3.96 [2.78-6.75] µl/cm(2); Cinnamon LC95 = 3.47 [2.75-4.73] µl/cm(2)). A stimulatory effect on the median survival time (TL50) was observed when insects were exposed to low concentrations of each oil. Moreover, a higher number of larvae per grain was produced under sublethal exposure to clove essential oil. S. zeamais avoided the treated areas (in free-choice experiments) and altered their mobility when sublethally exposed to both essential oils. The respiratory rates of S. zeamais (i.e., CO2 production) were significantly reduced under low concentrations of the essential oils. We recommend the consideration of the potential sublethal effects elicited by botanical pesticides during the development of integrated pest management programs aiming to control S. zeamais.

  15. Nematodes of Rhynchophorus palmarum, L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), vector of the Red Ring Disease in coconut plantations from the north of the Rio de Janeiro State.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, J A S; de Moraes Neto, A H A; Miguens, F C

    2008-05-01

    Rhynchophorus palmarum, the palm weevil, has been reported as a pest of palms and sugarcane plants. The Red Ring Disease is an infectious plant disease caused by nematodes. The etiological agent, Bursaphelencus (Rhadinaphelencus) cocophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), completes its life cycle within 9 to 10 days inside the palm tree. The main symptom is a permanent wilting of the plant aerial parts. Previous studies stated that B. cocophilus cohabits with other nematodes the gut of R. palmarum. The aim of this study is to identify nematodes collected from palm weevil found in coconut plantations from the north of the Rio de Janeiro State. Light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were carried on samples of infected R. palmarum and fragments and fresh juice of infected plants with B. cocophilus. Observations of R. palmarum fecal material made by LM and SEM showed three species cohabiting these samples, being also present in fresh juice and fragments of infected coconut tree: B. cocophilus, Teratorhabditis palmarum (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) and Diplogasteritus sp (Nematoda: Diplogasteridae). These findings confirm previous studies, which related that R. palmarum own a varied nematode fauna. Nematodes associated to B. cocophilus probably could be co-participates of the etiology of the Red Ring disease. PMID:18278512

  16. A taxonomic revision of Limnobaris Bedel in the strict sense (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Baridinae), with particular emphasis on the species found in China

    PubMed Central

    Prena, Jens; Korotyaev, Boris; Wang, Zhiliang; Ren, Li; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus name Limnobaris Bedel is applied in a restricted sense to baridine weevils with a covered pygidium and non-prominent, decussate mandibles which occur on sedges in the Palaearctic Region and immediately adjacent parts of tropical Southeast Asia. Calyptopygus Marshall and Pertorcus Voss are syn. n. of Limnobaris. Some species from Africa and the Americas are maintained provisionally in Limnobaris in the widest sense but will need to be transferred to other genera in future studies. A total of eleven species is recognized in Asia, two of which are widespread and occur also in the Western Palaearctic Region. Limnobaris martensi Korotyaev sp. n. is described from Nepal. Pertorcus tibialis basalis Voss is raised to species rank, as L. basalis (stat. prom.). New or reestablished synonyms are L. dolorosa (Goeze) (= L. jucunda Reitter, = L. koltzei Reitter), L. tibialis (Voss) (= Pertorcus tibialis pilifer Voss) and L. t-album (Linnaeus) (= L. bedeli Reitter, = Baridius crocopelmus Gyllenhal, = L. sahlbergi Reitter, = L. scutellaris Reitter, = Baris t-album sculpturata Faust). Calandra uniseriata Dufour is considered a junior synonym of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (syn. n.). A key for identification and a distribution map are provided. PMID:25061346

  17. Sublethal Exposure to Clove and Cinnamon Essential Oils Induces Hormetic-Like Responses and Disturbs Behavioral and Respiratory Responses in Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Faroni, Lêda R A; Guedes, Daniela C; Miranda, Natalie N S

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils have been suggested as suitable alternatives for controlling insect pests. However, the potential adaptive responses elicited in insects for mitigating the actions of these compounds have not received adequate attention. Furthermore, as is widely reported with traditional insecticides, sublethal exposure to essential oils might induce stimulatory responses or contribute to the development of resistance strategies that can compromise the management of insect pests. The current study evaluated the locomotory and respiratory responses as well as the number of larvae per grain produced by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, after being sublethally exposed to the essential oils of clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. The essential oils showed similar insecticidal toxicity (exposure route: contact with dried residues; Clove LC95 = 3.96 [2.78-6.75] µl/cm(2); Cinnamon LC95 = 3.47 [2.75-4.73] µl/cm(2)). A stimulatory effect on the median survival time (TL50) was observed when insects were exposed to low concentrations of each oil. Moreover, a higher number of larvae per grain was produced under sublethal exposure to clove essential oil. S. zeamais avoided the treated areas (in free-choice experiments) and altered their mobility when sublethally exposed to both essential oils. The respiratory rates of S. zeamais (i.e., CO2 production) were significantly reduced under low concentrations of the essential oils. We recommend the consideration of the potential sublethal effects elicited by botanical pesticides during the development of integrated pest management programs aiming to control S. zeamais. PMID:26318008

  18. Genetic Profiling to Determine Potential Origins of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Captured in a Texas Eradication Zone: Endemicity, Immigration, or Sabotage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five specimens of adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, were captured nearly simultaneously in pheromone traps clustered near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone in late summer 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earl...

  19. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  20. (1R,2S,6R)-Papayanal: a new male-specific volatile compound released by the guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Romero-Frías, Alicia; Murata, Yasuhiro; Simões Bento, José Maurício; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-05-01

    The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii is an aggressive pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.) that causes irreparable damages inside the fruit. The volatile compounds of male and female insects were separately collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction or with dynamic headspace collection on a polymer sorbent, and comparatively analyzed by GC-MS. (1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (papayanol), and (1R,2S,6R)-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane-2-carbaldehyde (papayanal) were identified (ratio of 9:1, respectively) as male-specific guava weevil volatiles. Papayanal structure was confirmed by comparison of spectroscopic (EIMS) and chromatographic (retention time) data with those of the synthetic pure compound. The behavioral response of the above-mentioned compounds was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and their role as aggregation pheromone candidate components was suggested in this species. PMID:26873673

  1. Biology and preliminary host range of Hydrotimetes natans Kolbe (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)a natural enemy candidate for biological control of Cabomba caroliniana Gray (Cabombaceae) in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cabomba caroliniana Gray (Cabombaceae), otherwise known as cabomba or water fanwort, is a submerged, rooted macrophyte with heavily dissected leaves that produces flowers that extend above the water’s surface. It has been disseminated around the world through the aquarium trade and has become a nox...

  2. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in this new host.

  3. Temporal analysis of sesquiterpene emissions from manuka and phoebe oil lures and efficacy for attraction of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Niogret, Jerome; Montgomery, Wayne S; Sanchez, Jorge S; Deyrup, Mark A; Pruett, Grechen E; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2012-04-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-borer that vectors the fungal agent (Raffaelea lauricola) responsible for laurel wilt. Laurel wilt has had severe impact on forest ecosystems in the southeastern United States, killing a large proportion of native Persea trees, particularly redbay (P. borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris), and currently poses an economic threat to avocado (P. americana) in Florida. To control the spread of this lethal disease, effective attractants are needed for early detection of the vector. Two 12-wk field tests were conducted in Florida to evaluate efficacy and longevity of manuka and phoebe oil lures, and to relate captures of X. glabratus to release rates of putative sesquiterpene attractants. Two trap types were also evaluated, Lindgren funnel traps and sticky panel traps. To document lure emissions over time, a separate set of lures was aged outdoors for 12 wk and sampled periodically to quantify volatile sesquiterpenes using super-Q adsorbant and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. Phoebe lures captured significantly more X. glabratus than manuka lures, and sticky traps captured more beetles than funnel traps. Phoebe lures captured X. glabratus for 10-12 wk, but field life of manuka lures was 2-3 wk. Emissions of alpha-copaene, alpha-humulene, and cadinene were consistently higher from phoebe lures, particularly during the 2-3 wk window when manuka lures lost efficacy, suggesting that these sesquiterpenes are primary kairomones used by host-seeking females. Results indicate that the current monitoring system is suboptimal for early detection of X. glabratus because of rapid depletion of sesquiterpenes from manuka lures. PMID:22606839

  4. Effect of chipping on emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and recovery of the laurel wilt pathogen from infested wood chips.

    PubMed

    Spence, D J; Smith, J A; Ploetz, R; Hulcr, J; Stelinski, L L

    2013-10-01

    Significant mortality ofredbay trees (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) in the southeastern United States has been caused by Raffaelea lauricola, T.C. Harr., Fraedrich, & Aghayeva (Harrington et al. 2008), a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, Eichhoff (Fraedrich et al. 2008). This pathogen causes laurel wilt, which is an irreversible disease that can kill mature trees within a few weeks in summer. R. lauricola has been shown to be lethal to most native species of Lauraceae and cultivated avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the southeastern United States. In this study, we examined the survival of X. glabratus and R. lauricola in wood chips made from infested trees by using a standard tree chipper over a 10-wk period. After 2 wk, 14 X. glabratus were recovered from wood chips, whereas 339 X. glabratus emerged from nonchipped bolts. R. lauricola was not found 2 d postchipping from wood chips, indicating that the pathogen is not likely to survive for long inside wood chips. In contrast, R. lauricola persisted in dead, standing redbay trees for 14 mo. With large volumes of wood, the potential for infested logs to be moved between states or across U.S. borders is significant. Results demonstrated that chipping wood from laurel wilt-killed trees can significantly reduce the number of X. glabratus and limit the persistence of R. lauricola, which is important for sanitation strategies aimed at limiting the spread of this disease. PMID:24224251

  5. Nematodes of Rhynchophorus palmarum, L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), vector of the Red Ring Disease in coconut plantations from the north of the Rio de Janeiro State.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, J A S; de Moraes Neto, A H A; Miguens, F C

    2008-05-01

    Rhynchophorus palmarum, the palm weevil, has been reported as a pest of palms and sugarcane plants. The Red Ring Disease is an infectious plant disease caused by nematodes. The etiological agent, Bursaphelencus (Rhadinaphelencus) cocophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), completes its life cycle within 9 to 10 days inside the palm tree. The main symptom is a permanent wilting of the plant aerial parts. Previous studies stated that B. cocophilus cohabits with other nematodes the gut of R. palmarum. The aim of this study is to identify nematodes collected from palm weevil found in coconut plantations from the north of the Rio de Janeiro State. Light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were carried on samples of infected R. palmarum and fragments and fresh juice of infected plants with B. cocophilus. Observations of R. palmarum fecal material made by LM and SEM showed three species cohabiting these samples, being also present in fresh juice and fragments of infected coconut tree: B. cocophilus, Teratorhabditis palmarum (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) and Diplogasteritus sp (Nematoda: Diplogasteridae). These findings confirm previous studies, which related that R. palmarum own a varied nematode fauna. Nematodes associated to B. cocophilus probably could be co-participates of the etiology of the Red Ring disease.

  6. Field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes targeting caged last-instar plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Michigan cherry and apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Pereault, R J; Whalon, M E; Alston, D G

    2009-08-01

    The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst) is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern North America. We tested the efficacy of five pathogens over the course of three seasons in 10 Michigan apple and cherry orchards, with introductions of larvae to caged pots containing pathogen-treated soil. The nematode Steinernema riobrave was the most effective pathogen in the 2 yr it was tested, but only in soils with the highest sand content (81-88%) and when it was applied 1 h or 5 d after last instars of plum curculio. S. carpocapsae in an organic formulation was less effective, but significantly reduced plum curculio emergence in 1 yr of the study when applied 3 d before C. nenuphar larvae were introduced. Beauveria bassiana was effective in only 1 of the 3 yr it was tested, only in soils with lower sand content, and only when it was introduced within 1 h of plum curculio larvae. Metarhizium anisopliae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were ineffective. Michigan orchards may require sprinkler irrigation coupled with precise timing recommendations and oviposition monitoring to enhance entomopathogen application efficacy against soil-dwelling last instars. PMID:19689891

  7. Cumulative impact of a clover cover crop on the persistence and efficacy of Beauveria bassiana in suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Wood, Bruce W

    2012-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Endemic levels of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin can occur in pecan orchards and contribute to natural control of C. caryae. Commercial formulations of the fungus can also be applied for suppression of C. caryae. We hypothesized that a clover cover crop enhances B. bassiana efficacy and persistence (e.g., by protecting the fungus against abiotic environmental stresses). The hypothesis was tested by conducting field trials in a pecan orchard in Byron, GA, in 2009 and 2010. The study included four treatments arranged in a factorial with two levels of fungus (endemic fungus only, and application of a commercial B. bassiana product), and two levels of clover (white clover, Trifolium repens L., and no clover). Fungal persistence was measured by determining the number of CFUs per gram of soil over time (during 42 d postapplication of B. bassiana in 2009 and 29 d in 2010). Efficacy was measured by capturing naturally emerging C. caryae and subsequently determining mortality and mycosis (over 24 d in 2009 and 17 d in 2010). In 2009, greater prevalence of B. bassiana conidia was detected in plots receiving fungal applications compared with no fungus applications, and no clear effect of clover was observed in plots receiving B. bassiana applications in either year. In 2010, B. bassiana prevalence in the endemic fungus plus clover treatment was higher than fungus without clover, and was similar to plots receiving additional B. bassiana applications. Given that we observed enhanced persistence of endemic B. bassiana in 2010 but not 2009, the impact of clover appears to be a cumulative effect. Mortality of C. caryae (averaged over the sampling periods) ranged between 68-74% in plots receiving B. bassiana applications and 51-56% in plots with endemic fungus only. C. caryae mortality and mycosis data also provided evidence that endemic B. bassiana efficacy was enhanced by clover relative to plots without clover (with no clear clover effect on plots receiving fungus applications). Thus, we conclude that natural control of C. caryae can increase when clover is grown in pecan orchards with endemic populations of B. bassiana. PMID:22507002

  8. Evaluating electrophysiological and behavioral responses to volatiles for improvement of odor-baited trap-tree management of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), one of the most important pests of apple in eastern and central North America, is usually managed in New England apple orchards by multiple full-block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include using a...

  9. A PCR-Based Diagnostic System for Differentiating Two Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) of Economic Importance to the Chilean Citrus Industry.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, C; Olivares, N; Luppichini, P; Hinrichsen, P

    2015-02-01

    A PCR-based method was developed to identify Naupactus cervinus (Boheman) and Naupactus xanthographus (Germar), two curculionids affecting the citrus industry in Chile. The quarantine status of these two species depends on the country to which fruits are exported. This identification method was developed because it is not possible to discriminate between these two species at the egg stage. The method is based on the species-specific amplification of sequences of internal transcribed spacers, for which we cloned and sequenced these genome fragments from each species. We designed an identification system based on two duplex-PCR reactions. Each one contains the species-specific primer set and a second generic primer set that amplify a short 18S region common to coleopterans, to avoid false negatives. The marker system is able to differentiate each Naupactus species at any life stage, and with a diagnostic sensitivity to 0.045 ng of genomic DNA. This PCR kit was validated by samples collected from different citrus production areas throughout Chile and showed 100% accuracy in differentiating the two Naupactus species. PMID:26470110

  10. Ceratapion basicorne (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): laboratory and open field trials to assess its specificity as biocontrol agent of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae: Cardueae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prospective biological control agents generally must be demonstrated to not pose risks to non-target plants. Laboratory experiments evaluating host plant specificity are the most common method of evaluating such risk; however, they are constrained by limitations of space and number of replicates, gi...

  11. Deterrent effects of four neem-based formulations on gravid female boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding and oviposition on cotton squares.

    PubMed

    Showler, A T; Greenberg, S M; Arnason, J T

    2004-04-01

    Three commercial neem-based insecticides, Agroneem, Ecozin, and Neemix, and a neem seed extract formulation, bitters, containing 1,036, 16,506, 471, and 223 microg/ml azadirachtin, respectively, were assessed for feeding and oviposition deterrence against gravid female boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, in the laboratory. In choice assays, excised cotton squares dipped in the separate formulations were first physically contacted by the weevils' tarsi or antennae fewer times than nontreated control squares. In choice and no-choice assays, each formulation repelled the weevils for > or = 90 min. After 24 h in the choice assays, feeding punctures on the squares treated with Agroneem, Ecozin, or bitters were significantly fewer compared with controls. Egg punctures on the Ecozin- and the bitters-treated squares were significantly fewer than on control squares after 24 h. In the no-choice assay, no significant difference was detected. Aging the formulations under outdoor conditions for 24 h before weevils were exposed resulted in 46-60% and 62-82% reductions in feeding and oviposition punctures, respectively, compared with controls. Agroneem- and bitters-treated squares had > 37% fewer feeding punctures after being aged for 48 h. No significant difference was detected after 72 h of aging. Because the deterrence of the gravid female boll weevils was not correlated with amounts of azadirachtin, azadirachtin does not seem to be the only, or the most influential, component of neem that induced the observed deterrence. PMID:15154463

  12. Severe White Pine Blister Rust Infection in Whitebark Pine Alters Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack Density, Emergence Rate, and Body Size.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Edith M; Six, Diana L

    2015-10-01

    Exotic tree pathogens can cause devastating ecological effects on forests that can be exacerbated when infections increase the likelihood of attack by insects. Current high rates of mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) are due to white pine blister rust caused by the exotic fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch, and the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). These two mortality agents interact in whitebark pine; mountain pine beetle preferentially selects white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine over healthy trees, and likelihood of attack has been observed to increase with infection severity. We examined attack and emergence rates, and size and sex ratio of mountain pine beetle in whitebark pines exhibiting varying white pine blister rust infection severities. Mountain pine beetle attack density was lowest on the most severely infected trees, but emergence rates and size of beetles from these trees were greater than those from uninfected and less severely infected trees. Low attack rates on severely infected whitebark pine may indicate these trees have lower defenses and that fewer beetle attacks are needed to kill them. Higher beetle emergence rates from severely infected trees may be due to low intraspecific competition resulting from low attack rates or differences in nutrient quality. PMID:26314009

  13. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L.; Lindgren, B. Staffan; Huber, Dezene P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in this new host. PMID:24688833

  14. The genus Gymnetron from China with description of pre-imaginal stages of G. miyoshii, G. auliense and G. vittipenne (Coleoptera,Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are four species of Gymnetron in China recorded to date including Gymnetron miyoshii Miyoshi, 1922, Gymnetron villosipenne Roelofs, 1875, Gymnetron auliense Reitter, 1907 and Gymnetron vittipenne Marseul, 1876, of which the last two are new country records. The pre-imaginal stages including eggs, mature larvae and pupae of Gymnetron miyoshii, Gymnetron auliense and Gymnetron vittipenne are described and illustrated. In addition, their diagnostic characters (larvae and pupae) are discussed and differentiated, and notes on some of their biological parameters are provided. Potential ecological impacts between Gymnetron weevils and their host Veronica spp. also are provided. PMID:26668548

  15. (1R,2S,6R)-Papayanal: a new male-specific volatile compound released by the guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Romero-Frías, Alicia; Murata, Yasuhiro; Simões Bento, José Maurício; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-05-01

    The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii is an aggressive pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.) that causes irreparable damages inside the fruit. The volatile compounds of male and female insects were separately collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction or with dynamic headspace collection on a polymer sorbent, and comparatively analyzed by GC-MS. (1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (papayanol), and (1R,2S,6R)-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane-2-carbaldehyde (papayanal) were identified (ratio of 9:1, respectively) as male-specific guava weevil volatiles. Papayanal structure was confirmed by comparison of spectroscopic (EIMS) and chromatographic (retention time) data with those of the synthetic pure compound. The behavioral response of the above-mentioned compounds was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and their role as aggregation pheromone candidate components was suggested in this species.

  16. The genus Gymnetron from China with description of pre-imaginal stages of G. miyoshii, G. auliense and G. vittipenne (Coleoptera,Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2015-01-01

    There are four species of Gymnetron in China recorded to date including Gymnetron miyoshii Miyoshi, 1922, Gymnetron villosipenne Roelofs, 1875, Gymnetron auliense Reitter, 1907 and Gymnetron vittipenne Marseul, 1876, of which the last two are new country records. The pre-imaginal stages including eggs, mature larvae and pupae of Gymnetron miyoshii, Gymnetron auliense and Gymnetron vittipenne are described and illustrated. In addition, their diagnostic characters (larvae and pupae) are discussed and differentiated, and notes on some of their biological parameters are provided. Potential ecological impacts between Gymnetron weevils and their host Veronica spp. also are provided. PMID:26668548

  17. Molecular characterization of trophic ecology within an island radiation of insect herbivores (Curculionidae: Entiminae: Cratopus).

    PubMed

    Kitson, James J N; Warren, Ben H; Florens, F B Vincent; Baider, Claudia; Strasberg, Dominique; Emerson, Brent C

    2013-11-01

    The phytophagous beetle family Curculionidae is the most species-rich insect family known, with much of this diversity having been attributed to both co-evolution with food plants and host shifts at key points within the early evolutionary history of the group. Less well understood is the extent to which patterns of host use vary within or among related species, largely because of the technical difficulties associated with quantifying this. Here we develop a recently characterized molecular approach to quantify diet within and between two closely related species of weevil occurring primarily within dry forests on the island of Mauritius. Our aim is to quantify dietary variation across populations and assess adaptive and nonadaptive explanations for this and to characterize the nature of a trophic shift within an ecologically distinct population within one of the species. We find that our study species are polyphagous, consuming a much wider range of plants than would be suggested by the literature. Our data suggest that local diet variation is largely explained by food availability, and locally specialist populations consume food plants that are not phylogenetically novel, but do appear to represent a novel preference. Our results demonstrate the power of molecular methods to unambiguously quantify dietary variation across populations of insect herbivores, providing a valuable approach to understanding trophic interactions within and among local plant and insect herbivore communities.

  18. Molecular characterization of trophic ecology within an island radiation of insect herbivores (Curculionidae: Entiminae: Cratopus).

    PubMed

    Kitson, James J N; Warren, Ben H; Florens, F B Vincent; Baider, Claudia; Strasberg, Dominique; Emerson, Brent C

    2013-11-01

    The phytophagous beetle family Curculionidae is the most species-rich insect family known, with much of this diversity having been attributed to both co-evolution with food plants and host shifts at key points within the early evolutionary history of the group. Less well understood is the extent to which patterns of host use vary within or among related species, largely because of the technical difficulties associated with quantifying this. Here we develop a recently characterized molecular approach to quantify diet within and between two closely related species of weevil occurring primarily within dry forests on the island of Mauritius. Our aim is to quantify dietary variation across populations and assess adaptive and nonadaptive explanations for this and to characterize the nature of a trophic shift within an ecologically distinct population within one of the species. We find that our study species are polyphagous, consuming a much wider range of plants than would be suggested by the literature. Our data suggest that local diet variation is largely explained by food availability, and locally specialist populations consume food plants that are not phylogenetically novel, but do appear to represent a novel preference. Our results demonstrate the power of molecular methods to unambiguously quantify dietary variation across populations of insect herbivores, providing a valuable approach to understanding trophic interactions within and among local plant and insect herbivore communities. PMID:24112379

  19. The Ochodaeidae of Argentina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781

  20. New species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from Colombia and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia.

  1. An annotated checklist of Malachiidae (Coleoptera: Cleroidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirutenko, Vladyslav; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of Iranian Malachiidae (Coleoptera) is given in this paper. Eighty two species from 22 genera (subfamily Malachiinae) are listed in the fauna of Iran. Of these species, 31 are endemic to Iran, and one Anthocomus pupillatus Abeille de Perrin, 1890 is a new record for this country. PMID:27615977

  2. Coleoptera of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: an annotated checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, M.P.; Barr, W.F.; Johnson, J.B.

    1986-04-30

    An insect survey was conducted on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the summers of 1981-1983. This site is on the Snake River Plains in southeastern Idaho. Presented here is an annotated checklist of the Coleoptera collected. Successful collecting methods, dates of adult occurrence, and relative abundance are given for each species. Relevant biological information is also presented for some species.

  3. Checklist of the Coleoptera of New Brunswick, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All 3,062 species of Coleoptera from 92 families known to occur in New Brunswick, Canada, are recorded, along with their author(s) and year of publication using the most recent classification framework. Adventive and Holarctic species are indicated. There are 366 adventive species in the province, 12.0% of the total fauna. PMID:27110174

  4. Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, M J

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are described: Glaresis smithi Paulsen, new species from Argentina, and Glaresis mondacai Paulsen, new species from Chile and Peru. The species are compared to their closest congener, Glaresis fritzi Martínez et al., and a key is provided for the known South American species of the genus Glaresis Erichson. PMID:27615864

  5. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  6. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-11-26

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.

  7. The genus Trichocnemis LeConte, 1851 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae)

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Ian; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Nearns, Eugenio H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The history of the genus Trichocnemis LeConte, 1851 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae) is discussed. Its taxonomic status in relation to the genera Ergates Audinet-Serville, 1832 and Callergates Lameere, 1904 is clarified. The synonymy of Macrotoma californica White, 1853, Macrotoma spiculigera White, 1853, and Trichocnemis spiculatus LeConte, 1851 is confirmed. A key to all three genera and their species is provided. PMID:21594014

  8. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured. PMID:25543941

  9. A novel β-fructofuranosidase in Coleoptera: Characterization of a β-fructofuranosidase from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis.

    PubMed

    Pedezzi, Rafael; Fonseca, Fernando P P; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano T; Terra, Walter R; Henrique-Silva, Flávio

    2014-12-01

    β-fructofuranosidases or invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose into fructose and glucose. β-fructofuranosidases have been widely described in microorganisms, but were not known in the animal kingdom until very recently. There are studies reporting lepidopteran β-fructofuranosidases, but no β-fructofuranosidase gene sequence or encoding transcript has previously been identified in beetles. Considering the scarcity of functional studies on insect β-fructofuranosidases and their apparent non-occurrence among coleopterans, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and characterize a β-fructofuranosidase transcript identified in a cDNA library from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis (Curculionidae). To validate that the β-fructofuranosidase sequence (herein denominated Sl-β-fruct) is indeed encoded by the S. levis genome, PCRs were performed using genomic DNA extracted from the larval fat body as well as DNA from the midgut with microbial content. Amplification of Sl-β-fruct gene using larval fat body DNA indicated its presence in the insect's genomic DNA. The Sl-β-fruct gene was cloned in Pichia pastoris to produce the recombinant enzyme (rSl-β-fruct). Molecular weight of the recombinant protein was about 64 kDa, indicating possible glycosylation, since the theoretical weight was 54.8 kDa. The substrate specificity test revealed that rSl-β-fruct hydrolyzes sucrose and raffinose, but not melibiose or maltose, thereby confirming invertase activity. The pH curve revealed greatest activity at pH 5.0, demonstrating rSl-β-fruct to be an acidic β-fructofuranosidase. Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicated that the production of mRNA only occurs in the midgut and reaches the greatest expression level in 30-day-old larvae, which is the expected pattern for digestive enzymes. Chromatography of glycosidases from S. levis midguts showed two enzymes acting as β-fructofuranosidase, indicating the presence of a

  10. The genera in the third catalogue (1836–1837) of Dejean’s Coleoptera collection

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All genus-group names first proposed or made available for the first time in the third edition of Dejean’s catalogue of his beetle collection are recorded. The following 18 names are made available for the first time in Dejean’s third catalogue: Batoscelis Dejean [Carabidae], Laphyra Dejean [Carabidae], Sauriodes Dejean [Staphylinidae], Abrobapta Dejean [Buprestidae], Selagis Dejean [Buprestidae], Eurhipis Dejean [Eucnemidae], Anaeretes Dejean [Scarabaeidae], Doryscelis Dejean [Scarabaeidae], Epilissus Dejean [Scarabaeidae], Hoploscelis Dejean [Scarabaeidae], Brachygenius Dejean [Tenebrionidae], Capnisa Dejean [Tenebrionidae], Heterocheira Dejean [Tenebrionidae], Selenomma Dejean [Tenebrionidae], Dactylocrepis Dejean [Curculionidae], Lophodes Dejean [Curculionidae], Heterarthron Dejean [Bostrichidae] and Homalopus Chevrolat [Chrysomelidae]. Eurhipis Dejean, 1836 is considered a junior synonym of Phyllocerus Lepeletier and Audinet-Serville, 1825 for the first time. Abrobapta Dejean, 1836 has precedence over Torresita Harold, 1869. PMID:23794837

  11. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated. PMID:27563272

  12. New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

  13. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  14. Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

  15. Primary types of Chinese longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary types of Chinese (mainland China, Taiwan, and Tibet) longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution are catalogued and figured, current through 2012. Data on the original combination, current name, current tribal classification, and ...

  16. A new species of Phymatodes Mulsant (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species Phymatodes (Poecilium) latefasciatus sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiini) from China is described and illustrated. Features distinguishing the new species from its congeners are presented. PMID:24478575

  17. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated.

  18. Primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...

  19. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  20. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category

  1. Checklist of beetles (Coleoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Second edition

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice; Davies, Anthony E.; Sikes, Derek S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s) and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive. PMID:24363590

  2. New taxa, notes and new synonymy in Neoibidionini (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2014-04-11

    New taxa, notes, and new synonymy in Neoibidionini (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera) are given. New taxa are described from Ecuador: Compsibidion inflatum sp. nov., Bezarkia gen. nov. and B. suturalis sp. nov., Corimbion antennatum sp. nov. and Neocompsa muira sp. nov.; from México: Neocompsa chiapensis sp. nov., and from French Guyana: Kunaibidion giesberti sp. nov. Pygmodeon maculatum Martins & Galileo, 2012 is considered a new synonym of Heterachthes xyleus Martins, 1974 which is transferred to the genus Pygmodeon as a new combination. Notes on variability and new records of Asynapteron equatorianum (Martins, 1960) are presented.

  3. Endemism patterns in the Italian leaf beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584

  4. Capture of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in floor traps: the effect of previous captures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in laboratory conditions. The effect...

  5. Two new species of Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. New information Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolus sororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species. PMID:26177296

  6. Possible origin of B chromosome in Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Amorim, Igor Costa; Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Marília França; Moura, Rita Cássia

    2016-08-01

    B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome. The B chromosomes were detected in all populations analyzed. Analysis revealed the heterochromatic nature and the presence of G+C-rich blocks and 18S rDNA on the B chromosome. FISH with DNA from microdissected B chromosome painted the entire extension of the B chromosome for all populations, besides the pericentromeric regions of all the autosomes, as well as the X chromosome. Finally, cross-hybridization in nine related species of Dichotomius using the microdissected B chromosome as probe did not reveal any hybridization signal. The results suggest an intraspecific and monophyletic origin for B chromosomes in D. sericeus, probably from the second or third autosomal pair.

  7. Visualizing the mesothoracic spiracles in a bark beetle: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...

  8. Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenopter...

  9. Post-biological control invasion trajectory for Melaleuca quinquenervia in a seasonally inundated wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the exotic invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia has invaded and dominated South Florida wetlands since its introduction in 1886, its formerly unfettered seed production is now constrained by intentionally introduced herbivores, especially Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). ...

  10. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium–Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known independent evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symb...

  11. Molecular studies on the species complex of Trichosirocalus horridus in the biological control of Carduinae weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Trichosirocalus Colonnelli, 1979, (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Ceutorhynchinae) includes 17 Palaearctic species mainly feeding on Plantaginaceae and Asteraceae. We studied the taxonomic status of the species complex of Trichosirocalus horridus (TH) by means of molecular markers. We used bot...

  12. Insecticidal effect of spinosad dust, in combination with diatomaceous earth, against two stored-grain beetle species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficacy of the biological insecticide spinosad applied alone and combination with diatomaceous earth (DE) was determined through laboratory bioassays with adults of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val...

  13. Diversity and expression of P450 genes from Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in response to different kairomones.

    PubMed

    López, María Fernanda; Cano-Ramírez, Claudia; Cesar-Ayala, Ana K; Ruiz, Enrico A; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2013-05-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major cause of woody plants death in the world. They colonize the stem and other parts of trees recognizing host-produced specific compounds (kairomones) and insect pheromones. Bark beetle's antennae and alimentary canal participate in the host selection identifying chemical compounds produced by trees and insects, and also in the metabolism and detoxification of these compounds. The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is an unaggressive species that colonize > 40 pine species (Pinaceae) in North and Central America. Several studies suggest that bark beetle cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in monoterpene oxidation. In this study we identified by means of PCR, cloning, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis, eleven full-length genes: five CYP4, four CYP6, and two CYP9 in the antennae and gut region of RTB, after stimulation with vapors of monoterpenes: (±)-α-pinene, (R)-(+)-α-pinene, (S)-(-)-β-pinene, (S)-(-)-α-pinene and (+)-3-carene; pine trees volatiles used by RTB as kairomones. The recovered cDNA of these genes vary from 1.5 kb to 1.8 kb and the open frame encodes from 496 to 562 amino acid proteins. The bioinformatic analysis suggests that the majority of P450 proteins encoded by these genes are membrane anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum. RT-qPCR assays showed differential expression of all CYP genes between male and female. The gene expression was dependent of monoterpenes and exposure time, with some of them sex, antennae and gut region specific. Significant differences among monoterpenes, gut region, antennae and exposure time were found. Our results suggest that some of these genes may be involved in the detoxification process of these compounds during tree colonization. PMID:23454142

  14. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  15. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity. PMID:24472199

  16. Discovery of Aspidytidae, a new family of aquatic Coleoptera.

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, I; Beutel, R G; Balke, M; Vogler, A P

    2002-01-01

    The six extant aquatic families of Hydradephaga (Coleoptera) known so far represent a diverse group of beetles morphologically highly modified for life in the water. We report the discovery of a new genus with two species from South Africa and China, which differ greatly from all extant families, but resemble the Jurassic-Cretaceous dagger Liadytidae (the dagger symbol indicates that the taxa are known only as fossils). Based on a combined phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological data we erect a new family, Aspidytidae, which is the sister group of Dytiscidae plus Hygrobiidae. We propose a new scenario for the evolution of swimming behaviour in adephagan beetles, in which the transition into the aquatic environment is followed by complex and repeated changes in lifestyles, including the secondary complete loss of swimming ability in Aspidytidae. PMID:12495503

  17. A study on the Neotropical Anthaxiini (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bílý, Svatopluk

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Revision of the Neotropical genera of the subtribe Anthaxiina Gory & Laporte, 1839 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae, Anthaxiini). Five new genera are described: Anthaxita gen. n., Charlesina gen. n., Cobosina gen. n., Marikia gen. n. and Sanchezia gen. n. Genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 is divided into two subgenera: Agrilaxia and Costiptera subgen. n. and the genus Bilyaxia Hołyński, 1989 is divided into three subgenera: Bilyaxia, Paraguayetta subgen. n. and Tomasia subgen. n. One new species is described: Anthaxita peruviana sp. n., and two informal species-groups are suggested within Agrilaxia (Costiptera subgen. n.): Agrilaxia (Costiptera) modesta (Kerremans, 1897) species-group and Agrilaxia (Costiptera) occidentalis (Kerremans, 1900) species-group. Lectotype is designated for Agrilaxia mrazi Obenberger, 1932. A key of all genera/subgenera is provided and all treated taxa are illustrated. PMID:23794907

  18. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  19. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate. PMID:26602356

  20. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  1. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Pires, E M; Nogueira, R M; Pina, D S; Manica, C L M; Faroni, L R A; Moreira, P S A

    2016-04-19

    Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL), width (BOW) and height (BOH) of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width). These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG) and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom) for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces.

  2. Positive selection of digestive Cys proteases in herbivorous Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Juan; Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Cloutier, Conrad; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Positive selection is thought to contribute to the functional diversification of insect-inducible protease inhibitors in plants in response to selective pressures exerted by the digestive proteases of their herbivorous enemies. Here we assessed whether a reciprocal evolutionary process takes place on the insect side, and whether ingestion of a positively selected plant inhibitor may translate into a measurable rebalancing of midgut proteases in vivo. Midgut Cys proteases of herbivorous Coleoptera, including the major pest Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), were first compared using a codon-based evolutionary model to look for the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites among the tested sequences. Hypervariable sites were found, distributed within -or close to- amino acid regions interacting with Cys-type inhibitors of the plant cystatin protein family. A close examination of L. decemlineata sequences indicated a link between their assignment to protease functional families and amino acid identity at positively selected sites. A function-diversifying role for positive selection was further suggested empirically by in vitro protease assays and a shotgun proteomic analysis of L. decemlineata Cys proteases showing a differential rebalancing of protease functional family complements in larvae fed single variants of a model cystatin mutated at positively selected amino acid sites. These data confirm overall the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites in herbivorous Coleoptera digestive Cys proteases. They also support the idea of an adaptive role for positive selection, useful to generate functionally diverse proteases in insect herbivores ingesting functionally diverse, rapidly evolving dietary cystatins. PMID:26264818

  3. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.

  4. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. PMID:23550535

  5. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grain, corn, sugar beet and potato crops. Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Hypnoidus bicolor (Eschscholtz) are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particula...

  7. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  8. Immatures of Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Tychius (Coleoptera, Curculionidae): new descriptions and new bionomic data with an evaluation of their value in a phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus .

    PubMed

    Skuhrovec, Jiří; Gosik, Rafał; Caldara, Roberto

    2014-07-23

    Larvae of 14 species and pupae of 12 species of Palaearctic Tychius Germar, 1817 are described for the first time. Larvae and pupae of T.meliloti Stephens, 1831, T. squamulatus Gyllenhal, 1835 and T. quinquepunctatus (Linnaeus, 1758), are redescribed with addition of new characters. They belong to 10 of 22 groups of species assembled through adult morphological characters in this region and, like all other Tychius with known biology, the studied species live on Leguminosae Papilionoideae, belonging to the tribes Genisteae, Loteae, Galegeae, Trifolieae and Vicieae. Generally larvae, but not pupae, show a few characters useful to support some groupings previously postulated on adult morphology, and also suggest some phylogenetic relationships among groups although these are partly weak because of several clear parallelisms or convergences. One of the most numerous and better known group of species, the T. stephensi group living on Trifolieae, is supported by two distinctive larval character states, whereas all the other groups seem to be distinguishable from each other at least by a unique larval character state. New bionomic data concerning larval and pupal development and adult emergence are reported for all the described species. These data confirm that this genus is highly homogeneous in habits and times of development, with unique adaptive differences in adult emergence and overwintering according to the single or double seasonal flowering of the host plant. On the basis of morphological characters of immatures and adults, a possible concordance between the evolution of Tychius and that of their host plants is discussed.

  9. Susceptibility of different developmental stages of large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic fungi and effect of fungal infection to adult weevils by formulation and application methods.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Minshad A; Butt, Tariq M

    2012-09-15

    The large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, is a major pest in European conifer forests causing millions of Euros of damage annually. Larvae develop in the stumps of recently felled trees; the emerging adults feed on the bark of seedlings and may kill them. This study investigated the susceptibility of different developmental stages of H. abietis to commercial and commercially viable isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium and Beauveria. All the developmental stages of H. abietis can be killed by Metarhizium robertsii, Metarhizium brunneum, and Beauveria bassiana. The most virulent isolate of M. robertsii ARSEF4556 caused 100% mortality of pupae, larvae and adults on day 4, 6 and 12, respectively. This strain was further tested against adult weevils in different concentrations (10(5)-10(8) conidia cm(-2) or ml(-1)) using two types of fungal formulation: 'dry' conidia and 'wet' conidia (suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) applied on different substrates (tissue paper, peat and Sitka spruce seedlings). 'Dry' conidia were more effective than 'wet' conidia on tissue paper and on spruce or 'dry' conidia premixed in peat. The LC(50) value for 'dry' conidia of isolate ARSEF4556 was three folds lower than 'wet' conidia on tissue paper. This study showed that 'dry' conidia are more effective than 'wet' conidia, causing 100% adult mortality within 12 days. Possible strategies for fungal applications are discussed in light of the high susceptibility of larvae and pupae to fungal pathogen.

  10. A new species of Heilipus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae) associated with commercial species of Annonaceae in Brazil, and comments on other species of the genus causing damage to avocado trees in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Sergio Antonio; Bená, Daniela De Cassia

    2015-01-14

    Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, state of São Paulo, Angatuba) is described from 73 specimens. The holotype and three paratypes from the same locality were reared from larvae collected in the basis region, near the ground, of an atemoya tree (a hybrid of the sugar-apple, "pinha" or fruta-do-conde"-Annona squamosa L., and the cherymoya, A. cherimoya (Mill.), Annonaceae). Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. can cause severe injury to commercial Annonaceae, and has been misidentified in the collections and the literature as Heilipus catagraphus Germar, 1834. The new species and H. catagraphus have a very similar color pattern, but can be easily distinguished by the rostrum shape in lateral view, being humped in H. gibbus sp. nov. but evenly arcuate in H. catagraphus. Illustrations of habitus and of male and female genitalia are provided to the new species and for avocado stem boring species of Heilipus which occur in Brazil (H. catagraphus and H. rufipes). Comments are made for H. elegans Guérin, 1844, which record to Brazil is probably based on a misidentification. 

  11. In vitro production of two chitinolytic proteins with an inhibiting effect on the insect coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the fungus Hemileia vastatrix the most limiting pests of coffee crops

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies. PMID:22464210

  12. Effect of abiotic factors on initiation of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...

  13. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Waqa-Sakiti, Hilda; Winder, Linton; Lingafelter, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification. PMID:26692805

  14. High-level phylogeny of the Coleoptera inferred with mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhong-Long; Liu, Yong-Jian; Shen, Yu-Ying; Shao, Renfu

    2016-11-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models.

  15. High-level phylogeny of the Coleoptera inferred with mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhong-Long; Liu, Yong-Jian; Shen, Yu-Ying; Shao, Renfu

    2016-11-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models. PMID:27497607

  16. Improved visualization of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) - Part II: Alimentary canal components and measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a pest of stored food products and problematic to every type of poultry production facility. Larvae and adults can ingest and harbor foodborne and poultry pathogens. Determining the efficiency of this insect’s capacity to transmit dise...

  17. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on common beans Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  18. Use of nutrient self selection as a diet refining tool in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...

  19. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  20. The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Neorthopleurinae), with description of a new species from Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-23

    The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

  1. Coexistence and competition between Tomicus Yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in yunnan pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) in Yunnan province in southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate ...

  2. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....

  3. Effect of larval density on food utilization efficiency of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rearing conditions, particularly the crowding of larvae, may have a significant impact on production efficiency of some insects produced commercially, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, n...

  4. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  5. Progress in the classical biological control of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovered in North America in 2002, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a phloem-feeding beetle from Asia that attacks and kills ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) populations surveyed for natural enemies in North America reveal low prevalence of native larva...

  6. Morphology and DNA barcoding reveal a new species of Eudicella from East Africa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Seidel, Matthias

    2016-07-13

    A new species of Eudicella White, 1839 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), is described from Uganda and Kenya: E. nana new species. Morphological and genetic analyses of the new taxon and phenotypically allied species are given. Eudicella nana is compared with its hypothesized sister species, E. darwiniana Kraatz, 1880, and diagnostic characters that distinguish it from other species occurring in the same region are provided.

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  8. DNA Barcoding of Japanese Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa. PMID:25636000

  9. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  10. The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Osvaldo Di; Turienzo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina is represented by three species of the genus Taphropiestes Reitter, 1875: T. fusca Reitter, 1875 [Chubut], T. magna Ślipiński & Tomaszewska, 2010 [Río Negro; Chubut], and T. plaumanni Ślipiński & Tomaszewska 2010 [Buenos Aires]. A total of 2565 larvae (multiple instars), 83 pupae, 2028 live adults, and 16 dead adults of T. plaumanni were found in Argentina between 2005 and 2013 in the nests of birds representing the families Columbidae, Emberizidae, Falconidae, Furnariidae, Hirundinidae, Mimidae, Passeridae, Psittacidae, Troglodytidae and Tyrannidae. The adults were most abundant in closed mud nests of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788) [Furnariidae] and its inquiline birds, but the larvae were most abundant in wood nest boxes. When T. plaumanni was scarcely represented in bird nests from some localities, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797), an exotic darkling beetle [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae], and one native species, Phobelius crenatus Blanchard, 1842 [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae], were most abundant in stick nests of Furnariidae. In contrast, when A. diaperinus and P. crenatus were absent in one locality from the province of Buenos Aires, T. plaumanni was the most abundant beetle. A complete account of data is provided for these collections of T. plaumanni in Argentina. Known distributional data for all Argentinian species of Taphropiestes are plotted on maps with biogeographical provinces indicated. PMID:27394368

  11. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given. PMID:27615867

  12. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  13. Optimization of trap color for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Sawyer, Alan J; Mastro, Victor C

    2010-08-01

    Field assays were performed to determine the optimal color for Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) traps. Previous studies have found that more A. planipennis are caught on purple or green traps than traps of other colors. In three studies, we evaluated various shades of purple, wavelengths of green (500-570 nm), and greens of different reflectance (from 9 to 66%). In all tests, traps of corrugated plastic in standard, commercially available purple (currently used to survey A. planipennis) and a customized green color were used as bases for comparison. Among purple traps, a paint color previously shown to be generally attractive to buprestids caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than traps coated with paints containing more blue or red, or traps constructed of the standard purple plastic. Among traps with maximum reflectance at varying green wavelengths, those ranging in wavelength from 525 to 540 nm caught significantly more adult A. planipennis than traps of other wavelengths. In the 530-540 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum, there was no significant difference among traps in the 23-66% reflectance range, but traps painted with a peak reflectance of 49% caught more beetles than purple or the custom green plastic traps. Male to female ratio was highest on green traps.

  14. Cytogenetics, cytotaxonomy and chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae revisited (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) *

    PubMed Central

    Petitpierre, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nearly 260 taxa and chromosomal races of subfamily Chrysomelinae have been chromosomally analyzed showing a wide range of diploid numbers from 2n = 12 to 2n = 50, and four types of male sex-chromosome systems. with the parachute-like ones Xyp and XYp clearly prevailing (79.0%), but with the XO well represented too (19.75%). The modal haploid number for chrysomelines is n = 12 (34.2%) although it is not probably the presumed most plesiomorph for the whole subfamily, because in tribe Timarchini the modal number is n = 10 (53.6%) and in subtribe Chrysomelina n = 17 (65.7%). Some well sampled genera, such as Timarcha, Chrysolina and Cyrtonus, are variable in diploid numbers, whereas others, like Chrysomela, Paropsisterna, Oreina and Leptinotarsa, are conservative and these differences are discussed. The main shifts in the chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae seems to be centric fissions and pericentric inversions but other changes as centric fusions are also clearly demonstrated. The biarmed chromosome shape is the prevalent condition, as found in most Coleoptera, although a fair number of species hold a few uniarmed chromosomes at least. A significant negative correlation between the haploid numbers and the asymmetry in size of karyotypes (r = -0.74) has been found from a large sample of 63 checked species of ten different genera. Therefore, the increases in haploid number are generally associated with a higher karyotype symmetry. PMID:22303104

  15. Attractants for the green June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, D T; Lewis, B A; Bryant, R J; Liyanage, R; Lay, J O; Pszczolkowski, M A

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate lures for adult green June beetles, Cotinis nitida (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), for future use in a mass trapping program. Volatile organic compounds collected from headspace of green June beetles feeding on fermenting ripe apple (Malus spp.), the natural lure that elicits feeding aggregations, were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Yellow funnel traps baited with 91% isopropanol or the five component blend were equally effective in eliciting aggregation behavior and often more attractive to green June beetles than the natural lure. In 2008, three trap lines adjacent and parallel to the perimeter of two vineyards, each with 12 Xpando yellow funnel traps baited with either 91% isopropanol or the five component blend, differed in catch of green June beetles across sample dates, and sample date by bait interaction but there were no differences among these two baits. A season total of 324,007 green June beetle were captured by these 36 baited traps. A brief review is included of fermentation volatiles attractive to insects. We conclude with the potential cost to use mass trapping against adult green June beetles.

  16. Dispersal of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in different habitats.

    PubMed

    Mahroof, Rizana M; Edde, Peter A; Robertson, Barrett; Puckette, J Andrew; Phillips, Thomas W

    2010-06-01

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), a serious pest of stored cereal grains, is widely distributed and has been collected in different habitats in North America, such as those from agricultural and nonagricultural settings. Our objective was to study the dispersal distances and direction of dispersal by R. dominica after external marking using fluorescent powder, releasing marked beetles, and recapturing adults using pheromone traps in distinctively different ecological habitats, wooded sites and open grasslands, for 2 consecutive yr. The recapture rate of marked beetles ranged from 6 to 26% in both sites and was generally higher in the wooded site than the open field site for both years. There was a significant difference in dispersal distances between wooded and open sites. Mean dispersal distances in the wooded site ranged from 337 to 375 m, whereas in the open site, they varied from 261 to 333 m. Trap captures for both marked and feral beetles were related to the ambient temperature such that increase in trap captures occurred with increasing temperature. Significant differences were observed for directional movement of R. dominica in both sites and indicated that most beetles dispersed in the northwest direction. Correlation analyses showed that the relationship between numbers of marked-released-recaptured beetles significantly decreased with increasing trap distances. Understanding dispersal distances and directions provide insight to flight behavior of R. dominica and to the relationship between ecologically diverse breeding habitats. Knowledge of R. dominica habitat ecology outside of grain storage facilities may be useful in designing suitable management tactics to minimize the onset of infestations in grain storages.

  17. A molecular phylogeny of Alpine subterranean Trechini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Alpine region harbours one of the most diverse subterranean faunas in the world, with many species showing extreme morphological modifications. The ground beetles of tribe Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are among the best studied and widespread groups with abundance of troglobionts, but their origin and evolution is largely unknown. Results We sequenced 3.4 Kb of mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL, trnL, nad1) and nuclear (SSU, LSU) genes of 207 specimens of 173 mostly Alpine species, including examples of all subterranean genera but two plus a representation of epigean taxa. We applied Bayesian methods and maximum likelihood to reconstruct the topology and to estimate divergence times using a priori rates obtained for a related ground beetle genus. We found three main clades of late Eocene-early Oligocene origin: (1) the genus Doderotrechus and relatives; (2) the genus Trechus sensu lato, with most anisotopic subterranean genera, including the Pyrenean lineage and taxa from the Dinaric Alps; and (3) the genus Duvalius sensu lato, diversifying during the late Miocene and including all subterranean isotopic taxa. Most of the subterranean genera had an independent origin and were related to epigean taxa of the same geographical area, but there were three large monophyletic clades of exclusively subterranean species: the Pyrenean lineage, a lineage including subterranean taxa from the eastern Alps and the Dinarides, and the genus Anophthalmus from the northeastern Alps. Many lineages have developed similar phenotypes independently, showing extensive morphological convergence or parallelism. Conclusions The Alpine Trechini do not form a homogeneous fauna, in contrast with the Pyrenees, and show a complex scenario of multiple colonisations of the subterranean environment at different geological periods and through different processes. Examples go from populations of an epigean widespread species going underground with little morphological modifications to

  18. Testing the 'island rule' for a tenebrionid beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-05-01

    Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.

  19. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  20. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  1. A Family of Chemoreceptors in Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-latief, Mohatmed

    2007-01-01

    Chemoperception in invertebrates is mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). To date nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms of chemoperception in coleopteran species. Recently the genome of Tribolium castaneum was sequenced for use as a model species for the Coleoptera. Using blast searches analyses of the T. castaneum genome with previously predicted amino acid sequences of insect chemoreceptor genes, a putative chemoreceptor family consisting of 62 gustatory receptors (Grs) and 26 olfactory receptors (Ors) was identified. The receptors have seven transmembrane domains (7TMs) and all belong to the GPCR receptor family. The expression of the T. castaneum chemoreceptor genes was investigated using quantification real- time RT-PCR and in situ whole mount RT-PCR analysis in the antennae, mouth parts, and prolegs of the adults and larvae. All of the predicted TcasGrs were expressed in the labium, maxillae, and prolegs of the adults but TcasGr13, 19, 28, 47, 62, 98, and 61 were not expressed in the prolegs. The TcasOrs were localized only in the antennae and not in any of the beetles gustatory organs with one exception; the TcasOr16 (like DmelOr83b), which was localized in the antennae, labium, and prolegs of the beetles. A group of six TcasGrs that presents a lineage with the sugar receptors subfamily in Drosophila melanogaster were localized in the lacinia of the Tribolium larvae. TcasGr1, 3, and 39, presented an ortholog to CO2 receptors in D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae was recorded. Low expression of almost all of the predicted chemoreceptor genes was observed in the head tissues that contain the brains and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). These findings demonstrate the identification of a chemoreceptor family in Tribolium, which is evolutionarily related to other insect species. PMID:18091992

  2. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Seago, Ainsley E.; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as ‘living jewels’, in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles. PMID:18957361

  3. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Seago, Ainsley E; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D

    2009-04-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as 'living jewels', in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles.

  4. Endogenous cellulolytic enzyme systems in the longhorn beetle Mesosa myops (Insecta: Coleoptera) studied by transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Song, Keqing; Teng, Huajing; Zhang, Bin; Li, Wenzhu; Xue, Huaijun; Yang, Xingke

    2015-09-01

    The Cerambycidae (longhorn beetle) is a large family of Coleoptera with xylophagous feeding habits. Cellulose digestion plays an important role in these wood-feeding insects. In this study, transcriptomic technology was used to obtain one glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) cellulase and seven GH5 cellulases from Mesosa myops, a typical longhorn beetle. Analyses of expression dynamics and evolutionary relationships provided a complete description of the cellulolytic system. The expression dynamics related to individual development indicated that endogenous GH45 and GH5 cellulases dominate cellulose digestion in M. myops. Evolutionary analyses suggested that GH45 cellulase gene is a general gene in the Coleoptera Suborder Polyphaga. Evolutionary analyses also indicated that the GH5 cellulase group in Lamiinae longhorn beetles is closely associated with wood feeding. This study demonstrated that there is a complex endogenous cellulolytic system in M. myops that is dominated by cellulases belonging to two glycoside hydrolase families.

  5. Revision of the genus Ptomaphagus Hellwig (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae) from Taiwan Island.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Bin; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Perreau, Michel; Růžička, Jan; Hayashi, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ptomaphagus (s. str.) chenggongi sp. n. and Ptomaphagus (s. str.) tingtingae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini) are described from Taiwan Island. In addition, a new subjective synonym is proposed, Ptomaphagus (s. str.) yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 = Ptomaphagus (s. str.) smetanai Perreau, 1996, syn. n. Relevant morphological characters of the examined Ptomaphagus species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. PMID:27563271

  6. Revision of the genus Ptomaphagus Hellwig (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae) from Taiwan Island

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Bin; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Perreau, Michel; Růžička, Jan; Hayashi, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ptomaphagus (s. str.) chenggongi sp. n. and Ptomaphagus (s. str.) tingtingae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini) are described from Taiwan Island. In addition, a new subjective synonym is proposed, Ptomaphagus (s. str.) yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 = Ptomaphagus (s. str.) smetanai Perreau, 1996, syn. n. Relevant morphological characters of the examined Ptomaphagus species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. PMID:27563271

  7. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology. PMID:26249885

  8. New species and records of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Macrodactylini) from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arce-Pérez, Roberto; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2014-08-28

    Two new species of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Bolivia are described and illustrated: M. megaphyllus new species (from Comarapa, Santa Cruz and Sehuenca, Cochabamba) and M. yunganus new species (from Mairana and Comarapa, Santa Cruz). In addition, the species Macrodactylus bolivianus Moser, M. gracilis Moser, and M. nobilis Frey are redescribed and illustrated to help facilitate identification of these species. A key to the 10 species of Macrodactylus presently known from Bolivia is provided. 

  9. Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanshu; Chandra, Kailash; Hillert, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Odontotrypes Fairmaire, 1887 (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) belonging to the subgenus Odontotrupes Boucomont, 1905 is described from the Tawang district, State of Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India): Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species. Relevant diagnostic characters (pronotum, head, elytra, profemur, scutellar shield, and external male genitalia) are illustrated and compared with closely related species of this subgenus, in particular Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) orichalceus (Fairmaire, 1895). The distribution of the new species is mapped. PMID:27615859

  10. Wireworms’ Management: An Overview of the Existing Methods, with Particular Regards to Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Barsics, Fanny; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.

    2013-01-01

    Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. PMID:26466799

  11. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-06-19

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology.

  12. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-07-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  13. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-01-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  14. On some Palaearctic click beetles deposited in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, 2 (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    PubMed

    Németh, T; Platia, G

    2014-07-29

    One new genus (Roznerathous gen. n.) and 31 new species of Elateridae are described: Athous szalokii sp. n. (Georgia), Agriotes balikesirensis sp. n. (Turkey), Agriotes rozneri sp. n. (Syria), Agriotes sakaryaensis sp. n. (Turkey), Cardiophorus anatolicus sp. n. (Turkey), Cardiophorus aranyos sp. n. (Afghanistan), Cardiophorus burkus sp. n. (Afghanistan), Cardiophorus dicronychoides sp. n. (Afghanistan), Cardiophorus podlussanyi sp. n. (Turkey), Cardiophorus tenuis sp. n. (Armenia), Coptostethus attilai sp. n. (Spain: Canary Isl.), Coptostethus buci sp. n. (Spain: Canary Isl.), Coptostethus kundratai sp. n. (Spain: Canary Isl.), Craspedostethus ferrugineus sp. n. (Iran), Craspedostethus hirticollis sp. n. (Afghanistan), Dicronychus decoroides sp.n. (Iran), Dicronychus diluvii sp. n. (Turkey), Dicronychus fabiani sp. n. (Iran), Dicronychus gurjevae sp. n. (Afghanistan), Dicronychus ilniczkyi sp. n. (Oman), Dicronychus kandaharensis sp. n. (Afghanistan), Dicronychus karolyvigi sp. n. (Iran), Dicronychus podlussanyi sp. n. (Turkey), Dicronychus povolnyi sp. n. (Afghanistan), Dicronychus quadrimaculatus sp. n. (Afghanistan), Glyphonyx occidentalis sp. n. (Afghanistan), Hartenius marocanus sp. n. (Morocco), Hemicrepidius rahmei (Iran) sp. n., Idotarmonides gracilis sp. n. (Turkey), Roznerathous hellenicus sp. n. (Greece), Oedostethus pektusanicus sp. n. (North Korea). Dicronychus marginalis comb. n. and Dicronychus oxypterus comb. n. New distributional data for species of the genera Aeoloides, Agriotes, Ampedus, Cardiohypnus, Cardiophorus, Cidnopus, Craspedostethus, Dicronychus, Drasterius, Haterumelater, Heteroderes, Hypnoidus, Isidus, Limonius, Liotrichus, Melanotus, Pseudocrepidophorus and Zorochros are given. The females of Astanchus ussuriensis (Gurjeva, 1975); Cidnopus macedonicus Cate et Platia, 1989; Peripontius orchymonti Platia, 2008 and the male of Agriotes barkulensis Jagemann, 1942 were unknown at the time of their description, are figured. With 137 figures. 

  15. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Chouaia, Bessem; Mazza, Giuseppe; Prosdocimi, Erica Maria; Crotti, Elena; Mereghetti, Valeria; Vacchini, Violetta; Giorgi, Annamaria; De Biase, Alessio; Longo, Santi; Cervo, Rita; Lozzia, Giuseppe Carlo; Alma, Alberto; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition. PMID:25635833

  16. Effects of the diet on the microbiota of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Montagna, Matteo; Chouaia, Bessem; Mazza, Giuseppe; Prosdocimi, Erica Maria; Crotti, Elena; Mereghetti, Valeria; Vacchini, Violetta; Giorgi, Annamaria; De Biase, Alessio; Longo, Santi; Cervo, Rita; Lozzia, Giuseppe Carlo; Alma, Alberto; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  17. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects.

  18. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae)

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  19. Comparative Growth and Survival of Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reared on Artificial or Natural Diet at 15 or 25°C.

    PubMed

    Romo, C M; Bader, M K-F; Pawson, S M

    2016-02-01

    Two saproxylic forest insects, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Mulsant)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were reared on artificial or natural diet at 15 or 25°C to compare larval growth rates and survival. A significant diet by temperature interaction was observed in the growth of H. ligniperda larvae,which developed faster when reared on natural diet at 15°C, but grew faster and pupated significantly earlier when reared on artificial diet at 25°C. However, H. ligniperda survival by the end of the experiment was low on both diets when reared at 25°C (10.1%, 95% CI: 5.2–15.1%), which suggests that rearing at lower temperatures may be required. A. ferus larvae gained significantly larger body size when reared on artificial diet than on natural diet at both temperatures. Survival of A. ferus reared on artificial diet was significantly lower than larvae reared on natural diet at 25°C. The significant differences between A. ferus larval development rates when reared on artificial and natural diets preclude the use of artificial diet to collect meaningful data to construct temperature development models for ecological comparisons. Artificial diet provided a suitable medium for mass production of individuals for research purposes, e.g., test mortality in response to treatments. However, additional rearing studies are needed to determine whether the larger artificially reared larvae result in adults that are healthier, more productive, and live longer.

  20. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958